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Sample records for range province relative

  1. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste: Part III, Geologic and hydrologic evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Brady, Bruce T.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the first phase in evaluating the geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province for potential suitability of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The evaluation of the Province applies the guidelines, discussed in Part I (Bedinger, Sargent, and Reed, 1983) of this report to the geologic and hydrologic information compiled for the Province in Part II (Sargent and Bedinger, 1983).The geologic and hydrologic factors considered in the Province evaluation include distribution of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions and data on ground-water hydrology. Potential host media considered include argillaceous rocks, tuff, basaltic rocks, granitic rocks, evaporites, and the unsaturated zone. The tectonic factors considered are Quaternary faults, late Cenozoic volcanics, seismic activity, heat flow, and late Cenozoic rates of vertical uplift. Hydrologic conditions considered include length of flow path from potential host rocks to discharge areas, interbasin and geothermal flow systems and thick unsaturated sections as potential host media.The Basin and Range Province was divided into 12 subprovinces; each subprovince is evaluated separately and prospective areas for further study are identified. About onehalf of the Province appears to have combinations of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions, and ground-water hydrology that merit consideration for further study.The prospective areas for further study in each subprovince are summarized in a brief list of the potentially favorable factors and the issues of concern. Data compiled for the entire Province do not permit a complete evaluation of the favorability for high-level waste isolation. The evaluations here are intended to identify broad regions that contain potential geohydrologic environments containing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration.

  2. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part III. Geologic and hydrologic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Brady, B.T.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the first phase in evaluating the geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province for potential suitability of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The geologic and hydrologic factors considered in the Province evaluation include distribution of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions and data on ground-water hydrology. Potential host media considered include argillaceous rocks, tuff, basaltic rocks, granitic rocks, evaporites, and the unsaturated zone. The tectonic factors considered are Quaternary faults, late Cenozoic volcanics, seismic activity, heat flow, and late Cenozoic rates of vertical uplift. Hydrologic conditions considered include length of flow path from potential host rocks to discharge areas, interbasin and geothermal flow systems and thick unsaturated sections as potential host media. The Basin and Range Province was divided into 12 subprovinces; each subprovince is evaluated separately and prospective areas for further study are identified. About one-half of the Province appears to have combinations of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions, and ground-water hydrology that merit consideration for further study. The prospective areas for further study in each subprovince are summarized in a brief list of the potentially favorable factors and the issues of concern. Data compiled for the entire Province do not permit a complete evaluation of the favorability for high-level waste isolation. The evaluations here are intended to identify broad regions that contain potential geohydrologic environments containing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  3. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part I. Introduction and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-12-31

    The US Geological Survey`s program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of physiographic provinces to identify areas potentially suitable for locating repository sites for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes was announced to the Governors of the eight states in the Basin and Range Province on May 5, 1981. Representatives of Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah, were invited to cooperate with the federal government in the evaluation process. Each governor was requested to nominate an earth scientist to represent the state in a province working group composed of state and US Geological Survey representatives. This report, Part I of a three-part report, provides the background, introduction and scope of the study. This part also includes a discussion of geologic and hydrologic guidelines that will be used in the evaluation process and illustrates geohydrologic environments and the effect of individual factors in providing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part I. Introduction and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-12-31

    The US Geological Survey`s program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of physiographic provinces to identify areas potentially suitable for locating repository sites for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes was announced to the Governors of the eight states in the Basin and Range Province on May 5, 1981. Representatives of Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah, were invited to cooperate with the federal government in the evaluation process. Each governor was requested to nominate an earth scientist to represent the state in a province working group composed of state and US Geological Survey representatives. This report, Part I of a three-part report, provides the background, introduction and scope of the study. This part also includes a discussion of geologic and hydrologic guidelines that will be used in the evaluation process and illustrates geohydrologic environments and the effect of individual factors in providing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part II. Geologic and hydrologic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, K.A.; Bedinger, M.S.

    1985-12-31

    The geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province of the western conterminous United States are characterized in a series of data sets depicted in maps compiled for evaluation of prospective areas for further study of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The data sets include: (1) average precipitation and evaporation; (2) surface distribution of selected rock types; (3) tectonic conditions; and (4) surface- and ground-water hydrology and Pleistocene lakes and marshes. Rocks mapped for consideration as potential host media for the isolation of high-level radioactive waste are widespread and include argillaceous rocks, granitic rocks, tuffaceous rocks, mafic extrusive rocks, evaporites, and laharic breccias. The unsaturated zone, where probably as thick as 150 meters (500 feet), was mapped for consideration as an environment for isolation of high-level waste. Unsaturated rocks of various lithologic types are widespread in the Province. Tectonic stability in the Quaternary Period is considered the key to assessing the probability of future tectonism with regard to high-level radioactive waste disposal. Tectonic conditions are characterized on the basis of the seismic record, heat-flow measurements, the occurrence of Quaternary faults, vertical crustal movement, and volcanic features. Tectonic activity, as indicated by seismicity, is greatest in areas bordering the western margin of the Province in Nevada and southern California, the eastern margin of the Province bordering the Wasatch Mountains in Utah and in parts of the Rio Grande valley. Late Cenozoic volcanic activity is widespread, being greatest bordering the Sierra Nevada in California and Oregon, and bordering the Wasatch Mountains in southern Utah and Idaho. 43 refs., 22 figs.

  6. Is the extension of the Mexican Mesa Central (southern Basin & Range province) related to a gravitational collapse toward the Gulf of Mexico?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreani, L.; Rangin, C.; Le Pichon, X.; Martínez-Reyes, J.; Le Roy, C.

    2009-04-01

    The middle to late Cenozoic extension that generated the Basin and Range province (western North America) is one of the most important tectonic events to affect the North American plate. The characteristics of this extension have been extensively studied, but its origin is equally extensively debated. Proposed origins can be broadly categorized into interplate mechanisms that focus on various interactions between the Pacific or Farallon and North American plates and intraplate mechanisms that interpret extension to result from the gravitational collapse of a previously overthickened crust. It is commonly admitted that the Basin and Range extension in western Mexico migrated from East to West toward the Gulf of California. Middle to late Miocene extension around the Gulf of California (Gulf Extensional Province) is commonly interpreted as resulting from partitioning of oblique Pacific-North American plate motion into strike-slip displacement along the margin and ENE extension perpendicular to the margin within the North American plate. It is generally assumed that this mechanism also applies to the kinematically similar, predominantly ENE extension that occurred at the same time throughout the southern Basin and Range province. However structural data we collected in the Mesa Central area, along the eastern part of the Mexican Basin and Range province, argue for a post-27My N130° extension toward the Gulf of Mexico that produced highly asymmetrical grabens, with a major motion along their western flanks. Our recent works, based on the interpretation of seismic profiles, also show that the late Oligocene to present deformation along the western margin of the Gulf of Mexico was generated by a crustal shortening. In spite of a low crustal thickness the Mesa Central is an uplifted plateau with a mean altitude of 1800m. This elevation of the Mesa Central is mainly due to the high thermal gradients that characterize the back arc domain. By contrast the crust of the Gulf

  7. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste: Part I, Introduction and guidelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of physiographic provinces to identify areas potentially suitable for locating repository sites for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes was announced to the Governors of the eight States in the Basin and Range Province on May 5, 1981. Representatives of Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah, were invited to cooperate with the Federal Government in the evaluation process. Each Governor was requested to nominate an Earth scientist to represent the State in a province working group composed of State and U.S. Geological Survey representatives. This report, Part I of a three-part report, provides the background, introduction and scope of the study. This part also includes a discussion of geologic and hydrologic guidelines that will be used in the evaluation process and illustrates geohydrologic environments and the effect of individual factors in providing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration.Part II is a reconnaissance characterization of the geologic and hydrologic factors to be used in the initial screening of the Basin and Range Province. Part III will be the initial evaluation of the Province and will identify regions that appear suitable for further study.The plan for study of the Province includes a stepwise screening process by which successively smaller land units are considered in increasing detail. Each step involves characterization of the geology and hydrology and selection of subunits for more intensive characterization. Selection of subunits for further study is by evaluation of geologic and hydrologic conditions following a set of guidelines. By representation on the Province Working Group, the States participate in a consultation and review role in: (1) Establishing geologic and hydrologic guidelines, and (2) characterizing and evaluating the Province. The States also participate in compilation of geologic and hydrologic data

  8. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste: Part II, Geologic and hydrologic characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargent, Kenneth A.; Bedinger, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province of the western conterminous United States are characterized in a series of data sets depicted in maps compiled for evaluation of prospective areas for further study of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The data sets include: (1) Average precipitation and evaporation; (2) surface distribution of selected rock types; (3) tectonic conditions; and (4) surface- and ground -water hydrology and Pleistocene lakes and marshes.Rocks mapped for consideration as potential host media for the isolation of high-level radioactive waste are widespread and include argillaceous rocks, granitic rocks, tuffaceous rocks, mafic extrusive rocks, evaporites, and laharic breccias. The unsaturated zone, where probably as thick as 150 meters (500 feet), was mapped for consideration as an environment for isolation of high-level waste. Unsaturated rocks of various lithologic types are widespread in the Province.Tectonic stability in the Quaternary Period is considered the key to assessing the probability of future tectonism with regard to high-level radioactive waste disposal. Tectonic conditions are characterized on the basis of the seismic record, heat-flow measurements, the occurrence of Quaternary faults, vertical crustal movement, and volcanic features. Tectonic activity, as indicated by seismicity, is greatest in areas bordering the western margin of the Province in Nevada and southern California, the eastern margin of the Province bordering the Wasatch Mountains in Utah and in parts of the Rio Grande valley. Late Cenozoic volcanic activity is widespread, being greatest bordering the Sierra Nevada in California and Oregon, and bordering the Wasatch Mountains in southern Utah and Idaho.he arid to semiarid climate of the Province results in few perennial streams and lakes. A large part of the surface drainage is interior and the many closed basins commonly are occupied by playas or dry lake

  9. Imaging Deep Crustal Flow in the Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnorr, E.; Ford, H. A.

    2016-12-01

    The presence of significant extension in the Basin and Range Province of the Western United States during the Cenozoic has been well-characterized geologically, but there is still uncertainty in our understanding of how this extension is accommodated within the crust and mantle lithosphere. One model suggests that deformation is accommodated through viscous flow in the lower crust; another that strain is distributed along a mega-detachment at the base of the crust. In this study, we test the models outlined above by imaging anisotropic and dipping structure beneath six long-running seismic stations (BMN, ELK, NEE, MNV, TPNV, WVOR) located within the physiographically-defined Basin and Range Province using Ps receiver function analysis. Events used in our analysis were limited to distances between 30° and 100° and magnitudes greater than 5.8. Seismograms were preprocessed, rotated to transverse and radial components, and filtered at 0.02-2 Hz. Data was inspected for quality, and direct wave arrivals were picked using SAC. Ps receiver functions were calculated using a multi-taper spectral cross-correlation technique, and binned as functions of both back azimuth and distance. Preliminary results indicate a coherent positive phase, interpreted to be the Moho, at 3.7-4.2 seconds for stations NEE, BMN, ELK, MNV, and WVOR. At TPNV, the Moho exhibits laterally complex behavior with a phase arrival at 4.3 to 5.4 seconds. Our results indicate the presence of significant energy on the transverse component at delay times of 2.8-5.2 seconds at stations WVOR, TPNV, and MNV. Within this time window, a polarity flip, indicative of dipping structure and/or anisotropy, occurs at 90° back azimuth at each of the three stations. Further work is needed to better constrain the origin of this structure and determine how the structure might be related to extension within the Basin and Range.

  10. Crustal extension and transform faulting in the southern Basin Range Province. [California, Arizona, and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Childs, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Field reconnaissance and study of geologic literature guided by analysis of ERTS-1 MSS imagery have led to a hypothesis of tectonic control of Miocene volcanism, plutonism, and related mineralization in part of the Basin Range Province of southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The easterly trending right-lateral Las Vegas Shear Zone separates two volcanic provinces believed to represent areas of major east-west crustal extension. One volcanic province is aligned along the Colorado River south of the eastern termination of the Las Vegas Shear Zone; the second province is located north of the western termination of the shear zone in southern Nye County, Nevada. Geochronologic, geophysical, and structural evidence suggests that the Las Vegas Shear Zone may have formed in response to crustal extension in the two volcanic provinces in a manner similar to the formation of a ridge-ridge transform fault, as recognized in ocean floor tectonics.

  11. Northeast Basin and Range province active tectonics: An alternative view

    SciTech Connect

    Westaway, R. )

    1989-09-01

    Slip rates and slip vector azimuths on major active oblique normal faults are used to investigate whether circulation associated with the Yellowstone upwelling plume is driving tectonic deformation in the northeast Basin and Range province. Observed deformation is consistent with this suggestion; the plume is sheared to the southwest by motion of the North American plate. Testable predictions are made for structure and evolution of the region.

  12. Seismic hazards in the Basin and Range province, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancha, Aasha

    Deformation rates determined for the Basin and Range province using geodetic data agree within uncertainties with scalar moment rate estimates from a 146-year earthquake catalog. This agreement suggests that the rate of historic earthquakes within the province provides a reasonable estimate for the long-term rate of seismicity. Geological estimates of deformation rates are lower than that of geodesy or seismicity due to limited data. We focus on a particular, small region for more detailed analysis of ground motion prediction and amplification. The Reno-Sparks urban region (population ˜400,000) is located in a fault-controlled basin that is about 13 km wide and 21 km long. Despite the small basin size and depth, local basin effects are significant. Both data and synthetic modeling show that the 3D basin structure strongly influences ground motion within the basin. Site characteristics are assessed at twenty-one seismic stations in the region. Shallow shear wave velocities are measured using the refraction microtremor (ReMi) technique (Louie, 2001). Average velocities to depths of 30 m and 100 m are compared with local geological and soil classifications. Generalized geological classifications show some variations in unit averages of the measured velocities, variations between units are much smaller than the standard deviations of velocities within units having multiple measurements. Predictions of site velocities based on soil weight percent of gravel, sand, silt, and clay fall within +/-20% of measured values for all but two of the 21 sites. Ground motions from local earthquakes are used to ascertain empirical site amplification effects within the basin relative to a nearby rock site using the soil to rock spectral ratio technique. Most site response functions within the basin are mainly flat, but do show relative amplification. Some sites do show resonant peaks. These empirical site effects are compared with site conditions evaluated using average shallow shear

  13. The Basin and Range Province in Utah, Nevada, and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, Thomas B.

    1943-01-01

    In this report an attempt has been made to summarize and in places to interpret the published information that was available through 1938 on the geology of those parts of Nevada, California, and Utah that are included in the geologic province known as the Basin and Range province. This region includes most of the Great Basin, from which no water flows to the sea, as well as part of the drainage basin of the lower Colorado River. It is characterized by numerous parallel, linear mountain ranges that are separated from one another by wide valleys or topographic basins. All the major divisions of geologic time are represented by the rocks exposed in this region. The oldest are of pre-Cambrian age and crop out chiefly along the eastern and southern borders. They have been carefully studied at only a few localities, and the correlation and extent of the subdivision so far recognized is uncertain. There appear to be at least three series of pre-Cambrian rocks which are probably separated from one another by profound unconformities. Large masses of intrusive igneous rocks have been recognized only in the oldest series. During the Paleozoic era the region was a part of the Cordilleran geosyncline, and sediments were deposited during all of the major and most of the minor subdivisions of the era. There are thick and widespread accumulations of Cambrian and Ordovician strata, the maximum aggregate thickness possibly exceeding 23,000 feet. The eastern and western boundaries of the province were approximately those of the area of rapid subsidence within the geosyncline, though the axes of maximum subsidence oscillated back and forth during the two periods. The Silurian and Devonian seas, on the other hand, extended beyond the province and, possibly as a consequence, are represented by much thinner sections - of the order of 6,000 feet. At the end of the Devonian period the geosyncline was split by the emergence of a geanticline in western Nevada, and Mississippian and

  14. Desertification of forest, range and desert in Tehran province, affected by climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari, Hadi; Borji, Moslem; Khosravi, Hassan; Mesbahzadeh, Tayebeh

    2016-06-01

    Climate change has been identified as a leading human and environmental crisis of the twenty-first century. Drylands throughout the world have always undergone periods of degradation due to naturally occurring fluctuation in climate. Persistence of widespread degradation in arid and semiarid regions of Iran necessitates monitoring and evaluation. This paper aims to monitor the desertification trend in three types of land use, including range, forest and desert, affected by climate change in Tehran province for the 2000s and 2030s. For assessing climate change at Mehrabad synoptic station, the data of two emission scenarios, including A2 and B2, were used, utilizing statistical downscaling techniques and data generated by the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM). The index of net primary production (NPP) resulting from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images was employed as an indicator of destruction from 2001 to 2010. The results showed that temperature is the most significant driving force which alters the net primary production in rangeland, forest and desert land use in Tehran province. On the basis of monitoring findings under real conditions, in the 2000s, over 60 % of rangelands and 80 % of the forest were below the average production in the province. On the other hand, the long-term average changes of NPP in the rangeland and forests indicated the presence of relatively large areas of these land uses with a production rate lower than the desert. The results also showed that, assuming the existence of circumstances of each emission scenarios, the desertification status will not improve significantly in the rangelands and forests of Tehran province.

  15. Seasonality of Groundwater Recharge in the Basin and Range Province, Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, K. L.; Meixner, T.; Ajami, H.; De La Cruz, L.

    2015-12-01

    For water-scarce communities in the western U.S., it is critical to understand groundwater recharge regimes and how those regimes might shift in the face of climate change and impact groundwater resources. Watersheds in the Basin and Range Geological Province are characterized by a variable precipitation regime of wet winters and variable summer precipitation. The relative contributions to groundwater recharge by summer and winter precipitation vary throughout the province, with winter precipitation recharge dominant in the northern parts of the region, and recharge from summer monsoonal precipitation playing a more significant role in the south, where the North American Monsoon (NAM) extends its influence. Stable water isotope data of groundwater and seasonal precipitation from sites in Sonora, Mexico and the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were examined to estimate and compare groundwater recharge seasonality throughout the region. Contributions of winter precipitation to annual recharge vary from 69% ± 41% in the southernmost Río San Miguel Basin in Sonora, Mexico, to 100% ± 36% in the westernmost Mojave Desert of California. The Normalized Seasonal Wetness Index (NSWI), a simple water budget method for estimating recharge seasonality from climatic data, was shown to approximate recharge seasonality well in several winter precipitation-dominated systems, but less well in basins with significant summer precipitation.

  16. Neotectonics of the San Andreas Fault system, basin and range province juncture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Crowell, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The development, active processes, and tectonic interplay of the southern San Andreas fault system and the basin and range province were studied. The study consist of data acquisition and evaluation, technique development, and image interpretation and mapping. Potentially significant geologic findings are discussed.

  17. Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the basin and range province in northwestern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colgan, J.P.; Dumitru, T.A.; Reiners, P.W.; Wooden, J.L.; Miller, E.L.

    2006-01-01

    A regional synthesis of new and existing geologic and thermochronologic data document late Cretaceous - early Cenozoic regional erosion, Oligocene - Miocene volcanism, and subsequent late Miocene extension of the Basin and Range Province in northwestern Nevada and northeastern California. Across an ???220-km-wide region between the Santa Rosa and Warner Ranges, conformable sequences of 35 to 15 Ma volcanic rocks are cut by only a single generation of high-angle normal faults that accommodated ???23 km of total east-west extension (???12%). Fission-track, (U-Th)/He, geologic, and structural data from the Pine Forest Range show that faulting there began at 11 to 12 Ma, progressed at a relatively constant rate until at least 3 Ma, and has continued until near the present time. Extension in the Santa Rosa Range to the east took place during the same interval, although the post-6 Ma part of this history is less well constrained. Less complete constraints from adjacent ranges permit a similar timing for faulting, and we infer that extensional faulting in northwestern Nevada began everywhere at 12 Ma and has continued up to the present. Faulting in the Warner Range in northeastern California can only be constrained to have begun between 14 and 3 Ma, but may represent westward migration of Basin and Range extension during the Pliocene. Compared to the many parts of the Basin and Range in central and southern Nevada, extension in northwestern Nevada began more recently, is of lesser total magnitude, and was accommodated entirely by high-angle normal faults. Fission-track data document Late Cretaceous unroofing of Cretaceous (115 - 100 Ma) granitic basement rocks in northwestern Nevada, followed by a long period of relative tectonic quiescence that persisted through Oligocene and Miocene volcanism until the onset of Basin and Range extension at ???12 Ma. The low magnitude of extension (12%) and early Tertiary stability suggest that the modern ???31 km thick crust in

  18. Present-day deformation across the Basin and Range Province, western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, W.; Foulger, G.R.; Julian, B.R.; Svarc, J.; Quilty, E.; Bawden, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of deformation within the Basin and Range province was determined from 1992, 1996, and 1998 surveys of a dense, 800-kilometer- aperture, Global Positioning System network, Internal deformation generally follows the pattern of Holocene fault distribution and is concentrated near the western extremity of the province, with lesser amounts focused near the eastern boundary. Little net deformation occurs across the central 500 kilometers of the network in western Utah and eastern Nevada. Concentration of deformation adjacent to the rigid Sierra Nevada block indicates that external plate-driving forces play an important role in driving deformation, modulating the extensional stress field generated by internal buoyancy forces that are due to lateral density gradients and topography near the province boundaries.

  19. Seasonality of Groundwater Recharge in the Basin and Range Province, Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, K.; Meixner, T.; De La Cruz, L.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is the primary source of aquifer replenishment, an important source of freshwater for human consumption and riparian area sustainability in semi-arid regions. It is critical to understand the current groundwater recharge regimes in groundwater basins throughout the Western U.S. and how those regimes might shift in the face of climate change, land use change and management manipulations that impact the availability and composition of groundwater resources. Watersheds in the Basin and Range Province are characterized by a variable precipitation regime of wet winters, and variable summer precipitation. The horst-graben structure of these basins lends itself to orographic and continental precipitation effects that make mountain block and mountain front recharge critical components of annual recharge. The current assumption is that the relative contributions to groundwater recharge by summer and winter precipitation vary throughout the province, with winter precipitation dominating in the northern parts of the region, and summer monsoonal precipitation playing a more significant role in the south, where the North American Monsoon extends its influence. To test this hypothesis, stable water isotope data of groundwater and precipitation from sites in Sonora, Mexico and the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were examined to characterize and compare groundwater recharge regimes throughout the region. Preliminary stable water isotope results from the southernmost Rio San Miguel Basin in Sonora, Mexico indicate that groundwater is composed of 64%±14% summer monsoon precipitation, in contrast to more northern basins where winter precipitation is the source of 79-90% of basin groundwater.

  20. Structural provinces of the northeastern Brooks Range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L. )

    1990-07-01

    The dominant Cenozoic structures of the northeastern Brooks Range are anticlinoria with cores of sub-Mississippian rocks, reflecting a regional north-vergent duplex with a floor thrust in the sub-Mississippian sequence and a roof thrust in the Mississippian Kayak Shale. The number of horses forming each anticlinorium and the structural style of the overlying Mississippian and younger cover sequence varies regionally, providing a basis for dividing the northeastern Brooks Range into structural provinces. In the western province, each anticlinorium contains a single horse, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated mainly by detachment folds. To the north in the Sadlerochit Mountains, the Kayak Shale is depositionally discontinuous and rocks elsewhere separated by this detachment deformed together. In the eastern province, each anticlinorium contains multiple horses, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated largely by thrust duplication of Mississippian through Triassic rocks. In the narrow central province, the Devonian Okpilak batholith was detached from its roots, internally shortened along shear zones and by penetrative strain, and transported northward. Because the Kayak Shale is locally absent, the Mississippian and younger cover sequence deformed in part penetratively along with the batholith. 13 figs.

  1. Barriers to faulting in the Basin-Range province: evidence from the Sou Hills transverse block

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Transverse structural blocks may inhibit the propagation of fault ruptures in the Basin-Range province. The Sou Hills, between Dixie and Pleasant Valleys, is a block of uplifted Tertiary bedrock transverse to the NNE-SSW trend of the central Nevada seismic belt. Three lines of evidence indicate that offset due to normal faulting is much less in the Sou Hills compared to adjacent segments of the seismic belt. First, estimates of total late Cenozoic offsets of pre-extension basalts show that the total offset is less in the Sou Hills. Second, analyses of landforms that reflect rates of relative uplift show that Quaternary tectonic activity on range-bounding faults declines where faults join the Sou Hills. Third, measurements of late Quaternary fault scarps show that individual rupture segments in the Sou Hills are shorter in length and have smaller displacements compared to the nearly continuous ruptures of several meters offset found along the Tobin and Stillwater Ranges to the north and south. The Sou Hills rupture pattern is distinctive: ruptures are dispersed over a wide zone rather than being concentrated along well-defined range fronts. Normal faulting patterns produced by the 1915 Pleasant Valley, Nevada and the 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquakes indicate that a discontinuous, spatially dispersed faulting style typifies ruptures which die out in transverse bedrock features. These historic analogues support a model for prehistoric faulting in which ruptures have repeatedly died out in the Sou Hills. Transverse blocks such as the Sou Hills appear to present barriers to propagating ruptures.

  2. Late Triassic granites from Bangka, Indonesia: A continuation of the Main Range granite province of the South-East Asian Tin Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Samuel Wai-Pan; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Roselee, Muhammad H.; Teschner, Claudia; Murtadha, Sayed; Oliver, Grahame J. H.; Ghani, Azman A.; Chang, Su-Chin

    2017-05-01

    The South-East Asian Tin Belt is one of the most tin-productive regions in the world. It comprises three north-south oriented granite provinces, of which the arc-related Eastern granite province and the collision-related Main Range granite province run across Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. These tin-producing granite provinces with different mineral assemblages are separated by Paleo-Tethyan sutures exposed in Thailand and Malaysia. The Eastern Province is usually characterised by granites with biotite ± hornblende. Main Range granites are sometimes characterised by the presence of biotite ± muscovite. However, the physical boundary between the two types of granite is not well-defined on the Indonesian Tin Islands, because the Paleo-Tethyan suture is not exposed on land there. Both hornblende-bearing (previously interpreted as I-type) and hornblende-barren (previously interpreted as S-type) granites are apparently randomly distributed on the Indonesian Tin Islands. Granites exposed on Bangka, the largest and southernmost Tin Island, no matter whether they are hornblende-bearing or hornblende-barren, are geochemically similar to Malaysian Main Range granites. The average ɛNd(t) value obtained from the granites from Bangka (average ɛNd(t) = -8.2) falls within the range of the Main Range Province (-9.6 to -5.4). These granites have SIMS zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 225 Ma and ca. 220 Ma, respectively that are both within the period of Main Range magmatism (∼226-201 Ma) in the Peninsular Malaysia. We suggest that the granites exposed on Bangka represent the continuation of the Main Range Province, and that the Paleo-Tethyan suture lies to the east of the island.

  3. Steady contemporary deformation of the central Basin and Range Province, western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, William C.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné

    2014-06-01

    We use data from western U.S. GPS networks to estimate the rate, pattern, and style of tectonic deformation of the central Basin and Range Province (BRP). Previous geodetic investigations have found the crust of eastern Nevada and western Utah to act as a rigid microplate, with zero deformation rates to within measurement uncertainty. Observed transients in GPS time series have led others to propose a megadetachment model, predicting that the central BRP behaves as a microplate, but with time-varying translation. Here we reassess these hypotheses, benefiting from a significant increase in GPS stations and time span, and innovations in analysis techniques. Our results show that the BRP crust deforms everywhere and all the time. In a group of 24 stations between longitude -113.5° and -116.8°, we find strain rates of 1.9 ± 0.2 × 10-9 yr-1 extension directed N55°W and 2.2 ± 0.2 × 10-9 yr-1 contraction directed N35°E, inconsistent with microplate behavior. The linearity of time series of strain from GPS station triplets is inconsistent with episodic translation of quasi-rigid domains. One exception is station EGAN that exhibits nonlinear motion not found in adjacent stations. The dominant signal in Nevada is distributed shear consistent with Pacific/North America relative plate motion, suggesting that stresses are transmitted through the lithosphere at least 800 km from the plate boundary. The observed active extension is consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms and is in agreement with integrated rates estimated from earthquake geology. Our results do not support the proposed megadetachment in the BRP.

  4. Conceptual models in exploration geochemistry-The Basin and Range Province of the Western United States and Northern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.; McCarthy, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    This summary of geochemical exploration in the Basin and Range Province is another in the series of reviews of geochemical-exploration applications covering a large region; this series began in 1975 with a summary for the Canadian Cordillera and Canadian Shield, and was followed in 1976 by a similar summary for Scandinavia (Norden). Rather than adhering strictly to the type of conceptual models applied in those papers, we have made use of generalized landscape geochemistry models related to the nature of concealment of ore deposits. This study is part of a continuing effort to examine and evaluate geochemical-exploration practices in different areas of the world. Twenty case histories of the application of geochemical exploration in both district and regional settings illustrate recent developments in techniques and approaches. Along with other published reports these case histories, exemplifying generalized models of concealed deposits, provide data used to evaluate geochemical-exploration programs and specific sample media. Because blind deposits are increasingly sought in the Basin and Range Province, the use of new sample media or anomaly-enhancement techniques is a necessity. Analysis of vapors or gases emanating from blind deposits is a promising new technique. Certain fractions of stream sediments show anomalies that are weak or not detected in conventional minus 80-mesh fractions. Multi-element analysis of mineralized bedrock may show zoning patterns that indicate depth or direction of ore. Examples of the application of these and other, more conventional methods are indicated in the case histories. The final section of this paper contains a brief evaluation of the applications of all types of sample media to geochemical exploration in the arid environment of the Basin and Range Province. ?? 1978.

  5. Large dynamic range relative B1+ mapping

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Aaron T.; Aljabar, Paul; Malik, Shaihan J.; Jezzard, Peter; Robson, Matthew D.; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Koopmans, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Parallel transmission (PTx) requires knowledge of the B1+ produced by each element. However, B1+ mapping can be challenging when transmit fields exhibit large dynamic range. This study presents a method to produce high quality relative B1+ maps when this is the case. Theory and Methods The proposed technique involves the acquisition of spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) images at multiple radiofrequency drive levels for each transmitter. The images are combined using knowledge of the SPGR signal equation using maximum likelihood estimation, yielding an image for each channel whose signal is proportional to the B1+ field strength. Relative B1+ maps are then obtained by taking image ratios. The method was tested using numerical simulations, phantom imaging, and through in vivo experiments. Results The numerical simulations demonstrated that the proposed method can reconstruct relative transmit sensitivities over a wide range of B1+ amplitudes and at several SNR levels. The method was validated at 3 Tesla (T) by comparing it with an alternative B1+ mapping method, and demonstrated in vivo at 7T. Conclusion Relative B1+ mapping in the presence of large dynamic range has been demonstrated through numerical simulations, phantom imaging at 3T and experimentally at 7T. The method will enable PTx to be applied in challenging imaging scenarios at ultrahigh field. Magn Reson Med 76:490–499, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26308375

  6. Behavior of Late Quaternary and historical faults in the western Basin and Range province

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.W. . Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Quaternary stratigraphic relations and exploratory trenching in zones of historical surface faulting in the western Basin and Range Province suggest that faults with historical surface ruptures have similar, and in some cases lower, long-term (late Quaternary) and short-term (Holocene) slip rates than other adjacent and regional non-historical Quaternary faults. In the 1954 Dixie Valley earthquake (M6.8) zone, the range-front and piedmont faults collectively record a late Quaternary (200 ka) slip rate on the order of 0.2 mm/yr and a Holocene (7--12 ka) slip rate of 0.5--0.8 mm/yr. The principal segment of the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake (M7.2) zone has an estimated latest Quaternary (25--35 ka) slip rate of 0.2--0.7 mm/yr and a Holocene (6--13 ka) slip rate of 0.3--0.7 mm/yr. The 1954 Rainbow Mountain earthquakes (M6.6 and M6.8) and 1954 Fairview Peak earthquake (M7.1) zones have late Quaternary slip rates that are lower (< 0.1 mm/yr), and although there are adjacent Holocene faults, neither zone shows surficial evidence of a previous Holocene event as do the first two zones. The 13 ka Lahontan shoreline at Rainbow Mountain is displaced only by the 1954 faulting, and the main segment of the Fairview Peak zone is overlain by a late Pleistocene (60--120 ka) alluvial fan which is offset by only the 1954 event. An important observation its that the central Nevada seismic belt is not unique based on slip rates. The greatest slip rates in the central and western Nevada region are associated with the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone and the northern Walker Lane (Pyramid Lake) fault zone where Holocene slip rates are [>=] 1 mm/yr. Based on a comparison of Holocene and late Quaternary rates, many, but not all, historical and non-historical zones show evidence of temporal clustering.

  7. Central caldera collapse complex - implications for extensional tectonics for Basin and Range province

    SciTech Connect

    Koff, L.R.

    1987-08-01

    The Basin and Range Province, being one of the youngest tectonically rejuvenated terrains, exhibits a series of concentric patterns that are identifiable on a computerized, shaded, relief map. The concentric patterns in the Nevada and Utah portions of the Basin and Range coincide with the track of crustal plutonism and volcanism dating from the Cretaceous, and described in detail by G.P. Eaton in 1979. This observation implies a genetic relationship between plutonism and detected concentric patterns. Numerous geotectonic and economic implications are associated with observed concentric patterns. These patterns appear to be centers of crustal extension and rifting. A gravitational collapse of the overlying sedimentary strata into the spreading centers results in observed thrusting, block faulting, and segmentation, resulting in megacalderalike concentric rims. Most of the gravitational thrusting and imbrication is achieved by sedimentary plate movements on a low-angle detachment zone. This low-angle detachment zone, described by B. Wernicke in 1981, may be rooted in the lower crust. The economic implications for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration are enormous in this province. Many researchers have identified an association of mineral accumulations and oil production with areas where concentric rims intersect with each other, or with straight lineaments.

  8. Landscape response to normal fault footwall uplift in the Basin and Range Province, western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, M. A.; Barnes, J. B.; Colgan, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Constraining the deformation history of western North America is important for understanding how tectonic plates accommodate large kinematic changes along their margins. Since the Miocene, a large portion of Pacific - North American plate motion has been accommodated by extension in the Basin and Range Province between the Sierra Nevada and the Colorado Plateau. Although many ranges in the province are physiographically similar, they developed with significant spatiotemporal variations in range-scale fault displacements and rates. Here, we examine the landscape response to changing fault-slip rates by comparing existing thermochronologic data to new geomorphic observations. Low-temperature thermochronologic data from the northwestern Nevada portion of the Basin and Range indicate that faulting began ~12 Ma, with a second phase of rapid slip beginning ~4-3 Ma documented in some ranges. We used the NED DEM (10 m resolution) to measure channel morphology and geologic maps to account for lithologic variations and faults. Bedrock channel profile analyses from several uplifted footwalls (Pine Forest Range, Santa Rosa Range, Jackson Mountains) reveal patterns in concavity (θ) and normalized steepness index (ksn) indicative of unsteady slip, even in footwalls where thermochronologic data does not exist or is not capable of identifying the recent uplift. Some channels possess mean concavity indices of θmean = ~0.6, which falls within the range for channels in equilibrium (0.35 < θ < 0.6). However, in many cases, channel profiles possess prominent convexities that separate them into two distinct segments. Mean ksn values of the segments below these knickpoints are ~3 times greater than those above them (ksn = ~200 vs. ~70 m0.9). Concavity indices for segments below the knickpoints are significantly lower (θmean ~0.2) than the higher elevation segments (θmean ~0.5), suggesting that while the higher segments are in equilibrium, the lower segments are in the process of

  9. Habitat interaction between two species of chipmunk in the Basin and Range Province of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowrey, Christopher; Longshore, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Interspecies interactions can affect how species are distributed, put constraints on habitat expansion, and reduce the fundamental niche of the affected species. Using logistic regression, we analyzed and compared 174 Tamias palmeri and 94 Tamias panamintinus within an isolated mountain range of the Basin and Range Province of southern Nevada. Tamias panamintinus was more likely to use pinyon/ponderosa/fir mixed forests than pinyon alone, compared to random sites. In the presence of T palmeri, however, interaction analyses indicated T. panamintinus was less likely to occupy the mixed forests and more likely near large rocks on southern aspects. This specie s-by-habitat interaction data suggest that T. palmeri excludes T panamintinus from areas of potentially suitable habitat. Climate change may adversely affect species of restricted distribution. Habitat isolation and species interactions in this region may thus increase survival risks as climate temperatures rise.

  10. Seismic waves attenuation in the lithosphere of the northern Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynina, Anna

    2013-04-01

    The seismic quality factor of the direct body waves (P- and S-waves) and coda and their frequency dependence (n) were estimated for the northern Basin and Range Province using traces of 66 local earthquakes and explosions recorded during 1988-1989 PASSCAL Basin and Range Passive Seismic Experiment. For calculation of Q-coda the single backscattering model by Aki was used. Q-coda values were estimated for six central frequencies (f): 0.3±0.1, 0.75±0.25, 1.5±0.5, 3.0±1.0, 6.0±2.0 and 12.0±4.0 Hz and for 18 lapse time windows (W) - from 10 to 95 sec with a step 5 sec. The Qp and Qs values were obtained by the method of the maximum amplitudes for the frequency bands 0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.0, 2.0-4.0 ? 4.0-8.0 Hz. Also we tired to evaluate the part of the intrinsic and scattering attenuation (Qi and Qsc respectively) in the total attenuation using Wennerberg's method. The Q-coda increases and the frequency parameter n and the attenuation coefficient δ decrease with increasing of frequency and lapse time windows. This fact shows that the upper part of the lithosphere is more heterogeneous compared to its lower layers. The deep variations of the frequency parameter n and the attenuation coefficient δ show the sharp change at the depth about 150 km - at the same depth the boundary of the low velocity anomaly is observed (Bensen et al., 2009; Wagner et al., 2012; Shen et al., 2012). The Qs and Qp values also increase with frequency: Qs varies from 42 (0.84 Hz) to 298 (5.52 Hz) and Qp - from 60 (0.84 Hz) to 279 (6.05 Hz). The following empirical relations of Q vs. f are deduced for P- and S-waves respectively: Qp(f)=69*f0.78 and Qs(f)=53*f1.08. The Q-values, describing the intrinsic and scattering attenuation, also show a significant dependence on frequency and lapse time windows: the empirical relations of Q vs. f are: Qi(f)=8*f1.2 and Qsc(f)=13*f1.1 (for W=10 sec) and Qi(f)=5*f1.2 and Qsc(f)=102*f1.0 (for W=95 sec) respectively. The comparison of the intrinsic and

  11. Heat flow in the Basin and Range province and thermal effects of tectonic extension

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    In regions of tectonic extension, vertical convective transport of heat in the lithosphere is inevitable. The resulting departure of lithosphere temperature and thickness from conduction-model estimates depends upon the mechanical mode of extension and upon how rapidly extension is (and has been) taking place. Present knowledge of these processes is insufficient to provide adequate constraints on thermal models. The high and variable regional heat flow and the intense local heat discharge at volcanic centers in the Basin and Range province of the United States could be accounted for by regional and local variations in extensional strain rate without invoking anomalous conductive heat flow from the asthenosphere. Anomalous surface heat flow typical of the province could be generated by distributed extension at average rates of about 1/2 to 1%/m.y., similar to rates estimated from structural evidence. To account for higher heat flow in subregions like the Battle mountain High, these rates would be increased by a factor of about 3, and locally at active bimodal volcanic centers, by an order of magnitude more. ?? 1978 Birkha??user Verlag.

  12. Geodetic Constraints on Strain Transfer Between the Colorado Plateau and the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, C.; Blewitt, G.; Hammond, W. C.; Bennett, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    Geodetic measurements of crustal deformation in the western United States have provided unprecedented constraints on the kinematics of deformation of the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone. In particular, it is now well established that deformation in the northern Basin and Range Province is mostly taking place along its western and eastern margins with very little internal strain in the middle part of the Province. Westward motion of the bulk of the Province of 2-3 mm/yr relative to North America/Colorado Plateau is being accommodated along a roughly 100-km wide deformation zone centered near the Wasatch fault. We present a new model of how these 2-3 mm/yr of relative motion are being accommodated further south using velocities of continuous GPS sites in the area, mainly those belonging to the BARGEN and EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory networks. The velocity field allows for an interpretation in which the relatively narrow deformation zone across the Wasatch broadens southward to about 700-km wide in the southern Basin Range at the latitude of southern Arizona. If true, the idea of an autonomous, rigid, and independently moving Colorado Plateau needs to be reassessed. Alternatively we find that subsets of the GPS velocities on the Plateau can be interpreted as having rigid-body rotation, but the Euler pole of the rotation is highly dependent on which subset of stations is being considered. Consequently, the inferred motion along the Plateau's margins vary considerably between models and can only be tested by acquiring more geodetic data or by considering independent kinematic indicators such as earthquake slip vectors. Relative to sites on the southwestern Plateau we observe 1.7 and 1.2 mm/yr of westward motion of sites on the Nevada Test Site and Spring Mountains (southern Nevada), respectively, while we observe no extension directly across the Hurricane-Toroweap fault system (the Plateau's western physiographic boundary at this latitude). These

  13. Middle and late holocene micromammal pathologies from Cueva Tixi (Tandilia Range, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Luna, Leandro; Aranda, Claudia; Quintana, Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Paleopathology in bones of very small mammals has rarely been studied. Different types of osseous lesions of mammals weighing under 0.2kg, recovered from the Holocene strata of Cueva Tixi archaeological and paleontological site (Tandilia range, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina), are described and discussed in this report. Several types of trauma, entheseal changes, degenerative joint diseases, and probable osteomyelitis were identified. The lesions were chronic, indicating that the animals were able to survive a period of convalescence, although in many cases the decreased capacity for locomotion likely was significant. These pathological findings open research avenues for very small mammals that usually are not considered in archaeological disease studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relativity Parameters Determined from Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of 24 years of lunar laser ranging data is used to test the principle of equivalence, geodetic precession, the PPN parameters beta and gamma, and G/G. Recent data can be fitted with a rms scatter of 3 cm. (a) Using the Nordtvedt effect to test the principle of equivalence, it is found that the Moon and Earth accelerate alike in the Sun's field. The relative accelerations match to within 5 x 10(exp -13) . This limit, combined with an independent determination of y from planetary time delay, gives beta. Including the uncertainty due to compositional differences, the parameter beta differs from unity by no more than 0.0014; and, if the weak equivalence principle is satisfied, the difference is no more than 0.0006. (b) Geodetic precession matches its expected 19.2 marc sec/yr rate within 0.7%. This corresponds to a 1% test of gamma. (c) Apart from the Nordtvedt effect, beta and gamma can be tested from their influence on the lunar orbit. It is argued theoretically that the linear combination 0.8(beta) + 1.4(gamma) can be tested at the 1% level of accuracy. For solutions using numerically derived partial derivatives, higher sensitivity is found. Both 6 and y match the values of general relativity to within 0.005, and the linear combination beta+ gamma matches to within 0,003, but caution is advised due to the lack of theoretical understanding of these sensitivities. (d) No evidence for a changing gravitational constant is found, with absolute value of G/G less than or equal to 8 x lO(exp -12)/yr. There is significant sensitivity to G/G through solar perturbations on the lunar orbit.

  15. Relativity Parameters Determined from Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of 24 years of lunar laser ranging data is used to test the principle of equivalence, geodetic precession, the PPN parameters beta and gamma, and G/G. Recent data can be fitted with a rms scatter of 3 cm. (a) Using the Nordtvedt effect to test the principle of equivalence, it is found that the Moon and Earth accelerate alike in the Sun's field. The relative accelerations match to within 5 x 10(exp -13) . This limit, combined with an independent determination of y from planetary time delay, gives beta. Including the uncertainty due to compositional differences, the parameter beta differs from unity by no more than 0.0014; and, if the weak equivalence principle is satisfied, the difference is no more than 0.0006. (b) Geodetic precession matches its expected 19.2 marc sec/yr rate within 0.7%. This corresponds to a 1% test of gamma. (c) Apart from the Nordtvedt effect, beta and gamma can be tested from their influence on the lunar orbit. It is argued theoretically that the linear combination 0.8(beta) + 1.4(gamma) can be tested at the 1% level of accuracy. For solutions using numerically derived partial derivatives, higher sensitivity is found. Both 6 and y match the values of general relativity to within 0.005, and the linear combination beta+ gamma matches to within 0,003, but caution is advised due to the lack of theoretical understanding of these sensitivities. (d) No evidence for a changing gravitational constant is found, with absolute value of G/G less than or equal to 8 x lO(exp -12)/yr. There is significant sensitivity to G/G through solar perturbations on the lunar orbit.

  16. MMI attenuation and historical earthquakes in the basin and range province of western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Earthquakes in central Nevada (1932-1959) were used to develop a modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) attenuation model for estimating moment magnitude M for earthquakes in the Basin and Range province of interior western North America. M is 7.4-7.5 for the 26 March 1872 Owens Valley, California, earthquake, in agreement with Beanland and Clark's (1994) M 7.6 that was estimated from geologic field observations. M is 7.5 for the 3 May 1887 Sonora, Mexico, earthquake, in agreement with Natali and Sbar's (1982) M 7.4 and Suter's (2006) M 7.5, both estimated from geologic field observations. MMI at sites in California for earthquakes in the Nevada Basin and Range apparently are not much affected by the Sierra Nevada except at sites near the Sierra Nevada where MMI is reduced. This reduction in MMI is consistent with a shadow zone produced by the root of the Sierra Nevada. In contrast, MMI assignments for earthquakes located in the eastern Sierra Nevada near the west margin of the Basin and Range are greater than predicted at sites in California. These higher MMI values may result from critical reflections due to layering near the base of the Sierra Nevada.

  17. Early 20th-century uplift of the northern Peninsular ranges province of southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, S.H.; Elliott, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    Repeated leveling in the northern Peninsular Ranges province identifies an early 20thcentury episode of crustal upwarping in southern California. The episodic vertical movement is broadly bracketed between 1897 and 1934, and the main deformation is bracketed within 1906-1914 and involved regional up-to-the-northeast tilting of the Santa Ana block of as much as 4 ?? 10-6 rad and elevation changes exceeding 0.4 m in the Perris block and parts of the San Jacinto block, Transverse Ranges, and the Mohave block. Primary tide station records containing occasional entries since 1853 at San Pedro and San Diego show no evidence of episodic crustal movement, suggesting that the uplifted area hinged along coastal fault zones forming the west boundary of the Santa Ana block. Physiographic features and recent studies of Quaternary marine terraces by others show that this episode of regional tilting and uplift is a part of the continuing tectonic process in southern California. A crude, questionable coincidence exists between the uplift episode and a period of increased seismicity (1890-1923) in the northern Peninsular Ranges characterized by a number of moderate-size (M > 6) earthquakes on NW-trending strike-slip faults. However, releveling data are too sparse to associate the uplift development clearly with any one event. ?? 1979.

  18. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Gao, Yanxia; Ye, Chaoqun; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Chang, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm) were collected to isolate Salmonella, and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (ST). A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7%) were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%), followed by Indiana (13.2%) and Typhimurium (5.3%). Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19), with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%). In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella, thereby posing a threat to public health.

  19. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanxia; Ye, Chaoqun; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm) were collected to isolate Salmonella, and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (ST). A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7%) were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%), followed by Indiana (13.2%) and Typhimurium (5.3%). Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19), with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%). In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella, thereby posing a threat to public health. PMID:27800493

  20. A systematic regional trend in helium isotopes across the northernbasin and range province, Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2006-05-01

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g., Coso, Long Valley,Steamboat, and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east,the ratios decline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. Theregional trend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentratedalong the western margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increasein the magnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strainenhances crustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow ratesthat preserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposedon the regional trend are "helium spikes," local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  1. Reappraisal of the relationship between the northern Nevada rift and Miocene extension in the northern Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colgan, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Nevada rift is a prominent mafic dike swarm and magnetic anomaly in north-central Nevada inferred to record the Middle Miocene (16.5-15.0 Ma) extension direction in the northern Basin and Range province in the western United States. From the 245°-250° rift direction, Basin and Range extension is inferred to have shifted 45° clockwise to a modern direction of 290°-300° during the late Miocene. The region surrounding the northern Nevada rift was actively extending while the rift formed, and these domains are all characterized by extension oriented 280°-300°. This direction is distinctly different from the rift direction and nearly identical to the modern Basin and Range direction. Although the rate, structural style, and distribution of Basin and Range extension appear to have undergone a significant change in the late Miocene (ca. 10 Ma), the overall spreading direction does not. Middle Miocene extension was directed perpendicular to the axis of the thickest crust formed during Mesozoic shortening and this orientation may reflect gravitational collapse of this thick crust. Orientation of northern Nevada rift dikes may reflect a short-lived regional stress field related to the onset of Yellowstone hotspot volcanism.

  2. Structural development of high-temperature mylonites in the Archean Wyoming province, northwestern Madison Range, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Mogk, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Crooked Creek mylonite, in the northwestern Madison Range, southwestern Montana, is defined by several curved lenses of high non-coaxial strain exposed over a 7-km-wide, northeast-trending strip. The country rocks, part of the Archean Wyoming province, are dominantly trondhjemitic to granitic orthogneiss with subordinate amphibolite, quartzite, aluminous gneiss, and sills of metabasite (mafic granulite). Data presented here support an interpretation that the mylonite formed during a period of rapid, heterogeneous strain at near-peak metamorphic conditions during an early deformational event (D1) caused by northwest–southeast-directed transpression. The mylonite has a well-developed L-S tectonite fabric and a fine-grained, recrystallized (granoblastic) texture. The strong linear fabric, interpreted as the stretching direction, is defined by elongate compositional “fish,” fold axes, aligned elongate minerals, and mullion axes. The margins of the mylonitic zones are concordant with and grade into regions of unmylonitized gneiss. A second deformational event (D2) has folded the mylonite surface to produce meter- to kilometer-scale, tight-to-isoclinal, gently plunging folds in both the mylonite and country rock, and represents a northwest–southeast shortening event. Planar or linear fabrics associated with D2 are remarkably absent. A third regional deformational event (D3) produced open, kilometer-scale folds generally with gently north-plunging fold axes. Thermobarometric measurements presented here indicate that metamorphic conditions during D1 were the same in both the mylonite and the country gneiss, reaching upper amphibolite- to lower granulite-facies conditions: 700 ± 50° C and 8.5 ± 0.5 kb. Previous geochronological studies of mylonitic and cross-cutting rocks in the Jerome Rock Lake area, east of the Crooked Creek mylonite, bracket the timing of this high-grade metamorphism and mylonitization between 2.78 and 2.56 Ga, nearly a billion years

  3. Spectral analysis of topography and gravity in the Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricard, Y.; Froidevaux, C.; Simpson, R.

    1987-01-01

    A two-dimensional spectral analysis has been carried out for the topography and the Bouguer gravity anomaly of the Basin and Range Province in western North America. The aim was to investigate the possible presence of dominant wavelengths in the deformation pattern at the surface and at the depth of compensation. The results suggest that a 200-km wavelength in the deep compensating mass distribution has been inherited from an early tectonic phase of extension at an azimuth N65??E. The corresponding surface topography exhibits prominent overtones at wavelength of 100, 75, and possibly 45 km. It is argued that these characterize the non-linear rheology of the upper crust. The short wavelengths in the topography reflect the present phase of deformation, mixed with the results of the older deformations. These results point to a need to extend the physical models of lithospheric stretching beyond the presently available one-phase scenario. However, they show that the boudinage instability concept is consistent with the data. ?? 1987.

  4. Geothermal resource assessment of the Basin and Range province in western Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Mason Cole

    A geothermal resource assessment of the Basin and Range Province in western Utah was carried out to identify resource potential for future exploration and exploitation. This assessment includes the following: (1) a new map of background heat flow, generated from approximately 500 new and existing heat flow determinations, (2) surface ground temperature established continuously across the state, and (3) a comprehensive thermal conductivity database compiled with more than 2300 measurements on Utah rock. Finally, a two-dimensional finite difference code was written to integrate determined heat flow, surface temperature, and thermal conductivity to model temperatures at depth. Two cross-sections of the resulting temperature fields are presented from different regions of the Basin and Range. The first, in Utah's Blackrock Desert, was located to assess the highest recorded background heat flow (>130 mWm-2) in the state. The second, along the axis of the Great Salt Lake, was placed in a broad swath of elevated heat flow (>105 mWm -2). Temperatures and heat content of the rock at depths commonly accessed by current drilling technology (3-5 km) were evaluated for each section. In Blackrock Desert, 150 °C was encountered at depths generally greater than 3 km and the thermal potential of rock between 3 km and 4 km for exploitation ranged between 0.14 EJkm-3 and 0.49 EJkm-3, with a mean value 0.31 EJkm-3. In the Great Salt Lake Region, the depth to 150 °C is less than 3 km across the basin and the calculated thermal potential, in the 3 km to 4 km depth interval, is between 0.33 EJkm -3 and 0.40 EJkm-3 with a mean 0.37 EJkm-3. High heat flows reported in the Blackrock Desert are encouraging indicators of the region's geothermal potential; however, more complicated geology and the presence of young cooling volcanics and intrusives appears to be inflating heat flow determinations, ultimately exaggerating modeled estimates of regional scale temperatures through basin sediments

  5. Tectonomagmatic relationship between the Sierra Madre Occidental ignimbrite flare-up and the southern Basin and Range province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Labarthe-Hernandez, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) is a Mid-Tertiary, large-volume, ignimbrite province at least 1,200 km long and 200-500 km wide, extending continuously from the U.S.-Mexico border (31\\deg N) to its intersection with the Mexican Volcanic Belt (21\\deg N). Considering the average thickness of 1,000 m for the ignimbrite plateau, based on several measured sections along the province, and the average wide of the province of 300 km, a conservative estimate of the physical volume of the SMO ignimbrites is about 360,000 km3. The southern part of the Basin and Range province is in Mexico. This extensional province overlaps in space and time with the SMO ignimbrite flare-up and formed NW- to NE-trending normal faults that bound many large grabens, which are particularly long and deep in the southern SMO. Basin and Range faulting occurred between at least 32 Ma and 12 Ma with both limits probably extending until the Eocene and the Quaternary. Ignimbrite activity can be as old as 51 Ma and as young as 17-16 Ma, but most of the ignimbrite volume was erupted in the 38-23 Ma period. Thus, the ignimbrite flare-up can be defined as a period of intense explosive volcanic activity that produced enormous volumes of silicic ignimbrite sheets, which took place mainly between 38 and 23 Ma in Mexico. The ignimbrite flare-up coincided in time with peaks in Basin and Range faulting, and the ignimbrite activity apparently migrated from the east-northeast to the west-southwest, i.e., from central Chihuahua (38-27 Ma) to Durango-Tayoltita-Nazas (32-29 Ma) to Zacatecas-Tepic (24-23 Ma), finishing by 16 Ma at Jalisco-Nayarit, as deduced from the compilation of geologic works done in the SMO. It is unknown yet whether there was a west-southward migration of Basin and Range faulting and if the ignimbrite flare-up occurred episodically as peaks (38-27 Ma, 32-29 Ma, and 24-23 Ma) or was continuous. Nevertheless, by the time that the ignimbrite flare-up started, the Basin and Range extension was

  6. Seismic reflection profiling across Tertiary extensional structures in the eastern Amargosa Desert, southern Nevada, Basin and Range province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.; Carr, M.D.; Fox, K.F.; Hart, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    Outcrops, shallow well control, and coincident geophysical surveys are used to interpret a seismic reflection profile in the Amargosa Desert, within the Basin and Range province, of southern Nevada. The seismic line crosses all or parts of three Tertiary subbasins, revealing that basin growth occurred by progressive shifts of basin-bounding faults. A shallow laterally continuous, flat-lying, low-frequency reflector, interpreted as a Tertiary basalt flow, suggests that little vertical deformation has occurred within the easternmost of the small Tertiary basins since the eruption of the flow about 10 million years ago. Moderately dipping reflections within the pre-Tertiary bedrock may image Mesozoic thrust faults. Doming of the lower crust resembles that observed elsewhere in the Basin and Range province and is consistent with ductile flow in the lower crust. -from Authors

  7. The Environmental Context of Gastropods on Western Laurentia (Basin and Range Province) During the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Robyn Mieko

    Gastropods are a major component of modern marine ecosystems and can be found in nearly every type of marine ecosystem. They experienced their first notable radiation during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (~470 Ma), during which their diversity tripled. This study examines the gastropod assemblage preserved in the Basin and Range Province of the Western United States to establish the environmental context for the Ordovician gastropod radiation. Gastropods are present within every facies examined, but their relative abundance and distribution varies. Gastropods are rare in normal marine settings and abundant in harsh (i.e., dysoxic, hypersaline) environments. Their environmental context is shown to impact survivorship through the end-Ordovician extinction event and throughout the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Collecting accurate density data for fossil deposits can prove challenging, especially when beds are not exposed in plane view. In these cases, paleontologists are tasked with reconstructing shellbed density from cross section exposure. This study presents a mathematical model to calculate the density of fossil material within a bed from bedding cross section counts. The model is calibrated against an Ordovician biofacies comprised of oncoids, macluritid gastropods and receptaculitids exposed in the Arrow Canyon Range of Southern Nevada, where unique preservation provides both cross section exposures and plan view of fossil concentrations. University Earth Science Departments seeking to establish impactful geoscience outreach programs often pursue large-scale, grant funded programs. While this type of outreach is highly successful, it is also extremely costly, and grant funding can be difficult to secure. Here, we present the Geoscience Education Outreach Program (GEOP), a small-scale, very affordable model tested over five years in the Department of Earth Sciences at UCR. GEOP provides a variety of outreach events and allows UCR Earth Sciences to

  8. Crustal resistivity structure from magnetotelluric soundings in the Colorado Plateau-Basin and Range provinces, central and western Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Resistivity structure to about 25 km depth is defined from two-dimensional modeling of 29 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings (0.002-5 Hz) that traverse 280 km of the southwestern Colorado Plateau, transition zone, and Basin and Range provinces in Arizona. From the surface to 5 km depth, the MT model suggests structural relationships between low-resistivity sedimentary and volcanic rocks (50-300 ohm m) and high-resistivity granitic and gneissic basement (500-9000 ohm m). -from Author

  9. Helium concentrations in soil gas of the Ely and Delta 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles. Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.; Bowles, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    A reconnaissance soil-gas helium survey was made of the Ely, Nevada and Delta, Utah 1? x 2? quadrangles in the Basin and Range Province. Helium concentrations in 510 samples ranged from -147 to 441 ppb He with respect to ambient air. The median helium value for the study area was 36 ppb. Concentrations of more than 100 ppb He, and less than -20 ppb He, occur more commonly in the Ely Quadrangle and are especially numerous in the western one-half of this quadrangle. The data are presented both in figures and tables, and some of the geologic factors that may affect the helium distribution are discussed.

  10. Role of heat and detachment in continental extension as viewed from the eastern basin and range province in Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchitta, Ivo

    1990-03-01

    deformation at the surface. With time and the waning of the thermal event, the thermal front, and thus the brittle-ductile transition, smoothed out and sank, again leaving a trail of shear zones. Phase 1 deformation ceased and was replaced by Phase 2 deformation that occurred over a much wider area. Eventually, the front sank so deep that surface deformation ceased. This illustrates how the style of deformation at the surface may be a measure of the depth to the brittle-ductile transition. According to the thermotectonic model, extensional strain does not need to be constant along the detachment, in contrast to models involving simple shear through crustal-scale normal faults. On the contrary, one would expect strain to vary geographically as a function of maximum temperature attained, because of the well known relation between temperature and lithospheric strength. The thermotectonic model is also in good accord with geophysical characteristics of the Basin and Range Province, which suggests that extension was accompanied by intrusion of basalt into the lower crust, with consequent heating and anatexis. Many studies in the U.S. and elsewhere support the model by showing that continental extension commonly is accompanied by near-surface temperatures corresponding to the brittle-ductile transition, by steep thermal gradients, and by hydrothemal convective systems. A possible driving mechanism from the thermotectonic processes described by the model is the rise of asthenospheric domes or welts, which thin the lithosphere by subcrustal transfer while heating and stretching it. An asthenospheric welt that migrates northeastward while dying out might explain the encroachment of relatively subdued extension onto the Colorado Plateau, as well as the juxtaposition of compressive stress on the plateau with extensional stress in the adjacent Transition Zone and Basin and Range Province.

  11. A study of uranium favorability of Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, Basin and Range Province, Arizona: Part I, General geology and chronology of pre-late Miocene Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scarborough, Robert Bryan; Wilt, Jan Carol

    1979-01-01

    This study focuses attention on Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Basin and Range Province of Arizona. The known occurrences of uranium and anomalous radioactivity in these rocks are associated with sediments that accumulated in a low energy environment characterized by fine-grained clastics, including important tuffaceous materials, and carbonate rocks. Most uranium occurrences, in these rocks appear to be stratabound. Emphasis was placed on those sedimentary materials that pre-date the late Cenozoic Basin and Range disturbance. They are deformed and crop out on pedimented range blocks and along the province interface with the Transition Zone. Three tentative age groups are recognized: Group I - Oligocene, pre-22 m.y., Group II - early Miocene - 22 m.y. - 16 m.y., and Group III - middle Miocene - 16 m.y. to 13--10 m.y. Regionally, these three groups contain both coarse to fine-grained red clastics and low energy lighter colored 'lacustrine' phases. Each of the three groups has been the object of uranium exploration. Group II, the early Miocene strata, embraces the Anderson Mine - Artillery region host rocks and also the New River - Cave Creek early Miocene beds-along the boundary with the Transition Zone. These three groups of rocks have been tectonically deformed to the extent that original basins of deposition cannot yet be reconstructed. However, they were considerably more extensive in size than the late Cenozoic basins the origin of which deformed the former. Group II rocks are judged to be of prime interest because of: (1) the development and preservation of organic matter in varying lithologies, (2) apparent contemporaneity with silicic volcanic centers, (3) influence of Precambrian crystalline rocks, and (4) relative outcrop continuity near the stable Transition Zone. The Transition Zone, especially along its boundary with the Basin and Range Province, needs additional geologic investigation, especially as regards the depositional continuity of Group II

  12. The distribution of uranium and thorium in granitic rocks of the basin and range province, Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNeal, J.M.; Lee, D.E.; Millard, H.T.

    1981-01-01

    Some secondary uranium deposits are thought to have formed from uranium derived by the weathering of silicic igneous rocks such as granites, rhyolites, and tuffs. A regional geochemical survey was made to determine the distribution of uranium and thorium in granitic rocks of the Basin and Range province in order to evaluate the potential for secondary uranium occurrences in the area. The resulting geochemical maps of uranium, thorium, and the Th:U ratio may be useful in locating target areas for uranium exploration. The granites were sampled according to a five-level, nested, analysis-of-variance design, permitting estimates to be made of the variance due to differences between:(1) two-degree cells; (2) one-degree cells; (3) plutons; (4) samples; and (5) analyses. The cells are areas described in units of degrees of latitude and longitude. The results show that individual plutons tend to differ in uranium and thorium concentrations, but that each pluton tends to be relatively homogeneous. Only small amounts of variance occur at the two degree and the between-analyses levels. The three geochemical maps that were prepared are based on one-degree cell means. The reproducibility of the maps is U > Th ??? Th:U. These geochemical maps may be used in three methods of locating target areas for uranium exploration. The first method uses the concept that plutons containing the greatest amounts of uranium may supply the greatest amounts of uranium for the formation of secondary uranium occurrences. The second method is to examine areas with high thorium contents, because thorium and uranium are initially highly correlated but much uranium could be lost by weathering. The third method is to locate areas in which the plutons have particularly high Th:U ratios. Because uranium, but not thorium, is leached by chemical weathering, high Th:U ratios suggest a possible loss of uranium and possibly a greater potential for secondary uranium occurrences to be found in the area. ?? 1981.

  13. EFFECT OF COMPOSITION OF SELECTED GROUNDWATERS FROM THE BASIN AND RANGE PROVINCE ON PLUTONIUM, NEPTUNIUM, AND AMERICIUM SPECIATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, Terry F.; Cleveland, Jess M.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1984-01-01

    The speciation of plutonium, neptunium, and americium was determined in groundwaters from four sources in the Basin and Range Province: the lower carbonate aquifer, Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Crystal Pool); alluvial fill, Frenchman Flat, NTS (well 5C); Hualapai Valley, Arizona (Red Lake south well); and Tularosa Basin, New Mexico (Rentfrow well). The results were interpreted to indicate that plutonium and, to a lesser extent, neptunium are least soluble in reducing groundwaters containing a large concentration of sulfate ion and a small concentration of strongly complexing anions. The results further emphasize the desirability of including studies such as this among the other site-selection criteria for nuclear waste repositories.

  14. Shallow subsurface temperature surveys in the basin and range province, U.S.A.-I. Review and evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olmsted, F.H.; Welch, A.H.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Temperature surveys at depths of 1-2 m have had varying success in geothermal exploration in the Basin and Range province. The most successful surveys have identified patterns of near-surface thermal-fluid flow within areas of less than 2 km2. Results have been less consistent in larger areas where zones of hydrothermal upflow are less well known, nongeothermal perturbing factors are significant and lateral variations in shallow subsurface temperature are small. Nongeothermal perturbations can be minimized by use of mean annual temperatures instead of synoptic temperatures, by physically based simulation of ground temperatures or by statistical modeling. ?? 1986.

  15. Geology and geochemistry of newly discovered Tertiary carbonatite occurrences near Villa Ahumada area, Basin and Range province, Chihuahua, northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandigam, Ravi Chenchu

    This study targets some newly discovered carbonatite occurrences located in the eastern Mexican Basin and Range province, a few kilometers to the east of Villa Ahumada, Chihuahua. The region containing these occurrences experienced compression related to subduction of the Farallon plate until about 32 Ma that was followed by Basin and Range extension. Geological mapping (1:5,000 scale), petrography, study of drill hole cuttings and satellite images, and major and trace element chemical analyses were utilized to understand the intrusive style of the carbonatites, their mineralogy and petrogenesis. The carbonatites, named Yuca, Mariana and El Indio, collectively intrude limestones, granitic intrusives and subduction-related tuffs and lavas mainly as a stock, breccias and dikes. The Yuca carbonatite was emplaced as a 900-m diameter stock, 500 x 350 m breccia body, numerous dikes and networks of fracture fillings. Crosscutting field relationships at Yuca suggest at least two stages of carbonatite emplacement. At Mariana, carbonatite was emplaced as a 750 x 350 m breccia. Four out of nine reverse circulation drill holes penetrated and bottomed in the breccia at an average depth of about 300 m At El Indio, carbonatite was emplaced as a 20 m diameter breccia pipe and a 1m thick sill. Major minerals present are calcite, Fe-rich calcite and hematite. Sporadic presence of fluorite is common. At Mariana, two generations of grossular-rich garnets associated with limestones and granite porphyry respectively are recognized. It is inferred that garnets in granite porphyry represent metasomatic alteration due to the emplacement of carbonatite breccia. Parental magmas of Yuca carbonatites have undergone differentiation under low fO2 conditions during which they were progressively enriched in iron. The carbonatite compositional types recognized based on major element data, in the sequence of least to most highly differentiated, are (1) magnesio-, (2) calcio- and (3

  16. Ion microprobe analyses bearing on the composition of the upper mantle beneath the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roden, Michael F.; Shimizu, Nobumichi

    1993-08-01

    Results are presented of ion microbrobe analyses of light and heavy rare earth elements (LREE and HREE) of clinopyroxene from spinel-bearing peridotite xenolites from the Basin and Range Province (Black Canyon, Lunar Crater localities) and the Colorado Plateau (Buell Park, Green Knobs localities), two of the prominent units (based on elevation, geomorphology, and tectonics) of the continental crust of the American southwest. It is found that the clinopyroxenes from spinel facies peridotites from both provinces are highly variable (by 2-3 orders of magnitude) in LREE and HREE, Sr, Zr, and Ti contents. However, LREE-enriched clinopyroxenes or those with chondritic REE patterns predominate at the Basin and Range localities and LREE-depleted clinopyroxenes predominate at the Colorado Plateau localities. The bulk of the peridotites from the Colorado Plateau are interpreted to be residues from partial melting; the association of these peridotites with LREE-depleted websterites reinforces the link between modern oceanic lithosphere and the upper mantle beneath the Colorado Plateau. On the other hand, the predominance of LREE-enriched peridotites in the Basin and Range localities is consistent with the widespread Cenozoic volcanism of the area and is probably a consequence of that volcanism.

  17. Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary Beneath Regions of Recent Volcanism in the Basin and Range Province and Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, D. W.; Rau, C. J.; Plank, T.; Gazel, E.; Bendersky, C.

    2010-12-01

    Melt in the asthenosphere may contribute strongly to the development of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) in some settings. We have compiled a set of vertical shear-velocity profiles beneath centers of recent (<1.0 Ma) volcanic activity in the Basin and Range province based on Rayleigh wave tomography. The classic pattern of a high-velocity lid overlying a low-velocity zone (LVZ) is clear beneath many of the centers. Cima, for example, has a high velocity lid extending to a depth of about 60 km. Beneath Dish Hill and Amboy in the southern Mojave, the lithospheric lid extends to a depth of ~ 90 km. Minimum velocities in the LVZs beneath the higher velocity lids typically are 4.00-4.05 km/s, similar to that beneath the East Pacific Rise and too low to be caused by temperature alone without unreasonably high attenuation. Beneath other centers, like Big Pine, Lathrop Wells and Tahoe, there is no resolvable lid. The lid is either missing or too thin to resolve, but the absence of the lid/LVZ pattern seems to be due to a combination of lower velocities immediately beneath the Moho and higher velocities in the LVZ. Petrological indicators of temperature and depth of melting from basalt composition are in general agreement with the seismological observations, with the depth of last equilibration typically occurring near the top of the LVZ. Beneath Big Pine, for example, the equilibration temperatures are unusually low and the equilibration depth is 40 to 50 km, just below the Moho, in agreement with the lack of a distinct lid. Beneath Cima, equilibration depths are 60-70 km. Beneath Coso, equilibration depths are only slightly deeper than Big Pine, but the temperatures are higher, in agreement with the more pronounced LVZ and the presence of a thin lid. Beneath the Tabernacle Hill/Black Rock volcanic field in west-central Utah, there is a well-developed lid/LVZ structure, but the "high" velocity lid is only ~ 4.10 km/s while the underlying LVZ reaches as low as

  18. Classification of hydrogeologic areas and hydrogeologic flow systems in the basin and range physiographic province, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Konieczki, Alice D.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province in parts of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah, and most of Nevada was classified at basin and larger scales to facilitate information transfer and to provide a synthesis of results from many previous hydrologic investigations. A conceptual model for the spatial hierarchy of the hydrogeology was developed for the Basin and Range Physiographic Province and consists, in order of increasing spatial scale, of hydrogeologic components, hydrogeologic areas, hydrogeologic flow systems, and hydrogeologic regions. This hierarchy formed a framework for hydrogeologic classification. Hydrogeologic areas consist of coincident ground-water and surface-water basins and were delineated on the basis of existing sets of basin boundaries that were used in past investigations by State and Federal government agencies. Within the study area, 344 hydrogeologic areas were identified and delineated. This set of basins not only provides a framework for the classification developed in this report, but also has value for regional and subregional purposes of inventory, study, analysis, and planning throughout the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. The fact that nearly all of the province is delineated by the hydrogeologic areas makes this set well suited to support regional-scale investigations. Hydrogeologic areas are conceptualized as a control volume consisting of three hydrogeologic components: the soils and streams, basin fill, and consolidated rocks. The soils and streams hydrogeologic component consists of all surface-water bodies and soils extending to the bottom of the plant root zone. The basin-fill hydrogeologic component consists of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediment deposited in the structural basin. The consolidated-rocks hydrogeologic component consists of the crystalline and sedimentary rocks that form the mountain blocks and basement rock of the structural basin. Hydrogeologic areas were

  19. Fluoride concentrations in a range of ready-to-drink beverages consumed in Heilongjiang Province, north-east China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Maguire, Anne; Tianqui, Guan; Yanguo, Shi; Zohoori, Fatemeh V

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of ready-to-drink beverages, as a potential source of fluoride (F), has increased considerably in China over the last decade. To help inform the public and policy makers, this study aimed to measure F concentration of ready-to-drink beverages on sale in Heilongjiang province, north east China. Three batches of 106 drink products manufactured by 26 companies were purchased from the main national supermarkets in Harbin, Heilongjiang province, China. The F concentration of all samples was determined, in triplicate, using a fluoride ion-selective electrode in conjunction with a meter and a direct method of analysis. The products were categorised into 10 groups according to product type. F concentrations of the samples ranged from 0.012-1.625 mg/l with a mean of 0.189 mg/l and a median of 0.076 mg/l. More than half of the products (55%) had an F concentration of ≤0.1 mg/l, while <5% had a F concentration of >0.7 mg/l. The 'tea with milk' group contained the highest mean F concentration (1.350 mg/l), whereas the lowest mean F concentration (0.027 mg/l) was found for the 'fruit juice' group. For some products, such as tea, fruit juice and carbonated beverages, there were substantial variations in F concentration between batches, manufacturers and production sites. In conclusion, ready-to-drink products (apart from tea), sold in Heilongjiang province, China, when consumed in moderation are unlikely to constitute a substantial risk factor for the development of dental or skeletal fluorosis.

  20. Role of heat and detachment in continental extension as viewed from the eastern basin and range province in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, I.

    1990-01-01

    The Bill Williams River area of west-central Arizona includes not only the Rawhide-Buckskin metamorphic core complex, which is part of the lower Colorado River highly extended terrane (HET), but also the boundary between the extended terranes of the Basin and Range Province and the less deformed Arizona Transition Zone/Colorado Plateau. This provides important constraints on models that address the mechanisms for the mid- to late Tertiary deformation. Three phases of extension are present. The oldest is the extension associated with core-complex tectonism, which characteristically shows a lower plate composed of lineated mylonitic gneiss overlain by a detachment fault that is regionally nearly horizontal but undulates at the local scale. The fault in turn is overlain by an upper plate that includes Precambrian basement rocks, recrystallized Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic(?) metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of greenschist facies, and unaltered to hydrothermally altered syntectonic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Miocene age. The upper plate is cut by closely spaced faults of modest structural relief that strike northwest and strongly rotate intervening blocks to face southwest. Most of these faults do not penetrate below the detachment fault. Fault spacing increases, and rotation decreases, to the northeast, away from the trace of the detachment. The second phase consists of "classic" Basin-Range high-angle normal faults that strike about north and have wide spacing, high structural relief, and modest rotation of blocks. These faults have no consistent direction of displacement and so produced horst and graben that form the ranges and basins visible today. This phase is locally superposed on Phase I, and also extends in more subdued form into the Transition Zone/Colorado Plateau. The third phase consists of tectonic quiescence and is present everywhere except parts of the Transition Zone that are still active seismically. The first phase occurred in

  1. Regional Tectonic Control of Tertiary Mineralization and Recent Faulting in the Southern Basin-Range Province, an Application of ERTS-1 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, I. C.; Liggett, M. A.; Childs, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Research based on ERTS-1 MSS imagery and field work in the southern Basin-Range Province of California, Nevada and Arizona has shown regional tectonic control of volcanism, plutonism, mineralization and faulting. This paper covers an area centered on the Colorado River between 34 15' N and 36 45' N. During the mid-Tertiary, the area was the site of plutonism and genetically related volcanism fed by fissure systems now exposed as dike swarms. Dikes, elongate plutons, and coeval normal faults trend generally northward and are believed to have resulted from east-west crustal extension. In the extensional province, gold silver mineralization is closely related to Tertiary igneous activity. Similarities in ore, structural setting, and rock types define a metallogenic district of high potential for exploration. The ERTS imagery also provides a basis for regional inventory of small faults which cut alluvium. This capability for efficient regional surveys of Recent faulting should be considered in land use planning, geologic hazards study, civil engineering and hydrology.

  2. Application of standard photogeologic techniques to LANDSAT imagery for mineral exploration in the basin and range province of Utah and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattman, L. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Standard photogeologic techniques were applied to LANDSAT imagery of the basin and range province of Utah and Nevada to relate linear, tonal, textural, drainage, and geomorphic features to known mineralized areas in an attempt to develop criteria for the location of mineral deposits. No consistent correlation was found between lineaments, mapped according to specified criteria, and locations of mines, mining districts, or intrusive outcrops. Tonal and textural patterns were more closely related to geologic outcrop patterns than to mineralization. A statistical study of drainage azimuths of various length classes as measured on LANDSAT showed significant correlation with mineralized districts in the length class of 3-6 km. Alignments of outcrops of basalt, a rock type highly visible on LANDSAT imagery, appear to be colinear with acidic and intermediate intrusive centers in some areas and may assist on the recognition of regional fracture systems for mineral exploration.

  3. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  4. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  5. Using GPS to Separate Transient and Steady Extension in the Basin and Range Province, Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    The Basin and Range Province (BRP) of the western United States is an integral part of the Pacific/North America plate boundary deformation zone, and as such experiences tectonic deformation and large earthquakes that can threaten communities in Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and parts of Idaho and Oregon. The active deformation over the majority of the 800 km wide Province occurs at rates ~1 mm/yr over hundreds of kilometers, and only recently has become definitively measured with GPS. However, recent geological and geophysical studies of the BRP have come to conflicting conclusions about how the deformation occurs. For example, while earlier geodetic studies suggested that the North American Plate is non-deforming, others recent studies found evidence for episodic, province-scale, but small magnitude deformation events. Recent paleoseismic trenching of faults along a transect across the entire BRP find low-rate normal faulting and extension, distributed roughly evenly across the Province. These three different views of how the plate deforms imply extremely different dynamic modes of extension of continental lithosphere, and thus it is not possible that all three are correct. We will present recent results from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Mobile Array of GPS for Nevada Transtension (MAGNET) GPS networks that are now measuring these single digit nanostrain/yr deformation signals, and use them to distinguish between these competing hypotheses. We focus on the BRP and transition to the Colorado Plateau, where PBO and MAGNET networks measure the slow but active domains that transfer deformation between the major elements of the PA/NA plate boundary. To better understand BRP deformation we are: 1) processing GPS data using the latest software and models, 2) systematically generating a catalog of geodetic transients for the BRP GPS stations, indicating which could be explained by geophysical events, 3) developing models of the viscoelastic response from

  6. Sequential extraction techniques applied to a porphyry copper deposit in the basin and range province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filipek, L.H.; Theobald, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    Samples of minus-80-mesh (<180 ??m) stream sediment, rock containing exposed fracture coatings, and jarosite and chrysocolla were collected from an area surrounding the North Silver Bell porphyry Cu deposit near Tucson, Arizona. The samples were subjected to a series of extractions in a scheme originally designed for use on samples from humid or sub-humid environments, in which the following fractions can effectively be separated: (1) carbonates and exchangeable metals; (2) Mn oxides; (3) organic compounds and sulfides; (4) hydrous Fe oxides; and (5) residual crystalline minerals. Jarosite and chrysocolla, two major minerals of the North Silver Bell area, were found to dissolve over two or more steps of the extraction scheme. The results represent only a limited number of samples from one copper deposit. Nevertheless, they do suggest that in a semiarid to arid environment, where mechanical dispersion of such minerals predominates, uncritical assignment of unique phases, such as Mn oxides or organics to a given extraction would lead to false interpretations of weathering processes. However, the relative proportions of elements dissolved in each step of the jarosite and chrysocolla extractions could be used as a "fingerprint" for recognition of the presence of these two minerals in the stream-sediment and rock samples. The relative abundance of hydrous Fe oxide and jarosite and the alteration zoning could be mapped using data from jarosite and chrysocolla extractions. Manganese oxides were also found to have a greater influence on Zn than on Cu or Pb during supergene alteration. The rapid change in relative importance of the first (1M-acetic acid) extraction for Cu, Zn, and Pb near the mineralized zone suggested the occurrence of minor hydromorphic processes within the stream sediments. Thus, the acetic acid extraction proved the most effective for pinpointing mineralization in sediments. In contrast, the residual fraction had the longest dispersion train, suggesting

  7. Cervical range of movement in relation to neck dimension.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jeremy; Marsh, D; Koller, Heiko; Zenenr, Juliane; Bannister, G

    2009-06-01

    The authors investigated the effect of neck dimension upon cervical range of motion. Data relating to 100 healthy subjects, aged between 20 and 40 years, were recorded with respect to age, gender and range of motion in three planes. Additionally, two widely used methods of measuring neck motion, chin-sternal distance and uniplanar goniometer, were assessed against a validated measurement tool, the 'CROM goniometer'. Using multiple linear regression analysis it was determined that sagittal flexion (P = 0.002) and lateral rotation (P < 0.0001) were most closely related to neck circumference alone whereas lateral flexion (P < 0.0001) was most closely related to a ratio of circumference and length of neck. Hence, assessing cervical range of motion as outcome variable or as a measure at posttreatment follow-up, neck circumference was shown to be one of the factors influencing total neck motion, particularly sagittal flexion and lateral tilt. Comparison of cervical range of motion assessed with a validated measurement tool, the CROM goniometer, with results of both frequently applied clinician's instruments, the uniplanar goniometer and measurement of chin-sternal distance, showed low reliability with the latter techniques, and motion values measured with these techniques should be interpreted with caution if using them for comparison of cervical range of motion of alike groups. We demonstrated that neck dimension should be incorporated into cervical functional outcome assessment and one should be wary about recorded values for neck motion from non-validated measurement tools.

  8. Universal relations for range corrections to Efimov features

    DOE PAGES

    Ji, Chen; Braaten, Eric; Phillips, Daniel R.; ...

    2015-09-09

    In a three-body system of identical bosons interacting through a large S-wave scattering length a, there are several sets of features related to the Efimov effect that are characterized by discrete scale invariance. Effective field theory was recently used to derive universal relations between these Efimov features that include the first-order correction due to a nonzero effective range rs. We reveal a simple pattern in these range corrections that had not been previously identified. The pattern is explained by the renormalization group for the effective field theory, which implies that the Efimov three-body parameter runs logarithmically with the momentum scalemore » at a rate proportional to rs/a. The running Efimov parameter also explains the empirical observation that range corrections can be largely taken into account by shifting the Efimov parameter by an adjustable parameter divided by a. Furthermore, the accuracy of universal relations that include first-order range corrections is verified by comparing them with various theoretical calculations using models with nonzero range.« less

  9. Universal relations for range corrections to Efimov features

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Chen; Braaten, Eric; Phillips, Daniel R.; Platter, Lucas

    2015-09-09

    In a three-body system of identical bosons interacting through a large S-wave scattering length a, there are several sets of features related to the Efimov effect that are characterized by discrete scale invariance. Effective field theory was recently used to derive universal relations between these Efimov features that include the first-order correction due to a nonzero effective range rs. We reveal a simple pattern in these range corrections that had not been previously identified. The pattern is explained by the renormalization group for the effective field theory, which implies that the Efimov three-body parameter runs logarithmically with the momentum scale at a rate proportional to rs/a. The running Efimov parameter also explains the empirical observation that range corrections can be largely taken into account by shifting the Efimov parameter by an adjustable parameter divided by a. Furthermore, the accuracy of universal relations that include first-order range corrections is verified by comparing them with various theoretical calculations using models with nonzero range.

  10. Relating dispersal and range expansion of California sea otters.

    PubMed

    Krkosek, Martin; Lauzon-Guay, Jean-Sébastien; Lewis, Mark A

    2007-06-01

    Linking dispersal and range expansion of invasive species has long challenged theoretical and quantitative ecologists. Subtle differences in dispersal can yield large differences in geographic spread, with speeds ranging from constant to rapidly increasing. We developed a stage-structured integrodifference equation (IDE) model of the California sea otter range expansion that occurred between 1914 and 1986. The non-spatial model, a linear matrix population model, was coupled to a suite of candidate dispersal kernels to form stage-structured IDEs. Demographic and dispersal parameters were estimated independent of range expansion data. Using a single dispersal parameter, alpha, we examined how well these stage-structured IDEs related small scale demographic and dispersal processes with geographic population expansion. The parameter alpha was estimated by fitting the kernels to dispersal data and by fitting the IDE model to range expansion data. For all kernels, the alpha estimate from range expansion data fell within the 95% confidence intervals of the alpha estimate from dispersal data. The IDE models with exponentially bounded kernels predicted invasion velocities that were captured within the 95% confidence bounds on the observed northbound invasion velocity. However, the exponentially bounded kernels yielded range expansions that were in poor qualitative agreement with range expansion data. An IDE model with fat (exponentially unbounded) tails and accelerating spatial spread yielded the best qualitative match. This model explained 94% and 97% of the variation in northbound and southbound range expansions when fit to range expansion data. These otters may have been fat-tailed accelerating invaders or they may have followed a piece-wise linear spread first over kelp forests and then over sandy habitats. Further, habitat-specific dispersal data could resolve these explanations.

  11. Emergency Skills Resources for Range-Related Driver Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council, Forrest M.; And Others

    The document presents a rationale for expanding the current emergency skills curriculum in North Carolina's 18 multi-vehicle range laboratories for driver education, and includes a review of past and current programs in other locations, a review of past North Carolina accident studies directly related to this area, and a recommended set of…

  12. Macroalgae in a spring stream in Shanxi Province: composition and relation to physical and chemical variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bianfang; Xie, Shulian

    2007-07-01

    Fourteen stream segments were investigated throughout the Xin’an Spring in Shanxi Province, China in 2004. The variation ranges in stream size, current velocity, discharge, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance were large. Twenty-two macroalgae species were found in the stream. Major divisions in terms of species numbers were Chlorophyta (59.1%), Cyanophyta (22.8%), Xanthophyta (9.1%), Rhodophyta (4.5%) and Charophyta (4.5%). The most widespread species, Cladophora rivularis (50.0%), also Oedogonium sp. (42.9%) and Spirogyra sp. (42.9%) were well represented throughout the stream, whereas another 10 species were found in only one sampling site. Total percentage cover varied from <1% to 90%. Red algae Batrachospermum acuatum and the charophytes Chara vulgaris have the highest percentage cover. Among the parameters analyzed, the stream width, specific conductance and dissolved oxygen were the ones that more closely related to the species number and percentage cover of macroalgal communities. The species number of each site was negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen content. The total percentage cover of the macroalgae was negatively correlated with the stream width and the specific conductance.

  13. A Systematic Regional Trend in Helium Isotopes Across the NorthernBasin and Range Province, Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-03-22

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g. Coso, Long Valley, Steamboat,and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east, the ratiosdecline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. The regionaltrend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentrated along thewestern margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increase in themagnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strain enhancescrustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow rates thatpreserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposed onthe regional trend are "helium spikes", local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  14. Thermal structure and melting conditions in the mantle beneath the Basin and Range province from seismology and petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, T.; Forsyth, D. W.

    2016-04-01

    To better constrain the temperature structure in the upper mantle, we jointly invert seismic surface wave velocities and basalt thermobarometry. New measurements of the water concentration (1.0-3.5 wt %) and oxygen fugacity (FMQ + 0.5 to + 1.5) of basalts from seven recently active volcanic fields in the Basin and Range province (Cima, Pisgah, Amboy, Big Pine, Black Rock, Snow Canyon, W. Grand Canyon) enable more accurate equilibration pressure (P) and temperature (T) estimates of the mantle melts. We developed a revised thermobarometer that more precisely predicts the results of laboratory experiments on melts equilibrated with olivine and orthopyroxene and accounts for the effects of water and CO2. Applying these methods to basalts from the Basin and Range we find that most equilibrated near the dry solidus in P-T space and at depths in the vicinity of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) inferred from receiver function analysis and Rayleigh surface wave tomography. The wet basalts should have begun melting well below the dry solidus, so the depths of equilibration probably reflect ponding of rising melts beneath the nominally dry lithosphere. A two-parameter thermal model is sufficient to simultaneously satisfy both the seismological and petrological constraints. In the model, the depth to the dry solidus defines the bottom boundary of the conductive lid, while the potential temperature (Tp) controls the asthenosphere and LAB thermal structure. The optimum estimates of Tp range from <1300 to >1500°C, and depths to the LAB range from ˜55 to 75 km, with uncertainties on the order of ±50°C and ±10 km. In contrast to standard tomographic images or basalt thermobarometry, the output of the joint inversion is a geotherm that can be tested quantitatively against other observations.

  15. The magnetic polarity stratigraphy and correlation of the upper Siwalik sediments from the Bhittani Range, North West Frontier Province, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed Khan, M.; Opdyke, N. D.

    1981-02-01

    Two sections were sampled in the Bhittani Range, the first at Bain Pass consisting of 60 sites through 2200 m of section and the second along the North West Frontier Province Road north of Pezu consisting of 25 sites through 1000 m. Both sections are in rocks known to range in age from the late Pliocene and Pleistocene based on a vertebrate fauna of Pinjor age. After partial thermal demagnetization a series of magnetozones were established, ten at Bain Pass and six at Pezu, which can be correlated to each other and to the standard magnetic time scale. The sediments from the long section at Bain Pass span the time from the middle Gauss to the uppermost Brunhes Chron. The Jaramillo and Olduvai subchrons are present within the Matuyama Chron. A short normal magnetozone is present in the section preceding the Olduvai subchron which corresponds in age to the Réunion subchron. Based on the rate of sedimentation during lower Matuyama time which would be 0.95 m/1000 y for the Bain Pass section, the Réunion subchron would span at least 25 000 y. The section at Pezu Pass begins within the Olduvai and ends between the Jaramillo and the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary. The sedimentation rate determined at this section is 0.77 m/1000 y. The rate of sedimentation in this region was much higher than over comparable time spans previously determined from the eastern Salt Range. The folding of the Bhittani Range must have occurred less than 730 000 years ago, since Brunhes-age sediments have been deformed.

  16. Long Range Transport of War-Related Burn Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    ted to the Army’s burn center between March 2003 and February 2007. Data in- cluded total body surface area (TBSA) burn, ventilatory status... total body surface area (range, ə%–95%) with a mean Injury Severity Score of 12.2 13.7. One hundred eight-one (33.5%) casualties required venti...Long Range Transport of War-Related Burn Casualties 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  17. Cervical range of movement in relation to neck dimension

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, D.; Koller, Heiko; Zenenr, Juliane; Bannister, G.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of neck dimension upon cervical range of motion. Data relating to 100 healthy subjects, aged between 20 and 40 years, were recorded with respect to age, gender and range of motion in three planes. Additionally, two widely used methods of measuring neck motion, chin-sternal distance and uniplanar goniometer, were assessed against a validated measurement tool, the ‘CROM goniometer’. Using multiple linear regression analysis it was determined that sagittal flexion (P = 0.002) and lateral rotation (P < 0.0001) were most closely related to neck circumference alone whereas lateral flexion (P < 0.0001) was most closely related to a ratio of circumference and length of neck. Hence, assessing cervical range of motion as outcome variable or as a measure at posttreatment follow-up, neck circumference was shown to be one of the factors influencing total neck motion, particularly sagittal flexion and lateral tilt. Comparison of cervical range of motion assessed with a validated measurement tool, the CROM goniometer, with results of both frequently applied clinician’s instruments, the uniplanar goniometer and measurement of chin-sternal distance, showed low reliability with the latter techniques, and motion values measured with these techniques should be interpreted with caution if using them for comparison of cervical range of motion of alike groups. We demonstrated that neck dimension should be incorporated into cervical functional outcome assessment and one should be wary about recorded values for neck motion from non-validated measurement tools. PMID:19352730

  18. Relations between short-range and long-range Ising models.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Maria Chiara; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-06-01

    We perform a numerical study of the long-range (LR) ferromagnetic Ising model with power law decaying interactions (J∝r{-d-σ}) on both a one-dimensional chain (d=1) and a square lattice (d=2). We use advanced cluster algorithms to avoid the critical slowing down. We first check the validity of the relation connecting the critical behavior of the LR model with parameters (d,σ) to that of a short-range (SR) model in an equivalent dimension D. We then study the critical behavior of the d=2 LR model close to the lower critical σ, uncovering that the spatial correlation function decays with two different power laws: The effect of the subdominant power law is much stronger than finite-size effects and actually makes the estimate of critical exponents very subtle. By including this subdominant power law, the numerical data are consistent with the standard renormalization group (RG) prediction by Sak [Phys. Rev. B 8, 281 (1973)], thus making not necessary (and unlikely, according to Occam's razor) the recent proposal by Picco [arXiv:1207.1018] of having a new set of RG fixed points in addition to the mean-field one and the SR one.

  19. Climate-induced range overlap among closely related species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krosby, Meade; Wilsey, Chad B.; McGuire, Jenny L.; Duggan, Jennifer M.; Nogeire, Theresa M.; Heinrichs, Julie A.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary climate change is causing large shifts in biotic distributions, which has the potential to bring previously isolated, closely related species into contact. This has led to concern that hybridization and competition could threaten species persistence. Here, we use bioclimatic models to show that future range overlap by the end of the century is predicted for only 6.4% of isolated, congeneric species pairs of New World birds, mammals and amphibians. Projected rates of climate-induced overlap are higher for birds (11.6%) than for mammals (4.4%) or amphibians (3.6%). As many species will have difficulty tracking shifting climates, actual rates of future overlap are likely to be far lower, suggesting that hybridization and competition impacts may be relatively modest.

  20. Geographic Mapping of Crohn's Disease and Its Relation to Affluence in Jiangsu Province, an Eastern Coastal Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD. PMID:24839438

  1. Geographic mapping of Crohn's disease and its relation to affluence in jiangsu province, an eastern coastal province of china.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD.

  2. The Kimberlites and related rocks of the Kuruman Kimberlite Province, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Cara L.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Pearson, Norman J.; Shee, Simon R.

    2011-03-01

    The Kuruman Kimberlite Province is comprised of 16 small pipes and dikes and contains some of the oldest known kimberlites (>1.6 Ga). In this study, 12 intrusions are subdivided into three groups with distinct petrology, age, and geochemical and isotopic compositions: (1) kimberlites with groundmass perovskites defining a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1787 ± 69 Ma, (2) orangeite with a U-Pb perovskite age of 124 ± 16 Ma, and (3) ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikite and mela-aillikite) with a zircon U-Pb age of 1642 ± 46 Ma. The magma type varies across the Province, with kimberlites in the east, lamprophyres in the west and orangeite and ultramafic lamprophyres to the south. Differences in the age and petrogenesis of the X007 orangeite and Clarksdale and Aalwynkop aillikites suggest that these intrusions are probably unrelated to the Kuruman Province. Kimberlite and orangeite whole-rock major and trace element compositions are similar to other South African localities. Compositionally, the aillikites typically lie off kimberlite and orangeite trends. Groundmass mineral chemistry of the kimberlites has some features more typical of orangeites. Kimberlite whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopes show zoning across the Province. When the kimberlites erupted at ~1.8 Ga, they sampled a core volume (ca 50 km across) of relatively depleted SCLM that was partially surrounded by a rim of more metasomatized mantle. This zonation may have been related to the development of the adjacent Kheis Belt (oldest rocks ~2.0 Ga), as weaker zones surrounding the more resistant core section of SCLM were more extensively metasomatized.

  3. Probing General Relativity and New Physics with Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agnello, S.; Maiello, M.; Currie, D. G.; Boni, A.; Berardi, S.; Cantone, C.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Intaglietta, N.; Lops, C.; Garattini, M.; Martini, M.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Tibuzzi, M.; Vittori, R.; Bianco, G.; Coradini, A.; Dionisio, C.; March, R.; Bellettini, G.; Tauraso, R.; Chandler, J.

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 40 years, Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR, developed by the Univ. of Maryland (PI) and INFN-LNF (Co-PI)) to the Apollo Cube Corner Retroreflector (CCR) arrays have supplied almost all the significant tests of General Relativity (Currie et al., 2009 [12]). LLR can evaluate the PPN (Post Newtonian Parameters), addressing this way both the possible changes in the gravitational constant and the self-energy properties of the gravitational field. In addition, the LLR has provided significant information on the composition and origin of the Moon. This is the only Apollo experiment that is still in operation. Initially the Apollo LLR arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the ranging error budget. Over the decades, the ranging capabilities of the ground stations have improved by more than two orders of magnitude. Now, because of the lunar librations, the existing Apollo retroreflector arrays contribute a significant fraction of the limiting errors in the range measurements. We built a new experimental apparatus (the ‘Satellite/Lunar Laser Ranging Characterization Facility', SCF) and created a new test procedure (the SCF-Test) to characterize and model the detailed thermal behavior and the optical performance of cube corner laser retroreflectors in space for industrial and scientific applications (Dell'Agnello et al., 2011 [13]). Our key experimental innovation is the concurrent measurement and modeling of the optical Far Field Diffraction Pattern (FFDP) and the temperature distribution of the SLR retroreflector payload under thermal conditions produced with a close-match solar simulator. The apparatus includes infrared cameras for non-invasive thermometry, thermal control and real-time movement of the payload to experimentally simulate satellite orientation on orbit with respect to both solar illumination and laser interrogation beams. These unique capabilities provide experimental validation of the space segment for SLR and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR). The

  4. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 1: Factors Related to Flock Variability

    PubMed Central

    Hemsworth, Paul H.; Groves, Peter J.; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Free-range chicken meat consumption has increased. However, little is known about how meat chickens use the outdoor range. Understanding ranging behaviour could help improve management and shed and range design to ensure optimal ranging opportunities. We tracked 1200 individual broiler chickens in four mixed sex flocks on one commercial farm across two seasons. More chickens accessed the range in summer than winter. Chickens that accessed the range in winter did so less frequently and for a shorter period of time daily than chickens ranging in summer. The number of chickens ranging and the frequency and duration of range visits increased over the first two weeks of range access and stabilised thereafter. More chickens entered and exited the range through particular doors in the shed. More chickens ranged in the morning and evening compared to the middle of the day. Ranging behaviour decreased with increased rainfall and shed dew point. This study provides knowledge regarding ranging behaviour in commercial conditions that may guide improvements on farm to provide chickens with optimal ranging opportunities. Abstract Little is known about the ranging behaviour of chickens. Understanding ranging behaviour is required to improve management and shed and range design to ensure optimal ranging opportunities. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 300 individual broiler chickens in each of four mixed sex ROSS 308 flocks on one commercial farm across two seasons. Ranging behaviour was tracked from the first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter and 44 days of age in summer. Range use was higher than previously reported from scan sampling studies. More chickens accessed the range in summer (81%) than winter (32%; p < 0.05). On average, daily frequency and duration of range use was greater in summer flocks (4.4 ± 0.1 visits for a total of 26.3 ± 0.8 min/day) than winter flocks (3.2 ± 0.2 visits for a total

  5. Seismic hazards astride the boundary between the eastern Snake River Plain and northern Basin and Range Province Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G.; Hemphill-Haley, M.A.; Sawyer, T.L. ); Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R. ); Smith, R.P.; Jackson, S.M.; Hackett, W.R. ); Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.M. ); Knuepfer, P.L.K. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Bruhn, R.L.; Wu, D. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The occurrence of the damaging 1983 M[sub w] 6.8 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake, which ruptured a central segment of the Lost River fault, has increased the awareness of seismic hazards in this portion of the Northern Basin and Range Province (NBR). As a result, comprehensive deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analyses were performed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which is located within the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) but adjacent to the NBR. In this region, the most significant seismic sources are three late-Quaternary NBR normal faults, the Lost River, Lemhi and Beaverhead faults, and ESRP volcanic zones. For each source, the maximum earthquake, source geometry, recurrence and their uncertainties were estimated and incorporated into the probabilistic analysis through the use of logic trees. Recent paleoseismic trenching of the Lost River and Lemhi faults and volcanic mapping in the ESRP provided much of the data necessary to characterize the most significant seismic sources. Issues such as fault segmentation, temporal clustering, the nature of fault termination, and the maximum magnitude and recurrence of volcanic zone earthquakes were evaluated in the hazard analyses. Deterministic and probabilistic ground motions were computed using both empirical and stochastic approaches. In the deterministic analysis, the southern segments of the Lemhi fault controlled the hazard at the INEL due to their proximity and potential to generate M[sub w] [approximately]7 earthquakes. In the estimation of deterministic ground motions, potential rupture scenarios were evaluated for a Lemhi earthquake. In the probabilistic analysis, the hazard is dominated by the ESRP random earthquake, and the Lemhi and Lost River faults. The difference in the results of the two analyses points out the uncertainties in assessing seismic hazards due to random earthquakes and in regions of large but infrequent earthquakes.

  6. Impact of climate change on heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M; Bader, Daniel A; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-05-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate.

  7. Impact of Climate Change on Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate.

  8. Impact of Climate Change on Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate.

  9. Possible ancient giant basin and related water enrichment in the Arabia Terra province, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Barlow, N.G.; Anderson, R.C.; Williams, J.-P.; Miyamoto, H.; Ferris, J.C.; Strom, R.G.; Taylor, G.J.; Fairen, A.G.; Baker, V.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Keller, J.M.; Kerry, K.; Janes, D.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Hare, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    A circular albedo feature in the Arabia Terra province was first hypothesized as an ancient impact basin using Viking-era information. To test this unpublished hypothesis, we have analyzed the Viking era-information together with layers of new data derived from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey (MO) missions. Our analysis indicates that Arabia Terra is an ancient geologic province of Mars with many distinct characteristics, including predominantly Noachian materials, a unique part of the highland-lowland boundary, a prominent paleotectonic history, the largest region of fretted terrain on the planet, outflow channels with no obvious origins, extensive exposures of eroded layered sedimentary deposits, and notable structural, albedo, thermal inertia, gravity, magnetic, and elemental signatures. The province also is marked by special impact crater morphologies, which suggest a persistent volatile-rich substrate. No one characteristic provides definitive answers to the dominant event(s) that shaped this unique province. Collectively the characteristics reported here support the following hypothesized sequence of events in Arabia Terra: (1) an enormous basin, possibly of impact origin, formed early in martian history when the magnetic dynamo was active and the lithosphere was relatively thin, (2) sediments and other materials were deposited in the basin during high erosion rates while maintaining isostatic equilibrium, (3) sediments became water enriched during the Noachian Period, and (4) basin materials were uplifted in response to the growth of the Tharsis Bulge, resulting in differential erosion exposing ancient stratigraphic sequences. Parts of the ancient basin remain water-enriched to the present day. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Possible ancient giant basin and related water enrichment in the Arabia Terra province, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, James M.; Barlow, Nadine G.; Anderson, Robert C.; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Miyamoto, Hirdy; Ferris, Justin C.; Strom, Robert G.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Fairén, Alberto G.; Baker, Victor R.; Boynton, William V.; Keller, John M.; Kerry, Kris; Janes, Daniel; Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Hare, Trent M.

    2007-09-01

    A circular albedo feature in the Arabia Terra province was first hypothesized as an ancient impact basin using Viking-era information. To test this unpublished hypothesis, we have analyzed the Viking era-information together with layers of new data derived from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey (MO) missions. Our analysis indicates that Arabia Terra is an ancient geologic province of Mars with many distinct characteristics, including predominantly Noachian materials, a unique part of the highland-lowland boundary, a prominent paleotectonic history, the largest region of fretted terrain on the planet, outflow channels with no obvious origins, extensive exposures of eroded layered sedimentary deposits, and notable structural, albedo, thermal inertia, gravity, magnetic, and elemental signatures. The province also is marked by special impact crater morphologies, which suggest a persistent volatile-rich substrate. No one characteristic provides definitive answers to the dominant event(s) that shaped this unique province. Collectively the characteristics reported here support the following hypothesized sequence of events in Arabia Terra: (1) an enormous basin, possibly of impact origin, formed early in martian history when the magnetic dynamo was active and the lithosphere was relatively thin, (2) sediments and other materials were deposited in the basin during high erosion rates while maintaining isostatic equilibrium, (3) sediments became water enriched during the Noachian Period, and (4) basin materials were uplifted in response to the growth of the Tharsis Bulge, resulting in differential erosion exposing ancient stratigraphic sequences. Parts of the ancient basin remain water-enriched to the present day.

  11. Finite-element models on spatiotemporal variations in intraplate seismicity caused by postglacial unloading and rebound: Implications for active normal faults in the Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karow, T.; Hampel, A.

    2007-12-01

    The actively extending Basin and Range Province was covered by numerous pluvial lakes and glaciers on several of the higher ranges during the Last Glacial Maximum (Osburn and Bevis, QSR, 2001). The largest lakes were Lake Bonneville and Lake Lahontan, located in the eastern and western parts of the Basin and Range Province, respectively. Regression of these lakes at the end of last glacial period caused significant isostatic rebound of the lithosphere (Bills et al., JGR, 1994; Bills et al., JGR, 2007). The rebound associated with the regression of Lake Bonneville has been shown, using two-dimensional numerical models, to affect the stress field of the lithosphere and to cause a slip rate increase on the Wasatch normal fault (Hetzel and Hampel, Nature 2005). Here we use three-dimensional finite-element models of normal fault arrays to investigate spatiotemporal variations in the regional stress field and in the rate of normal faulting caused by glacial-interglacial variations of the surface load. Our models indicate that regression of Lake Lahontan but also of smaller lakes and glaciers alter the regional stress field and hence may ultimately affect the intraplate seismicity. Paleoseismological data from faults in the east-central and northern Basin and Range Province seem to support the idea of an increase in seismicity after the Last Glacial Maximum (Friedrich el al., JGR, 2003; Stickney and Bartholomew, BSSA, 1987; Wesnousky et al., JGR, 2005).

  12. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene tectonic deformation along the northwestern margin of the Basin and Range province, southeastern and south-central Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill-Haley, M.A. ); Simpson, G.A. ); Lindberg, D.N. ); Craven, G.F.; Carver, G.A.

    1993-04-01

    The northwestern margin of the Basin and Range seismotectonic province in southeastern and south-central Oregon has been characterized by historic low levels of widely dispersed seismicity, a pattern similar to the majority of the Basin and Range. Geologic mapping and limited paleoseismic investigations at locations throughout the region provide evidence for late Pleistocene and Holocene surface rupture events along several faults of two principal orientations, [approximately]N10--20[degree]E, and [approximately]N30[degree]W. Although the historical seismicity is similar to most other portions of the Basin and Range province, the pattern of late Pleistocene and Holocene faulting at the margin of the province suggests continued northward expansion of crustal extension into central Oregon. Estimated earthquake magnitudes for faults in the region, based on rupture segment length and estimated displacement are [approximately]M7. Based on Holocene recurrence estimates derived from paleoseismic sites along the Alvord segment of the Steens Mountain-Pueblo Mountain fault zone and evidence for latest Quaternary earthquakes on other faults in the region, the level of seismic hazard for the northwestern Basin and Range may be higher than was previously thought.

  13. Dynamic Relations between Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Climatic Factors in Golestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Mollalo, Abolfazl; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL), an important public health problem in Iran, is sensitive to climate conditions. This study aimed to examine dynamic relations between the climate factors and incidence of ZCL in Golestan Province, northern Iran during 2010–2012. Methods: Data of monthly climatic factors, including temperature variables, relative humidity variables, evaporation, total rainfall, and number of freezing and rainy days together with monthly ZCL incidence were used. Spear-man rank correlation was carried out to explain associations between the monthly ZCL incidence rate and climate factors at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months lagged periods. Pearson’s correlation analysis was conducted to examine the type and strength of relationships between the spatially averaged climate factors and ZCL incidence rate in district level. Stepwise multiple regression was used to find the best combination of independent climatic variables, which predict the ZCL incidence. Results: Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the highest correlations between climate factors and monthly ZCL incidence were established when the climate time-series lagged the ZCL incidence series, especially two month prior to disease incidence. Based on the results of the both Spearman rank correlation and Pearson correlation analyses, ZCL incidences in Golestan Province tend to be more prevalent in areas with higher temperature, lower relative humidity, lower total rainfall, higher evaporation and lower number of rainy days. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicated that minimum temperature, mean humidity, and rainfall had considerable effect on ZCL incidence. Conclusion: Climate factors are major determinants of ZCL incidence rate in Golestan Province and such climate conditions provide favourable conditions for propagation and transmission of ZCL in this endemic area. PMID:26623427

  14. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  15. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at nightmare range, a high elevation military training area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People's Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises.

  16. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Coleman, James L.; Milici, Robert C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Rouse, William A.; Fulk, Bryant R.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Mars, John L.; Cook, Troy A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in the Arkoma Basin Province and related areas. More than 97 percent of the undiscovered gas occurs in continuous accumulations-70 percent in shale gas formations, 18 percent in a basin-centered accumulation with tight sandstone reservoirs, and 9 percent in coal beds. Less than 3 percent of the natural gas occurs in conventional accumulations.

  17. Relations among tectonic shortening, climate, and relief in mountain ranges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Molnar, Peter; Sue, Christian

    2010-05-01

    With a compilation of topographic, geomorphic, tectonic, and climatic characteristics of more than 50 mountain belt worldwide, we explore the correlations among various characteristics. Topographic data, from the GTOPO30 DEM, include several parameters: maximum elevation, mean elevation, and maximum averaged elevation, calculated above sea level and above individual base levels. Geophysical Relief (calculated over 3 different radius, 1km, 5km and 15km) provides a measure of relief and hence for erosion. Tectonic parameters comprise geodetic shortening rates and average strain rates obtained by dividing shortening rate by the orogen's width. Climatic data are mean precipitation rates and a qualitative measure of glaciation factor ranging from 1 (no glaciation) to 5 (full glaciation), for both LGM and present day. The database has been split in two parts: one for all mountain belt, including non-convergent settings, and another one, with only actively compressional orogens. Sizes of areas considered span two orders of magnitude (the largest being the Gobi Altai, Mongolia, the smallest the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA). Bigger orogens (Himalayas, Andes...) have been separated into several sub-orogens. For the global database, measures of geomorphic, erosional, and tectonic parameters are self-consistent; correlation coefficients are ~0.9. Those for climate are less so, with a correlation coefficient of 0.4, as links between glaciation and precipitation are weak. For convergent settings only, the correlation coefficient of between strain rate and convergence rate is ~0.8. There is, however no correlation between strain rate and belt's width (-0.28). For the global database, the correlation between the convergence rate (including "zero" values) and most topographic and geomorphic parameters is quite good (~0.7), except for mean elevation (~0.5). For the convergent belts only, the correlation becomes lower for all geomorphic parameters (~0.5). Surprisingly, the

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases related health resources allocation in hunan province of china.

    PubMed

    Bei, Chengli; Hu, Anmei; Liu, Huayun; Chen, Ping; Jia, Xiujie; Zhou, Guisheng; Cai, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Information about Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)-related health resources allocation in China is very limited. The aim of the study was to explore the distribution of COPD-related health resources allocation among different levels public hospitals (PHs) in Hunan Province of central south China. We randomly collected data from 57 Public Hospitals (PHs) at 3 different levels in Hunan province as well as 893 pulmonary physicians (PPs) who worked there in 2009. Questionnaires based on the recommendations of COPD guideline were designed, including availability of spirometers, inhaled agents for COPD and COPD-related health education for local residents, as well as PPs' educational levels. Spirometers equipped ratio in 3(rd) level PHs was much higher than 1(st), 2(nd) PHs. The disparity varied vastly form 0% to 100%. The inhaled agents equipped ratio was 5.56%, 70.85% and 100% respectively for the 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) levels PHs. No 1(st) level PHs launched COPD-related healthcare education for local residents, only 10 of 24 for the 2(nd) level PHs and 10 of 15 for the 3(rd) level PHs. PPs of high educational levels concentrate in 3(rd) levels PHs, however, PPs working in 1(st) levels PHs and 2(nd) levels PHs were mainly low and median educational levels PPs' knowledge of COPD of 3(rd) levels PHs was much better than of 1(st) levels PHs and 2(nd) levels PHs. The extreme imbalance and disparity existed in COPD-related health resources allocation at three levels PHs in central south China. Inequity and insufficient in COPD-related health resources in 1(st) and 2(nd) levels PHs should be improved.

  19. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases Related Health Resources Allocation in Hunan Province of China

    PubMed Central

    BEI, Chengli; HU, Anmei; LIU, Huayun; CHEN, Ping; JIA, Xiujie; ZHOU, Guisheng; CAI, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Background Information about Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)-related health resources allocation in China is very limited. The aim of the study was to explore the distribution of COPD-related health resources allocation among different levels public hospitals (PHs) in Hunan Province of central south China. Methods: We randomly collected data from 57 Public Hospitals (PHs) at 3 different levels in Hunan province as well as 893 pulmonary physicians (PPs) who worked there in 2009. Questionnaires based on the recommendations of COPD guideline were designed, including availability of spirometers, inhaled agents for COPD and COPD-related health education for local residents, as well as PPs’ educational levels. Results: Spirometers equipped ratio in 3rd level PHs was much higher than 1st, 2nd PHs. The disparity varied vastly form 0% to 100%. The inhaled agents equipped ratio was 5.56%, 70.85% and 100% respectively for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd levels PHs. No 1st level PHs launched COPD-related healthcare education for local residents, only 10 of 24 for the 2nd level PHs and 10 of 15 for the 3rd level PHs. PPs of high educational levels concentrate in 3rd levels PHs, however, PPs working in 1st levels PHs and 2nd levels PHs were mainly low and median educational levels PPs’ knowledge of COPD of 3rd levels PHs was much better than of 1st levels PHs and 2nd levels PHs. Conclusion: The extreme imbalance and disparity existed in COPD-related health resources allocation at three levels PHs in central south China. Inequity and insufficient in COPD-related health resources in 1st and 2nd levels PHs should be improved. PMID:23967421

  20. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulsink, F.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Booij, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    National water use accounts are generally limited to statistics on water withdrawals in the different sectors of economy. They are restricted to "blue water accounts" related to production, thus excluding (a) "green" and "grey water accounts", (b) accounts of internal and international virtual water flows and (c) water accounts related to consumption. This paper shows how national water-use accounts can be extended through an example for Indonesia. The study quantifies interprovincial virtual water flows related to trade in crop products and assesses the green, blue and grey water footprint related to the consumption of crop products per Indonesian province. The study shows that the average water footprint in Indonesia insofar related to consumption of crop products is 1131 m3/cap/yr, but provincial water footprints vary between 859 and 1895 m3/cap/yr. Java, the most water-scarce island, has a net virtual water import and the most significant external water footprint. This large external water footprint is releasing the water scarcity on this island. There are two alternative routes to reduce the overall water footprint of Indonesia. On the one hand, it may be reduced by promoting wise crop trade between provinces - i.e. trade from places with high to places with low water efficiency. On the other hand, the water footprint can be reduced by improving water efficiency in those places that currently have relatively low efficiency, which equalises production efficiencies and thus reduces the need for imports and enhances the opportunities for exports. In any case, trade will remain necessary to supply food to the most densely populated areas where water scarcity is highest (Java).

  1. Helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries in Canadian provinces and territories: interrupted time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Tim; Turgeon, Alexis F; Zarychanski, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries among young people and adults in Canada. Design Interrupted time series analysis using data from the National Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set. Setting Canadian provinces and territories; between 1994 and 2003, six of 10 provinces implemented helmet legislation. Participants All admissions (n=66 716) to acute care hospitals in Canada owing to cycling related injury between 1994 and 2008. Main outcome measure Rate of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries before and after the implementation of provincial helmet legislation. Results Between 1994 and 2008, 66 716 hospital admissions were for cycling related injuries in Canada. Between 1994 and 2003, the rate of head injuries among young people decreased by 54.0% (95% confidence interval 48.2% to 59.8%) in provinces with helmet legislation compared with 33.1% (23.3% to 42.9%) in provinces and territories without legislation. Among adults, the rate of head injuries decreased by 26.0% (16.0% to 36.3%) in provinces with legislation but remained constant in provinces and territories without legislation. After taking baseline trends into consideration, however, we were unable to detect an independent effect of legislation on the rate of hospital admissions for cycling related head injuries. Conclusions Reductions in the rates of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries were greater in provinces with helmet legislation, but injury rates were already decreasing before the implementation of legislation and the rate of decline was not appreciably altered on introduction of legislation. While helmets reduce the risk of head injuries and we encourage their use, in the Canadian context of existing safety campaigns, improvements to the cycling infrastructure, and the passive uptake of helmets, the incremental contribution of provincial helmet legislation to reduce

  2. Helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries in Canadian provinces and territories: interrupted time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Jessica; Ramsay, Tim; Turgeon, Alexis F; Zarychanski, Ryan

    2013-05-14

    To investigate the association between helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries among young people and adults in Canada. Interrupted time series analysis using data from the National Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set. Canadian provinces and territories; between 1994 and 2003, six of 10 provinces implemented helmet legislation. All admissions (n=66,716) to acute care hospitals in Canada owing to cycling related injury between 1994 and 2008. Rate of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries before and after the implementation of provincial helmet legislation. Between 1994 and 2008, 66,716 hospital admissions were for cycling related injuries in Canada. Between 1994 and 2003, the rate of head injuries among young people decreased by 54.0% (95% confidence interval 48.2% to 59.8%) in provinces with helmet legislation compared with 33.1% (23.3% to 42.9%) in provinces and territories without legislation. Among adults, the rate of head injuries decreased by 26.0% (16.0% to 36.3%) in provinces with legislation but remained constant in provinces and territories without legislation. After taking baseline trends into consideration, however, we were unable to detect an independent effect of legislation on the rate of hospital admissions for cycling related head injuries. Reductions in the rates of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries were greater in provinces with helmet legislation, but injury rates were already decreasing before the implementation of legislation and the rate of decline was not appreciably altered on introduction of legislation. While helmets reduce the risk of head injuries and we encourage their use, in the Canadian context of existing safety campaigns, improvements to the cycling infrastructure, and the passive uptake of helmets, the incremental contribution of provincial helmet legislation to reduce hospital admissions for head injuries seems to have been minimal.

  3. Evidence from carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) thermometry for the Late Cretaceous `Nevadaplano' in the northern Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snell, K. E.; Koch, P. L.; Eiler, J.

    2010-12-01

    From the middle Mesozoic to the present, the topography of the Basin and Range province (BRP) of the western Cordillera of North America has evolved in response to diverse tectonic forces, though the details are unclear for most of this period over most of this area. Much of the research on this region has focused on the Cenozoic record of paleoelevation during extension in the BRP. Some geodynamic models of this episode require high elevation prior to extension, but few studies have quantified the elevation of the pre-existing topography that developed during the Mesozoic in response to sustained convergence along the western coast of North America. Some workers have argued that the region was a high elevation plateau, the ‘Nevadaplano,’ analogous to the South American Altiplano. We tested this hypothesis using carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) temperature estimates from Late Cretaceous lacustrine and paleosol carbonates. These samples come from the Sheep Pass Formation in east-central Nevada (presumed from geologic indications to be atop the plateau), and the North Horn Formation in central Utah on the eastern edge of the Sevier fold and thrust belt (presumably lower elevation). The textural characteristics, stable isotope compositions and carbonate clumped isotope temperature estimates from secondary carbonates in these units suggest that, despite moderate burial, primary carbonate samples have undergone little diagenetic alteration. Average temperatures from these two sites (23°C for the NV suite and 38°C for the UT suite) suggest that during the late Cretaceous (~66.5 Ma for the NV suite and 72 Ma for the UT suite), the NV site was ~15°C cooler than the UT site. This thermal gradient implies an elevation difference between the two sites of ~2.5 km, given certain assumptions: 1) there was little global or regional climate change during the ~5 million years between formation of these samples, 2) precipitation of both the lacustrine and paleosol carbonates

  4. New insights into the petrogenesis of the Jameson Range layered intrusion and associated Fe-Ti-P-V-PGE-Au mineralisation, West Musgrave Province, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karykowski, Bartosz T.; Polito, Paul A.; Maier, Wolfgang D.; Gutzmer, Jens; Krause, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Jameson Range intrusion forms part of the Giles Complex, Musgrave Province, Western Australia. It is predominantly mafic in composition comprising olivine-bearing gabbroic lithologies with variable amounts of magnetite and ilmenite. Lithologies containing more than 50 vol% magnetite and ilmenite are classified as magnetitites. The Jameson Range hosts several of these magnetitites forming laterally extensive layers, which can be traced for at least 19 km as continuous magnetic anomalies. Similar occurrences of magnetitites are known from the upper parts of other layered intrusions, such as the Bushveld Complex. In addition, the intrusion hosts several P-rich zones, one of which is at least 59 m in thickness containing 1.0 wt% P2O5. The P-rich zones are not directly associated with the magnetitites, but they mostly occur slightly above them. The mineral chemistry of the Jameson Range cumulates is relatively evolved with olivine compositions ranging from Fo44 to Fo60 and plagioclase compositions varying between An56 and An59. The Mg# (100 × Mg / (Mg + Fe)) of ortho- and clinopyroxene ranges from 60 to 61 and from 70 to 75, respectively. Magnetite compositions are characterised by low TiO2 concentrations varying from 0.39 to 3.04 wt% representing near end-member magnetite with up to 1.2 wt% Cr and 1.3 wt% V, respectively. The basal magnetite layer reaches up to 68.8 wt% Fe2O3(t) and 24.2 wt% TiO2, and it is also markedly enriched in Cu (up to 0.3 wt% Cu), V (up to 1.05 wt% V2O5) and platinum-group elements (PGE) (up to 2 ppm Pt + Pd). Sulphide minerals comprising bornite, chalcopyrite and minor pentlandite occur finely disseminated in the magnetitite and account for the elevated base metal and PGE concentrations. Modelling indicates that the PGE mineralisation was formed at very high R factors of up to 100,000, which is typical for PGE reefs in layered intrusions. Whole rock geochemical and mineralogical data of the magnetite layers and their host

  5. New insights into the petrogenesis of the Jameson Range layered intrusion and associated Fe-Ti-P-V-PGE-Au mineralisation, West Musgrave Province, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karykowski, Bartosz T.; Polito, Paul A.; Maier, Wolfgang D.; Gutzmer, Jens; Krause, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Jameson Range intrusion forms part of the Giles Complex, Musgrave Province, Western Australia. It is predominantly mafic in composition comprising olivine-bearing gabbroic lithologies with variable amounts of magnetite and ilmenite. Lithologies containing more than 50 vol% magnetite and ilmenite are classified as magnetitites. The Jameson Range hosts several of these magnetitites forming laterally extensive layers, which can be traced for at least 19 km as continuous magnetic anomalies. Similar occurrences of magnetitites are known from the upper parts of other layered intrusions, such as the Bushveld Complex. In addition, the intrusion hosts several P-rich zones, one of which is at least 59 m in thickness containing 1.0 wt% P2O5. The P-rich zones are not directly associated with the magnetitites, but they mostly occur slightly above them. The mineral chemistry of the Jameson Range cumulates is relatively evolved with olivine compositions ranging from Fo44 to Fo60 and plagioclase compositions varying between An56 and An59. The Mg# (100 × Mg / (Mg + Fe)) of ortho- and clinopyroxene ranges from 60 to 61 and from 70 to 75, respectively. Magnetite compositions are characterised by low TiO2 concentrations varying from 0.39 to 3.04 wt% representing near end-member magnetite with up to 1.2 wt% Cr and 1.3 wt% V, respectively. The basal magnetite layer reaches up to 68.8 wt% Fe2O3(t) and 24.2 wt% TiO2, and it is also markedly enriched in Cu (up to 0.3 wt% Cu), V (up to 1.05 wt% V2O5) and platinum-group elements (PGE) (up to 2 ppm Pt + Pd). Sulphide minerals comprising bornite, chalcopyrite and minor pentlandite occur finely disseminated in the magnetitite and account for the elevated base metal and PGE concentrations. Modelling indicates that the PGE mineralisation was formed at very high R factors of up to 100,000, which is typical for PGE reefs in layered intrusions. Whole rock geochemical and mineralogical data of the magnetite layers and their host

  6. Fire-related debris flows in the Iberian Range, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Arnáez, José; Gómez-Villar, Amelia; Ortigosa, Luis; Lana-Renault, Noemí

    2013-08-01

    Debris flows occurred three weeks after a wildfire in August 1986 in the Najerilla River valley in the Iberian Range, northern Spain. The flows were triggered by a brief, intense rainstorm (approximately 25 mm h- 1 over 15 min) in a small area with steep slopes covered by a thick colluvium of quartzite clasts. This storm resulted in the development of several unconfined hillslope debris flows and the formation of an alluvial fan at the mouth of the Pítare stream, which partially blocked the Najerilla River. We analysed the conditions that led to the development of the debris flows, and estimated the rainfall threshold for the debris flows to occur as well as the total volume of mobilised sediment. Four factors contributed to the debris flows: (i) the occurrence of a rainstorm three weeks after a wildfire, which had removed the plant cover from the soil; (ii) the steep slopes in the area (> 30°), which were the most affected by debris flows; (iii) the presence of quartzite scarps on the hillslopes, which favoured the development of a 'firehose effect' involving channelised surface runoff; and (iv) the low plasticity index values of the fine material of the colluvium (indices of 7 to 8), which enabled rapid liquefaction. Estimates of rainfall intensity derived from the estimated peak flow in the Pítare stream suggests that around 80 mm of rainfall fell in approximately 15 min, although this is clearly an overestimated value given the high proportion of sediment load transported during the peak flow. Various equations estimated a rainfall-threshold of approximately 25 mm h- 1 considering a concentration time of 15 min. The total sediment transported by the debris flows was 10,500 m3 (15,750 Mg, 6800 Mg km- 2), and the Pítare stream alone transported a minimum of 4000 m3 (6000 Mg, 2500 Mg km- 2). These results suggest that the rainfall threshold for initiating debris flows decreases following a wildfire, such that an ordinary rainstorm is able to trigger a severe

  7. Spatial diffusion of influenza outbreak-related climate factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nakapan, Supachai; Tripathi, Nitin Kumar; Tipdecho, Taravudh; Souris, Marc

    2012-10-24

    Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks.

  8. Spatial Diffusion of Influenza Outbreak-Related Climate Factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Nakapan, Supachai; Tripathi, Nitin Kumar; Tipdecho, Taravudh; Souris, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks. PMID:23202819

  9. Urbanization Level and Vulnerability to Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Yang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although adverse effects of high temperature on mortality have been studied extensively in urban areas, little is known of the heat–mortality associations outside of cities. Objective: We investigated whether heat–mortality associations differed between urban and nonurban areas and how urbanicity affected the vulnerability to heat-related mortality. Methods: We first analyzed heat-related mortality risk in each of 102 counties in Jiangsu Province, China, during 2009–2013 using a distributed-lag nonlinear model. The county-specific estimates were then pooled for more urban (percentage of urban population ≥ 57.11%) and less urban (percentage of urban population < 57.11%) counties using a Bayesian hierarchical model. To explain the spatial variation in associations by county, county-level characteristics affecting heat vulnerability were also examined. Results: We found that the overall mortality risk comparing the 99th vs. 75th percentiles of temperature was 1.43 [95% posterior intervals (PI): 1.36, 1.50] in less urban counties and 1.26 (95% PI: 1.23, 1.30) in more urban counties. The heat effects on cardiorespiratory mortality followed a similar pattern. Higher education level and prevalence of air conditioning were significantly associated with counties having lower risks, whereas percentage of elderly people was significantly associated with increased risks. Conclusion: Our findings reveal that nonurban areas have significant heat-related mortality risks in Jiangsu, China. These results suggest the need for enhanced adaptation planning in Chinese nonurban areas under a changing climate. Citation: Chen K, Zhou L, Chen X, Ma Z, Liu Y, Huang L, Bi J, Kinney PL. 2016. Urbanization level and vulnerability to heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1863–1869; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP204 PMID:27152420

  10. Urbanization Level and Vulnerability to Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Yang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2016-12-01

    Although adverse effects of high temperature on mortality have been studied extensively in urban areas, little is known of the heat-mortality associations outside of cities. We investigated whether heat-mortality associations differed between urban and nonurban areas and how urbanicity affected the vulnerability to heat-related mortality. We first analyzed heat-related mortality risk in each of 102 counties in Jiangsu Province, China, during 2009-2013 using a distributed-lag nonlinear model. The county-specific estimates were then pooled for more urban (percentage of urban population ≥ 57.11%) and less urban (percentage of urban population < 57.11%) counties using a Bayesian hierarchical model. To explain the spatial variation in associations by county, county-level characteristics affecting heat vulnerability were also examined. We found that the overall mortality risk comparing the 99th vs. 75th percentiles of temperature was 1.43 [95% posterior intervals (PI): 1.36, 1.50] in less urban counties and 1.26 (95% PI: 1.23, 1.30) in more urban counties. The heat effects on cardiorespiratory mortality followed a similar pattern. Higher education level and prevalence of air conditioning were significantly associated with counties having lower risks, whereas percentage of elderly people was significantly associated with increased risks. Our findings reveal that nonurban areas have significant heat-related mortality risks in Jiangsu, China. These results suggest the need for enhanced adaptation planning in Chinese nonurban areas under a changing climate. Citation: Chen K, Zhou L, Chen X, Ma Z, Liu Y, Huang L, Bi J, Kinney PL. 2016. Urbanization level and vulnerability to heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1863-1869; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP204.

  11. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 1: Kinematics of Basin-Range intraplate extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddington, P. K.; Smith, R. B.; Renggli, C.

    1986-01-01

    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to estimates of paleo-strain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin part of the Basin-Range, western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced from the past few million years to the present. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions for sub-regions of homogeneous strain. Contemporary deformation in the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The integrated opening rate across the entire Great Basin is accommodated by E-E extension at 8 to 10 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum lithospheric extension correspond to belts of thin crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through mechanism of extension such as a stress relaxation, allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  12. Coyote visits at scent stations in relation to home range

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.E.; Knowlton, F.F.

    1986-01-01

    Response of free-franging coyotes (Canis latrans) to scent stations was studied in southeastern Idaho and southern Texas to examine relationships between the scent-station survey technique and coyote home range. Coyotes with radio transmitters were intensively monitored to determine movement and spatial use patterns for comparison with coyote visitations to artificial scent stations. Coyotes more frequently visited scent stations on the periphery or outside their home ranges than within them, probably because resident coyotes avoided scent stations (novel stimuli) in the very familiar core areas of their home ranges and were more likely to investigate them when encountered on the periphery or outside of them. Hence, scent stations may receive more visits from transient or dispersing individuals than from residents. 55 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. A province-scale block model of Walker Lane and western Basin and Range crustal deformation constrained by GPS observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, W. C.; Bormann, J.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Walker Lane in the western Great Basin of the western United States is an 800 km long and 100 km wide zone of active intracontinental transtension that absorbs ~10 mm/yr, about 20% of the Pacific/North America plate boundary relative motion. Lying west of the Sierra Nevada/Great Valley microplate (SNGV) and adjoining the Basin and Range Province to the east, deformation is predominantly shear strain overprinted with a minor component of extension. The Walker Lane responds with faulting, block rotations, structural step-overs, and has distinct and varying partitioned domains of shear and extension. Resolving these complex deformation patterns requires a long term observation strategy with a dense network of GPS stations (spacing ~20 km). The University of Nevada, Reno operates the 373 station Mobile Array of GPS for Nevada transtension (MAGNET) semi-continuous network that supplements coverage by other networks such as EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory, which alone has insufficient density to resolve the deformation patterns. Uniform processing of data from these GPS mega-networks provides a synoptic view and new insights into the kinematics and mechanics of Walker Lane tectonics. We present velocities for thousands of stations with time series between 3 to 17 years in duration aligned to our new GPS-based North America fixed reference frame NA12. The velocity field shows a rate budget across the southern Walker Lane of ~10 mm/yr, decreasing northward to ~7 mm/yr at the latitude of the Mohawk Valley and Pyramid Lake. We model the data with a new block model that estimates rotations and slip rates of known active faults between the Mojave Desert and northern Nevada and northeast California. The density of active faults in the region requires including a relatively large number of blocks in the model to accurately estimate deformation patterns. With 49 blocks, our the model captures structural detail not represented in previous province-scale models, and

  14. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  15. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  16. More than one way to stretch: A tectonic model for extension along the plume track of the Yellowstone hotspot and adjacent Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Thompson, G.A.; Smith, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    The eastern Snake River Plain of southern Idaho poses a paradoxical problem because it is nearly aseismic and unfaulted although it appears to be actively extending in a SW-NE direction continuously with the adjacent block-faulted Basin and Range Province. The plain represents the 100-km-wide track of the Yellowstone hotspot during the last ???16-17 m.y., and its crust has been heavily intruded by mafic magma, some of which has erupted to the surface as extensive basalt flows. Outside the plain's distinct topographic boundaries is a transition zone 30-100 km wide that has variable expression of normal faulting and magmatic activity as compared with the surrounding Basin and Range Province. Many models for the evolution of the Snake River Plain have as an integral component the suggestion that the crust of the plain became strong enough through basaltic intrusion to resist extensional deformation. However, both the boundaries of the plain and its transition zone lack any evidence of zones of strike slip or other accommodation that would allow the plain to remain intact while the Basin and Range Province extended around it; instead, the plain is coupled to its surroundings and extending with them. We estimate strain rates for the northern Basin and Range Province from various lines of evidence and show that these strains would far exceed the elastic limit of any rocks coupled to the Basin and Range; thus, if the plain is extending along with its surroundings, as the geologic evidence indicates, it must be doing so by a nearly aseismic process. Evidence of the process is provided by volcanic rift zones, indicators of subsurface dikes, which trend across the plain perpendicular to its axis. We suggest that variable magmatic strain accommodation, by emplacement and inflation of dikes perpendicular to the least principal stress in the elastic crust, allows the crust of the plain to extend nearly aseismically. Dike injection releases accumulated elastic strain but

  17. Giant Mesozoic gold provinces related to the destruction of the North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Wei; Bi, Shi-Jian; Selby, David; Chen, Lei; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Thiede, David; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Zhao, Xin-Fu; Li, Zhan-Ke; Qiu, Hua-Ning

    2012-10-01

    Lode gold deposits in Precambrian cratons represent the world's major gold source and were mostly generated during formation and stabilization of the cratons. However, there is an extraordinary exception in the North China craton (NCC), where lode gold deposits formed after prolonged stabilization of the craton. Molybdenite Re-Os and hydrothermal sericite and biotite 40Ar/39Ar dating of major gold deposits from the Xiaoqinling district, southern NCC, bracket their emplacement in the range of 154.1±1.1 to 118.9±1.2 Ma (n=23), postdating formation of the craton by more than 1.7 billion years. Fluid inclusions extracted from gold-bearing pyrite have elevated 3He/4He ratios (1.52-0.22 Ra) and mantle-like Ne isotopes (20Ne/22Ne=10.02-9.22 and 21Ne/22Ne=0.033-0.027), indicating presence of mantle-derived fluids in the ore system. Measured δ34S of pyrite and δD and δ18O of hydrothermal micas and fluid inclusion waters in auriferous quartz further confirm a magmatic/mantle source for sulfur and ore fluids. Gold deposits of similar ages also widely occur in the eastern and northern margins of the NCC, which, together with those in the Xiaoqinling district, have a total reserve of ˜2500 t gold, forming the only known giant late Mesozoic gold province in the world's Precambrian cratons. These deposits formed coevally with extensive felsic to mafic magmatism, development of intracontinental rift basins, and exhumation of metamorphic core complexes across the eastern NCC, events interpreted as indicating thinning and destruction of the lithosphere beneath the craton. Rising of asthenosphere coupled with destruction of the lithosphere has generated voluminous mafic and felsic magmas that provided sufficient fluids, sulfur and, by inference, other ore components to form the giant gold provinces.

  18. Job Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Related Factors among Health Care Workers in Golestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammad Javad; Heidari, Alireza; Etemad, Koorosh; Gashti, Ashrafi Babazadeh; Jafari, Nahid; Honarvar, Mohammad Reza; Ariaee, Mohammad; Lotfi, Mansureh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Burnout causes physical and emotional tireness, job dissatisfaction, resulting in reduced efficiency and a feeling of alienation from colleagues. Also, job satisfaction has a major impact on job-related behaviors, such as turnover intention, absenteeism, and job performance. The aim of this study was to determine job burnout, job satisfaction rate, and related factors among health care workers in Golestan Province in Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,141 health workers in Golestan Province in northern Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire that was comprised of four sections. It consisted of socio-economic characteristics, physical environment and facilities of health house (rural health clinic), Maslach burnout inventory, and a satisfaction questionnaire. Multi-nomial Logistic Regression was conducted to analyze the data using SPSS software, version 22. Results There were significant relationships between the intensity of job burnout and age (p < 0.001), years of experience (p < 0.001), low education level (p = 0.027), number of children (p = 0.002), dissatisfaction with income (p < 0.001), physical environment of health houses (p = 0.003), facilities of health houses (p = 0.025). There were significant relationships between the frequency of job burnout and age (p < 0.001), years of experience (p < 0.001), low education level (p = 0.016), number of children (p = 0.003), dissatisfaction with income (p < 0.001), and the physical environment of health houses (p = 0.008). There were significant relationships between job satisfaction and the satisfaction from income (p = 0.001), the physical environment of health houses (p = 0.001), and the facilities of health houses (p = 0.001). Conclusion Burnout was average among health workers, and health workers job satisfaction rate was lower than the average level in health workers. Effective interventions are recommended with regards to the unfavorable condition of job

  19. [Survey of infections of intestinal parasites and related factors in north-west Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Miao, Feng; Kong, Xiang-Li; Wang, Yong-Bin; Bu, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Ben-Guang; Zhao, Chang-Lei; Liu, Xin; Chen, Xi-Xin

    2014-10-01

    To understand the infection status of intestinal parasites and related knowledge and behavior factors of the residents in north-west Shandong Province, so as to provide the evidence for taking targeted preventive measures. Eighteen villages were randomly selected as survey spots by the stratified multi-stage sample method. The Kato-Katz technique was used to detect intestinal parasite eggs among the residents and the cellophane tape anus test was used to detect Enterobius vermicularis eggs among 3-12 years old children. Questionnaires were applied to investigate related knowledge and behavior factors about the intestinal parasite infections in the residents. Totally 6 366 residents were detected for intestinal parasites and the infection rate was 0.28% (18 cases). Totally 895 children were detected for E. vermicularis and the infection rate was 5.70% (51 cases). Totally 2 915 residents were investigated by questionnaires and the awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases was 26.72%. The formation rates of washing hands before meal and after WC, washing fruit and vegetable before eating, never drinking unboiled water were 55.42%, 42.87%, 43.54% and 83.04% respectively. The awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases of 3-12 years old children was 12.24%; and the formation rates of washing hands before meal and after WC were 47.04% and 30.44% respectively. The total infection rate of intestinal parasites is low but the E. vermicularis infection rate is high among children in north-west Shandong Province. The awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases and the formation rates of healthy behaviors are all low. Therefore, the targeted health education should be taken to increase the awareness rate and guide the residents to develop their healthy behaviors.

  20. Potential capabilities of lunar laser ranging for geodesy and relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Jurgen; Williams, James G.; Turshev, Slava G.; Shelus, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Here, we review the LLR technique focusing on its impact on Geodesy and Relativity. We discuss the modem observational accuracy and the level of existing LLR modeling. We present the near-term objectives and emphasize improvements needed to fully utilize the scientific potential of LLR.

  1. Potential capabilities of lunar laser ranging for geodesy and relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Jurgen; Williams, James G.; Turshev, Slava G.; Shelus, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Here, we review the LLR technique focusing on its impact on Geodesy and Relativity. We discuss the modem observational accuracy and the level of existing LLR modeling. We present the near-term objectives and emphasize improvements needed to fully utilize the scientific potential of LLR.

  2. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Evaluation of the regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    Six regions in the Basin and Range province, ranging in size from 21,600 to 80,000 square kilometers, were evaluated to identify prospective hydrogeologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. Prospective hydrogeologic environments were evaluated on the basis of the surface distribution of potential host rocks, late Cenozoic tectonic activity, hydrogeologic characteristics, and mineral and energy resources. These regions were selected as prospective for this study from a screening of the Basin and Range province. The six regions have certain characteristics that appear favorable for isolation of radioactive waste. The scant precipitation and great potential for water loss by evaporation and transpiration results in little surface runoff and ground-water recharge. This, combined with other hydrogeologic factors, results in areas within the regions that have thick unsaturated zones and long ground-water flow paths and traveltimes. Potential host media in the unsaturated zone include crystalline rocks, volcanic rocks, and basin fill. Potential host media in the saturated zone are predominantly crystalline igneous rocks but also include argillaceous rocks, evaporitic rocks, intracaldera tuffs, and laharic breccias.

  3. Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) in amphibole-bearing granites of the Bintang batholith, Main Range granite province: Evidence for a meta-igneous basement in Western Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quek, Long Xiang; Ghani, Azman A.; Chung, Sun-Lin; Li, Shan; Lai, Yu-Ming; Saidin, Mokhtar; Amir Hassan, Meor H.; Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Afiq; Badruldin, Muhammad Hafifi; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid

    2017-08-01

    Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) with varying sizes are a common occurrence in porphyritic amphibole-bearing granite of the Bintang batholith, which is part of the Main Range granite province. The MMEs of the amphibole-bearing granite are significant as they are related to the I-type granitoids within the Main Range granite province. Petrographic observations indicate the MMEs are mantled with coarse mafic crystals on the rim and contain similar minerals to the host (biotite + plagioclase + K-feldspar + pyroxene + amphibole), but in different proportions. Geochemical analyses indicate the MMEs are shoshonitic with mg# comparable to the granite host. Substantial similarities exist between the MMEs and granite with regards to the normalized rare earth element patterns and trace elements variation diagrams. The MMEs and granite are not completely coeval as the MME zircon U-Pb age (224.3 ± 1.2 Ma) is slightly older than its granite host zircon U-Pb age (216.2 ± 1.0 Ma). The age difference is also observed from the unusual 500 m-long Tiak MME and another amphibole-bearing granite sample from the south of the pluton, which yield 221.8 ± 1.1 Ma and 217.4 ± 1.0 Ma respectively. The oldest inherited zircons found in the MME and granite are 2.0 Ga and 1.3 Ga respectively, while the oldest xenocrystic zircons found in the MME and granite are 2.5 Ga and 1.5 Ga respectively. Identical negative εHf(t) values from zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf analysis for a MME-granite pair indicates the rocks were generated from a similar, ancient source in the basement. Combining the results, we suggest that incongruent melting of an ancient protolith played an important part in the evolution of the MMEs and granite and the MMEs characteristics are best explained as restite. The zircon Hf model age (two-stage) and the I-type peritectic and restitic mineral assemblages in the MMEs further describe the protolith as Early Proterozoic-Late Archean (≈2.5 Ga) meta-igneous rock. This shows the

  4. Differences in health-related behaviors between middle school, high school, and college students in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weina; He, Mike Z; Wang, Yunle; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Yonglin; Wu, Ming; Tang, Zhen; Dai, Yue; Yuan, Baojun; Zhen, Shiqi; Cheskin, Lawrence J

    Increasing rates of obesity among Chinese adolescents has become a major public health concern in recent years. Studies have shown that factors such as food choices, physical activity, and screen time play important roles in fostering obesity. We examined a number of biological and social determinants that influence these factors. To determine whether dietary behavior, physical activity, and screen time varied among students in different stages of their education. Students in 13 cities across Jiangsu Province completed an anonymous survey assessing demographics and various health-related behaviors in a controlled setting. The survey population ranged from middle school students to undergraduates. 55,361 surveys were returned, and 46,611 (84.2%) were usable for the analysis. Multiple linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship between four behavioral factors (dietary behavior, screen time, physical activity, and moderate exercise) and seven predictors (gender, age, BMI, mother's education, nearsightedness, allowance, and geographic region). Baseline characteristics of the survey population analyzed by education level (middle school, high school, college and beyond) showed moderate differences in demographics among the three groups. Physical activity, moderate exercise, and dietary behavior decreased with educational level, while screen time increased. All predictors in the four considered regression models were statistically significant. This unique, large-scale survey of Chinese students in a region of contrasting economic development revealed numerous relationships between health-related diet and physical-activity, region, and education level. These findings can inform the development of measures to counteract the rise of obesity in China.

  5. Constraints from GPS on Block Kinematics of the Transition between the Southern Walker Lane and the Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C.; Blewitt, G.

    2008-12-01

    The southern Walker Lane (SWL) is a part of the Eastern California Shear Zone that lies north of the Mojave region, bounded by the Garlock Fault to the south, the Sierra Nevada to the west, the Basin and Range to the east and by Mono Lake to the north. The region includes many northwest striking right-lateral strike slip and sub-parallel normal faults (e.g. Death Valley/Furnace Creek, Fish Lake Valley, Owens Valley), which together accommodate ~25% of the Pacific/North American relative motion. For many of these faults, and the system as a whole, there appears to be a discrepancy between geodetically and geologically inferred fault slip rates. Since the installation of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), and the Nevada Earthquake Response Network (NEARNET) of the University of Nevada, Reno, many recently obtained high- precision GPS data are now available to place improved constraints on the pattern and rates of crustal deformation of this region. In this study we use a block modeling methodology to estimate block motions and fault slip rates from GPS velocities of PBO, NEARNET and BARGEN continuous sites. Time series were obtained from raw RINEX data that we processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory together with the Ambizap software for ambiguity resolution. We have additionally included earlier published campaign-style velocities, in those areas where we do not have better coverage from other continuous/semi-continuous networks. Geologic slip rates have been obtained from the published literature. We solve for the motion of blocks using the GPS velocities that have been adjusted based on the viscoelastic modeling to estimate long term motion. To evaluate the consistency between the geologic and geodetic data, we compare long-term fault slip to slip rates inferred from geodetic results obtained over <10 years. We account for transient earthquake cycle effects by modeling the viscoelastic postseismic relaxation

  6. Factors Related to the Motivation of Extension Agents in Kenya's Rift Valley Province. Summary of Research 76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwangi, John G.; McCaslin, N. L.

    Job satisfaction factors related to motivation of a random sample of 325 agents in Kenya's extension service in the Rift Valley Province were identified. Data were collected using a group-administered, closed-ended, forced-choice questionnaire with 105 job satisfaction, 10 motivational, and 10 personal characteristics items between January and…

  7. Three-dimensional model of an ultramafic feeder system to the Nikolai Greenstone mafic large igneous province, central Alaska Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glen, J.M.G.; Schmidt, J.M.; Connard, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Amphitheater Mountains and southern central Alaska Range expose a thick sequence of Triassic Nikolai basalts that is underlain by several mafic-ultramafic complexes, the largest and best exposed being the Fish Lake and Tangle (FL-T) mafic-ultramafic sills that flank the Amphitheater Mountains synform. Three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of gravity and magnetic data reveals details of the structure of the Amphitheater Mountains, such as the orientation and thickness of Nikolai basalts, and the geometry of the FL-T intrusions. The 3-D model (50 ?? 70 km) includes the full geographic extent of the FL-T complexes and consists of 11 layers. Layer surfaces and properties (density and magnetic susceptibility) were modified by forward and inverse methods to reduce differences between the observed and calculated gravity and magnetic grids. The model suggests that the outcropping FL-T sills are apparently connected and traceable at depth and reveals variations in thickness, shape, and orientation of the ultramafic bodies that may identify paths of magma flow. The model shows that a significant volume (2000 km3) of ultramafic material occurs in the subsurface, gradually thickening and plunging westward to depths exceeding 4 km. This deep ultramafic material is interpreted as the top of a keel or root system that supplied magma to the Nikolai lavas and controlled emplacement of related magmatic intrusions. The presence of this deep, keel-like structure, and asymmetry of the synform, supports a sag basin model for development of the Amphitheater Mountains structure and reveals that the feeders to the Nikolai are much more extensive than previously known. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Paleoclimatic implications of fossil shoreline deposits in the southern basin and range province during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowler, A. L.

    2010-12-01

    Paleolake shoreline deposits throughout the southern Basin and Range (SBAR) signify past intervals of steady-state climatic conditions occuring during the late Pleistocene slightly before, as well as after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~23-19 Ka). Unfortunately, a lack of knowledge about the age of fossil shoreline deposits—due to C-14 related uncertainties and incomplete dating of shorelines—has resulted in a large gap in our knowledge about past climatic and surface hydrologic conditions in the SBAR. Several studies collectively reveal multiple lake level oscillations during the LGM and last part of the Pleistocene, with reasonably well dated shoreline deposits existing for only four paleolakes: one in central New Mexico (Estancia), two in southwestern New Mexico (Playas and Cloverdale), and one in southeastern Arizona (Cochise). In summary, there is evidence for a pre-LGM high-stand at Cochise (>26 Ka), LGM high-stands at Estancia and Cloverdale (>20-16 Ka), deglacial age high-stands at Playas and Cochise (16-13 Ka), and latest Pleistocene-early Holocene still stands of as yet undetermined elevation at Playas and Estancia (13-9K). Further, the absence of high-stands from 11-10 Ka suggests that the Younger Dryas climatic reversal—which is detected in the stable O isotopic composition of speleothems from Cave-of-the-Bells in southeastern Arizona—was marked there by a decrease in mean annual air temperature without a significant increase in precipitation. Alternatively, if a return to glacial precipitation levels did occur, then it was for an interval so short that sedimentological evidence was not preserved. This presentation will cover the afore mentioned chronologies, along with discussion about associated atmospheric circulation patterns in the SBAR and across western North America.

  9. Regional soil-gas helium distribution of the Ely and Delta 1° x 2° quadrangles, Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.; Bowles, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    A reconnaissance soil-gas helium survey was made in the Ely, Nevada and Delta, Utah 1° × 2° quadrangles in the Basin and Range Province. Helium concentrations in 510 samples ranged from −147 to 441 ppb He with respect to ambient air. The median helium value for the study area was 36 ppb. Concentrations of more than 100 ppb He and less than −20 ppb He occur more commonly in the Ely quadrangle and are especially numerous in the western one-half of this quadrangle. Interpretation of the data reveals that the helium concentrations reflect the rock type, particularly the silicic volcanic occurrences, and the geological structure of the area created by crustal extension. The regional soil-gas helium distribution is important information to consider when interpreting anomalies from detailed surveys.

  10. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77–7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24–3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04–35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region. PMID:26903612

  11. Is the Mozambique Ridge related to the Agulhas Plateau Large Igneous Province?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohl, K.; Uenzelmann-Neben, G.; Parsiegla, N.

    2009-12-01

    The Mozambique Ridge (MOZR) and the Agulhas Plateau (AP) are prominent bathymetrically elevated rises off south-eastern Africa connected by a rise of less bathymetric expression. Intuitively, this observation would imply that the plateaus and rises underwent a related crustal formation. Deep crustal ocean-bottom seismometer data and a multichannel seismic reflection profile from the southern MOZR show evidence for its predominantly oceanic crustal origin with excessive volcanic eruption and magmatic accretion phases. The lower two-thirds of the crustal column exhibit P-wave velocities of more than 7.0 km/s, increasing to 7.5-7.6 km/s at the crustal base. These velocities suggest that the lower crust was accreted by large volumes of mantle-derived material to form an over-thickened equivalent of an oceanic layer 3. When comparing the velocity-depth model and the observations of the seismic reflection data with those of the AP, a resemblance can be established which concludes that a greater Southeast African Large Igneous Province (LIP) must have formed between 140 and 95 Ma in phases of highly varying magmatic and volcanic activities. The timing, size and formation history of the Southeast African LIP is almost analog to that of the Kerguelen-Heard Plateau, which provokes speculation about related processes of periodic magma generation at that time.

  12. Prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys of Kermanshah province, west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area.

  13. 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of the Jurassic volcanic province of Patagonia: migrating magmatism related to Gondwana break-up and subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Féraud, G.; Alric, V.; Fornari, M.; Bertrand, H.; Haller, M.

    1999-10-01

    The Mesozoic large igneous province (LIP) of Patagonia (southern South America), which is one of the largest silicic provinces on Earth has been investigated by the 40Ar/ 39Ar method. Twenty-seven ages considered as valid, including twenty plateau ages, show that the volcanic activity, ranging from 187 to 144 Ma, occurred between and contemporaneously with the initial break-up of Gondwana (starting with the Karoo-Antarctic-Tasmanian (KAT) flood basalt province) in the east, and a subduction in the west. The data display a regular decreasing of ages from the ENE (187 Ma) to the WSW (144 Ma) along about 650 km, apparently related to the tectonic structure in half-grabens oriented NNW-SSE. The good fitting of this trend with the opening of the Rocas Verdes-Sarmiento marginal basin favors a space time evolution of this continental volcanism culminating towards the SSW in a continental disruption behind the magmatic arc. The observed age progression of volcanism may be the result of the variations of the physical characteristics of the subduction. The spreading and thermal effect of the KAT plume may have an additional effect and also could account for the unusually large volume of magma.

  14. 3D potential-field model of a Triassic Nikolai large igneous province vent, central Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, J. M.; Schmidt, J. M.; Connard, G. G.

    2009-12-01

    The southern flank of the Alaska Range in south central Alaska exposes a thick, fresh sequence of Middle to Late Triassic Nikolai Greenstone. At least 5 ultramafic intrusive complexes and numerous gabbroic sills of similar age intrude Pennsylvanian to Triassic volcanogenic and sedimentary rocks below the Nikolai. The 2 largest and best exposed ultramafic complexes are the Fish Lake and Tangle ultramafic sills on the north, and south flanks, respectively of the Amphitheater Mountains synform. Three-dimensional (3D) modeling of gravity and magnetic data, using the GMSYS-3D modeling software, shows details of the Amphitheater Mountains structure, Nikolai basalt thickness, and geometry of the apparently connected Fish Lake and Tangle ultramafic sills. Modeling is based on a compilation of existing regional and newly-acquired detailed profile gravity data, a compilation of regional and high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys, and numerous rock-property data (including density, susceptibility, and magnetic remanence measurements of outcrops, hand samples, and drill cores). Eight intersecting 2D models, constructed prior to the 3D model, suggested the presence of an elongate ultramafic keel below the Amphitheater synform axis and extensive gabbroic satellite sills below the Fish Lake and Tangle ultramafic complexes. The 3D model (50x70km) includes the full geographic extent of the Fish Lake and Tangle bodies, as well as parts of the Rainy and Canwell complexes to the north and east of the Amphitheater Mountains. Eleven layers were initially constructed from horizons we exported from the 2D models and gridded to form layer surfaces. Individual 3D model layers were subsequently modified by both forward and inverse methods applied to the layer surfaces and properties (density and magnetic susceptibility) to reduce differences between the observed and calculated gravity and magnetic grids. Up to 2 km of Nikolai basalts form the center of the asymmetric, west-plunging, 50 km long

  15. A Systems Dynamic Model for Drug Abuse and Drug-Related Crime in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Lezanie

    2017-01-01

    The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems. PMID:28555161

  16. Prevalence of Obesity and Related Factors among Bouyei and Han Peoples in Guizhou Province, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Dingming; Pan, Li; Yu, Yangwen; Dong, Fen; Li, Ling; Wang, Li; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Xianjia; Sun, Liangxian; Zhu, Guangjin; Feng, Kui; Jonasson, Junmei Miao; Wu, Zhenglai; Xu, Ke; Pang, Xinglong; Chen, Ting; Pan, Hui; Ma, Jin; Zhong, Yong; Ping, Bo; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity and associated factors in Bouyei and Han peoples. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out in Guizhou province, southwest China in 2012, with multi-stage sampling to enroll 4551 participants aged 20 to 80 years. General and abdominal obesity were defined by World Health Organization (WHO) for Chinese. A design-based analysis was performed to evaluate prevalence of obesity and its related factors. Results Bouyei people had a significantly lower prevalence of general obesity (4.8% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.05) and abdominal obesity (13.6% vs. 26.8%, p < 0.05) than that in Han people. Prevalence of obesity increased with age until middle-age period and declined thereafter. Men aged 40–49 years group and women aged 50–59 years group have the highest prevalence of general obesity. Prevalence of abdominal obesity was higher than that of general obesity. Middle-age, Higher income, Han people were significantly associated with an increased risk of General/abdominal obesity. Conclusions Bouyei people had a lower prevalence of general and abdominal obesity than the Han people. Etiological studies should be conducted to determine underlying genetic factors and dietary factors. PMID:26075708

  17. Flavonoid intake and the risk of age-related cataract in China's Heilongjiang Province

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingna; Gao, Weiqi; Wu, Kun; Bao, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Epidemiological evidence suggests that diets rich in flavonoids may reduce the risk of developing age-related cataract (ARC). Flavonoids are widely distributed in foods of plant origin, and the objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the association between the intakes of the five flavonoid subclasses and the risk of ARC. Subjects/methods A population-based case-control study (249 cases and 66 controls) was carried out in Heilongjiang province, which is located in the northeast of China, and where intakes and availability of fresh vegetables and fruits can be limited. Dietary data gathered by food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to calculate flavonoid intake. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Results No linear associations between risk of developing ARC and intakes of total dietary flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavon-3-ol, flavanone, total flavones or total flavonols were found, but quercetin and isorhamnetin intake was inversely associated with ARC risk (OR 11.78, 95% CI: 1.62–85.84, p<0.05, and OR 6.99, 95% CI: 1.12–43.44, p<0.05, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, respectively). Conclusion As quercetin is contained in many plant foods and isorhamnetin in very few foods, we concluded that higher quercetin intake may be an important dietary factor in the reduction of the risk of ARC. PMID:26652740

  18. Potential tight gas resources in a frontier province - Jurassic through Tertiary strata beneath the Brooks Range foothills, Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Beneath the foothills of the Brooks Range, rocks of the Lower Cretaceous-Tertiary Brookian and Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Beaufortian megasequences have been deeply buried and exhumed, and now exhibit characteristics of 'tight gas sandstones'. The data recovered from drilling, well tests, and cores exhibit the potential for substantial gas reserves over a large area. These data include recovery of gas from drillstem tests, indications of overpressure from well tests and mud weights, low porosity and permeability in sandstones, and vitrinite reflectance values ranging from 1.0 to 2.0 percent throughout substantial depth intervals.

  19. [Epidemiological investigation of macrosomia-related knowledge awareness among pregnant women in Zhejiang province].

    PubMed

    Yu, Sha; Guo, Changman; Xi, Haiyang; Zhu, Lihua; Ma, Shanshan; Yang, Xinjun

    2015-07-01

    To understand the awareness rate of macrosomia related knowledge and influencing factors among pregnant women in Zhejiang province and provide evidence for the improvement of pre-gestational and prenatal care. A face to face questionnaire survey was conducted among 1 512 pregnant women selected through multistage cluster random sampling from 20 counties (district) in Zhejiang. Macrosomia-related awareness and related factors were analyzed. A total of 1 494 valid questionnaires were analyzed, the awareness rate was 40.7% for macrosomia diagnostic criteria (95% CI: 38.2%-43.2%), 55.0% for the cause of macrosomia (95% CI: 52.4%-57.6%) and 62.4% for prevention related knowledge (95% CI: 59.9%-64.9%) and the awareness rate of both the cause and the prevention related knowledge was 49.0% (95% CI: 46.4%-51.6%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the third trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.906, 95% CI: 1.128-3.221), urban residence (OR = 1.335, 95% CI: 1.014-1.756), educational level of junior college (OR = 2.474, 95% CI: 1.635-3.744) and educational level of regular college or above (OR = 2.072, 95% CI: 1.338-3.209), receiving health education about health pregnancy (OR = 1.936, 95% CI: 1.509-2.484) and self-learning about the knowledge of health pregnancy (OR = 2.065, 95%CI: 1.338-3.189) were the influencing factors to the awareness rate of macrosomia diagnostic criteria and prevention related knowledge of macrosomia among pregnant women. The awareness rate of the cause and prevention related knowledge of macrosomia was higher in older age group (OR = 2.103, 95% CI: 1.330-3.323). Among the pregnant women in Zhejiang, the awareness rate of macrosomia diagnostic criteria was less than 50%. Therefore, it was necessary to strengthen the health education during pre-gestational and gestational periods among reproductive women, especially the education about pregnancy health in rural area.

  20. Environmental impacts of Tl related to mined Dajiangping pyrite deposit in west Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, Y. H.; Qi, J. Y.; Wang, C. L.

    2009-04-01

    This study focuses on the accumulation of Tl in Dajiangping pyrite deposit area in west Guangdong province, China, as a case study for environmental impacts of Tl due to natural processes and human activities. The pyrite deposit is one of the largest in Asia and has been mined on large scale since 1970s. Results show that Tl and other trace elements in local ecosystems, such as rocks/ores, soils, surface and ground waters, water sediments, plants and crops in Dajiangping near the pyrite ore deposit are enriched, characterized by high concentrations. The range of Tl concentrations is from 13.7 to 43.0 mg/kg in chunk concentrated ore, from 31.0 to 56.4 mg/kg in powdery concentrated ore and 49.7 to 51.6 mg/kg in pyrite tailing. Tl concentrations range from 15.0 to 21.0 mg/kg in soils of mineralized area, from 7.4 to 30.5 mg/kg in alluvial deposits and from 1.2 to 2.0 mg/kg in undisturbed background soil. Elevated concentrations of Tl have been observed in surface water from upstream( 2.2 µg/L) to downstream(102.6 µg/L) sections. Tl concentrations are comparatively high in the groundwater in mineralized area ( 7.8 µg/L). Tl concentrations in the edible parts of plants and crops range from 0.02 to 22.03 mg/kg (dry weight). Tl uptake shows characteristics of species-dependent, more in vegetables (around 90 mg/kg) than crops (0.3-8.1 mg/kg). For each individual plant, Tl concentrated more in roots than leaves and stems. The enrichment of Tl in the local ecosystem might come from the weathering, leaching and dissolving of Tl pyrite minerals. All this work adds new knowledge to understand Tl behaviour in mined Tl-pyrite deposits, and also benefits to the study on local environmental protection and mineral resources exploitation in the future.

  1. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  2. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K.

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  3. Baltazor KGRA and vicinity, Nevada: geothermal reservoir assessment case study, northern Basin and Range province. Final report, 1 October 1978-31 January 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Baltazor KGRA and McGee/Painted Hills geothermal prospects are located in northern Humboldt County, Nevada along the northwestern margin of the Basin and Range province. Exploration work other than drilling has included groundwater sampling, a microearthquake study, a geologic literature search and photogeologic mapping, compilation of aeromagnetic and gravity mapping, soil mercury surveying, electrical resistivity and self-potential surveys and detailed hydrothermal alteration mapping. Exploration drilling included 27 shallow temperature gradient holes, four intermediate-depth gradient wells and one 3703-foot deep test, Baltazor 45-14. The deep test penetrated Miocene rhyolite, andesite, basalt and andesitic basalt flows before excessive hold deviation forced an end to drilling and completion as a deep temperature observation well. A temperature survey two weeks after completion obtained a 119.7/sup 0/C (247.4/sup 0/F) reading at survey total depth, 1110 m (3640 feet).

  4. Growth faults and salt tectonics in Houston diapir province: relative timing and exploration significance

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E.

    1983-09-01

    Oil and gas accumulation in Gulf Coast Tertiary strata is contolled mainly by regional growth faults and by salt-related structures. Salt forms the most prominent set of structures in the Houston diapir province of southeast Texas. Recent work in three study areas shows that the Tertiary growth-fault trends, so well displayed along strike to the south-west, continue through this salt basin as well, but they have been deformed by later salt movement. In the Katy area, seismic data disclose early (pre-Wilcox) salt pillows downdip of the Cretaceous reef trend. Salt stocks were injected upward from the pillows during Clayborne deposition, and were flanked by deep withdrawal basins and turtle structures. In Brazoria County, a major lower Frio growth-fault trend affecting the Houston delta system, was deformed by later salt domes, by a salt-withdrawal basin, and by a possible turtle structure at Chocolate Bayou. A productive geopressured aquifer exists in the salt-withdrawal basin bounded by the previously formed growth faults. In Jefferson County, in contrast, salt-tectonic activity and growth faulting appear to have been coeval. Early salt-cored ridges continued to rise throughout Frio deposition; growth faults occur both updip and downdip. Hydrocarbons accumulated over the salt domes in growth-fault anticlines and in stratigraphic traps. Recognition that shelf-margin growth faulting preceded the development of the present pattern of domes and basins has important implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Growth faults may be migration paths for hydrocarbons; furthermore, early formed traps, distorted by salt movement, may still be found to contain hydrocarbons.

  5. Assessment of elemental background values and their relation with lifespan indicators: A comparative study of Jining in Shandong Province and Guanzhong area in Shaanxi Province, northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli; Ni, Runxiang; Tian, Yuan; Gao, Xing

    2017-10-01

    The remarkably high proportions of centenarians are found in the Jining Prefecture in southwestern Shandong province, demonstrating remarkable regional longevity differentiation. In this paper, census data at county-level, samples of drinking water and staple grains in Jining Prefecture were collected. Guanzhong area in Shaanxi Province, a non-longevity region in northern China was chosen as the contrast area. The major and trace elements in the samples were determined by using ICP-MS, ICP-OES and HG-AFS. The major results show that Jinxiang County in Jining Prefecture exhibit obviously higher longevity level than adjacent counties and Chinese average level based on temporal and spatial variation of lifespan indicators. Meanwhile, the contents of Na, Mg, Mo and Cu in wheat, corn and drinking water show a similar decline trend in the order of Jinxiang County, non-longevity counties of Jining Prefecture and Guanzhong area. In addition, Na/Ca and Mg/Ca show obvious difference both in staple grains and drinking ground water, and Ca(2+) is the most abundance of major cations in drinking water samples from non-longevity counties which was different with the Jinxiang County showing Na(+) as of major cations. The principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the difference of elemental concentrations in drinking water was more remarkable than in staple grains between Jining and Guanzhong areas. Na, Li, Ni, and Zn in staple grains and Mg, Co, Cu, Mn, and Sr in drinking ground water can explain most of the total variance as principal component between Jining and Guanzhong areas. These findings may help to provide further insight into the elemental background values and their relation with lifespan indicators especially in northern China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Two distinct episodes of Cenozoic extension in the northern Basin and Range Province, as indicated by magmatic and structural characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.M. )

    1993-04-01

    Although some workers in the central and southern Great Basin, Nevada and Utah, hold that Cenozoic crustal extension took place as a single, protracted episode that continues today, many studies indicate that two episodes took place. The distinction between episodes is especially clear in the northeastern Great Basin, where initial extension took place about 40--36 Ma, and extension was renewed from about 18 Ma to present. It appears that the early episode of extension was characterized by WSW hyperextension in north-trending linear zones, now about 130 km apart. Extension took place at the time of voluminous calc-alkaline intermediate to felsic magmatism, but magmatism was regional and not limited to the zones of extension. The first episode began later to the south, paralleling the southward progression of Great Basin magmatism as well as arc magmatism near the west coast. Later extension (Basin and Range sensu stricto) was WNW-directed and was initiated between 17 and 13 Ma region wide; it was accompanied by fundamentally basaltic magmatism throughout the region. Striking differences between the two extensional episodes indicates fundamentally different causes. Extensional zones of the early event were not localized by formerly thickened lithosphere, but rather appear to represent a periodic instability with characteristic wavelength of 80--100 km. The Basin and Range event was initiated during reorganization of the former subduction zone at the North American margin into lengthy transform margin, and coincided with the start of the eastern Snake River and Rio Grande rifts. Magmatism involved the crust less than in the early event.

  7. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Basis of characterization and evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, William H.; Sherman, Frank B.; Reed, J.E.; Brady, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    The geologic and hydrologic factors in selected regions of the Basin and Range province were examined to identify prospective areas for further study that may provide isolation of high-level radioactive waste from the accessible environment. The six regions selected for study were characterized with respect to the following guidelines: (1) Potential repository media; (2) Quaternary tectonic conditions; (3) climatic change and geomorphic processes; (4) ground-water conditions; (5) ground-water quality; and (6) mineral and energy resources.The repository medium will function as the first natural barrier to radionuclide travel by virtue of associated slow ground-water velocity. The principal rock types considered as host media include granitic, intermediate, and mafic intrusive rocks; argillaceous rocks; salt and anhydrite; volcanic mudflow (laharic) breccias; some intrusive rhyolitic plugs and stocks; partially zeolitized tuff; and metamorphic rocks. In the unsaturated zone, the permeability and hydrologic properties of the rocks and the hydrologic setting are more important than the rock type. Media ideally should be permeable to provide drainage and should have a minimal water fluxThe ground-water flow path from a repository to the accessible environment needs to present major barriers to the transport of radionuclides. Factors considered in evaluating the ground-water conditions include ground-water traveltimes and quality, confining beds, and earth materials favorable for retardation of radionuclides. Ground-water velocities in the regions were calculated from estimated hydraulic properties of the rocks and gradients. Because site-specific data on hydraulic properties are not available, data from the literature were assembled and synthesized to obtain values for use in estimating ground-water velocities. Hydraulic conductivities for many rock types having granular and fracture permeability follow a log-normal distribution. Porosity for granular and very weathered

  8. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  9. The Role of Heat in the Development of Energy and Mineral Resources in the Northern Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Richard L.

    It is now just over a decade since OPEC escalated the price of oil and triggered a flurry of alternate energy research and changing energy consumption practices. One scientific impact of that historical economic turning point was the launching of geothermal exploration programs of unprecedented intensity that focused on Cenozoic volcanic rocks and active, as well as fossil, geothermal systems. The good science that was already being done on such rocks and systems was both accelerated and diluted by government-funded research and energy industry exploration efforts. After the initial flood of detailed reports, gray literature, and documents interred in company files, we are observing the appearance of syntheses of just what happened and what progress was achieved during the geothermal boom (which has now wilted to the quiet development of a few most promising sites). Recent examples of geothermal synthesis literature include the book Geothermal Systems by L. Rybach and L.J. Muffler (John Wiley, New York, 1981), publications like Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Paper 15 by G.R. Priest et al. (1983) entitled “Geology and geothermal resources of central Oregon Cascade range,” and informative maps like the U.S. Geological Survey series summarizing late Cenozoic volcanic rock distribution and age (R.G. Luedke and R.L. Smith, maps 1-1091 A to D, 1979 to 1982), and state and regional geothermal resources maps (NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, 1977-1982). The book under review here is part of this second literature wave, a useful primary reference, collection of syntheses, and literature guide but certainly not unique.

  10. Lithology and evolution of the crust-mantle boundary region in the southwestern Basin and Range province

    SciTech Connect

    Wilshire, H.G. )

    1990-01-10

    Seismic transects in this area show a strongly reflective Moho of generally low relief, which, in the area of modern transects, consists of a thin zone (< 2 km thick) of short reflectors. The upper mantle is transparent and has a P{sub n} of 7.8-8.0 km/s similar to much of the western US. A lower crustal zone, 2-13 km thick, has variable internal reflectivity and a relatively low velocity of 6.6-6.8 km/s. Upper mantle peridotite xenoliths show both ductile and brittle deformational features and have structures and composition affected by magmatic intrusion; intrusions form complex dike systems and extensive zones of grain boundary infiltration in peridotite xenoliths. Whereas melt infiltration preceded and followed ductile deformation, brittle deformation, represented by closely spaced joint systems and faults, followed ductile deformation and is related to the youngest magmatic episodes. Lower crustal xenoliths are dominantly igneous-textured pyroxenites and mafic to intermediate gabbros identical to the dikes in peridotite xenoliths. The crustal xenoliths also commonly are jointed, and in addition many show partial melting and have abundant cavities that probably were filled with CO{sub 2}-rich fluids. These rocks are interpreted as products of underplated magmas that were fed through the mantle dike systems and may represent the lowest crustal unit identified in the seismic records. The mafic compositions and high densities of the crustal xenoliths indicate that the low velocity of the lower crust mat be caused in part by fracture systems, partial melts, and high temperatures. The preferred model for the evolution of the lower lithosphere is one in which extension affects the upper mantle as well as the crust and is overlapped in time by multiple magmatic episodes. The earliest magmatic events preceded extension, and later events accompanied and followed extension.

  11. Geology and geochemistry of the Clear Creek intrusion-related gold occurrences, Tintina Gold Province, Yukon, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, E.E.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Hart, C.J.R.; Johnson, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Clear Creek gold occurrences lie within deformed lower greenschist-facies rocks of the western Selwyn basin. They consist of auriferous, sheeted quartz veins that cut six Cretaceous stocks and their hornfels. The veins contain 1-2% combined pyrite and arsenopyrite, with lesser pyrrhotite, bismuthinite, and scheelite, as well as 2-5 g/t Au. New 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of hydrothermal micas indicates that the veins formed within 1-2 million years of granitoid emplacement. Fluid inclusion microthermometry defines a parent ore fluid of -81 mol.% H2O, 14 mol.% CO2, 4 mol.% NaCl ?? KCl, and 1 mol.% CH4, which unmixed into a low- and high-salinity immiscible pair. This suggests a more saline parent fluid and a greater degree of fluid unmixing relative to the other occurrences in the eastern Tintina Gold Province. Inclusions trapped in As- and Bi-rich, high-gold grade veins have homogenization temperatures of 300-350??C, whereas inclusions found in more Ag- and Pb-rich veins are characterized by temperatures of 250-300??C. Fluid inclusion geobarometry suggests hydro-fracturing and gold deposition at 5-7 km depth. The ??18O values of quartz samples range from 13-16??? (per mil) and ??34S for sulfides are also consistent between -3.0???, 0???, with the exception of some outliers from the Contact Zone of the Pukelman stock that indicate a lower temperature second phase of mineralization. It remains uncertain as to whether the Clear Creek ore fluids were exsolved from magmas at depth or from devolatilization reactions within the contact metamorphic aureoles of the intrusions.

  12. Fault-related folding during extension: Plunging basement-cored folds in the Basin and Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, K.A.; John, Barbara E.

    1997-01-01

    Folds are able to form in highly extended areas where stratified cover rocks respond to basement fault offsets. The response of cover rocks to basement faulting can be studied especially well in plunging structures that expose large structural relief. The southern Basin and Range province contains plunging folds kilometres in amplitude at the corners of domino-like tilt blocks of basement rocks, where initially steep transverse and normal faults propagated upward toward the layered cover rocks. Exposed tilted cross sections, as much as 8 km thick, display transitions from faulted basement to folded cover that validate laboratory models of forced folds. The folded cover masks a deeper extensional style of brittle segmentation and uniform steep tilting.

  13. Evaluation of geothermal potential of Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province, New Mexico. Final technical report, January 1, 1977-May 31, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Callender, J.F.

    1985-04-01

    A study was made of the geological, geochemical and geophysical characteristics of potential geothermal areas in the Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province of New Mexico. Both regional and site-specific information is presented. Data was collected by: (1) reconnaissance and detailed geologic mapping, emphasizing Neogene stratigraphy and structure; (2) petrologic studies of Neogene igneous rocks; (3) radiometric age-dating; (4) geochemical surveying, including regional and site-specific water chemistry, stable isotopic analyses of thermal waters, whole-rock and mineral isotopic studies, and whole-rock chemical analyses; and (5) detailed geophysical surveys, using electrical, gravity and magnetic techniques, with electrical resistivity playing a major role. Regional geochemical water studies were conducted for the whole state. Integrated site-specific studies included the Animas Valley, Las Cruces area (Radium Springs and Las Alturas Estates), Truth or Consequences region, the Albuquerque basin, the San Ysidro area, and the Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente region. The Animas Valley and Las Cruces areas have the most significant geothermal potential of the areas studied. The Truth or Consequences and Albuquerque areas need further study. The San Ysidro and Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente regions have less significant geothermal potential. 78 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. [Relationship between cyberbullying and the suicide related psychological behavior among middle and high school students in Anhui Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gengfu; Fang, Yu; Jiang, Liu; Zhou, Guiyang; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Xiuxiu; Su, Puyu

    2015-11-01

    To examine the prevalence rate of cyberbullying in middle and high school students in Anhui Province and explore the relationship between cyberbullying and suicide related psychological behavior. A total of 5726 middle and high school students from the 7th to the 12th grades in three regular middle schools and three regular high schools recruited from three cities in the Anhui Province (Tongling, Chuzhou, and Fuyang). Tongling, Chuzhou, and Fuyang are in the south, middle and north of Anhui, respectively. Each city was selected one regular middle school and one regular high school, and 8 classes were selected form each grade from each school. A stratified cluster random sampling method was used to randomly select 5726 participants among the six schools. Self-reports on cyberbullying and suicide related psychological behavior were collected. Among these 5726 adolescents, 46.8% of them involved in cyberbullying. Among them, 3.2% were bullies, 23.8% were victims, and 19.8% were both. Prevalence rates of suicide idea, suicide plan, suicide preparation, suicide implementation were 19.3%, 6.9%, 4.7% and 1.8%, respectively. Cyberbullying involvement, as victims, bullies or bully-victims, increased the risk of four kinds of suicide related psychological behavior (suicide idea, suicide plan, suicide preparation, suicide implementation) (P < 0.05). Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence in middle and high school students. Additionally, cyberbullying is closely related to suicide related psychological behavior among middle and high school students.

  15. A Fold Province in the Hinterland of the Sevier Orogenic Belt in Eastern Nevada: A Valley and Ridge in the Basin and Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    The overprinting effects of Cenozoic extensional tectonism hinder analysis of the style, geometry, and timing of Cordilleran contractional deformation in the hinterland of the Sevier fold-thrust belt in Nevada. To address this problem, a 1:250,000-scale paleogeologic map of eastern Nevada, showing spatial distributions of Paleozoic-Mesozoic rocks exposed beneath a Paleogene unconformity, divided out at the formation scale, is integrated with maps of dip magnitude for Paleozoic-Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks, published sedimentary thickness records, and a published reconstruction of Basin and Range extension, in order to define and regionally-correlate thrust faults and folds, and estimate the pre-extensional amplitude, wavelength, and limb dips of folds. A new structural province, the Eastern Nevada fold belt (ENFB) is defined, and consists of a 100-150 km-wide region containing as many as five 1st-order, N-trending folds that can be traced for map distances between 100-250 km, have amplitudes between 2-4 km, wavelengths between 20-40 km, pre-extensional limb dips typically between 10-30˚, and deform rocks as young as Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. No regional-scale thrust faults or decollemont horizons breach modern exposure levels in the ENFB. ENFB folds are interpreted to have formed above a deep (≥10 km below the Paleogene unconformity), blind decollemont or shear zone, perhaps the westward projection of the master decollemont of the Sevier fold-thrust belt. Two additional structural provinces of the Sevier hinterland, the Central Nevada thrust belt (CNTB) and Western Utah thrust belt (WUTB), represent zones of N-striking, E-vergent thrust faults and folds that each accommodated ca. 10 km of shortening. Both thrust belts branch northward off of the Sevier thrust belt, and are interpreted to represent contemporary, interior components of the Sevier thrust system. The CNTB, WUTB, and the intervening ENFB collectively record low-magnitude (a few 10's of km) upper

  16. Contemporary tectonic deformation of the Basin and Range province, western United States: 10 years of observation with the Global Positioning System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammond, W.C.; Thatcher, W.

    2004-01-01

    We have estimated patterns and rates of crustal movement across 800 km of the Basin and Range at ???39?? north latitude with Global Positioning System surveys in 1992, 1996, 1998, and 2002. The total rate of motion tangent to the small circle around the Pacific-North America pole of rotation is 10.4 ?? 1.0 mm/yr, and motion normal to this small circle is 3.9 ?? 0.9 mm/yr compared to the east end of our network. On the Colorado Plateau the east end of our network moves by ???1-2 mm/yr westerly with respect to North America. Transitions in strain rates delimit six major tectonic domains within the province. These deformation zones coincide with areas of modern seismicity and are, from east to west, (1) east-west extension in the Wasatch Fault zone, (2) low rate east-west extension centered near the Nevada-Utah border, (3) low rate east-west contraction between 114.7??W and 117.9??W, (4) extension normal to and strike-slip motion across the N10??E striking Central Nevada Seismic Zone, (5) right lateral simple shear oriented N13??W inside the Walker Lane Belt, and (6) shear plus extension near the Sierra Nevada frontal faults. Concentration of shear and dilatational deformation across the three westernmost zones suggests that the Walker Lane Belt lithosphere is rheologically weak. However, we show that linear gradients in viscosity and gravitational potential energy can also effectively concentrate deformation. In the Basin and Range, gradients in gravitational potential are spatially anticorrelated with dilatational strain rates, consistent with the presence of horizontal variations in viscosity of the lithosphere.

  17. Integration of the Gila River drainage system through the Basin and Range province of southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2015-05-01

    The Gila River and its tributaries in southern Arizona and adjoining states incorporate several dozen individual extensional basins of the central Basin and Range province into a single integrated drainage network. Forty basins in the Gila domain contain more than 1000 m (maximum ~ 3500 m) of post-12 Ma basin fill. Subsurface evaporites in many basins document internal drainages terminating in isolated playa lakes during early phases of basin history. The nature of intrabasinal and interbasinal divides and of eroded or sedimented stream passages through mountain ranges intervening between the basins reveal the geomorphic mechanisms that achieved drainage integration over late Miocene to early Pleistocene time. Drainage integration accompanied by headward erosion eastward toward Gila headwaters was a response to Miocene opening of the Gulf of California, into which the Gila River debouched directly before the Pliocene (< 5 Ma) lower course of the Colorado River was established. Residual basins of internal drainage where headward erosion has not yet penetrated into basin fill are most common in the easternmost Gila domain but also persist locally farther west. Most basin fill was dissected during drainage integration within the upstream Gila domain but continued accumulation of undissected basin fill by sediment aggradation is dominant in the downstream Gila domain. Basin dissection was initiated by Pliocene time in the central Gila domain but was delayed until Pleistocene time farther east. In the westernmost Gila domain, interaction with erosional and depositional episodes along the Colorado River influenced the development of Quaternary landscapes along the tributary Gila River. The sedimentary history of the Gila drainage network illustrates the means by which trunk rivers can establish courses across corrugated topography produced by the extensional rupture of continental blocks.

  18. [Prevalence and related risk factors on smoking among pupils in Shandong province].

    PubMed

    Wei, Xia; Sun, Tong; Zhou, Pei-jing; Chen, Ren-you; Kang, Dian-min

    2013-11-01

    To study the prevalence of smoking and its influential factors among pupils in Shandong. A multi-stage stratified-cluster random sampling method was used in the survey. 6050 students from 3 different cities of Shandong province were selected as the study population. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed and the survey was conducted by trained investigators. The rate of attempting smoking among pupils under study in Shandong province was 6.0% while the current smoking rate was 1.2%. The average age of children who initiated smoking cigarette was 7.8±2.1 with 80.5% of them due to curiosity. 34.7% of them got the cigarettes from their families. In terms of the motivation of buying cigarettes, 74.3% of them claimed that the access to purchase was easy. Data from multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that the smoking behavior of pupils was influenced by their familial or surrounding environments. Tobacco control programs on pupils should be strengthened with more powerful control measures including health education.

  19. [Prevalence and related factors of injury caused by agricultural machinery in the 3 provinces Shandong, Henan and Hebei of China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Long-yu; Zhao, Na; Zheng, Lei; Hu, Mei-rong; Fu, Xiang-hua; Xiang, Hui-yun; Wang, Zeng-zhen

    2013-12-01

    To study the prevalent characteristics and related factors of injuries caused by agricultural machinery in 3 provinces Shandong, Henan and Hebei in China. A total of 1621 agricultural machinery operators aged between 18 and 60 years old from Shandong, Henan and Hebei provinces were selected by purposive-cluster sampling method in 2009. Demographic characteristics, injury history caused by agricultural machinery in the last year and the related social and psychological factors were collected by self-designed questionnaire. We used statistical description to report the injury prevalence, and adopted the univariate and multivariate analysis to explore the risk factors. The average incidence of injuries caused by agricultural machinery was 13.44% (213/1585) in the three provinces, of which 14.46% (202/1397) in males and 5.85% (11/188) in females (χ(2) = 10.56, P < 0.01). Most of injuries (155 cases, 72.77%) occurred between April and August. Being stuck by rolling starting handles (45 cases, 21.13%), being crushed by running or dropping machineries (32 cases, 15.02%), fall from machines (28 cases, 13.15%) ranked the top three causes of injuries. The main related machines were tractors and motor tricycles (133 cases, 62.44%). The leading types of injuries were scratch (115 cases, 53.99%), strain (68 cases, 31.92%) and fracture (37 cases, 17.37%). of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being male (OR = 3.18, 95%CI:1.65-6.15), educational level above high school(OR = 1.69, 95%CI:1.21-2.34), annual family income <2000 yuan (OR = 1.94, 95%CI:1.13-3.32), operating experience ≤ 5 years (OR = 1.70, 95%CI:1.13-2.55), daytime sleepiness (OR = 2.89, 95%CI:1.66-5.01), smoking during machinery operation (OR = 1.43, 95%CI:1.05-1.96), bearing debts (OR = 1.88, 95%CI:1.35-2.63) and suffering from other diseases (OR = 1.42, 95%CI:1.02-1.98) were risk factors of agricultural machinery injuries. The average incidence of injuries caused by agricultural machinery in

  20. Fault-related fluid flow, Beech Mountain thrust sheet, Blue Ridge Province, Tennessee-North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, W.K.; Mora, C.I. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The latest proterozoic Beech Granite is contained within the Beech Mountain thrust sheet (BMTS), part of a middle-late Paleozoic thrust complex located between Mountain City and Grandfather Mountain windows in the western Blue Ridge of TN-NC. At the base of the BMTS, Beech Granite is juxtaposed against lower Paleozoic carbonate and elastics of the Rome Fm. along the Stone Mountain thrust on the southeaster margin of the Mountain City window. At the top of the BMTS, Beech Granite occurs adjacent to Precambrian mafic rocks of the Pumpkin Patch thrust sheet (PPTS). The Beech Granite is foliated throughout the BMTS with mylonitization and localized cataclasis occurring within thrust zones along the upper and lower margins of the BMTS. Although the degree of mylonitization and cataclasis increases towards the thrusts, blocks of relatively undeformed granite also occur within these fault zones. Mylonites and thrusts are recognized as conduits for fluid movement, but the origin of the fluids and magnitude and effects of fluid migration are not well constrained. This study was undertaken to characterize fluid-rock interaction within the Beech Granite and BMTS. Extensive mobility of some elements/compounds within the thrust zones, and the isotopic and mineralogical differences between the thrust zones and interior of the BMTS indicate that fluid flow was focused within the thrust zones. The wide range of elevated temperatures (400--710 C) indicated by qz-fsp fractionations suggest isotopic disequilibrium. Using a more likely temperature range of 300--400 C for Alleghanian deformation, calculated fluid compositions indicate interactions with a mixture of meteoric-hydrothermal and metamorphic water with delta O-18 = 2.6--7.5[per thousand] for the upper thrust zone and 1.3 to 6.2[per thousand] for the lower thrust zone. These ranges are similar to isotopic data reported for other Blue Ridge thrusts and may represent later periods of meteoric water influx.

  1. Modeling Relative Position Relative Velocity and Range Rate for Formation Flying

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    The epoch is near the autumnal equinox and the orbit plane is nearly parallel to the sun-earth vector. This explains why the effect is mostly in the...improve if fl is changed or an epoch not so close to equinox is used. A projected circular case was run at 600 km altitude. Unexpectedly, the relative

  2. Closely related and novel range expanders influence native plant communities by changing soil communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Kelly; Koorem, Kadri

    2017-04-01

    Climate change induced range expansions of plants drive the formation of novel communities both belowground (microbes) and aboveground (plants). Range-expanding plants can influence native species by disrupting original plant-soil feedbacks. Further, plant species, which are successful in expanding their range as a response of climate warming, are expected to thrive in their new range due to the lack of above-and belowground enemies. However, it remains unclear how the relatedness of range expanding plant species to native plants determines their effects on natives and whether these effects depend on the evolutionary history between plant species and soil communities. Here we show that range expanding plant species experience enemy release not by moving long geographical distances but by establishing in the soil of distantly related species. We grew plant communities of native as well as their closely and distantly related range expanding species in communities with soil communities across the Europe. We demonstrate that not signal of plant species determines microbial community composition and effect. In all soils, native and closely related range expanders shaped similar microbial communities, which differed from these of associated with novel expanders. In all soils, plant communities experienced negative feedback from soil communities, shaped by their closely related species. Our community-level study demonstrated that considering phylogenetic distance of plant communities can help to predict plant species success in expanding their range.

  3. Moderate rates of late Quaternary slip along the northwestern margin of the Basin and Range Province, Surprise Valley fault, northeastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; Machette, Michael N.; Mahan, Shannon; Lidke, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The 86-km-long Surprise Valley normal fault forms part of the active northwestern margin of the Basin and Range province in northeastern California. We use trench mapping and radiocarbon, luminescence, and tephra dating to estimate displacements and timing of the past five surface-rupturing earthquakes on the central part of the fault near Cedarville. A Bayesian OxCal analysis of timing constraints indicates earthquake times of 18.2 ± 2.6, 10.9 ± 3.2, 8.5 ± 0.5, 5.8 ± 1.5, and 1.2 ± 0.1 ka. These data yield recurrence intervals of 7.3 ± 4.1, 2.5 ± 3.2, 2.7 ± 1.6, and 4.5 ± 1.5 ka and an elapsed time of 1.2 ± 0.1 ka since the latest surface-rupturing earthquake. Our best estimate of latest Quaternary vertical slip rate is 0.6 ?? 0.1 mm/a. This late Quaternary rate is remarkably similar to long-term (8-14 Ma) minimum vertical slip rates (>0.4-0.5 ± 0.3 mm/a) calculated from recently acquired seismic reflection and chronologic and structural data in Surprise Valley and the adjacent Warner Mountains. However, our slip rate yields estimates of extension that are lower than recent campaign GPS determinations by factors of 1.5-4 unless the fault has an unusually shallow (30°-35°) dip as suggested by recently acquired seismic reflection data. Coseismic displacements of 2-4.5 ± 1 m documented in the trench and probable rupture lengths of 53-65 km indicate a history of latest Quaternary earthquakes of M 6.8-7.3 on the central part of the. Surprise Valley fault.

  4. Relative inequalities in geographic distribution of health care resources in Kermanshah province, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, S; Karyani, A K; Fallah, R; Matin, B K

    2016-04-19

    This study aimed to evaluate inequalities in the geographical distribution of human and physical resources in the health sector of Kermanshah province, Islamic Republic of Iran. In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, data from the Statistical Centre of Iran were used to calculate inequality measures (Gini coefficient and index of dissimilarity) over the years 2005-11. The highest Gini coefficient for human resources was observed for pharmacists in 2005 (0.75) and the lowest for paramedics in 2010 and 2011 (0.10). The highest indices of dissimilarity were also for pharmacists in 2005 (29%) and paramedics in 2011 (3%). For physical resources, the highest and lowest Gini coefficients were for rehabilitation centres in 2010 (0.59) and health houses in 2011 (0.12) respectively. Generally, inequalities in the distribution of health care resources were lower at the end of the study period, although there was potential for more equitable distribution of pharmacists, specialists, health houses and beds.

  5. Relation of MAGSAT Anomalies to the Main Tectonic Provinces of South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lidiak, E. G.; Keller, G. R. (Principal Investigator); Yuan, D. W.; Longacre, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    Comparison of MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data to the main tectonic provinces and boundaries of South America reveals a number of geologic correlations. South America is divisible into a broad platform of Precambrian shields and cratons separated by Phanerozoic basins, grabens and aulacogens to the east, the Phanerozoic Patagonian Platform to the south, and the Mesozoic to Cenozoic Andean Fold Belt and Caribbean Mountain System to the west and north. The continental shields are mainly more magnetic then continental basins and orogenic belts. Cratons, mainly covered by younger sedimentary rocks, are generally associated with magnetic gradients. Most of the anomalies associated with the Patagonian Platform are positive and have higher amplitudes eastward away from the Andean Fold Belt. The northern Andes are coincident with positive magnetic anomalies, whereas the central and southern Andes are associated mainly with negative anomalies.

  6. Women's nutrient intakes and food-related knowledge in rural Kandal province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Lauren J; Summerlee, Alastair J S; Dewey, Cate E; Hak, Chantharith; Hall, Ann; Charles, Christopher V

    2014-01-01

    In Cambodia, both anaemia and vitamin A deficiency are serious health problems. Despite this, few comprehensive nutritional surveys have been completed to date. This study evaluates the adequacy of iron and vitamin A intakes, as well as women's nutritional knowledge in rural Kandal province. Twenty-four hour recalls, pile sort activities, socioeconomic surveys, focus groups, and market surveys were carried out with 67 women from 5 villages in rural Kandal Province. Ninety seven percent of women did not meet their daily-recommended intake of iron, while 70% did not meet their daily-recommended intake of vitamin A. Although many women consume vitamin A-rich and iron rich-foods daily, they do not consume large enough quantities of these foods. Results suggest that both the cost of foods as well as the extent of health knowledge is linked to nutritional practice. Most animal-source iron and vitamin A-rich foods are considered expensive; however, small fish, and several plant-source vitamin A-rich foods are inexpensive and easy to access. Despite health education, food restrictions lead some healthy foods to be considered to be harmful to women. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the importance of developing comprehensive nutritional interventions in Cambodia. Health programming must provide women with not only suggestions to include low-cost nutrient-rich foods, but also advise them about the quantities that are likely to have an impact on nutritional status. Programs should take a community-based, inter-sectoral approach that simultaneously combines culturally informed health education with initiatives that combat poverty and increase access to nutrient rich foods.

  7. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among rural married migrant women in Shandong Province, China: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Song, Yapei; Kang, Dianmin; Wang, Guoyong; Wei, Chongyi; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Zhu, Tiwen; Yang, Shan; Yu, Shaoqi; Wang, Hong; Ma, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Migrant women in China are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0 % of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed that married migrant women with a history of extramarital sex were more likely to be from Yunnan province, be living in Yantai city, be in their first marriage, have lower family income, have poor relationship with spouses, use drug, have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and have lower social support. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women are at higher risk for HIV infection and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population.

  8. [Effects of climate warming and drying on millet yield in Gansu Province and related countermeasures].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ling; Wang, Qiang; Deng, Zhen-yong; Guo, Xiao-qin; Ma, Xing-xiang; Ning, Hui-fang

    2010-11-01

    Based on the data of air temperature, precipitation, and millet yield from Ganzhou, Anding, and Xifeng, the representative stations in Hexi moderate arid oasis irrigation area, moderate sub-arid dry area in middle Gansu, and moderate sub-humid dry area in eastern Gansu, respectively, this paper calculated the regional active accumulated temperature of > or = 0 degrees C, > or =5 degrees C, > or =10 degrees C, > or =15 degrees C, and > or =20 degrees C in millet growth period, and the average temperature and precipitation in millet key growth stages. The millet climatic yield was isolated by orthogonal polynomial, and the change characteristics of climate and millet climatic yield as well as the effects of climate change on millet yield were analyzed by statistical methods of linear tendency, cumulative anomaly, and Mann-Kendall. The results showed that warming and drying were the main regional features in the modern climatic change of Gansu. The regional temperature had a significant upward trend since the early 1990s, while the precipitation was significantly reduced from the late 1980s. There were significant correlations between millet yield and climatic factors. The millet yield in dry areas increased with the increasing temperature and precipitation in millet key growth stages, and that in Hexi Corridor area increased with increasing temperature. Warming and drying affected millet yield prominently. The weather fluctuation index of regional millet yield in Xifeng, Anding, and Ganzhou accounted for 73%, 72%, and 54% of real output coefficient variation, respectively, and the percentages increased significantly after warming. Warming was conducive to the increase of millet production, and the annual increment of millet climatic yield in Xifeng, Anding, and Ganzhou after warming was 30.6, 43.1, and 121.1 kg x hm(-2), respectively. Aiming at the warming and drying trend in Gansu Province in the future, the millet planting area in the Province should be further

  9. The Pleistocene glaciations as evidences of the rejuvenation of the Altai Mountains Province in direction opposite to the propagation of the deformation related to India-Eurasia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agatova, A.; Nepop, R.

    2009-04-01

    of relative vertical displacement of tectonic blocks in scale of mountain ranges and intermontane depressions. This investigation revealed the varied tectonic movements within Altai Mountains Province. Obtained results are evidenced of consecutive increasing of mountain range altitudes from south-eastern part of Russian Altai to Gobi Altai where due to later uplift glaciation appeared just only in the late Pleistocene in spite of arid climate. These data according with the simplification of neotectonic structure of the Altai uplift and rejuvenation of sediment fillings of intermontane depressions in south-eastern direction argue for the rejuvenation of orogenic movements within Altai Mountains in the direction which is opposite to the propagation of the deformation related to India-Eurasia collision. This phenomenon can be explained on the basis of tectonic wave concept as the reflection of tectonic deformation wave from Western Siberia plate which cause following consecutive uplifting of southern mobile areas clamped between Djungar and Tuva-Mongolian microplates. This research was supported by RFBR (grant # 09-05-00932).

  10. Social factors related to quality of life among HIV infected children in ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kuntawee, Chalermkwan; Fungladda, Wijitr; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Chotpittayasunon, Tawee

    2010-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the social factors and quality of life of HIV infected children attending the Pediatric Infectious Disease Clinic, Sappasithiprasong Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand. Data were collected during October-November 2008, by interviewing caretakers and their children using a structured questionnaire. The children's families were in need of improved social support (84.5%), since community resources provided limited support, such as clothes, food, financial support, consultation, and information. The HIV infected children's quality of life needed improvement (78.7%). The factors associated with quality of life included having others as main caretakers (OR 4.64, 95% CI 1.45-14.78), parental death (OR 4.19, 95% CI 1.55-11.31), age of caregivers above 45 years old (OR 9.52, 95% CI 2.62-34.53), and family income less than THB 5,000 per month (OR 5.25, 95% CI 1.14-23.39). However, on multivariate analysis, only age of caregiver was a significant predictor for quality of life of the child. Children who were cared for by caregivers aged 45 years or above had a better quality of life than those whose caregivers were 20-45 years old (OR 6.32, 95% CI 1.12-35.62). Therefore, to improve quality of life among HIV infected children, age of caregiver is an important factor to be considered. Government and non-government organizations should focus on supporting caregivers in terms of food, financial, and emotional support based on resources available in the community.

  11. Species composition and abundance of mosquito larvae in relation with their habitat characteristics in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Nikookar, S H; Fazeli-Dinan, M; Azari-Hamidian, S; Mousavinasab, S N; Arabi, M; Ziapour, S P; Shojaee, J; Enayati, A

    2017-10-01

    Mosquitoes transmit a variety of diseases to humans. Their abundance and distribution are related to the characteristics of larval habitats. Mosquito larvae were collected from 120 natural and artificial habitats in 30 villages of 16 counties using standard 350 ml dippers and pipette, on a monthly basis from May-December 2014 in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Larval habitat characteristics were recorded separately, based on the conditions of the habitats (permanent or temporary, stagnant or running), type of habitats (natural or artificial), vegetation, exposure to sun, type of bed, water condition (clear or turbid), expanse (m), depth (cm, m) and temperature (°C) of habitats. The relationship between larval density and environmental variables was assessed by Chi-square tests. Totally, 19,840 larvae from three genera and 16 species were collected and identified. Anopheles maculipennis s.l. and Culex pipiens were the dominant species and collected with the highest density in plain areas. The highest number of larvae were collected from natural habitats (60.34%), including; river edge, marsh, pit and wetlands; with temporary and stagnant water, expanse of 0-5 m, depth of 1-25 cm, without plant, shadow-sun, muddy floor, turbid water, temperature 20-25°C and in sunny conditions. River edge and rice fields for An. maculipennis s.l and, wetlands and discarded tires for Cx. pipiens were the main larval habitats in the province. Statistical analysis revealed significant relation between occurrence of An. maculipennis s.l., Cx. pipiens, Culex torrentium, Culex mimeticus and Cs. annulata with each of the environmental variables (P < 0.001). These findings are essential in expanding our knowledge of the vectors ecology specially the type of habitat preference and will be beneficial in larval control programs.

  12. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease. PMID:20412567

  13. [HIV/AIDS related mortality in southern Shanxi province and its risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ning, Shaoping; Xue, Zidong; Wei, Jun; Mu, Shengcai; Xu, Yajuan; Jia, Shaoxian; Qiu, Chao; Xu, Jianqing

    2015-03-01

    To explore factors influencing mortality rate of HIV/AIDS and to improve the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART). By means of retrospective cohort study and the AIDS control information system, HIV/AIDS case reports and antiviral treatment information of 4 cities in southern Shanxi province up to end of December 2012 were selected, to calculate the mortality rate and treatment coverage based on further data collected, along with analysis using the Cox proportional hazards survival regression. 4 040 cases confirmed of HIV/AIDS were included in this study. The average age was (36.0 ± 12.9) years, with 65.3% being male, 56.5% being married, 73.5% having junior high school education or lower, 58.4% being peasants, 54.3% with sexually transmitted infection (40.1% were heterosexual, 14.2% were homosexual), and 38.9% were infected via blood transmission (20.2% were former plasma donors, 16.2% blood transfusion or products recipients, 2.4% were injection drug users). Overall mortality decreased from 40.2 per 100 person/year in 2004 to 6.3 per 100 person/year in 2012, with treatment coverage concomitantly increasing from almost 14.8% to 63.4%. Cox proportional hazards survival regression was used on 4 040 qualified cases, demonstrating the top mortality risk factor was without antiretroviral therapy (RR = 14.9, 95% CI: 12.7-17.4). Cox proportional hazards survival regression was made on 1 938 cases of antiviral treatment, demonstrating that the mortality risk of underweight or obese before treatment was higher than those of normal and overweight cases (RR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.6-4.5), and the mortality of those having a CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count ≤ 50 cells per µl before treatment was more than 50 cases (RR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.5-4.5); Cox proportional hazards survival regression was made on 2 102 cases of untreated cases, demonstrating the mortality risk of those initially diagnosed as AIDS was higher than those initially diagnosed as HIV (RR = 3.4, 95% CI: 2

  14. Passive relative ranging applied to sensor-to-sensor data association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, James L., II; Brahm, Steven J.; Zounes, Randolph S.; Whitt, Ellis

    2002-08-01

    Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) effectiveness depends on a system's capability to acquire, track, identify, and engage threat missiles. The probability of a successful engagement can be improved by performing multiple-sensor data fusion, especially if the participating sensor systems are based on both radar frequency (RF) and infrared (IR) phenomenology. In this paper, we apply this observation to the Target Object Map (TOM) correlation problem for the standard configuration of a kill vehicle (with a single or multicolor IR seeker) receiving uplinks from a ground based radar. Specifically, we examine the application of a relative ranging technique that augments the angles-only track information of a passive IR sensor with non-parametric range-ranking of the threat complex. Since data association performance is significantly better for three-dimensional (3-D) matching that for two-dimensional (2-D) matching, the idea is to take advantage of relative range-ranking information of the threat complex to potentially improve performance. Numerous techniques that attempt to extract absolute range estimates from a passive IR sensor have been investigated by researchers in the BMD community and it is understood that range information allows for improved threat tracking, radiant intensity estimates, and data association performance. However, extracting absolute target range estimates from irradiance measurements is extremely difficult because of the presence of data uncertainties/ambiguities, environment and sensor noises, and small angular rates of tracked objects. Passive Relative Ranging (PRR) is distinct in that it focuses on the relative range-ranking of objects; knowledge that one object is closer than a second object, while not relevant for improving track or intensity estimation performance, can possibly improve the performance of sensor-to-sensor object assignment. The proposed PRR technique is based on the physical range-squared relationship between intensity and

  15. Non-parametric estimation of age-related centiles over wide age ranges.

    PubMed

    Pan, H Q; Goldstein, H; Yang, Q

    1990-01-01

    A new method for estimating age-related centile curves has been developed, which is suitable for measurement covering a wide age range. The method was used to calculate weight centile curves of 8995 children from birth to 6 years obtained by the Collaborating Centre for Physical Growth and Psychosocial Development of Children in Shanghai, China.

  16. Relative orbit determination for satellite formation flying based on quantum ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanghe; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Shanshan; Song, Shibin

    2015-08-01

    Relative orbit determination is widely used in the field of autonomously controlled satellite formation flying (SFF). Currently, some traditional techniques cannot meet the strict requirement of the accuracy of relative orbit determination for certain space missions. Thus, the primary purpose of this study is to design some special type of sensor to increase the accuracy of the distance measurement, which can eventually lead to an improvement in the accuracy of relative orbit determination for SFF. Two types of quantum sensors are proposed, based on the double-points quantum ranging (DPQR) and the triangle quantum ranging (TQR) schemes that utilize the second-order correlation between the entangled photons. Simulation result shows that the ranging accuracy of the TQR-type sensor is more precise than that of the DPQR-type one. Additionally, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is used to estimate the relative state of the SFF, which uses the TQR-type sensor as the measurement model compared with a traditional sensor. The simulation results show that the quantum sensor is superior to the traditional one and their estimation errors of the position and velocity remain within 1 cm and 1 mm/s, respectively, at a relative distance of 1 km between the chief and deputy satellites.

  17. Perception of relative location of F0 within the speaking range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honorof, Douglas N.; Whalen, D. H.

    2003-10-01

    It has been argued that intrinsic fundamental frequency (IF0) is an automatic consequence of vowel production [Whalen et al., J. Phon. 27, 125-142 (1999)], yet speakers do not adjust F0 so as to overcome IF0. It may be that so adjusting F0 would distort information about F0 range-information important to the interpretation of F0. Therefore, a speech production/perception experiment was designed to determine whether listeners can perceive position within a speaker-specific F0 range on the basis of isolated tokens. Ten male and ten female adult native speakers of US English were recorded speaking (not singing) the vowel /a/ on eight different pitches spaced throughout speaker-specific ranges. Recordings were randomized across speakers. Naive listeners made pitch-magnitude estimates of the location of F0 relative to each speaker's range. Preliminary results show correlations between estimated and actual location within the range. Adjusting F0 to compensate for IF0 differences between vowels would seem to obscure voice quality in such a way as to make it difficult for the listener to recover relative F0, requiring a greater perceptual adjustment than simply normalizing for IF0. [Work supported by NIH Grant No. DC02717.

  18. Metabauxite horizons containing remobilized-origin gem diaspore and related mineralization, Milas-Muğla province, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Türk, Necdet; Chamberlain, Steven C.; Murat Akgün, A.

    2010-10-01

    Remobilized-origin gem diaspore and related minerals occur as infill within structurally controlled voids that developed in the upper of two distinct karst unconformity-type metabauxite (diasporite) horizons in the İlbir Mountains area of the Milas-Muğla province, SW Turkey. Colour-change diaspore (trademarked as zultanite) and associated mineral specimens (greenish muscovite, chloritoid, donbassite, specular hematite, ilmenite, goethite, and younger calcite) occur in fracture zones (veins and open structures) that cross-cut the metabauxite horizons. The mineralized fracture zones do not extend into the enclosing marbles, probably because of the ductility contrast between the brittle bauxite and relatively plastic carbonate beds. Thick, white to light gray and dark gray limestone beds were deposited in the İlbir Mountains area during the Cretaceous (146-65 Ma), and contain two stratigraphically distinct karst-fill bauxite horizons. Al-, Fe-, Si- and Ti-rich solutions that infiltrated the karstified limestone probably originated from altered schist and gneiss that surround the basin. The limestone beds (>2000 m thick) were subjected to burial metamorphism, forming marble. Subsequently, the marble block was folded during nappe emplacement toward the SSW as part of late Alpine contractional deformation during the Paleogene (65-23.8 Ma). The upper bauxite horizons within the folded block were cross-cut by fracture zones because of their relatively brittle rheology. At this time, increased pressure and temperature in the bauxite horizons resulted in remobilization of the primary constituents of the bauxite within an aqueous complex, resulting in the crystallization of coarse-grained assemblages in the cross-cutting structures. Ultimately, erosion and mineral exploration revealed the steeply dipping bauxite outcrops and mine workings evident today. This paper focuses on the mine geology of surface outcrops of diasporic bauxite, the upper bauxite horizon within

  19. Relative lateration across the Los Angeles basin using a satellite laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.; Cahill, T.; Dorman, J.

    1982-01-01

    In January of 1981 the Transportable Laser Ranging System (TLRS) developed for NASA by the University of Texas was used to conduct a four-day test of the relative lateration technique. The test evolved making repeated measurements of six lines over the Los Angeles basin varying in distance from 26 to 84 kilometers. Although the raw times-of-flight to the various targets changed typically by 5 parts in 10 to the 6th, their line ratios varied nearly an order of magnitude less. The test suggests that the TLRS or other pulsed laser ranging systems might be able to economically combine Lageos ranging and long baseline horizontal work to survey large areas for accumulating crustal strain.

  20. Single-plane versus three-plane methods for relative range error evaluation of medium-range 3D imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, David K.; Cournoyer, Luc; Beraldin, J.-Angelo

    2015-05-01

    Within the context of the ASTM E57 working group WK12373, we compare the two methods that had been initially proposed for calculating the relative range error of medium-range (2 m to 150 m) optical non-contact 3D imaging systems: the first is based on a single plane (single-plane assembly) and the second on an assembly of three mutually non-orthogonal planes (three-plane assembly). Both methods are evaluated for their utility in generating a metric to quantify the relative range error of medium-range optical non-contact 3D imaging systems. We conclude that the three-plane assembly is comparable to the single-plane assembly with regard to quantification of relative range error while eliminating the requirement to isolate the edges of the target plate face.

  1. Relating vegetation condition to grazing management systems in the central Keiskamma catchment, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakembo, Vincent; Ndou, Naledzani

    2017-04-01

    An investigation of the temporal changes in vegetation condition across the communal villages of the central Keiskamma catchment, Eastern Cape Province, in relation to local grazing management systems was conducted. Landsat TM images of 1984 and 1999, in conjunction with SPOT imagery of 2011 were used to assess the spatial trends in vegetation. Information regarding the functionality of local grazing management structures was obtained through structured interviews. Vegetation condition was related to grazing management systems using the logistic regression in Idrisi Selva remote sensing software. Analysis of vegetation condition trends revealed a consistent deterioration of vegetation condition in villages with weak grazing management systems. A statistically significant correlation between vegetation condition and grazing management systems was identified. High levels of vegetation degradation were associated with villages that did not adhere to sound grazing management practices. The introduction of another layer governance in the form of elected municipal committees weakened traditional village management structures. Strengthening traditional management committees should be the point of departure for vegetation restoration.

  2. Personal and organizational predictors of physicians' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to medical waste management in Mazandaran province (northern Iran).

    PubMed

    Jabbari, H; Farokhfar, M; Jafarabadi, M Asghari; Taghipour, H; Bakhshian, F; Rohane, S

    2012-07-01

    Medical waste management (MWM) is an important public health concern worldwide. Although physicians must participate in medical waste management, their personal and organizational predictors in this process are unknown. This study aimed to the determinants of physicians' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to MWM in eight hospitals of Mazandaran province, northern Iran. A validated, reliable self-administered questionnaire was used including 30 questions about the respondents' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) and personal and professional variables. Of a total of 200 physicians, 150 persons completed the questionnaire (response rate of 75%). The average score (± SD) for physicians' knowledge was 6.50 (± 1.50) out of 10, whereas those for attitudes and practices were 4.44 (± 0.88) and 4.02 (± 1.35) out of 5, respectively. Surgeons and orthopaedists had the lowest scores, whereas para-clinical specialists and internal medicine specialists had the highest scores. The score of knowledge showed significant differences among speciality groups and the various speciality groups' scores differed significantly only for knowledge (P = 0.024) and the mean of total KAP was significantly different between educational and non-educational hospitals (P < 0.05). As hospital type and physician speciality was related to the KAP concerning MWM, therefore it is recommend that all hospitals should develop appropriate protocols for medical waste management based on the this variables using a participatory process with teamwork and continuous training.

  3. Epidemiology of Injury-Related Death in Children under 5 Years of Age in Hunan Province, China, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Lili, Xiong; Jian, He; Liping, Li; Zhiyu, Liu; Hua, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Injury is an important cause of childhood mortality in China. We described the epidemiology and trends of injury-related deaths of children <5 years of age in Hunan province, and discussed several policy implications. Injury-related deaths of children <5 years of age in 2009-2014 were identified from surveillance data. All specific injury mortality and mortality rates in urban and rural area were calculated from census data; Cochran-armitage trend test was used to assess the time trends. Injury was the leading cause of death in children <5 years of age. Overall injury mortality was 48.96 per 100,000 persons, gradually declined with the year (Z = -18.75, P<0.001), and accounted for 27.14% of all deaths. Injury mortality in rural areas was 64.66 per 100,000 persons, which was more than 3.73 times higher than the rate in urban areas. The three leading causes of injury-related death were drowning (43.63%), suffocation (27.57%), and traffic accidents (14.34%). Suffocation was the leading cause in children <1 year of age (79.49%). Suffocation has high incidence in the winter and spring, and drowning has high incidence in the summer season. Drowning was the leading cause in children 1-4 years of age (62.80%). Drowning and suffocation accounted for 67.74% and 65.11%, of injury-related deaths that occurred at home; while the traffic injury deaths (54.12%) occurred mainly in transit. Injury-related fatalities in children <5 years of age followed time trends that were different in rural and urban areas. Effective childhood injury prevention may require different prevention policies combination depending on epidemiological characteristics such as development of injury surveillance and public education on injury knowledge. There is a need for evidence-based surveillance of risk factors for development of effective injury prevention programs.

  4. Feminization of Agriculture, Relational Exchange, and Perceived Fairness in China: A Case in Guangxi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuo, Jiping

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the inconsistency between the unequal allocation of family labor and a lack of perceived unfairness among spouses of male-outmigrant couples in rural Guangxi, China. It explores relational (versus transactional) exchange processes conditioned by husband-wife mutual dependence. Using both qualitative and quantitative data…

  5. Survey on Ranging Sensors and Cooperative Techniques for Relative Positioning of Vehicles.

    PubMed

    de Ponte Müller, Fabian

    2017-01-31

    Future driver assistance systems will rely on accurate, reliable and continuous knowledge on the position of other road participants, including pedestrians, bicycles and other vehicles. The usual approach to tackle this requirement is to use on-board ranging sensors inside the vehicle. Radar, laser scanners or vision-based systems are able to detect objects in their line-of-sight. In contrast to these non-cooperative ranging sensors, cooperative approaches follow a strategy in which other road participants actively support the estimation of the relative position. The limitations of on-board ranging sensors regarding their detection range and angle of view and the facility of blockage can be approached by using a cooperative approach based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The fusion of both, cooperative and non-cooperative strategies, seems to offer the largest benefits regarding accuracy, availability and robustness. This survey offers the reader a comprehensive review on different techniques for vehicle relative positioning. The reader will learn the important performance indicators when it comes to relative positioning of vehicles, the different technologies that are both commercially available and currently under research, their expected performance and their intrinsic limitations. Moreover, the latest research in the area of vision-based systems for vehicle detection, as well as the latest work on GNSS-based vehicle localization and vehicular communication for relative positioning of vehicles, are reviewed. The survey also includes the research work on the fusion of cooperative and non-cooperative approaches to increase the reliability and the availability.

  6. Survey on Ranging Sensors and Cooperative Techniques for Relative Positioning of Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    de Ponte Müller, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Future driver assistance systems will rely on accurate, reliable and continuous knowledge on the position of other road participants, including pedestrians, bicycles and other vehicles. The usual approach to tackle this requirement is to use on-board ranging sensors inside the vehicle. Radar, laser scanners or vision-based systems are able to detect objects in their line-of-sight. In contrast to these non-cooperative ranging sensors, cooperative approaches follow a strategy in which other road participants actively support the estimation of the relative position. The limitations of on-board ranging sensors regarding their detection range and angle of view and the facility of blockage can be approached by using a cooperative approach based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The fusion of both, cooperative and non-cooperative strategies, seems to offer the largest benefits regarding accuracy, availability and robustness. This survey offers the reader a comprehensive review on different techniques for vehicle relative positioning. The reader will learn the important performance indicators when it comes to relative positioning of vehicles, the different technologies that are both commercially available and currently under research, their expected performance and their intrinsic limitations. Moreover, the latest research in the area of vision-based systems for vehicle detection, as well as the latest work on GNSS-based vehicle localization and vehicular communication for relative positioning of vehicles, are reviewed. The survey also includes the research work on the fusion of cooperative and non-cooperative approaches to increase the reliability and the availability. PMID:28146129

  7. Sleep-Related Factors and Work-Related Injuries among Farmers in Heilongjiang Province, People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huiping; Han, Yunfeng; Sun, Yaowu; Xie, Zhiping; Qian, Xueyan; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun; Wang, Limin

    2014-01-01

    The association between sleep and work-related injuries among Chinese farmers has not been well studied. This study examined the impact of lack of sleep on agricultural work-related injuries among farmers in China. Data were from a cross-sectional survey of farm-workers in northeastern China. Information was obtained on injuries that occurred in 12 months prior to the survey, on eight sleep-related variables, and on socio-demographic variables. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that lack of sleep significantly increased the risk of work-related injuries after controlling for other injury-related risk- factors. Farmers who slept less than six hours per night were 59% more likely to be injured than those who slept more than eight hours per night (OR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.41). The odds of a work-related injury was 2.46 (1.56–3.89) for farmers who reported going to sleep after midnight at least once a week compared with farmers who reported going to sleep after midnight once a month. Farmers who reported having difficulty falling asleep or waking frequently during the night, who often having nightmares, or who experienced daytime sleepiness were at higher injury risk compared with the reference group after controlling for age, gender and alcohol consumption. Reduced sleep hours and poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk of work-related injuries in Chinese farmers. Sleep hours and sleep quality should be considered when assessing occupational safety among farmers. PMID:25216255

  8. Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Qom Province, Iran, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Gilasi, Hamid Reza; Soori, Hamid; Yazdani, Shahram; Taheri Tenjani, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Falls and related injuries are common health problems in the elderly. Fractures, brain and internal organ injuries and death are the common consequences of the falls, which result in dependence, decreased self-efficacy, fear of falling, depression, restricted daily activities, hospitalization and admission to the nursing home and impose costs on the individual and the society. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the types of fall-related injuries and the related risk factors in the elderly population of Qom province, Iran. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study was performed on 424 elderly people (65 years and over) referred to Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Qom, Iran, due to falls between 2010 and 2012. The ICD-10 codes of external causes of injury from w00 to w19 related to falls were selected from the health information system of the hospital and demographic variables of the patients and external causes of falls were extracted after accessing the files of the patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 (SPSS Inc., USA). The duration of hospital stay and its relationship with underlying variables were investigated using t test and ANOVA. The level of significance was considered P < 0.05. Results: Among 424 elderly people, 180 cases (42.45%) were male and the mean age of the patients was 78.65 ± 7.70 years. Fall on the same level from slipping, tripping, and stumbling was the most common external cause with 291 victims (68.60%), and hip fracture in 121 patients (29.00%), intertrochanteric fracture in 112 patients (26.90%), and traumatic brain injury in 51 patients (12.20%) were the most common causes of hospital stay. The mean hospital stay was 7.33 ± 3.63 days. Conclusions: Lower limb fracture and traumatic brain injury were the most common causes of hospitalization, which resulted in the longest hospital stay and highest hospitalization costs in the elderly. PMID:26064869

  9. Seed and Root Endophytic Fungi in a Range Expanding and a Related Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Geisen, Stefan; Kostenko, Olga; Cnossen, Mark C; Ten Hooven, Freddy C; Vreš, Branko; van der Putten, Wim H

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is accelerating the spread of plants and their associated species to new ranges. The differences in range shift capacity of the various types of species may disrupt long-term co-evolved relationships especially those belowground, however, this may be less so for seed-borne endophytic microbes. We collected seeds and soil of the range-expanding Centaurea stoebe and the congeneric Centaurea jacea from three populations growing in Slovenia (native range of both Centaurea species) and the Netherlands (expanded range of C. stoebe, native range of C. jacea). We isolated and identified endophytic fungi directly from seeds, as well as from roots of the plants grown in Slovenian, Dutch or sterilized soil to compare fungal endophyte composition. Furthermore, we investigated whether C. stoebe hosts a reduced community composition of endophytes in the expanded range due to release from plant-species specific fungi while endophyte communities in C. jacea in both ranges are similar. We cultivated 46 unique and phylogenetically diverse endophytes. A majority of the seed endophytes resembled potential pathogens, while most root endophytes were not likely to be pathogenic. Only one endophyte was found in both roots and seeds, but was isolated from different plant species. Unexpectedly, seed endophyte diversity of southern C. stoebe populations was lower than of populations from the north, while the seed endophyte community composition of northern C. stoebe populations was significantly different southern C. stoebe as well as northern and southern C. jacea populations. Root endophyte diversity was considerably lower in C. stoebe than in C. jacea independent of plant and soil origin, but this difference disappeared when plants were grown in sterile soils. We conclude that the community composition of fungal endophytes not only differs between related plant species but also between populations of plants that expand their range compared to their native habitat. Our

  10. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs.

  11. HIV/AIDS-Related Attitudes and Practices Among Traditional Healers in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Meridith; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Pires, Paulo; Vergara, Alfredo; Vermund, Sten H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To document HIV knowledge, treatment practices, and the willingness of traditional healers to engage with the health system in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Settings/location Traditional healers offer culturally acceptable services and are more numerous in Mozambique than are allopathic providers. Late presentation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reported among persons who have first sought care from traditional healers. Design One hundred and thirty-nine (139) traditional healers were interviewed in their native languages (Chuabo or Lomwe) in Zambézia Province. Furthermore, 24 traditional healers were observed during patient encounters. Healers answered a semistructured questionnaire regarding their knowledge of HIV/AIDS, general treatment practices, attitudes toward the allopathic health system, and their beliefs in their abilities to cure AIDS. Results Traditional healers were older and had less formal education than the general population. Razor cutting in order to rub herbs into bloodied skin was observed, and healers reported razor cutting as a routine practice. Healers stated that they did not refer HIV patients to clinics for two principal reasons: (1) patient symptoms/signs of HIV were unrecognized, and (2) practitioners believed they could treat the illness effectively themselves. Traditional healers were far more likely to believe in a spiritual than an infectious origin of HIV disease. Prior HIV/AIDS training was not associated with better knowledge or referral practices, though 81% of healers were interested in engaging allopathic providers. Conclusions It was found that the HIV-related practices of traditional healers probably increase risk for both HIV-infected and uninfected persons through delayed care and reuse of razors. Mozambican traditional healers attribute HIV pathogenesis to spiritual, not infectious, etiologies. Healers who had received prior HIV training

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) relating to brucellosis in smallholder dairy farmers in two provinces in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Arif, Shumaila; Thomson, Peter C; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; McGill, David M; Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Heller, Jane

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the extent of knowledge and understanding of brucellosis in smallholder dairy farmers and identify practices at the farm and household level that might pose a risk for humans contracting brucellosis. Between February and June 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted among smallholder farms (n = 420) in five districts of Punjab and two districts of Sindh province. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain information on farmers' knowledge about brucellosis and the potential risks for contracting the disease that are present for dairy farmers and their families. Logistic regression and ordinal logistic models were used to investigate potential predictors for risky behaviours. The results show almost all farmers (97%) were not aware of the modes of transmission of brucellosis. Relating to risk, the majority (66%) of the farmers' families were reported to consume raw milk and its products, live in shared housing with animals (49%) and not cover hand cuts during contact with animals (74%). All farmers performed at least one risky practice on a regular basis for brucellosis transmission from animal to human. A multivariable analysis highlighted that the respondents with no formal education and those who had not heard of the disease displayed greater risky behaviour. Poor understanding of the disease, presence of multiple risky practices on farm and at the household, and incorrect perception supports the need for an educational awareness program in order to ensure uptake of improved practices.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) relating to brucellosis in smallholder dairy farmers in two provinces in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Shumaila; Thomson, Peter C.; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; McGill, David M.; Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Heller, Jane

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the extent of knowledge and understanding of brucellosis in smallholder dairy farmers and identify practices at the farm and household level that might pose a risk for humans contracting brucellosis. Between February and June 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted among smallholder farms (n = 420) in five districts of Punjab and two districts of Sindh province. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain information on farmers’ knowledge about brucellosis and the potential risks for contracting the disease that are present for dairy farmers and their families. Logistic regression and ordinal logistic models were used to investigate potential predictors for risky behaviours. The results show almost all farmers (97%) were not aware of the modes of transmission of brucellosis. Relating to risk, the majority (66%) of the farmers’ families were reported to consume raw milk and its products, live in shared housing with animals (49%) and not cover hand cuts during contact with animals (74%). All farmers performed at least one risky practice on a regular basis for brucellosis transmission from animal to human. A multivariable analysis highlighted that the respondents with no formal education and those who had not heard of the disease displayed greater risky behaviour. Poor understanding of the disease, presence of multiple risky practices on farm and at the household, and incorrect perception supports the need for an educational awareness program in order to ensure uptake of improved practices. PMID:28301498

  14. Structure Of Conduits Of The Acidic Volcanism And Related Deposits In The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province, São Marcos Region, South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.; Janasi, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Voluminous acidic volcanics from the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province crop out in the southern part of Brazil. The conduits responsible for the feeding of this intermediate/acid volcanism are preserved and well exposed in the São Marcos region (Lima et al. 2012; Geologia USP 12:49-64). Conduits are aligned along a NW-SE trend and have thicknesses up to 1 km. These structures are often characterized by mixing between dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas, with intercalation between two major zones: 1) reddish or grayish vitrophiricdacite/rhyodacite, sub-divided in massive or vesiculated; 2) reddish or grayish vitrophiric fragmented dacite/rhyodacite composed of bubble-rich angular to rounded blocks. Such fragments commonly deform coeval to the flow. A third zone dominated by filaments depicts a chaotic stretching-and-folding process from the mixture of the acid magmas. We used classical field measurements of flow structures and recognized main flow directions in these feeder-dikes. They follow two preferential directions: NW, ranging from N272° to N 355°, and NE, varying from N20° to N85°. These directions are indicative of a transtensive fissural system, which seems to be related to conjugated fractures. Evidence of an important fragmentation process in the conduits point towards the presence of related products in this region, thus rheomorphic deposits such as those observed elsewhere (e.g. Uruguay and Namibia) are expected to occur. Possible vestiges of these deposits could be represented by restricted outcrops of lens-shaped and banded hipohyaline, occasionally bubble-rich, dacites. The presence of continuous pseudotachylitic levels, tightly folded bands with horizontal axial planes together with local deformed bubble-rich pumice-like lens could be indicative of remelting and rheomorphism of previous vulcanoclastic material. Coulees and compound (lobed) dacitic lava flows, reaching up to 5-8 meters length, occur as the uppermost deposits and correspond to the

  15. Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption among Youth in Jujuy Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, Ethel; Kaplan, Celia P; Nah, Gregory; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems among youth in Jujuy, Argentina. Material and Methods A survey was conducted in 2005 with a representative sample of 9th grade youth (12 to 17 years old) including sociodemographic and consumption data, and the AUDIT-C test. Results Nine percent of girls and 11% of boys reported hazardous drinking; 12% of girls and 19% of boys reported dependence symptoms. The odds ratio for dependence symptoms (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) and for hazardous drinking (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) was significantly lower for girls compared with boys. Older age, working, and attending night school were risk factors for hazardous drinking, dependence symptoms, and harmful drinking. Conclusions A significant proportion of youth reported problematic patterns of alcohol drinking, highlighting the need to implement prevention and treatment interventions tailored to the adolescent population. PMID:18670721

  16. The nonlinear variation of drought and its relation to atmospheric circulation in Shandong Province, East China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongsheng; Yuan, Xingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention has recently been devoted to the linear trend of drought at the decadal to inter-decadal time scale; however, the nonlinear variation of drought at multi-decadal scales and its relation to atmospheric circulation need to be further studied. The linear and nonlinear variations of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) in Shandong from 1900 to 2012 and its relations to the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Siberian high (SH) and Southern Oscillation (SO) phase changes from multi-scale are detected using linear regression, the Mann–Kendall test, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the Pearson correlation analysis method. The results indicate that the PDSI shows no statistically significant linear change trend from 1900 to 2012; however, before (after) the late 1950s, PDSI shows a significant upward (downward) trend (P < 0.01) with a linear rate of 0.28/decade (−0.48/decade). From 1900 to 2012, the PDSI also exhibits a nonlinear variation trend at the inter-annual scale (quasi-3 and quasi-7-year), inter-decadal scale (quasi-14-year) and multi-decadal scale (quasi-46 and quasi-65-year). The variance contribution rate of components from the inter-annual scale is the largest, reaching 38.7%, and that from the inter-decadal scale and multi-decadal scale are 18.9% and 19.0%, respectively, indicating that the inter-annual change exerts a huge influence on the overall PDSI change. The results also imply that the effect of the four atmospheric circulations (PDO, ENSO, SH, SO) on PDSI at the multi-decadal variability scale are more important than that at the other scales. Consequently, we state that PDSI variation at the inter-annual scale has more instability, while that at the inter-decadal and multi-decadal scale is more strongly influenced by natural factors. PMID:26528402

  17. Genomic Variation, Host Range, and Infection Kinetics of Closely Related Cyanopodoviruses from New England Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veglia, A. J.; Milford, C. R.; Marston, M.

    2016-02-01

    Viruses infecting marine Synechococcus are abundant in coastal marine environments and influence the community composition and abundance of their cyanobacterial hosts. In this study, we focused on the cyanopodoviruses which have smaller genomes and narrower host ranges relative to cyanomyoviruses. While previous studies have compared the genomes of diverse podoviruses, here we analyzed the genomic variation, host ranges, and infection kinetics of podoviruses within the same OTU. The genomes of fifty-five podoviral isolates from the coastal waters of New England were fully sequenced. Based on DNA polymerase gene sequences, these isolates fall into five discrete OTUs (termed RIP - Rhode Island Podovirus). Although all the isolates belonging to the same RIP have very similar DNA polymerase gene sequences (>98% sequence identity), differences in genome content, particularly in regions associated with tail fiber genes, were observed among isolates in the same RIP. Host range tests reveal variation both across and within RIPs. Notably within RIP1, isolates that had similar tail fiber regions also had similar host ranges. Isolates belonging to RIP4 do not contain the host-derived psbA photosynthesis gene, while isolates in the other four RIPs do possess a psbA gene. Nevertheless, infection kinetic experiments suggest that the latent period and burst size for RIP4 isolates are similar to RIP1 isolates. We are continuing to investigate the correlations among genome content, host range, and infection kinetics of isolates belonging to the same OTU. Our results to date suggest that there is substantial genomic variation within an OTU and that this variation likely influences cyanopodoviral - host interactions.

  18. Strainrange partitioning - A total strain range version. [for creep fatigue life prediction by summing inelastic and elastic strain-range-life relations for two Ni base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.; Saltsman, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures are presented for expressing the Strainrange Partitioning (SRP) method for creep fatigue life prediction in terms of total strain range. Inelastic and elastic strain-range - life relations are summed to give total strain-range - life relations. The life components due to inelastic strains are dealt with using conventional SRP procedures while the life components due to elastic strains are expressed as families of time-dependent terms for each type of SRP cycle. Cyclic constitutive material behavior plays an important role in establishing the elastic strain-range life relations as well as the partitioning of the inelastic strains. To apply the approach, however, it is not necessary to have to determine the magnitude of the inelastic strain range. The total strain SRP approach is evaluated and verified using two nickel base superalloys, AF2-1DA and Rene 95. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between observed and predicted cyclic lifetimes with 70 to 80 percent of the predicted lives falling within factors of two of the observed lives. The total strain-range SRP approach should be of considerable practical value to designers who are faced with creep-fatigue problems for which the inelastic strains cannot be calculated with sufficient accuracy to make reliable life predictions by the conventional inelastic strain range SRP approach.

  19. Nuclear matrix element of neutrinoless double-β decay: Relativity and short-range correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, L. S.; Yao, J. M.; Ring, P.; Meng, J.

    2017-02-01

    Background:The discovery of neutrinoless double-β (0 ν β β ) decay would demonstrate the nature of neutrinos, have profound implications for our understanding of matter-antimatter mystery, and solve the mass hierarchy problem of neutrinos. The calculations for the nuclear matrix elements M0 ν of 0 ν β β decay are crucial for the interpretation of this process. Purpose: We study the effects of relativity and nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations on the nuclear matrix elements M0 ν by assuming the mechanism of exchanging light or heavy neutrinos for the 0 ν β β decay. Methods:The nuclear matrix elements M0 ν are calculated within the framework of covariant density functional theory, where the beyond-mean-field correlations are included in the nuclear wave functions by configuration mixing of both angular-momentum and particle-number projected quadrupole deformed mean-field states. Results: The nuclear matrix elements M0 ν are obtained for ten 0 ν β β -decay candidate nuclei. The impact of relativity is illustrated by adopting relativistic or nonrelativistic decay operators. The effects of short-range correlations are evaluated. Conclusions: The effects of relativity and short-range correlations play an important role in the mechanism of exchanging heavy neutrinos though the influences are marginal for light neutrinos. Combining the nuclear matrix elements M0 ν with the observed lower limits on the 0 ν β β -decay half-lives, the predicted strongest limits on the effective masses are ||<0.06 eV for light neutrinos and | |-1>3.065 ×108GeV for heavy neutrinos.

  20. [Factors related to the influence on congenital malformation of body surface in Shaanxi province].

    PubMed

    Ying, J; Lei, Q; Qin, B W; Qu, P F; Lei, F L; Dang, S N; Zeng, L X; Yan, H

    2016-12-10

    Objective: To investigate the influencing factors on congenital malformation of body surface. Methods: Multi-stage stratified random sampling method was adopted. A questionnaire survey was conducted among the childbearing aged women who experienced more than 28 weeks pregnancy or having definite pregnancy outcomes in Shaanxi, during 2010-2013. Results: Results from the logistic regression model showed that factors as: intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (OR=21.76, 95%CI: 4.46-106.25), histories with abnormal pregnancy or reproduction (OR=11.88, 95%CI: 9.14-15.45), having birth defects in the family (OR=6.15, 95%CI: 2.66-14.23), being twins (OR=5.74, 95% CI: 3.34-9.86), being worker (compared with others, OR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.30-4.68) or farmer (compared with others, OR=1.91, 95%CI: 1.14-3.20), less than 4 times of antenatal care (compared with >7, OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.28-2.64), occupational exposure to related risks during pregnancy (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.26-2.42), mother's hometown was from mid-part of Shaanxi (compared with northern Shaanxi, OR=1.65, 95%CI: 1.20-2.28), mother's native residence was from the rural areas (OR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.13-2.71), drug use (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.26-2.13) etc. were risk factors for congenital malformation of body surface. Iron supplement during pregnancy (OR=0.46, 95%CI: 0.21-0.99) appeared as protective factor for congenital malformation of body surface. Conclusion: The following factors seemed to be of risk for congenital malformation of body surface, including: mother's native area was from the middle part of Shaanxi and living in rural area, being worker or farmer, histories of abnormal pregnancy and reproduction, history of birth defects in the family, being twins, with antenatal care less than 4 times, occupational exposure to dangerous materials, drug use, intrahepatic cholestasis during pregnancy etc.

  1. The relations between natural gas hydrate distribution and structure on Muli basin Qinghai province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C.; Li, Y.; Lu, Z.; Luo, S.; Qu, C.; Tan, S.; Zhang, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Muli area is located in a depression area which between middle Qilian and south Qilian tectonic elements. The natural gas hydrate stratum belongs the Jurassic series coal formation stratum, the main lithological character clamps the purple mudstone, the siltstone, the fine grain sandstone and the black charcoal mudstone for the green gray. The plutonic metamorphism is primarily deterioration function of the Muli area coal, is advantageous in forming the coal-bed gas. Cretaceous system, the Paleogene System and Neogene System mainly include the fine grain red clastic rock and clay stone. The distribution of Quaternary is widespread. The ice water - proluvial and glacier deposit are primarily depositional mode. The Qilian Montanan Muli permafrost area has the good gas source condition (Youhai Zhu 2006) and rich water resources. It is advantage to forming the natural gas hydrate. The natural gas hydrate is one kind of new latent energy, widely distributes in the mainland marginal sea bottom settlings and land permanent tundra. Through researching the area the structure ,the deposition carries on the analysis and responds the characteristic analysis simulation in the rock physics analysis and the seismic in the foundation, and then the reflected seismic data carried by tectonic analysis processing and the AVO characteristic analysis processing reveal that the research area existence natural gas hydrate (already by drilling confirmation) and the natural gas hydrate distribution and the structure relations is extremely close. In the structure development area, the fault and the crevasse crack growing, the natural gas hydrate distribution characteristic is obvious (this is also confirmed the storing space of natural gas hydrate in this area is mainly crevasse crack). This conclusion also agree with the actual drilling result. The research prove that the distribution of natural gas hydrate in this area is mainly controlled by structure control. The possibility of fault

  2. The Moon as a Laser-ranged Test Body for General Relativity and New Gravitational Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agnello, Simone; Currie, Douglas

    Since the 1970s Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo/Lunokhod Cube Corner Retroreflector (CCR) Arrays supplied some of the best tests of General Relativity (GR): possible changes in the gravitational constant, gravitational self-energy (PPN parameter beta), weak equivalence principle, geodetic precession, inverse-square force-law. Secondly, LLR has provided significant information on the composition of the deep interior of the Moon. LLR physics analysis also allows to set constraints on extensions of GR (like spacetime torsion) and, possibly, on new gravitational physics which may explain the gravitational universe without Dark Matter and Dark Energy (like, for example, Non-Minimally Coupled gravity, NMC). LLR is the only Apollo/Lunokhod experiment still in operation, since 45 years. In the 1970s Apollo/Lunokohd LLR Arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the ranging error budget. Since the ranging capabilities of ground stations improved by more than two orders of magnitude, now, because of the lunar librations, Apollo/Lunokhod CCR arrays dominate the error budget. With the US/Italy project "LLRRA21/MoonLIGHT (Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st century / Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity High accuracy Tests)", University of Maryland and INFN-LNF developed and tested a next-generation LLR payload made by a single, large CCR (100 mm diameter), unaffected by the effect of librations. In fact, we will show that MoonLIGHT reflectors will improve the LLR accuracy by a factor of ten to one hundred in a few years. INFN-LNF also developed a laser retroreflector micropayload to be deployed on the lunar surface to be laser-ranged by lunar orbiters. The latter micropayload will further extend the physics reach of Apollo, Lunokhod and MoonLIGHT CCRs to improve all precision tests of GR and new gravitational physics using LLR data. As an added value for the LRR and SLR (Satellite Laser ranging) disciplines INFN-LNF built and is

  3. Secreted effectors in Toxoplasma gondii and related species: determinants of host range and pathogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    English, E D; Adomako-Ankomah, Y; Boyle, J P

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the discovery of a number of secreted proteins in Toxoplasma gondii that play important roles in host–pathogen interactions and parasite virulence, particularly in the mouse model. However, the role that these proteins play in driving the unique features of T. gondii compared to some of its nearest apicomplexan relatives (Hammondia hammondi and Neospora caninum) is unknown. These unique features include distinct dissemination characteristics in vivo and a vast host range. In this review we comprehensively survey what is known about disease outcome, the host response and host range for T. gondii, H. hammondi, and N. caninum. We then review what is presently known about recently identified secreted virulence effectors in these three genetically related, but phenotypically distinct, species. Finally we exploit the existence of genome sequences for these three organisms and discuss what is known about the presence, and functionality, of key T. gondii effectors in these three species. PMID:25655311

  4. Epidemiology of Injury-Related Death in Children under 5 Years of Age in Hunan Province, China, 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Lili, Xiong; Jian, He; Liping, Li; Zhiyu, Liu; Hua, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Background Injury is an important cause of childhood mortality in China. We described the epidemiology and trends of injury-related deaths of children <5 years of age in Hunan province, and discussed several policy implications. Methods Injury-related deaths of children <5 years of age in 2009–2014 were identified from surveillance data. All specific injury mortality and mortality rates in urban and rural area were calculated from census data; Cochran-armitage trend test was used to assess the time trends. Results Injury was the leading cause of death in children <5 years of age. Overall injury mortality was 48.96 per 100,000 persons, gradually declined with the year (Z = -18.75, P<0.001), and accounted for 27.14% of all deaths. Injury mortality in rural areas was 64.66 per 100,000 persons, which was more than 3.73 times higher than the rate in urban areas. The three leading causes of injury-related death were drowning (43.63%), suffocation (27.57%), and traffic accidents (14.34%). Suffocation was the leading cause in children <1 year of age (79.49%). Suffocation has high incidence in the winter and spring, and drowning has high incidence in the summer season. Drowning was the leading cause in children 1–4 years of age (62.80%). Drowning and suffocation accounted for 67.74% and 65.11%, of injury-related deaths that occurred at home; while the traffic injury deaths (54.12%) occurred mainly in transit. Conclusions Injury-related fatalities in children <5 years of age followed time trends that were different in rural and urban areas. Effective childhood injury prevention may require different prevention policies combination depending on epidemiological characteristics such as development of injury surveillance and public education on injury knowledge. There is a need for evidence-based surveillance of risk factors for development of effective injury prevention programs. PMID:28076399

  5. Database for the Geologic Map of Upper Eocene to Holocene Volcanic and Related Rocks of the Cascade Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimz, Kathryn; Ramsey, David W.; Sherrod, David R.; Smith, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1979, Earth scientists of the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey have carried out multidisciplinary research in the Cascade Range. The goal of this research is to understand the geology, tectonics, and hydrology of the Cascades in order to characterize and quantify geothermal resource potential. A major goal of the program is compilation of a comprehensive geologic map of the entire Cascade Range that incorporates modern field studies and that has a unified and internally consistent explanation. This map is one of three in a series that shows Cascade Range geology by fitting published and unpublished mapping into a province-wide scheme of rock units distinguished by composition and age; map sheets of the Cascade Range in Washington (Smith, 1993) and California will complete the series. The complete series forms a guide to exploration and evaluation of the geothermal resources of the Cascade Range and will be useful for studies of volcano hazards, volcanology, and tectonics. This digital release contains all the information used to produce the geologic map published as U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2569 (Sherrod and Smith, 2000). The main component of this digital release is a geologic map database prepared using ArcInfo GIS. This release also contains files to view or print the geologic map and accompanying descriptive pamphlet from I-2569.

  6. Raw Fish Consuming Behavior Related to Liver Fluke Infection among Populations at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chavengkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Pontip; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Pothipim, Mali; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is a health problem in rural communities of Thailand, particularly in the northeast and north regions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate raw fish consuming behavior related to liver fluke infection among the population at risk for opisthorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Meuang Yang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeast Thailand, between June and October 2015. Participants were screened for CCA, and samples who had a high score of CCA risk were purposively selected. A predesigned questionnaire was utilized to collect the data from all participants. X2-test was used for analysis of associations between demographic data and raw fish consumption. The results revealed that participants had past histories of stool examination (33.0%), liver fluke infection (21.0%), praziquantel use (24.0%), raw fish consumption (78.0%), relatives family consuming raw fish (73.0%), and relatives family with CCA (3.0%). Participants consumed several dished related to liver fluke infection, mainly raw fermented fish (13.0%), under smoked catfish (5.00%), raw pickled fish (4.00%), and raw spicy minced fish salad (3.00%). The most common types of cyprinoid fish were Barbodes gonionotus (39%), Hampala dispar (38%), Puntius brevis (37%), Cyclocheilichthys armatus (33%), Puntioplites proctozysron (32%), and Luciosoma bleekeri (30%), respectively. Participants had a low level of knowledge (mean=3.79, SD=0.74), moderate attitude (mean=7.31, SD=7.31) and practice (mean=38.64, SD=6.95) regarding liver fluke prevention and control. Demographic variables like age (>36 years old; X2-test=17.794, p-value=0.001), education (primary school; X2-test=18.952, p-value=0.001), marital status (married; X2-test=12.399, p-value=0.002), and income (<5,000 baht; X2-test=27.757, p-value=0.015) were significantly associated with raw fish consumption. This result indicates that the population had risk consumption for liver

  7. Overconsolidated, Early-Pleistocene Clays in Relation to Foundation Design and Construction of HSLSouth, Province of Brabant, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schokking, Floris

    The High Speed Line connecting Amsterdam to Brussels (HSLSouth) requires a link to the existing railway system at the City of Breda, Province of Brabant. Shuttle connections to the North (Rotterdam) and to the South (Antwerp) will join and exit the HSLSouth near Breda. Accommodation of existing and new railway tracks necessitate the construction of several fly-overs and underpasses in the area between Breda and the tributary of the River Meuse, the Hollandsch Diep, further to the North. Throughout the area occur Early-Pleistocene fluviatile clay layers at a depth of approximately 19 to 23 m - GS, below a cover of sandy deposits and towards the North also below an additional 2 to 8 meters thick cover of Holocene clays, sand and peat. The deep clay layers show overconsolidation ratios of OCR = 1.1 to 2.1. Geotechnical properties of the clays are up till present badly documented and the cause of overconsolidation is still poorly understood. In the design of the structures for the shuttle connection to the HSLSouth the clays come into play in various ways: as an aquiclude forming the bottom of a sheet piled construction pit and as a settlement prone layer below slab or pile foundations, and in some cases additionally loaded by adjacent earth embankments. The character and cause of the overconsolidation is discussed in relation to the geological history. The role of the overconsolidated clays in foundation design and construction is elucidated using case studies of two underpasses near Breda and a fly-over near Den Hoek, between Breda and Hollandsch Diep.

  8. [Analysis on sexually transmitted diseases and the related risk factors among men who have sex with men in Jiangsu province].

    PubMed

    Huan, Xi-ping; Yin, Yue-ping; Fu, Geng-feng; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Qian-qian; Zhang, Xue-ning; Wang, Xiao-liang; Hu, Hai-yang; Wang, Bei; Yang, Hai-tao; Chen, Xiang-sheng

    2011-11-01

    To investigate infections of syphilis, neisseria gonorrhoeae, chlamydia trachomatis and the related risk factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jiangsu province. A total of 400 MSM were enrolled by Snowball Sampling Method from August to October in 2010 and then 328 cases were surveyed by a questionnaire and collected serum sample 5 ml per person as well as rectal swab on the spot; all of the serum samples were tested for syphilis by ELISA and TRUST, and all of the rectal swabs were tested for neisseria gonorrhoeae or chlamydia trachomatis. The influencing factors of syphilis, neisseria gonorrhoeae, chlamydia trachomatis were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The 328 MSM were (32.46 ± 9.72) years old, 59.15% (194/328) were unmarried.75.00% (246/328) MSM had rectal sex with men in the past 3 months, and condom use rate for recent sex was 56.71% (186/328), while 53.05% (174/328) MSM didn't have sex with women in the last 3 months. The syphilis infection rate among MSM was 13.41% (44/328), the neisseria gonorrhoeae infection rate was 3.66% (12/328), and the chlamydia trachomatis rate was 11.59% (38/328). The number of sex partners was the key factor that influenced syphilis infections (OR = 4.213, 95%CI: 1.133 - 15.656). The prevalence of syphilis and chlamydia trachomatis was high in MSM in Jiangsu, while risk behavior rate were high in the MSM and then should be intervened.

  9. Overweight Relation to Liver Fluke Infection among Rural Participants from 4 Districts of Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Parichart; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Norkaew, Jun; Photipim, Mali; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Chavengkun, Wassugree; Kompor, Pontip; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Sawaspol, Sudaporn; Phandee, Mattika Chaimeerang; Phandee, Wichan; Phanurak, Wassana; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 730 participants from 4 rural districts of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand, with a reported high incidence of liver fluke infection. This study was aimed to examine and evaluate the nutritional status in relation to Opisthorchis viverrini infection. Participants were purposive selected from Chum Phuang, Mueang Yang, Bua Yai, and Kaeng Sanam Nang districts. Stool samples were prepared by Kato Katz technique and then assessed by microscopy. Anthropometry was evaluated according to the body mass index from weight and height. Descriptive statistics and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the association between the nutritional status and O. viverrini infection. Of 1.64% infected with O. viverrini the highest proportions were found in age groups ≥61 and 41-50 years old, Mueang Yang district. The majorities of participants had normal weight (32.2%), followed by class II obesity (28.1%), class I obesity (21.8%), underweight (10.3%), and class III obesity (8.63%). Nutritional status with class II obesity (rS=0.639, <0.01) and class I obesity (rS=0.582, <0.05), had moderately statistical significant correlations with O. viverrini infection. Meanwhile, normal weight (rS=0.437, <0.05) and class III obesity (rS=0.384, <0.05) demonstrated lower statistical significance. These findings raise the possibility that infection with O. viverrini may contribute to fat deposition and thereby have long-term consequences on human health. Further studies are needed to better understand whether O. viverrini contributes directly to fat deposition and possible mechanisms.

  10. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: a survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-10-01

    A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government׳s policy-making, service provider׳s guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents׳ perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in the context of the proposed policies with local

  11. Preliminary Evaluations Related to the Ranges of Hematological and Biochemical Variables in Hospitalized Patients with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chitsaz, Ahmad; Tolou-Ghamari, Zahra; Ashtari, Fereshteh

    2013-01-01

    Background: According to the international reports, brain stroke is the main reason of death and disability. In ischemic stroke, early and precise classification of patients who may profit from conflicting finest therapeutic interference is necessary if enhanced effects in terms of survival are to be talented. Due to uncomplicated, easy performance, and inexpensive method the aim of this preliminary study was to investigate changes related to biochemical and hematological variables in patients with stroke. Methods: A cross-sectional study located at the neurology ward of the Ayatolah Kashani and Alzahra Hospitals’ (conducted to Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center) was carried out on fifty patients (females; n = 20 and males; n = 30) between April 1, 2012 and September 31, 2012. The data from subjects’ records were taken for analyzing variables. The statistical analysis of d-base was performed using (SPSS) for windows. Results: Analysis of available data showed that with a mean of 182.4 mg/dl, blood sugar (BS) ranged from 75 to 300 mg/dl (n = 15/50). The changes in hemoglobin (Hgb) (mean 4.6 g/dl, n = 27/50), platelet (mean 210, 653/mm3, n = 26/50) and lymphocyte (Lymph) (mean 37, n = 26/50) seems to be significant. The mean age of females was 76 years (ranged 46-93 years). The mean age of males was 70 years (ranged 31-90 years). Information related to previous drug history was available only in 24 patients. In 5 out of 22 cases ischemic heart disease (IHD) were positive. In 8 out of 29 cases, diabetes mellitus was positive. In 5 out of 28 cases, hypertension (HTN) was positive. In the four patients both IHD and HTN were positive. Conclusions: Any considerable alter in patients’ biochemical and hematological figures (BS, Hgb, Plt and Lymph) may necessitate further attention related to inter- and intra-individual variability in clinical supervision and drug's assortment. Therefore, success in treatment could be achieved by the close management of clinical

  12. Investigating relativity using lunar laser ranging - Geodetic precession and the Nordtvedt effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Newhall, X. X.; Williams, J. G.

    1989-01-01

    The emplacement of retroreflectors on the moon by Apollo astronauts and the Russian Lunakhod spacecraft marked the inception of lunar laser ranging (LLR) and provided a natural laboratory for the study of general relativity. Continuing acquisition of increasingly accurate LLR data has provided enhanced sensitivity to general relativity parameters. Two relativistic effects are investigated in this paper: (1) the Nordtvedt effect, yielding a test of the strong equivalence principle, would appear as a distortion of the geocentric lunar orbit in the direction of the sun. The inclusion of recent LLR data limits the size of any such effect to 3 + or - 4 cm. The sensitivities to the various PPN quantities are also highlighted. (2) the geodetic precession of the lunar perigee is predicted by general relativity as a consequence of the motion of the earth-moon system about the sun; its theoretical magnitude is 19.2 mas/yr. Analysis presented here confirms this value and determines this quality to a 2 percent level.

  13. A Trial Intercomparison of Humidity Generators at Extremes of Range Using Relative Humidity Transmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, M.; Benyon, R.; Bell, S. A.; Vicente, T.

    2008-10-01

    In order to effectively implement the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM), national metrology institutes (NMIs) are required to support their claims of calibration and measurement capability (CMC) with a quality system compliant with ISO/IEC 17025, and with suitable evidence of participation in key or supplementary comparisons. The CMC review process, both at regional and inter-regional levels, uses criteria that combine the provisions mentioned above, together with additional evidence demonstrating scientific and technical competence of the institutes. For dew-point temperatures, there are key comparisons in progress under the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) and under the European regional metrology organisation (EUROMET), together with information available on past regional supplementary comparisons. However, for relative humidity there are, to date, no such comparisons available to support CMC entries. This paper presents and discusses the results of a preliminary investigation of the use of relative humidity and temperature transmitters in order to determine their suitability for the intercomparison of standard humidity generators in support of CMC claims for the calibration of relative humidity instruments. The results of a recent bilateral comparison between 2 NMIs at the extremes of the range up to 98%rh at 70 °C, and down to 1%rh at -40 °C are reported. Specific precautions and recommendations on the use of the devices as transfer standards are presented.

  14. Investigating relativity using lunar laser ranging - Geodetic precession and the Nordtvedt effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Newhall, X. X.; Williams, J. G.

    1989-01-01

    The emplacement of retroreflectors on the moon by Apollo astronauts and the Russian Lunakhod spacecraft marked the inception of lunar laser ranging (LLR) and provided a natural laboratory for the study of general relativity. Continuing acquisition of increasingly accurate LLR data has provided enhanced sensitivity to general relativity parameters. Two relativistic effects are investigated in this paper: (1) the Nordtvedt effect, yielding a test of the strong equivalence principle, would appear as a distortion of the geocentric lunar orbit in the direction of the sun. The inclusion of recent LLR data limits the size of any such effect to 3 + or - 4 cm. The sensitivities to the various PPN quantities are also highlighted. (2) the geodetic precession of the lunar perigee is predicted by general relativity as a consequence of the motion of the earth-moon system about the sun; its theoretical magnitude is 19.2 mas/yr. Analysis presented here confirms this value and determines this quality to a 2 percent level.

  15. A simple method for estimating basin-scale groundwater discharge by vegetation in the basin and range province of Arizona using remote sensing information and geographic information systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, F.D.; Callegary, J.B.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital water resource in the arid to semi-arid southwestern United States. Accurate accounting of inflows to and outflows from the groundwater system is necessary to effectively manage this shared resource, including the important outflow component of groundwater discharge by vegetation. A simple method for estimating basin-scale groundwater discharge by vegetation is presented that uses remote sensing data from satellites, geographic information systems (GIS) land cover and stream location information, and a regression equation developed within the Southern Arizona study area relating the Enhanced Vegetation Index from the MODIS sensors on the Terra satellite to measured evapotranspiration. Results computed for 16-day composited satellite passes over the study area during the 2000 through 2007 time period demonstrate a sinusoidal pattern of annual groundwater discharge by vegetation with median values ranging from around 0.3 mm per day in the cooler winter months to around 1.5 mm per day during summer. Maximum estimated annual volume of groundwater discharge by vegetation was between 1.4 and 1.9 billion m3 per year with an annual average of 1.6 billion m3. A simplified accounting of the contribution of precipitation to vegetation greenness was developed whereby monthly precipitation data were subtracted from computed vegetation discharge values, resulting in estimates of minimum groundwater discharge by vegetation. Basin-scale estimates of minimum and maximum groundwater discharge by vegetation produced by this simple method are useful bounding values for groundwater budgets and groundwater flow models, and the method may be applicable to other areas with similar vegetation types.

  16. Relative Quantitation of Neuropeptides over a Thousand-fold Concentration Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiaowen; Xie, Fang; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2012-12-01

    Neuropeptides are essential cell-to-cell signaling molecules that influence diverse regulatory and behavioral functions within biological systems. Differing in their amino acid sequences and post-translational modifications, hundreds of neuropeptides are produced via a series of enzymatic processing steps, and their levels vary with location, time, and physiological condition. Due to their wide range of endogenous concentrations and inherent chemical complexity, using mass spectrometry (MS) to accurately quantify changes in peptide levels can be challenging. Here we evaluate three different MS systems for their ability to accurately measure neuropeptide levels: capillary liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap (CapLC-ESI-IT) MS, ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight (UPLC-LC-ESI-Q-TOF) MS, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. Specifically, eight sample mixtures composed of five neuropeptide standards, with four technical replicates of each, were labeled with H4/D4-succinic anhydride, followed by relative peptide quantitation using the three MS platforms. For these samples, the CapLC-ESI-IT MS platform offered the most robust ability to accurately quantify peptides over a concentration range of 1200-fold, although it required larger sample sizes than the other two platforms. Both the UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS and the MALDI-TOF MS systems had lower limits of quantification, with the MALDI-TOF having the lowest. By implementing several data acquisition schemes and optimizing the data analysis approaches, we were able to accurately quantify peptides over a three orders of magnitude concentration range using either the UPLC or MALDI-TOF platforms. Overall these results increase our understanding of both the capabilities and limits of using MS-based approaches to measure peptides.

  17. Quality, Range, and Legibility in Web Sites Related to Orofacial Functions

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Ferrari, Deborah Viviane; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Plenty of information about health is available on the Internet; however, quality and legibility are not always evaluated. Knowledge regarding orofacial functions can be considered important for the population because it allows proper stimulus, early diagnosis, and prevention of the oral myofunctional alterations during early infancy. Objective The aim was evaluate the quality, legibility, and range of Web sites available in Brazilian Portuguese regarding the orofacial functions. Methods Selected Web sites with information directed to parents/caregivers of babies regarding breast-feeding, feeding after 6 months, deleterious oral habits, and breathing and speech were studied. The Web sites were evaluated through the application of Flesch Reading Ease Test and aspects of the Health on the Net (HON) modified code (HONCode); the range of the subjects addressed was compared with other aspects of infant development. Results From the access of 350 pages of the Internet, 35 Web sites were selected and 315 excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. In relation to legibility, Web sites scored an average of 61.23% in the Flesch Test, and the application of the modified HONCode showed an average of 6.43 points; an average of 2.49 subjects were found per Web site evaluated, with information on breast-feeding being more frequent and subjects such as breathing and speech less frequent. Conclusions Web sites that deal with orofacial functions presented standard legibility classification. Only half of the ethical principles were considered by the modified HONCode in their majority, and most addressed subjects after “breast-feeding” were presented with restricted range. PMID:25992036

  18. Parental accommodation of child anxiety and related symptoms: Range, impact, and correlates

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kerns, Caroline E.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Parental accommodation—i.e., changes in parents’ behavior in attempts to prevent or reduce child distress—has been most studied in relation to OCD. Although recent work suggests parents of children with non-OCD anxiety diagnoses also engage in accommodation, little is known about the specific forms, correlates, and associated interference of such accommodation. The present study examined the range and associated interference of parental accommodation behaviors using the newly developed Family Accommodation Checklist and Interference Scale (FACLIS) in a sample of the parents of 71 clinic-referred children with anxiety disorders (NMothers = 68; NFathers= 51). The FACLIS demonstrated good reliability and validity. Ninety-seven percent of mothers and 88% of fathers reported engaging in at least one type of accommodation in the previous two weeks, with parents reporting an average of roughly 4 interfering parental accommodation behaviors. Greater parental accommodation and associated interference were associated with higher maternal distress. Among the anxiety disorders, accommodation was most strongly associated with generalized and separation anxiety disorder, as well as specific phobias. Findings (a) offer psychometric support for the FACLIS as a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of accommodation range and impact, and (b) help clarify the considerable scope and interference associated with parental accommodation of childhood anxiety. PMID:25261837

  19. Parental accommodation of child anxiety and related symptoms: range, impact, and correlates.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-12-01

    Parental accommodation--i.e., changes in parents' behavior in attempts to prevent or reduce child distress--has been most studied in relation to OCD. Although recent work suggests parents of children with non-OCD anxiety diagnoses also engage in accommodation, little is known about the specific forms, correlates, and associated interference of such accommodation. The present study examined the range and associated interference of parental accommodation behaviors using the newly developed Family Accommodation Checklist and Interference Scale (FACLIS) in a sample of the parents of 71 clinic-referred children with anxiety disorders (NMothers-68; NFathers-51). The FACLIS demonstrated good reliability and validity. Ninety-seven percent of mothers and 88% of fathers reported engaging in at least one type of accommodation in the previous two weeks, with parents reporting an average of roughly 4 interfering parental accommodation behaviors. Greater parental accommodation and associated interference were associated with higher maternal distress. Among the anxiety disorders, accommodation was most strongly associated with generalized and separation anxiety disorder, as well as specific phobias. Findings (a) offer psychometric support for the FACLIS as a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of accommodation range and impact, and (b) help clarify the considerable scope and interference associated with parental accommodation of childhood anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Discovery of parvovirus-related sequences in an unexpected broad range of animals

    PubMed Central

    François, S.; Filloux, D.; Roumagnac, P.; Bigot, D.; Gayral, P.; Martin, D. P.; Froissart, R.; Ogliastro, M.

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of the genetic diversity and host ranges of viruses is fragmentary. This is particularly true for the Parvoviridae family. Genetic diversity studies of single stranded DNA viruses within this family have been largely focused on arthropod- and vertebrate-infecting species that cause diseases of humans and our domesticated animals: a focus that has biased our perception of parvovirus diversity. While metagenomics approaches could help rectify this bias, so too could transcriptomics studies. Large amounts of transcriptomic data are available for a diverse array of animal species and whenever this data has inadvertently been gathered from virus-infected individuals, it could contain detectable viral transcripts. We therefore performed a systematic search for parvovirus-related sequences (PRSs) within publicly available transcript, genome and protein databases and eleven new transcriptome datasets. This revealed 463 PRSs in the transcript databases of 118 animals. At least 41 of these PRSs are likely integrated within animal genomes in that they were also found within genomic sequence databases. Besides illuminating the ubiquity of parvoviruses, the number of parvoviral sequences discovered within public databases revealed numerous previously unknown parvovirus-host combinations; particularly in invertebrates. Our findings suggest that the host-ranges of extant parvoviruses might span the entire animal kingdom. PMID:27600734

  1. Work-Related Well-Being of Educators in a District of the North-West Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Leon; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this article were to assess the relationship between burnout, health, job demands and job resources in a sample of educators. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Stratified random samples (N = 266) were taken of educators in an area of the North-West Province. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, the Health…

  2. Conservation of long-range synteny and microsynteny between the genomes of two distantly related nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Guiliano, DB; Hall, N; Jones, SJM; Clark, LN; Corton, CH; Barrell, BG; Blaxter, ML

    2002-01-01

    Background Comparisons between the genomes of the closely related nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae reveal high rates of rearrangement, with a bias towards within-chromosome events. To assess whether this pattern is true of nematodes in general, we have used genome sequence to compare two nematode species that last shared a common ancestor approximately 300 million years ago: the model C. elegans and the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Results An 83 kb region flanking the gene for Bm-mif-1 (macrophage migration inhibitory factor, a B. malayi homolog of a human cytokine) was sequenced. When compared to the complete genome of C. elegans, evidence for conservation of long-range synteny and microsynteny was found. Potential C. elegans orthologs for II of the 12 protein-coding genes predicted in the B. malayi sequence were identified. Ten of these orthologs were located on chromosome I, with eight clustered in a 2.3 Mb region. While several, relatively local, intrachromosomal rearrangements have occurred, the order, composition, and configuration of two gene clusters, each containing three genes, was conserved. Comparison of B. malayi BAC-end genome survey sequence to C. elegans also revealed a bias towards intrachromosome rearrangements. Conclusions We suggest that intrachromosomal rearrangement is a major force driving chromosomal organization in nematodes, but is constrained by the interdigitation of functional elements of neighboring genes. PMID:12372145

  3. Borrelia crocidurae in Ornithodoros ticks from northwestern Morocco: a range extension in relation to climatic change?

    PubMed

    Souidi, Yassine; Boudebouch, Najma; Ezikouri, Sayeh; Belghyti, Driss; Trape, Jean-François; Sarih, M'hammed

    2014-12-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by Borrelia spirochetes transmitted to humans by Argasid soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. We investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in nine sites of the Gharb region of northwestern Morocco where we recently documented a high incidence of TBRF in humans. We assessed the Borrelia infection rate by nested PCR and sequencing. All sites investigated were colonized by ticks of the Ornithodoros marocanus complex and a high proportion of burrows (38.4%) were found to be infested. Borrelia infections were observed in 6.8% of the ticks tested. Two Borrelia species were identified by sequencing: B. hispanica and B. crocidurae. The discovery in northwestern Morocco of Ornithodoros ticks infected by B. crocidurae represents a 350 km range extension of this Sahelo-Saharan spirochete in North Africa. The spread of B. crocidurae may be related to the increasing aridity of northwestern Morocco in relation to climate change. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  4. Diurnal Temperature Range in Relation to Daily Mortality and Years of Life Lost in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunquan; Yu, Chuanhua; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Lan; Cui, Fangfang

    2017-08-08

    Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is an important meteorological indicator associated with global climate change, and has been linked with mortality and morbidity in previous studies. To date, however, little evidence has been available regarding the association of DTR with years of life lost (YLL). This study aimed to evaluate the DTR-related burden on both YLL and mortality. We collected individual records of all registered deaths and daily meteorological data in Wuhan, central China, between 2009 and 2012. For the whole population, every 1 °C increase in DTR at a lag of 0-1 days was associated with an increase of 0.65% (95% CI: 0.08-1.23) and 1.42 years (-0.88-3.72) for mortality and YLL due to non-accidental deaths, respectively. Relatively stronger DTR-mortality/YLL associations were found for cardiovascular deaths. Subgroup analyses (stratified by gender, age, and education level) showed that females, the elderly (75+ years old), and those with higher education attainment (7+ years) suffered more significantly from both increased YLL and mortality due to large DTR. Our study added additional evidence that short-term exposure to large DTR was associated with increased burden of premature death using both mortality incidence and YLL.

  5. Quantitative analysis of animal model lens anatomy: accommodative range is related to fiber structure and organization.

    PubMed

    Kuszak, J R; Mazurkiewicz, M; Jison, L; Madurski, A; Ngando, A; Zoltoski, R K

    2006-01-01

    The results of a recent study on accommodation in humans and baboons has revealed that lens fiber structure and organization are key components of the mechanism of accommodation. Dynamic focusing involves the controlled displacement and replacement, or realignment, of cortical fiber-ends at sutures as the mechanism of accommodation at the fiber level. This emended explanation of the mechanism of accommodation raises the following question: as the structure of crystalline lenses are only similar, not identical between species, is accommodative amplitude related to differences in the structure and organization of fibers between species? To address this question, we have quantitatively examined the structure and organization of fibers in a number of the more commonly used animal models (mice, cattle, frogs, rabbits and chickens) for lens research. Lenses (a minimum of 12-18 lenses/species) from mice, cattle, frogs and rabbits were used for this study. Prior to fixation for structural analysis, measurements of the gross shape of the lenses (equatorial diameter, anterior and posterior minor radii [anterior + posterior minor radius = polar axis]) were taken directly through a stereo surgical dissecting microscope equipped with an ocular reticle. Lenses were then prepared for and examined by light (LM), transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Scale computer-assisted drawings (CADs) of lenses and lens fibers were then constructed from quantitative data as described above and from quantitative data contained in micrographs. The differences in fiber structure and organization that effect accommodative range arise early in development and are continued throughout lifelong lens growth. In umbilical suture lenses (avian) secondary fibers develop with almost completely tapered anterior ends (85-90% reduction of their measures of width and thickness at the equator). By comparison, in lenses with line sutures (e.g. frogs and rabbits) secondary fibers develop

  6. Pregnancy and lactation in relation to range of acceptable carbohydrate and fat intake.

    PubMed

    Catalano, P M

    1999-04-01

    The additional energy requirements of pregnancy are needed for increases in maternal (breast, uterus and adipose) and feto-placental tissue accrued during pregnancy as well as the additional running cost of pregnancy for example increased cardiac output. Based on prospective longitudinal studies, the additional energy requirements of pregnancy range from > 500 MJ in Swedish women to net savings of approximately 50 MJ in women in The Gambia with their usual nutritional intake. In addition to the wide variation in estimated energy expenditure among various ethnic populations, there is as much as a 10-20 fold range in the total energy cost of pregnancy and lactation within relatively homogenous populations. The estimates of energy intake in these studies, however, are generally less than the estimates of total energy expenditure. The discrepancy between energy intake and energy expenditure during pregnancy is most probably due to several factors including decreased maternal activity, unreliable reporting of energy intake and possibly increased metabolic efficiency of basal metabolic rate, thermic effect of foods and physical activity. Based on recent studies, variations in maternal pregravid glucose insulin sensitivity may account for part of the observed variability associated with maternal metabolic adaptations during pregnancy. Decreases in insulin sensitivity have a significant inverse correlation with accretion of adipose tissue in early pregnancy. Likewise, there is a significant inverse correlation between decreases in basal oxygen consumption with increases in endogenous glucose production. The mechanism for these changes remain speculative. Additionally, although serum leptin concentrations increase 66% in early pregnancy and are correlated with maternal fat mass and basal energy expenditure, the increases in serum leptin occur prior to any significant increases in body fat or basal metabolic rate suggesting that pregnancy represents another leptin resistant

  7. Long-Range Temporal Correlations, Multifractality, and the Causal Relation between Neural Inputs and Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Zheng, Yi; Gao, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the causal relation between neural inputs and movements is very important for the success of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). In this study, we analyze 104 neurons’ firings using statistical, information theoretic, and fractal analysis. The latter include Fano factor analysis, multifractal adaptive fractal analysis (MF-AFA), and wavelet multifractal analysis. We find neuronal firings are highly non-stationary, and Fano factor analysis always indicates long-range correlations in neuronal firings, irrespective of whether those firings are correlated with movement trajectory or not, and thus does not reveal any actual correlations between neural inputs and movements. On the other hand, MF-AFA and wavelet multifractal analysis clearly indicate that when neuronal firings are not well correlated with movement trajectory, they do not have or only have weak temporal correlations. When neuronal firings are well correlated with movements, they are characterized by very strong temporal correlations, up to a time scale comparable to the average time between two successive reaching tasks. This suggests that neurons well correlated with hand trajectory experienced a “re-setting” effect at the start of each reaching task, in the sense that within the movement correlated neurons the spike trains’ long-range dependences persisted about the length of time the monkey used to switch between task executions. A new task execution re-sets their activity, making them only weakly correlated with their prior activities on longer time scales. We further discuss the significance of the coalition of those important neurons in executing cortical control of prostheses. PMID:24130549

  8. [Survey of intestinal parasitic infections and related knowledge and behavior of residents in Jiaodong area of Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-bin; Xu, Yan; Kong, Xiang-li; Zhang, Ben-guang; Bu, Xiu-qin; Zhao, Chang-lei; Zhang, Dian-bo; Miao, Fengi; Chen, Xi-xin; Wan, Gong-qun; Huang, Bing-cheng

    2014-08-01

    To understand the status of intestinal parasitic infections and the related knowledge and behavior in residents of Jiaodong area of Shandong Province, so as to provide the evidence for making an appropriate preventive and control strategy. A total of 18 villages from 6 counties in Jiaodong area were selected as investigation sites according to the stratified sampling method. The feces samples of the permanent residents aged above 3 years were collected and examined by Kato-Katz technique to find the intestinal parasite eggs, and the children under 12 years old were examined by the method of cellophane anal swab to detect the Enterobius vennrmicularis eggs. In addition, 50 households in each survey sites were randomly selected to investigate the basic family situation and the condition of awareness on prevention knowledge and formation of correct behavior of residents by using a structured questionnaire. Totally 6 163 residents involved in the feces examinations, and the total infection rate of intestinal parasites was 6.91%. The infection rates of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 6.56%, 0.62% and 0.21%, respectively. The infection rate of E. vermicularis in children under 12 years old was 0.51%. The eggs of Clonorchis sinensis and Taenia solium were not found in this survey. The awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases was 49.54%. The formation rates of washing hands before eating, washing hands after using the toilet, never eating raw fruit and vegetable without washing clean, never working in the field with bare feet, and never drinking unboiled water were 97.78%, 91.95%, 88.81%, 92.42% and 86.48% respectively. The infection rate of intestinal parasites is low in Jiaodong area, but there is a significant difference among different counties. The awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases is low, but the formation rate of healthy behavior is high. In the future, the health education and the

  9. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-10-15

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in the context of

  10. Direct Medical Cost of Influenza-Related Hospitalizations among Severe Acute Respiratory Infections Cases in Three Provinces in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoping; Gao, Lidong; Li, Zhong; Feng, Ao; Jin, Hui; Wang, Shiyuan; Su, Qiru; Xu, Zhen; Feng, Zijian

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza-related hospitalizations impose a considerable economic and social burden. This study aimed to better understand the economic burden of influenza-related hospitalizations among patients in China in different age and risk categories. Methods Laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations between December 2009 and June 2011 from three hospitals participating in the Chinese Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI) sentinel surveillance system were included in this study. Hospital billing data were collected from each hospital’s Hospital Information System (HIS) and divided into five cost categories. Demographic and clinical information was collected from medical records. Mean (range) and median (interquartile range [IQR]) costs were calculated and compared among children (≤15 years), adults (16–64 years) and elderly (≥65 years) groups. Factors influencing cost were analyzed. Results A total of 106 laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations were identified, 60% of which were children. The mean (range) direct medical cost was $1,797 ($80–$27,545) for all hospitalizations, and the median (IQR) direct medical cost was $231 ($164), $854 ($890), and $2,263 ($7,803) for children, adults, and elderly, respectively. Therapeutics and diagnostics were the two largest components of direct medical cost, comprising 57% and 23%, respectively. Cost of physician services was the lowest at less than 1%. Conclusion Direct medical cost of influenza-related hospitalizations imposes a heavy burden on patients and their families in China. Further study is needed to provide more comprehensive evidence on the economic burden of influenza. Our study highlights the need to increase vaccination rate and develop targeted national preventive strategies. PMID:23717485

  11. Accurate Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopic Growth over a Wide Range in Relative Humidity.

    PubMed

    Rovelli, Grazia; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P; Clegg, Simon L

    2016-06-30

    Using a comparative evaporation kinetics approach, we describe a new and accurate method for determining the equilibrium hygroscopic growth of aerosol droplets. The time-evolving size of an aqueous droplet, as it evaporates to a steady size and composition that is in equilibrium with the gas phase relative humidity, is used to determine the time-dependent mass flux of water, yielding information on the vapor pressure of water above the droplet surface at every instant in time. Accurate characterization of the gas phase relative humidity is provided from a control measurement of the evaporation profile of a droplet of know equilibrium properties, either a pure water droplet or a sodium chloride droplet. In combination, and by comparison with simulations that account for both the heat and mass transport governing the droplet evaporation kinetics, these measurements allow accurate retrieval of the equilibrium properties of the solution droplet (i.e., the variations with water activity in the mass fraction of solute, diameter growth factor, osmotic coefficient or number of water molecules per solute molecule). Hygroscopicity measurements can be made over a wide range in water activity (from >0.99 to, in principle, <0.05) on time scales of <10 s for droplets containing involatile or volatile solutes. The approach is benchmarked for binary and ternary inorganic solution aerosols with typical uncertainties in water activity of <±0.2% at water activities >0.9 and ∼±1% below 80% RH, and maximum uncertainties in diameter growth factor of ±0.7%. For all of the inorganic systems examined, the time-dependent data are consistent with large values of the mass accommodation (or evaporation) coefficient (>0.1).

  12. Origin of dolomite in Miocene Monterey Shale and related formations in the Temblor Range, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Murata, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    Dolomites in thick sections of Miocene Monterey Shale and related formations in the Temblor Range of California acquired their isotopic compositions as they formed at shallow depth in the original sediment rich in organic matter, and retained the composition against the vicissitudes of burial diagenesis. The oxygen isotopes of dolomites of successive beds record changes in temperature of bottom water while the carbon isotopes of the same samples indicate changes in the kind of microbial activity (sulfate reduction vs carbohydrate fermentation) that prevailed at shallow depths in the sediment. In an auxiliary study, two samples of dolomite from sediments of Cariaco Basin off Venezuela (DSDP site 147) were found to have ??5C13 of -14.1 and -9.8 per ml PDB, although they occur in a heavy-carbon zone containing bicarbonate as heavy as +8.4 per ml. These dolomites probably originated at shallow depth in the light-carbon zone of microbial sulfate reducers and were buried under later sediments down into the heavy-carbon zone of microbial fermenters of carbohydrates without losing their original light-carbon composition. ?? 1979.

  13. Point Cloud Based Relative Pose Estimation of a Satellite in Close Range

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lujiang; Zhao, Gaopeng; Bo, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the relative pose of satellites is essential in space rendezvous operations and on-orbit servicing missions. The key problems are the adoption of suitable sensor on board of a chaser and efficient techniques for pose estimation. This paper aims to estimate the pose of a target satellite in close range on the basis of its known model by using point cloud data generated by a flash LIDAR sensor. A novel model based pose estimation method is proposed; it includes a fast and reliable pose initial acquisition method based on global optimal searching by processing the dense point cloud data directly, and a pose tracking method based on Iterative Closest Point algorithm. Also, a simulation system is presented in this paper in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and generate simulated sensor point cloud data. It also provides truth pose of the test target so that the pose estimation error can be quantified. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and achievable pose accuracy, numerical simulation experiments are performed; results demonstrate algorithm capability of operating with point cloud directly and large pose variations. Also, a field testing experiment is conducted and results show that the proposed method is effective. PMID:27271633

  14. Point Cloud Based Relative Pose Estimation of a Satellite in Close Range.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lujiang; Zhao, Gaopeng; Bo, Yuming

    2016-06-04

    Determination of the relative pose of satellites is essential in space rendezvous operations and on-orbit servicing missions. The key problems are the adoption of suitable sensor on board of a chaser and efficient techniques for pose estimation. This paper aims to estimate the pose of a target satellite in close range on the basis of its known model by using point cloud data generated by a flash LIDAR sensor. A novel model based pose estimation method is proposed; it includes a fast and reliable pose initial acquisition method based on global optimal searching by processing the dense point cloud data directly, and a pose tracking method based on Iterative Closest Point algorithm. Also, a simulation system is presented in this paper in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and generate simulated sensor point cloud data. It also provides truth pose of the test target so that the pose estimation error can be quantified. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and achievable pose accuracy, numerical simulation experiments are performed; results demonstrate algorithm capability of operating with point cloud directly and large pose variations. Also, a field testing experiment is conducted and results show that the proposed method is effective.

  15. The relation of signal transduction to the sensitivity and dynamic range of bacterial chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Namba, Toshinori; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2012-09-19

    Complex networks of interacting molecular components of living cells are responsible for many important processes, such as signal processing and transduction. An important challenge is to understand how the individual properties of these molecular interactions and biochemical transformations determine the system-level properties of biological functions. Here, we address the issue of the accuracy of signal transduction performed by a bacterial chemotaxis system. The chemotaxis sensitivity of bacteria to a chemoattractant gradient has been measured experimentally from bacterial aggregation in a chemoattractant-containing capillary. The observed precision of the chemotaxis depended on environmental conditions such as the concentration and molecular makeup of the chemoattractant. In a quantitative model, we derived the chemotactic response function, which is essential to describing the signal transduction process involved in bacterial chemotaxis. In the presence of a gradient, an analytical solution is derived that reveals connections between the chemotaxis sensitivity and the characteristics of the signaling system, such as reaction rates. These biochemical parameters are integrated into two system-level parameters: one characterizes the efficiency of gradient sensing, and the other is related to the dynamic range of chemotaxis. Thus, our approach explains how a particular signal transduction property affects the system-level performance of bacterial chemotaxis. We further show that the two parameters can be derived from published experimental data from a capillary assay, which successfully characterizes the performance of bacterial chemotaxis.

  16. Geomorphometric reconstruction of post-eruptive surfaces of the Virunga Volcanic Province (East African Rift), constraint of erosion ratio and relative chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahitte, Pierre; Poppe, Sam; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    Quaternary volcanic landforms result from a complex evolution, involving volcanic constructional events and destructive ones by collapses and long-term erosion. Quantification, by morphometric approaches, of the evolution through time of the volcano shape allows the estimation of relative ages between volcanoes sharing the same climate and eruptive conditions. We apply such method to six volcanoes of the Virunga Volcanic Province in the western branch of the East African Rift Valley that still has rare geochronological constraints. As they have comparable sizes, volcanic history and erupted products, these edifices may have undergone comparable conditions of erosion which justify the deduction of relative chronology from their erosion pattern. Our GIS-based geomorphometric approach, the SHAPEVOLC algorithm, quantifies erupted or dismantled volumes by numerically modeling topographies resulting from the eruptive construction of each volcano. Constraining points are selected by analyses of morphometric properties of each cell of the current DEM, as the loci where the altitude is still representative of the un-eroded volcanic surfaces. A primary elevation surface is firstly adjusted to these constraining points by modeling a first-order pseudo-radial surface defined by: 1. the curve best fitting the concave-upwards volcano profile; 2. the location and elevation of the volcano summit; and 3. the possible eccentricity and azimuth parameters that allow to stretch and contract contours to adjust the shape of the model to the elliptically-shaped surface of the volcano. A second-order surface is next computed by local adjustment of the first-order surface to the constraining points to obtain the definitive primary elevation surface of the considered volcanic construct. Amount of erosion is obtained by summing the difference in elevation between reconstructed surfaces and current ones that allows to establish relative ages of volcanoes. For the 6 studied Virunga volcanoes

  17. Relative burden of large CNVs on a range of neurodevelopmental phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Girirajan, Santhosh; Brkanac, Zoran; Coe, Bradley P; Baker, Carl; Vives, Laura; Vu, Tiffany H; Shafer, Neil; Bernier, Raphael; Ferrero, Giovanni B; Silengo, Margherita; Warren, Stephen T; Moreno, Carlos S; Fichera, Marco; Romano, Corrado; Raskind, Wendy H; Eichler, Evan E

    2011-11-01

    While numerous studies have implicated copy number variants (CNVs) in a range of neurological phenotypes, the impact relative to disease severity has been difficult to ascertain due to small sample sizes, lack of phenotypic details, and heterogeneity in platforms used for discovery. Using a customized microarray enriched for genomic hotspots, we assayed for large CNVs among 1,227 individuals with various neurological deficits including dyslexia (376), sporadic autism (350), and intellectual disability (ID) (501), as well as 337 controls. We show that the frequency of large CNVs (>1 Mbp) is significantly greater for ID-associated phenotypes compared to autism (p = 9.58 × 10(-11), odds ratio = 4.59), dyslexia (p = 3.81 × 10(-18), odds ratio = 14.45), or controls (p = 2.75 × 10(-17), odds ratio = 13.71). There is a striking difference in the frequency of rare CNVs (>50 kbp) in autism (10%, p = 2.4 × 10(-6), odds ratio = 6) or ID (16%, p = 3.55 × 10(-12), odds ratio = 10) compared to dyslexia (2%) with essentially no difference in large CNV burden among dyslexia patients compared to controls. Rare CNVs were more likely to arise de novo (64%) in ID when compared to autism (40%) or dyslexia (0%). We observed a significantly increased large CNV burden in individuals with ID and multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) compared to ID alone (p = 0.001, odds ratio = 2.54). Our data suggest that large CNV burden positively correlates with the severity of childhood disability: ID with MCA being most severely affected and dyslexics being indistinguishable from controls. When autism without ID was considered separately, the increase in CNV burden was modest compared to controls (p = 0.07, odds ratio = 2.33).

  18. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors. PMID:27472357

  19. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-07-27

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors.

  20. Comment on 'Zero-range potentials for Dirac particles: Scattering and related continuum problems'

    SciTech Connect

    Coutinho, F. A. B.; Nogami, Y.

    2006-02-15

    In a recent paper, Szmytkowski proposed zero-range potentials for Dirac particles in three space dimensions. On the other hand, there is a theorem, proved by Svendsen a long time ago, which implies that zero-range potentials cannot be defined for the Dirac equation in two and three space dimensions. We discuss a difficulty that underlies Szmytkowski's approach.

  1. U-Pb ages and geochemistry of zircon from Proterozoic plutons of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges, Colorado, U.S.A.: Implications for crustal growth of the central Colorado province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moscati, Richard J.; Premo, Wayne R.; Dewitt, Ed; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2017-01-01

    A broad study of zircons from plutonic rocks of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges of west-central Colorado (U.S.A.) was undertaken to significantly refine the magmatic chronology and chemistry of this under-studied region of the Colorado province. This region was chosen because it lies just to the north of the suspected arc-related Gunnison-Salida volcano-plutonic terrane, which has been the subject of many recent investigations—and whose origin is still debated. Our new results provide important insights into the processes active during Proterozoic crustal evolution in this region, and they have important ramifications for broader-scope crustal evolution models for southwestern North America.Twenty-four new U-Pb ages and sequentially acquired rare-earth element (REE), U, Th, and Hf contents of zircon have been determined using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG). These zircon geochemistry data, in conjunction with whole-rock major- and trace-element data, provide important insights into zircon crystallization and melt fractionation, and they help to further constrain the tectonic environment of magma generation.Our detailed zircon and whole-rock data support the following three interpretations:(1) The Roosevelt Granite in the southern Sawatch Range was the oldest rock dated at 1,766 ± 7 Ma, and it intruded various metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Geochemistry of both whole-rock and zircon supports the contention that this granite was produced in a magmatic arc environment and, therefore, is likely an extension of the older Dubois Greenstone Belt of the Gunnison Igneous Complex (GIC) and the Needle Mountains (1,770–1,755 Ma). Rocks of the younger Cochetopa succession of the GIC, the Salida Greenstone Belt, and the Sangre de Cristo Mountains (1,740–1,725 Ma) were not found in the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges. This observation strongly suggests that the northern edge of the Gunnison-Salida arc terrane underlies the

  2. Trade Studies Relating to a Long Range Mach 2.6 Supercruiser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, W. E., Jr.; Sorrells, R. B., III

    1978-01-01

    A systems study was conducted on an aircraft concept, representative of a supersonic-cruise military aircraft (supercruiser). The study results indicate that supersonic ranges in excess of 4000 n.mi. at a Mach number of 2.62 are possible with a 500 lbf class aircraft. Trade studies, to determine the sensitivity of supersonic range to parameters which would improve maneuverability, indicate that thrust-weight ratios of as much as 0.5 can be used without significantly decreasing supersonic range; however, increasing the thrust-weight ratio to 1.0 decreases the range capability by about 1100 n.mi. The range penalty for increasing the aircraft limit load-factor from 4.0 to 9.0 is about 500 n.mi. The increased fuel volume of several configurations improved the supersonic range capability by about 1200 n.mi. but, due to associated losses in supersonic L/D, had an insignificant effect on the range at a Mach number of 2.62.

  3. Range modulation in proton therapy planning: a simple method for mitigating effects of increased relative biological effectiveness at the end-of-range of clinical proton beams.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C; McDonald, Mark W; Johnstone, Peter A S; Hoene, Ted; Mendonca, Marc; Cheng, Chee-Wei; Das, Indra J; McMullen, Kevin P; Wolanski, Mark R

    2014-01-02

    The increase in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of proton beams at the distal edge of the spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) is a well-known phenomenon that is difficult to quantify accurately in vivo. For purposes of treatment planning, disallowing the distal SOBP to fall within vulnerable tissues hampers sparing to the extent possible with proton beam therapy (PBT). We propose the distal RBE uncertainty may be straightforwardly mitigated with a technique we call "range modulation". With range modulation, the distal falloff is smeared, reducing both the dose and average RBE over the terminal few millimeters of the SOBP. One patient plan was selected to serve as an example for direct comparison of image-guided radiotherapy plans using non-range modulation PBT (NRMPBT), and range-modulation PBT (RMPBT). An additional plan using RMPBT was created to represent a re-treatment scenario (RMPBTrt) using a vertex beam. Planning statistics regarding dose, volume of the planning targets, and color images of the plans are shown. The three plans generated for this patient reveal that in all cases dosimetric and device manufacturing advantages are able to be achieved using RMPBT. Organ at risk (OAR) doses to critical structures such as the cochleae, optic apparatus, hypothalamus, and temporal lobes can be selectively spared using this method. Concerns about the location of the RBE that did significantly impact beam selection and treatment planning no longer have the same impact on the process, allowing these structures to be spared dose and subsequent associated issues. This present study has illustrated that RMPBT can improve OAR sparing while giving equivalent coverage to target volumes relative to traditional PBT methods while avoiding the increased RBE at the end of the beam. It has proven easy to design and implement and robust in our planning process. The method underscores the need to optimize treatment plans in PBT for both traditional energy dose in gray (Gy) and

  4. Spatiotemporal variation of hand-foot-mouth disease in relation to socioecological factors: A multiple-province analysis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Nguyen, Huong Xuan; Nguyen, Huong Lien Thi; Do, Cuong Manh; Tran, Quang Dai; Chu, Cordia

    2017-08-20

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a significant public health issue in Asia-pacific countries. Numerous studies have examined the relationship between socio-ecological factors and HFMD however the research findings were inconsistent. This study examined the association between socio-ecologic factors and HFMD in multiple provinces across Vietnam. We applied a spatial autoregressive model using a Bayesian framework to examine the relationship between HFMD and socio-demographic factors. We used a Generalized Linear Model (GLD) with Poisson family to examine the province-specific association between monthly HFMD and climatic factors while controlling for spatial lag, seasonality and long-term trend of HFMD. Then, we used a random-effect meta-analysis to generate pooled effect size of climate-HFMD association for regional and country scale. One percent increase in newborn breastfed within 1h of birth, households with permanent houses, and households accessed to safe water resulted in 1.57% (95% CI: -2.25, -0.93), 0.96% (-1.66, -0.23), and 1.13% (-2.16, -0.18) reduction in HFMD incidence, respectively. At the country-level, HFMD increased 7% (RR: 1.07; 95%CI: 1.052-1.088) and 3.1% (RR: 1.031, 95%CI: 1.024-1.039) for 1°C increase in monthly temperature above 26°C and 1% increase in monthly humidity above 76%. Whereas, HFMD decreased 3.1% associated with 1mm increase in monthly cumulative rainfalls. The climate-HFMD relationship was varied by regions and provinces across the country. The findings reflect an important implication for the climate change adaptation strategies and public-health decision, of which development of weather-based early warning systems should be considered to strengthen communicable disease prevention system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relative Burden of Large CNVs on a Range of Neurodevelopmental Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Girirajan, Santhosh; Brkanac, Zoran; Coe, Bradley P.; Baker, Carl; Vives, Laura; Vu, Tiffany H.; Shafer, Neil; Bernier, Raphael; Ferrero, Giovanni B.; Silengo, Margherita; Warren, Stephen T.; Moreno, Carlos S.; Fichera, Marco; Romano, Corrado; Raskind, Wendy H.; Eichler, Evan E.

    2011-01-01

    While numerous studies have implicated copy number variants (CNVs) in a range of neurological phenotypes, the impact relative to disease severity has been difficult to ascertain due to small sample sizes, lack of phenotypic details, and heterogeneity in platforms used for discovery. Using a customized microarray enriched for genomic hotspots, we assayed for large CNVs among 1,227 individuals with various neurological deficits including dyslexia (376), sporadic autism (350), and intellectual disability (ID) (501), as well as 337 controls. We show that the frequency of large CNVs (>1 Mbp) is significantly greater for ID–associated phenotypes compared to autism (p = 9.58×10−11, odds ratio = 4.59), dyslexia (p = 3.81×10−18, odds ratio = 14.45), or controls (p = 2.75×10−17, odds ratio = 13.71). There is a striking difference in the frequency of rare CNVs (>50 kbp) in autism (10%, p = 2.4×10−6, odds ratio = 6) or ID (16%, p = 3.55×10−12, odds ratio = 10) compared to dyslexia (2%) with essentially no difference in large CNV burden among dyslexia patients compared to controls. Rare CNVs were more likely to arise de novo (64%) in ID when compared to autism (40%) or dyslexia (0%). We observed a significantly increased large CNV burden in individuals with ID and multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) compared to ID alone (p = 0.001, odds ratio = 2.54). Our data suggest that large CNV burden positively correlates with the severity of childhood disability: ID with MCA being most severely affected and dyslexics being indistinguishable from controls. When autism without ID was considered separately, the increase in CNV burden was modest compared to controls (p = 0.07, odds ratio = 2.33). PMID:22102821

  6. Relative efficiency of succinylcholine, xylazine, and carfentanil/xylazine mixtures to immobilize free-ranging moose.

    PubMed

    Delvaux, H; Courtois, R; Breton, L; Patenaude, R

    1999-01-01

    We compared the efficiency of succinylcholine chloride, xylazine hydrochloride and carfentanil/xylazine mixtures in immobilizing 364 free-ranging moose (Alces alces) between 1987 and 1997 in Québec (Canada). With succinylcholine chloride (0.070, 0.062, 0.051 mg/kg of estimated body weight for calves, juveniles and adults), 63% of the 252 immobilization attempts led to complete immobilization and marking, whereas 7% of the darted animals died of respiratory paralysis during handling. The moose took an average of 13 min to lay down after darting (down time). Injection of xylazine (3.67-4.22 mg/kg) permitted sedation (the animal laid down but got up again when approached) or complete immobilization in 78% of the 40 darted adult moose, the mean down time being 8.7 min. No mortality was noted with this drug but 58% of the marked animals were only sedated. The use of RX821002A (0.058 mg/kg) as an antagonist, permitted a mean recovery time of 2.8 min after intravenous injection. With the carfentanil/xylazine mixtures (0.0071 and 0.181 mg/kg), 96% of the immobilization trials (n = 72) led to complete (88%) or partial (8%) immobilization, but 6% of the moose died several days after capture. The mean down time was 6.6 min, and injection of naltrexone (0.709 mg/kg) antagonized the effect of the immobilizing agent within 3.7 min. The respiratory rate was higher (P < 0.05) among moose immobilized with xylazine (35/min) than among those immobilized with carfentanil/xylazine mixtures (19/min) but this variation could be related to a longer pursuit time (z = 3.60; P < 0.01) and higher stress levels during handling. Rectal temperature also was higher with xylazine but the difference was small (39.7 vs. 39.3, P = 0.03) and did not differ significantly between the sexes (P > 0.05). Considering loss of materials and helicopter flight time due to non-successful marking trials, carfentanil/xylazine mixtures were the least expensive ($333 Cdn/animal).

  7. Magnetic subdomains of the High Arctic Magnetic High - Speculations and implications for understanding of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province and related tectonics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltus, R. W.; Oakey, G. N.

    2015-12-01

    The crustal magnetic anomaly pattern for the high Arctic is dominated by a 1.3 x 106 km2 roughly oval domain of magnetic high, the High Arctic Magnetic High (HAMH) that includes numerous linear and curvi-linear shorter wavelength magnetic highs and lows with no single overall trend. Previous workers (including us) have associated this magnetic domain with the intrusive and extrusive mafic rocks of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). The HAMH shows the HALIP to be roughly the same size as other more well-known LIPs such as the Deccan Traps. The broad crustal magnetic character of LIPs is similar (and distinctive from non-LIP regions) worldwide. We identify 5 general subdomains and further distinguish 2 or 3 sections within each subdomain. We examine matched filter magnetic anomaly depth slices and the bathymetric and gravimetric expression of each sub-domain. Subdomains I and II associated respectively with the Mendeleev and Alpha Ridges have the deepest crustal roots. Subdomain III spans most of the central HAMH between I and II and has a distinctly less magnetic core. Subdomain IV on the Canadian margin side appears transitional to the relatively non-magnetic deep Canada Basin. Subdomain V is a zone of parallel magnetic highs at 90 degrees to the trend of the adjacent Lomonosov Ridge. Subdomains I and II may represent the deep cores of two smaller mantle plume heads that contributed to the overall HALIP. The presence of two plumes might serve to explain the two separate clusters of age dates (80 - 90 Ma and 120 - 130 Ma) found on igneous rocks surrounding and dredged from the HALIP region, and two stratigraphic sequence boundaries and extinction events associated with those time ranges. The boundaries between the magnetic subdomains might coincide with tectonic zones related to the post-LIP complex tectonic history of the Amerasian basin. A linear, through-going boundary that bisects the HAMH and runs perpendicular to the trend of the Lomonosov ridge

  8. Home Range Size Variation in Female Arctic Grizzly Bears Relative to Reproductive Status and Resource Availability

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Mark A.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Nagy, John A.

    2013-01-01

    The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal’s home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family. PMID:23844162

  9. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E; Nagy, John A

    2013-01-01

    The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  10. Shallow subsurface temperature surveys in the basin and range province-II. Ground temperatures in the upsal hogback geothermal area, West-Central Nevada, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olmsted, F.H.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Numerous temperature surveys at a depth of 1 m were made in 1973-1985 in the Upsal Hogback and Soda Lakes geothermal areas in west-central Nevada. Whereas the surveys effectively delineated temperature at depth and heat flow within the relatively intense Soda Lakes thermal anomaly, they were not effective at the diffuse Upsal Hogback anomaly, where several perturbing factors that affect shallow subsurface temperatures are exceedingly variable. Albedo is the most important factor in the Upsal Hogback area, even at a depth of 30 m. All possible perturbing factors should be considered when designing a shallow temperature-based prospecting scheme. ?? 1986.

  11. Prevalence of helminth parasites in free-range chickens from selected rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, S; Khumalo, M P

    2010-06-01

    A total of 79 chickens were randomly collected from 4 rural localities and processed to detect the presence of helminth parasites and their prevalences. Sixteen helminth species comprising 12 nematode and 4 cestode species were recorded from the 4 localities. Syngamus trachea and Cyathostoma spp. were the only helminth species recovered from the respiratory tract and the rest of the helminth species were from the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent nematode species across the 4 localities were Heterakis gallinarum (prevalence range 80-94.4%), Gongylonema ingluvicola (43.3-867%), Tetrameres american (53.3-66.7%) and Ascaridia galli (22.2-43.8%) and for cestode species, Raillietina tetragona (16.7-40%) and Skrijabinia cesticillus (3.3-13.3%) were the most prevalent in that order. Heterakis gallinarum and T americana had the highest intensity of infection in chickens across all the rural areas compared with other helminth species. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) observed in the sex distribution for As. galli, Baruscapillaria obsignata (syn. Capillaria obsignata), Eucoleus annulatus (syn. Capillaria annulata), Eucoleus contortus (syn. Capillaria contorta) and Subulura suctoria among the 4 rural areas. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the intensity of infection of both males and females for H. gallinarum and T americana across the 4 localities studied. Tetrameres americana, A. galli, C. obsignata and C. annulata had prevalence and number of females higher than that of males, while H. gallinarum showed the opposite. Prevalence of H. gallinarum and T. americana as determined by faecal egg count were much lower compared with the prevalence as determined by post mortem examination, confirming the limitation of using faecal samples in determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in chickens.

  12. Occurrence, distribution and relative incidence of mosaic viruses infecting field--grown squash in Tehran province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Farhangi, S Hosseini; Mosahebi, G; Habibi, M Koohi; Okhovvat, S M

    2004-01-01

    Squash (Cucurbita pepo) belongs to Cucurbitaceae family. Every year Cucurbitaceae are planted world wide. They are one of the most important economic crops. Cucurbitaceae are threatened by viruses. Many viruses damage the plants of this family. Since nine viruses have been reported on squash from Iran. In this survey, during 2002--2003, to determine the distribution of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), 466 samples were collected from squash field in Tehran province. Infected plants showing symptoms such as: mosaic, yellowing, deformation, shoestring of leaves and fruit deformation and yield reduction. Distribution of CMV, ZYMV and WMV were determined by DAS-ELISA. Thepercentage of ZYMV, WMV and CMV were 35.6, 26.1 and 25.1% respectively. Triple infection (CMV+ZYMV+WMV) were found in 6.4% of samples. ZYMV were found the most frequently the viruses. This is the first report of WMV on squash in Tehran province.

  13. Spatial and temporal analysis of the distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Buenos Aires Province, and its relation to rodent distribution, agricultural and demographic variables.

    PubMed

    Busch, M; Cavia, R; Carbajo, A E; Bellomo, C; Gonzalez Capria, S; Padula, P

    2004-04-01

    We studied the spatial and temporal distribution of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) cases from 1998 to 2001 in the Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. HPS is a severe viral disease whose natural reservoir are rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae (Muridae) and which occurs in many countries of South and North America. We considered two spatial arrangements: cells of 18.5 x 18.5 km(2); and departments, the political subdivisions of the province, as spatial units. We tested the departure from a Poisson distribution of the number of cases per cell and per month with the Variance/Mean index, while the interaction between spatial and temporal clustering was tested by means of the Knox and Mantel tests. We constructed probability maps in which the HPS rates per department were considered Poisson variates according to population, area and the product of population and area. We analysed the relation between rodent distribution, environmental and demographic variables and HPS cases conducting preliminary univariate analysis from which we selected variables to enter in general linearized models. We found that both the spatial and temporal distribution of cases is strongly aggregated. The spatiotemporal interaction appears to be related to a strong seasonality and the existence of particular ecological conditions rather than epidemic transmission of the disease. The main explanatory variables for the distribution of HPS cases among the departments of the Buenos Aires Province were human population, the distribution of the rodent Oxymycterus rufus and evapotranspiration. The last two variables are probably indicators of favourable ecological conditions for the reservoirs, which encompass other variables not taken into account in this study.

  14. Status of beech bark disease in the Province of Quebec

    Treesearch

    Denis. Lachance

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of beech bark disease has not changed significantly in recent years in Quebec. It has remained as scattered infected stands located within relatively old beech-scale-infested areas. This scale covers the southeastern half of the beech natural range in the province and it is spreading slowly westward.

  15. Geologic history of Siletzia, a large igneous province in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range: correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale and implications for a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray; Bukry, David; Friedman, Richard; Pyle, Douglas; Duncan, Robert; Haeussler, Peter; Wooden, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Siletzia is a basaltic Paleocene and Eocene large igneous province in coastal Oregon, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island that was accreted to North America in the early Eocene. New U-Pb magmatic, detrital zircon, and 40Ar/39Ar ages constrained by detailed field mapping, global nannoplankton zones, and magnetic polarities allow correlation of the volcanics with the 2012 geologic time scale. The data show that Siletzia was rapidly erupted 56–49 Ma, during the Chron 25–22 plate reorganization in the northeast Pacific basin. Accretion was completed between 51 and 49 Ma in Oregon, based on CP11 (CP—Coccolith Paleogene zone) coccoliths in strata overlying onlapping continental sediments. Magmatism continued in the northern Oregon Coast Range until ca. 46 Ma with the emplacement of a regional sill complex during or shortly after accretion. Isotopic signatures similar to early Columbia River basalts, the great crustal thickness of Siletzia in Oregon, rapid eruption, and timing of accretion are consistent with offshore formation as an oceanic plateau. Approximately 8 m.y. after accretion, margin parallel extension of the forearc, emplacement of regional dike swarms, and renewed magmatism of the Tillamook episode peaked at 41.6 Ma (CP zone 14a; Chron 19r). We examine the origin of Siletzia and consider the possible role of a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot using the reconstruction in GPlates, an open source plate model. In most hotspot reference frames, the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) is on or near an inferred northeast-striking Kula-Farallon and/or Resurrection-Farallon ridge between 60 and 50 Ma. In this configuration, the YHS could have provided a 56–49 Ma source on the Farallon plate for Siletzia, which accreted to North America by 50 Ma. A sister plateau, the Eocene basalt basement of the Yakutat terrane, now in Alaska, formed contemporaneously on the adjacent Kula (or Resurrection) plate and accreted to coastal British Columbia at about the same time

  16. Timing of ore-related magmatism in the western Alaska Range, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Graham, Garth E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Selby, David

    2014-01-01

    This report presents isotopic age data from mineralized granitic plutons in an area of the Alaska Range located approximately 200 kilometers to the west-northwest of Anchorage in southwestern Alaska. Uranium-lead isotopic data and trace element concentrations of zircons were determined for 12 samples encompassing eight plutonic bodies ranging in age from approximately 76 to 57.4 millions of years ago (Ma). Additionally, a rhenium-osmium age of molybdenite from the Miss Molly molybdenum occurrence is reported (approx. 59 Ma). All of the granitic plutons in this study host gold-, copper-, and (or) molybdenum-rich prospects. These new ages modify previous interpretations regarding the age of magmatic activity and mineralization within the study area. The new ages show that the majority of the gold-quartz vein-hosting plutons examined in this study formed in the Late Cretaceous. Further work is necessary to establish the ages of ore-mineral deposition in these deposits.

  17. Age-Related Variations in Intestinal Microflora of Free-Range and Caged Hens

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yizhe; Wang, Qiuju; Liu, Shengjun; Sun, Rui; Zhou, Yaqiang; Li, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Free range feeding pattern puts the chicken in a mixture of growth materials and enteric bacteria excreted by nature, while it is typically unique condition materials and enteric bacteria in commercial caged hens production. Thus, the gastrointestinal microflora in two feeding patterns could be various. However, it remains poorly understood how feeding patterns affect development and composition of layer hens’ intestinal microflora. In this study, the effect of feeding patterns on the bacteria community in layer hens’ gut was investigated using free range and caged feeding form. Samples of whole small intestines and cecal digesta were collected from young hens (8-weeks) and mature laying hens (30-weeks). Based on analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA gene amplicons, the microflora of all intestinal contents were affected by both feeding patterns and age of hens. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the main components. Additionally, uncultured environmental samples were found too. There were large differences between young hens and adult laying hens, the latter had more Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and bacterial community is more abundant in 30-weeks laying hens of all six phyla than 8-weeks young hens of only two phyla. In addition, the differences were also observed between free range and caged hens. Free range hens had richer Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Most of strains found were detected more abundant in small intestines than in cecum. Also the selected Lactic acid bacteria from hens gut were applied in feed and they had beneficial effects on growth performance and jejunal villus growth of young broilers. This study suggested that feeding patterns have an importance effect on the microflora composition of hens, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health. PMID:28744281

  18. Relative Navigation Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Sensor Development Test Objective (DTO) Performance Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request from the NASA Associate Administrator (AA) for Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), to quantitatively evaluate the individual performance of three light detection and ranging (LIDAR) rendezvous sensors flown as orbiter's development test objective on Space Transportation System (STS)-127, STS-133, STS-134, and STS-135. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  19. Scapulohumeral rhythm relative to active range of motion in patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Robert-Lachaine, Xavier; Allard, Paul; Godbout, Véronique; Tétreault, Patrice; Begon, Mickael

    2016-10-01

    Some patients with rotator cuff tears feel pain without functional limitation, whereas others show a decrease in range of motion. To investigate this distinction, the scapulohumeral rhythm was used to conduct a functional evaluation of shoulder joints' coordination. The objective was to characterize patients according to their active range of motion without pain and their scapulohumeral rhythm compared with healthy individuals. Fourteen patients with rotator cuff tears and 14 healthy individuals were set up with 35 reflective markers on the trunk and upper limb tracked by an optoelectronic system to measure the scapulohumeral rhythm. Five scapular plane maximal arm elevations were executed without pain. Patients were separated by maximal arm elevation of 85° (category A) and 40° (category B). Three-way mixed-design analysis of variance with factors of group (patients and healthy), arm elevation, and motion direction was applied to the scapulohumeral rhythm. A main effect of group (P = .032) was observed in patients in category A, who showed inferior scapulohumeral rhythm. An interaction between group and arm elevation (P = .044) was observed for patients in category B, where their scapulohumeral rhythm increased more during arm elevation than in the healthy individuals. Patients who reached at least 85° compensated for the loss of glenohumeral motion by increased scapulothoracic contribution, suggesting that structural damage interferes with motion mechanics. In contrast, patients who reached less range of motion underused the scapulothoracic joint, which is likely to create subacromial impingement at low arm elevation. A patient's maximal range of motion without pain may indicate a pattern of scapulohumeral rhythm alteration. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in surfing-related landing tasks.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in five different landing tasks that are used in training and testing for competitive surfing athletes, to assist coaches in the prescription of landing task progression and monitoring training load. Eleven competitive surfing athletes aged 24 ± 7 years participated, and inertial motion sensors were fixed to the anterior aspect of the feet, mid-tibial shafts, sacrum and eighth thoracic vertebrae on these athletes. Three tasks were performed landing on force plates and two tasks in a modified gymnastics set-up used for land-based aerial training. Peak landing force, resultant peak acceleration and front and rear side ankle dorsiflexion ranges of motion during landing were determined. The peak acceleration was approximately 50% higher when performing aerial training using a mini-trampoline and landing on a soft-density foam board, compared to a similar landing off a 50 cm box. Furthermore, the ankle ranges of motion during the gymnastic type landings were significantly lower than the other landing types (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.001), for front and rear sides, respectively. Conclusively, increased task complexity and specificity of the sport increased the tibial peak acceleration, indicating greater training load.

  1. Hydrochemistry of the hot springs in western Sichuan province related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δ D and δ(18)O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K(+)and SO4(-) of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak.

  2. Petrogenesis of the Elzevir batholith and related trondhjemitic intrusions in the grenville province of eastern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pride, C.; Moore, J. M.

    1983-06-01

    The Elzevir batholith belongs to a suite of trondhjemitic intrusions emplaced at ca. 1,240 Ma in the Grenville Province of eastern Ontario. New major and trace element data, including REE, combined with isotopic and petrographic data indicate that: 1) the batholith has calc-alkalic affinities; 2) the Elzevir parental magma is very similar to that of dacites in the nearby, coeval metavolcanic rocks; the magma formed by partial melting of crustal material at granulite grade; 3) chemical differences between the plutonic and volcanic rocks can be best explained by accumulation of plagioclase in the plutonic environment; 4) fractionation was dominated by plagioclase and quartz, with lesser biotite and epidote, and minor zircon and apatite. It is suggested that melting of sialic crust took place during the ‘docking’ of a partly-evolved, originally ensimatic arc system against the main cratonic mass to the northwest.

  3. Thermal relations of large crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus, free-ranging in a naturalistic situation

    PubMed Central

    Grigg, G. C.; Seebacher, F.; Beard, L. A.; Morris, D.

    1998-01-01

    We monitored behaviour and environmental and body temperatures (Tb) in summer and winter in 11 salt-water crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), of body mass 32 to 1010kg, free-ranging in naturalistic captivity in northern Australia. We found pronounced daily cycles in air and water temperatures in both winter (16 to 33 degrees C and 20 to 31degrees C, respectively) and summer (21 to 45 degrees C and 24 to 36 degrees C, respectively). In winter, crocodiles exposed themselves to the sun during the day and stayed in the water at night. In summer, they remained in the water during the day and emerged onto land at night. Body temperature showed a daily cycle the amplitude of which decreased with increasing mass, from 3.5 degrees C (mass 32kg) to 1.0 degrees C (660kg) in summer, and from 3.5 degrees C (42kg) to 1.4 degrees C (1010kg) in winter. Underlying the daily cycles in Tb were intermediate (10 to 13 day, tidal?) and seasonal cycles. Overall, values of modal Tb ranged from 25.1 to 28.7 degrees C in winter and from 28.4 to 33.6 degrees C in summer, trending upwards with body size. This pattern of continuous oscillations in Tb, with no daily plateau, is conspicuously different from that seen in crocodilians of small sizes and from the pattern usually regarded as typical of reptiles in general.

  4. Conscious auditory perception related to long-range synchrony of gamma oscillations.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Saskia; Leicht, Gregor; Ertl, Matthias; Andreou, Christina; Polomac, Nenad; Westerhausen, René; Friederici, Angela D; Mulert, Christoph

    2014-10-15

    While the role of synchronized oscillatory activity in the gamma-band frequency range for conscious perception is well established in the visual domain, there is limited evidence concerning neurophysiological mechanisms in conscious auditory perception. In the current study, we addressed this issue with 64-channel EEG and a dichotic listening (DL) task in twenty-five healthy participants. The typical finding of DL is a more frequent conscious perception of the speech syllable presented to the right ear (RE), which is attributed to the supremacy of the contralateral pathways running from the RE to the speech-dominant left hemisphere. In contrast, the left ear (LE) input initially accesses the right hemisphere and needs additional transfer via interhemispheric pathways before it is processed in the left hemisphere. Using lagged phase synchronization (LPS) analysis and eLORETA source estimation we examined the functional connectivity between right and left primary and secondary auditory cortices in the main frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma) during RE/LE-reports. Interhemispheric LPS between right and left primary and secondary auditory cortices was specifically increased in the gamma-band range, when participants consciously perceived the syllable presented to the LE. Our results suggest that synchronous gamma oscillations are involved in interhemispheric transfer of auditory information.

  5. Assessing the role of ancient and active geothermal systems in oil-reservoir evolution in the eastern Basin and Range province, western USA. Annual progress report, June 1, 1992--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Results of our research on the oil fields of the Basin and Range province of the western USA continue to support the following concept: Convecting, moderate-temperature geothermal systems in this region have fostered and in some cases critically influenced the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil. At one Basin-Range field (Grant Canyon), oil-bearing and aqueous fluid inclusions in late-stage hydrothermal quartz were entrapped at temperatures comparable to those now prevailing at reservoir depths (120--130{degrees}C); apparent salinities of the aqueous varieties match closely the actual salinity of the modern, dilute oil-field waters. The inclusion-bearing quartz has the oxygen-isotopic signature for precipitation of the mineral at contemporary temperatures from modern reservoir waters. Measured and fluid-inclusion temperatures define near-coincident isothermal profiles through the oil-reservoir interval, a phenomenon suggesting ongoing heat and mass transfer. These findings are consistent with a model whereby a still-active, convectively circulating, meteoric-hydrothermal system: (1) enhanced porosity in the reservoir rock through dissolution of carbonate; (2) hydrothermally sealed reservoir margins; (3) transported oil to the reservoirs from a deep source of unknown size and configuration; and (4) possibly accelerated source-rock maturation through an increase in the local thermal budget. Grant Canyon and other Basin-Range oil fields are similar to the oil-bearing, Carlin-type, sediment-hosted, disseminated gold deposits of the nearby Alligator Ridge district. The oil fields could represent either weakly mineralized analogues of these deposits, or perhaps an incipient phase in their evolution.

  6. Relation between Feynman cycles and off-diagonal long-range order.

    PubMed

    Ueltschi, Daniel

    2006-10-27

    The usual order parameter for Bose-Einstein condensation involves the off-diagonal correlation function of Penrose and Onsager, but an alternative is Feynman's notion of infinite cycles. We present a formula that relates both order parameters. We discuss its validity with the help of rigorous results and heuristic arguments. The conclusion is that infinite cycles do not always represent the Bose condensate.

  7. Altered task-related modulation of long-range connectivity in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Ajay S; McAuliffe, Danielle; Lakshmanan, Balaji M; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Crone, Nathan E; Ewen, Joshua B

    2017-09-12

    Functional connectivity differences between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children have been described in multiple datasets. However, few studies examine the task-related changes in connectivity in disorder-relevant behavioral paradigms. In this paper, we examined the task-related changes in functional connectivity using EEG and a movement-based paradigm that has behavioral relevance to ASD. Resting-state studies motivated our hypothesis that children with ASD would show a decreased magnitude of functional connectivity during the performance of a motor-control task. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, however, we observed that task-related modulation of functional connectivity in children with ASD was in the direction opposite to that of TDs. The task-related connectivity changes were correlated with clinical symptom scores. Our results suggest that children with ASD may have differences in cortical segregation/integration during the performance of a task, and that part of the differences in connectivity modulation may serve as a compensatory mechanism. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Decreased connectivity between brain regions is thought to cause the symptoms of autism. Because most of our knowledge comes from data in which children are at rest, we do not know how connectivity changes directly lead to autistic behaviors, such as impaired gestures. When typically developing children produced complex movements, connectivity decreased between brain regions. In children with autism, connectivity increased. It may be that behavior-related changes in brain connectivity are more important than absolute differences in connectivity in autism. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Tectonics and metallogenic provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guild, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.

  9. Chromosomal diversity in tropical reef fishes is related to body size and depth range.

    PubMed

    Martinez, P A; Zurano, J P; Amado, T F; Penone, C; Betancur-R, R; Bidau, C J; Jacobina, U P

    2015-12-01

    Tropical reef fishes show contrasting patterns of karyotypic diversity. Some families have a high chromosomal conservatism while others show wide variation in karyotypic macrostructure. However, the influence of life-history traits on karyotypic diversity is largely unknown. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we assessed the effects of larval and adult species traits on chromosomal diversity rates of 280 reef species in 24 families. We employed a novel approach to account for trait variation within families as well as phylogenetic uncertainties. We found a strong negative relationship between karyotypic diversity rates and body size and depth range. These results suggest that lineages with higher dispersal potential and gene flow possess lower karyotypic diversity. Taken together, these results provide evidence that biological traits might modulate the rate of karyotypic diversity in tropical reef fishes.

  10. Mycobacterium avium-related epizootic in free-ranging lesser flamingos in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kock, N D; Kock, R A; Wambua, J; Kamau, G J; Mohan, K

    1999-04-01

    An epizootic in free-ranging lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) in Kenya resulted in more than 18,500 deaths from August through mid-November 1993. Disease was concentrated along the shores of Rift Valley Lakes Bogoria and Nakuru (Kenya) and did not involve any of the other avian or mammalian species frequenting the lakes. Coincidental to the outbreak was a bloom of algae on Lake Bogoria, toxins from which were first suspected to be causative. Discrete necrotic and granulomatous lesions were often noted in spleen and liver, and Mycobacterium avium serovar I was isolated from both organs. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa also were often recovered in pure culture from liver. Gross and histopathological evaluation of the cases disclosed signs of acute sepsis and also chronic, potentially life-threatening lesions of mycobacteriosis, primarily involving the spleen and liver. Lesions typical for algae toxicosis were not seen in any birds. Deaths were attributed to septicemia complicated in those affected, by mycobacteriosis.

  11. Foraging ranges of insectivorous bats shift relative to changes in mosquito abundance.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Leroy; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    The need to develop effective management strategies for insectivorous bat populations requires an understanding of factors influencing habitat use. Availability of pest prey, such as mosquitoes is likely to be one such factor. To assess whether this is the case, we radio-tracked Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas (little forest bat), a predator of Aedes vigilax Skuse (saltmarsh mosquito), in saltmarsh and adjacent coastal swamp forest during periods of high and low Ae. vigilax abundance. When mosquito abundance in structurally-open saltmarsh was similar to the more cluttered coastal swamp forest, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was disproportionately greater than its availability, with saltmarsh selected preferentially for foraging. However, at times of low Ae. vigilax abundance in saltmarsh, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was reduced and all habitats were used in proportion to availability in the study area. This is the first radio-tracking study to demonstrate a shift in foraging range by an insectivorous bat species correlated with fluctuations in the distribution and abundance of a particular prey resource. The shift in foraging range by V. vulturnus, corresponding with a spatio-temporal variation in abundance of Ae. vigilax highlights the importance of mosquitoes as a dietary item. Broadscale pest control of Ae. vigilax may have ecological implications for the diet and habitat use of V. vulturnus. An adaptive management approach is proposed, whereby careful monitoring of insectivorous bat populations is recommended before and after any application of broadscale mosquito control measures. We also suggest a precautionary approach is taken such that broadscale control of mosquitoes avoids the lactation period of bats, a time when their energetic demands are greatest and when there is reduced risk of contracting mosquito-borne diseases transmitted by Ae. vigilax.

  12. Prevalence and intensity of fleas parasitizing an isolated population of screaming hairy armadillo in Buenos Aires province, Argentina: host-related factors and temporal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, M Cecilia; Abba, Agustín M; Cassini, Guillermo H; Lareschi, Marcela

    2017-08-25

    Fleas (Siphonaptera) of an isolated population of Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from Magdalena (Buenos Aires province) were studied, and their presence was associated with host-related factors (age, sex, weight, size, and physical condition) and temporal dynamics (seasonality and year). Three species of fleas were identified: Polygenis (Polygenis) platensis (Rhopalopsyllidae), Tunga penetrans (Tungidae), and Pulex irritans (Pulicidae). Prevalences were significant for year, season, and physical condition. Intensities were significantly different for year, physical condition, and weight. The intensities of fleas were higher in 2009 than in other years, probably because of lower rainfall than the annual average leading to extremely dry climatic conditions in 2008. Intensities decreased in individuals with major body weight and increased in individuals with poor physical condition. In this study, the dynamics of the flea community associated with an armadillo population is analyzed for the first time taking into account host-related factors and temporal dynamics, and also how these factors influence the community.

  13. Geographical variation in water relations, hydraulic architecture and terpene composition of Aleppo pine seedlings from Italian provinces.

    PubMed

    Tognetti, R; Michelozzi, M; Giovannelli, A

    1997-04-01

    Ecotypic variations in leaf conductance, soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, components of tissue water potential, hydraulic architecture parameters and xylem embolism were examined in greenhouse-grown two-year-old Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seedlings from six origins representing the geographic range of the species in Italy. Cortical resin composition of the seedlings was also determined. Measurements were made on well-watered seedlings and on seedlings subjected to recurring severe drought. Drought-stressed seedlings had lower mean leaf conductances, transpiration rates and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductances than well-watered seedlings. They also exhibited more negative osmotic potentials, higher relative water deficit at incipient plasmolysis, but a similar maximum modulus of elasticity. Drought-stressed seedlings showed a higher degree of xylem embolism, a lower Huber value, lower leaf specific conductivity and lower specific conductivity than well-watered seedlings. Drought-stressed seedlings of provenances from more xeric habitats (Tremiti, Porto Pino and Mottola) had greater leaf conductances, transpiration rates and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductances than drought-stressed seedlings of provenances from more mesic habitats (Imperia, Otricoli and Vico del Gargano). They also showed higher osmotic adjustment and a lower degree of xylem embolism. Among provenances, there were no significant differences in hydraulic architecture parameters in response to the drought treatment; however, Tremiti and Porto Pino seedlings displayed smaller drought-induced reductions in specific conductivity and leaf specific conductivity, respectively, than seedlings from other provenances. These differences suggest that seedlings from xeric provenances, especially Tremiti, have greater resistance to desiccation than seedlings from mesic provenances. No clear association was found between terpene variability and the other traits investigated, although terpene composition

  14. The North Atlantic Igneous Province reconstructed and its relation to the Plume Generation Zone: the Antrim Lava Group revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganerød, M.; Smethurst, M. A.; Torsvik, T. H.; Prestvik, T.; Rousse, S.; McKenna, C.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Hendriks, B. W. H.

    2010-07-01

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) have recently been suggested to originate at the edges of low-velocity zones on the core mantle boundary (Plume Generation Zones). If true, LIPs can potentially be used to constrain paleolongitude in plate tectonic reconstructions. To validate the hypothesis, it is essential to study LIPs of which the paleolongitude can be constrained by other methods, such as hotspot reference frames. An ideal candidate to this end is the early Cenozoic North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP). Despite being the largest volcanic unit of the British Tertiary Igneous Province (BTIP, part of the NAIP), the age and paleoposition of the Antrim Lava Group (ALG) in Northern Ireland, which is key to the NAIP as a whole, was hitherto poorly constrained. In this paper, we therefore present an integrated high-resolution paleomagnetic and geochronological study. The ALG is divided into three formations: the Lower Basalt Formation (LBF), Interbasaltic Formation (IBF) and the Upper Basalt Formation (UBF). The IBF is mostly lateritic and encloses the Tardree rhyolite. We offer new age constraints from all three formations using the 40Ar/39Ar method and propose that 62.6 +/- 0.3, 61.3 +/- 0.3 and 59.6 +/- 0.3 Ma (1σ, internal uncertainties) are sound estimates of the age of emplacement of the LBF, Tardree rhyolite (IBF) and UBF, respectively. This constrains the nominal duration of emplacement of the ALG to 3 +/- 0.6 Ma (1σ). This reevaluation of the magnetic signature in the ALG revealed reverse polarity remanence in all three formations and an overall paleomagnetic north pole at latitude 78.9°N, longitude 167°E (A95 = 6.3; age ~61 Ma) in the European reference system. This appears consistent with paleomagnetic poles from the rest of the NAIP; both in Europe and Greenland, as well as predictions from modern apparent polar wander paths. The new radiometric ages span magnetochron C26r, C27n and C27r. The normal polarity chron C27n most probably occurred during the

  15. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste-characterization of the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Death Valley region, Nevada and California, in the Basin and Range province, is an area of about 80,200 sq km located in southern Nevada and southeastern California. Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive basement rocks are overlain by a thick section of Paleozoic clastic and evaporitic sedimentary rocks. Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks include extrusive and intrusive rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks. Structural features within the Death Valley indicate a long and complex tectonic evolution from late Precambrian to the present. Potential repository host media in the region include granite and other coarse-grained plutonic rocks, ashflow tuff, basaltic and andesitic lava flows, and basin fill. The Death Valley region is composed largely of closed topographic basins that are apparently coincident with closed groundwater flow systems. In these systems, recharge occurs sparingly at higher altitudes by infiltration of precipitation or by infiltration of ephemeral runoff. Discharge occurs largely by spring flow and by evaporation and transpiration in the playas. Death Valley proper, for which the region was named, is the ultimate discharge area for a large, complex system of groundwater aquifers that occupy the northeastern part of the region. The deepest part of the system consists of carbonate aquifers that connect closed topographic basins at depth. The discharge from the system occurs in several intermediate areas that are geomorphically, stratigraphically, and structurally controlled. Ultimately, most groundwater flow terminates by discharge to Death Valley; groundwater is discharged to the Colorado River from a small part of the region.

  16. Geologic map of upper Eocene to Holocene volcanic and related rocks in the Cascade Range, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James G.

    1993-01-01

    For geothermal reasons, the maps emphasize Quaternary volcanic rocks. Large igneous-related geothermal systems that have high temperatures are associated with Quaternary volcanic fields, and geothermal potential declines rapidly as age increases (Smith and Shaw, 1975). Most high-grade recoverable geothermal energy is likely to be associated with silicic volcanism less than 1 Ma. Lower grade (= lower temperature) geothermal resources may be associated with somewhat older rocks; however, volcanic rocks older than about 2 Ma are unlikely geothermal targets (Smith and Shaw, 1975).

  17. Lower extremity strength and the range of motion in relation to squat depth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si-Hyun; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Park, Kyue-Nam; Jeon, In-Cheol; Weon, Jong-Hyuck

    2015-03-29

    The purpose of this study was to determine which variables of the range of motion (ROM) and strength of the hip, and ankle are associated with squat depth. In total, 101 healthy subjects (64 males, 37 females) participated in the study. Outcome measures consisted of the ROM of hip flexion, hip internal rotation, external rotation, ankle dorsiflexion with an extended and flexed knee joint, and strength of the hip flexor and ankle dorsiflexor. Squat depth was measured using SIMI motion analysis software. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between variables and squat depth. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine variables associated with squat depth. The multiple regression model indicated that ankle dorsiflexion with a flexed knee and the hip flexion ROM were significantly associated with squat depth in male subjects (R(2) = 0.435) and ankle dorsiflexion with an extended knee and dorsiflexor strength were significantly associated with squat depth in female subjects (R(2) = 0.324). Thus, exercises to increase the ROM of the ankle dorsiflexion, hip flexion, and dorsiflexor strength can be recommended to improve squat performance. Future studies should assess an increased ROM of the ankle dorsiflexion, hip flexion, or dorsiflexor strength effect on deep squat performance.

  18. Lower Extremity Strength and the Range of Motion in Relation to Squat Depth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si-Hyun; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Park, Kyue-Nam; Jeon, In-Cheol; Weon, Jong-Hyuck

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which variables of the range of motion (ROM) and strength of the hip, and ankle are associated with squat depth. In total, 101 healthy subjects (64 males, 37 females) participated in the study. Outcome measures consisted of the ROM of hip flexion, hip internal rotation, external rotation, ankle dorsiflexion with an extended and flexed knee joint, and strength of the hip flexor and ankle dorsiflexor. Squat depth was measured using SIMI motion analysis software. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between variables and squat depth. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine variables associated with squat depth. The multiple regression model indicated that ankle dorsiflexion with a flexed knee and the hip flexion ROM were significantly associated with squat depth in male subjects (R2 = 0.435) and ankle dorsiflexion with an extended knee and dorsiflexor strength were significantly associated with squat depth in female subjects (R2 = 0.324). Thus, exercises to increase the ROM of the ankle dorsiflexion, hip flexion, and dorsiflexor strength can be recommended to improve squat performance. Future studies should assess an increased ROM of the ankle dorsiflexion, hip flexion, or dorsiflexor strength effect on deep squat performance. PMID:25964810

  19. Graphitization and related variable-range-hopping conduction in ion-implanted diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prins, Johan F.

    2001-07-01

    Variable-range-hopping (VRH) conduction that has been ascribed to the formation of graphite sp2 bonds, can be generated in diamond by means of high dose ion implantation. With increasing implantation temperature, the ion doses required to generate this conduction increase owing to some form of self-annealing. Similar behaviour has been reported for the formation of amorphous material in silicon. Morehead and Crowder (1970 Radiat. Eff. 6 27) developed a model based on displacement spikes to describe this process in silicon. Prawer and Kalish (1995 Phys. Rev. B 51 15711) adapted this model to describe the onset of VRH conduction in diamonds that they had implanted with 100 keV C+ and 320 keV Xe+ at different temperatures. In this study it is assumed that the latter ions could not have formed displacement spikes in diamond. Equations, based on interstitial-vacancy generation and recombination, are then derived to describe the processes of damage formation and annealing in diamond during ion implantation, and applied to the data of Prawer and Kalish. The model fits the latter data well, and is also consistent with recent results on interstitial-vacancy generation, and the interactions of these defects, in electron-irradiated diamonds.

  20. Hominin geographical range dynamics and relative brain size: Do non-human primates provide a good analogy?

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Katharine; Smaers, Jeroen B; Steele, James

    2015-10-01

    We use climatic and satellite remote sensing data to characterize environmental seasonality in the geographical ranges of extant non-human primates in order to assess the effect of relative brain size on tolerance of more seasonal habitats. Demonstration of such an effect in living non-human primates could provide a comparative framework for modeling hominin dispersals and geographical range dynamics in the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Our analyses found no such effect: there are neither positive nor negative correlations between relative brain size and either geographical range size or the average and range of values for environmental seasonality, whether analysed at the level of all primates, or within parvorders (strepsirrhine, catarrhine, platyrrhine). Independent analyses by other researchers comparing feeding behaviour and ecology at individual primate study sites demonstrate that in seasonal environments, the year-round metabolic costs of maintaining a relatively large brain are met by adaptive behavioural/dietary strategies. However, consistent with our own results, those comparative studies found that there was no overall association, whether positive or negative, between 'raw' environmental seasonality and primate relative brain size. We must therefore look elsewhere for a comparative model of hominin geographical range dynamics in the Pleistocene.

  1. Hydrochemistry of the Hot Springs in Western Sichuan Province Related to the Wenchuan M S 8.0 Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan M S 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δD and δ 18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K+and SO4 − of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

  2. Diagnostic delay amongst tuberculosis patients in Jogjakarta Province, Indonesia is related to the quality of services in DOTS facilities.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Riris Andono; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Utarini, Adi; de Vlas, Sake J

    2011-04-01

    To understand determinants of care-seeking patterns and diagnostic delay amongst tuberculosis (TB) patients diagnosed at direct observed treatment short course (DOTS) facilities in Jogjakarta, Indonesia. Cross-sectional survey amongst newly diagnosed TB patients in 89 DOTS facilities whose history of care-seeking was reconstructed through retrospective interviews gathering data on socio-demographic determinants, onset of TB symptoms, type of health facilities visited, duration of each care-seeking action were recorded. Two hundred and fifty-three TB patients were included in the study whose median duration of patients' delay was 1 week and whose total duration of diagnostic delay was 5.4 weeks. The median number of visits was 4. Many of the patients' socio-demographic determinants were not associated with the care-seeking patterns, and no socio-demographic determinants were associated with the duration of diagnostic delay. More than 60% of TB patients started their care-seeking processes outside DOTS facilities, but the number of visits in DOTS facilities was greater during the overall care-seeking process. Surprisingly, patient's immediate visits to a DOTS facility did not correspond to shorter diagnostic delay. Diagnostic delay in Jogjakarta province was not associated with patients' socio demographic factors, but rather with the health system providing DOTS services. This suggests that strengthening the health system and improving diagnostic quality within DOTS services is now a more rational strategy than expanding the TB programme to engage more providers. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Incidence of abortion-related near-miss complications in Zambia: cross-sectional study in Central, Copperbelt and Lusaka Provinces.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Onikepe O; Cresswell, Jenny A; Vwalika, Bellington; Osrin, David; Filippi, Veronique

    2017-02-01

    To describe the magnitude and severity of abortion-related complications in health facilities and calculate the incidence of abortion-related near-miss complications at the population level in three provinces in Zambia, a country where abortion is legal but stigmatized. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 35 district, provincial and tertiary hospitals over 5 months. All women hospitalized for abortion-related complications were eligible for inclusion. Cases of abortion-related near-miss, moderate and low morbidity were identified using adapted World Health Organization (WHO) near-miss and the prospective morbidity methodology criteria. Incidence was calculated by annualizing the number of near-misses and dividing by the population of women of reproductive age. We calculated the abortion-related near-miss rate, abortion-related near-miss ratio and the hospital mortality index. Participating hospitals recorded 26,723 births during the study. Of admissions for post-abortion care, 2406 (42%) were eligible for inclusion. Near-misses constituted 16% of admitted complications and there were 14 abortion-related maternal deaths. The hospital mortality index was 3%; the abortion-related near-miss rate for the three provinces was 72 per 100,000 women, and the near-miss ratio was 450 per 100,000 live births. Abortion-related near-miss and mortality are challenges for the Zambian health system. Adapted to reflect health systems capabilities, the WHO near-miss criteria can be applied to routine hospital records to obtain useful data in low-income settings. Reducing avoidable maternal mortality and morbidity due to abortion requires efforts to de-stigmatize access to abortion provision, and expanded access to modern contraception. The abortion-related near-miss rate is high in Zambia compared with other restrictive contexts. Our results suggest that near-miss is a promising indicator of unsafe abortion; can be measured using routine hospital data, conveniently defined using

  4. Diurnal temperature range in the Arctic and its relation to hemispheric and Arctic circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylak, Rajmund

    2000-03-01

    The changes of atmospheric circulation patterns in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Arctic for the period 1939-1990 were investigated. For this purpose, the seasonal and annual frequencies of occurrence of W, E and C macrotypes according to the Vangengeim-Girs typology and groups of synoptic processes in the Arctic (A, B, W, G, D and K) according to the Dydina classification have been computed.Spatial and seasonal patterns of the mean diurnal temperature range (DTR) in the Arctic are presented, based on the data from 33 Arctic stations for the period 1951-1990.The relationships between the DTR in the Arctic and the atmospheric circulation changes in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Arctic have been investigated. The seasonal mean DTR for each macrotype of circulation and group of circulation was calculated using daily data from ten Arctic stations for the period 1951-1990. These stations represent all climatic regions and subregions identified by the authors of Atlas Arktiki (1985. Glavnoye Upravlenye Geodeziy i Kartografiy, Moskva, p. 204). In addition, the correlation coefficients between DTR in the Arctic and both the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO) and the Zonal Index (ZI) have been computed. Statistically significant changes of atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere (mainly in low and moderate latitudes) since the mid-1970s, which are also reported by other researchers, have been confirmed. In the Arctic, the atmospheric circulation has also undergone changes in recent decades; however, these changes are significantly smaller. Both the annual and the seasonal mean DTR values have been found to be the highest in the centre of the southernmost parts of the Canadian and Russian Arctic and the lowest in the Norwegian Arctic. Based on the seasonal means, four types of annual course of the DTR in the Arctic have been identified. The results pertaining to the relationship between DTR and atmospheric circulation provide some evidence that, in

  5. Relating ranging ecology, limb length, and locomotor economy in terrestrial animals.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman

    2012-03-07

    Ecomorphological analyses have identified a number of important evolutionary trends in vertebrate limb design, but the relationships between daily travel distance, locomotor ecology, and limb length in terrestrial animals remain poorly understood. In this paper I model the net rate of energy intake as a function of foraging efficiency, and thus of locomotor economy; improved economy leads to greater net energy intake. However, the relationship between locomotor economy and net intake is highly dependent on foraging efficiency; only species with low foraging efficiencies experience strong selection pressure for improved locomotor economy and increased limb length. Examining 237 terrestrial species, I find that nearly all taxa obtain sufficiently high foraging efficiencies that selection for further increases in economy is weak. Thus selection pressures for increased economy and limb length among living terrestrial animals may be relatively weak and similar in magnitude across ecologically diverse species. The Economy Selection Pressure model for locomotor economy may be useful in investigating the evolution of limb design in early terrestrial taxa and the coevolution of foraging ecology and locomotor anatomy in lineages with low foraging efficiencies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relative diffusion of a pair of inertial particles in the inertial sub-range of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enohata, Kei; Morishita, Koji; Ishihara, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Turbulent diffusion of a pair of inertial particles in 3-dimensional homogeneous and isotropic turbulence was studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS) with 20483 grid points; the Taylor micro-scale Reynolds number in the DNS is approximately 425. For each set of the inertial particles with different values of the Stokes number (St = 0 , 0 . 1 , 0 . 2 , 0 . 5 , 1 , 2 , 5 , 10), 2563 particles are tracked using cubic spline interpolation for the velocity data in the DNS. Here St = 0 corresponds to fluid particles. The DNS showed that for each value of St , the mean square of the distance δx between the two inertial particles grows with time t as < δx2 > ~ Cɛt3 in the inertial subrange, which is in agreement with Richardson (1926) and Obukhov (1941). Here ɛ is the mean energy dissipation rate per unit mass, and C is a constant of O(1) depending on the value of St and the initial distance between the inertial particles. The DNS shows also that large clusters of strong vortices enhance relative diffusion of inertial particles of St > 1 .

  7. Analysis of rainfall characteristics and its related disasters of slag disposal pit of a certain Gold-Copper Deposit in Fujian province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Huali; Hu, Mingjian; Ou, Guoqiang

    2017-04-01

    According to the geological investigation in Fujian province, the total number of geological disasters was 9513, in which the number of landslide, collapse, unstable slope and surface collapse was 5816, 1888, 1591, 103 and 115 respectively. The main geological disaster was the landslide with 61.1% of total geological disasters. Among all these geological disasters, only 6.0% was relative stable, 17.0% was basic stable, nearly 76.0% was unstable. The slope disaster was the main geological disaster, if the unstable slope was the potential landslide or collapse; the slope collapse was 98.0% of all geological disasters. The rainfall, in particular the heavy rain, was direct dynamic factor for geological disasters, but the occurrence probability of geological disasters was different because of the sensitivity of the geological environment though of the same intensity rainfall. To obtain the characteristics of soil erosion under the rainfall condition, the rainfall characteristics and its related disasters of slag disposal pit of a certain Gold-Copper Deposit in Fujian province was analyzed by the meteorological and rainfall data. According to the distribution of monitoring stations of hydrological and rainfall in Longyan city of Fujian province and the location of gold-copper deposit, the Shanghang monitoring station of hydrological and rainfall was chosen, which is the nearest one to the gold-copper deposit. Then main parameters of the prediction model, the antecedent precipitation, the rainfall on the day and the rainfall threshold, were calculated by using the rainfall data from 2002 to 2010. And the relationship between geological disasters and the rainfall characteristics were analyzed. The results indicated that there was high risk for the debris flow with landslide collapse when either the daily rainfall was more than 100.0 mm, or the total rainfall was more than 136.0mm in the gold-copper deposit and the Shanghang region. At the same time, although there was few

  8. Two Late Cretaceous A-type granites related to the Yingwuling W-Sn polymetallic mineralization in Guangdong province, South China: Implications for petrogenesis, geodynamic setting, and mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Mao, Jingwen; Zhao, Haijie; Zhao, Caisheng; Yu, Xiaofei

    2017-03-01

    Major and trace elements, whole rock Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating, zircon trace elements and Hf isotope data are reported for a suite of A-type granites from Yingwuling pluton in western Guangdong province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages obtained by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) show that biotite granite and alkali feldspar granite were emplaced in 81.3 ± 0.6 Ma and 80.6 ± 0.5 Ma, respectively. Both of the two suites have the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of A-type granite. These granitic rocks are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous and have pronounced contents of total alkalis (Na2O + K2O = 7.80-8.84%), Fe2O3T/MgO and Ga/Al ratios. They exhibit low MgO, CaO and TiO2 contents, enrichment in some LILEs and HFSEs (except for Zr, Eu and Y), depletion in Ba, Sr, P and Ti. They show A2 subtype affinity and were probably formed a temperature of 800 °C. The Yingwuling biotite granite has relatively high (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.70655 to 0.70928, low εNd(t) values of - 5.8 to - 4.2 and zircon εHf(t) values (- 5.70-1.37). Whole-rock Nd isotopic and zircon Hf isotopic two-stages model ages mostly vary from 1057 to 1506 Ma. The alkali feldspar granite display bulk rock εNd(t) values and (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios in the range of - 6.6 to - 6.1 and 0.70640 to 0.71077, respectively, and zircon εHf(t) values from - 5.44 to 0.54, with Mesoproterozoic T2DM for both Nd and Hf isotopes. Geochemical and isotopic data indicate the Yingwuling A-type granitic magmas were drived from mantle-crust interaction. Zircon grains of Yingwuling granites have relatively low Eu/Eu* and Ce4 +/Ce3 + ratios, indicating low oxygen fugacity. The visible tetrad effect in the Yingwuling granites indicates that it experienced strong fractionation and is close relationship to the W-Sn mineralization. Our new data together with previous published data indicate that Late Mesozoic A-type granitiods or alkaline intrusive rocks in South

  9. Wildlife habitat, range, recreation, hydrology, and related research using Forest Inventory and Analysis surveys: a 12-year compendium

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis

    1991-01-01

    More than 400 publications are listed for the period 1979 to 1990; these focus on water, range, wildlife habitat, recreation, and related studies derived from U.S. Department of Agriculture, forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis unit surveys conducted on private and public land in the continental United States. Included is an overview of problems and progress...

  10. Hepatitis E seroprevalence and related risk factors among seafood processing workers: a cross-sectional survey in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weihong; Sun, Yuan; Xu, Aiqiang; Gao, Rihong; Gong, Lianfeng; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Mei

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and the potential risk factors for acquiring HEV infection in the seafood processing factories in Yantai City of Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five randomly selected seafood processing factories in Yantai City. Subjects were 15-66 years of age and were raw seafood processing workers, semi-finished products processing workers, and administrative staff, etc. Each participant completed a structured questionnaire and agreed to blood drawing. Anti-HEV IgG antibody was detected in the blood samples by ELISA method. A total of 1028 of 1044 eligible workers were tested for HEV IgG antibody (response rate 98.5%). The prevalence of HEV IgG seropositivity was found to be 22.20%. Occupation was significantly associated with anti-HEV IgG antibody seropositivity (p<0.05). Subjects who had direct contact with raw seafood had a higher anti-HEV IgG antibody prevalence (32.54%) than the semi-finished products processing workers (24.74%) and less exposed group (11.85%). HEV seroprevalence in the workers showed an increasing trend with the increase in working years, and this phenomenon was most obvious in raw seafood processing workers. There is a higher risk of HEV infection in those who have direct contact with raw seafood. This study will help identify the risk factors for HEV infection and provide guidance on controlling HEV infection in the seafood processing occupations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenotypic traits of Phragmites australis clones are not related to ploidy level and distribution range

    PubMed Central

    Achenbach, Luciana; Lambertini, Carla; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Phragmites australis is a wetland grass with high genetic variability, augmented by its cosmopolitan distribution, clonal growth form and large variation in chromosome numbers. Different ploidy levels and ecotypes differ in morphology and ecophysiological traits, and may possess different levels of phenotypic variation. The aim of this study was to quantify the natural variation in ecophysiological characteristics of P. australis, and to explore whether differences in ecophysiological traits can be related to ploidy levels or to the geographic origin of the clones. Methodology Fifteen clones of P. australis from Europe and Asia/Australia, representing five ploidy levels (4x, 6x, 8x, 10x and 12x), were grown in a common garden design for 119 days. Plant growth and light-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Pmax), stomatal conductance (gs), water use efficiency (WUE) and concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and mineral ions in the leaves were measured. Principal results The growth of the plants and most ecophysiological parameters differed significantly between clones. The mean maximum shoot height varied from 0.9 to 1.86 m, Pmax from 9.7 to 27 µmol m−2 s−1, gs from 0.22 to 1.41 mol m−2 s−1 and WUE from 13 to 47 µmol mol−1. The concentrations of chlorophylls did not vary significantly between clones, but the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the concentrations of total carotenoids did. The observed differences were not explained either by the ploidy level per se or by the geographic origin or phylogenetic relationships of the clones. Conclusions Phylogeographic relationships in P. australis on a global scale do not mirror the environment where the adaptations have evolved, and high phenotypic variation among and within clones complicates comparative studies. Future studies aimed at explaining differences in plant behaviour between P. australis populations should be careful in the selection of target genotypes and/or populations, and should

  12. Phenotypic traits of Phragmites australis clones are not related to ploidy level and distribution range.

    PubMed

    Achenbach, Luciana; Lambertini, Carla; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Phragmites australis is a wetland grass with high genetic variability, augmented by its cosmopolitan distribution, clonal growth form and large variation in chromosome numbers. Different ploidy levels and ecotypes differ in morphology and ecophysiological traits, and may possess different levels of phenotypic variation. The aim of this study was to quantify the natural variation in ecophysiological characteristics of P. australis, and to explore whether differences in ecophysiological traits can be related to ploidy levels or to the geographic origin of the clones. Fifteen clones of P. australis from Europe and Asia/Australia, representing five ploidy levels (4x, 6x, 8x, 10x and 12x), were grown in a common garden design for 119 days. Plant growth and light-saturated rate of photosynthesis (P(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), water use efficiency (WUE) and concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and mineral ions in the leaves were measured. The growth of the plants and most ecophysiological parameters differed significantly between clones. The mean maximum shoot height varied from 0.9 to 1.86 m, P(max) from 9.7 to 27 µmol m(-2) s(-1), g(s) from 0.22 to 1.41 mol m(-2) s(-1) and WUE from 13 to 47 µmol mol(-1). The concentrations of chlorophylls did not vary significantly between clones, but the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the concentrations of total carotenoids did. The observed differences were not explained either by the ploidy level per se or by the geographic origin or phylogenetic relationships of the clones. Phylogeographic relationships in P. australis on a global scale do not mirror the environment where the adaptations have evolved, and high phenotypic variation among and within clones complicates comparative studies. Future studies aimed at explaining differences in plant behaviour between P. australis populations should be careful in the selection of target genotypes and/or populations, and should avoid generalizing their findings beyond the genotypes

  13. Comparison of ranging behaviour in a multi-species complex of free-ranging hosts of bovine tuberculosis in relation to their use as disease sentinels.

    PubMed

    Yockney, I J; Nugent, G; Latham, M C; Perry, M; Cross, M L; Byrom, A E

    2013-07-01

    Sentinel species are increasingly used by disease managers to detect and monitor the prevalence of zoonotic diseases in wildlife populations. Characterizing home-range movements of sentinel hosts is thus important for developing improved disease surveillance methods, especially in systems where multiple host species co-exist. We studied ranging activity of major hosts of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in an upland habitat of New Zealand: we compared home-range coverage by ferrets (Mustela furo), wild deer (Cervus elaphus), feral pigs (Sus scrofa), brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) and free-ranging farmed cattle (Bos taurus). We also report in detail the proportional utilization of a seasonal (4-monthly) range area for the latter four species. Possums covered the smallest home range (<30 ha), ferrets covered ~100 ha, pigs ~4 km(2), deer and cattle both >30 km2. For any given weekly period, cattle, deer and pigs were shown to utilize 37–45% of their estimated 4-month range, while possums utilized 62% during any weekly period and 85% during any monthly period of their estimated 4-month range. We suggest that present means for estimating TB detection kernels, based on long-term range size estimates for possums and sentinel species, probably overstate the true local surveillance coverage per individual.

  14. Relative Frequency of Oral Malignancies and Oral Precancer in the Biopsy Service of Jazan Province, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Idris, Am; Vani, Nv; Saleh, Sanna; Tubaigy, Faisal; Alharbi, Fahd; Sharwani, Abubkr; Tadrus, Nabil; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report the types and relative frequency of oral malignancies and precancer in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia during the period 2009-2014. Pathology reports were retrieved from the archives of Histopathology Department, King Fahd hospital in Jazan. Demographic data on tobacco habits, clinical presentation and histologic grading of oral precancer and cancer cases were transcribed from the files. 303 (42.7%) oral pre-malignant and malignant cases were found out of 714 oral biopsy lesions. A pathology diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (85.1%) was most frequent, followed by premalignant lesions/epithelial dysplasia (8.6%), verrucous carcinoma (3.3%) and malignancy of other histological types (3%) such as ameloblastic carcinoma, salivary gland malignancy and sarcomas. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was predominant in females with a male to female ratio of 1:1.9. Patient age ranged from 22 to 100 years with a mean of 65±13.9. Almost 44.6% of oral cancer had occurred after 65 years of age. Only 16.3% cases were reported in patients younger than 50 years, predominantly females. The majority of female patients had the habit of using shammah with a long duration of usage for more than 45 years. Bucco- alveolar mucosa (52.3%) was the common site of involvement followed by tongue/ floor of the mouth (47.7%) and clinically presented mostly as ulceration/swelling clinically. Moderately differentiated tumours (53.9%) were common followed by well differentiated (32.2%) and poorly differentiated tumours (5.8%). The prevalence of oral verrucous carcinoma (3.3%) was comparatively low with an equal distribution in both males and females. Both bucco-alveolar mucosa and tongue were predominantly affected. Oral precancer/epithelial dysplasia (8.6%) was common in females with a shammah habit. Bucco-alveolar mucosa was commonly involved and clinically presented mostly as white/red patches. Most cases were mild followed by moderate and severe dysplasia

  15. Trace elements in Zn Pb Ag deposits and related stream sediments, Brooks Range Alaska, with implications for Tl as a pathfinder element

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, G.E.; Kelley, K.D.; Slack, J.F.; Koenig, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Zn-Pb-Ag metallogenic province of the western and central Brooks Range, Alaska, contains two distinct but mineralogically similar deposit types: shale-hosted massive sulphide (SHMS) and smaller vein-breccia occurrences. Recent investigations of the Red Dog and Anarraaq SHMS deposits demonstrated that these deposits are characterized by high trace-element concentrations of As, Ge, Sb and Tl. This paper examines geochemistry of additional SHMS deposits (Drenchwater and Su-Lik) to determine which trace elements are ubiquitously elevated in all SHMS deposits. Data from several vein-breccia occurrences are also presented to see if trace-element concentrations can distinguish SHMS deposits from vein-breccia occurrences. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that Tl is the most consistently and highly concentrated characteristic trace element in SHMS deposits relative to regional unmineralized rock samples. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of pyrite and sphalerite indicate that Tl is concentrated in pyrite in SHMS. Stream sediment data from the Drenchwater and Su-Lik SHMS show that high Tl concentrations are more broadly distributed proximal to known or suspected mineralization than As, Sb, Zn and Pb anomalies. This broader distribution of Tl in whole-rock and particularly stream sediment samples increases the footprint of exposed and shallowly buried SHMS mineralization. High Tl concentrations also distinguish SHMS mineralization from the vein-breccia deposits, as the latter lack high concentrations of Tl but can otherwise have similar trace-element signatures to SHMS deposits. ?? 2009 AAG/Geological Society of London.

  16. Physical activity profile of 2014 FIFA World Cup players, with regard to different ranges of air temperature and relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmura, Paweł; Konefał, Marek; Andrzejewski, Marcin; Kosowski, Jakub; Rokita, Andrzej; Chmura, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The present study attempts to assess changes in soccer players' physical activity profiles under the simultaneous influence of the different combinations of ambient temperature and relative humidity characterising matches of the 2014 FIFA World Cup hosted by Brazil. The study material consisted of observations of 340 players representing 32 national teams taking part in the tournament. The measured indices included total distances covered; distances covered with low, moderate, or high intensity; numbers of sprints performed, and peak running speeds achieved. The analysis was carried out using FIFA official match data from the Castrol Performance Index system. Ultimately, consideration was given to a combination of three air temperature ranges, i.e. below 22 °C, 22-28 °C, and above 28 °C; and two relative humidity ranges below 60 % and above 60 %. The greatest average distance recorded (10.54 ± 0.91 km) covered by players at an air temperature below 22 °C and a relative humidity below 60 %, while the shortest (9.83 ± 1.08 km) characterised the same air temperature range, but conditions of relative humidity above 60 % ( p ≤ 0.001). Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences ( p ≤ 0.001) in numbers of sprints performed by players, depending on whether the air temperature range was below 22 °C (40.48 ± 11.17) or above 28 °C (30.72 ± 9.40), but only where the relative humidity was at the same time below 60 %. Results presented indicate that the conditions most comfortable for physical activity on the part of players occur at 22 °C, and with relative humidity under 60 %.

  17. Physical activity profile of 2014 FIFA World Cup players, with regard to different ranges of air temperature and relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmura, Paweł; Konefał, Marek; Andrzejewski, Marcin; Kosowski, Jakub; Rokita, Andrzej; Chmura, Jan

    2016-09-01

    The present study attempts to assess changes in soccer players' physical activity profiles under the simultaneous influence of the different combinations of ambient temperature and relative humidity characterising matches of the 2014 FIFA World Cup hosted by Brazil. The study material consisted of observations of 340 players representing 32 national teams taking part in the tournament. The measured indices included total distances covered; distances covered with low, moderate, or high intensity; numbers of sprints performed, and peak running speeds achieved. The analysis was carried out using FIFA official match data from the Castrol Performance Index system. Ultimately, consideration was given to a combination of three air temperature ranges, i.e. below 22 °C, 22-28 °C, and above 28 °C; and two relative humidity ranges below 60 % and above 60 %. The greatest average distance recorded (10.54 ± 0.91 km) covered by players at an air temperature below 22 °C and a relative humidity below 60 %, while the shortest (9.83 ± 1.08 km) characterised the same air temperature range, but conditions of relative humidity above 60 % (p ≤ 0.001). Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences (p ≤ 0.001) in numbers of sprints performed by players, depending on whether the air temperature range was below 22 °C (40.48 ± 11.17) or above 28 °C (30.72 ± 9.40), but only where the relative humidity was at the same time below 60 %. Results presented indicate that the conditions most comfortable for physical activity on the part of players occur at 22 °C, and with relative humidity under 60 %.

  18. Physical activity profile of 2014 FIFA World Cup players, with regard to different ranges of air temperature and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Chmura, Paweł; Konefał, Marek; Andrzejewski, Marcin; Kosowski, Jakub; Rokita, Andrzej; Chmura, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The present study attempts to assess changes in soccer players' physical activity profiles under the simultaneous influence of the different combinations of ambient temperature and relative humidity characterising matches of the 2014 FIFA World Cup hosted by Brazil. The study material consisted of observations of 340 players representing 32 national teams taking part in the tournament. The measured indices included total distances covered; distances covered with low, moderate, or high intensity; numbers of sprints performed, and peak running speeds achieved. The analysis was carried out using FIFA official match data from the Castrol Performance Index system. Ultimately, consideration was given to a combination of three air temperature ranges, i.e. below 22 °C, 22-28 °C, and above 28 °C; and two relative humidity ranges below 60 % and above 60 %. The greatest average distance recorded (10.54 ± 0.91 km) covered by players at an air temperature below 22 °C and a relative humidity below 60 %, while the shortest (9.83 ± 1.08 km) characterised the same air temperature range, but conditions of relative humidity above 60 % (p ≤ 0.001). Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences (p ≤ 0.001) in numbers of sprints performed by players, depending on whether the air temperature range was below 22 °C (40.48 ± 11.17) or above 28 °C (30.72 ± 9.40), but only where the relative humidity was at the same time below 60 %. Results presented indicate that the conditions most comfortable for physical activity on the part of players occur at 22 °C, and with relative humidity under 60 %.

  19. The evaluation of the dust-related occupational respiratory disorders of dental laboratory technicians working in Denizli Province

    PubMed Central

    Yurdasal, Belkıs; Bozkurt, Nurgül; Bozkurt, Ali İhsan; Yilmaz, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dental laboratory technicians (DLTs) get exposed to fibrinogen dusts that are very risky dusts in terms of health. In this study, respiration complaints, pneumoconiosis frequencies and working conditions of the dental technicians in Denizli were investigated. METHODS: All of the registered DLTs working in Denizli were included in the study. A 30-item questionnaire was used to gather data about the participants and their working environments. Then, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were carried out and standard chest X-rays were taken in order to detect how much the respiratory systems of the workers were affected. Standard chest X-rays were evaluated according to International Labour Organizations classification. Depending on the screening results, technicians who were found to have had pathologies and suspected cases were examined. “High-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT)” was taken from those who were found to have pathology in their chest X-rays and they were evaluated according to the classification of Hering et al. RESULTS: There are a total of 166 DLTs working in Denizli Province participated in the study. One hundred and forty-three (86.1%) of the participants were male, and 23 of them were female. The mean age of the participants is 33.5 ± 8.1. Average working time of the workers is 16 years. Total exposure time was calculated 36,177 h. Approximately, 56% of workers were smokers. When the working conditions were considered, it was found that 98.8% of laboratories had a ventilation system. Technicians’ use of personal protective equipment is low. Participants’ often or continuous use of masks, gloves, goggles, and vacuum device was found 69%, 36%, 47%, and 63% respectively while working. About 21.2% of the technicians have respiratory symptoms while 15.2% of them have eye complaints. At the analysis of PFT results, 27.7% restrictive type pulmonary disorder was determined. At the analysis of chest X-rays; 1/0 profusion sub

  20. Rupture of the Pitáycachi Fault in the 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora, Mexico earthquake (southern Basin-and-Range Province): Rupture kinematics and epicenter inferred from rupture branching patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, Max

    2015-01-01

    During the 3 May 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora earthquake (surface rupture end-to-end length: 101.8 km), an array of three north-south striking Basin-and-Range Province faults (from north to south Pitáycachi, Teras, and Otates) slipped sequentially along the western margin of the Sierra Madre Occidental Plateau. This detailed field survey of the 1887 earthquake rupture zone along the Pitáycachi fault includes mapping the rupture scarp and measurements of surface deformation. The surface rupture has an endpoint-to-endpoint length of ≥41.0 km, dips ~70°W, and is characterized by normal left-lateral extension. The maximum surface offset is 487 cm and the mean offset 260 cm. The rupture trace shows a complex pattern of second-order segmentation. However, this segmentation is not expressed in the 1887 along-rupture surface offset profile, which indicates that the secondary segments are linked at depth into a single coherent fault surface. The Pitáycachi surface rupture shows a well-developed bipolar branching pattern suggesting that the rupture originated in its central part, where the polarity of the rupture bifurcations changes. Most likely the rupture first propagated bilaterally along the Pitáycachi fault. The southern rupture front likely jumped across a step over to the Teras fault and from there across a major relay zone to the Otates fault. Branching probably resulted from the lateral propagation of the rupture after breaching the seismogenic part of the crust, given that the much shorter ruptures of the Otates and Teras segments did not develop branches.

  1. Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in slaughterhouse pig-related workers and control workers in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, X L; Li, L; Li, S M; Huang, J Y; Fan, Y P; Yao, Z J; Ye, X H; Chen, S D

    2017-07-01

    Pig farmers and veterinarians have high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) due to the occupational livestock exposure, while few reported this association on slaughterhouse workers. We conducted this cross-sectional study to explore the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of S. aureus and MRSA in slaughterhouse pig-related workers and control workers in Guangdong Province, China. Participants were interviewed and provided two nasal swabs. Swabs were tested for S. aureus, and isolates were further tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence genes and multi-locus sequence typing. Compared with control workers, pig-related workers have significantly higher prevalence of MRSA carriage (adjusted odd ratio (aOR) 3·70, 95% CI 1·63-8·40). The proportions of MRSA resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline or chloromycetin were significantly higher in pig-related workers than in control workers. The predominant phenotypes of S. aureus were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. Three MRSA CC9 isolates with livestock-associated characteristics (resistance to tetracycline and absence of immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes) were detected in pig-related workers but not in control workers. For human-associated CCs (CC7, CC59, CC6, and CC188), there was no significant difference in IEC profile or antimicrobial resistance between the groups. These findings reveal that there may be a potential risk for livestock-to-human transmission of LA-MRSA and human-to-human transmission of human-associated MRSA.

  2. Effects of various runway lighting parameters upon the relation between runway visual range and visual range of centerline and edge lights in fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    Thirty six students and 54 commercial airline pilots were tested in the fog chamber to determine the effect of runway edge and centerline light intensity and spacing, fog density, ambient luminance level, and lateral and vertical offset distance of the subject from the runway's centerline upon horizontal visual range. These data were obtained to evaluate the adequacy of a balanced lighting system to provide maximum visual range in fog viewing both centerline and runway edge lights. The daytime system was compared against two other candidate lighting systems; the nighttime system was compared against other candidate lighting systems. The second objective was to determine if visual range is affected by lights between the subject and the farthestmost light visible through the fog. The third objective was to determine if college student subjects differ from commercial airline pilots in their horizontal visual range through fog. Two studies were conducted.

  3. Social support received by multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients and related factors: a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Peng, Yin; Zhou, Lin; Chai, Chengliang; Yeh, Hui-Chi; Chen, Songhua; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Mingwu; He, Tieniu; Wang, Xiaomeng

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the social support received by patients diagnosed with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China and the factors that may have influenced it. A total of 220 MDR-TB patients participated in the questionnaire-based survey, and the data from 212 valid questionnaires were analyzed. The respondents reported their sociodemographic status, disease features, and attitudes toward the disease. The social support rating scale was used to measure the patients' social support scores. An Independent Samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and a multiple linear regression model were used to analyze the related factors for the social support scores. The average social support score of each MDR-TB patient was 32.56±7.86. Participants who were single, widowed or divorced, retired, and had fewer family members and lower family income were found to have lower social support scores. Participants unwilling to disclose their disease tended to have less social support (31.59<34.23, P=0.010). Participants who perceived great help from health care workers reported higher social support rating scale scores than those who perceived no help (35.36.29.89, P=0.014). MDR-TB patients in Zhejiang Province were shown to have a low level of social support. Patients who were not married, had smaller families, and lower family income received less social support, suggesting that family harmony could be an important source of social support. Patients' self-isolation may contribute to a decrease in the amount of support they receive from their surroundings. Health care organizations need to offer more social support to MDR-TB patients.

  4. Social support received by multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients and related factors: a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Peng, Yin; Zhou, Lin; Chai, Chengliang; Yeh, Hui-Chi; Chen, Songhua; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Mingwu; He, Tieniu; Wang, Xiaomeng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to assess the social support received by patients diagnosed with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China and the factors that may have influenced it. Methods A total of 220 MDR-TB patients participated in the questionnaire-based survey, and the data from 212 valid questionnaires were analyzed. The respondents reported their sociodemographic status, disease features, and attitudes toward the disease. The social support rating scale was used to measure the patients’ social support scores. An Independent Samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and a multiple linear regression model were used to analyze the related factors for the social support scores. Result The average social support score of each MDR-TB patient was 32.56±7.86. Participants who were single, widowed or divorced, retired, and had fewer family members and lower family income were found to have lower social support scores. Participants unwilling to disclose their disease tended to have less social support (31.59<34.23, P=0.010). Participants who perceived great help from health care workers reported higher social support rating scale scores than those who perceived no help (35.36.29.89, P=0.014). Conclusion MDR-TB patients in Zhejiang Province were shown to have a low level of social support. Patients who were not married, had smaller families, and lower family income received less social support, suggesting that family harmony could be an important source of social support. Patients’ self-isolation may contribute to a decrease in the amount of support they receive from their surroundings. Health care organizations need to offer more social support to MDR-TB patients. PMID:27358557

  5. Epithermal and plutonic gold mineralizations related to paleoproterozoic acid magmatism in the Tapajós Gold province, Amazonian craton, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliani, C.; Corrêa-Silva, R. H.; Monteiro, L. V.; Bettencourt, J. S.; dall Agnol, R.

    2003-04-01

    The Tapajós Gold Province (TGP) is part of the Tapajós-Parima geologic province, that includes ˜2.1 Ga volcano-sedimentary sequences (Jacareacanga Group) and the magmatic arcs of the Cuiú-Cuiú Complex (˜2.01 Ga), Creporizäo Intrusive Suite (1.97-1.95 Ga), Rio das Tropas Tonalite (˜1.90 Ga) and Parauari Intrusive Suite (˜1.88 Ga). Andesitic to rhyolitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Iriri Group (1.88 Ga) overlie plutonic rocks and are cut by anorogenic Maloquinha Intrusive Suite (˜1.87 Ga). Paleoproterozoic fluvial to marine sequences (Buiuçú Formation), and several mafic intrusion events are also identified in the TGP. Paleoproterozoic gold mineralizations in the TGP are mainly classified as mesothermal orogenic lodes, intrusion-related gold systems, and epithermal and mesothermal lodes in shear zones. Recently, it was discovered a 1.869 Ga epithermal high-sulfidation (quartz-alunite) and low-sulfidation (adularia-sericite) gold and base metal mineralizations hosted in calc-alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Iriri Group. In the high-sulfidation mineralization, hydrothermal breccias are strongly affected by high-temperature advanced argillic alteration, with alunite, natroalunite, woodhouseiite-svanbergite, andalusite, diaspore and enargite, besides argillic and propylitic hydrothermal alterations. Over the hydrothermal breccia pipe occurs a hematite-rich silica cap and in the deeper zones sericitic alteration is also present. The epithermal high- and low-sulfidation mineralizations are geneticaly linked to stocks of hydrothermalized granophyry, and rhyolitic and rhyodacitic porphyry dikes and are hosted by late ring composite volcanoes, related to evolution of nested ash-flow caldera complexes. The caldera genesis is atributed to emplacement of shalow late- to post-tectonic calc-alkaline batholits of the Parauari Intrusive Suite in back-arc rifts. The mesozonal relatively reduced Batalha Granite hosts gold mineralizations and

  6. Color patterns of closely related bird species are more divergent at intermediate levels of breeding-range sympatry.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R; Montgomerie, Robert; Lougheed, Stephen C

    2015-04-01

    Closely related species of birds often differ markedly in their color patterns. Here we examine the influence of breeding-range overlap (breeding sympatry) on the evolution of color pattern differences in a sample of closely related bird species. We used a sister-lineage method to analyze 73 phylogenetically independent comparisons among 246 species and 39 families of birds worldwide. We found that divergence of color patterns among closely related species was greater between sympatric than between allopatric lineages, but only at intermediate levels of sympatry (50%-80% breeding-range overlap). This pattern suggests that closely related species incur costs at intermediate levels of sympatry if they exhibit similar color patterns-costs that could include hybridization, interspecific aggression, competition for signaling space, or ecological interactions that secondarily influence color patterns. The decline in color pattern divergence with further increase in sympatry suggests either the relaxation of divergent selection, increased impediment of gene flow, or an increased role for counteracting selection at higher levels of sympatry. We also found that the differences in color pattern between sympatric and allopatric sister species were greatest at lower latitudes. The global scale and broad taxonomic coverage in our study suggest that the divergence of color patterns between sympatrically breeding closely related species is widespread in birds.

  7. A generalized watershed disturbance-invertebrate relation applicable in a range of environmental settings across the continental United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steuer, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognized that urbanization can affect ecological conditions in aquatic systems; numerous studies have identified impervious surface cover as an indicator of urban intensity and as an index of development at the watershed, regional, and national scale. Watershed percent imperviousness, a commonly understood urban metric was used as the basis for a generalized watershed disturbance metric that, when applied in conjunction with weighted percent agriculture and percent grassland, predicted stream biotic conditions based on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) richness across a wide range of environmental settings. Data were collected in streams that encompassed a wide range of watershed area (4.4-1,714 km), precipitation (38-204 cm/yr), and elevation (31-2,024 m) conditions. Nevertheless the simple 3-landcover disturbance metric accounted for 58% of the variability in EPT richness based on the 261 nationwide sites. On the metropolitan area scale, relationship r ranged from 0.04 to 0.74. At disturbance values 15. Future work may incorporate watershed management practices within the disturbance metric, further increasing the management applicability of the relation. Such relations developed on a regional or metropolitan area scale are likely to be stronger than geographically generalized models; as found in these EPT richness relations. However, broad spatial models are able to provide much needed understanding in unmonitored areas and provide initial guidance for stream potential.

  8. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Characterization of the Bonneville region, Utah and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, William H.

    1990-01-01

    The Bonneville region of the Basin and Range province in westcentral Utah and adjacent Nevada includes several basins lying south of the Great Salt Lake Desert. Physiographically, the region consists of linear, north-trending mountain ranges separated by valleys, many of which are closed basins underlain by thick sequences of fill. Surface drainage of open basins and ground-water flow is to the Great Salt Lake Desert. In structure and composition the ranges are faulted Paleozoic rocks, locally intruded by Mesozoic and Tertiary plugs and stocks. In the southern and northeastern parts of the region, volcanic rocks are widespread and form large parts of some mountain ranges. The Paleozoic sedimentary rocks include great thicknesses of carbonate rocks which compose a significant aquifer in the regionMedia considered to have potential for isolation of high-level radioactive waste in the region include intrusive rocks, such as granite; ash-flow tuff; and basalt and basaltic andesite lava flows. These rock types, basin fill, and possibly other rock types, may have potential as host media in the unsaturated zone. Quaternary tectonism in the region is evidenced by seismic activity, local areas of above-normal geothermal heat flow, Quaternary faulting, late Cenozoic volcanic activity, and active vertical crustal movement. The Bonneville region is part of a large ground-water flow system that is integrated partly through basin-fill deposits, but largely through an underlying carbonate-rock sequence. The region includes: (1) several topographically closed basins with virtually no local surface discharge that are drained by the underlying carbonate-rock aquifer; (2) closed basins with local surface discharge by evapotranspiration; and (3) basins open to the Great Salt Lake Desert that discharge by groundwater underflow and evapotranspiration. The carbonate-rock aquifer discharges to large springs in the Desert and in basins tributary to the Desert. The climate is arid to

  9. Tea and Risk of Age-Related Cataracts: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yan; He, Fan; Lin, Jun-Fen; Shen, Wei; Qiu, Yin-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background The antioxidant properties of tea extracts are considered to be effective in protecting against cataracts. However, there is still insufficient epidemiological knowledge about the protective effects of different types of tea on age-related cataracts. Methods The data was derived from the Zhejiang Major Public Health Surveillance (ZJMPHS) Program on health and related factors in the elderly. The relationships between consumption of different types of tea and risk of age-related cataracts were assessed after adjusting for related covariates. Results The prevalence of age-related cataracts in this study population was 4.4% (409/9343). After adjustment for potential confounders, tea drinking was associated with reduced risk of age-related cataracts (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47–0.91). Compared to nondrinkers, green tea drinkers had a significantly reduced risk of cataracts (adjusted OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40–0.85). Average tea consumption of 14–27 cups (adjusted OR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33–0.93) and over 28 cups (adjusted OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.34–0.99) per week had a protective effect against cataracts in comparison to no consumption. In addition, ingesting a moderate concentration of tea significantly decreased the risk of cataract compared to no consumption (adjusted OR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27–0.71). Conclusions Tea ingestion was associated with reduced risk of age-related cataracts. In light of these findings, we suggest that reasonable tea consumption (ie, favoring green tea and consuming an average of over 500 mL per day at moderate concentration) should offer protection against age-related cataracts. PMID:27180932

  10. Topographic form of the Coast Ranges of the Cascadia Margin in relation ot coastal uplift rates and plate subduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Engebretson, David C.; Mitchell, Clifton E.; Ticknor, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    The Coast Ranges of the Cascadia margin are overriding the subducted Juan de Fuca/Gorda plate. We investigate the extent to which the latitudinal change in attributes related to the subduction process. These attributes include the varibale age of the subducted slab that underlies the Coast Ranges and average vertical crustal velocities of the western margin of the Coast Rnages for two markedly different time periods, the last 45 years and the last 100 kyr. These vertical crustal velocities are computed from the resurveying of highway bech marks and from the present elevation of shore platforms that have been uplifted in the late Quaternary, respectively. Topogarphy of the Coast Ranges is in part a function of the age and bouyancy of the underlying subducted plate. This is evident in the fact that the two highest topographic elements of the Coast Rnages, the Klamath Mountains and the Olympic Mountains, are underlain by youngest subducted oceanic crust. The subducted Blanco Fracture Zone in southernmost Oregon is responsible for an age discontinuity of subducted crust under the Klamath Mountains. The norhtern terminus of hte topographically higher Klamaths is offset to the north relative to the position of the underlying Blanco Fracture Zone, teh offset being in the direction of migration of the farcture zone, as dictated by relative plate motions. Vertical crustal velocities at the coast, derived from becnh mark surveys, are as much as an order of magnitude greater than vertical crustal velocities derived from uplifted shore platforms. This uplift rate discrepancy indicates that strain is accumulating on the plate margin, to be released during the next interplate earthquake. In a latitudinal sense, average Coast Rnage topography is relatively high where bench mark-derived, short-term vertical crustal velocities are highest. Becuase the shore platform vertical crustal velocities reflect longer-term, premanent uplift, we infer that a small percentage of the

  11. Topographic form of the Coast Ranges of the Cascadia Margin in relation ot coastal uplift rates and plate subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Engebretson, David C.; Mitchell, Clifton E.; Ticknor, Robert L.

    1994-06-01

    The Coast Ranges of the Cascadia margin are overriding the subducted Juan de Fuca/Gorda plate. We investigate the extent to which the latitudinal change in attributes related to the subduction process. These attributes include the varibale age of the subducted slab that underlies the Coast Ranges and average vertical crustal velocities of the western margin of the Coast Rnages for two markedly different time periods, the last 45 years and the last 100 kyr. These vertical crustal velocities are computed from the resurveying of highway bech marks and from the present elevation of shore platforms that have been uplifted in the late Quaternary, respectively. Topogarphy of the Coast Ranges is in part a function of the age and bouyancy of the underlying subducted plate. This is evident in the fact that the two highest topographic elements of the Coast Rnages, the Klamath Mountains and the Olympic Mountains, are underlain by youngest subducted oceanic crust. The subducted Blanco Fracture Zone in southernmost Oregon is responsible for an age discontinuity of subducted crust under the Klamath Mountains. The norhtern terminus of hte topographically higher Klamaths is offset to the north relative to the position of the underlying Blanco Fracture Zone, teh offset being in the direction of migration of the farcture zone, as dictated by relative plate motions. Vertical crustal velocities at the coast, derived from becnh mark surveys, are as much as an order of magnitude greater than vertical crustal velocities derived from uplifted shore platforms. This uplift rate discrepancy indicates that strain is accumulating on the plate margin, to be released during the next interplate earthquake. In a latitudinal sense, average Coast Rnage topography is relatively high where bench mark-derived, short-term vertical crustal velocities are highest. Becuase the shore platform vertical crustal velocities reflect longer-term, premanent uplift, we infer that a small percentage of the

  12. Topographic form of the Coast Ranges of the Cascadia Margin in relation ot coastal uplift rates and plate subduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Engebretson, David C.; Mitchell, Clifton E.; Ticknor, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    The Coast Ranges of the Cascadia margin are overriding the subducted Juan de Fuca/Gorda plate. We investigate the extent to which the latitudinal change in attributes related to the subduction process. These attributes include the varibale age of the subducted slab that underlies the Coast Ranges and average vertical crustal velocities of the western margin of the Coast Rnages for two markedly different time periods, the last 45 years and the last 100 kyr. These vertical crustal velocities are computed from the resurveying of highway bech marks and from the present elevation of shore platforms that have been uplifted in the late Quaternary, respectively. Topogarphy of the Coast Ranges is in part a function of the age and bouyancy of the underlying subducted plate. This is evident in the fact that the two highest topographic elements of the Coast Rnages, the Klamath Mountains and the Olympic Mountains, are underlain by youngest subducted oceanic crust. The subducted Blanco Fracture Zone in southernmost Oregon is responsible for an age discontinuity of subducted crust under the Klamath Mountains. The norhtern terminus of hte topographically higher Klamaths is offset to the north relative to the position of the underlying Blanco Fracture Zone, teh offset being in the direction of migration of the farcture zone, as dictated by relative plate motions. Vertical crustal velocities at the coast, derived from becnh mark surveys, are as much as an order of magnitude greater than vertical crustal velocities derived from uplifted shore platforms. This uplift rate discrepancy indicates that strain is accumulating on the plate margin, to be released during the next interplate earthquake. In a latitudinal sense, average Coast Rnage topography is relatively high where bench mark-derived, short-term vertical crustal velocities are highest. Becuase the shore platform vertical crustal velocities reflect longer-term, premanent uplift, we infer that a small percentage of the

  13. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the risk of developing breast cancer among women in eight Canadian provinces: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Perry; Villeneuve, Paul J; Goldberg, Mark S; Crouse, Dan L; Johnson, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    A few recent studies have reported positive associations between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the incidence of breast cancer. We capitalized on an existing Canadian multi-site population-based case-control study to further investigate this association. We used the National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System, a population-based case-control study conducted in eight of 10 Canadian provinces from 1994 to 1997. A total of 1569 breast cancer cases and 1872 population controls who reported at least 90% complete self-reported addresses over the 1975-1994 exposure period were examined. Mean exposure levels to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (an indicator of traffic-related air pollution) were estimated for this period using three different measures: (1) satellite-derived observations; (2) satellite-derived observations scaled with historical fixed-site measurements of NO2; and (3) a national land-use regression (LUR) model. Proximity to major roads was also examined. Using unconditional logistic regression, stratified by menopausal status, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for many individual-level and contextual breast cancer risk factors. We observed positive associations between incident breast cancer and all three measures of NO2 exposure from 1975 to 1994. In fully adjusted models for premenopausal breast cancer, a 10ppb increase in NO2 exposure estimated from the satellite-derived observations, the scaled satellite-derived observations, and the national LUR model produced ORs of 1.26 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.92-1.74), 1.32 (95% CI: 1.05-1.67) and 1.28 (95% CI: 0.92-1.79). For postmenopausal breast cancer, we found corresponding ORs of 1.10 (95% CI: 0.88-1.36), 1.10 (95% CI: 0.94-1.28) and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.86-1.32). Substantial heterogeneity in the ORs was observed across the eight Canadian provinces and reduced ORs were observed when models were restricted to women who had received routine mammography examinations. No associations

  14. Assessing the Variability of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Liquid-Solid Two-Phase and Related Environmental Risks in the Weihe River of Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinxi; Yang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Junlong; Long, Yongqing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Taifan

    2015-07-17

    Accurate estimation of the variability of heavy metals in river water and the hyporheic zone is crucial for pollution control and environmental management. The biotoxicities and potential ecological risks of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) in a solid-liquid two-phase system were estimated using the Geo-accumulation Index, Potential Ecological Risk Assessment and Quality Standard Index methods in the Weihe River of Shaanxi Province, China. Water and sediment samples were collected from five study sites during spring, summer and winter, 2013. The dominant species in the streambed sediments were chironomids and flutter earthworm, whose bioturbation mainly ranged from 0 to 20 cm. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface water and pore water varied obviously in spring and summer. The degrees of concentration of Cu and Cd in spring and summer were higher than the U.S. water quality Criteria Maximum Concentrations. Furthermore, the biotoxicities of Pb and Zn demonstrated season-spatial variations. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in spring and winter were significantly higher than those in summer, and the pollution levels also varied obviously in different layers of the sediments. Moreover, the pollution level of Cd was the most serious, as estimated by all three assessment methods.

  15. Assessing the Variability of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Liquid-Solid Two-Phase and Related Environmental Risks in the Weihe River of Shaanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jinxi; Yang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Junlong; Long, Yongqing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Taifan

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the variability of heavy metals in river water and the hyporheic zone is crucial for pollution control and environmental management. The biotoxicities and potential ecological risks of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) in a solid-liquid two-phase system were estimated using the Geo-accumulation Index, Potential Ecological Risk Assessment and Quality Standard Index methods in the Weihe River of Shaanxi Province, China. Water and sediment samples were collected from five study sites during spring, summer and winter, 2013. The dominant species in the streambed sediments were chironomids and flutter earthworm, whose bioturbation mainly ranged from 0 to 20 cm. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface water and pore water varied obviously in spring and summer. The degrees of concentration of Cu and Cd in spring and summer were higher than the U.S. water quality Criteria Maximum Concentrations. Furthermore, the biotoxicities of Pb and Zn demonstrated season-spatial variations. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in spring and winter were significantly higher than those in summer, and the pollution levels also varied obviously in different layers of the sediments. Moreover, the pollution level of Cd was the most serious, as estimated by all three assessment methods. PMID:26193293

  16. Trauma-Related Impairment in Children--A Survey in Sri Lankan Provinces Affected by Armed Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbert, Thomas; Schauer, Maggie; Schauer, Elisabeth; Huschka, Bianca; Hirth, Michael; Neuner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined traumatic experiences, PTSD, and co-morbid symptoms in relation to neuropsychological and school performance in school children affected by two decades of civil war and unrest. Method: The epidemiological survey of children's mental health included a representative sample of 420 school children. Local…

  17. Trauma-Related Impairment in Children--A Survey in Sri Lankan Provinces Affected by Armed Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbert, Thomas; Schauer, Maggie; Schauer, Elisabeth; Huschka, Bianca; Hirth, Michael; Neuner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined traumatic experiences, PTSD, and co-morbid symptoms in relation to neuropsychological and school performance in school children affected by two decades of civil war and unrest. Method: The epidemiological survey of children's mental health included a representative sample of 420 school children. Local…

  18. Plate interactions control middle late Miocene, proto-Gulf and Basin and Range extension in the southern Basin and Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Christopher D.; Aranda-Gomez, J. Jorge

    2000-03-01

    consistent with observations of cumulative extension between 12 and 6 Ma. Extension was partitioned into the Gulf Extensional Province because (1) it lies between two stable batholith belts (Mesozoic Peninsular Ranges on the west and mid-Tertiary Sierra Madre Occidental on the east) that resisted extension and (2) the Gulf was thermally weakened by immediately preceding arc magmatism. Extension in the main Basin and Range province in part probably avoided the relatively strong, batholithic crust of the Sierra Madre Occidental.

  19. Hip rotation range of motion in people with and without low back pain who participate in rotation-related sports.

    PubMed

    Van Dillen, Linda R; Bloom, Nancy J; Gombatto, Sara P; Susco, Thomas M

    2008-05-01

    To examine whether passive hip rotation motion was different between people with and without low back pain (LBP) who regularly participate in sports that require repeated rotation of the trunk and hips. We hypothesized that people with LBP would have less total hip rotation motion and more asymmetry of motion between sides than people without LBP. Two group, case-control. University-based musculoskeletal analysis laboratory. Forty-eight subjects (35 males, 13 females; mean age: 26.56+/-7.44 years) who reported regular participation in a rotation-related sport participated. Two groups were compared; people with LBP (N=24) and people without LBP (N=24; NoLBP). Data were collected on participant-related, LBP-related, sport-related and activity-related variables. Measures of passive hip rotation range of motion were obtained. The differences between the LBP and NoLBP groups were examined. People with and without a history of LBP were the same with regard to all participant-related, sport-related and activity-related variables. The LBP group had significantly less total rotation (P=.035) and more asymmetry of total rotation, right hip versus left hip, (P=.022) than the NoLBP group. Left total hip rotation was more limited than right total hip rotation in the LBP group (P=.004). There were no significant differences in left and right total hip rotation for the NoLBP group (P=.323). Among people who participate in rotation-related sports, those with LBP had less overall passive hip rotation motion and more asymmetry of rotation between sides than people without LBP. These findings suggest that the specific directional demands imposed on the hip and trunk during regularly performed activities may be an important consideration in deciding which impairments may be most relevant to test and to consider in prevention and intervention strategies.

  20. Annual survey on the level and extent of usage of electronic health records in government-related hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bah, Sulaiman; Alharthi, Hana; El Mahalli, Azza Ali; Jabali, Abdelkaream; Al-Qahtani, Mona; Al-kahtani, Nouf

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to determine the level and extent of usage of electronic health records (EHRs) in government-related hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Another aim is to develop a Web site to serve as a forum of exchange on the development of EHRs in Saudi Arabia. All government hospitals (n = 19) in the province were included. The information technology (IT) managers in those hospitals made up the target population. An online questionnaire was developed, and the IT managers in all 19 government hospitals were invited to participate in the survey. The responses from the online survey were downloaded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Of the 19 hospitals, only three (15.8 percent) use EHRs. These hospitals were established in 1984, 1995, and 2005. All three of these hospitals have implemented the same EHR software and were using it successfully, and all three were using the three core features of laboratory, radiology, and pharmacy electronic modules. Some modules were present in the EHR system but were underutilized. Some of the main challenges faced by the IT managers in implementing EHRs in their hospitals were related to the uncooperative attitudes of some physicians and nurses toward EHRs. In fulfillment of the second aim of the study, a Web site, http://ehr2011.weebly.com, was developed to serve as a forum for exchange of information on the development of EHRs in Saudi Arabia. The government of Saudi Arabia has prioritized the development of eHealth (health information technology) and allocated committed funding for it during 2008-2011. During this period, some sectors of government made highly commendable efforts in developing eHealth services. Along these lines, we had hoped to see higher uptake of EHRs than the 15.8 percent found in this study. The rate of implementing EHRs in government hospitals should be accelerated. The aim should be on achieving some basic EHR functionality in these hospitals, and once this has been achieved

  1. Annual Survey on the Level and Extent of Usage of Electronic Health Records in Government-related Hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bah, Sulaiman; Alharthi, Hana; El Mahalli, Azza Ali; Jabali, Abdelkaream; Al-Qahtani, Mona; Al-kahtani, Nouf

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to determine the level and extent of usage of electronic health records (EHRs) in government-related hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Another aim is to develop a Web site to serve as a forum of exchange on the development of EHRs in Saudi Arabia. All government hospitals (n = 19) in the province were included. The information technology (IT) managers in those hospitals made up the target population. An online questionnaire was developed, and the IT managers in all 19 government hospitals were invited to participate in the survey. The responses from the online survey were downloaded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Of the 19 hospitals, only three (15.8 percent) use EHRs. These hospitals were established in 1984, 1995, and 2005. All three of these hospitals have implemented the same EHR software and were using it successfully, and all three were using the three core features of laboratory, radiology, and pharmacy electronic modules. Some modules were present in the EHR system but were underutilized. Some of the main challenges faced by the IT managers in implementing EHRs in their hospitals were related to the uncooperative attitudes of some physicians and nurses toward EHRs. In fulfillment of the second aim of the study, a Web site, http://ehr2011.weebly.com, was developed to serve as a forum for exchange of information on the development of EHRs in Saudi Arabia. The government of Saudi Arabia has prioritized the development of eHealth (health information technology) and allocated committed funding for it during 2008–2011. During this period, some sectors of government made highly commendable efforts in developing eHealth services. Along these lines, we had hoped to see higher uptake of EHRs than the 15.8 percent found in this study. The rate of implementing EHRs in government hospitals should be accelerated. The aim should be on achieving some basic EHR functionality in these hospitals, and once this has been achieved

  2. Mafic subvolcanic intrusions and their petrologic relation with the volcanism in the south hinge Torres Syncline, Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmento, Carla Cecília Treib; Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Lima, Evandro Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    The hypabyssal intrusions investigated in this study are located in the east-central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in the south hinge of the Torres Syncline. The intrusions comprise twenty-four dikes and ten sills, intruding in ponded pahoehoe, compound pahoehoe, rubbly and acidic lava flows of the south sub-Province of the Paraná Igneous Province and the sedimentary rocks of the Botucatu, Pirambóia, Santa Maria and Rio do Rasto Formations, on the edge of the Paraná Basin. The intrusive dikes in the flows have preferred NNW-SSE direction and the intrusive dikes in the sedimentary rocks have preferred NE-SW direction. Regarding the morphology, the dikes were separated into two different groups: symmetrical and asymmetrical. The small variation in facies is characterized by fine to aphanitic equigranular rocks. The rocks were divided into two types: Silica Supersaturated Tholeiite (SST) - dikes and sills consisting of plagioclase and clinopyroxene as essential minerals, with some olivine and felsic mesostasis, predominant intergranular texture and subordinate subophitic texture; and Silica Saturated Olivine Tholeiite (SSOT) - dikes consisting mainly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine, and predominant ophitic texture. The major and trace element geochemistry allows classifying these hypabyssal bodies as basalts (SSOT), basaltic andesites and trachyandesites (TSS) of tholeiitic affinity. The mineral chemistry data and the REE behavior, combined with the LILE and HFSE patterns, similar to the flows and low-Ti basic intrusions of southern Brazil and northwestern Namibia allow suggesting that these dikes and sills were part of a feeder system of the magmatism in the Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province. The preferred direction of the intrusive dikes in the sedimentary rocks of the Paraná Basin coincides with tectonic-magmatic lineaments related to extensional processes and faulting systems that served as vents for dike swarms parallel to the Brazilian

  3. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C.

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants. PMID:27069489

  4. Cockroach surveys in 14 provinces of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tawatsin, A; Thavara, U; Chompoosri, J; Kong-ngamsuk, W; Chansang, C; Paosriwong, S

    2001-12-01

    Cockroach surveys using sticky traps were conducted in urban areas of 14 Thailand provinces. At least 30 houses in each province were randomly sampled for cockroaches. Each house was trapped in three areas: kitchen, bedroom and outside. A total of 2,648 cockroaches was caught by 550 out of 1,542 traps (35.7%), from 337 of the 514 houses (65.6%). Overall, relative density ranged from 2.6 to 9.1 with an average of 5.2 cockroaches/house. On the average, 47.7% of the cockroaches were caught in the kitchen, 24.4% and 27.9% were caught in the bedroom and outside of dwellings, respectively. There were 10 species of cockroaches caught from the 14 provinces: Periplaneta americana (60.9%), Periplaneta brunnea (15.4%), Neostylopyga rhombiofolia (9.6%), Periplaneta australasiae (9.2%), Pycnoscelis surinamensis (3.3%), Blatella germanica (0.6%), Periplaneta fuliginosa (0.5%), Supella longipalpa (0.3%), Blatella lituricollis (0.15%) and Nauphoeta cinerea (0.05%), belonging to six genera. According to the surveys in this study, Periplaneta americana and Periplaneta brunnea were the most abundant cockroach species in urban Thailand, whereas the kitchen was the major habitat.

  5. Associations of Individual-Related and Job-Related Risk Factors with Nonfatal Occupational Injury in the Coal Workers of Shanxi Province: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Nan; Wang, Cong; Wang, Tong; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Liang, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationships between the risk factors and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injury of coal mine workers of Shanxi Province. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013, and 4319 workers were recruited from more than 200,000 coal mine employees who are exposed to continuous potential risk of occupational injuries by using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Trained interviewers having necessary medical knowledge conducted face-to-face interviews with the participants. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). Results A total number of 3618 effective respondents were got from 4319 participants (83.77%) and the mean age of the participants was 41.5 years with the standard deviation of 8.65. Significant crude odds ratios were observed for all factors considered except for marital status, education, work duration, BMI, EPQ-RSC(P) scale and EPQ-RSC(L) scale. Results from multivariable logistic regression model showed significant adjusted odds ratios for risk factors including gender (female vs male 0.275, 0.094–0.800), age (≥55 vs ≤25yr 0.169, 0.032–0.900), work type (light physical labor vs heavy physical labor 0.504, 0.328–0.774), workplace (underground auxiliary vs underground front-line 0.595, 0.385–0.919), length of shiftwork experience (0~5yr vs no shift 2.075, 1.287–3.344 and ≥15yr vs no shift 2.076, 1.230–3.504) and EPQ-RSC(E) score (extraversion vs introversion 0.538, 0.334–0.867). Conclusions Several risk factors of nonfatal occupational injury were identified including male, age, heavy physical labor, underground front-line, length of shiftwork experience and introversion. The coal mining enterprises should pay attention to controlling the hazards associated with frontline physical work. Workers’ behaviors, life styles and personality traits should also be considered, so

  6. Stress Status and Related Characteristics among Urban Residents: A Six-Province Capital Cities Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingzhong; Rockett, Ian R. H.; Lv, Qiaohong; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To estimate current prevalence levels of stress, and to identify related characteristics among urban residents in China. Design A cross-sectional, multilevel study. Selected through multi-stage quota-sampling, survey participants were 4,735 urban residents aged 15 years and older who resided in one of six selected Chinese capital cities. Data were collected on stress levels and sociodemographic characteristics. Stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Chinese version (CPSS). A multilevel variance component model was employed to analyze associations between sociodemographic variables and stress. Results The mean stress score for urban residents was 22.34 (SD: 3.22), and 36.8% of those surveyed (95% CI: 33.5–40.2%) were severely stressed (>25). Multilevel regression analysis indicated that residents aged 55 years and older were less stressed than residents under age 25. The most educated and higher income earners had lower stress levels than the least educated and poorest. High levels of stress were apparent among all other occupational groups, relative to managers and clerks, except retirees and operational workers. Residents in the north of China exhibited higher stress levels than counterparts in the south. Conclusions This study suggests that higher stress levels are positively associated with social class in China. Our findings could inform health policy, guide prevention strategies, and justify the design and implementation of targeted interventions. PMID:22276209

  7. Trauma-related impairment in children--a survey in Sri Lankan provinces affected by armed conflict.

    PubMed

    Elbert, Thomas; Schauer, Maggie; Schauer, Elisabeth; Huschka, Bianca; Hirth, Michael; Neuner, Frank

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined traumatic experiences, PTSD, and co-morbid symptoms in relation to neuropsychological and school performance in school children affected by two decades of civil war and unrest. The epidemiological survey of children's mental health included a representative sample of 420 school children. Local teachers were trained to administer a translation of the UCLA-PTSD Index Form. The instrument and the epidemiological findings were validated by assessment through clinical expert interview, school grades, and neuropsychological testing in a subsample (N=67). Ninety-two percent of the children surveyed had experienced severely traumatizing events such as combat, bombing, shelling, or witnessing the death of a loved one. Twenty-five percent met the criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD. Traumatized children reported lasting interference of experiences with their daily life, which was corroborated by memory testing, scores in school performance and ratings of social withdrawal. Depressive symptoms and poor physical health were frequent in these children. The majority of trained teachers achieved valid results in the structured interviews. Performance and functioning in children are related to the total load of traumatic events experienced. An important component of psychosocial programs in post-conflict areas should include increasing community-based awareness of the consequences of traumatic stress, both as a preventative measure and as a way of decreasing stigmatization of affected individuals.

  8. Relative importance of sexual and asexual reproduction for range expansion of Spartina alterniflora in different tidal zones on Chinese coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyu; Lin, Zhenshan; Zhang, Mingyang; Qi, Xiangzhen

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, based on spatially explicit individual-based model and global sensitivity analysis, the relative importance of sexual and asexual reproduction for range expansion of Spartina alterniflora in different tidal zones during different invasion stages has been revealed. The results showed that: 1) sexual reproduction is thought to accelerate the range expansion in middle and high tidal zones; 2) seed dispersal and adult survival rate are the two most important for range expansion of S. alterniflora during most invasion stages in all tidal zones. However, in high tidal zone, the importance of seed dispersal distance is much less than in low and middle tidal zones, and that of sexual reproduction is also great, which cannot be ignored. In middle tidal zone, the importance of adult survival rate is less important than in high and low tidal zones, and is very close to asexual reproduction. Moreover, there are significant fluctuations among the importance of different parameters except seed dispersal distance, indicating strong interactions. 3) the importance of adult survival rate and asexual reproduction is much greater than seed dispersal distance during early invasion. Especially, their importance is much higher during early and middle invasion stages in high tidal zone. During early invasion stages, the interactions among different parameters are very strong. To enhance the invasion control efficiency, it is necessary to take different control measures according to different tidal zones and invasion stages.

  9. Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction intensity.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Filiz; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Jubeau, Marc; Frappart, Thomas; Couade, Mathieu; Bercoff, Jeremy; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-08-01

    Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque during low-level contractions (<60% of Maximal Voluntary Contraction, MVC). This measurement can therefore be used to estimate changes in individual muscle force. However, it is not known if this relationship remains valid for higher intensities. The aim of this study was to determine: (i) the relationship between muscle shear elastic modulus and muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction and (ii) the influence of the size of the region of interest (ROI) used to average the shear modulus value. Ten healthy males performed two incremental isometric little finger abductions. The joint torque produced by Abductor Digiti Minimi was considered as an index of muscle torque and elastic modulus. A high coefficient of determination (R(2)) (range: 0.86-0.98) indicated that the relationship between elastic modulus and torque can be accurately modeled by a linear regression over the entire range (0% to 100% of MVC). The changes in shear elastic modulus as a function of torque were highly repeatable. Lower R(2) values (0.89±0.13 for 1/16 of ROI) and significantly increased absolute errors were observed when the shear elastic modulus was averaged over smaller ROI, half, 1/4 and 1/16 of the full ROI) than the full ROI (mean size: 1.18±0.24cm(2)). It suggests that the ROI should be as large as possible for accurate measurement of muscle shear modulus.

  10. Measuring a hidden population: A novel technique to estimate the population size of women with sexual violence-related pregnancies in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa G; McLaughlin, Katherine R; Rouhani, Shada A; Bartels, Susan A

    2017-03-01

    Successive sampling (SS)-population size estimation (PSE) is a technique used to estimate the sizes of hidden populations using data collected in respondent-driven sampling (RDS) surveys. We assess past estimations and use new data from an RDS survey to calculate a new PSE. In 2012, 852 adult women in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, who self-identified as survivors of sexual violence, resulting in a pregnancy, since the start of the war (in 1996) were sampled using RDS. We used imputed visibility, enrollment order, and prior estimates for PSE using SS-PSE in RDS Analyst. Prior estimates varied between Congolese local experts and researchers. We calculated the PSE of women with a sexual violence-related pregnancy in South Kivu using researchers' priors to be approximately 17,400. SS-PSE is an effective method for estimating the population sizes of hidden populations, useful for providing evidence for services and resource allocation. SS-PSE is beneficial because population sizes can be calculated after conducting the survey and do not rely on separate studies or additional data (as in network scale-up, multiplier, and capture-recapture methods).

  11. Breakfast and fast food eating behavior in relation to socio-demographic differences among school adolescents in Sanandaj Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alimoradi, Foad; Jandaghi, Parisa; Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Javadi, Maryam; Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni

    2017-06-01

    Fast food consumption and skipping breakfast has been increasingly prevalent among high school adolescents in recent years. These unhealthy food habits are considered as risk factors of chronic diseases among adolescents and adults. To determine the consumption amount of fast food, breakfast, and some associated factors in adolescents. In this cross-sectional study in 2015, 553 adolescent students aged 14-18 years were randomly selected among high schools of Sanandaj, Iran. Demographic data and also consumption amount of fast food and breakfast in adolescents in addition to the related factors were studied. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire which its reliability and validity were measured by five experts and analyzed with SPSS-16 by Chi-square test and ANOVA. The results show that 69.8 % of subjects consume fast food at least once a week. Fast food and breakfast consumption is related significantly to subjects' fathers' occupation respectively (p=0.005), (p=0.006). Eating breakfast is significantly higher among boys than girls (p<0.001). There is also a significant relationship between adolescents' age and parents' education level, and adolescents' breakfast consumption respectively (p=0.003), (p<0.001). The studied factors affecting adolescents' fast food consumption are: their own and their families and friends' interest and accompaniment, advertisement, close proximity of school and home to fast food stores. The consumption of fast food is high among Iranian adolescents. It correlates significantly with variables including father's occupation and all of the associated factors. Breakfast consumption correlates significantly with adolescents' age and gender, as well as parents' occupation and educational level.

  12. Breakfast and fast food eating behavior in relation to socio-demographic differences among school adolescents in Sanandaj Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alimoradi, Foad; Jandaghi, Parisa; Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Javadi, Maryam; Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fast food consumption and skipping breakfast has been increasingly prevalent among high school adolescents in recent years. These unhealthy food habits are considered as risk factors of chronic diseases among adolescents and adults. Aim To determine the consumption amount of fast food, breakfast, and some associated factors in adolescents. Methods In this cross-sectional study in 2015, 553 adolescent students aged 14–18 years were randomly selected among high schools of Sanandaj, Iran. Demographic data and also consumption amount of fast food and breakfast in adolescents in addition to the related factors were studied. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire which its reliability and validity were measured by five experts and analyzed with SPSS-16 by Chi-square test and ANOVA. Results The results show that 69.8 % of subjects consume fast food at least once a week. Fast food and breakfast consumption is related significantly to subjects’ fathers’ occupation respectively (p=0.005), (p=0.006). Eating breakfast is significantly higher among boys than girls (p<0.001). There is also a significant relationship between adolescents’ age and parents’ education level, and adolescents’ breakfast consumption respectively (p=0.003), (p<0.001). The studied factors affecting adolescents’ fast food consumption are: their own and their families and friends’ interest and accompaniment, advertisement, close proximity of school and home to fast food stores. Conclusion The consumption of fast food is high among Iranian adolescents. It correlates significantly with variables including father’s occupation and all of the associated factors. Breakfast consumption correlates significantly with adolescents’ age and gender, as well as parents’ occupation and educational level. PMID:28848624

  13. Database for the geologic map of upper Eocene to Holocene volcanic and related rocks in the Cascade Range, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, Andrew D.; Ramsey, David W.; Smith, James G.

    2014-01-01

    This digital database contains information used to produce the geologic map published as Sheet 1 in U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2005. (Sheet 2 of Map I-2005 shows sources of geologic data used in the compilation and is available separately). Sheet 1 of Map I-2005 shows the distribution and relations of volcanic and related rock units in the Cascade Range of Washington at a scale of 1:500,000. This digital release is produced from stable materials originally compiled at 1:250,000 scale that were used to publish Sheet 1. The database therefore contains more detailed geologic information than is portrayed on Sheet 1. This is most noticeable in the database as expanded polygons of surficial units and the presence of additional strands of concealed faults. No stable compilation materials exist for Sheet 1 at 1:500,000 scale. The main component of this digital release is a spatial database prepared using geographic information systems (GIS) applications. This release also contains links to files to view or print the map sheet, main report text, and accompanying mapping reference sheet from Map I-2005. For more information on volcanoes in the Cascade Range in Washington, Oregon, or California, please refer to the U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program website.

  14. Exploring gender perceptions of risk of HIV infection and related behaviour among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa, Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious

    2016-12-01

    The literature shows that there are important differences between women and men in the underlying mechanisms of transmission of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as in the social and economic consequences of HIV/AIDS. These stem from sexual behaviour and socially constructed 'gender' differences between women and men in roles and responsibilities. Despite the fact that numerous gender-related sociocultural factors influence HIV/AIDS protective behaviours, little gender specificity is included in HIV prevention among the elderly. In order to close this gap, this study explored gender-related perceptions of risk of HIV infection among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa in Gauteng Province, South Africa. This qualitative study used purposive sampling to conduct three focus group interviews with 22 women and 10 men who were above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that both genders blame each other for the spreading of HIV/AIDS. Male participants displayed the tendency to have multiple partners, whereas females accepted that males are promiscuous. Mixed perceptions about disclosure of HIV status were found. Condom use was a challenge, as men did not know how to introduce it with their wives, and some female participants indicated that men are resistant to using condoms. The elderly men also believed that women will have sex in exchange for money. It is concluded that there is a need for substantial behaviour change among both elderly males and females, which should address gender power relations. More in-depth and extensive research in this area is recommended.

  15. Income and health inequality across Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Jalil

    2007-09-01

    This paper uses the aggregate data from the Public Use Microdata Files (PUMF) of Canadian National Population Health Survey to estimate income related health inequalities across the ten Canadian provinces. The unique features of the PUMF allow for a meaningful cross-provincial comparison of health indices and their measured inequalities. It concludes that health inequalities favouring the higher income people do exist in all provinces when health status is either self assessed or measured by the health utility index. Moreover, it finds considerable variations in measured health inequalities across the provinces with consistent rankings for certain provinces.

  16. Declining β-Cell Function Relative to Insulin Sensitivity With Increasing Fasting Glucose Levels in the Nondiabetic Range in Children

    PubMed Central

    Tfayli, Hala; Lee, SoJung; Arslanian, Silva

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In adults, higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, even within the normoglycemic range, are associated with increased diabetes risk. This investigation tested the hypothesis that β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity decreases with increasing FPG in youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 223 youth with FPG <126 mg/dl underwent evaluation of first- and second-phase insulin secretion during a 2-h hyperglycemic (∼225 mg/dl) clamp, insulin sensitivity during a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body composition, and abdominal adiposity with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomographic scan. β-Cell function relative to insulin sensitivity was calculated as the product of first-phase insulin and insulin sensitivity, i.e., glucose disposition index (GDI). The subjects were divided into three FPG categories: ≤90, >90–<100, and ≥100–<126 mg/dl. RESULTS GDI decreased significantly across the three categories as FPG increased (1,086 ± 192 vs. 814 ± 67 and 454 ± 57 mg/kg/min, P = 0.002). This decline remained significant after adjustment for race, sex, BMI, and percent body fat or visceral fat. Within each FPG category, GDI declined with increasing BMI percentiles. CONCLUSIONS The impairment in β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity is apparent even within the nondiabetic FPG range in children. At the current cutoff of 100 mg/dl for impaired fasting glucose (IFG), there is an ∼49% decline in the GDI independent of obesity and race. This observation may reflect a heightened risk of β-cell dysfunction and progression to diabetes in these children. Considering the near doubling of IFG prevalence among youth between National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2000 and 2005–2006, our findings have important public health implications. PMID:20805276

  17. The passive, human calf muscles in relation to standing: the short range stiffness lies in the contractile component.

    PubMed

    Loram, Ian D; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Lakie, Martin

    2007-10-15

    Using short duration perturbations, previous attempts to measure the intrinsic ankle stiffness during human standing have revealed a substantial stabilizing contribution (65-90% normalized to load stiffness 'mgh'). Others regard this method as unsuitable for the low-frequency conditions of quiet standing and believe the passive contribution to be small (10-15%). This latter view, consistent with a linear Hill-type model, argues that during standing, the contractile portion of the muscle is much less stiff than the tendon. Here, for upright subjects, we settle this issue by measuring the stiffness of the contractile portion of the passive calf muscles using low-frequency ankle rotations. Using ultrasound we tracked the changes in muscle contractile length and partitioned the ankle rotation into contractile and extra-contractile (series elastic) portions. Small ankle rotations of 0.15 and 0.4 deg show a contractile to series elastic stiffness ratio (K(ce)/K(se)) of 12 +/- 9 and 6.3 +/- 10, respectively, with both elements displaying predominantly elastic behaviour. Larger, 7 deg rotations reveal the range of this ratio. It declines in a non-linear way from a high value (K(ce)/K(se) = 18 +/- 11) to a low value (K(ce)/K(se) = 1 +/- 0.4) as rotation increases from 0.1 to 7 deg. There is a marked transition at around 0.5 deg. The series elastic stiffness (K(se)/mgh) remains largely constant (77 +/- 13%) demonstrating the contractile component origin of passive, short range stiffness. The linear Hill-type model does not describe the range-related stiffness relevant to the progression from quiet standing to perturbed balance and movement and can lead to inaccurate predictions regarding human balance.

  18. A new scanning system for alpha decay events as calibration sources for range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, J.; Kinbara, S.; Mishina, A.; Nakazawa, K.; Soe, M. K.; Theint, A. M. M.; Tint, K. T.

    2017-03-01

    A new scanning system named "Vertex picker" has been developed to rapid collect alpha decay events, which are calibration sources for the range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion. A computer-controlled optical microscope scans emulsion layers exhaustively, and a high-speed and high-resolution camera takes their micrographs. A dedicated image processing picks out vertex-like shapes. Practical operations of alpha decay search were demonstrated by emulsion sheets of the KEK-PS E373 experiment. Alpha decays of nearly 28 events were detected in eye-check work on a PC monitor per hour. This yield is nearly 20 times more effective than that by the conventional eye-scan method. The speed and quality is acceptable for the coming new experiment, J-PARC E07.

  19. Comprehensive analysis of proton range uncertainties related to stopping-power-ratio estimation using dual-energy CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Lee, H. C.; Duan, X.; Shen, C.; Zhou, L.; Jia, X.; Yang, M.

    2017-09-01

    The dual-energy CT-based (DECT) approach holds promise in reducing the overall uncertainty in proton stopping-power-ratio (SPR) estimation as compared to the conventional stoichiometric calibration approach. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors contributing to uncertainty in SPR estimation using the DECT-based approach and to derive a comprehensive estimate of the range uncertainty associated with SPR estimation in treatment planning. Two state-of-the-art DECT-based methods were selected and implemented on a Siemens SOMATOM Force DECT scanner. The uncertainties were first divided into five independent categories. The uncertainty associated with each category was estimated for lung, soft and bone tissues separately. A single composite uncertainty estimate was eventually determined for three tumor sites (lung, prostate and head-and-neck) by weighting the relative proportion of each tissue group for that specific site. The uncertainties associated with the two selected DECT methods were found to be similar, therefore the following results applied to both methods. The overall uncertainty (1σ) in SPR estimation with the DECT-based approach was estimated to be 3.8%, 1.2% and 2.0% for lung, soft and bone tissues, respectively. The dominant factor contributing to uncertainty in the DECT approach was the imaging uncertainties, followed by the DECT modeling uncertainties. Our study showed that the DECT approach can reduce the overall range uncertainty to approximately 2.2% (2σ) in clinical scenarios, in contrast to the previously reported 1%.

  20. Relative Quantification of Diagenetic Processes Using Close-Range Hyperspectral Data in Deltaic Deposits of Frontier Formation, Wyoming.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso de Linaje de Nicolas, V.; Khan, S.; Bhattacharya, J.

    2015-12-01

    Compositional variations related to diagenetic processes can alter fluid flow and permeability of underground reservoirs (hydrocarbon and/or groundwater). Portable hyperspectral cameras had opened up new horizons for mineralogical characterization at different scales: from hundreds of meters (outcrop) to millimeters (laboratory specimens). The purpose of this study is to map mineral composition at an outcrop scale and relatively quantify lateral and vertical mineralogical variations caused by diagenetic processes at microscopic scale. Visible Near-Infrared (VNIR) and Shortwave-Infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral cameras were used to scan the mixed-influence, delta-front reservoir analogue in the Cretaceous Frontier Formation, in Wyoming. The uppermost parasequence of Wall Creek Member were scanned at Raptor Ridge and compared with previous sedimentological studies that mapped discrete carbonate concretions. In addition, two cores (10 meters long), located 30-50 meters away from the outcrop wall, were scanned in the laboratory in order to collect very high resolution spectral data (at 0.5 cm interval). The normalized spectra, using continuum removal, at specific band for target minerals were plotted to evaluate the relative abundance of calcite, chlorite and kaolinite cement within the sandstone based on location, depth and width of absorption features. The hyperspectral images were classified using multiple spectral classification techniques: Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) and Mixture Tuned Mached Filter (MTMF) based on spectral data collected by spectroradiometer. Results show fast and precise method for mapping relative abundance of minerals at various scales ranging from outcrop to laboratory\\core samples. Data are further used for understanding complex diagenetic processes and for reservoir analogue studies.

  1. Assessment of season-dependent body condition scores in relation to faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in free-ranging Asian elephants

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Sanjeeta Sharma; Seshagiri, Polani B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We studied seasonal and annual changes in visual body condition scores (BCSs), and assessed how these scores were related to levels of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCMs) in free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in the seasonally dry tropical forests of the Mysore and Nilgiri Elephant Reserves in southern India. We assessed the animals’ BCS visually on a scale of 1 to 5; where 1 represents a very thin and 5 represents a very fat elephant. To understand the influence of seasonality on BCS, we sampled the population during dry (n = 398) and wet seasons (n = 255) of 2013 and 2015 while, for annual changes in BCS, we sampled nine free-ranging adult females from different family groups that had been repeatedly sighted over seven years. To evaluate the influence of body condition on fGCM, 307 faecal samples were collected from 261 different elephants and were analysed. As a parameter of adrenocortical activity, and thus stress, fGCM was measured (μg/g) in the ethanol-extracted samples using a group-specific 11-oxoaetiocholanolone EIA (antibody raised against 11-oxoaetiocholanolone-17-CMO:BSA and biotinylated-11-oxoaetiocholanolone as a label). Effect of age and season on BCS in relation to fGCM was also studied. A seasonal shift in BCS was observed as expected, i.e. individuals with low BCS were more frequent during the dry season when compared with the wet season. Concentrations of fGCM were highest in individuals with lowest BCS (BCS 1) and then significantly declined till BCS 3. fGCM levels were almost comparable for BCS 3, 4 and 5. This pattern was more conspicuous in female than in male elephants. Season-dependent BCS, hence, reflect the stress status as measured by fGCM, especially in female Asian elephants. This could be used as an important non-invasive approach to monitor the physiological health of free-ranging elephant populations. PMID:28721215

  2. Stable Isotope Evidence for a Complex Fluid Evolution of the Northwestern British Columbia Coast Ranges Related to Terrane Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moertle, J.; Holk, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Stable isotope geochemistry reveals a complex fluid evolution for the Western Metamorphic Belt (WMB), Coast Ranges Batholith (CRB), Central Gneiss Complex (CGC) and Coast Ranges Megalineament (CRM). These fluids are a product of a complex tectonic history related to terrane accretion that includes oblique convergence, metamorphism, magmatism, and orogenic collapse. From W-to-E, these fluid systems are as follows. High-pressure greenschist-to-amphibolite facies metasedimentary rocks of the WMB record variable mineral δD (-61 to -104‰) and δ18O (e.g., quartz +9.6 to +13.4‰) values with multiple minerals in apparent isotopic equilibrium (T ~ 450-550°C) suggest a low W/R system dominated by metamorphic fluids. Variable and non-equilibrium δD (-53 to -143‰) and δ18O (e.g., biotite +2.3 to +5.3‰) values from diorites of the Quottoon pluton affected by the ductile CRM suggest a complex evolution that involved both metamorphic and meteoric-hydrothermal fluids in this dextral shear zone; these results differ from those 300 km along strike to the north that documented only metamorphic fluids in the CRM (Goldfarb et al., 1988). Our data and those of Magaritz and Taylor (1976) from granulite facies metasediments of the CGC and plutons of the western CRB reveal homogeneous δD values (-62 to -78‰) and a restricted range of δ18O values (e.g., quartz +8.5 to +11.5‰) with all minerals in equilibrium at T > 570°C indicate a system dominated by magmatic fluids. Calculated whole-rock δ18O values (~ +7‰) for the Quottoon pluton and CRB intrusive rocks suggest a mantle origin for these magmas. Reinterpretation of very low δD (< -150‰) and quartz-feldspar δ18O pairs that display extreme disequilibrium (feldspar δ18O values as low as -5‰) from the Ponder pluton, eastern CRB, and Hazelton Group point reveals that the major meteoric-hydrothermal system that affected these rocks was related to Eocene detachment faulting along the Shames Lake fault system, a

  3. [Correlative factors related to the density of Meriones unguiculatus in the Meriones unguiculatus plague foci of Hebei province, 2001-2013].

    PubMed

    Niu, Y F; Kang, X P; Yan, D; Zhang, Y H; Liu, G; Kang, D M; Liu, H Z; Shi, X M; Li, Y G

    2016-08-10

    To explore the yearly, monthly and habitat-related distribution and their relations with Meriones unguiculatus density in the Hebei Meriones unguiculatus plague foci, from 2001 to 2013. Data related to Meriones unguiculatus was gathered through the monitoring programs set up at the national and provincial Meriones unguiculatus plague foci in Hebei province, from 2001 to 2013. According to the yearly density of Meriones unguiculatus, criteria set for the three groups under study, were as follows:'high-risk group'-when the rodent density was≥1.00 under rodents/hm(2),'warning group'-when the rodents/hm(2)>rodent density> 0.20,'standard group'-when rodents/hm(2) rodent density≤0.20 rodents/hm(2). Differences of habitats and monthly distribution among the three groups were compared, under the Kruskal-Wallis H rank sum test while their relations were under the multiple correspondence analysis. The Meriones unguiculatus densities were higher than 1.00 rodents/hm(2), far above the set national standards, in the monitoring area, between 2001 and 2005. From 2005, though the rodent densities began to decrease, however, figures from 2008 to 2013 were still among 0.20 to 1.00 rodents/hm(2). The distribution of habitats in the three groups showed that the Meriones unguiculatus densities were all different in habitats and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The highest median densities were all in the arable land, with maximum value of high-risk group appeared the highest (20.50 rodents/hm(2)) in the wasteland. Monthly distribution showed that the Meriones unguiculatus densities were different and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) in the high-risk and standard groups but not statistically significant in the warning group. Data from the multiple correspondence analysis showed that there was a strong aggregation among wasteland, in April and June, while the warning group was associated with weather in July and the arable land. When the

  4. [Relations between attitude and practice of smoking and the training program regarding tobacco control among community medical staff members in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Min; Ren, Yan-Jun; Cao, Cheng-Jian; Liu, Bing; Lv, Jun; Li, Li-Ming

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the relations between training and both the attitude and practice on smoking control among community medical staff members in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province. Three representative districts including Xiacheng, Gongshu and Westlake were chosen from Hangzhou city. Questionnaire survey was applied to collect information from the related community medical staff members. The survey mainly contained three aspects: knowledge, attitude and practice regarding smoking control involved in the community medical activities. Availability and application of the resources on smoking cessation were also studied. Logistic regression analysis was applied to explore the factors associated with the smoking control training programs. Differences of rates between groups were assessed with chi-square statistics. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to study the relationships among knowledge, attitude and practice related to smoking control programs, targeted to the community medical staff members. Eight hundred forty-six community medical workers were involved. Sixty-five percent of the community medical staff members had learned related knowledge on smoking control. Proportion of the community medical staff who had taken lessons on smoking control with 3-10 working years was 1.77 times more than the ones with experience less than two years (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.25-2.51). Eighty-eight point seven percent of the medical staff who had received smoking control training programs were identified with the consciousness that they should advise the patients to quit smoking, comparing to the proportion 81.60% (Z=-2.87, P=0.00) in the control group. In terms of the practice regarding smoking control, data showed that 21.62% of the medical staff who had received smoking control training programs would provide 'how to quit smoking' to more than 90% of the smoking patients, while the proportion in the control group was 10.65% (Z = -5.68, P = 0.00). The use of drugs, traditional Chinese medicine

  5. Relations between stellar mass and electron temperature-based metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a wide mass range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Bin; Liang, Yan-Chun; Shao, Xu; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Zhao, Gang; Hammer, Francois; Zhang, Yong; Flores, Hector; Ruan, Gui-Ping; Zhou, Li

    2014-07-01

    We select 947 star-forming galaxies from SDSS-DR7 with [O III]λ4363 emission lines detected at a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 5σ. Their electron temperatures and direct oxygen abundances are then determined. We compare the results from different methods. t2, the electron temperature in the low ionization region, estimated from t3, that in the high ionization region, is compared using three analysis relations between t2 - t3. These show obvious differences, which result in some different ionic oxygen abundances. The results of t3, t2, O++/H+ and O+/H+ derived by using methods from IRAF and literature are also compared. The ionic abundances O++/H+ are higher than O+/H+ for most cases. The different oxygen abundances derived from Te and the strong-line ratios show a clear discrepancy, which is more obvious following increasing stellar mass and strong-line ratio R23. The sample of galaxies from SDSS with detected [O III]λ4363 have lower metallicites and higher star formation rates, so they may not be typical representatives of the whole population of galaxies. Adopting data objects from Andrews & Martini, Liang et al. and Lee et al. data, we derive new relations of stellar mass and metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a much wider stellar mass range: from 106 Msolar to 1011 Msolar.

  6. Spatiotemporal reconstruction of Late Mesozoic silicic large igneous province and related epithermal mineralization in South China: Insights from the Zhilingtou volcanic-intrusive complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guo-Guang; Ni, Pei; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Li, Pengfei; Chen, Hui; Zhu, An-Dong; Li, Li

    2016-11-01

    Silicic large igneous provinces (SLIPs) generally reflect large-scale melting of lower crustal materials and represent significant metal reservoirs. The South China Block-Coastal Region (SCB-CR) SLIP hosts several large epithermal deposits. To better understand these deposits, we document the spatiotemporal framework of the host SLIP across the SCB-CR. Using zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical and isotopic analysis, we identify four stages of emplacement. Stage 1 felsophyre (circa 149 Ma) shows a chemical affinity to highly fractionated I-type granites. Stages 2 and 3 of low-Mg felsic volcanics (circa 128 to 111 Ma) and stage 4 felsite (circa 100 Ma) have higher ɛHf(t) and ɛNd(t) values than stage 1 felsophyre, suggesting a significant contribution of newly underplated juvenile crust to the magma sources. Stage 4 diabase (circa 101 Ma) was likely produced by melting of subduction˗metasomatized asthenospheric mantle. Together with reliable published data, we build a new spatiotemporal framework of volcanics and infer that the majority of the SCB-CR SLIP was related to the gradual northwestward subduction of the Izanagi plate beneath South China in a continental arc setting during circa 170 to 110 Ma, and minor contribution was from the eastward retreat of the subducting slab in a back-arc setting during circa 110 to 90 Ma. We conclude that the large-scale epithermal mineralization was generated by melting of the metal-rich, thin (30-40 km), newly underplated hydrous juvenile crust during the tectonic transition from arc to back-arc settings.

  7. The geology and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of magmatic activity and related mineralization in the Nevados del Famatina mining district, La Rioja province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada-Calderón, A. J.; McBride, S. L.; Bloom, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Nevados del Famatina mining district (NFMD) is located in La Rioja province, Argentina. This district contains porphyry-style mineralization (Nevados del Famatina) and high sulfidation veins (La Mejicana). The stratigraphic column in the NFMD begins with Cambrian siltstones which were metamorphosed during the Late Ordovician - Early Silurian and intruded by Late Ordovician-Silurian granitic rocks. These units were covered by Upper Paleozoic and Tertiary continental sedimentary rocks which are intercalated with and overlain by dacitic-rhyodacitic porphyritic rocks (Mogote Formation) emplaced during the Pliocene. All these units are covered by Pleistocene sediments and Quaternary alluvial and colluvial deposits. Magmatic activity and related mineralization in the NFMD have been dated by the 40Ar/ 39Ar technique. Step heating studies of orthoclase and biotite phenocrysts from the Mogote Formation in the NFMD suggest that the igneous rocks were emplaced around 5.0±0.3 Ma ago. However, plateau ages of biotite from the outer carapace of the subjacent granodioritic magma chamber and of muscovite from quartz-sericite alteration at both Nevados del Famatina and La Mejicana are around 3.8±0.2 Ma. Emplacement of the shallow stocks is separated from cooling of the outer carapace of the subjacent granodioritic magma chamber to temperatures below 350° C by a time span of approximately 1 Ma. During this interval, a convective hydrothermal system was established proximal to the granodioritic magma chamber, which resulted in porphyry molybdenumcoppergold mineralization adjacent to the igneous rocks and more distal high sulfidation veins located in fault zones.

  8. Knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) and risk factors analysis related to cystic echinococcosis among residents in Tibetan communities, Xiahe County, Gansu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Gao, Qi; Liu, Jian; Feng, Yu; Ning, Wenhua; Dong, Yanqing; Tao, Lixin; Li, Jingyi; Tian, Xiujun; Gu, Junchao; Xin, Deli

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a global parasitic zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. The disease is highly endemic in western China, especially in Tibetan areas, because of poor economic development and hygiene conditions, limited community knowledge of CE, a large scale of dogs, and home slaughtering of livestock. Although many researchers have analyzed risk factors of CE transmission in Tibetan Plateau, there are rare reports of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of residents about CE in Tibetan communities. In our current study, community based cross-sectional study was conducted in three townships in Xiahe County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures of Gansu Province from May to September 2013. A total of 972 participants originating from Tibetan communities of 31 villages in the 3 townships were registered and data were collected using structured questionnaires. From the total of 972 study participants (457 males and 515 females), 65.9% heard of the disease CE. Most of them (96.1%) would like to accept CE inspection. About half of the peoples feed their dogs often and major of them do not play with the dogs. Risk factors included resident, knowing dog could be infected, knowing eating could be route of infection, oldest dog's age, usually feed your dog by self, feed dogs with internal organs. In general our findings showed that most of residents had positive attitude toward treatments of the disease, but their practice about disease prevention and control was low. Therefore, our study called for continued and strengthened education of changing the life style, especially the behaviors related to dogs. PMID:25757370

  9. Knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) and risk factors analysis related to cystic echinococcosis among residents in Tibetan communities, Xiahe County, Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Gao, Qi; Liu, Jian; Feng, Yu; Ning, Wenhua; Dong, Yanqing; Tao, Lixin; Li, Jingyi; Tian, Xiujun; Gu, Junchao; Xin, Deli

    2015-07-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a global parasitic zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. The disease is highly endemic in western China, especially in Tibetan areas, because of poor economic development and hygiene conditions, limited community knowledge of CE, a large scale of dogs, and home slaughtering of livestock. Although many researchers have analyzed risk factors of CE transmission in Tibetan Plateau, there are rare reports of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of residents about CE in Tibetan communities. In our current study, community based cross-sectional study was conducted in three townships in Xiahe County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures of Gansu Province from May to September 2013. A total of 972 participants originating from Tibetan communities of 31 villages in the 3 townships were registered and data were collected using structured questionnaires. From the total of 972 study participants (457 males and 515 females), 65.9% heard of the disease CE. Most of them (96.1%) would like to accept CE inspection. About half of the peoples feed their dogs often and major of them do not play with the dogs. Risk factors included resident, knowing dog could be infected, knowing eating could be route of infection, oldest dog's age, usually feed your dog by self, feed dogs with internal organs. In general our findings showed that most of residents had positive attitude toward treatments of the disease, but their practice about disease prevention and control was low. Therefore, our study called for continued and strengthened education of changing the life style, especially the behaviors related to dogs.

  10. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systematics of an Archean anorthosite and related rocks from the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Wooden, J. L.; Phinney, W. C.; Morrison, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic data for the Bad Vermilion Lake anorthosite in the Rainy Lake area of the Superior Province of northwesten Ontario show that direct ages of Archean anorthosites can be obtained with these isotopic systems despite the effects of low-grade metamorphism. There is sufficient spread in Sm/Nd between plagioclase megacrysts and coexisting mafic groundmass to allow the determination of reasonably precise internal Sm-Nd isochrons. Initial isotopic ratios of Nd and Sr add to the growing body of data indicating the Superior Province is underlain by depleted mantle.

  11. Relative geographic range of sibling species of host damselflies does not reliably predict differential parasitism by water mites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    related hosts species, no such differences were found between other related host species. Differences in geographic range of related host species does not reliably explain differential levels of parasitism by water mites. PMID:24351055

  12. Ectomycorrhizal fungi of exotic pine plantations in relation to native host trees in Iran: evidence of host range expansion by local symbionts to distantly related host taxa.

    PubMed

    Bahram, Mohammad; Kõljalg, Urmas; Kohout, Petr; Mirshahvaladi, Shahab; Tedersoo, Leho

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of exotic plants change soil microbial communities which may have detrimental ecological consequences for ecosystems. In this study, we examined the community structure and species richness of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi associated with exotic pine plantations in relation to adjacent native ectomycorrhizal trees in Iran to elucidate the symbiont exchange between distantly related hosts, i.e. Fagales (Fagaceae and Betulaceae) and Pinaceae. The combination of morphological and molecular identification approaches revealed that 84.6 % of species with more than one occurrence (at least once on pines) were shared with native trees and only 5.9 % were found exclusively on pine root tips. The community diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the pine plantations adjacent to native EcM trees was comparable to their adjacent native trees, but the isolated plantations hosted relatively a species-poor community. Specific mycobionts of conifers were dominant in the isolated plantation while rarely found in the plantations adjacent to native EcM trees. These data demonstrate the importance of habitat isolation and dispersal limitation of EcM fungi in their potential of host range expansion. The great number of shared and possibly compatible symbiotic species between exotic Pinaceae and local Fagales (Fagaceae and Betulaceae) may reflect their evolutionary adaptations and/or ancestral compatibility with one another.

  13. Wide-angle airborne laser range data analysis for relative height determination of ground-based benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, O.; Thom, C.

    2002-07-01

    A wide-angle airborne laser ranging system has been developed for the determination of relative heights of ground-based benchmarks in regional-scale networks (typically 100 laser reflectors spread over 100 km2). A first prototype demonstrated a 1-2 mm accuracy in radial distance measurement in a ground-based experiment in 1995. The first aircraft experiment was conducted in 1998, over a small area (1 km2) equipped with a network of 64 benchmarks. The instrument was modified before that experiment, in order to minimize echo superimposition due to the high density of benchmarks. New data processing algorithms have been developed, for the deconvolution of strongly overlapped echoes and a high a priori uncertainty in the aircraft flight path, and for the estimation of benchmark coordinates. A special methodology has been developed for the parameterization of these algorithms and of outlier detection tests. From a total of 22104 pseudo-range measurements, that have been acquired from two flights composed of 30 legs each, only 32103 remain after outlier detection. A positioning accuracy of 1.5 cm in the vertical coordinate (2.1 cm in the difference between the two flights) has been achieved. It is shown that the errors are normally distributed, with a nearly zero mean, and are consistent with the a posteriori uncertainty. It is also shown that the accuracy is limited mainly by the sensitivity of the photodetector used for this experiment (due to reduced response time). Another limiting factor is the effect of aircraft attitude changes during the measurements, which produces additional uncertainties in absolute distance measurements. It is planned to test new photodetectors with high internal gains. These should provide, in future experiments with smaller benchmark density, an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio of a factor of 5-10, leading to sub-centimeter vertical positioning accuracy.

  14. Miocene extension and fault-related folding in the Highland Range, southern Nevada: A three-dimensional perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faulds, J.E.; Olson, E.L.; Harlan, S.S.; McIntosh, W.C.

    2002-01-01

    The Highland Range of southern Nevada contains a major anticline and syncline that constitute the westernmost segments of the Black Mountains accommodation zone in the highly extended Colorado River extensional corridor. The folds are defined by thick tilted sections of Miocene volcanic and sedimentary strata that accumulated immediately prior to and during regional extension. The folds are generally symmetrical, with interlimb angles that exceed 90??, subhorizontal hingelines, and steeply inclined axial surfaces. East- and west-dipping normal faults dominate the west- and east-tilted limbs of the folds, respectively. The limbs of the folds are parts of major half grabens. Tilt fanning within these half grabens and 15 new 40Ar/39Ar dates bracket major extension between about 16.5 and 11 Ma. Tilting of the opposing fold limbs occurred simultaneously and was contemporaneous with extension. The anticline and syncline are therefore interpreted as fault-related extensional folds produced by the partial, along-strike overlap of oppositely dipping normal-fault systems and attendant tilt-block domains. The anticline developed between overlapping listric normal faults that dip toward one another, including the east-dipping McCullough Range and west-dipping Keyhole Canyon faults. Each limb of the anticline is a rollover fold developed in the hanging wall of the inwardly dipping listric normal faults. The syncline formed between overlapping outwardly dipping listric faults, as adjacent fault blocks were tilted toward one another. The dominant folding style was fault-bend folding, with drag-folding and displacement-gradient folding playing subsidiary roles. The anticline and syncline significantly affected depositional patterns, with synextensional units, including two major ash-flow tuffs, thinning toward the anticlinal hinge and thickening toward the synclinal hinge. The Black Mountains accommodation zone is largely composed of intersecting northwest-trending anticlines and

  15. Alteration processes in igneous rocks of the michilla mining area, coastal range, northern chile, and their relation with copper mineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveros, V.; Aguirre, L.; Townley, B.

    2003-04-01

    A 10 km thick homoclinal sequence of intermediate volcanic and sedimentary Jurassic rocks crops out in the Michilla mining area, Coastal Range, northern Chile (22-22°45S, 70-70°15W). Cretaceous plutons, intermediate to acid in composition, intrude this sequence together with numerous small basic to acid dykes and stocks. Main deposits are stratabound Cu-(Ag) with the ore minerals emplaced at the porous tops of the volcanic flows. However, some discordant orebodies, e.g. hydrothermal breccias, exist within the manto-type deposits. The volcanic sequence, and a minor part of the plutonic rocks, have been affected by three different alteration processes, each of them with their distinct mineral assemblages reflecting that every process was developed under different physicochemical conditions. The volcanic rocks far from the mining area are affected by a regional scale alteration process, basically isochemical. Its products are typical of a low-grade event: chl + ep +qtz + ttn (+- ab +- cal) with no ore minerals associated. The temperature interval, estimated by the chlorite geothermometer, ranges between 250 and 350°C. This alteration is either due to very low grade burial metamorphism or to hydrothermalism related to the Late Jurassic - Cretaceous plutonism. Inside the mining district the volcanic rocks are affected by a local scale alteration process originated by the intrusion of small stocks and dykes. This event is characterized by strong sodic metasomatism and minor Mg mobility. Two stages probably occurred as suggested by the two main mineral assemblages present, a propylitic (ab + ep + chl + act + ttn + qtz) and a quartz-sericitic one (ab + ser + qtz + tnn). They would reflect the changes in temperature, water/rock ratio and pH conditions during the whole process. Ore minerals related to this alteration are chalcopyrite, chalcocite and minor bornite and native silver. A temperature interval of 200-300°C is indicated by the chlorite geothermometer for the

  16. Effect of an Educational Intervention Related to Health and Nutrition on Pregnant Women in the Villages of Central Java Province, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijaya-Erhardt, Maria; Muslimatun, Siti; Erhardt, Juergen G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of a health and nutrition educational intervention on maternal knowledge, attitudes and practices. Design: Pre- and post-test design using structured interviews of pregnant women. Setting: Thirty-nine villages in Central Java Province, Indonesia. Method: Pregnant women (N = 252) at 12-20 weeks of gestation were…

  17. Effect of an Educational Intervention Related to Health and Nutrition on Pregnant Women in the Villages of Central Java Province, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijaya-Erhardt, Maria; Muslimatun, Siti; Erhardt, Juergen G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of a health and nutrition educational intervention on maternal knowledge, attitudes and practices. Design: Pre- and post-test design using structured interviews of pregnant women. Setting: Thirty-nine villages in Central Java Province, Indonesia. Method: Pregnant women (N = 252) at 12-20 weeks of gestation were…

  18. Perceptions regarding a range of work-related issues and corresponding support needs of individuals with an intractable disease

    PubMed Central

    Imahashi, Kumiko; Fukatsu, Reiko; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Ito, Tateo; Horigome, Mariko; Haruna, Yuichiro; Noda, Tatsuya; Itoyama, Yasuto

    2016-01-01

    Summary A number of persons with an intractable disease (ID) experience work-related problems that could lead to job loss. The aim of this study was to ascertain perceptions regarding a range of work-related issues and corresponding support needs of individuals with an ID. Potential participants were people ages 15 to 64 with one of the 130 intractable chronic diseases designated in the Act to Comprehensively Support the Daily and Social Activities of Persons with Disabilities (Comprehensive Support for the Disabled Act). Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. With the assistance of patients' organizations, 3,000 questionnaires were mailed to potential participants. Questions included demographic characteristics, family concerns, employment/supported employment, work accommodations, and other aspects of life. Responses were received from 889 (29.6%) participants, and respondents had 57 IDs. Forty-six-point-seven percent of respondents reported being unemployed due to fatigue and/or long-term treatment. Nearly half of the unemployed respondents reported that they had been unable to work despite their willingness to do so. Common requests for accommodation included flexible work hours, working at home, and job/workplace modifications. Only 30% of respondents knew about job training programs and supported work available for persons with disabilities. The results of the study are relevant for employees, employers, and occupational health/human resource professionals. The issue of reasonable accommodations for persons with an ID needs to be addressed in future research in order to promote continued work by those persons. PMID:27672543

  19. Perceptions of malaria and acceptance of rapid diagnostic tests and related treatment practises among community members and health care providers in Greater Garissa, North Eastern Province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Emma; Asgary, Ramin; Gore-Langton, Georgia; Nahashon, Erupe; Mungai, James; Harrison, Rebecca; Abagira, Abdullahi; Eves, Katie; Grigoryan, Zoya; Soti, David; Juma, Elizabeth; Allan, Richard

    2014-12-17

    Conventional diagnosis of malaria has relied upon either clinical diagnosis or microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears. These methods, if not carried out exactly, easily result in the over- or under-diagnosis of malaria. The reliability and accuracy of malaria RDTs, even in extremely challenging health care settings, have made them a staple in malaria control programmes. Using the setting of a pilot introduction of malaria RDTs in Greater Garissa, North Eastern Province, Kenya, this study aims to identify and understand perceptions regarding malaria diagnosis, with a particular focus on RDTs, and treatment among community members and health care workers (HCWs). The study was conducted in five districts of Garissa County. Focus group discussions (FGD) were performed with community members that were recruited from health facilities (HFs) supported by the MENTOR Initiative. In-depth interviews (IDIs) and FGDs with HCWs were also carried out. Interview transcripts were then coded and analysed for major themes. Two researchers reviewed all codes, first separately and then together, discussed the specific categories, and finally characterized, described, and agreed upon major important themes. Thirty-four FGDs were carried out with a range of two to eight participants (median of four). Of 157 community members, 103 (65.6%) were women. The majority of participants were illiterate and the highest level of education was secondary school. Some 76% of participants were of Somali ethnicity. Whilst community members and HCWs demonstrated knowledge of aspects of malaria transmission, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, gaps and misconceptions were identified. Poor adherence to negative RDT results, unfamiliarity and distrust of RDTs, and an inconsistent RDT supply were the main challenges to become apparent in FGDs and IDIs. Gaps in knowledge or incorrect beliefs exist in Greater Garissa and have the potential to act as barriers to complete and correct malaria case

  20. Free-Ranging Male Koalas Use Size-Related Variation in Formant Frequencies to Assess Rival Males

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Benjamin D.; Whisson, Desley A.; Reby, David

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of formant frequencies in nonhuman animal vocal communication systems has received considerable recent interest, only a few studies have examined the importance of these acoustic cues to body size during intra-sexual competition between males. Here we used playback experiments to present free-ranging male koalas with re-synthesised bellow vocalisations in which the formants were shifted to simulate either a large or a small adult male. We found that male looking responses did not differ according to the size variant condition played back. In contrast, male koalas produced longer bellows and spent more time bellowing when they were presented with playbacks simulating larger rivals. In addition, males were significantly slower to respond to this class of playback stimuli than they were to bellows simulating small males. Our results indicate that male koalas invest more effort into their vocal responses when they are presented with bellows that have lower formants indicative of larger rivals, but also show that males are slower to engage in vocal exchanges with larger males that represent more dangerous rivals. By demonstrating that male koalas use formants to assess rivals during the breeding season we have provided evidence that male-male competition constitutes an important selection pressure for broadcasting and attending to size-related formant information in this species. Further empirical studies should investigate the extent to which the use of formants during intra-sexual competition is widespread throughout mammals. PMID:23922967

  1. Is latero-medial patellar mobility related to the range of motion of the knee joint after total knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Ota, Susumu; Nakashima, Takeshi; Morisaka, Ayako; Omachi, Takaaki; Ida, Kunio; Kawamura, Morio

    2010-12-01

    Diminished range of motion (ROM) of the knee joint after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is thought to be related to reduced patellar mobility. This has not been confirmed clinically due to a lack of quantitative methods adequate for measuring patellar mobility. We investigated the relationship between patellar mobility by a reported quantitative method and knee joint ROM after TKA. Forty-nine patients [osteoarthritis--OA: 29 knees; rheumatoid arthritis--RA: 20 knees] were examined after TKA. Respective medial and lateral patellar mobility was measured 1 and 6 months postoperatively using a patellofemoral arthrometer (PFA). Knee joint ROM was also measured in each of those 2 sessions. Although the flexion and extension of the knee joints improved significantly from 1 to 6 months after TKA, the medial and lateral patellar displacements (LPDs) failed to improve during that same period. Moreover, only the changes in knee flexion and medial patellar displacement (MPD) between the two sessions were positively correlated (r = 0.31, p < 0.05). However, our findings demonstrated that medial and lateral patellar mobility had no sufficient longitudinal relationship with knee ROM after TKA.

  2. Variational derivation of the dispersion relation of kinetic coherent modes in the acoustic frequency range in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, C.; Garbet, X.; Smolyakov, A. I.

    2008-11-15

    In the present paper, we compare two modes with frequencies belonging to the acoustic frequency range: the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) and the Beta Alfven eigenmode (BAE). For this, a variational gyrokinetic energy principle coupled to a Fourier sidebands expansion is developed. High order finite Larmor radius and finite orbit width effects are kept. Their impact on the mode structures and on the Alfven spectrum is calculated and discussed. We show that in a local analysis, the degeneracy of the electrostatic GAM and the BAE dispersion relations is verified to a high order and based in particular on a local poloidal symmetry of the two modes. When a more global point of view is taken, and the full radial structures of the modes are computed, differences appear. The BAE structure is shown to have an enforced localization, and to possibly connect to a large magnetohydrodynamic structure. On the contrary, the GAM is seen to have a wavelike, nonlocalized structure, as long as standard slowly varying monotonic profiles are considered.

  3. Free-ranging male koalas use size-related variation in formant frequencies to assess rival males.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Whisson, Desley A; Reby, David

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of formant frequencies in nonhuman animal vocal communication systems has received considerable recent interest, only a few studies have examined the importance of these acoustic cues to body size during intra-sexual competition between males. Here we used playback experiments to present free-ranging male koalas with re-synthesised bellow vocalisations in which the formants were shifted to simulate either a large or a small adult male. We found that male looking responses did not differ according to the size variant condition played back. In contrast, male koalas produced longer bellows and spent more time bellowing when they were presented with playbacks simulating larger rivals. In addition, males were significantly slower to respond to this class of playback stimuli than they were to bellows simulating small males. Our results indicate that male koalas invest more effort into their vocal responses when they are presented with bellows that have lower formants indicative of larger rivals, but also show that males are slower to engage in vocal exchanges with larger males that represent more dangerous rivals. By demonstrating that male koalas use formants to assess rivals during the breeding season we have provided evidence that male-male competition constitutes an important selection pressure for broadcasting and attending to size-related formant information in this species. Further empirical studies should investigate the extent to which the use of formants during intra-sexual competition is widespread throughout mammals.

  4. Fast multipole boundary element method to calculate head-related transfer functions for a wide frequency range

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Wolfgang; Majdak, Piotr; Chen, Zhengsheng

    2010-01-01

    Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) play an important role in spatial sound localization. The boundary element method (BEM) can be applied to calculate HRTFs from non-contact visual scans. Because of high computational complexity, HRTF simulations with BEM for the whole head and pinnae have only been performed for frequencies below 10 kHz. In this study, the fast multipole method (FMM) is coupled with BEM to simulate HRTFs for a wide frequency range. The basic approach of the FMM and its implementation are described. A mesh with over 70 000 elements was used to calculate HRTFs for one subject. With this mesh, the method allowed to calculate HRTFs for frequencies up to 35 kHz. Comparison to acoustically-measured HRTFs has been performed for frequencies up to 16 kHz, showing a good congruence below 7 kHz. Simulations with an additional shoulder mesh improved the congruence in the vertical direction. Reduction in the mesh size by 5% resulted in a substantially-worse representation of spectral cues. The effects of temperature and mesh perturbation were negligible. The FMM appears to be a promising approach for HRTF simulations. Further limitations and potential advantages of the FMM-coupled BEM are discussed. PMID:19739742

  5. [Serum retinol and carotenoid of rural infants and young children in Linyi of Shangdong Province and analysis on their related influencing dietary factors].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ping; Shen, Yao; Li, Yonghua; Ma, Aiqin; Sun, Zhongqing; Wang, Zhixu

    2012-05-01

    The study was carried out to determine serum retinol and carotenoid of infants and young children in rural areas, and to explore their related dietary factors. A total of 254 rural healthy infants and young children aged 6-24 month-old were recruited from a program for health examination and feeding survey conducted in villages in Meibu of Linyi of Shandong Province by cluster sampling method. Serum retinol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein + zeaxanthin were detected with HPLC. The frequency of food intake of babies during the past month was inquired from their mothers or baby-sitters. The relationship between serum retinol and carotenoid level with some factors related to feeding pattern was analyzed. The average serum retinol was (0.96 +/- 0.55) micromol/L with little variation by age (P > 0.05). The prevalence of serum vitamin A deficiency and marginal deficiency were 40.6% and 32.6%. The average serum beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein + zeaxanthin were (0.056 +/- 0.088) micromol/L, (3.3 +/- 12.1) nmol/L, (27.0 +/- 45.2) nmol/L and (0.22 +/- 0.22) micromol/L, respectively, and no significant difference between age groups on serum beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin (all were P > 0.05) except lutein + zeaxanthin (P < 0.05). Breast feeding and formula feeding were significant dietary factors influencing serum retinol and carotenoids levels. The frequency of breast-feeding was correlated significantly with serum beta-carotene (P < 0.05). Serum retinol was correlated positively with carotenoids and among carotenoids with each other (all were P < 0.001). Vitamin A deficiency and marginal deficiency were prevalent in the investigated infants and young children. Serum carotenoid was little variation with age, but was different significantly with dietary patterns fed by breast milk, formula, or fruits and vegetables.

  6. [Study on the prevalence and associated risk factors related to HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus-2 among female sex workers in Jiaozhou, Shandong province].

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Li, Dongmin; Liu, Huixin; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Ning

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the prevalence rates and associated risk factors on HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) among female sex workers (FSWs) in Jiaozhou, Shandong province. Through convenient sampling, an anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted on female sex workers to collect related information. Blood specimens were drawn for serological tests on HIV, syphilis and HSV-2 antibodies, respectively. Patients with positive results from both treponema pallidum and HSV-2 tested by ELISA method, were defined as being superinfected. A total of 460 FSWs were recruited in this study. The prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, HSV-2, and syphilis/HSV-2 superinfection were 0.22% , 5.9% , 43.0% , and 11.7% , respectively. Among the methamphetamine users, the prevalence rates of syphilis, HSV-2, and syphilis/HSV-2 superinfection were 12.4%, 55.2%, and 22.9%, respectively. Results from multivariate analysis showed that factors that significantly associated with syphilis infection would include: methamphetamine use (OR = 3.61, 95% CI:1.62-8.06), having first commercial sex intercourse at under 20 years of age (OR = 2.80, 95% CI:1.15-6.85), more than 2 establishments that the FSWs worked in the last month (OR = 4.37, 95%CI:0.83-22.83). Factors associated with HSV-2 infection were methamphetamine use (OR = 2.30, 95%CI:1.43-3.70), having first commercial sex intercourse at under 20 years of age (OR = 1.77, 95% CI:1.16-2.69), working at low-end establishments (OR = 2.61, 95%CI:1.66-4.10), working at the local sex-work venues for more than one year (OR = 2.01, 95% CI:1.28-3.14), with low education backgrounds (OR = 2.27, 95% CI:1.18-4.36), using methamphetamine (OR = 3.95, 95% CI:2.09-7.44), low education background (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.10-5.36), 21-30 year-olds (OR = 2.95, 95%CI:1.08-8.03), older than 31 years of age (OR = 7.05, 95% CI:2.48-20.01) etc., were independent risk factors associated with the superinfection of syphilis and HSV-2. The prevalence rates of syphilis, HSV-2

  7. Central Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province Cenozoic igneous activity and its relation in space and time with the Late Jurassic rift-to-drift-related alkalic dikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, R.; Schultz, L.; Hendriks, B. W.; Harbor, D. J.; Connors, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    A Swarm of Late Jurassic alkalic intrusions, geographically limited mainly to the Augusta County in western Virginia has been studied geochemically. These dykes were emplaced along a northwest-southeast cross-strike basement fracture zone during Mesozoic extension. However, not all igneous rocks in Virginia are Jurassic; published K-Ar ages already suggested an Eocene age activity around Monterey, VA. We systematically sampled and studied these rocks geochemically and used the Ar-Ar dating technique to define a more precise age for this youngest volcanic activity East of the Mississippi. The younger igneous bodies have traditionally been interpreted as intrusive bodies representing old plumbing systems of eroded volcanic centers. This hypothesis is based on studies of aphanitic to porphyritic and occasionally vesicular hard rocks from quarries and road cuts. Pyroclastic deposits have mainly been neglected during theses earlier studies. However additional petrographic studies of volcanic sediments are able to shed light not only on the volcanic nature of these pyroclastic rocks but also on eruption mechanisms and magma crust interactions. Our petrographic studies indicate that these volcanic sediments contain different clasts of igneous and sedimentary country rocks (sandstones and limestones of different formations), fresh glass shards and crystals of predominantly pyroxene, hornblende and micas. A previously unmapped, massive, m-thick andesitic pyroclastic deposit has been studied in detail to shed light on the formation of theses volcanic sediments. Field relations and observations (e.g. denser rock fragments are enriched in the lower part of the sequence and bedding is largely parallel to the present topography) are consistent with a massive welded ignimbrite. As a result, surface erosion after the eruption must be less significant than previously believed and some rocks are clearly volcanic in nature. Petrogenetically the Jurassic magmas are much more alkalic

  8. Interannual variability of CO and its relation to long-range transport and biomass burning as seen by SCIAMACHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, C.; Gloudemans, A.; de Laat, J.; Schrijver, H.; van der Werf, G.; Krol, M.; Aben, I.

    2010-12-01

    The SCIAMACHY short-wave infrared instrument on board ENVISAT currently provides over 7 years (2003-2009) of global carbon monoxide (CO) data. The sensitivity of SCIAMACHY to surface CO allows to study sources and sinks. In addition, the availability of SCIAMACHY CO measurements over both land and clouded ocean scenes allows the investigation of long-term variability and global changes in long-range transport. SCIAMACHY CO shows significant interannual variability in the southern hemisphere between 2003 and 2008, which is driven by the year-to-year variability in biomass burning. This is confirmed by the TM4 chemistry transport model which includes the independent GFEDv2 biomass-burning emissions data base. Over Amazonia, a decrease in CO from biomass burning is observed in 2006 compared to earlier years. It was suggested that this was a result of political incentives to reduce fires and deforestation. Unfortunately, SCIAMACHY observes high CO emissions again in 2007 which points more towards climatological conditions that drive the variations in emissions from year to year. In 2008 again a decrease in CO emissions is seen. A similar variability is present in MOPITT CO observations and ground-based FTIR measurements. SCIAMACHY CO from biomass burning in Indonesia also shows significant interannual variability with the largest peak in 2006. This is in agreement with MOPITT observations. Comparison with the ESPI ENSO Index strongly suggests that peaks in CO over Indonesia in the period 2003-2008 coincide with the warm phases of El Nino which led to an extended dry season and an increase in the biomass burning over Indonesia. Using an offline tracer model, the impact of the year-to-year variations in CO from biomass burning in the southern hemisphere has been quantified. Results show that CO over regions influenced by long-range transport display an interannual variability which can be traced back to their CO sources. The CO columns over biomass-burning regions as

  9. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness.

    PubMed

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther; Jess, Tine; Berentzen, Tina; Toubro, Søren; Hansen, Torben; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2008-08-13

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already in adolescence. Obese young Danish men (n = 753, BMI > or = 31.0 kg/m(2)) and a randomly selected group (n = 879) from the same population were examined in three surveys (mean age 35, 46 and 49 years, respectively). The traits included anthropometrics, body composition, oral glucose tolerance test, blood lipids, blood pressure, fibrinogen and aspartate aminotransferase. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the age-adjusted association between the phenotypes and the odds ratios for the FTO rs9939609 (TT and TA genotype versus the AA genotype), for anthropometrics and body composition estimated per unit z-score. BMI was strongly associated with the AA genotype in all three surveys: OR = 1.17, p = 1.1*10(-6), OR = 1.20, p = 1.7*10(-7), OR = 1.17, p = 3.4*10(-3), respectively. Fat body mass index was also associated with the AA genotype (OR = 1.21, p = 4.6*10(-7) and OR = 1.21, p = 1.0*10(-3)). Increased abdominal fatness was associated with the AA genotype when measured as waist circumference (OR = 1.21, p = 2.2*10(-6) and OR = 1.19, p = 5.9*10(-3)), sagittal abdominal diameter (OR = 1.17, p = 1.3*10(-4) and OR = 1.18, p = 0.011) and intra-abdominal adipose tissue (OR = 1.21, p = 0.005). Increased peripheral fatness measured as hip circumference (OR = 1.19, p = 1.3*10(-5) and OR = 1.18, p = 0.004) and lower body fat mass (OR = 1.26, p = 0.002) was associated with the AA genotype. The AA genotype was significantly associated with decreased Stumvoll insulin sensitivity index (OR = 0.93, p = 0.02) and with decreased non-fasting plasma HDL-cholesterol (OR = 0.57, p = 0.037), but not with any other of the metabolic traits. However, all significant results for both body

  10. Long-Range Optical Coherence Tomography of the Neonatal Upper Airway for Early Diagnosis of Intubation-related Subglottic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Giriraj K.; Ahuja, Gurpreet S.; Wiedmann, Maximilian; Osann, Kathryn E.; Su, Erica; Heidari, Andrew E.; Jing, Joseph C.; Qu, Yueqiao; Lazarow, Frances; Wang, Alex; Chou, Lidek; Uy, Cherry C.; Dhar, Vijay; Cleary, John P.; Pham, Nguyen; Huoh, Kevin; Chen, Zhongping

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Subglottic edema and acquired subglottic stenosis are potentially airway-compromising sequelae in neonates following endotracheal intubation. At present, no imaging modality is capable of in vivo diagnosis of subepithelial airway wall pathology as signs of intubation-related injury. Objectives: To use Fourier domain long-range optical coherence tomography (LR-OCT) to acquire micrometer-resolution images of the airway wall of intubated neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit setting and to analyze images for histopathology and airway wall thickness. Methods: LR-OCT of the neonatal laryngotracheal airway was performed a total of 94 times on 72 subjects (age, 1–175 d; total intubation, 1–104 d). LR-OCT images of the airway wall were analyzed in MATLAB. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for extubation outcome. Measurements and Main Results: Backward stepwise regression analysis demonstrated a statistically significant association between log(duration of intubation) and both laryngeal (P < 0.001; multiple r2 = 0.44) and subglottic (P < 0.001; multiple r2 = 0.55) airway wall thickness. Subjects with positive histopathology on LR-OCT images had a higher likelihood of extubation failure (odds ratio, 5.9; P = 0.007). Longer intubation time was found to be significantly associated with extubation failure. Conclusions: LR-OCT allows for high-resolution evaluation and measurement of the airway wall in intubated neonates. Our data demonstrate a positive correlation between laryngeal and subglottic wall thickness and duration of intubation, suggestive of progressive soft tissue injury. LR-OCT may ultimately aid in the early diagnosis of postintubation subglottic injury and help reduce the incidences of failed extubation caused by subglottic edema or acquired subglottic stenosis in neonates. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00544427). PMID:26214043

  11. Petrogenesis of anomalous Queen Alexandra Range enstatite meteorites and their relation to enstatite chondrites, primitive enstatite achondrites, and aubrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niekerk, Deon; Keil, Klaus; Humayun, Munir

    2014-03-01

    Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) meteorite 94204 is an anomalous enstatite meteorite whose petrogenesis has been ascribed to either partial melting or impact melting. We studied the meteorite pairs QUE 94204, 97289/97348, 99059/99122/99157/99158/99387, and Yamato (Y)-793225; these were previously suggested to represent a new grouplet. We present new data for mineral abundances, mineral chemistries, and siderophile trace element compositions (of Fe,Ni metal) in these meteorites. We find that the texture and composition of Y-793225 are related to EL6, and that this meteorite is unrelated to the QUEs. The mineralogy and siderophile element compositions of the QUEs are consistent with petrogenesis from an enstatite chondrite precursor. We caution that potential re-equilibration during melting and recrystallization of enstatite chondrite melt-rocks make it unreliable to use mineral chemistries to assign a specific parent body affinity (i.e., EH or EL). The QUEs have similar mineral chemistries among themselves, while slight variations in texture and modal abundances exist between them. They are dominated by inclusion-bearing millimeter-sized enstatite (average En99.1-99.5) with interstitial spaces filled predominantly by oligoclase feldspar (sometimes zoned), kamacite (Si approximately 2.4 wt%), troilite (≤2.4 wt% Ti), and cristobalite. Siderophile elements that partition compatibly between solid metal and liquid metal are not enriched like in partial melt residues Itqiy and Northwest Africa (NWA) 2526. We find that the modal compositions of the QUEs are broadly unfractionated with respect to enstatite chondrites. We conclude that a petrogenesis by impact melting, not partial melting, is most consistent with our observations.

  12. Vocal repertoire of free-ranging black howler monkeys' (Alouatta pigra): Call types, contexts, and sex-related contributions.

    PubMed

    Briseño-Jaramillo, Margarita; Biquand, Véronique; Estrada, Alejandro; Lemasson, Alban

    2017-01-17

    Alouatta species utter the most powerful primate vocalizations in the Neotropics and are well-known for their loud and long-lasting male howling bouts. However, the diversity of acoustic structures used in these howling bouts, as well as in non-howling contexts, and the relative contribution of the different group members to the entire vocal repertoire, needed to be explored further. This report provides the first detailed description of the vocal repertoire of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), focusing on acoustic structures and contexts of emission of both loud and soft calls as well as on the contribution rate of males and females to the different call types. Three free-ranging social groups of black howler monkeys living in Palenque National Park, Mexico were monitored. We identified twelve acoustically discriminable call types, eight described previously and four described here for the first time. A few call types were systematically emitted either isolated or during howling bouts, but most of them could be heard in both calling contexts. Three call types were emitted only by females and two only by males. Adult males' call rates (for the seven shared call types) were higher than those of females but only when considering calls emitted within howling bouts. Our contextual analysis enabled us to divide call types into potential functional categories, according to their degree of contribution, to intra-group versus inter-group interactions and to neutral-positive versus negative situations. We then discussed how socio-ecological factors, notably sex differences in social behaviors, may explain the variability found in the vocal repertoire of this species and compared our findings with the literature on other primate species.

  13. Seasonal fecundity is not related to geographic position across a species' global range despite a central peak in abundance

    EPA Science Inventory

    AimSixty-five years ago, Theodosius Dobzhansky suggested that individuals of a species face greater challenges from abiotic stressors at high latitudes and from biotic stressors at their low-latitude range edges. This idea has been expanded to the hypothesis that species’ ranges ...

  14. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River?Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Pe?a Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces. Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500?2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely formed

  15. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River–Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Peña Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces.Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500–2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely

  16. Long-run relative importance of temperature as the main driver to malaria transmission in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a simple econometric approach.

    PubMed

    Komen, Kibii; Olwoch, Jane; Rautenbach, Hannes; Botai, Joel; Adebayo, Adetunji

    2015-03-01

    Malaria in Limpopo Province of South Africa is shifting and now observed in originally non-malaria districts, and it is unclear whether climate change drives this shift. This study examines the distribution of malaria at district level in the province, determines direction and strength of the linear relationship and causality between malaria with the meteorological variables (rainfall and temperature) and ascertains their short- and long-run variations. Spatio-temporal method, Correlation analysis and econometric methods are applied. Time series monthly meteorological data (1998-2007) were obtained from South Africa Weather Services, while clinical malaria data came from Malaria Control Centre in Tzaneen (Limpopo Province) and South African Department of Health. We find that malaria changes and pressures vary in different districts with a strong positive correlation between temperature with malaria, r = 0.5212, and a weak positive relationship for rainfall, r = 0.2810. Strong unidirectional causality runs from rainfall and temperature to malaria cases (and not vice versa): F (1, 117) = 3.89, ρ = 0.0232 and F (1, 117) = 20.08, P < 0.001 and between rainfall and temperature, a bi-directional causality exists: F (1, 117) = 19.80; F (1,117) = 17.14, P < 0.001, respectively, meaning that rainfall affects temperature and vice versa. Results show evidence of strong existence of a long-run relationship between climate variables and malaria, with temperature maintaining very high level of significance than rainfall. Temperature, therefore, is more important in influencing malaria transmission in Limpopo Province.

  17. Seasonal fecundity is not related to geographic position across a species' global range despite a central peak in abundance.

    PubMed

    Ruskin, Katharine J; Etterson, Matthew A; Hodgman, Thomas P; Borowske, Alyssa C; Cohen, Jonathan B; Elphick, Chris S; Field, Christopher R; Kern, Rebecca A; King, Erin; Kocek, Alison R; Kovach, Adrienne I; O'Brien, Kathleen M; Pau, Nancy; Shriver, W Gregory; Walsh, Jennifer; Olsen, Brian J

    2017-01-01

    The range of a species is determined by the balance of its demographic rates across space. Population growth rates are widely hypothesized to be greatest at the geographic center of the species range, but indirect empirical support for this pattern using abundance as a proxy has been mixed, and demographic rates are rarely quantified on a large spatial scale. Therefore, the texture of how demographic rates of a species vary over its range remains an open question. We quantified seasonal fecundity of populations spanning the majority of the global range of a single species, the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus), which demonstrates a peak of abundance at the geographic center of its range. We used a novel, population projection method to estimate seasonal fecundity inclusive of seasonal and spatial variation in life history traits that contribute to seasonal fecundity. We replicated our study over 3 years, and compared seasonal fecundity to latitude and distance among plots. We observed large-scale patterns in some life history traits that contribute to seasonal fecundity, such as an increase in clutch size with latitude. However, we observed no relationship between latitude and seasonal fecundity. Instead, fecundity varied greatly among plots separated by as little as 1 km. Our results do not support the hypothesis that demographic rates are highest at the geographic and abundance center of a species range, but rather they suggest that local drivers strongly influence saltmarsh sparrow fecundity across their global range.

  18. Increasing risks related to landslides from degrading permafrost into new lakes in de-glaciating mountain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeberli, Wilfried; Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian

    2017-09-01

    While glacier volumes in most cold mountain ranges rapidly decrease due to continued global warming, degradation of permafrost at altitudes above and below glaciers is much slower. As a consequence, many still existing glacier and permafrost landscapes probably transform within decades into new landscapes of bare bedrock, loose debris, sparse vegetation, numerous new lakes and steep slopes with slowly degrading permafrost. These new landscapes are likely to persist for centuries if not millennia to come. During variable but mostly extended future time periods, such new landscapes will be characterized by pronounced disequilibria within their geo- and ecosystems. This especially involves long-term stability reduction of steep/icy mountain slopes as a slow and delayed reaction to stress redistribution following de-buttressing by vanishing glaciers and to changes in mechanical strength and hydraulic permeability caused by permafrost degradation. Thereby, the probability of far-reaching flood waves from large mass movements into lakes systematically increases with the formation of many new lakes and systems of lakes in close neighborhood to, or even directly at the foot of, so-affected slopes. Results of recent studies in the Swiss Alps are reviewed and complemented with examples from the Cordillera Blanca in Peru and the Mount Everest region in Nepal. Hot spots of future hazards from potential flood waves caused by large rock falls into new lakes can already now be recognized. To this end, integrated spatial information on glacier/permafrost evolution and lake formation can be used together with scenario-based models for rapid mass movements, impact waves and flood propagation. The resulting information must then be combined with exposure and vulnerability considerations related to settlements and infrastructure. This enables timely planning of risk reduction options. Such risk reduction options consist of two components: Mitigation of hazards, which in the present

  19. Simulation of spallation life of metals in relation to operating stresses in the nanosecond loading time range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, P. V.; Bakeev, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    Spall fracture of materials is still the only means for investigation of the material life and mechanisms of its fracture in the micro-, nano-, and picosecond time ranges of tensile loading. The phenomenological model based on the concepts of multiscale fracture of materials as nonlinear dynamic systems is shown to satisfactorily describe their life in the given range. The model is employed for the calculation of spallation life.

  20. Tectonic history of the Syria Planum province of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Davis, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    We attribute most of the development of extensive fractures in the Tharsis region to discrete tectonic provinces within the region, rather than to Tharsis as a single entity. One of these provinces is in Syria Planum. Faults and collapse structures in the Syria Planum tectonic province on Mars are grouped into 13 sets based on relative age, areal distribution, and morphology. According to superposition and fault crosscutting relations and crater counts we designate six distinct episodes of tectonic activity. Photoclinometric topographic profiles across 132 grabens and fault scarps show that Syria Planum grabens have widths (average of 2.5 km, and most range from 1 to 6 km) similar to lunar grabens, but the Martian grabens have slightly higher side walls (average abour 132 m) and gentler wall slopes (average of 9?? and range of 2??-25??) than lunar grabens (93 m high and 18?? slopes). Estimates of the amount of extension for individual grabens range from 20 to 350 m; most estimates of the thickness of the faulted layer range from 0.5 to 4.5 km (average is 1.5 km). This thickness range corresponds closely to the 0.8- to 3.6-km range in depth for pits, troughs, and canyons in Noctis Labyrinthus and along the walls of Valles Marineris. We propose that the predominant 1- to 1.5-km values obtained for both the thickness of the faulted layer and the depths of the pits, troughs, and theater heads of the canyons reflect the initial depth to the water table in this region, as governed by the depth to the base of ground ice. Maximum depths for these features may indicate lowered groundwater table depths and the base of ejecta material. -from Authors

  1. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  2. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  3. The Pattern and Range of Movement of a Checkered Beetle Predator Relative to its Bark Beetle Prey

    Treesearch

    James T. Cronin; John D. Reeve; Richard Wilkens; Peter Turchin

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical studies of predator-prey population dynamics have increasingly centered on the role of space and the movement of organisms. Yet empirical studies have been slow to follow suit. Herein, we quantified the long range movement of a checkered beetle Thanasimus dublus, which is an important predator of a pernicious forest pest the southern...

  4. Landscape patterns of montane forest age structure relative to fire history at Cheesman Lake in the Colorado Front Range

    Treesearch

    Laurie S. Huckaby; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Jason M. Stoker; Paula J. Fornwalt

    2001-01-01

    Lack of Euro-American disturbance, except fire suppression, has preserved the patterns of forest structure that resulted from the presettlement disturbance regime in a ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir landscape at Cheesman Lake in the Colorado Front Range. A mixed-severity fire regime and variable timing of tree recruitment created a heterogeneous forest age structure with...

  5. Relating forest attributes with area- and tree-based light detection and ranging metrics for western Oregon

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Goerndt; Vincente J. Monleon; Hailemariam. Temesgen

    2010-01-01

    Three sets of linear models were developed to predict several forest attributes, using stand-level and single-tree remote sensing (STRS) light detection and ranging (LiDAR) metrics as predictor variables. The first used only area-level metrics (ALM) associated with first-return height distribution, percentage of cover, and canopy transparency. The second alternative...

  6. A preliminary assessment of year long relative loose mineral intake and range cow productivity in Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ssessment of the effectiveness of supplementary mineral nutrition in range cattle to promote important economic traits is lacking due a paucity of methods to measure cause and effect relationships, dynamic dietary mineral concentrations, shifting requirements and a lack of mineral intake quantificat...

  7. A preliminary assessment of year long relative loose mineral intake and range cow productivity in Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Assessment of the effectiveness of supplementary mineral nutrition in range cattle to promote important economic traits is lacking due a paucity of methods to measure cause and effect relationships, dynamic dietary mineral concentrations, shifting requirements and a lack of mineral intake quantifica...

  8. Comprehensive analysis of proton range uncertainties related to patient stopping-power-ratio estimation using the stoichiometric calibration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Zhu, X Ronald; Park, Peter C; Titt, Uwe; Mohan, Radhe; Virshup, Gary; Clayton, James E; Dong, Lei

    2012-07-07

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting proton stopping-power-ratio (SPR) estimations and range uncertainties in proton therapy planning using the standard stoichiometric calibration. The SPR uncertainties were grouped into five categories according to their origins and then estimated based on previously published reports or measurements. For the first time, the impact of tissue composition variations on SPR estimation was assessed and the uncertainty estimates of each category were determined for low-density (lung), soft, and high-density (bone) tissues. A composite, 95th percentile water-equivalent-thickness uncertainty was calculated from multiple beam directions in 15 patients with various types of cancer undergoing proton therapy. The SPR uncertainties (1σ) were quite different (ranging from 1.6% to 5.0%) in different tissue groups, although the final combined uncertainty (95th percentile) for different treatment sites was fairly consistent at 3.0-3.4%, primarily because soft tissue is the dominant tissue type in the human body. The dominant contributing factor for uncertainties in soft tissues was the degeneracy of Hounsfield numbers in the presence of tissue composition variations. To reduce the overall uncertainties in SPR estimation, the use of dual-energy computed tomography is suggested. The values recommended in this study based on typical treatment sites and a small group of patients roughly agree with the commonly referenced value (3.5%) used for margin design. By using tissue-specific range uncertainties, one could estimate the beam-specific range margin by accounting for different types and amounts of tissues along a beam, which may allow for customization of range uncertainty for each beam direction.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of proton range uncertainties related to patient stopping-power-ratio estimation using the stoichiometric calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming; Zhu, X. Ronald; Park, Peter C.; Titt, Uwe; Mohan, Radhe; Virshup, Gary; Clayton, James E.; Dong, Lei

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting proton stopping-power-ratio (SPR) estimations and range uncertainties in proton therapy planning using the standard stoichiometric calibration. The SPR uncertainties were grouped into five categories according to their origins and then estimated based on previously published reports or measurements. For the first time, the impact of tissue composition variations on SPR estimation was assessed and the uncertainty estimates of each category were determined for low-density (lung), soft, and high-density (bone) tissues. A composite, 95th percentile water-equivalent-thickness uncertainty was calculated from multiple beam directions in 15 patients with various types of cancer undergoing proton therapy. The SPR uncertainties (1σ) were quite different (ranging from 1.6% to 5.0%) in different tissue groups, although the final combined uncertainty (95th percentile) for different treatment sites was fairly consistent at 3.0-3.4%, primarily because soft tissue is the dominant tissue type in the human body. The dominant contributing factor for uncertainties in soft tissues was the degeneracy of Hounsfield numbers in the presence of tissue composition variations. To reduce the overall uncertainties in SPR estimation, the use of dual-energy computed tomography is suggested. The values recommended in this study based on typical treatment sites and a small group of patients roughly agree with the commonly referenced value (3.5%) used for margin design. By using tissue-specific range uncertainties, one could estimate the beam-specific range margin by accounting for different types and amounts of tissues along a beam, which may allow for customization of range uncertainty for each beam direction.

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Frontline Railway Workers: A Cross-Sectional Survey in the Ankang Area, Shaanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaona; Chen, Gang; Xu, Feng; Zhou, Kaina; Zhuang, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    After validation of the widely used health-related quality of life (HRQOL) generic measure, the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2), we investigated the HRQOL and associated factors of frontline railway workers in China. Ground workers, conductors, and train drivers were selected from Ankang Precinct by using a stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 784 frontline railway workers participated in the survey. The reliability and validity of SF-36v2 was satisfactory. The physical component summary (PCS) scores of three subgroups attained the average range for the USA general population, whereas the mental component summary (MCS) scores were well below the range. Most domains scored below the norm, except for the physical functioning (PF) domain. Among three subgroups, train drivers reported significantly lower scores on MCS and six health domains (excluding PF and bodily pain (BP)). After controlled confounders, conductors had significantly higher PCS and MCS scores than ground workers. There is heterogeneity on risk factors among three subgroups, but having long or irregular working schedules was negatively associated with HRQOL in all subgroups. SF-36v2 is a reliable and valid HRQOL measurement in railway workers in China. The frontline railway workers’ physical health was comparative to American norms, whilst mental health was relatively worse. Long or irregular working schedules were the most important factors. PMID:27916919

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Frontline Railway Workers: A Cross-Sectional Survey in the Ankang Area, Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaona; Chen, Gang; Xu, Feng; Zhou, Kaina; Zhuang, Guihua

    2016-11-30

    After validation of the widely used health-related quality of life (HRQOL) generic measure, the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2), we investigated the HRQOL and associated factors of frontline railway workers in China. Ground workers, conductors, and train drivers were selected from Ankang Precinct by using a stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 784 frontline railway workers participated in the survey. The reliability and validity of SF-36v2 was satisfactory. The physical component summary (PCS) scores of three subgroups attained the average range for the USA general population, whereas the mental component summary (MCS) scores were well below the range. Most domains scored below the norm, except for the physical functioning (PF) domain. Among three subgroups, train drivers reported significantly lower scores on MCS and six health domains (excluding PF and bodily pain (BP)). After controlled confounders, conductors had significantly higher PCS and MCS scores than ground workers. There is heterogeneity on risk factors among three subgroups, but having long or irregular working schedules was negatively associated with HRQOL in all subgroups. SF-36v2 is a reliable and valid HRQOL measurement in railway workers in China. The frontline railway workers' physical health was comparative to American norms, whilst mental health was relatively worse. Long or irregular working schedules were the most important factors.

  12. Study of Seismogenic Crust In The Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia And Its Relation To The Seismicity of The Ghawar Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogren, S. M.; Mukhopadhyay, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Rayn Anticlines (RA) developed in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia are truncated by the Abu-Jifan Fault (AJF) to their southeast and by the Wadi-Batin Fault (WBF) to the northwest. This set of anticlines is comprised of six sub-parallel super-giant anticlines, including the Ghawar Anticline (GA). Here we firstly present a revised seismicity map for the Eastern Province on the basis of ';Reviewed ISC Earthquake Catalogue' for the period 1970-2010 that shows the Eastern Province crust is seismogenic down to about 45 km depth while its surface width is 220 km (what is seven times wider than the width of GA). The Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) Earthquake Network Catalogue for Eastern Province shows that characteristic magnitude completeness (Mc), based on the assumption of self-similarity, have detected all local earthquakes above the cut-off magnitude ≥ 2.7. SGS catalogue events demonstrate that the GA is seismically intensely active where 826 events have originated during the period of 2005-10, of maximum magnitude ML 4.24. These events came almost in equal proportions from the Uthmaniyah-Hawaiyah and Haradh production divisions belonging to the central and southern Ghawar oil/gas Fields, where, the seismic zones orient in NE and NW directions respectively. Focal-depth distribution of events along the strike direction of seismic zones follows the ';En Nala axis' in GA and broadly defines an inverted triangular zone extending to crustal depths. Seismic activity below both the production divisions is supposedly triggered by hydrocarbon fluid-extraction activity; although, their root cause is probably due to regional compressive stress operative across RA. Triggered seismicity locally shows better correlation to mutually opposite reverse faults oriented NW and NE transgressing the Haradh and Uthmaniyah-Hawaiyah production divisions under the influence of regional compressive stress oriented N40°E. Some support to this inference comes from mapped surface faults

  13. Ground-water quality and its relation to hydrogeology, land use, and surface-water quality in the Red Clay Creek basin, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    The Red Clay Creek Basin in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Pennsylvania and Delaware is a 54-square-mile area underlain by a structurally complex assemblage of fractured metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks that form a water-table aquifer. Ground-water-flow systems generally are local, and ground water discharges to streams. Both ground water and surface water in the basin are used for drinking-water supply. Ground-water quality and the relation between ground-water quality and hydrogeologic and land-use factors were assessed in 1993 in bedrock aquifers of the basin. A total of 82 wells were sampled from July to November 1993 using a stratified random sampling scheme that included 8 hydrogeologic and 4 land-use categories to distribute the samples evenly over the area of the basin. The eight hydrogeologic units were determined by formation or lithology. The land-use categories were (1) forested, open, and undeveloped; (2) agricultural; (3) residential; and (4) industrial and commercial. Well-water samples were analyzed for major and minor ions, nutrients, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCB's), and radon-222. Concentrations of some constituents exceeded maximum contaminant levels (MCL) or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Concentrations of nitrate were greater than the MCL of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen (N) in water from 11 (13 percent) of 82 wells sampled; the maximum concentration was 38 mg/L as N. Water from only 1 of 82 wells sampled contained VOC's or pesticides that exceeded a MCL; water from that well contained 3 mg/L chlordane and 1 mg/L of PCB's. Constituents or properties of well-water samples that exceeded SMCL's included iron, manganese, dissolved solids, pH, and corrosivity. Water from 70 (85 percent) of the 82 wells sampled contained radon-222 activities greater than the proposed MCL of

  14. Ground-water quality and its relation to hydrogeology, land use, and surface-water quality in the Red Clay Creek basin, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    The Red Clay Creek Basin in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Pennsylvania and Delaware is a 54-square-mile area underlain by a structurally complex assemblage of fractured metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks that form a water-table aquifer. Ground-water-flow systems generally are local, and ground water discharges to streams. Both ground water and surface water in the basin are used for drinking-water supply. Ground-water quality and the relation between ground-water quality and hydrogeologic and land-use factors were assessed in 1993 in bedrock aquifers of the basin. A total of 82 wells were sampled from July to November 1993 using a stratified random sampling scheme that included 8 hydrogeologic and 4 land-use categories to distribute the samples evenly over the area of the basin. The eight hydrogeologic units were determined by formation or lithology. The land-use categories were (1) forested, open, and undeveloped; (2) agricultural; (3) residential; and (4) industrial and commercial. Well-water samples were analyzed for major and minor ions, nutrients, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCB's), and radon-222. Concentrations of some constituents exceeded maximum contaminant levels (MCL) or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Concentrations of nitrate were greater than the MCL of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen (N) in water from 11 (13 percent) of 82 wells sampled; the maximum concentration was 38 mg/L as N. Water from only 1 of 82 wells sampled contained VOC's or pesticides that exceeded a MCL; water from that well contained 3 mg/L chlordane and 1 mg/L of PCB's. Constituents or properties of well-water samples that exceeded SMCL's included iron, manganese, dissolved solids, pH, and corrosivity. Water from 70 (85 percent) of the 82 wells sampled contained radon-222 activities greater than the proposed MCL of

  15. The role of long-range van der Waals forces in the relative stability of SiO2-zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román-Román, Erick I.; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of long-range dispersion forces in the stability of silica zeolites is explored by considering periodic hybrid-DFT calculations. It is shown that a widely used functional such as B3LYP is unable to reproduce the experimental stability trend of a large set of SiO2 open frameworks when considering high-level basis sets. Correcting the method to account for dispersion with a straightforward London-like energy correction term allows recovering the experimental trend, being the agreement particularly noticeable for PBE0-D. These results provide a strong indication of the relevance of long-range dispersion forces in the stability trend of porous materials.

  16. Mating-related behaviour of grizzly bears inhabiting marginal habitat at the periphery of their North American range.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E

    2015-02-01

    In comparison to core populations, peripheral populations have low density and recruitment, and are subject to different selective pressures, such as environmental conditions, food type and availability, predation, disease, etc., which may result in behavioural modifications to mating. We test the roam-to-mate hypothesis for a peripheral population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) at the northern extent of their North American range, in Canada's Arctic. If bears are roaming-to-mate, we predicted greater range size and daily displacement, and more linear movements for receptive animals during the mating period compared to post-mating. In contrast to our predictions, we found that in general range size and displacement increased from mating to post-mating regardless of reproductive status. When considered across both periods, females with cubs-of-the-year had smaller range use metrics than other reproductive groups, which we attribute to a counter-strategy against sexually selected infanticide and the reduced mobility of cubs. Linearity of movements remained near zero during both periods across all groups, suggesting tortuous movements more characteristic of foraging than of mate-searching. We suggest that for this population, finding quality habitat takes precedence over mate-searching in this marginal Arctic landscape. Alternatively, a more monogamous mating system and sequestering behaviour may have obscured movement differences between the two periods. The behavioural differences in mating that we observed from what is typical of core populations may reflect local adaptation to marginal conditions and could benefit the species in the face of ongoing environmental change.

  17. Relative importance of meteorological and geographical factors in the distribution of Fasciola hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hongyu; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is an important trematode parasite of economic importance that infests sheep and cattle worldwide. We conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai (Wutumeiren) province, Mainland China. Mathematical modelling was used to assess the inter-relationships between meteorological and geographical factors and the risk of F. hepatica infestation across the province. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test (MM3-SERO) was used to detect F. hepatica infestation. A niche model based on the maximum entropy method (MaxEnt) was used to estimate the influence of meteorological and geographical factors on the observed spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation. Results of jackknife analysis indicated that temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, digital elevation and slope were associated with the occurrence of F. hepatica infestation, and that infestation rates were significantly higher among animals from districts with a high percentage of grassland habitat. The findings indicate that meteorological and geographical factors may be important variables affecting the distribution of F. hepatica infestation and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance and control programmes for fascioliasis. PMID:28000591

  18. Relative importance of meteorological and geographical factors in the distribution of Fasciola hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai province, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongyu; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is an important trematode parasite of economic importance that infests sheep and cattle worldwide. We conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai (Wutumeiren) province, Mainland China. Mathematical modelling was used to assess the inter-relationships between meteorological and geographical factors and the risk of F. hepatica infestation across the province. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test (MM3-SERO) was used to detect F. hepatica infestation. A niche model based on the maximum entropy method (MaxEnt) was used to estimate the influence of meteorological and geographical factors on the observed spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation. Results of jackknife analysis indicated that temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, digital elevation and slope were associated with the occurrence of F. hepatica infestation, and that infestation rates were significantly higher among animals from districts with a high percentage of grassland habitat. The findings indicate that meteorological and geographical factors may be important variables affecting the distribution of F. hepatica infestation and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance and control programmes for fascioliasis. © H. Qin et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  19. Spatial Analyses of the Relation between Rodent's Active Burrows and Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Golestan Province, Northeastern of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sofizadeh, Aioub; Vatandoost, Hassan; Rassi, Yavar; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Rafizadeh, Sayena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is one of the most important vector-borne diseases in Iran. Wild Rodents play as a reservoir. The main aim of this study was to determine spatial analyses of the relationship between rodent's active burrows and Incidence of ZCL in Golestan Province, north east of Iran. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 59 rural districts in Golestan Province. Spatial distribution of rodent's active burrows, human cases of ZCL and Incidence of disease were collected, using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The relationship of them were analyzed by Sperman test, SPSS software version No.13. Results: The most number of rodents’ active burrows, human positive cases (100 persons) and high Incidence of disease (35/1000) were observed in Korand rural district of Gonbad-e Kavoos County. There was significant correlation between the number of rodents active burrows with Incidence rate of disease (0.470, P< 0.001) as well as the number of cases in each districts (0.465, P< 0.001), There is high correlation between higher Incidence rate and human positive cases in districts with number of rodents’ active burrows. Conclusion: Vicinity of wild rodents’ burrows to villages plays an important role in transmission of ZCL to humans. PMID:28032109

  20. [Pre- and post-iodine nutritional status among the population related to the practice of new standard on edible iodized salt, in Yunnan province].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuxi; Ye, Feng; Wu, Hesong; Wang, Anwei; Ma, Lin; Li, Jiaguo; Zhang, Haowei; Zhang, Haitao; Shi, Liangjing; Huang, Kailian; Huang, Wenli

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the iodine nutritional status, after the salt-iodine content was showed a reduction in 2012 and to evaluate the current situation after the new standards was brought into force to the general population in an experimental community of Yunnan province. Randomly sampled urine and salt were collected, to test the iodine concentration in the study-site. Pre-and post-levels of the iodized salt under the provision of the new standards, were identified. of this study were gathered upon 3 weeks or 3 months, respectively. Results Data from the three randomly chosen study sites showed that the urine iodine concentration in the general populations was reducing gradually. In the general population, medians of Urine Iodine (MUI) were 279.71 µg/L, 239.64 µg/L and 226.26 µg/L, respectively. Proportion of the urine iodine value for 100-199 µg/L increased but ≥300 µg/L decreased, after the new standard was put into practice. Both homogeneity and stability of the new standard on iodized salt seemed to be good. Iodine nutrition in general population appeared reasonable under the use of newly set salt-iodine standards in general population living in Yunnan province.

  1. The Effects of Face Inversion on the Perception of Long-Range and Local Spatial Relations in Eye and Mouth Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekunova, Alla; Barton, Jason J. S.

    2008-01-01

    A recent study hypothesized a configurational anisotropy in the face inversion effect, with vertical relations more difficult to process. However, another difference in the stimuli of that report was that the vertical but not horizontal shifts lacked local spatial references. Difficulty processing long-range spatial relations might also be…

  2. The Effects of Face Inversion on the Perception of Long-Range and Local Spatial Relations in Eye and Mouth Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekunova, Alla; Barton, Jason J. S.

    2008-01-01

    A recent study hypothesized a configurational anisotropy in the face inversion effect, with vertical relations more difficult to process. However, another difference in the stimuli of that report was that the vertical but not horizontal shifts lacked local spatial references. Difficulty processing long-range spatial relations might also be…

  3. High heterogeneity of HIV-related sexual risk among transgender people in Ontario, Canada: a province-wide respondent-driven sampling survey.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Greta R; Travers, Robb; Scanlon, Kyle; Coleman, Todd A

    2012-04-20

    Studies of HIV-related risk in trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned) people have most often involved urban convenience samples of those on the male-to-female (MTF) spectrum. Studies have detected high prevalences of HIV-related risk behaviours, self-reported HIV, and HIV seropositivity. The Trans PULSE Project conducted a multi-mode survey using respondent-driven sampling to recruit 433 trans people in Ontario, Canada. Weighted estimates were calculated for HIV-related risk behaviours, HIV testing and self-reported HIV, including subgroup estimates for gender spectrum and ethno-racial groups. Trans people in Ontario report a wide range of sexual behaviours with a full range of partner types. High proportions - 25% of female-to-male (FTM) and 51% of MTF individuals - had not had a sex partner within the past year. Of MTFs, 19% had a past-year high-risk sexual experience, versus 7% of FTMs. The largest behavioural contributors to HIV risk were sexual behaviours some may assume trans people do not engage in: unprotected receptive genital sex for FTMs and insertive genital sex for MTFs. Overall, 46% had never been tested for HIV; lifetime testing was highest in Aboriginal trans people and lowest among non-Aboriginal racialized people. Approximately 15% of both FTM and MTF participants had engaged in sex work or exchange sex and about 2% currently work in the sex trade. Self-report of HIV prevalence was 10 times the estimated baseline prevalence for Ontario. However, given wide confidence intervals and the high proportion of trans people who had never been tested for HIV, estimating the actual prevalence was not possible. Results suggest potentially higher than baseline levels of HIV; however low testing rates were observed and self-reported prevalences likely underestimate seroprevalence. Explicit inclusion of trans people in epidemiological surveillance statistics would provide much-needed information on incidence and prevalence. Given the wide range of

  4. The Shevlin Park Tuff, Central Oregon Cascade Range: Magmatic Processes Recorded in an Arc-Related Ash-Flow Tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrey, R. M.; Donnelly-Nolan, J.; Taylor, E. M.; Champion, D.; Bullen, T.

    2001-12-01

    The circa 260 ka Shevlin Park Tuff is found throughout an area of some 400 square km west of the city of Bend, OR. The tuff is composed of several flow units, the lowest of which was mapped separately in the past as the Century Drive Tuff. We have found the Century Drive to be chemically and paleomagnetically similar to the Shevlin Park. The spatial distribution and pumice imbrication of the Shevlin Park suggest a source at an elevation near 2000 m on the Bend Highland 5-6 km east of Broken Top volcano. Deposition of the Shevlin Park may have been preceded by a Plinian airfall eruption, now mainly preserved in the Columbia Canal irrigation ditch, which is likely equivalent in the distal tephra record to the Summer Lake NN layer. Despite our extensive database of bulk pumice and glass geochemistry, we cannot corroborate an earlier correlation of the Shevlin Park with the Summer Lake JJ tephra. The Shevlin Park Tuff is compositionally bimodal, with black pumice ranging from 55-62% silica, and commonly paler silicic pumice from 64-68%. Lower flow units appear to contain proportionally more silicic pumice and slightly more fractionated (lower MgO) mafic pumice. Mafic pumice is much more heterogeneous for a given silica percentage than silicic pumice, especially in P, Fe/Mg, and Sr. Both types of pumice are crystal-poor, and thus the bulk pumice and glass compositions are similar. Phenocrysts present in pumice include plagioclase (dominantly reversely zoned An30-40, but ranging up to skeletal An82), two pyroxenes (typically reversely zoned), olivine (Fo71-76), magnetite, and ilmenite. The phenocryst assemblage and mineral chemistry of the Columbia Canal pumice are similar, with the exception of slightly more Fe-rich opx. Mixing of mafic and silicic magma appears to be the dominant process in the generation of the wide compositional range within the Shevlin Park. A simple mixing model can account for most of the major and trace element, and Sr isotopic variations. The

  5. The relative utility of persistence and medium-range dynamical forecasts of monthly mean 700 mb heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livezey, Robert E.; Schemm, Jae-Kyung E.

    1988-01-01

    The proposal of Harnack et al. (1986) that monthly 700-mb height anomalies can be predicted using simulated medium-range numerical forecasts is tested with actual numerical forecasts produced under strict operational conditions. These conditions included nonavailability of long model forecast histories from which to develop estimates of drift, frequent model changes over the period of the experiment, a requirement that each monthly forecast be made four days before the beginning of the month, and the use of only data which are available on the day of the forecast. The overall results and month-by-month results confirm the hypothesis of the Harnack group.

  6. The relative utility of persistence and medium-range dynamical forecasts of monthly mean 700 mb heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livezey, Robert E.; Schemm, Jae-Kyung E.

    1988-01-01

    The proposal of Harnack et al. (1986) that monthly 700-mb height anomalies can be predicted using simulated medium-range numerical forecasts is tested with actual numerical forecasts produced under strict operational conditions. These conditions included nonavailability of long model forecast histories from which to develop estimates of drift, frequent model changes over the period of the experiment, a requirement that each monthly forecast be made four days before the beginning of the month, and the use of only data which are available on the day of the forecast. The overall results and month-by-month results confirm the hypothesis of the Harnack group.

  7. Application of the Two-Step Filter to Process Ranging Measurements for Relative Navigation in an Elliptical Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, James L.; Axelrad, Penina

    1997-01-01

    This estimator breaks a nonlinear estimation problem into a set of over determined 'first step' states which are linear in the observations and 'second step' states which are ultimately the states of interest. Linear estimation methods are applied to filter the observations and produce the optimal first step state estimate. The 'second step' states are obtained through iterative nonlinear parameter estimation considering the first step states as observations. It has been shown that this process exactly minimizes the least squares cost function for static problems and provides a better solution than the iterated extended Kalman filter (EKF) for dynamic problems. The two step filter is applied in this paper to process range and range rate measurements between the two spacecraft. Details of the application of the two step estimator to this problem will be given, highlighting the use of a test for ill-conditioned covariance estimates that can result from the first order covariance propagation. A comparison will be made between the performance of the two step filter and the IEKF.

  8. Stroke frequency, but not swimming speed, is related to body size in free-ranging seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsufumi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Takahashi, Akinori; Miller, Patrick J O; Tanaka, Hideji; Kawabe, Ryo; Ponganis, Paul J; Handrich, Yves; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Watanabe, Yuuki; Mitani, Yoko o; Costa, Daniel P; Bost, Charles-André; Aoki, Kagari; Amano, Masao; Trathan, Phil; Shapiro, Ari; Naito, Yasuhiko

    2007-02-22

    It is obvious, at least qualitatively, that small animals move their locomotory apparatus faster than large animals: small insects move their wings invisibly fast, while large birds flap their wings slowly. However, quantitative observations have been difficult to obtain from free-ranging swimming animals. We surveyed the swimming behaviour of animals ranging from 0.5 kg seabirds to 30 000 kg sperm whales using animal-borne accelerometers. Dominant stroke cycle frequencies of swimming specialist seabirds and marine mammals were proportional to mass(-0.29) (R(2)= 0.99, n = 17 groups), while propulsive swimming speeds of 1-2 m s(-1) were independent of body size. This scaling relationship, obtained from breath-hold divers expected to swim optimally to conserve oxygen, does not agree with recent theoretical predictions for optimal swimming. Seabirds that use their wings for both swimming and flying stroked at a lower frequency than other swimming specialists of the same size, suggesting a morphological trade-off with wing size and stroke frequency representing a compromise. In contrast, foot-propelled diving birds such as shags had similar stroke frequencies as other swimming specialists. These results suggest that muscle characteristics may constrain swimming during cruising travel, with convergence among diving specialists in the proportions and contraction rates of propulsive muscles.

  9. Stroke frequency, but not swimming speed, is related to body size in free-ranging seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Katsufumi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Takahashi, Akinori; Miller, Patrick J.O; Tanaka, Hideji; Kawabe, Ryo; Ponganis, Paul J; Handrich, Yves; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Watanabe, Yuuki; Mitani, Yoko; Costa, Daniel P; Bost, Charles-André; Aoki, Kagari; Amano, Masao; Trathan, Phil; Shapiro, Ari; Naito, Yasuhiko

    2006-01-01

    It is obvious, at least qualitatively, that small animals move their locomotory apparatus faster than large animals: small insects move their wings invisibly fast, while large birds flap their wings slowly. However, quantitative observations have been difficult to obtain from free-ranging swimming animals. We surveyed the swimming behaviour of animals ranging from 0.5 kg seabirds to 30 000 kg sperm whales using animal-borne accelerometers. Dominant stroke cycle frequencies of swimming specialist seabirds and marine mammals were proportional to mass−0.29 (R2=0.99, n=17 groups), while propulsive swimming speeds of 1–2 m s−1 were independent of body size. This scaling relationship, obtained from breath-hold divers expected to swim optimally to conserve oxygen, does not agree with recent theoretical predictions for optimal swimming. Seabirds that use their wings for both swimming and flying stroked at a lower frequency than other swimming specialists of the same size, suggesting a morphological trade-off with wing size and stroke frequency representing a compromise. In contrast, foot-propelled diving birds such as shags had similar stroke frequencies as other swimming specialists. These results suggest that muscle characteristics may constrain swimming during cruising travel, with convergence among diving specialists in the proportions and contraction rates of propulsive muscles. PMID:17476766

  10. Global decline of bumblebees is phylogenetically structured and inversely related to species range size and pathogen incidence.

    PubMed

    Arbetman, Marina P; Gleiser, Gabriela; Morales, Carolina L; Williams, Paul; Aizen, Marcelo A

    2017-07-26

    Conservation biology can profit greatly from incorporating a phylogenetic perspective into analyses of patterns and drivers of species extinction risk. We applied such an approach to analyse patterns of bumblebee (Bombus) decline. We assembled a database representing approximately 43% of the circa 260 globally known species, which included species extinction risk assessments following the International Union fo Conservation of Nature Red List categories and criteria, and information on species traits presumably associated with bumblebee decline. We quantified the strength of phylogenetic signal in decline, range size, tongue length and parasite presence. Overall, about one-third of the assessed bumblebees are declining and declining species are not randomly distributed across the Bombus phylogeny. Susceptible species were over-represented in the subgenus Thoracobombus (approx. 64%) and under-represented in the subgenus Pyrobombus (approx. 6%). Phylogenetic logistic regressions revealed that species with small geographical ranges and those in which none of three internal parasites were reported (i.e. Crithidia bombi, Nosema spp. or Locustacarus buchneri) were particularly vulnerable. Bumblebee evolutionary history will be deeply eroded if most species from threatened clades, particularly those stemming from basal nodes, become finally extinct. The habitat of species with restricted distribution should be protected and the importance of pathogen tolerance/resistance as mechanisms to deal with pathogens needs urgent research. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. New cooperative medical scheme decreased financial burden but expanded the gap of income-related inequity: evidence from three provinces in rural China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingdong; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Jing

    2016-05-04

    Subsidizing healthcare costs through insurance schemes is crucial to overcome financial barriers to health care and to avoid high medical expenditures for patients in China. The health insurance could decrease financial risk by less out-of-pocket (OOP) payment, but not promise the protection equity. With the growth of New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) financing and coverage since 2008, the protection effectiveness and equity of the modified NCMS policies on financial burden should be further evaluated. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Zhejiang, Hubei, and Chongqing provinces by multi-stage stratified random sampling in 2011. A total of 1,525 households covered by the NCMS were analyzed. The protection effectiveness and protection equity of NCMS was analyzed by comparing the changes in health care utilization and medical expenditures, and the changes in the prevalence of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) and its concentration indices (CIs) between pre- and post-NCMS reimbursement, respectively. The medical financial burden was still remarkably high for the low income rural residents in China due to high OOP payment, even after NCMS reimbursement. In Hubei province, the OOP payment of the poorest quintile was almost same as their households' annual expenditures. Even it was higher than their annual expenditures in Chongqing municipality. Effective reimbursement ratio of both outpatient and inpatient services were far lower than nominal reimbursement ratio originally designed by NCMS plans. After NCMS reimbursement, the prevalence of CHE was considerably high in all three provinces, and the absolute values of CIs were even higher than those before reimbursement, indicating the inequity exaggerated. Policymakers should further modify NCMS policy in rural China. The high OOP payment could be decreased by expanding the drug list and check directory for benefit package of NCMS to minimize the gap between nominal reimbursement ratio and effective

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of the Broad-Host-Range Vibriophage KVP40: Comparative Genomics of a T4-Related Bacteriophage

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric S.; Heidelberg, John F.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Nelson, William C.; Durkin, A. Scott; Ciecko, Ann; Feldblyum, Tamara V.; White, Owen; Paulsen, Ian T.; Nierman, William C.; Lee, Jong; Szczypinski, Bridget; Fraser, Claire M.

    2003-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of the T4-like, broad-host-range vibriophage KVP40 has been determined. The genome sequence is 244,835 bp, with an overall G+C content of 42.6%. It encodes 386 putative protein-encoding open reading frames (CDSs), 30 tRNAs, 33 T4-like late promoters, and 57 potential rho-independent terminators. Overall, 92.1% of the KVP40 genome is coding, with an average CDS size of 587 bp. While 65% of the CDSs were unique to KVP40 and had no known function, the genome sequence and organization show specific regions of extensive conservation with phage T4. At least 99 KVP40 CDSs have homologs in the T4 genome (Blast alignments of 45 to 68% amino acid similarity). The shared CDSs represent 36% of all T4 CDSs but only 26% of those from KVP40. There is extensive representation of the DNA replication, recombination, and repair enzymes as well as the viral capsid and tail structural genes. KVP40 lacks several T4 enzymes involved in host DNA degradation, appears not to synthesize the modified cytosine (hydroxymethyl glucose) present in T-even phages, and lacks group I introns. KVP40 likely utilizes the T4-type sigma-55 late transcription apparatus, but features of early- or middle-mode transcription were not identified. There are 26 CDSs that have no viral homolog, and many did not necessarily originate from Vibrio spp., suggesting an even broader host range for KVP40. From these latter CDSs, an NAD salvage pathway was inferred that appears to be unique among bacteriophages. Features of the KVP40 genome that distinguish it from T4 are presented, as well as those, such as the replication and virion gene clusters, that are substantially conserved. PMID:12923095

  13. Recueil des legislations linguistiques dans le monde. Tome I: Le Canada federal et les provinces canadiennes (Record of World Language-Related Legislation. Volume I: Federal Canada and the Canadian Provinces).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclerc, Jacques, Ed.

    The volume is one of a series of six listing language-related legislation around the world. It contains the texts of federal and provincial/territorial laws of Canada, in French when both French and English versions were available, and in English when an English version was the only one available. The laws are presented in this order: federal;…

  14. Explanatory Models of Illness, Help Seeking Behaviours and Related Factors in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Comparative Study from Two Different Provinces of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yalvaç, Hayriye Dilek; Mutlu, Elif Aktan; Kotan, Zeynep; Özer, İbrahim; Karslıoğlu, Ersin Hatice; Çayköylü, Ali

    2016-11-30

    This study aims to identify the help seeking behaviours of patients from two geographically distinct provinces of Turkey. A questionnaire about sociodemographic characteristics and help seeking ways was applied to 49 schizophrenia patients from Van, 99 from Ankara. The ratio of patients seeking psychiatric help at the beginning of their illness was 76% in Ankara, the capital city, in contrast to 54% in Van (p = 0.01). Twenty-two percent of patients from Ankara and 69% from Van reported that non-psychiatric help seeking was the choice of their families (p < 0.001). Thirty-five percent of all patients sought religious support when their symptoms started. Patients with lower education levels sought more religious help (p = 0.002). Help seeking behaviours show regional variations. Religious help seeking behaviour is a major way of dealing with the illness. Psychoeducation is a crucial need both for patients and families.

  15. Shallow marine event sedimentation in a volcanic arc-related setting: The Ordovician Suri Formation, Famatina range, northwest Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Loma del Kilome??tro Member of the Lower Ordovician Suri Formation records arc-related shelf sedimentation in the Famatina Basin of northwest Argentina. Nine facies, grouped into three facies assemblages, are recognized. Facies assemblage 1 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) locally punctuated by normally graded or parallel-laminated silty sandstones (facies B] records deposition from suspension fall-out and episodic storm-induced turbidity currents in an outer shelf setting. Facies assemblage 2 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) interbedded with rippled-top very fine-grained sandstones (facies D)] is interpreted as the product of background sedimentation alternating with distal storm events in a middle shelf environment. Facies assemblage 3 [normally graded coarse to fine-grained sandstones (facies C); parallel-laminated to low angle cross-stratified sandstones (facies E); hummocky cross-stratified sandstones and siltstones (facies F); interstratified fine-grained sandstones and mudstones (facies G); massive muddy siltstones and sandstones (facies H); tuffaceous sandstones (facies I); and interbedded thin units of massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A)] is thought to represent volcaniclastic mass flow and storm deposition coupled with subordinated suspension fall-out in an inner-shelf to lower-shoreface setting. The Loma del Kilo??metro Member records regressive-transgressive sedimentation in a storm- and mass flow-dominated high-gradient shelf. Volcano-tectonic activity was the important control on shelf morphology, while relative sea-level change influenced sedimentation. The lower part of the succession is attributed to mud blanketing during high stand and volcanic quiescence. Progradation of the inner shelf to lower shoreface facies assemblage in the middle part represents an abrupt basinward shoreline migration. An erosive-based, non-volcaniclastic, turbidite unit at the base of this package suggests a sea

  16. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  17. Interannual variability of CO and its relation to long-range transport and biomass burning as seen by SCIAMACHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloudemans, Annemieke; de Laat, Jos; Dijkstra, Rien; Schrijver, Hans; van der Werf, Guido; Krol, Maarten; Aben, Ilse

    2010-05-01

    The SCIAMACHY short-wave infrared instrument on board ENVISAT currently provides over 6 years of global carbon monoxide (CO) data. The sensitivity of SCIAMACHY to surface CO allows to study sources and sinks. In addition, the availability of SCIAMACHY CO measurements over both land and clouded ocean scenes allows the investigation of long-term variability and global changes in long-range transport. SCIAMACHY CO shows significant interannual variability in the southern hemisphere between 2003 and 2008, which is driven by the year-to-year variability in biomass burning. This is confirmed by the TM4 chemistry transport model which includes the independent GFEDv2 biomass-burning emissions data base. Over Amazonia, a decrease in CO from biomass burning is observed in 2006 compared to earlier years. It was suggested that this was a result of political incentives to reduce fires and deforestation. Unfortunately, SCIAMACHY observes high CO emissions again in 2007 which points more towards climatological conditions that drive the variations in emissions from year to year. In 2008 again a decrease in CO emissions is seen. A similar variability is present in MOPITT CO observations and ground-based FTIR measurements. SCIAMACHY CO from biomass burning in Indonesia also shows significant interannual variability with the largest peak in 2006. This is in agreement with MOPITT observations. Comparison with the ESPI ENSO Index strongly suggests that peaks in CO over Indonesia in the period 2003-2008 coincide with the warm phases of El Nino which led to an extended dry season and an increase in the biomass-burning over Indonesia. Using an offline tracer model, the impact of the year-to-year variations in CO from biomass burning in the southern hemisphere has been quantified. Results show that CO over regions influenced by long-range transport display an interannual variability which can be traced back to their CO sources. The CO columns over biomass-burning regions as calculated by

  18. Age-Related Increases in Long-Range Connectivity in Fetal Functional Neural Connectivity Networks In Utero

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Grove, Lauren E.; Lozon, Tim A.; Vila, Angela M.; Ye, Yongquan; Nye, Matthew J.; Manning, Janessa H.; Pappas, Athina; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami; Mody, Swati; Berman, Susan; Hassan, Sonia S.; Romero, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Formation of operational neural networks is one of the most significant accomplishments of human fetal brain growth. Recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have made it possible to obtain information about brain function during fetal development. Specifically, resting-state fMRI and novel signal covariation approaches have opened up a new avenue for non-invasive assessment of neural functional connectivity (FC) before birth. Early studies in this area have unearthed new insights about principles of prenatal brain function. However, very little is known about the emergence and maturation of neural networks during fetal life. Here, we obtained cross-sectional rs-fMRI data from 39 fetuses between 24 and 38 weeks postconceptual age to examine patterns of connectivity across ten neural FC networks. We identified primitive forms of motor, visual, default mode, thalamic, and temporal networks in the human fetal brain. We discovered the first evidence of increased long-range, cerebral-cerebellar, cortical-subcortical, and intra-hemispheric FC with advancing fetal age. Continued aggregation of data about fundamental neural connectivity systems in utero is essential to establishing principles of connectomics at the beginning of human life. Normative data provides a vital context against which to compare instances of abnormal neurobiological development. PMID:25284273

  19. Age-related increases in long-range connectivity in fetal functional neural connectivity networks in utero.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Moriah E; Grove, Lauren E; Lozon, Tim A; Vila, Angela M; Ye, Yongquan; Nye, Matthew J; Manning, Janessa H; Pappas, Athina; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami; Mody, Swati; Berman, Susan; Hassan, Sonia S; Romero, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Formation of operational neural networks is one of the most significant accomplishments of human fetal brain growth. Recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have made it possible to obtain information about brain function during fetal development. Specifically, resting-state fMRI and novel signal covariation approaches have opened up a new avenue for non-invasive assessment of neural functional connectivity (FC) before birth. Early studies in this area have unearthed new insights about principles of prenatal brain function. However, very little is known about the emergence and maturation of neural networks during fetal life. Here, we obtained cross-sectional rs-fMRI data from 39 fetuses between 24 and 38 weeks postconceptual age to examine patterns of connectivity across ten neural FC networks. We identified primitive forms of motor, visual, default mode, thalamic, and temporal networks in the human fetal brain. We discovered the first evidence of increased long-range, cerebral-cerebellar, cortical-subcortical, and intra-hemispheric FC with advancing fetal age. Continued aggregation of data about fundamental neural connectivity systems in utero is essential to establishing principles of connectomics at the beginning of human life. Normative data provides a vital context against which to compare instances of abnormal neurobiological development.

  20. Leaf hydraulic vulnerability is related to conduit dimensions and drought resistance across a diverse range of woody angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Christopher J; Brodribb, Tim J; Jordan, Gregory J

    2010-12-01

    Hydraulic dysfunction in leaves determines key aspects of whole-plant responses to water stress; however, our understanding of the physiology of hydraulic dysfunction and its relationships to leaf structure and ecological strategy remains incomplete. Here, we studied a morphologically and ecologically diverse sample of angiosperms to test whether the water potential inducing a 50% loss in leaf hydraulic conductance (P50(leaf)) is predicted by properties of leaf xylem relating to water tension-induced conduit collapse. We also assessed the relationships between P50(leaf) and other traits considered to reflect drought resistance and ecological strategy. Across species, P50(leaf) was strongly correlated with a theoretical predictor of vulnerability to cell collapse in minor veins (the cubed ratio of the conduit wall thickness to the conduit lumen breadth). P50(leaf) was also correlated with mesophyll traits known to be related to drought resistance, but unrelated to traits associated with carbon economy. Our data indicate a link between the structural mechanics of leaf xylem and hydraulic function under water stress. Although it is possible that collapse may contribute directly to dysfunction, this relationship may also be a secondary product of vascular economics, suggesting that leaf xylem is dimensioned to avoid wall collapse.

  1. Ghaba salt basin province and Fahud salt basin province, Oman; geological overview and total petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    Three Total Petroleum Systems each consisting of one assessment unit have been identified in the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces of north-central Oman. One Total Petroleum System and corresponding assessment unit, the North Oman Huqf/?Q??Haushi(!) Total Petroleum System (201401) and Ghaba- Makarem Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20140101), were identified for the Ghaba Salt Basin Province (2014). In the Fahud Salt Basin Province, however, two overlapping Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were recognized: (1) the North Oman Huqf?Shu?aiba(!) TPS (201601); Fahud-Huqf Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20160101), and (2) the middle Cretaceous Natih(!) TPS (201602); Natih-Fiqa Structural/Stratigraphic Assessment Unit (20160201). The boundary for each Total Petroleum System also defines the boundary of the corresponding assessment unit and includes all trap styles and hydrocarbon-producing reservoirs within the petroleum system. In both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces, hydrocarbons were generated from several deeply buried source rocks within the Infracambrian Huqf Supergroup. One general ?North Oman Huqf? type oil is dominant in the Fahud Salt Basin. Oils in the Ghaba Salt Basin are linked to at least two distinct Huqf source-rock units based on oil geochemistry: a general North Oman Huqf-type oil source and a more dominant ?questionable unidentified source? or ?Q?-type Huqf oil source. These two Huqf-sourced oils are commonly found as admixtures in reservoirs throughout northcentral Oman. Hydrocarbons generated from Huqf sources are produced from a variety of reservoir types and ages ranging from Precambrian to Cretaceous in both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces. Clastic reservoirs of the Gharif and Al Khlata Formations, Haushi Group (middle Carboniferous to Lower Permian), dominate oil production in the Ghaba Salt Basin Province and form the basis for the Huqf/?Q??Haushi(!) TPS. In contrast, the Lower Cretaceous Shu?aiba and middle Cretaceous

  2. Ghaba salt basin province and Fahud salt basin province, Oman; geological overview and total petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Three Total Petroleum Systems each consisting of one assessment unit have been identified in the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces of north-central Oman. One Total Petroleum System and corresponding assessment unit, the North Oman Huqf/`Q'? Haushi(!) Total Petroleum System (201401) and Ghaba-Makarem Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20140101), were identified for the Ghaba Salt Basin Province (2014). In the Fahud Salt Basin Province, however, two overlapping Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were recognized: 1) the North Oman Huqf ? Shu'aiba(!) TPS (201601); Fahud-Huqf Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20160101), and 2) the Middle Cretaceous Natih(!) TPS (201602); Natih-Fiqa Structural/Stratigraphic Assessment Unit (20160201). The boundary for each Total Petroleum System also defines the boundary of the corresponding assessment unit and includes all trap styles and hydrocarbon producing reservoirs within the petroleum system. In both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces, hydrocarbons were generated from several deeply-buried source rocks within the Infracambrian Huqf Supergroup. One general `North Oman Huqf' type oil is dominant in the Fahud Salt Basin. Oils in the Ghaba Salt Basin are linked to at least two distinct Huqf source-rock units based on oil geochemistry: a general North Oman Huqf-type oil source and a more dominant `questionable unidentified-source' or `Q'-type Huqf oil source. These two Huqf-sourced oils are commonly found as admixtures in reservoirs throughout north-central Oman. Hydrocarbons generated from Huqf sources are produced from a variety of reservoir types and ages ranging from Precambrian to Cretaceous in both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces. Clastic reservoirs of the Gharif and Al Khlata Formations, Haushi Group (M. Carboniferous to L. Permian), dominate oil production in the Ghaba Salt Basin Province and form the basis for the Huqf/`Q' ? Haushi(!) TPS. In contrast, the Lower Cretaceous Shu'aiba and Middle Cretaceous

  3. EEG patterns in theta and gamma frequency range and their probable relation to human voluntary movement organization.

    PubMed

    Popivanov, D; Mineva, A; Krekule, I

    1999-05-21

    In experiments with EEG accompanying continuous slow goal-directed voluntary movements we found abrupt short-term transients (STs) of the coefficients of EEG time-varying autoregressive (TVAR) model. The onset of STs indicated (i) a positive EEG wave related to an increase of 3-7 Hz oscillations in time period before the movement start, (ii) synchronization of 35-40 Hz prior to movement start and during the movement when the target is nearly reached. Both these phenomena are expressed predominantly over supplementary motor area, premotor and parietal cortices. These patterns were detected after averaging of EEG segments synchronized to the abrupt changes of the TVAR coefficients computed in the time course of EEG single records. The results are discussed regarding the cognitive aspect of organization of goal-directed movements.

  4. A primary malarial infection is composed of a very wide range of genetically diverse but related parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Druilhe, P; Daubersies, P; Patarapotikul, J; Gentil, C; Chene, L; Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T; Mellouk, S; Langsley, G

    1998-01-01

    To address the question of how many distinct parasites are injected when a mosquito bites, we have characterized isolates resulting most probably from a single sporozoite inoculum. We describe the direct and immediate cloning on hepatocyte feeder layers of a Thai and an African Plasmodium falciparum primary isolate and the characterization of 67 independent clones by four techniques totaling nine different markers. This led to three main conclusions: (a) both the phenotypic and genotypic markers revealed an unexpectedly large degree of diversity within the clones from a single isolate; (b) the clones are nonetheless genetically related; and (c) a single mosquito inoculum would most likely be sufficient to generate considerable isolate complexity in the absence of repeated exposure. This diversity, which has been greatly underestimated in previous studies, does not bode well for the development of successful malaria control means. PMID:9576766

  5. Stereomotion speed perception: contributions from both changing disparity and interocular velocity difference over a range of relative disparities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Kevin R.; Stone, Leland S.

    2004-01-01

    The role of two binocular cues to motion in depth-changing disparity (CD) and interocular velocity difference (IOVD)- was investigated by measuring stereomotion speed discrimination and static disparity discrimination performance (stereoacuity). Speed discrimination thresholds were assessed both for random dot stereograms (RDS), and for their temporally uncorrelated equivalents, dynamic random dot stereograms (DRDS), at relative disparity pedestals of -19, 0, and +19 arcmin. While RDS stimuli contain both CD and IOVD cues, DRDS stimuli carry only CD information. On average, thresholds were a factor of 1.7 higher for DRDS than for RDS stimuli with no clear effect of relative disparity pedestal. Results were similar for approaching and receding targets. Variations in stimulus duration had no significant effect on thresholds, and there was no observed correlation between stimulus displacement and perceived speed, confirming that subjects responded to stimulus speed in each condition. Stereoacuity was equally good for our RDS and DRDS stimuli, showing that the difference in stereomotion speed discrimination performance for these stimuli was not due to any difference in the precision of the disparity cue. In addition, when we altered stereomotion stimulus trajectory by independently manipulating the speeds and directions of its monocular half-images, perceived stereomotion speed remained accurate. This finding is inconsistent with response strategies based on properties of either monocular half-image motion, or any ad hoc combination of the monocular speeds. We conclude that although subjects are able to discriminate stereomotion speed reliably on the basis of CD information alone, IOVD provides a precise additional cue to stereomotion speed perception.

  6. Stereomotion speed perception: contributions from both changing disparity and interocular velocity difference over a range of relative disparities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Kevin R.; Stone, Leland S.

    2004-01-01

    The role of two binocular cues to motion in depth-changing disparity (CD) and interocular velocity difference (IOVD)- was investigated by measuring stereomotion speed discrimination and static disparity discrimination performance (stereoacuity). Speed discrimination thresholds were assessed both for random dot stereograms (RDS), and for their temporally uncorrelated equivalents, dynamic random dot stereograms (DRDS), at relative disparity pedestals of -19, 0, and +19 arcmin. While RDS stimuli contain both CD and IOVD cues, DRDS stimuli carry only CD information. On average, thresholds were a factor of 1.7 higher for DRDS than for RDS stimuli with no clear effect of relative disparity pedestal. Results were similar for approaching and receding targets. Variations in stimulus duration had no significant effect on thresholds, and there was no observed correlation between stimulus displacement and perceived speed, confirming that subjects responded to stimulus speed in each condition. Stereoacuity was equally good for our RDS and DRDS stimuli, showing that the difference in stereomotion speed discrimination performance for these stimuli was not due to any difference in the precision of the disparity cue. In addition, when we altered stereomotion stimulus trajectory by independently manipulating the speeds and directions of its monocular half-images, perceived stereomotion speed remained accurate. This finding is inconsistent with response strategies based on properties of either monocular half-image motion, or any ad hoc combination of the monocular speeds. We conclude that although subjects are able to discriminate stereomotion speed reliably on the basis of CD information alone, IOVD provides a precise additional cue to stereomotion speed perception.

  7. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 2: Lithospheric structure, seismicity, and contemporary deformation of the United States Cordillera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    The structural evolution of the U.S. Cordillera has been influenced by a variety of tectonic mechanisms including passive margin rifting and sedimentation; arc volcanism; accretion of exotic terranes; intraplate magmatism; and folding and faulting associated with compression and extension processes that have profoundly influenced the lithospheric structure. As a result the Cordilleran crust is laterally inhomogeneous across its 2000 km east-west breadth. It is thin along the West Coast where it has close oceanic affinities. The crust thickens eastward beneath the Sierra Nevada, then thins beneath the Basin-Range. Crustal thickening continues eastward beneath the Colorado Plateau, the Rocky Mountains, and the Great Plains. The total lithospheric thickness attains 65 km in the Basin-Range and increases eastward beneath the Colorado Plateau. The upper-crust, including the crystalline basement of the Cordillera, has P sub G velocities of 6 km/s in the Basin-Range and Rio Grande Rift. Lower P sub G velocities of 5.4 to 5.7 km/s are associated with the youthful Yellowstone, Valles and Long Valley calderas and the Franciscan assemblage of the western coastal margin. Averaged crustal velocity reflects integrated tectonic evolution of the crust-thick silicic bodies, velocity reversals, and a thin crust produce low averaged velocities that are characteristic of a highly attenuated and thermally deformed crust.

  8. Influence of the absorption behavior of sunscreens in the short-wavelength UV range (UVB) and the long-wavelength UV range (UVA) on the relation of the UVB absorption to sun protection factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigmann, Hans-Juergen; Schanzer, Sabine; Antoniou, Christina; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2010-09-01

    The absorption of filter substances in sunscreens, reducing the incident ultraviolet (UV) radiation, is the basis for the protecting ability of such formulations. The erythema-correlated sun protection factor (SPF), depending mainly on the intensity of the UVB radiation, is the common value to quantify the efficacy of the formulations avoiding sunburn. An ex vivo method combining tape stripping and optical spectroscopy is applied to measure the absorption of sunscreens in the entire UV spectral range. The obtained relations between the short-wavelength UV (UVB) absorption and the SPF confirm a clear influence of the long-wavelength UV (UVA) absorption on the SPF values. The data reflect the historical development of the relation of the concentration of UVB and UVA filters in sunscreens and points to the influence of additional ingredients, e.g., antioxidants and cell-protecting agents on the efficacy of the products.

  9. Influence of the absorption behavior of sunscreens in the short-wavelength UV range (UVB) and the long-wavelength UV range (UVA) on the relation of the UVB absorption to sun protection factor.

    PubMed

    Weigmann, Hans-Juergen; Schanzer, Sabine; Antoniou, Christina;