#### Sample records for rank percentile method

1. A Comparison of Three Conditional Growth Percentile Methods: Student Growth Percentiles, Percentile Rank Residuals, and a Matching Method

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wyse, Adam E.; Seo, Dong Gi

2014-01-01

This article provides a brief overview and comparison of three conditional growth percentile methods; student growth percentiles, percentile rank residuals, and a nonparametric matching method. These approaches seek to describe student growth in terms of the relative percentile ranking of a student in relationship to students that had the same…

2. A Comparison of Three Conditional Growth Percentile Methods: Student Growth Percentiles, Percentile Rank Residuals, and a Matching Method

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wyse, Adam E.; Seo, Dong Gi

2014-01-01

This article provides a brief overview and comparison of three conditional growth percentile methods; student growth percentiles, percentile rank residuals, and a nonparametric matching method. These approaches seek to describe student growth in terms of the relative percentile ranking of a student in relationship to students that had the same…

3. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baumgartner, Ted A.

2009-01-01

Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

4. Modeling Percentile Rank of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Across the Lifespan

PubMed Central

Graves, Rasinio S.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Perea, Rodrigo D.; Billinger, Sandra A.; Vidoni, Eric D.

2016-01-01

Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to create an equation for continuous percentile rank of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) from ages 20 to 99. Methods We used a two-staged modeling approach with existing normative data from the American College of Sports Medicine for VO2 max. First, we estimated intercept and slope parameters for each decade of life as a logistic function. We then modeled change in intercept and slope as functions of age (stage two) using weighted least squares regression. The resulting equations were used to predict fitness percentile rank based on age, sex, and VO2 max, and included estimates for individuals beyond 79 years old. Results We created a continuous, sex specific model of VO2 max percentile rank across the lifespan. Conclusions Percentile ranking of VO2 max can be made continuous and account for adults aged 20 to 99 with reasonable accuracy, improving the utility of this normalization procedure in practical and research settings, particularly in aging populations. PMID:26778922

5. Hematology and Plasma Chemistry Reference Intervals for Mature Laboratory Pine Voles (Microtus pinetorum) as Determined by Using the Nonparametric Rank Percentile Method

PubMed Central

Harvey, Stephen B; Krimer, Paula M; Correa, Maria T; Hanes, Martha A

2008-01-01

Plasma biochemical and hematologic values are important parameters for assessing animal health and experimental results. Although normal reference values for many rodent species have been published, there is a dearth of similar information for the genus Microtus. In addition, most studies use a mean and standard deviation to establish reference intervals, but doing so is not the recommendation of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly the National Committee on Clinical Laboratory Standards) or the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The purpose of this study was to establish normal reference parameters for plasma biochemistry and hematology in mature pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) by using the nonparametric rank percentile method as recommended by the 2 laboratory medicine organizations mentioned. Samples of cardiac blood from a closed colony of pine voles were collected at euthanasia and evaluated under rodent settings on 2 automated hematology analyzers from 2 different manufacturers and on the same type of automated biochemistry analyzer. There were no sex-associated clinically significant differences between the sexes; younger animals had a lower hematocrit, higher mean corpuscular volume, and lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration than did older animals. Only platelet counts differed when comparing hematologic values from different analyzers. Relative to rats and mice, pine voles have a lower mean corpuscular volume and higher red blood cell count, higher blood urea nitrogen, much higher alanine aminotransferase, and lower glucose and phosphorous concentrations. Hematology and plasma biochemical results obtained in this study are considered representative for healthy adult laboratory pine voles under similar environmental conditions. PMID:18702449

6. Hematology and plasma chemistry reference intervals for mature laboratory pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) as determined by using the nonparametric rank percentile method.

PubMed

Harvey, Stephen B; Krimer, Paula M; Correa, Maria T; Hanes, Martha A

2008-07-01

Plasma biochemical and hematologic values are important parameters for assessing animal health and experimental results. Although normal reference values for many rodent species have been published, there is a dearth of similar information for the genus Microtus. In addition, most studies use a mean and standard deviation to establish reference intervals, but doing so is not the recommendation of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly the National Committee on Clinical Laboratory Standards) or the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The purpose of this study was to establish normal reference parameters for plasma biochemistry and hematology in mature pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) by using the nonparametric rank percentile method as recommended by the 2 laboratory medicine organizations mentioned. Samples of cardiac blood from a closed colony of pine voles were collected at euthanasia and evaluated under rodent settings on 2 automated hematology analyzers from 2 different manufacturers and on the same type of automated biochemistry analyzer. There were no sex-associated clinically significant differences between the sexes; younger animals had a lower hematocrit, higher mean corpuscular volume, and lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration than did older animals. Only platelet counts differed when comparing hematologic values from different analyzers. Relative to rats and mice, pine voles have a lower mean corpuscular volume and higher red blood cell count, higher blood urea nitrogen, much higher alanine aminotransferase, and lower glucose and phosphorous concentrations. Hematology and plasma biochemical results obtained in this study are considered representative for healthy adult laboratory pine voles under similar environmental conditions.

7. Standard Errors of Equating for the Percentile Rank-Based Equipercentile Equating with Log-Linear Presmoothing

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wang, Tianyou

2009-01-01

Holland and colleagues derived a formula for analytical standard error of equating using the delta-method for the kernel equating method. Extending their derivation, this article derives an analytical standard error of equating procedure for the conventional percentile rank-based equipercentile equating with log-linear smoothing. This procedure is…

8. Standard Errors of Equating for the Percentile Rank-Based Equipercentile Equating with Log-Linear Presmoothing

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wang, Tianyou

2009-01-01

Holland and colleagues derived a formula for analytical standard error of equating using the delta-method for the kernel equating method. Extending their derivation, this article derives an analytical standard error of equating procedure for the conventional percentile rank-based equipercentile equating with log-linear smoothing. This procedure is…

9. Digital image comparison by subtracting contextual transformations—percentile rank order differentiation

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wehde, M. E.

1995-01-01

The common method of digital image comparison by subtraction imposes various constraints on the image contents. Precise registration of images is required to assure proper evaluation of surface locations. The attribute being measured and the calibration and scaling of the sensor are also important to the validity and interpretability of the subtraction result. Influences of sensor gains and offsets complicate the subtraction process. The presence of any uniform systematic transformation component in one of two images to be compared distorts the subtraction results and requires analyst intervention to interpret or remove it. A new technique has been developed to overcome these constraints. Images to be compared are first transformed using the cumulative relative frequency as a transfer function. The transformed images represent the contextual relationship of each surface location with respect to all others within the image. The process of differentiating between the transformed images results in a percentile rank ordered difference. This process produces consistent terrain-change information even when the above requirements necessary for subtraction are relaxed. This technique may be valuable to an appropriately designed hierarchical terrain-monitoring methodology because it does not require human participation in the process.

10. Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods

Hajjari, Tayebeh

2012-11-01

With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.

11. Percentile ranks and benchmark estimates of change for the Health Education Impact Questionnaire: Normative data from an Australian sample

PubMed Central

Elsworth, Gerald R; Osborne, Richard H

2017-01-01

Objective: Participant self-report data play an essential role in the evaluation of health education activities, programmes and policies. When questionnaire items do not have a clear mapping to a performance-based continuum, percentile norms are useful for communicating individual test results to users. Similarly, when assessing programme impact, the comparison of effect sizes for group differences or baseline to follow-up change with effect sizes observed in relevant normative data provides more directly useful information compared with statistical tests of mean differences and the evaluation of effect sizes for substantive significance using universal rule-of-thumb such as those for Cohen’s ‘d’. This article aims to assist managers, programme staff and clinicians of healthcare organisations who use the Health Education Impact Questionnaire interpret their results using percentile norms for individual baseline and follow-up scores together with group effect sizes for change across the duration of typical chronic disease self-management and support programme. Methods: Percentile norms for individual Health Education Impact Questionnaire scale scores and effect sizes for group change were calculated using freely available software for each of the eight Health Education Impact Questionnaire scales. Data used were archived responses of 2157 participants of chronic disease self-management programmes conducted by a wide range of organisations in Australia between July 2007 and March 2013. Results: Tables of percentile norms and three possible effect size benchmarks for baseline to follow-up change are provided together with two worked examples to assist interpretation. Conclusion: While the norms and benchmarks presented will be particularly relevant for Australian organisations and others using the English-language version of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire, they will also be useful for translated versions as a guide to the sensitivity of the scales and

12. Percentile ranking and citation impact of a large cohort of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded cardiovascular R01 grants.

PubMed

Danthi, Narasimhan; Wu, Colin O; Shi, Peibei; Lauer, Michael

2014-02-14

Funding decisions for cardiovascular R01 grant applications at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) largely hinge on percentile rankings. It is not known whether this approach enables the highest impact science. Our aim was to conduct an observational analysis of percentile rankings and bibliometric outcomes for a contemporary set of funded NHLBI cardiovascular R01 grants. We identified 1492 investigator-initiated de novo R01 grant applications that were funded between 2001 and 2008 and followed their progress for linked publications and citations to those publications. Our coprimary end points were citations received per million dollars of funding, citations obtained <2 years of publication, and 2-year citations for each grant's maximally cited paper. In 7654 grant-years of funding that generated 3004 million of total National Institutes of Health awards, the portfolio yielded 16 793 publications that appeared between 2001 and 2012 (median per grant, 8; 25th and 75th percentiles, 4 and 14; range, 0-123), which received 2 224 255 citations (median per grant, 1048; 25th and 75th percentiles, 492 and 1932; range, 0-16 295). We found no association between percentile rankings and citation metrics; the absence of association persisted even after accounting for calendar time, grant duration, number of grants acknowledged per paper, number of authors per paper, early investigator status, human versus nonhuman focus, and institutional funding. An exploratory machine learning analysis suggested that grants with the best percentile rankings did yield more maximally cited papers. In a large cohort of NHLBI-funded cardiovascular R01 grants, we were unable to find a monotonic association between better percentile ranking and higher scientific impact as assessed by citation metrics. 13. Comparisons of infant mortality using a percentile-based method of standardization for birthweight or gestational age. PubMed Hertz-Picciotto, I; Din-Dzietham, R 1998-01-01 Comparisons of infant, perinatal, or neonatal mortality across populations with different birthweight or gestational age distributions are problematic. Summary measures with adjustment for birthweight or gestational age frequently are invalid or lack interpretability. We propose a percentile-based method of standardization for comparing infant, perinatal, or neonatal mortality across populations that have different distributions of birthweight and/or gestational age. The underlying concept is a simple one: comparable health for two population groups will be expressed as equal rates of disease or mortality at equal quantiles in the two distributions of birthweight or gestational age. We describe this method mathematically and present an example comparing mortality rates for African-American vs European-American infants in North Carolina. When gestational age is transformed to its rank, the well-known crossover in mortality rates, in which preterm African-American infants die at lower rates but term infants at higher rates, disappears: African-Americans show higher mortality rates at any percentile of gestational age. With homogeneous mortality rate ratios, a summary statistic becomes meaningful. We also demonstrate adjustment for percentile-transformed gestational age or birthweight in multiple logistic regression models. Percentile standardization is easily implemented, has advantages over other methods of internal standardization such as that of Wilcox and Russell, and communicates an intuitive public health-based concept of equality of mortality across populations. 14. Attempt for percentile analysis of food colorants with photoacoustic method NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Coelho, T. M.; Vidotti, E. C.; Rollemberg, M. C. E.; Baesso, M. L.; Bento, A. C. 2005-06-01 In this work the photoacoustic (PAS) method is applied in polyester-type polyurethane foam (PUF) doped with food colorants. Aiming to resolve binary mixtures of synthetic colorants such as Sunset Yellow, Tartrazine, Brilliant Blue and Amaranth, a single spectroscopic method is described. Based upon individual spectra, a Gaussian deconvolution is used and the fraction of each colorant is found. 15. Percentile ranks and benchmark estimates of change for the Health Education Impact Questionnaire: Normative data from an Australian sample. PubMed Elsworth, Gerald R; Osborne, Richard H 2017-01-01 Participant self-report data play an essential role in the evaluation of health education activities, programmes and policies. When questionnaire items do not have a clear mapping to a performance-based continuum, percentile norms are useful for communicating individual test results to users. Similarly, when assessing programme impact, the comparison of effect sizes for group differences or baseline to follow-up change with effect sizes observed in relevant normative data provides more directly useful information compared with statistical tests of mean differences and the evaluation of effect sizes for substantive significance using universal rule-of-thumb such as those for Cohen's 'd'. This article aims to assist managers, programme staff and clinicians of healthcare organisations who use the Health Education Impact Questionnaire interpret their results using percentile norms for individual baseline and follow-up scores together with group effect sizes for change across the duration of typical chronic disease self-management and support programme. Percentile norms for individual Health Education Impact Questionnaire scale scores and effect sizes for group change were calculated using freely available software for each of the eight Health Education Impact Questionnaire scales. Data used were archived responses of 2157 participants of chronic disease self-management programmes conducted by a wide range of organisations in Australia between July 2007 and March 2013. Tables of percentile norms and three possible effect size benchmarks for baseline to follow-up change are provided together with two worked examples to assist interpretation. While the norms and benchmarks presented will be particularly relevant for Australian organisations and others using the English-language version of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire, they will also be useful for translated versions as a guide to the sensitivity of the scales and the extent of the changes that might be 16. Contrasting OLS and Quantile Regression Approaches to Student "Growth" Percentiles ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Castellano, Katherine Elizabeth; Ho, Andrew Dean 2013-01-01 Regression methods can locate student test scores in a conditional distribution, given past scores. This article contrasts and clarifies two approaches to describing these locations in terms of readily interpretable percentile ranks or "conditional status percentile ranks." The first is Betebenner's quantile regression approach that results in… 17. Contrasting OLS and Quantile Regression Approaches to Student "Growth" Percentiles ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Castellano, Katherine Elizabeth; Ho, Andrew Dean 2013-01-01 Regression methods can locate student test scores in a conditional distribution, given past scores. This article contrasts and clarifies two approaches to describing these locations in terms of readily interpretable percentile ranks or "conditional status percentile ranks." The first is Betebenner's quantile regression approach that results in… 18. Statewide analysis of the drainage-area ratio method for 34 streamflow percentile ranges in Texas USGS Publications Warehouse Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.; Vrabel, Joseph 2006-01-01 The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data are available using data from one or more nearby streamflow-gaging stations. The method is intuitive and straightforward to implement and is in widespread use by analysts and managers of surface-water resources. The method equates the ratio of streamflow at two stream locations to the ratio of the respective drainage areas. In practice, unity often is assumed as the exponent on the drainage-area ratio, and unity also is assumed as a multiplicative bias correction. These two assumptions are evaluated in this investigation through statewide analysis of daily mean streamflow in Texas. The investigation was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. More than 7.8 million values of daily mean streamflow for 712 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Texas were analyzed. To account for the influence of streamflow probability on the drainage-area ratio method, 34 percentile ranges were considered. The 34 ranges are the 4 quartiles (0-25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 percent), the 5 intervals of the lower tail of the streamflow distribution (0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5 percent), the 20 quintiles of the 4 quartiles (0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-45, 45-50, 50-55, 55-60, 60-65, 65-70, 70-75, 75-80, 80-85, 85-90, 90-95, and 95-100 percent), and the 5 intervals of the upper tail of the streamflow distribution (95-96, 96-97, 97-98, 98-99 and 99-100 percent). For each of the 253,116 (712X711/2) unique pairings of stations and for each of the 34 percentile ranges, the concurrent daily mean streamflow values available for the two stations provided for station-pair application of the drainage-area ratio method. For each station pair, specific statistical summarization (median, mean, and standard deviation) of both the exponent and bias-correction components of the drainage-area ratio 19. The rank product method with two samples. PubMed Koziol, James A 2010-11-05 Breitling et al. (2004) introduced a statistical technique, the rank product method, for detecting differentially regulated genes in replicated microarray experiments. The technique has achieved widespread acceptance and is now used more broadly, in such diverse fields as RNAi analysis, proteomics, and machine learning. In this note, we extend the rank product method to the two sample setting, provide distribution theory attending the rank product method in this setting, and give numerical details for implementing the method. 20. A Rational Method for Ranking Engineering Programs. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Glower, Donald D. 1980-01-01 Compares two methods for ranking academic programs, the opinion poll v examination of career successes of the program's alumni. For the latter, "Who's Who in Engineering" and levels of research funding provided data. Tables display resulting data and compare rankings by the two methods for chemical engineering and civil engineering. (CS) 1. Augmenting the Deliberative Method for Ranking Risks. PubMed Susel, Irving; Lasley, Trace; Montezemolo, Mark; Piper, Joel 2016-01-01 The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them. This article presents the approach that was used at DHS to arrive at a consensus regarding the threats and hazards that stand out from the rest based on the overall risk they pose. Due to time constraints for the decision analysis, it was not feasible to apply multiattribute methodologies like multiattribute utility theory or the analytic hierarchy process. Using a holistic approach was considered, such as the deliberative method for ranking risks first published in this journal. However, an ordinal ranking alone does not indicate relative or absolute magnitude differences among the risks. Therefore, the use of the deliberative method for ranking risks is not sufficient for deciding whether there is a material difference between the top-ranked and bottom-ranked risks, let alone deciding what the stand-out risks are. To address this limitation of ordinal rankings, the deliberative method for ranking risks was augmented by adding an additional step to transform the ordinal ranking into a ratio scale ranking. This additional step enabled the selection of stand-out risks to help prioritize further analysis. 2. The County Health Rankings: rationale and methods. PubMed Remington, Patrick L; Catlin, Bridget B; Gennuso, Keith P 2015-01-01 Annually since 2010, the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation have produced the County Health Rankings-a "population health checkup" for the nation's over 3,000 counties. The purpose of this paper is to review the background and rationale for the Rankings, explain in detail the methods we use to create the health rankings in each state, and discuss the strengths and limitations associated with ranking the health of communities. We base the Rankings on a conceptual model of population health that includes both health outcomes (mortality and morbidity) and health factors (health behaviors, clinical care, social and economic factors, and the physical environment). Data for over 30 measures available at the county level are assembled from a number of national sources. Z-scores are calculated for each measure, multiplied by their assigned weights, and summed to create composite measure scores. Composite scores are then ordered and counties are ranked from best to worst health within each state. Health outcomes and related health factors vary significantly within states, with over two-fold differences between the least healthy counties versus the healthiest counties for measures such as premature mortality, teen birth rates, and percent of children living in poverty. Ranking within each state depicts disparities that are not apparent when counties are ranked across the entire nation. The County Health Rankings can be used to clearly demonstrate differences in health by place, raise awareness of the many factors that influence health, and stimulate community health improvement efforts. The Rankings draws upon the human instinct to compete by facilitating comparisons between neighboring or peer counties within states. Since no population health model, or rankings based off such models, will ever perfectly describe the health of its population, we encourage users to look to local sources of data to understand more about 3. Covariate Measurement Error Correction for Student Growth Percentiles Using the SIMEX Method ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Shang, Yi; VanIwaarden, Adam; Betebenner, Damian W. 2015-01-01 In this study, we examined the impact of covariate measurement error (ME) on the estimation of quantile regression and student growth percentiles (SGPs), and find that SGPs tend to be overestimated among students with higher prior achievement and underestimated among those with lower prior achievement, a problem we describe as ME endogeneity in… 4. Covariate Measurement Error Correction for Student Growth Percentiles Using the SIMEX Method ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Shang, Yi; VanIwaarden, Adam; Betebenner, Damian W. 2015-01-01 In this study, we examined the impact of covariate measurement error (ME) on the estimation of quantile regression and student growth percentiles (SGPs), and find that SGPs tend to be overestimated among students with higher prior achievement and underestimated among those with lower prior achievement, a problem we describe as ME endogeneity in… 5. Waist circumference and waist:height ratio percentiles using LMS method in Chilean population. PubMed Lopez-Legarrea, P; Garcia-Rubio, J; Oviedo-Silva, F; Collado-Mateo, D; Merellano-Navarro, E; Olivares, P R 2017-02-01 The concern over the weight gain problem continues to grow among both the international scientific community and public health authorities, since overweight and obesity prevalence rates continue to increase worldwide. In Chile, two out of three people are overweight, whereas 25% of the adult population is obese. Abdominal fat, has been linked to the development of a number of metabolic disorders. Waist circumference (WC) and the waist:height ratio (WHtR) have recently been evidenced as good predictors of metabolic risk for both adults and children. Thus, the present work aims at establishing smoothed centile charts and LMS tables for WC and WHtR for Chilean adults based on data from the National Health Survey-ENS, in order to have reliable information for identifying groups at risk. A sample of 4788 subjects aged 15-75 years old (mean age 46 ± 18 years old) was considered. Body weight, height, and WC were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) and WHtR were also determined. Percentiles were calculated using the L (curve Box-Cox), M (curve median), S (curve coefficient of variation) method. In the obese group the WC cutoff values were 99.75 cm and 92.35 cm for men and women, respectively. The cutoff point for WHtR was 0.59 for both obese men and women. The study shows, for the first time, reference values for WC and WHtR for Chilean adults. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 6. Testing for Correlation between Two Journal Ranking Methods: A Comparison of Citation Rankings and Expert Opinion Rankings. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Russell, Robert Lowell, Jr. This study tests for correlation between two journal ranking methods--citation rankings and expert opinion surveys. Political science professors from four major universities were asked to rank a list of the 20 most highly cited political science journals. Citation data were taken from the "Social Sciences Citation Index Journal Citation… 7. Fuzzy Multicriteria Ranking of Aluminium Coating Methods NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Batzias, A. F. 2007-12-01 This work deals with multicriteria ranking of aluminium coating methods. The alternatives used are: sulfuric acid anodization, A1; oxalic acid anodization, A2; chromic acid anodization, A3; phosphoric acid anodization, A4; integral color anodizing, A5; chemical conversion coating, A6; electrostatic powder deposition, A7. The criteria used are: cost of production, f1; environmental friendliness of production process, f2; appearance (texture), f3; reflectivity, f4; response to coloring, f5; corrosion resistance, f6; abrasion resistance, f7; fatigue resistance, f8. Five experts coming from relevant industrial units set grades to the criteria vector and the preference matrix according to a properly modified Delphi method. Sensitivity analysis of the ranked first alternative A1 against the second best', which was A3 at low and A7 at high resolution levels proved that the solution is robust. The dependence of anodized products quality on upstream processes is presented and the impact of energy price increase on industrial cost is discussed. 8. Comments on the rank product method for analyzing replicated experiments. PubMed Koziol, James A 2010-03-05 Breitling et al. introduced a statistical technique, the rank product method, for detecting differentially regulated genes in replicated microarray experiments. The technique has achieved widespread acceptance and is now used more broadly, in such diverse fields as RNAi analysis, proteomics, and machine learning. In this note, we relate the rank product method to linear rank statistics and provide an alternative derivation of distribution theory attending the rank product method. 9. Image Quality Ranking Method for Microscopy PubMed Central Koho, Sami; Fazeli, Elnaz; Eriksson, John E.; Hänninen, Pekka E. 2016-01-01 Automated analysis of microscope images is necessitated by the increased need for high-resolution follow up of events in time. Manually finding the right images to be analyzed, or eliminated from data analysis are common day-to-day problems in microscopy research today, and the constantly growing size of image datasets does not help the matter. We propose a simple method and a software tool for sorting images within a dataset, according to their relative quality. We demonstrate the applicability of our method in finding good quality images in a STED microscope sample preparation optimization image dataset. The results are validated by comparisons to subjective opinion scores, as well as five state-of-the-art blind image quality assessment methods. We also show how our method can be applied to eliminate useless out-of-focus images in a High-Content-Screening experiment. We further evaluate the ability of our image quality ranking method to detect out-of-focus images, by extensive simulations, and by comparing its performance against previously published, well-established microscopy autofocus metrics. PMID:27364703 10. Image Quality Ranking Method for Microscopy NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Koho, Sami; Fazeli, Elnaz; Eriksson, John E.; Hänninen, Pekka E. 2016-07-01 Automated analysis of microscope images is necessitated by the increased need for high-resolution follow up of events in time. Manually finding the right images to be analyzed, or eliminated from data analysis are common day-to-day problems in microscopy research today, and the constantly growing size of image datasets does not help the matter. We propose a simple method and a software tool for sorting images within a dataset, according to their relative quality. We demonstrate the applicability of our method in finding good quality images in a STED microscope sample preparation optimization image dataset. The results are validated by comparisons to subjective opinion scores, as well as five state-of-the-art blind image quality assessment methods. We also show how our method can be applied to eliminate useless out-of-focus images in a High-Content-Screening experiment. We further evaluate the ability of our image quality ranking method to detect out-of-focus images, by extensive simulations, and by comparing its performance against previously published, well-established microscopy autofocus metrics. 11. A Ranking Method for Evaluating Constructed Responses ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Attali, Yigal 2014-01-01 This article presents a comparative judgment approach for holistically scored constructed response tasks. In this approach, the grader rank orders (rather than rate) the quality of a small set of responses. A prior automated evaluation of responses guides both set formation and scaling of rankings. Sets are formed to have similar prior scores and… 12. A Ranking Method for Evaluating Constructed Responses ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Attali, Yigal 2014-01-01 This article presents a comparative judgment approach for holistically scored constructed response tasks. In this approach, the grader rank orders (rather than rate) the quality of a small set of responses. A prior automated evaluation of responses guides both set formation and scaling of rankings. Sets are formed to have similar prior scores and… 13. PageRank as a method to rank biomedical literature by importance. PubMed Yates, Elliot J; Dixon, Louise C 2015-01-01 Optimal ranking of literature importance is vital in overcoming article overload. Existing ranking methods are typically based on raw citation counts, giving a sum of 'inbound' links with no consideration of citation importance. PageRank, an algorithm originally developed for ranking webpages at the search engine, Google, could potentially be adapted to bibliometrics to quantify the relative importance weightings of a citation network. This article seeks to validate such an approach on the freely available, PubMed Central open access subset (PMC-OAS) of biomedical literature. On-demand cloud computing infrastructure was used to extract a citation network from over 600,000 full-text PMC-OAS articles. PageRanks and citation counts were calculated for each node in this network. PageRank is highly correlated with citation count (R = 0.905, P < 0.01) and we thus validate the former as a surrogate of literature importance. Furthermore, the algorithm can be run in trivial time on cheap, commodity cluster hardware, lowering the barrier of entry for resource-limited open access organisations. PageRank can be trivially computed on commodity cluster hardware and is linearly correlated with citation count. Given its putative benefits in quantifying relative importance, we suggest it may enrich the citation network, thereby overcoming the existing inadequacy of citation counts alone. We thus suggest PageRank as a feasible supplement to, or replacement of, existing bibliometric ranking methods. 14. Method for stabilizing dried low rank coals SciTech Connect Yan, T.Y. 1987-03-17 A method is described for protection of heated and dried pyrophoric particles, such as low rank coals, containing a reduced moisture content by treating the particles with a pyrophoric protection fluid within a vessel having a gas-solid separator in combination with a cooling fluid comprising: (a) introducing the heated and dried pyrophoric particles into a vessel which vessel lacks a means for supporting the particles during cooling thereof; (b) fluidizing the particles with the cooling fluid at ambient temperature; (c) applying a pyrophoric protection fluid to the fluidized particles thereby coating the particles sufficiently to cause at least a substantial portion of the particles to agglomerate and fall while simultaneously cooling the agglomerated particles; and (d) removing continuously the agglomerated cooled particles and the cooling fluid from the vessel. The method is also described where in step (b) the pyrophoric protection fluid is at least one member selected from the group consisting of petroleum residual oil, heavy oil, a mixture of tall oil and rosin, and gelatinized starch, in an amount of from about 0.01 weight percent to about 5 weight percent of the particles. 15. Comparability of Multiple Rank Order and Paired Comparison Methods. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Rounds, James B., Jr.; And Others 1978-01-01 Two studies compared multiple rank order and paired comparison methods in terms of psychometric characteristics and user reactions. Individual and group item responses, preference counts, and Thurstone normal transform scale values obtained by the multiple rank order method were found to be similar to those obtained by paired comparisons.… 16. A Trust Ranking Method to Prevent IM Spam NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Bi, Jun The problem of IM (Instant Messaging) SPAM, also known as SPIM, has become a challenge in recent years. The current anti-SPAM methods are not quite suitable for SPIM because of the differences in system infrastructures and characteristics between IM and email service. In order to effectively eliminate SPIM, we propose a trust ranking method in this paper. The mechanism to build up reputation network, global reputation and local trust ranking algorithms, reputation management, and SPIM filtering methods are presented. The experiments under five treat modes and algorithms enhancement are also introduced. The experiment shows that the proposed method is resilient to deal with SPIM attacks under several threat models. 17. Application of Radial Basis Function Methods in the Development of a 95th Percentile Male Seated FEA Model. PubMed Vavalle, Nicholas A; Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott 2014-11-01 Human body finite element models (FEMs) are a valuable tool in the study of injury biomechanics. However, the traditional model development process can be time-consuming. Scaling and morphing an existing FEM is an attractive alternative for generating morphologically distinct models for further study. The objective of this work is to use a radial basis function to morph the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) average male model (M50) to the body habitus of a 95th percentile male (M95) and to perform validation tests on the resulting model. The GHBMC M50 model (v. 4.3) was created using anthropometric and imaging data from a living subject representing a 50th percentile male. A similar dataset was collected from a 95th percentile male (22,067 total images) and was used in the morphing process. Homologous landmarks on the reference (M50) and target (M95) geometries, with the existing FE node locations (M50 model), were inputs to the morphing algorithm. The radial basis function was applied to morph the FE model. The model represented a mass of 103.3 kg and contained 2.2 million elements with 1.3 million nodes. Simulations of the M95 in seven loading scenarios were presented ranging from a chest pendulum impact to a lateral sled test. The morphed model matched anthropometric data to within a rootmean square difference of 4.4% while maintaining element quality commensurate to the M50 model and matching other anatomical ranges and targets. The simulation validation data matched experimental data well in most cases. 18. Shaping Academic Task Engagement with Percentile Schedules PubMed Central Athens, Elizabeth S; Vollmer, Timothy R; St. Peter Pipkin, Claire C 2007-01-01 The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on shaping of manipulations of the number of observations used to determine the criterion for reinforcement (the m parameter of the percentile formula). Results showed that the percentile formula was most effective when a relatively large m value (20 observations) was used. PMID:17970261 19. Evaluating the Rank-Ordering Method for Standard Maintaining ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Bramley, Tom; Gill, Tim 2010-01-01 The rank-ordering method for standard maintaining was designed for the purpose of mapping a known cut-score (e.g. a grade boundary mark) on one test to an equivalent point on the test score scale of another test, using holistic expert judgements about the quality of exemplars of examinees' work (scripts). It is a novel application of an old… 20. Diagrammatic perturbation methods in networks and sports ranking combinatorics NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Park, Juyong 2010-04-01 Analytic and computational tools developed in statistical physics are being increasingly applied to the study of complex networks. Here we present recent developments in the diagrammatic perturbation methods for the exponential random graph models, and apply them to the combinatoric problem of determining the ranking of nodes in directed networks that represent pairwise competitions. 1. A Survey and Empirical Comparison of Object Ranking Methods NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Kamishima, Toshihiro; Kazawa, Hideto; Akaho, Shotaro Ordered lists of objects are widely used as representational forms. Such ordered objects include Web search results or bestseller lists. In spite of their importance, methods of processing orders have received little attention. However, research concerning orders has recently become common; in particular, researchers have developed various methods for the task of Object Ranking to acquire functions for object sorting from example orders. Here, we give a unified view of these methods and compare their merits and demerits. 2. Network selection: a method for ranked lists selection. PubMed Cutillo, Luisa; Carissimo, Annamaria; Figini, Silvia 2012-01-01 We consider the problem of finding the set of rankings that best represents a given group of orderings on the same collection of elements (preference lists). This problem arises from social choice and voting theory, in which each voter gives a preference on a set of alternatives, and a system outputs a single preference order based on the observed voters' preferences. In this paper, we observe that, if the given set of preference lists is not homogeneous, a unique true underling ranking might not exist. Moreover only the lists that share the highest amount of information should be aggregated, and thus multiple rankings might provide a more feasible solution to the problem. In this light, we propose Network Selection, an algorithm that, given a heterogeneous group of rankings, first discovers the different communities of homogeneous rankings and then combines only the rank orderings belonging to the same community into a single final ordering. Our novel approach is inspired by graph theory; indeed our set of lists can be loosely read as the nodes of a network. As a consequence, only the lists populating the same community in the network would then be aggregated. In order to highlight the strength of our proposal, we show an application both on simulated and on two real datasets, namely a financial and a biological dataset. Experimental results on simulated data show that Network Selection can significantly outperform existing related methods. The other way around, the empirical evidence achieved on real financial data reveals that Network Selection is also able to select the most relevant variables in data mining predictive models, providing a clear superiority in terms of predictive power of the models built. Furthermore, we show the potentiality of our proposal in the bioinformatics field, providing an application to a biological microarray dataset. 3. Network Selection: A Method for Ranked Lists Selection PubMed Central Figini, Silvia 2012-01-01 We consider the problem of finding the set of rankings that best represents a given group of orderings on the same collection of elements (preference lists). This problem arises from social choice and voting theory, in which each voter gives a preference on a set of alternatives, and a system outputs a single preference order based on the observed voters’ preferences. In this paper, we observe that, if the given set of preference lists is not homogeneous, a unique true underling ranking might not exist. Moreover only the lists that share the highest amount of information should be aggregated, and thus multiple rankings might provide a more feasible solution to the problem. In this light, we propose Network Selection, an algorithm that, given a heterogeneous group of rankings, first discovers the different communities of homogeneous rankings and then combines only the rank orderings belonging to the same community into a single final ordering. Our novel approach is inspired by graph theory; indeed our set of lists can be loosely read as the nodes of a network. As a consequence, only the lists populating the same community in the network would then be aggregated. In order to highlight the strength of our proposal, we show an application both on simulated and on two real datasets, namely a financial and a biological dataset. Experimental results on simulated data show that Network Selection can significantly outperform existing related methods. The other way around, the empirical evidence achieved on real financial data reveals that Network Selection is also able to select the most relevant variables in data mining predictive models, providing a clear superiority in terms of predictive power of the models built. Furthermore, we show the potentiality of our proposal in the bioinformatics field, providing an application to a biological microarray dataset. PMID:22937075 4. Alternative Statistical Frameworks for Student Growth Percentile Estimation ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Lockwood, J. R.; Castellano, Katherine E. 2015-01-01 This article suggests two alternative statistical approaches for estimating student growth percentiles (SGP). The first is to estimate percentile ranks of current test scores conditional on past test scores directly, by modeling the conditional cumulative distribution functions, rather than indirectly through quantile regressions. This would… 5. Alternative Statistical Frameworks for Student Growth Percentile Estimation ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Lockwood, J. R.; Castellano, Katherine E. 2015-01-01 This article suggests two alternative statistical approaches for estimating student growth percentiles (SGP). The first is to estimate percentile ranks of current test scores conditional on past test scores directly, by modeling the conditional cumulative distribution functions, rather than indirectly through quantile regressions. This would… 6. Applications of fuzzy ranking methods to risk-management decisions NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Mitchell, Harold A.; Carter, James C., III 1993-12-01 The Department of Energy is making significant improvements to its nuclear facilities as a result of more stringent regulation, internal audits, and recommendations from external review groups. A large backlog of upgrades has resulted. Currently, a prioritization method is being utilized which relies on a matrix of potential consequence and probability of occurrence. The attributes of the potential consequences considered include likelihood, exposure, public health and safety, environmental impact, site personnel safety, public relations, legal liability, and business loss. This paper describes an improved method which utilizes fuzzy multiple attribute decision methods to rank proposed improvement projects. 7. Methods for Ranking and Selection in Large-Scale Inference NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Henderson, Nicholas C. This thesis addresses two distinct problems: one related to ranking and selection for large-scale inference and another related to latent class modeling of longitudinal count data. The first part of the thesis focuses on the problem of identifying leading measurement units from a large collection with a focus on settings with differing levels of estimation precision across measurement units. The main approach presented is a Bayesian ranking procedure that populates the list of top units in a way that maximizes the expected overlap between the true and reported top lists for all list sizes. This procedure relates unit-specific posterior upper tail probabilities with their empirical distribution to yield a ranking variable. It discounts high-variance units less than other common methods and thus achieves improved operating characteristics in the models considered. In the second part of the thesis, we introduce and describe a finite mixture model for longitudinal count data where, conditional on the class label, the subject-specific observations are assumed to arise from a discrete autoregressive process. This approach offers notable computational advantages over related methods due to the within-class closed form of the likelihood function and, as we describe, has a within-class correlation structure which improves model identifiability. We also outline computational strategies for estimating model parameters, and we describe a novel measure of the underlying separation between latent classes and discuss its relation to posterior classification. 8. Consistent linguistic fuzzy preference relations method with ranking fuzzy numbers NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Ridzuan, Siti Amnah Mohd; Mohamad, Daud; Kamis, Nor Hanimah 2014-12-01 Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods have been developed to help decision makers in selecting the best criteria or alternatives from the options given. One of the well known methods in MCDM is the Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relation (CFPR) method, essentially utilizes a pairwise comparison approach. This method was later improved to cater subjectivity in the data by using fuzzy set, known as the Consistent Linguistic Fuzzy Preference Relations (CLFPR). The CLFPR method uses the additive transitivity property in the evaluation of pairwise comparison matrices. However, the calculation involved is lengthy and cumbersome. To overcome this problem, a method of defuzzification was introduced by researchers. Nevertheless, the defuzzification process has a major setback where some information may lose due to the simplification process. In this paper, we propose a method of CLFPR that preserves the fuzzy numbers form throughout the process. In obtaining the desired ordering result, a method of ranking fuzzy numbers is utilized in the procedure. This improved procedure for CLFPR is implemented to a case study to verify its effectiveness. This method is useful for solving decision making problems and can be applied to many areas of applications. 9. Using empirical Bayes methods to rank counties on population health measures. PubMed Athens, Jessica K; Catlin, Bridget B; Remington, Patrick L; Gangnon, Ronald E 2013-08-01 University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute has published County Health Rankings (The Rankings) since 2010. These rankings use population-based data to highlight variation in health and encourage health assessment for all US counties. However, the uncertainty of estimates remains a limitation. We sought to quantify the precision of The Rankings for selected measures. We developed hierarchical models for 5 health outcome measures and applied empirical Bayes methods to obtain county rank estimates for a composite health outcome measure. We compared results using models with and without demographic fixed effects to determine whether covariates improved rank precision. Counties whose rank had wide confidence intervals had smaller populations or ranked in the middle of all counties for health outcomes. Incorporating covariates in the models produced narrower intervals, but rank estimates remained imprecise for many counties. Local health officials, especially in smaller population and mid-performing communities, should consider these limitations when interpreting the results of The Rankings. 10. Using Empirical Bayes Methods to Rank Counties on Population Health Measures PubMed Central Catlin, Bridget B.; Remington, Patrick L.; Gangnon, Ronald E. 2013-01-01 The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute has published County Health Rankings (The Rankings) since 2010. These rankings use population-based data to highlight variation in health and encourage health assessment for all US counties. However, the uncertainty of estimates remains a limitation. We sought to quantify the precision of The Rankings for selected measures. We developed hierarchical models for 5 health outcome measures and applied empirical Bayes methods to obtain county rank estimates for a composite health outcome measure. We compared results using models with and without demographic fixed effects to determine whether covariates improved rank precision. Counties whose rank had wide confidence intervals had smaller populations or ranked in the middle of all counties for health outcomes. Incorporating covariates in the models produced narrower intervals, but rank estimates remained imprecise for many counties. Local health officials, especially in smaller population and mid-performing communities, should consider these limitations when interpreting the results of The Rankings. PMID:23906329 11. Personalized third-trimester fetal growth evaluation: comparisons of individualized growth assessment, percentile line and conditional probability methods. PubMed Deter, Russell L; Lee, Wesley; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Tarca, Adi L; Li, Jia; Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto 2016-01-01 To compare third-trimester size trajectory prediction errors (average transformed percent deviations) for three individualized fetal growth assessment methods. This study utilized longitudinal measurements of nine directly measured size parameters in 118 fetuses with normal neonatal growth outcomes. Expected value (EV) function coefficients and variance components were obtained using two-level random coefficient modeling. Growth models (IGA) or EV coefficients and variance components (PLM and CPM) were used to calculate predicted values at ∼400 third-trimester time points. Percent deviations (%Dev) calculated at these time points using all three methods were expressed as percentages of IGA MA-specific reference ranges [transformed percent deviations (T%Dev)]. Third-trimester T%Dev values were averaged (aT%Dev) for each parameter. Mean ± standard deviation's for sets of aT%Dev values derived from each method (IGA, PLM and CPM) were calculated and compared. Mean aT%Dev values for nine parameters were: (i) IGA: -4.3 to 5.2% (9/9 not different from zero); (ii) PLM: -32.7 to 25.6% (4/9 not different from zero) and (iii) CPM: -20.4 to 17.4% (5/9 not different from zero). Seven of nine systematic deviations from zero were statistically significant when IGA values were compared to either PLM or CPM values. Variabilities were smaller for IGA when compared to those for PLM or CPM, with (i) 5/9 being statistically significant (IGA versus PLM), (ii) 2/9 being statistically significant (IGA versus CPM) and (iii) 5/9 being statistically significant (PLM versus CPM). Significant differences in the agreement between predicted third-trimester size parameters and their measured values were found for the three methods tested. With most parameters, IGA gave smaller mean aT%Dev values and smaller variabilities. The CPM method was better than the PLM approach for most but not all parameters. These results suggest that third-trimester size trajectories are best characterized by 12. Note: A manifold ranking based saliency detection method for camera NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Zhang, Libo; Sun, Yihan; Luo, Tiejian; Rahman, Mohammad Muntasir 2016-09-01 Research focused on salient object region in natural scenes has attracted a lot in computer vision and has widely been used in many applications like object detection and segmentation. However, an accurate focusing on the salient region, while taking photographs of the real-world scenery, is still a challenging task. In order to deal with the problem, this paper presents a novel approach based on human visual system, which works better with the usage of both background prior and compactness prior. In the proposed method, we eliminate the unsuitable boundary with a fixed threshold to optimize the image boundary selection which can provide more precise estimations. Then, the object detection, which is optimized with compactness prior, is obtained by ranking with background queries. Salient objects are generally grouped together into connected areas that have compact spatial distributions. The experimental results on three public datasets demonstrate that the precision and robustness of the proposed algorithm have been improved obviously. 13. ContrastRank: a new method for ranking putative cancer driver genes and classification of tumor samples PubMed Central Tian, Rui; Basu, Malay K.; Capriotti, Emidio 2014-01-01 Motivation: The recent advance in high-throughput sequencing technologies is generating a huge amount of data that are becoming an important resource for deciphering the genotype underlying a given phenotype. Genome sequencing has been extensively applied to the study of the cancer genomes. Although a few methods have been already proposed for the detection of cancer-related genes, their automatic identification is still a challenging task. Using the genomic data made available by The Cancer Genome Atlas Consortium (TCGA), we propose a new prioritization approach based on the analysis of the distribution of putative deleterious variants in a large cohort of cancer samples. Results: In this paper, we present ContastRank, a new method for the prioritization of putative impaired genes in cancer. The method is based on the comparison of the putative defective rate of each gene in tumor versus normal and 1000 genome samples. We show that the method is able to provide a ranked list of putative impaired genes for colon, lung and prostate adenocarcinomas. The list significantly overlaps with the list of known cancer driver genes previously published. More importantly, by using our scoring approach, we can successfully discriminate between TCGA normal and tumor samples. A binary classifier based on ContrastRank score reaches an overall accuracy >90% and the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) >0.95 for all the three types of adenocarcinoma analyzed in this paper. In addition, using ContrastRank score, we are able to discriminate the three tumor types with a minimum overall accuracy of 77% and AUC of 0.83. Conclusions: We describe ContrastRank, a method for prioritizing putative impaired genes in cancer. The method is based on the comparison of exome sequencing data from different cohorts and can detect putative cancer driver genes. ContrastRank can also be used to estimate a global score for an individual genome about the risk of 14. Method or Madness? Inside the "SNWR" College Rankings. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Ehrenberg, Ronald G. This paper examines why Americans are so preoccupied with the "U.S. News and World Report" ("USNWR") annual rankings of colleges and universities and why higher education institutions have become equally preoccupied with them. It discusses the rankings categories (academic reputation, student selectivity, faculty resources,… 15. The use of the percentile method for searching empirical relationships between compression strength (UCS), Point Load (Is50) and Schmidt Hammer (RL) Indices NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Bruno, Giovanni; Bobbo, Luigi; Vessia, Giovanna 2014-05-01 Is50 and RL indices are commonly used to indirectly estimate the compression strength of a rocky deposit by in situ and in laboratory devices. The widespread use of Point load and Schmidt hammer tests is due to the simplicity and the speediness of the execution of these tests. Their indices can be related to the UCS by means of the ordinary least square regression analyses. Several researchers suggest to take into account the lithology to build high correlated empirical expressions (R2 >0.8) to draw UCS from Is50 or RL values. Nevertheless, the lower and upper bounds of the UCS ranges of values that can be estimated by means of the two indirect indices are not clearly defined yet. Aydin (2009) stated that the Schmidt hammer test shall be used to assess the compression resistance of rocks characterized by UCS>12-20 MPa. On the other hand, the Point load measures can be performed on weak rocks but upper bound values for UCS are not suggested. In this paper, the empirical relationships between UCS, RL and Is50 are searched by means of the percentile method (Bruno et al. 2013). This method is based on looking for the best regression function, between measured data of UCS and one of the indirect indices, drawn from a subset sample of the couples of measures that are the percentile values. These values are taken from the original dataset of both measures by calculating the cumulative function. No hypothesis on the probability distribution of the sample is needed and the procedure shows to be robust with respect to odd values or outliers. In this study, the carbonate sedimentary rocks are investigated. According to the rock mass classification of Dobereiner and De Freitas (1986), the UCS values for the studied rocks range between 'extremely weak' to 'strong'. For the analyzed data, UCS varies between 1,18-270,70 MPa. Thus, through the percentile method the best empirical relationships UCS-Is50 and UCS-RL are plotted. Relationships between Is50 and RL are drawn, too 16. Methods for evaluating and ranking transportation energy conservation programs NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Santone, L. C. 1981-04-01 The energy conservation programs are assessed in terms of petroleum savings, incremental costs to consumers probability of technical and market success, and external impacts due to environmental, economic, and social factors. Three ranking functions and a policy matrix are used to evaluate the programs. The net present value measure which computes the present worth of petroleum savings less the present worth of costs is modified by dividing by the present value of DOE funding to obtain a net present value per program dollar. The comprehensive ranking function takes external impacts into account. Procedures are described for making computations of the ranking functions and the attributes that require computation. Computations are made for the electric vehicle, Stirling engine, gas turbine, and MPG mileage guide program. 17. New methods to identify and rank high pedestrian crash zones: an illustration. PubMed Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Krishnakumar, Vanjeeswaran K; Nambisan, Shashi S 2007-07-01 Identifying and ranking high pedestrian crash zones plays a key role in developing efficient and effective strategies to enhance pedestrian safety. This paper presents (1) a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) methodology to study the spatial patterns of pedestrian crashes in order to identify high pedestrian crash zones, and (2) an evaluation of methods to rank these high pedestrian crash zones. The GIS based methodology to identify high pedestrian crash zones includes geocoding crash data, creating crash concentration maps, and then identifying high pedestrian crash zones. Two methods generally used to create crash concentration maps based on density values are the Simple Method and the Kernel Method. Ranking methods such as crash frequency, crash density, and crash rate, as well as composite methods such as the sum-of-the-ranks and the crash score methods are used to rank the selected high pedestrian crash zones. The use of this methodology and ranking methods for high pedestrian crash zones are illustrated using the Las Vegas metropolitan area as the study area. Crash data collected for a 5-year period (1998-2002) were address matched using the street name/reference street name intersection location reference system. A crash concentration map was then created using the Kernel Method as it facilitates the creation of a smooth density surface when compared to the Simple Method. Twenty-two linear high crash zones and seven circular high crash zones were then identified. The GIS based methodology reduced the subjectivity in the analysis process. Results obtained from the evaluation of methods to rank high pedestrian crash zones show a significant variation in ranking when individual methods were considered. However, rankings of high pedestrian crash zones were relatively consistent with little to no variation when the sum-of-the-ranks method and the crash score method were used. Thus, these composite methods are recommended for use in ranking high pedestrian 18. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture DOEpatents Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M. 2000-01-01 A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 19. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture DOEpatents Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M. 1999-01-01 A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 20. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture DOEpatents Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M. 1999-01-26 A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 3 figs. 1. Improve Biomedical Information Retrieval using Modified Learning to Rank Methods. PubMed Xu, Bo; Lin, Hongfei; Lin, Yuan; Ma, Yunlong; Yang, Liang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhihao 2016-06-14 In these years, the number of biomedical articles has increased exponentially, which becomes a problem for biologists to capture all the needed information manually. Information retrieval technologies, as the core of search engines, can deal with the problem automatically, providing users with the needed information. However, it is a great challenge to apply these technologies directly for biomedical retrieval, because of the abundance of domain specific terminologies. To enhance biomedical retrieval, we propose a novel framework based on learning to rank. Learning to rank is a series of state-of-the-art information retrieval techniques, and has been proved effective in many information retrieval tasks. In the proposed framework, we attempt to tackle the problem of the abundance of terminologies by constructing ranking models, which focus on not only retrieving the most relevant documents, but also diversifying the searching results to increase the completeness of the resulting list for a given query. In the model training, we propose two novel document labeling strategies, and combine several traditional retrieval models as learning features. Besides, we also investigate the usefulness of different learning to rank approaches in our framework. Experimental results on TREC Genomics datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework for biomedical information retrieval. 2. Research on B Cell Algorithm for Learning to Rank Method Based on Parallel Strategy PubMed Central Tian, Yuling; Zhang, Hongxian 2016-01-01 For the purposes of information retrieval, users must find highly relevant documents from within a system (and often a quite large one comprised of many individual documents) based on input query. Ranking the documents according to their relevance within the system to meet user needs is a challenging endeavor, and a hot research topic–there already exist several rank-learning methods based on machine learning techniques which can generate ranking functions automatically. This paper proposes a parallel B cell algorithm, RankBCA, for rank learning which utilizes a clonal selection mechanism based on biological immunity. The novel algorithm is compared with traditional rank-learning algorithms through experimentation and shown to outperform the others in respect to accuracy, learning time, and convergence rate; taken together, the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm indeed effectively and rapidly identifies optimal ranking functions. PMID:27487242 3. Methods to rank traffic rule violations resulting in crashes for allocation of funds. PubMed Penmetsa, Praveena; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S 2017-02-01 Education, enforcement and engineering countermeasures are implemented to make road users comply with the traffic rules. Not all the traffic rule violations can be addressed nor countermeasures be implemented at all unsafe locations, at once, due to limited funds. Therefore, this study aims at ranking the traffic rule violations resulting in crashes based on individual ranks, such as 1) frequency (expressed as a function of the number of drivers violating a traffic rule and involved in crashes), 2) crash severity, 3) total crash cost, and, 4) cost severity index, to assist transportation system managers in prioritizing the allocation of funds and improving safety on roads. Crash data gathered for the state of North Carolina was processed and used in this study. Variations in the ranks of traffic rule violations were observed when individual ranking methods are used. As an example, exceeding authorized speed limit and driving under the influence of alcohol are ranked 1st and 2nd based on crash severity while failure to reduce speed and failure to yield the right-of-way are ranked 1st and 2nd based on frequency. To minimize the variations and capture the merits of individual ranking methods, four different composite ranks were computed by combining selected individual ranks. The computed averages and standard deviations of absolute rank differences between composite ranks is lower than those obtained from individual ranks. The weights to combine the selected individual ranks have a marginal effect on the computed averages and standard deviations of absolute rank differences. Combining frequency and crash severity or cost severity index, using equal weights, is recommended for prioritization and allocation of funds. 4. Punching Wholes into Parts, or Beating the Percentile Averages. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Carwile, Nancy R. 1990-01-01 Presents a facetious, ingenious resolution to the percentile dilemma concerning above- and below-average test scores. If schools enrolled the same number of pigs as students and tested both groups, the pigs would fill up the bottom half and all children would rank in the top 50 percent. However, some wrinkles need to be ironed out! (MLH) 5. Efficient implementation of minimal polynomial and reduced rank extrapolation methods NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Sidi, Avram 1990-01-01 The minimal polynomial extrapolation (MPE) and reduced rank extrapolation (RRE) are two effective techniques that have been used in accelerating the convergence of vector sequences, such as those that are obtained from iterative solution of linear and nonlinear systems of equation. Their definitions involve some linear least squares problems, and this causes difficulties in their numerical implementation. Timewise efficient and numerically stable implementations for MPE and RRE are developed. A computer program written in FORTRAN 77 is also appended and applied to some model problems. 6. The effect of uncertainties in distance-based ranking methods for multi-criteria decision making NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Jaini, Nor I.; Utyuzhnikov, Sergei V. 2017-08-01 Data in the multi-criteria decision making are often imprecise and changeable. Therefore, it is important to carry out sensitivity analysis test for the multi-criteria decision making problem. The paper aims to present a sensitivity analysis for some ranking techniques based on the distance measures in multi-criteria decision making. Two types of uncertainties are considered for the sensitivity analysis test. The first uncertainty is related to the input data, while the second uncertainty is towards the Decision Maker preferences (weights). The ranking techniques considered in this study are TOPSIS, the relative distance and trade-off ranking methods. TOPSIS and the relative distance method measure a distance from an alternative to the ideal and antiideal solutions. In turn, the trade-off ranking calculates a distance of an alternative to the extreme solutions and other alternatives. Several test cases are considered to study the performance of each ranking technique in both types of uncertainties. 7. Development of geopolitically relevant ranking criteria for geoengineering methods NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Boyd, Philip W. 2016-11-01 A decade has passed since Paul Crutzen published his editorial essay on the potential for stratospheric geoengineering to cool the climate in the Anthropocene. He synthesized the effects of the 1991 Pinatubo eruption on the planet's radiative budget and used this large-scale event to broaden and deepen the debate on the challenges and opportunities of large-scale geoengineering. Pinatubo had pronounced effects, both in the short and longer term (months to years), on the ocean, land, and the atmosphere. This rich set of data on how a large-scale natural event influences many regional and global facets of the Earth System provides a comprehensive viewpoint to assess the wider ramifications of geoengineering. Here, I use the Pinatubo archives to develop a range of geopolitically relevant ranking criteria for a suite of different geoengineering approaches. The criteria focus on the spatial scales needed for geoengineering and whether large-scale dispersal is a necessary requirement for a technique to deliver significant cooling or carbon dioxide reductions. These categories in turn inform whether geoengineering approaches are amenable to participation (the "democracy of geoengineering") and whether they will lead to transboundary issues that could precipitate geopolitical conflicts. The criteria provide the requisite detail to demarcate different geoengineering approaches in the context of geopolitics. Hence, they offer another tool that can be used in the development of a more holistic approach to the debate on geoengineering. 8. Group-based ranking method for online rating systems with spamming attacks NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Gao, Jian; Dong, Yu-Wei; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhou, Tao 2015-04-01 The ranking problem has attracted much attention in real systems. How to design a robust ranking method is especially significant for online rating systems under the threat of spamming attacks. By building reputation systems for users, many well-performed ranking methods have been applied to address this issue. In this letter, we propose a group-based ranking method that evaluates users' reputations based on their grouping behaviors. More specifically, users are assigned with high reputation scores if they always fall into large rating groups. Results on three real data sets indicate that the present method is more accurate and robust than the correlation-based method in the presence of spamming attacks. 9. RRCRank: a fusion method using rank strategy for residue-residue contact prediction. PubMed Jing, Xiaoyang; Dong, Qiwen; Lu, Ruqian 2017-09-02 In structural biology area, protein residue-residue contacts play a crucial role in protein structure prediction. Some researchers have found that the predicted residue-residue contacts could effectively constrain the conformational search space, which is significant for de novo protein structure prediction. In the last few decades, related researchers have developed various methods to predict residue-residue contacts, especially, significant performance has been achieved by using fusion methods in recent years. In this work, a novel fusion method based on rank strategy has been proposed to predict contacts. Unlike the traditional regression or classification strategies, the contact prediction task is regarded as a ranking task. First, two kinds of features are extracted from correlated mutations methods and ensemble machine-learning classifiers, and then the proposed method uses the learning-to-rank algorithm to predict contact probability of each residue pair. First, we perform two benchmark tests for the proposed fusion method (RRCRank) on CASP11 dataset and CASP12 dataset respectively. The test results show that the RRCRank method outperforms other well-developed methods, especially for medium and short range contacts. Second, in order to verify the superiority of ranking strategy, we predict contacts by using the traditional regression and classification strategies based on the same features as ranking strategy. Compared with these two traditional strategies, the proposed ranking strategy shows better performance for three contact types, in particular for long range contacts. Third, the proposed RRCRank has been compared with several state-of-the-art methods in CASP11 and CASP12. The results show that the RRCRank could achieve comparable prediction precisions and is better than three methods in most assessment metrics. The learning-to-rank algorithm is introduced to develop a novel rank-based method for the residue-residue contact prediction of proteins, which 10. Methods of computing vocabulary size for the two-parameter rank distribution NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Edmundson, H. P.; Fostel, G.; Tung, I.; Underwood, W. 1972-01-01 A summation method is described for computing the vocabulary size for given parameter values in the 1- and 2-parameter rank distributions. Two methods of determining the asymptotes for the family of 2-parameter rank-distribution curves are also described. Tables are computed and graphs are drawn relating paris of parameter values to the vocabulary size. The partial product formula for the Riemann zeta function is investigated as an approximation to the partial sum formula for the Riemann zeta function. An error bound is established that indicates that the partial product should not be used to approximate the partial sum in calculating the vocabulary size for the 2-parameter rank distribution. 11. A novel document ranking method using the discrete cosine transform. PubMed Park, Laurence A F; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri 2005-01-01 We propose a new Spectral text retrieval method using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). By taking advantage of the properties of the DCT and by employing the fast query and compression techniques found in vector space methods (VSM), we show that we can process queries as fast as VSM and achieve a much higher precision. 12. Simultaneous denoising and reconstruction of 5-D seismic data via damped rank-reduction method NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Chen, Yangkang; Zhang, Dong; Jin, Zhaoyu; Chen, Xiaohong; Zu, Shaohuan; Huang, Weilin; Gan, Shuwei 2016-09-01 The Cadzow rank-reduction method can be effectively utilized in simultaneously denoising and reconstructing 5-D seismic data that depend on four spatial dimensions. The classic version of Cadzow rank-reduction method arranges the 4-D spatial data into a level-four block Hankel/Toeplitz matrix and then applies truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) for rank reduction. When the observed data are extremely noisy, which is often the feature of real seismic data, traditional TSVD cannot be adequate for attenuating the noise and reconstructing the signals. The reconstructed data tend to contain a significant amount of residual noise using the traditional TSVD method, which can be explained by the fact that the reconstructed data space is a mixture of both signal subspace and noise subspace. In order to better decompose the block Hankel matrix into signal and noise components, we introduced a damping operator into the traditional TSVD formula, which we call the damped rank-reduction method. The damped rank-reduction method can obtain a perfect reconstruction performance even when the observed data have extremely low signal-to-noise ratio. The feasibility of the improved 5-D seismic data reconstruction method was validated via both 5-D synthetic and field data examples. We presented comprehensive analysis of the data examples and obtained valuable experience and guidelines in better utilizing the proposed method in practice. Since the proposed method is convenient to implement and can achieve immediate improvement, we suggest its wide application in the industry. 13. Ranking filter methods for concentrating pathogens in lake water USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database Accurately comparing filtration methods for concentrating waterborne pathogens is difficult because of two important water matrix effects on recovery measurements, the effect on PCR quantification and the effect on filter performance. Regarding the first effect, we show how to create a control water... 14. Assessment of Entrepreneurial Territorial Attractiveness by the Ranking Method ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Gavrilova, Marina A.; Shepelev, Victor M.; Kosyakova, Inessa V.; Belikova, Lyudmila F.; Chistik, Olga F. 2016-01-01 The relevance of the researched problem is caused by existence of differentiation in development of separate regional units (urban districts and municipalities) within the region. The aim of this article is to offer a method, which determines the level of differentiation in development of various components of the region, and also in producing a… 15. Low-rank approximations with sparse factors II: Penalized methods with discrete Newton-like iterations SciTech Connect Zhang, Zhenyue; Zha, Hongyuan; Simon, Horst 2006-07-31 In this paper, we developed numerical algorithms for computing sparse low-rank approximations of matrices, and we also provided a detailed error analysis of the proposed algorithms together with some numerical experiments. The low-rank approximations are constructed in a certain factored form with the degree of sparsity of the factors controlled by some user-specified parameters. In this paper, we cast the sparse low-rank approximation problem in the framework of penalized optimization problems. We discuss various approximation schemes for the penalized optimization problem which are more amenable to numerical computations. We also include some analysis to show the relations between the original optimization problem and the reduced one. We then develop a globally convergent discrete Newton-like iterative method for solving the approximate penalized optimization problems. We also compare the reconstruction errors of the sparse low-rank approximations computed by our new methods with those obtained using the methods in the earlier paper and several other existing methods for computing sparse low-rank approximations. Numerical examples show that the penalized methods are more robust and produce approximations with factors which have fewer columns and are sparser. 16. Microbial ranking of porous packaging materials (exposure chamber method), ASTM method: collaborative study. PubMed Placencia, A M; Peeler, J T 1999-01-01 A collaborative study involving 11 laboratories was conducted to measure the microbial barrier effectiveness of porous medical packaging. Two randomly cut samples from each of 6 commercially available porous materials and one positive and one negative control were tested by one operator in each of 11 laboratories. Microbial barrier effectiveness was measured in terms of logarithm reduction value (LRV), which reflects the log10 microbial penetration of the material being tested. The logarithm of the final concentration is subtracted from that of the initial concentration to obtain the LRV. Thus the higher the LRV, the better the barrier. Repeatability standard deviations ranged from 6.42 to 16.40; reproducibility standard deviations ranged from 15.50 to 22.70. Materials B(53), C(50), D(CT), and E(45MF) differ significantly from the positive control. The microbial ranking of porous packaging materials (exposure chamber method), ASTM method, has been adopted First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. 17. Application of model-free methods for analysis of combustion kinetics of coals with different ranks SciTech Connect Sis, H 2009-07-01 Model-free kinetic approaches were employed to investigate the combustion kinetics of coals with different ranks, namely, lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite. The experimental data were provided under non-isothermal conditions at different heating rates in the range of 2-25C min{sup -1}. The activation energy values were estimated by two model-free methods, that is, Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose methods. Slightly higher activation energy values were obtained by Ozawa-Flynn-Wall method at a wide range of conversion extent. Variation of activation energy was found to be comparably more significant for lower rank lignite (between 44.82 and 287.56 kJ mol{sup -1}) while less significant for higher rank bituminous coal (between 101.97 and 155.64 kJ mol{sup -1}) and anthracite (between 106.04 and 160.31 kJ mol{sup -1}). 18. Sex-specific 99th percentiles derived from the AACC Universal Sample Bank for the Roche Gen 5 cTnT assay: Comorbidities and statistical methods influence derivation of reference limits. PubMed Gunsolus, Ian L; Jaffe, Allan S; Sexter, Anne; Schulz, Karen; Ler, Ranka; Lindgren, Brittany; Saenger, Amy K; Love, Sara A; Apple, Fred S 2017-09-13 Our purpose was to determine a) overall and sex-specific 99th percentile upper reference limits (URL) and b) influences of statistical methods and comorbidities on the URLs. Heparin plasma from 838 normal subjects (423 men, 415 women) were obtained from the AACC (Universal Sample Bank). The cobas e602 measured cTnT (Roche Gen 5 assay); limit of detection (LoD), 3ng/L. Hemoglobin A1c (URL 6.5%), NT-proBNP (URL 125ng/L) and eGFR (60mL/min/1.73m(2)) were measured, along with identification of statin use, to better define normality. 99th percentile URLs were determined by the non-parametric (NP), Harrell-Davis Estimator (HDE) and Robust (R) methods. 355 men and 339 women remained after exclusions. Overall<50% of subjects had measureable concentrations ≥ LoD: 45.6% no exclusion, 43.5% after exclusion; compared to men: 68.1% no exclusion, 65.1% post exclusion; women: 22.7% no exclusion, 20.9% post exclusion. The statistical method used influenced URLs as follows: pre/post exclusion overall, NP 16/16ng/L, HDE 17/17ng/L, R not available; men NP 18/16ng/L, HDE 21/19ng/L, R 16/11ng/L; women NP 13/10ng/L, HDE 14/14ng/L, R not available. We demonstrated that a) the Gen 5 cTnT assay does not meet the IFCC guideline for high-sensitivity assays, b) surrogate biomarkers significantly lowers the URLs and c) statistical methods used impact URLs. Our data suggest lower sex-specific cTnT 99th percentiles than reported in the FDA approved package insert. We emphasize the importance of detailing the criteria used to include and exclude subjects for defining a healthy population and the statistical method used to calculate 99th percentiles and identify outliers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. 19. Estimating botanical composition by the dry-weight-rank method in California's annual grasslands Treesearch Raymond D. Ratliff; William E. Frost 1990-01-01 The dry-weight-rank method of estimating botanical composition on California's annual grasslands is a viable alternative to harvesting and sorting or methods using points. Two data sets of sorted species weights were available. One spanned nine years with quadrats harvested at peak of production. The second spanned one growing season with 20 harvest dates. Two... 20. Ranking USRDS provider specific SMRs from 1998-2001 PubMed Central Louis, Thomas A.; Paddock, Susan M.; Ridgeway, Greg 2009-01-01 Provider profiling (ranking/percentiling) is prevalent in health services research. Bayesian models coupled with optimizing a loss function provide an effective framework for computing non-standard inferences such as ranks. Inferences depend on the posterior distribution and should be guided by inferential goals. However, even optimal methods might not lead to definitive results and ranks should be accompanied by valid uncertainty assessments. We outline the Bayesian approach and use estimated Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) in 1998-2001 from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) as a platform to identify issues and demonstrate approaches. Our analyses extend Liu et al. (2004) by computing estimates developed by Lin et al. (2006) that minimize errors in classifying providers above or below a percentile cut-point, by combining evidence over multiple years via a first-order, autoregressive model on log(SMR), and by use of a nonparametric prior. Results show that ranks/percentiles based on maximum likelihood estimates of the SMRs and those based on testing whether an SMR = 1 substantially under-perform the optimal estimates. Combining evidence over the four years using the autoregressive model reduces uncertainty, improving performance over percentiles based on only one year. Furthermore, percentiles based on posterior probabilities of exceeding a properly chosen SMR threshold are essentially identical to those produced by minimizing classification loss. Uncertainty measures effectively calibrate performance, showing that considerable uncertainty remains even when using optimal methods. Findings highlight the importance of using loss function guided percentiles and the necessity of accompanying estimates with uncertainty assessments. PMID:19343106 1. Methods for evaluating and ranking transportation energy conservation programs. Final report SciTech Connect Not Available 1981-04-30 Methods for comparative evaluations of the Office of Transportation programs designed to help achieve significant reductions in the consumption of petroleum by different forms of transportation while maintaining public, commercial, and industrial mobility are described. Assessments of the programs in terms of petroleum savings, incremental costs to consumers of the technologies and activities, probability of technical and market success, and external impacts due to environmental, economic, and social factors are inputs to the evaluation methodologies presented. The methods described for evaluating the programs on a comparative basis are three ranking functions and a policy matrix listing important attributes of the programs and the technologies and activities with which they are concerned and include the traditional net present value measure which computes the present worth of petroleum savings less the present worth of costs. This is modified by dividing by the present value of DOE funding to obtain a net present value per program dollar, which is the second ranking function. The third ranking function is broader in that it takes external impacts into account and is known as the comprehensive ranking function. Procedures are described for making computations of the ranking functions and the attributes that require computation. Computations are made for the electric vehicle, Stirling engine, gas turbine, and MPG mileage guide program. (MCW) 2. Evaluating user reputation in online rating systems via an iterative group-based ranking method NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao 2017-05-01 Reputation is a valuable asset in online social lives and it has drawn increased attention. Due to the existence of noisy ratings and spamming attacks, how to evaluate user reputation in online rating systems is especially significant. However, most of the previous ranking-based methods either follow a debatable assumption or have unsatisfied robustness. In this paper, we propose an iterative group-based ranking method by introducing an iterative reputation-allocation process into the original group-based ranking method. More specifically, the reputation of users is calculated based on the weighted sizes of the user rating groups after grouping all users by their rating similarities, and the high reputation users' ratings have larger weights in dominating the corresponding user rating groups. The reputation of users and the user rating group sizes are iteratively updated until they become stable. Results on two real data sets with artificial spammers suggest that the proposed method has better performance than the state-of-the-art methods and its robustness is considerably improved comparing with the original group-based ranking method. Our work highlights the positive role of considering users' grouping behaviors towards a better online user reputation evaluation. 3. On Efficient Feature Ranking Methods for High-Throughput Data Analysis. PubMed Liao, Bo; Jiang, Yan; Liang, Wei; Peng, Lihong; Peng, Li; Hanyurwimfura, Damien; Li, Zejun; Chen, Min 2015-01-01 Efficient mining of high-throughput data has become one of the popular themes in the big data era. Existing biology-related feature ranking methods mainly focus on statistical and annotation information. In this study, two efficient feature ranking methods are presented. Multi-target regression and graph embedding are incorporated in an optimization framework, and feature ranking is achieved by introducing structured sparsity norm. Unlike existing methods, the presented methods have two advantages: (1) the feature subset simultaneously account for global margin information as well as locality manifold information. Consequently, both global and locality information are considered. (2) Features are selected by batch rather than individually in the algorithm framework. Thus, the interactions between features are considered and the optimal feature subset can be guaranteed. In addition, this study presents a theoretical justification. Empirical experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the two algorithms in comparison with some state-of-the-art feature ranking methods through a set of real-world gene expression data sets. 4. An Optimization-Based Method for Feature Ranking in Nonlinear Regression Problems. PubMed Bravi, Luca; Piccialli, Veronica; Sciandrone, Marco 2016-02-03 In this paper, we consider the feature ranking problem, where, given a set of training instances, the task is to associate a score with the features in order to assess their relevance. Feature ranking is a very important tool for decision support systems, and may be used as an auxiliary step of feature selection to reduce the high dimensionality of real-world data. We focus on regression problems by assuming that the process underlying the generated data can be approximated by a continuous function (for instance, a feedforward neural network). We formally state the notion of relevance of a feature by introducing a minimum zero-norm inversion problem of a neural network, which is a nonsmooth, constrained optimization problem. We employ a concave approximation of the zero-norm function, and we define a smooth, global optimization problem to be solved in order to assess the relevance of the features. We present the new feature ranking method based on the solution of instances of the global optimization problem depending on the available training data. Computational experiments on both artificial and real data sets are performed, and point out that the proposed feature ranking method is a valid alternative to existing methods in terms of effectiveness. The obtained results also show that the method is costly in terms of CPU time, and this may be a limitation in the solution of large-dimensional problems. 5. Using the Friedman Method of Ranks for Model Comparison in Structural Equation Modeling. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Rigdon, Edward E. 1999-01-01 Explores the use of the Friedman method of ranks (H. Friedman, 1937) as an inferential procedure for evaluating competing models in structural-equation modeling. Describes the attractive features of this approach, but raises important issues regarding the lack of independence of observations and the power of the test. (SLD) 6. Effects of Different Methods of Weighting Subscores on the Composite-Score Ranking of Examinees. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Modu, Christopher C. The effects of applying different methods of determining different sets of subscore weights on the composite score ranking of examinees were investigated. Four sets of subscore weights were applied to each of three examination results. The scores were from Advanced Placement (AP) Examinations in History of Art, Spanish Language, and Chemistry. One… 7. A method for integrating and ranking the evidence for biochemical pathways by mining reactions from text PubMed Central Miwa, Makoto; Ohta, Tomoko; Rak, Rafal; Rowley, Andrew; Kell, Douglas B.; Pyysalo, Sampo; Ananiadou, Sophia 2013-01-01 Motivation: To create, verify and maintain pathway models, curators must discover and assess knowledge distributed over the vast body of biological literature. Methods supporting these tasks must understand both the pathway model representations and the natural language in the literature. These methods should identify and order documents by relevance to any given pathway reaction. No existing system has addressed all aspects of this challenge. Method: We present novel methods for associating pathway model reactions with relevant publications. Our approach extracts the reactions directly from the models and then turns them into queries for three text mining-based MEDLINE literature search systems. These queries are executed, and the resulting documents are combined and ranked according to their relevance to the reactions of interest. We manually annotate document-reaction pairs with the relevance of the document to the reaction and use this annotation to study several ranking methods, using various heuristic and machine-learning approaches. Results: Our evaluation shows that the annotated document-reaction pairs can be used to create a rule-based document ranking system, and that machine learning can be used to rank documents by their relevance to pathway reactions. We find that a Support Vector Machine-based system outperforms several baselines and matches the performance of the rule-based system. The success of the query extraction and ranking methods are used to update our existing pathway search system, PathText. Availability: An online demonstration of PathText 2 and the annotated corpus are available for research purposes at http://www.nactem.ac.uk/pathtext2/. Contact: makoto.miwa@manchester.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23813008 8. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance SciTech Connect Andersen, Erlend K.F.; Hole, Knut Hakon; Lund, Kjersti V.; Sundfor, Kolbein; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Lyng, Heidi; Malinen, Eirik 2012-03-01 Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile-time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile-time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile-time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile-time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile-time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer. 9. Establishing percentiles for junior tennis players based on physical fitness testing results. PubMed Roetert, E P; Piorkowski, P A; Woods, R B; Brown, S W 1995-01-01 An important aspect of this study was the establishment of a data base. A broad data base allows for data on certain parameters to be greatly expanded and will also enhance the use and interpretation of statistical methods. A longitudinal study of these variables may also assist in monitoring the players' progress over a period of time, and can provide a useful supplement to subjective coaching appraisals. The means and standard deviation for each test were calculated according to the USTA age and gender groups, that is, 12s, 14s, and 16s for each separate gender. Additionally, the mean and standard deviations for the ages, heights, and weights of each grouping were also calculated. Once the means and standard deviations were calculated, percentile tables were developed for each of the USTA groupings (by age and gender). The percentiles for each USTA test are presented in Appendix 1. A percentile is defined as the point on the distribution below which a given percentage of the scores is found. Percentiles can provide a norm-referenced interpretation of an individual score within a distribution that often consists of scores from a comparable group of individuals. Using the USTA protocol, players and coaches now have a set of normative data by which individual player's fitness scores may be compared with participants of the USTA Area Training Centers (See appendix 1). From the test results, coaches and players can determine which fitness areas need to be improved for athletes on an individual basis. Specific training programs can then be designed based on an athlete's fitness testing results. Proper interpretation of the USTA fitness testing data base results can lead to an easy way to determine the relative position of a given fitness score in the distribution, recognizing weaker areas for the purpose of injury prevention and performance enhancement. Each player can be given a profile detailing their percentile rank relative to other area training center 10. A Low-Rank Method for Characterizing High-Level Neural Computations PubMed Central Kaardal, Joel T.; Theunissen, Frédéric E.; Sharpee, Tatyana O. 2017-01-01 The signal transformations that take place in high-level sensory regions of the brain remain enigmatic because of the many nonlinear transformations that separate responses of these neurons from the input stimuli. One would like to have dimensionality reduction methods that can describe responses of such neurons in terms of operations on a large but still manageable set of relevant input features. A number of methods have been developed for this purpose, but often these methods rely on the expansion of the input space to capture as many relevant stimulus components as statistically possible. This expansion leads to a lower effective sampling thereby reducing the accuracy of the estimated components. Alternatively, so-called low-rank methods explicitly search for a small number of components in the hope of achieving higher estimation accuracy. Even with these methods, however, noise in the neural responses can force the models to estimate more components than necessary, again reducing the methods' accuracy. Here we describe how a flexible regularization procedure, together with an explicit rank constraint, can strongly improve the estimation accuracy compared to previous methods suitable for characterizing neural responses to natural stimuli. Applying the proposed low-rank method to responses of auditory neurons in the songbird brain, we find multiple relevant components making up the receptive field for each neuron and characterize their computations in terms of logical OR and AND computations. The results highlight potential differences in how invariances are constructed in visual and auditory systems. PMID:28824408 11. The application of low-rank and sparse decomposition method in the field of climatology NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Gupta, Nitika; Bhaskaran, Prasad K. 2017-03-01 The present study reports a low-rank and sparse decomposition method that separates the mean and the variability of a climate data field. Until now, the application of this technique was limited only in areas such as image processing, web data ranking, and bioinformatics data analysis. In climate science, this method exactly separates the original data into a set of low-rank and sparse components, wherein the low-rank components depict the linearly correlated dataset (expected or mean behavior), and the sparse component represents the variation or perturbation in the dataset from its mean behavior. The study attempts to verify the efficacy of this proposed technique in the field of climatology with two examples of real world. The first example attempts this technique on the maximum wind-speed (MWS) data for the Indian Ocean (IO) region. The study brings to light a decadal reversal pattern in the MWS for the North Indian Ocean (NIO) during the months of June, July, and August (JJA). The second example deals with the sea surface temperature (SST) data for the Bay of Bengal region that exhibits a distinct pattern in the sparse component. The study highlights the importance of the proposed technique used for interpretation and visualization of climate data. 12. Efficient completion for corrupted low-rank images via alternating direction method NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Li, Wei; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Duanqing; Lu, Dongming 2014-05-01 We propose an efficient and easy-to-implement method to settle the inpainting problem for low-rank images following the recent studies about low-rank matrix completion. In general, our method has three steps: first, corresponding to the three channels of RGB color space, an incomplete image is split into three incomplete matrices; second, each matrix is restored by solving a convex problem derived from the nuclear norm relaxation; at last, the three recovered matrices are merged to produce the final output. During the process, in order to efficiently solve the nuclear norm minimization problem, we employ the alternating direction method. Except for the basic image inpainting problem, we also enable our method to handle cases where corrupted images not only have missing values but also have noisy entries. Our experiments show that our method outperforms the existing inpainting techniques both quantitatively and qualitatively. We also demonstrate that our method is capable of processing many other situations, including block-wise low-rank image completion, large-scale image restoration, and object removal. 13. Promoted combustion of nine structural metals in high-pressure gaseous oxygen - A comparison of ranking methods NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Steinberg, Theodore A.; Rucker, Michelle A.; Beeson, Harold D. 1989-01-01 The 316, 321, 440C, and 17-4 PH stainless steels, as well as Inconel 600, Inconel 718, Waspaloy, Monel 400, and Al 2219, have been evaluated for relative nonflammability in a high-pressure oxygen environment with a view to the comparative advantages of four different flammability-ranking methods. The effects of changes in test pressure, sample diameter, promoter type, and sample configuration on ranking method results are evaluated; ranking methods employing velocity as the primary ranking criterion are limited by diameter effects, while those which use extinguishing pressure are nonselective for metals with similar flammabilities. 14. Prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects using AHP-PROMETHEE II ranking method. PubMed Kessili, Abdelhak; Benmamar, Saadia 2016-01-01 The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for the prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects for Algiers (Algeria) sewer networks to support the National Sanitation Office in its challenge to make decisions on prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects. The methodology applies multiple-criteria decision making. The study includes 47 projects (collectors) and 12 criteria to evaluate them. These criteria represent the different issues considered in the prioritization of the projects, which are structural, hydraulic, environmental, financial, social and technical. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to determine weights of the criteria and the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE II) method is used to obtain the final ranking of the projects. The model was verified using the sewer data of Algiers. The results have shown that the method can be used for prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects. 15. Evaluating methods for ranking differentially expressed genes applied to microArray quality control data PubMed Central 2011-01-01 Background Statistical methods for ranking differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from gene expression data should be evaluated with regard to high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility. In our previous studies, we evaluated eight gene ranking methods applied to only Affymetrix GeneChip data. A more general evaluation that also includes other microarray platforms, such as the Agilent or Illumina systems, is desirable for determining which methods are suitable for each platform and which method has better inter-platform reproducibility. Results We compared the eight gene ranking methods using the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) datasets produced by five manufacturers: Affymetrix, Applied Biosystems, Agilent, GE Healthcare, and Illumina. The area under the curve (AUC) was used as a measure for both sensitivity and specificity. Although the highest AUC values can vary with the definition of "true" DEGs, the best methods were, in most cases, either the weighted average difference (WAD), rank products (RP), or intensity-based moderated t statistic (ibmT). The percentages of overlapping genes (POGs) across different test sites were mainly evaluated as a measure for both intra- and inter-platform reproducibility. The POG values for WAD were the highest overall, irrespective of the choice of microarray platform. The high intra- and inter-platform reproducibility of WAD was also observed at a higher biological function level. Conclusion These results for the five microarray platforms were consistent with our previous ones based on 36 real experimental datasets measured using the Affymetrix platform. Thus, recommendations made using the MAQC benchmark data might be universally applicable. PMID:21639945 16. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth. PubMed Kuhle, Stefan; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C 2016-01-01 Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. 17. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth PubMed Central Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C. 2016-01-01 Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554 18. Network-based ranking methods for prediction of novel disease associated microRNAs. PubMed Le, Duc-Hau 2015-10-01 Many studies have shown roles of microRNAs on human disease and a number of computational methods have been proposed to predict such associations by ranking candidate microRNAs according to their relevance to a disease. Among them, machine learning-based methods usually have a limitation in specifying non-disease microRNAs as negative training samples. Meanwhile, network-based methods are becoming dominant since they well exploit a "disease module" principle in microRNA functional similarity networks. Of which, random walk with restart (RWR) algorithm-based method is currently state-of-the-art. The use of this algorithm was inspired from its success in predicting disease gene because the "disease module" principle also exists in protein interaction networks. Besides, many algorithms designed for webpage ranking have been successfully applied in ranking disease candidate genes because web networks share topological properties with protein interaction networks. However, these algorithms have not yet been utilized for disease microRNA prediction. We constructed microRNA functional similarity networks based on shared targets of microRNAs, and then we integrated them with a microRNA functional synergistic network, which was recently identified. After analyzing topological properties of these networks, in addition to RWR, we assessed the performance of (i) PRINCE (PRIoritizatioN and Complex Elucidation), which was proposed for disease gene prediction; (ii) PageRank with Priors (PRP) and K-Step Markov (KSM), which were used for studying web networks; and (iii) a neighborhood-based algorithm. Analyses on topological properties showed that all microRNA functional similarity networks are small-worldness and scale-free. The performance of each algorithm was assessed based on average AUC values on 35 disease phenotypes and average rankings of newly discovered disease microRNAs. As a result, the performance on the integrated network was better than that on individual ones. In 19. NDRC: A Disease-Causing Genes Prioritized Method Based on Network Diffusion and Rank Concordance. PubMed Fang, Minghong; Hu, Xiaohua; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Junmin; Shen, Xianjun; He, Tingting 2015-07-01 Disease-causing genes prioritization is very important to understand disease mechanisms and biomedical applications, such as design of drugs. Previous studies have shown that promising candidate genes are mostly ranked according to their relatedness to known disease genes or closely related disease genes. Therefore, a dangling gene (isolated gene) with no edges in the network can not be effectively prioritized. These approaches tend to prioritize those genes that are highly connected in the PPI network while perform poorly when they are applied to loosely connected disease genes. To address these problems, we propose a new disease-causing genes prioritization method that based on network diffusion and rank concordance (NDRC). The method is evaluated by leave-one-out cross validation on 1931 diseases in which at least one gene is known to be involved, and it is able to rank the true causal gene first in 849 of all 2542 cases. The experimental results suggest that NDRC significantly outperforms other existing methods such as RWR, VAVIEN, DADA and PRINCE on identifying loosely connected disease genes and successfully put dangling genes as potential candidate disease genes. Furthermore, we apply NDRC method to study three representative diseases, Meckel syndrome 1, Protein C deficiency and Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1A (Zellweger). Our study has also found that certain complex disease-causing genes can be divided into several modules that are closely associated with different disease phenotype. 20. Life-Cycle Assessment Harmonization and Soil Science Ranking Results on Food-Waste Management Methods. PubMed Morris, Jeffrey; Brown, Sally; Cotton, Matthew; Matthews, H Scott 2017-05-16 This study reviewed 147 life cycle studies, with 28 found suitable for harmonizing food waste management methods' climate and energy impacts. A total of 80 scientific soil productivity studies were assessed to rank management method soil benefits. Harmonized climate impacts per kilogram of food waste range from -0.20 kg of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) for anaerobic digestion (AD) to 0.38 kg of CO2e for landfill gas-to-energy (LFGTE). Aerobic composting (AC) emits -0.10 kg of CO2e. In-sink grinding (ISG) via a food-waste disposer and flushing for management with other sewage at a wastewater treatment plant emits 0.10 kg of CO2e. Harmonization reduced climate emissions versus nonharmonized averages. Harmonized energy impacts range from -0.32 MJ for ISG to 1.14 MJ for AC. AD at 0.27 MJ and LFGTE at 0.40 MJ fall in between. Rankings based on soil studies show AC first for carbon storage and water conservation, with AD second. AD first for fertilizer replacement, with AC second, and AC and AD tied for first for plant yield increase. ISG ranks third and LFGTE fourth on all four soil-quality and productivity indicators. Suggestions for further research include developing soil benefits measurement methods and resolving inconsistencies in the results between life-cycle assessments and soil science studies. 1. Low rank approximation methods for MR fingerprinting with large scale dictionaries. PubMed Yang, Mingrui; Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Hamilton, Jesse; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A; McGivney, Debra 2017-08-13 This work proposes new low rank approximation approaches with significant memory savings for large scale MR fingerprinting (MRF) problems. We introduce a compressed MRF with randomized singular value decomposition method to significantly reduce the memory requirement for calculating a low rank approximation of large sized MRF dictionaries. We further relax this requirement by exploiting the structures of MRF dictionaries in the randomized singular value decomposition space and fitting them to low-degree polynomials to generate high resolution MRF parameter maps. In vivo 1.5T and 3T brain scan data are used to validate the approaches. T1 , T2 , and off-resonance maps are in good agreement with that of the standard MRF approach. Moreover, the memory savings is up to 1000 times for the MRF-fast imaging with steady-state precession sequence and more than 15 times for the MRF-balanced, steady-state free precession sequence. The proposed compressed MRF with randomized singular value decomposition and dictionary fitting methods are memory efficient low rank approximation methods, which can benefit the usage of MRF in clinical settings. They also have great potentials in large scale MRF problems, such as problems considering multi-component MRF parameters or high resolution in the parameter space. Magn Reson Med 000:000-000, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2. Ranking environmental aspects in environmental management systems: a new method tested on local authorities. PubMed Marazza, Diego; Bandini, Vittoria; Contin, Andrea 2010-02-01 A new method is described to determine and to rank the significance of the environmental aspects of a local authority, as a basis for the implementation of an environmental management system (EMS). The method is especially important as for the requirements of the EU "Environmental Management and Audit Scheme" (EMAS), a standard open to all sectors including public authorities. The method has been applied to the Municipalities of Faenza (a large town with 54,000 inhabitants) and of the small towns of Riolo Terme, Brisighella, Casola Valsenio (RA, Italy), which obtained or are on the way to get the EMAS certification. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 3. Percentile growth charts for biomedical studies using a porcine model. PubMed Corson, A M; Laws, J; Laws, A; Litten, J C; Lean, I J; Clarke, L 2008-12-01 Increasing rates of obesity and heart disease are compromising quality of life for a growing number of people. There is much research linking adult disease with the growth and development both in utero and during the first year of life. The pig is an ideal model for studying the origins of developmental programming. The objective of this paper was to construct percentile growth curves for the pig for use in biomedical studies. The body weight (BW) of pigs was recorded from birth to 150 days of age and their crown-to-rump length was measured over the neonatal period to enable the ponderal index (PI; kg/m3) to be calculated. Data were normalised and percentile curves were constructed using Cole's lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method for BW and PI. The construction of these percentile charts for use in biomedical research will allow a more detailed and precise tracking of growth and development of individual pigs under experimental conditions. 4. Method for producing a dried coal fuel having a reduced tendency to spontaneously ignite from a low rank coal SciTech Connect Li, Y.H.; Bonnecaze, B.F.; Matthews, J.D.; Skinner, J.L.; Wunderlich, D.K. 1983-08-02 A method is disclosed for producing a dried coal fuel having a reduced tendency to spontaneously ignite from a low rank coal by drying the low rank coal and thereafter cooling the dried coal to a temperature below about 100/sup 0/F. Optionally the dried coal is partially oxidized prior to cooling and optionally the dried coal is mixed with a deactivating fluid. 5. Sample size calculation for weighted rank tests comparing survival distributions under cluster randomization: a simulation method. PubMed Jung, Sin-Ho 2007-01-01 We propose a sample size calculation method for rank tests comparing two survival distributions under cluster randomization with possibly variable cluster sizes. Here, sample size refers to number of clusters. Our method is based on simulation procedure generating clustered exponential survival variables whose distribution is specified by the marginal hazard rate and the intracluster correlation coefficient. Sample size is calculated given significance level, power, marginal hazard rates (or median survival times) under the alternative hypothesis, intracluster correlation coefficient, accrual rate, follow-up period, and cluster size distribution. 6. Low-rank Quasi-Newton updates for Robust Jacobian lagging in Newton methods SciTech Connect Brown, J.; Brune, P. 2013-07-01 Newton-Krylov methods are standard tools for solving nonlinear problems. A common approach is to 'lag' the Jacobian when assembly or preconditioner setup is computationally expensive, in exchange for some degradation in the convergence rate and robustness. We show that this degradation may be partially mitigated by using the lagged Jacobian as an initial operator in a quasi-Newton method, which applies unassembled low-rank updates to the Jacobian until the next full reassembly. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on problems in glaciology and elasticity. (authors) 7. Fold change rank ordering statistics: a new method for detecting differentially expressed genes PubMed Central 2014-01-01 Background Different methods have been proposed for analyzing differentially expressed (DE) genes in microarray data. Methods based on statistical tests that incorporate expression level variability are used more commonly than those based on fold change (FC). However, FC based results are more reproducible and biologically relevant. Results We propose a new method based on fold change rank ordering statistics (FCROS). We exploit the variation in calculated FC levels using combinatorial pairs of biological conditions in the datasets. A statistic is associated with the ranks of the FC values for each gene, and the resulting probability is used to identify the DE genes within an error level. The FCROS method is deterministic, requires a low computational runtime and also solves the problem of multiple tests which usually arises with microarray datasets. Conclusion We compared the performance of FCROS with those of other methods using synthetic and real microarray datasets. We found that FCROS is well suited for DE gene identification from noisy datasets when compared with existing FC based methods. PMID:24423217 8. [Construction of model for calculating and recording neonatal weight percentiles]. PubMed González González, N L; González Dávila, E; García Hernández, J A; Cabrera Morales, F; Padrón, E; Domenech, E 2014-02-01 To construct a model for calculating optimal foetal and neonatal weight curves with a method that allows automatic calculation of the percentile and sequential recording of results. A model was constructed for calculating optimal weight and the corresponding percentiles for gestational age and sex from a sample of 23,578 newborns, after excluding cases with diseases. Birth weight was modelled using stepwise multiple regression analysis. Newborns were classified as small or large for gestational age (SGA or LGA) using the proposed model. The resulting classification was compared with those derived from other models designed for Spanish children. Optimal weight model: 3,311.062+68.074 *sex+143.267 *GE40 -13.481 *GE40(2) - 0.797 *GE40(3)+sex* (5.528 *GE40 - 0.674 *GE40(2) - 0.064 *GE40(3)). (GE, gestational age). Weight percentiles were obtained from standardized data using the coefficient of variation of the optimal weight. The degree of agreement between our model classification and those of the Carrascosa model and Ramos model, with empirical and smooth percentiles, was "almost perfect" (κ=0.866, κ=0.872, and κ=0.876 (P<.001), respectively), and between our model and that proposed by Figueras it was "substantial" (κ=0.720, P<.001). The new model is comparable to those used for Spanish children and allows accurate, updated automatic percentile calculation for gestational age and sex. The results can be digitally stored to track longitudinal foetal growth. Free access to the model is offered, together with the possibility of automatic calculation of foetal and neonatal weight percentiles. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved. 9. Ranking: a closer look on globalisation methods for normalisation of gene expression arrays PubMed Central Kroll, Torsten C.; Wölfl, Stefan 2002-01-01 Data from gene expression arrays are influenced by many experimental parameters that lead to variations not simply accessible by standard quantification methods. To compare measurements from gene expression array experiments, quantitative data are commonly normalised using reference genes or global normalisation methods based on mean or median values. These methods are based on the assumption that (i) selected reference genes are expressed at a standard level in all experiments or (ii) that mean or median signal of expression will give a quantitative reference for each individual experiment. We introduce here a new ranking diagram, with which we can show how the different normalisation methods compare, and how they are influenced by variations in measurements (noise) that occur in every experiment. Furthermore, we show that an upper trimmed mean provides a simple and robust method for normalisation of larger sets of experiments by comparative analysis. PMID:12034851 10. The Typicality Ranking Task: A New Method to Derive Typicality Judgments from Children. PubMed Djalal, Farah Mutiasari; Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert 2016-01-01 An alternative method for deriving typicality judgments, applicable in young children that are not familiar with numerical values yet, is introduced, allowing researchers to study gradedness at younger ages in concept development. Contrary to the long tradition of using rating-based procedures to derive typicality judgments, we propose a method that is based on typicality ranking rather than rating, in which items are gradually sorted according to their typicality, and that requires a minimum of linguistic knowledge. The validity of the method is investigated and the method is compared to the traditional typicality rating measurement in a large empirical study with eight different semantic concepts. The results show that the typicality ranking task can be used to assess children's category knowledge and to evaluate how this knowledge evolves over time. Contrary to earlier held assumptions in studies on typicality in young children, our results also show that preference is not so much a confounding variable to be avoided, but that both variables are often significantly correlated in older children and even in adults. 11. The Typicality Ranking Task: A New Method to Derive Typicality Judgments from Children PubMed Central Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert 2016-01-01 An alternative method for deriving typicality judgments, applicable in young children that are not familiar with numerical values yet, is introduced, allowing researchers to study gradedness at younger ages in concept development. Contrary to the long tradition of using rating-based procedures to derive typicality judgments, we propose a method that is based on typicality ranking rather than rating, in which items are gradually sorted according to their typicality, and that requires a minimum of linguistic knowledge. The validity of the method is investigated and the method is compared to the traditional typicality rating measurement in a large empirical study with eight different semantic concepts. The results show that the typicality ranking task can be used to assess children’s category knowledge and to evaluate how this knowledge evolves over time. Contrary to earlier held assumptions in studies on typicality in young children, our results also show that preference is not so much a confounding variable to be avoided, but that both variables are often significantly correlated in older children and even in adults. PMID:27322371 12. A Novel Hepatocellular Carcinoma Image Classification Method Based on Voting Ranking Random Forests PubMed Central Xia, Bingbing; Jiang, Huiyan; Liu, Huiling; Yi, Dehui 2016-01-01 This paper proposed a novel voting ranking random forests (VRRF) method for solving hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) image classification problem. Firstly, in preprocessing stage, this paper used bilateral filtering for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) pathological images. Next, this paper segmented the bilateral filtering processed image and got three different kinds of images, which include single binary cell image, single minimum exterior rectangle cell image, and single cell image with a size of n⁎n. After that, this paper defined atypia features which include auxiliary circularity, amendment circularity, and cell symmetry. Besides, this paper extracted some shape features, fractal dimension features, and several gray features like Local Binary Patterns (LBP) feature, Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) feature, and Tamura features. Finally, this paper proposed a HCC image classification model based on random forests and further optimized the model by voting ranking method. The experiment results showed that the proposed features combined with VRRF method have a good performance in HCC image classification problem. PMID:27293477 13. A novel candidate disease genes prioritization method based on module partition and rank fusion. PubMed Chen, Xing; Yan, Gui-Ying; Liao, Xiao-Ping 2010-08-01 Identifying disease genes is very important not only for better understanding of gene function and biological process but also for human medical improvement. Many computational methods have been proposed based on the similarity between all known disease genes (seed genes) and candidate genes in the entire gene interaction network. Under the hypothesis that potential disease-related genes should be near the seed genes in the network and only the seed genes that are located in the same module with the candidate genes will contribute to disease genes prediction, three modularized candidate disease gene prioritization algorithms (MCDGPAs) are proposed to identify disease-related genes. MCDGPA is divided into three steps: module partition, genes prioritization in each disease-associated module, and rank fusion for the global ranking. When applied to the prostate cancer and breast cancer network, MCDGPA significantly improves previous algorithms in terms of cross-validation and disease-related genes prediction. In addition, the improvement is robust to the selection of gene prioritization methods when implementing prioritization in each disease-associated module and module partition algorithms when implementing network partition. In this sense MCDGPA is a general framework that allows integrating many previous gene prioritization methods and improving predictive accuracy. 14. A Novel Hepatocellular Carcinoma Image Classification Method Based on Voting Ranking Random Forests. PubMed Xia, Bingbing; Jiang, Huiyan; Liu, Huiling; Yi, Dehui 2015-01-01 This paper proposed a novel voting ranking random forests (VRRF) method for solving hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) image classification problem. Firstly, in preprocessing stage, this paper used bilateral filtering for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) pathological images. Next, this paper segmented the bilateral filtering processed image and got three different kinds of images, which include single binary cell image, single minimum exterior rectangle cell image, and single cell image with a size of n⁎n. After that, this paper defined atypia features which include auxiliary circularity, amendment circularity, and cell symmetry. Besides, this paper extracted some shape features, fractal dimension features, and several gray features like Local Binary Patterns (LBP) feature, Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) feature, and Tamura features. Finally, this paper proposed a HCC image classification model based on random forests and further optimized the model by voting ranking method. The experiment results showed that the proposed features combined with VRRF method have a good performance in HCC image classification problem. 15. Application of the rank-based method to DNA methylation for cancer diagnosis. PubMed Li, Hongdong; Hong, Guini; Xu, Hui; Guo, Zheng 2015-01-25 Detecting aberrant DNA methylation as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for cancer has been a topic of considerable interest recently. However, current classifiers based on absolute methylation values detected from a cohort of samples are typically difficult to be transferable to other cohorts of samples. Here, focusing on relative methylation levels, we employed a modified rank-based method to extract reversal pairs of CpG sites whose relative methylation level orderings differ between disease samples and normal controls for cancer diagnosis. The reversal pairs identified for five cancer types respectively show excellent prediction performance with the accuracy above 95%. Furthermore, when evaluating the reversal pairs identified for one cancer type in an independent cohorts of samples, we found that they could distinguish different subtypes of this cancer or different malignant stages including early stage of this cancer from normal controls. The identified reversal pairs also appear to be specific to cancer type. In conclusion, the reversal pairs detected by the rank-based method could be used for accurate cancer diagnosis, which are transferable to independent cohorts of samples. 16. Evaluation of an automatic dry eye test using MCDM methods and rank correlation. PubMed Peteiro-Barral, Diego; Remeseiro, Beatriz; Méndez, Rebeca; Penedo, Manuel G 2017-04-01 Dry eye is an increasingly common disease in modern society which affects a wide range of population and has a negative impact on their daily activities, such as working with computers or driving. It can be diagnosed through an automatic clinical test for tear film lipid layer classification based on color and texture analysis. Up to now, researchers have mainly focused on the improvement of the image analysis step. However, there is still large room for improvement on the machine learning side. This paper presents a methodology to optimize this problem by means of class binarization, feature selection, and classification. The methodology can be used as a baseline in other classification problems to provide several solutions and evaluate their performance using a set of representative metrics and decision-making methods. When several decision-making methods are used, they may offer disagreeing rankings that will be solved by conflict handling in which rankings are merged into a single one. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in this domain. Also, its general purpose allows to adapt it to other classification problems in different fields such as medicine and biology. 17. Multi-dimensional evaluation and ranking of coastal areas using GIS and multiple criteria choice methods. PubMed Kitsiou, Dimitra; Coccossis, Harry; Karydis, Michael 2002-02-04 Coastal ecosystems are increasingly threatened by short-sighted management policies that focus on human activities rather than the systems that sustain them. The early assessment of the impacts of human activities on the quality of the environment in coastal areas is important for decision-making, particularly in cases of environment/development conflicts, such as environmental degradation and saturation in tourist areas. In the present study, a methodology was developed for the multi-dimensional evaluation and ranking of coastal areas using a set of criteria and based on the combination of multiple criteria choice methods and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The northeastern part of the island of Rhodes in the Aegean Sea, Greece was the case study area. A distinction in sub-areas was performed and they were ranked according to socio-economic and environmental parameters. The robustness of the proposed methodology was assessed using different configurations of the initial criteria and reapplication of the process. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the usefulness of this methodology for comparing the status of coastal areas and evaluating their potential for further development based on various criteria, is further discussed. 18. An Activity for Learning to Find Percentiles ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Cox, Richard G. 2016-01-01 This classroom activity is designed to help students practice calculating percentiles. The approach of the activity involves physical sorting and full classroom participation in each calculation. The design encourages a more engaged approach than simply having students make a calculation with numbers on a paper. 19. An Activity for Learning to Find Percentiles ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Cox, Richard G. 2016-01-01 This classroom activity is designed to help students practice calculating percentiles. The approach of the activity involves physical sorting and full classroom participation in each calculation. The design encourages a more engaged approach than simply having students make a calculation with numbers on a paper. 20. L1 -norm low-rank matrix factorization by variational Bayesian method. PubMed Zhao, Qian; Meng, Deyu; Xu, Zongben; Zuo, Wangmeng; Yan, Yan 2015-04-01 The L1 -norm low-rank matrix factorization (LRMF) has been attracting much attention due to its wide applications to computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, we construct a new hierarchical Bayesian generative model for the L1 -norm LRMF problem and design a mean-field variational method to automatically infer all the parameters involved in the model by closed-form equations. The variational Bayesian inference in the proposed method can be understood as solving a weighted LRMF problem with different weights on matrix elements based on their significance and with L2 -regularization penalties on parameters. Throughout the inference process of our method, the weights imposed on the matrix elements can be adaptively fitted so that the adverse influence of noises and outliers embedded in data can be largely suppressed, and the parameters can be appropriately regularized so that the generalization capability of the problem can be statistically guaranteed. The robustness and the efficiency of the proposed method are substantiated by a series of synthetic and real data experiments, as compared with the state-of-the-art L1 -norm LRMF methods. Especially, attributed to the intrinsic generalization capability of the Bayesian methodology, our method can always predict better on the unobserved ground truth data than existing methods. 1. Analysis of performance measures with single channel fuzzy queues under two class by using ranking method NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Mueen, Zeina; Ramli, Razamin; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura 2016-08-01 In this paper, we propose a procedure to find different performance measurements under crisp value terms for new single fuzzy queue FM/F(H1,H2)/1 with two classes, where arrival rate and service rates are all fuzzy numbers which are represented by triangular and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. The basic idea is to obtain exact crisp values from the fuzzy value, which is more realistic in the practical queueing system. This is done by adopting left and right ranking method to remove the fuzziness before computing the performance measurements using conventional queueing theory. The main advantage of this approach is its simplicity in application, giving exact real data around fuzzy values. This approach can also be used in all types of queueing systems by taking two types of symmetrical linear membership functions. Numerical illustration is solved in this article to obtain two groups of crisp values in the queueing system under consideration. 2. PPIRank - an advanced method for ranking protein-protein interations in TAP/MS data PubMed Central 2013-01-01 Background Tandem affinity purification coupled with mass-spectrometry (TAP/MS) analysis is a popular method for the identification of novel endogenous protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in large-scale. Computational analysis of TAP/MS data is a critical step, particularly for high-throughput datasets, yet it remains challenging due to the noisy nature of TAP/MS data. Results We investigated several major TAP/MS data analysis methods for identifying PPIs, and developed an advanced method, which incorporates an improved statistical method to filter out false positives from the negative controls. Our method is named PPIRank that stands for PPI ranking in TAP/MS data. We compared PPIRank with several other existing methods in analyzing two pathway-specific TAP/MS PPI datasets from Drosophila. Conclusion Experimental results show that PPIRank is more capable than other approaches in terms of identifying known interactions collected in the BioGRID PPI database. Specifically, PPIRank is able to capture more true interactions and simultaneously less false positives in both Insulin and Hippo pathways of Drosophila Melanogaster. PMID:24565074 3. A novel feature ranking method for prediction of cancer stages using proteomics data. PubMed Saghapour, Ehsan; Kermani, Saeed; Sehhati, Mohammadreza 2017-01-01 Proteomic analysis of cancers' stages has provided new opportunities for the development of novel, highly sensitive diagnostic tools which helps early detection of cancer. This paper introduces a new feature ranking approach called FRMT. FRMT is based on the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution method (TOPSIS) which select the most discriminative proteins from proteomics data for cancer staging. In this approach, outcomes of 10 feature selection techniques were combined by TOPSIS method, to select the final discriminative proteins from seven different proteomic databases of protein expression profiles. In the proposed workflow, feature selection methods and protein expressions have been considered as criteria and alternatives in TOPSIS, respectively. The proposed method is tested on seven various classifier models in a 10-fold cross validation procedure that repeated 30 times on the seven cancer datasets. The obtained results proved the higher stability and superior classification performance of method in comparison with other methods, and it is less sensitive to the applied classifier. Moreover, the final introduced proteins are informative and have the potential for application in the real medical practice. 4. Critical review of methods for risk ranking of food related hazards, based on risks for human health. PubMed van der Fels-Klerx, H J; van Asselt, E D; Raley, M; Poulsen, M; Korsgaard, H; Bredsdorff, L; Nauta, M; D'Agostino, M; Coles, D; Marvin, H J P; Frewer, L J 2016-02-08 This study aimed to critically review methods for ranking risks related to food safety and dietary hazards on the basis of their anticipated human health impacts. A literature review was performed to identify and characterize methods for risk ranking from the fields of food, environmental science and socio-economic sciences. The review used a predefined search protocol, and covered the bibliographic databases Scopus, CAB Abstracts, Web of Sciences, and PubMed over the period 1993-2013. All references deemed relevant, on the basis of of predefined evaluation criteria, were included in the review, and the risk ranking method characterized. The methods were then clustered - based on their characteristics - into eleven method categories. These categories included: risk assessment, comparative risk assessment, risk ratio method, scoring method, cost of illness, health adjusted life years, multi-criteria decision analysis, risk matrix, flow charts/decision trees, stated preference techniques and expert synthesis. Method categories were described by their characteristics, weaknesses and strengths, data resources, and fields of applications. It was concluded there is no single best method for risk ranking. The method to be used should be selected on the basis of risk manager/assessor requirements, data availability, and the characteristics of the method. Recommendations for future use and application are provided. 5. Multivariate standard addition method solved by net analyte signal calculation and rank annihilation factor analysis. PubMed Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Yousefinejad, Saeed 2009-08-01 This article describes the use of the net analyte signal (NAS) concept and rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA) for building two different multivariate standard addition models called "SANAS" and "SARAF." In the former, by the definition of a new subspace, the NAS vector of the analyte of interest in an unknown sample as well as the NAS vectors of samples spiked with various amounts of the standard solutions are calculated and then their Euclidean norms are plotted against the concentration of added standard. In this way, a simple linear standard addition graph similar to that in univariate calibration is obtained, from which the concentration of the analyte in the unknown sample and the analytical figures of merit are readily calculated. In the SARAF method, the concentration of the analyte in the unknown sample is varied iteratively until the contribution of the analyte in the response data matrix is completely annihilated. The proposed methods were evaluated by analyzing simulated absorbance data as well as by the analysis of two indicators in synthetic matrices as experimental data. The resultant predicted concentrations of unknown samples showed that the SANAS and SARAF methods both produced accurate results with relative errors of prediction lower than 5% in most cases. 6. A communication-avoiding, hybrid-parallel, rank-revealing orthogonalization method. SciTech Connect Hoemmen, Mark 2010-11-01 Orthogonalization consumes much of the run time of many iterative methods for solving sparse linear systems and eigenvalue problems. Commonly used algorithms, such as variants of Gram-Schmidt or Householder QR, have performance dominated by communication. Here, 'communication' includes both data movement between the CPU and memory, and messages between processors in parallel. Our Tall Skinny QR (TSQR) family of algorithms requires asymptotically fewer messages between processors and data movement between CPU and memory than typical orthogonalization methods, yet achieves the same accuracy as Householder QR factorization. Furthermore, in block orthogonalizations, TSQR is faster and more accurate than existing approaches for orthogonalizing the vectors within each block ('normalization'). TSQR's rank-revealing capability also makes it useful for detecting deflation in block iterative methods, for which existing approaches sacrifice performance, accuracy, or both. We have implemented a version of TSQR that exploits both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallelism, and supports real and complex arithmetic. Our implementation is optimized for the case of orthogonalizing a small number (5-20) of very long vectors. The shared-memory parallel component uses Intel's Threading Building Blocks, though its modular design supports other shared-memory programming models as well, including computation on the GPU. Our implementation achieves speedups of 2 times or more over competing orthogonalizations. It is available now in the development branch of the Trilinos software package, and will be included in the 10.8 release. 7. Population models and simulation methods: The case of the Spearman rank correlation. PubMed Astivia, Oscar L Olvera; Zumbo, Bruno D 2017-01-31 The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of a population model in guiding the design and interpretation of simulation studies used to investigate the Spearman rank correlation. The Spearman rank correlation has been known for over a hundred years to applied researchers and methodologists alike and is one of the most widely used non-parametric statistics. Still, certain misconceptions can be found, either explicitly or implicitly, in the published literature because a population definition for this statistic is rarely discussed within the social and behavioural sciences. By relying on copula distribution theory, a population model is presented for the Spearman rank correlation, and its properties are explored both theoretically and in a simulation study. Through the use of the Iman-Conover algorithm (which allows the user to specify the rank correlation as a population parameter), simulation studies from previously published articles are explored, and it is found that many of the conclusions purported in them regarding the nature of the Spearman correlation would change if the data-generation mechanism better matched the simulation design. More specifically, issues such as small sample bias and lack of power of the t-test and r-to-z Fisher transformation disappear when the rank correlation is calculated from data sampled where the rank correlation is the population parameter. A proof for the consistency of the sample estimate of the rank correlation is shown as well as the flexibility of the copula model to encompass results previously published in the mathematical literature. 8. Improved Parker's method for topographic models using Chebyshev series and low rank approximation NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Wu, Leyuan; Lin, Qiang 2017-03-01 We present a new method to improve the convergence of the well-known Parker's formula for the modelling of gravity and magnetic fields caused by sources with complex topography. In the original Parker's formula, two approximations are made, which may cause considerable numerical errors and instabilities: 1) the approximation of the forward and inverse continuous Fourier transforms using their discrete counterparts, the forward and inverse Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithms; 2) the approximation of the exponential function with its Taylor series expansion. In a previous paper of ours, we have made an effort addressing the first problem by applying the Gauss-FFT method instead of the standard FFT algorithm. The new Gauss-FFT based method shows improved numerical efficiency and agrees well with space-domain analytical or hybrid analytical-numerical algorithms. However, even under the simplifying assumption of a calculation surface being a level plane above all topographic sources, the method may still fail or become inaccurate under certain circumstances. When the peaks of the topography approach the observation surface too closely, the number of terms of the Taylor series expansion needed to reach a suitable precision becomes large and slows the calculation. We show in this paper that this problem is caused by the second approximation mentioned above, and it is due to the convergence property of the Taylor series expansion that the algorithm becomes inaccurate for certain topographic models with large amplitudes. Based on this observation, we present a modified Parker's method using low rank approximation (LRA) of the exponential function in virtue of the Chebfun software system. In this way, the optimal rate of convergence is achieved. Some pre-computation is needed but will not cause significant computational overheads. Synthetic and real model tests show that the method now works well for almost any practical topographic model, provided that the assumption 9. Improved Parker's method for topographic models using Chebyshev series and low rank approximation NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Wu, Leyuan; Lin, Qiang 2017-05-01 We present a new method to improve the convergence of the well-known Parker's formula for the modelling of gravity and magnetic fields caused by sources with complex topography. In the original Parker's formula, two approximations are made, which may cause considerable numerical errors and instabilities: (1) the approximation of the forward and inverse continuous Fourier transforms using their discrete counterparts, the forward and inverse Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithms; (2) the approximation of the exponential function with its Taylor series expansion. In a previous paper of ours, we have made an effort addressing the first problem by applying the Gauss-FFT method instead of the standard FFT algorithm. The new Gauss-FFT based method shows improved numerical efficiency and agrees well with space-domain analytical or hybrid analytical-numerical algorithms. However, even under the simplifying assumption of a calculation surface being a level plane above all topographic sources, the method may still fail or become inaccurate under certain circumstances. When the peaks of the topography approach the observation surface too closely, the number of terms of the Taylor series expansion needed to reach a suitable precision becomes large and slows the calculation. We show in this paper that this problem is caused by the second approximation mentioned above, and it is due to the convergence property of the Taylor series expansion that the algorithm becomes inaccurate for certain topographic models with large amplitudes. Based on this observation, we present a modified Parker's method using low rank approximation of the exponential function in virtue of the Chebfun software system. In this way, the optimal rate of convergence is achieved. Some pre-computation is needed but will not cause significant computational overheads. Synthetic and real model tests show that the method now works well for almost any practical topographic model, provided that the assumption, that 10. Comparisons of methods for determining dominance rank in male and female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogastor) USGS Publications Warehouse Lanctot, Richard B.; Best, Louis B. 2000-01-01 Dominance ranks in male and female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) were determined from 6 measurements that mimicked environmental situations that might be encountered by prairie voles in communal groups, including agonistic interactions resulting from competition for food and water and encounters in burrows. Male and female groups of 6 individuals each were tested against one another in pairwise encounters (i.e., dyads) for 5 of the measurements and together as a group in a 6th measurement. Two types of response variables, aggressive behaviors and possession time of a limiting resource, were collected during trials, and those data were used to determine cardinal ranks and principal component ranks for all animals within each group. Cardinal ranks and principal component ranks seldom yielded similar rankings for each animal across measurements. However, dominance measurements that were conducted in similar environmental contexts, regardless of the response variable recorded, ranked animals similarly. Our results suggest that individual dominance measurements assessed situation- or resource-specific responses. Our study demonstrates problems inherent in determining dominance rankings of individuals within groups, including choosing measurements, response variables, and statistical techniques. Researchers should avoid using a single measurement to represent social dominance until they have first demonstrated that a dominance relationship between 2 individuals has been learned (i.e., subsequent interactions show a reduced response rather than an escalation), that this relationship is relatively constant through time, and that the relationship is not context dependent. Such assessments of dominance status between all dyads then can be used to generate dominance rankings within social groups. 11. A Spatial Overlay Ranking Method for a Geospatial Search of Text Objects USGS Publications Warehouse Lanfear, Kenneth J. 2006-01-01 Earth-science researchers need the capability to find relevant information by location and topic. Conventional geographic techniques that simply check whether polygons intersect can efficiently achieve a high recall on location, but can not achieve precision for ranking results in likely order of importance to the reader. A spatial overlay ranking based upon how well an object's footprint matches the search area provides a more effective way to spatially search a collection of reports, and avoids many of the problems associated with an 'in/out' (True/False) boolean search. Moreover, spatial overlay ranking appears to work well even when spatial extent is defined only by a simple bounding box. 12. Global adaptive rank truncated product method for gene-set analysis in association studies. PubMed Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Calle, M Luz 2014-09-01 Gene set analysis (GSA) aims to assess the overall association of a set of genetic variants with a phenotype and has the potential to detect subtle effects of variants in a gene or a pathway that might be missed when assessed individually. We present a new implementation of the Adaptive Rank Truncated Product method (ARTP) for analyzing the association of a set of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in a gene or pathway. The new implementation, referred to as globalARTP, improves the original one by allowing the different SNPs in the set to have different modes of inheritance. We perform a simulation study for exploring the power of the proposed methodology in a set of scenarios with different numbers of causal SNPs with different effect sizes. Moreover, we show the advantage of using the gene set approach in the context of an Alzheimer's disease case-control study where we explore the endocytosis pathway. The new method is implemented in the R function globalARTP of the globalGSA package available at http://cran.r-project.org. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. 13. A Finite Field Method for Calculating Molecular Polarizability Tensors for Arbitrary Multipole Rank PubMed Central Elking, Dennis M.; Perera, Lalith; Duke, Robert; Darden, Thomas; Pedersen, Lee G. 2011-01-01 A finite field method for calculating spherical tensor molecular polarizability tensors αlm;l′m′ = ∂Δlm/∂ϕl′m′* by numerical derivatives of induced molecular multipole Δlm with respect to gradients of electrostatic potential ϕl′m′* is described for arbitrary multipole ranks l and l′. Inter-conversion formulae for transforming multipole moments and polarizability tensors between spherical and traceless Cartesian tensor conventions are derived. As an example, molecular polarizability tensors up to the hexadecapole-hexadecapole level are calculated for water at the HF, B3LYP, MP2, and CCSD levels. In addition, inter-molecular electrostatic and polarization energies calculated by molecular multipoles and polarizability tensors are compared to ab initio reference values calculated by the Reduced Variation Space (RVS) method for several randomly oriented small molecule dimers separated by a large distance. It is discussed how higher order molecular polarizability tensors can be used as a tool for testing and developing new polarization models for future force fields. PMID:21915883 14. A Z-number-based decision making procedure with ranking fuzzy numbers method NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Mohamad, Daud; Shaharani, Saidatull Akma; Kamis, Nor Hanimah 2014-12-01 The theory of fuzzy set has been in the limelight of various applications in decision making problems due to its usefulness in portraying human perception and subjectivity. Generally, the evaluation in the decision making process is represented in the form of linguistic terms and the calculation is performed using fuzzy numbers. In 2011, Zadeh has extended this concept by presenting the idea of Z-number, a 2-tuple fuzzy numbers that describes the restriction and the reliability of the evaluation. The element of reliability in the evaluation is essential as it will affect the final result. Since this concept can still be considered as new, available methods that incorporate reliability for solving decision making problems is still scarce. In this paper, a decision making procedure based on Z-numbers is proposed. Due to the limitation of its basic properties, Z-numbers will be first transformed to fuzzy numbers for simpler calculations. A method of ranking fuzzy number is later used to prioritize the alternatives. A risk analysis problem is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this proposed procedure. 15. Consistency of dominance rank order: a comparison of David's Scores with I&SI and Bayesian methods in macaques. PubMed Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; De Marco, A; Dittmar, K; Majolo, B; Ogawa, H; Thierry, B; De Vries, H 2013-09-01 In nonhuman primate social groups, dominance ranks are usually assigned to individuals based on outcomes of dyadic agonistic encounters. Multiple approaches have been used, but currently there is no consensus. One approach, David's Scores (DS), offers dual advantages of yielding cardinal scores that may in turn be used to compute hierarchical steepness. Here we correlate rank orders yielded by DS with those yielded by both the traditionally used I&SI approach and the recently proposed parametric Bayesian approach. We use six datasets for female macaques (three despotic and three tolerant groups), and 90 artificially generated datasets modeling macaque groups. We also use the artificial datasets to determine the impact of three characteristics (group size, interaction frequency, and directional asymmetry of aggression) on the magnitude of correlation coefficients, and assess the relative utility of two indices used to compute DS: Dij versus Pij. DS-based rank orders were strongly positively correlated with those yielded by the other two approaches for five out of the six macaque datasets, and for the majority of artificial datasets. Magnitudes of correlation coefficients were unrelated to group size or interaction frequency, but increased with directional asymmetry, suggesting methodological inconsistencies were more likely when dyads had more frequent reversals in directions of aggression. Finally, rank orders calculated using the Dij and Pij indices were similarly consistent with orders from other methods. We conclude that DS offers consistent estimates of rank orders, except perhaps in groups with very low levels of aggression asymmetry. In such "tolerant" groups, we suggest that the relatively greater methodological variability in rank orders may reflect behavioral characteristics of tolerant groups rather than computational inconsistencies between methods. We hypothesize that this quality may be quantified using posterior probability scores of Bayesian rank 16. Patch-based denoising method using low-rank technique and targeted database for optical coherence tomography image. PubMed Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhou; Wang, Jia; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Wei 2017-01-01 Image denoising is a crucial step before performing segmentation or feature extraction on an image, which affects the final result in image processing. In recent years, utilizing the self-similarity characteristics of the images, many patch-based image denoising methods have been proposed, but most of them, named the internal denoising methods, utilized the noisy image only where the performances are constrained by the limited information they used. We proposed a patch-based method, which uses a low-rank technique and targeted database, to denoise the optical coherence tomography (OCT) image. When selecting the similar patches for the noisy patch, our method combined internal and external denoising, utilizing the other images relevant to the noisy image, in which our targeted database is made up of these two kinds of images and is an improvement compared with the previous methods. Next, we leverage the low-rank technique to denoise the group matrix consisting of the noisy patch and the corresponding similar patches, for the fact that a clean image can be seen as a low-rank matrix and rank of the noisy image is much larger than the clean image. After the first-step denoising is accomplished, we take advantage of Gabor transform, which considered the layer characteristic of the OCT retinal images, to construct a noisy image before the second step. Experimental results demonstrate that our method compares favorably with the existing state-of-the-art methods. 17. RAMPART (TM): Risk Assessment Method-Property Analysis and Ranking Tool v.4.0 SciTech Connect Carson, Susan D.; Hunter, Regina L.; Link, Madison D.; Browitt, Robert D. 2007-09-30 RAMPART{trademark}, Risk Assessment Method-property Analysis and Ranking Tool, is a new type of computer software package for the assessment of risk to buildings. RAMPART{trademark} has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA). RAMPART {trademark} has been designed and developed to be a risk-based decision support tool that requires no risk analysis expertise on the part of the user. The RAMPART{trademark} user interface elicits information from the user about the building. The RAMPART{trademark} expert system is a set of rules that embodies GSA corporate knowledge and SNL's risk assessment experience. The RAMPART{trademark} database contains both data entered by the user during a building analysis session and large sets of natural hazard and crime data. RAMPART{trademark} algorithms use these data to assess the risk associated with a given building in the face of certain hazards. Risks arising from five natural hazards (earthquake, hurricane, winter storm, tornado and flood); crime (inside and outside the building); fire and terrorism are calculated. These hazards may cause losses of various kinds. RAMPART{trademark} considers death, injury, loss of mission, loss of property, loss of contents, loss of building use, and first-responder loss. The results of each analysis are presented graphically on the screen and in a written report. 18. NIH peer review percentile scores are poorly predictive of grant productivity PubMed Central Fang, Ferric C; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo 2016-01-01 Peer review is widely used to assess grant applications so that the highest ranked applications can be funded. A number of studies have questioned the ability of peer review panels to predict the productivity of applications, but a recent analysis of grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US found that the percentile scores awarded by peer review panels correlated with productivity as measured by citations of grant-supported publications. Here, based on a re-analysis of these data for the 102,740 funded grants with percentile scores of 20 or better, we report that these percentile scores are a poor discriminator of productivity. This underscores the limitations of peer review as a means of assessing grant applications in an era when typical success rates are often as low as about 10%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13323.001 PMID:26880623 19. The sensitivity of relative toxicity rankings by the USF/NASA test method to some test variables NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Hilado, C. J.; Labossiere, L. A.; Leon, H. A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hsu, M.-T. S. 1976-01-01 Pyrolysis temperature and the distance between the source and sensor of effluents are two important variables in tests for relative toxicity. Modifications of the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method to increase the upper temperature limit of pyrolysis, reduce the distance between the sample and the test animals, and increase the chamber volume available for animal occupancy, did not significantly alter rankings of relative toxicity of four representative materials. The changes rendered some differences no longer significant, but did not reverse any rankings. The materials studied were cotton, wool, aromatic polyamide, and polybenzimidazole. 20. The sensitivity of relative toxicity rankings by the USF/NASA test method to some test variables NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Hilado, C. J.; Labossiere, L. A.; Leon, H. A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hsu, M.-T. S. 1976-01-01 Pyrolysis temperature and the distance between the source and sensor of effluents are two important variables in tests for relative toxicity. Modifications of the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method to increase the upper temperature limit of pyrolysis, reduce the distance between the sample and the test animals, and increase the chamber volume available for animal occupancy, did not significantly alter rankings of relative toxicity of four representative materials. The changes rendered some differences no longer significant, but did not reverse any rankings. The materials studied were cotton, wool, aromatic polyamide, and polybenzimidazole. 1. Outlier detection for the Generalized Rank Annihilation Method in HPLC-DAD analysis. PubMed Ferré, Joan; Comas, Enric 2011-01-30 The Generalized Rank Annihilation Method (GRAM) is a second-order calibration method that is used in chromatography to quantify analytes that coelute with interferences. For a correct quantification, the peak of the analyte in the standard and in the test sample must be aligned and have the same shape (i.e., have a trilinear structure). Variations in retention time and shape between the two peaks may cause the test sample to behave as an outlier and produce an incorrect prediction. This situation cannot be detected by checking the coincidence of the recovered spectrum with the known spectrum of the analyte because the spectral domain is not affected. It cannot be detected either by checking if the recovered profile is correct (i.e., unimodal and positive). Several plots are presented to detect such outliers. The first plot compares the particular elution profiles in the standard and in the test sample that are recovered by least-squares regression from the spectra estimated by GRAM. The calculated elution profiles from both peaks should coincide. A second plot uses the elution profiles and spectra calculated by GRAM to define the vector space spanned by the interferences. The measured peaks in the standard and in the test sample are projected onto the space that is orthogonal to the space spanned by the interferences. These projections are proportional (up to the noise) if data are trilinear. The proportionality is checked graphically from the first singular vector of the projected peaks, or from the plot of the orthogonal signal versus the net sensitivity. The use of these graphs is shown for simulated data and for the determination of 4-nitrophenol in river water samples with liquid chromatography/UV-Vis detection. 2. Ordinal preference elicitation methods in health economics and health services research: using discrete choice experiments and ranking methods. PubMed Ali, Shehzad; Ronaldson, Sarah 2012-09-01 The predominant method of economic evaluation is cost-utility analysis, which uses cardinal preference elicitation methods, including the standard gamble and time trade-off. However, such approach is not suitable for understanding trade-offs between process attributes, non-health outcomes and health outcomes to evaluate current practices, develop new programmes and predict demand for services and products. Ordinal preference elicitation methods including discrete choice experiments and ranking methods are therefore commonly used in health economics and health service research. Cardinal methods have been criticized on the grounds of cognitive complexity, difficulty of administration, contamination by risk and preference attitudes, and potential violation of underlying assumptions. Ordinal methods have gained popularity because of reduced cognitive burden, lower degree of abstract reasoning, reduced measurement error, ease of administration and ability to use both health and non-health outcomes. The underlying assumptions of ordinal methods may be violated when respondents use cognitive shortcuts, or cannot comprehend the ordinal task or interpret attributes and levels, or use 'irrational' choice behaviour or refuse to trade-off certain attributes. CURRENT USE AND GROWING AREAS: Ordinal methods are commonly used to evaluate preference for attributes of health services, products, practices, interventions, policies and, more recently, to estimate utility weights. AREAS FOR ON-GOING RESEARCH: There is growing research on developing optimal designs, evaluating the rationalization process, using qualitative tools for developing ordinal methods, evaluating consistency with utility theory, appropriate statistical methods for analysis, generalizability of results and comparing ordinal methods against each other and with cardinal measures. 3. Application of the Simplified Dow Chemical Company Relative Ranking Hazard Assessment Method for Air Combat Command Bases DTIC Science & Technology 1993-09-01 Superfund ( CERCLA ) requirement that parties report to the NRC hazardous substance releases exceeding specified reportable quantities. The Accidental...ranking hazard assessment method. Hazard assessment includes both the identification and evaluation of the hazards. Title III of the Superfund Amendments...accident has changed how the United States industry prepares for accidents. Because of this accident the United States passed the Superfund Amendments 4. A geometric method for eigenvalue problems with low-rank perturbations PubMed Central Anastasio, Thomas J.; Bronski, Jared C. 2017-01-01 We consider the problem of finding the spectrum of an operator taking the form of a low-rank (rank one or two) non-normal perturbation of a well-understood operator, motivated by a number of problems of applied interest which take this form. We use the fact that the system is a low-rank perturbation of a solved problem, together with a simple idea of classical differential geometry (the envelope of a family of curves) to completely analyse the spectrum. We use these techniques to analyse three problems of this form: a model of the oculomotor integrator due to Anastasio & Gad (2007 J. Comput. Neurosci. 22, 239–254. (doi:10.1007/s10827-006-0010-x)), a continuum integrator model, and a non-local model of phase separation due to Rubinstein & Sternberg (1992 IMA J. Appl. Math. 48, 249–264. (doi:10.1093/imamat/48.3.249)). PMID:28989749 5. A Value and Ambiguity-Based Ranking Method of Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers and Application to Decision Making PubMed Central Zeng, Xiang-tian; Li, Deng-feng; Yu, Gao-feng 2014-01-01 The aim of this paper is to develop a method for ranking trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TrIFNs) in the process of decision making in the intuitionistic fuzzy environment. Firstly, the concept of TrIFNs is introduced. Arithmetic operations and cut sets over TrIFNs are investigated. Then, the values and ambiguities of the membership degree and the nonmembership degree for TrIFNs are defined as well as the value-index and ambiguity-index. Finally, a value and ambiguity-based ranking method is developed and applied to solve multiattribute decision making problems in which the ratings of alternatives on attributes are expressed using TrIFNs. A numerical example is examined to demonstrate the implementation process and applicability of the method proposed in this paper. Furthermore, comparison analysis of the proposed method is conducted to show its advantages over other similar methods. PMID:25147854 6. A Data-Based Method of Ranking Department, Faculty and Journals in Professional Impact. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Matson, Johnny L.; Lott, Julia D.; Bielecki, JoAnne 2003-01-01 Reviewed current popular rankings of clinical psychology schools and journals. Overall publication and citation records for full-time faculty at the top institutions were tabulated. Faculty members from the Department of Psychology at Louisiana State University were asked to list the most highly regarded journals in their specialty area. Rankings… 7. Combinatoric Models of Information Retrieval Ranking Methods and Performance Measures for Weakly-Ordered Document Collections ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Church, Lewis 2010-01-01 This dissertation answers three research questions: (1) What are the characteristics of a combinatoric measure, based on the Average Search Length (ASL), that performs the same as a probabilistic version of the ASL?; (2) Does the combinatoric ASL measure produce the same performance result as the one that is obtained by ranking a collection of… 8. Development of a percentile based three-dimensional model of the buttocks in computer system NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Wang, Lijing; He, Xueli; Li, Hongpeng 2016-05-01 There are diverse products related to human buttocks, which need to be designed, manufactured and evaluated with 3D buttock model. The 3D buttock model used in present research field is just simple approximate model similar to human buttocks. The 3D buttock percentile model is highly desired in the ergonomics design and evaluation for these products. So far, there is no research on the percentile sizing system of human 3D buttock model. So the purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for building three-dimensional buttock percentile model in computer system. After scanning the 3D shape of buttocks, the cloud data of 3D points is imported into the reverse engineering software (Geomagic) for the reconstructing of the buttock surface model. Five characteristic dimensions of the buttock are measured through mark-points after models being imported into engineering software CATIA. A series of space points are obtained by the intersecting of the cutting slices and 3D buttock surface model, and then are ordered based on the sequence number of the horizontal and vertical slices. The 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, 99th percentile values of the five dimensions and the spatial coordinate values of the space points are obtained, and used to reconstruct percentile buttock models. This research proposes a establishing method of percentile sizing system of buttock 3D model based on the percentile values of the ischial tuberosities diameter, the distances from margin to ischial tuberosity and the space coordinates value of coordinate points, for establishing the Nth percentile 3D buttock model and every special buttock types model. The proposed method also serves as a useful guidance for the other 3D percentile models establishment for other part in human body with characteristic points. 9. Rank Dynamics NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Gershenson, Carlos Studies of rank distributions have been popular for decades, especially since the work of Zipf. For example, if we rank words of a given language by use frequency (most used word in English is 'the', rank 1; second most common word is 'of', rank 2), the distribution can be approximated roughly with a power law. The same applies for cities (most populated city in a country ranks first), earthquakes, metabolism, the Internet, and dozens of other phenomena. We recently proposed rank diversity'' to measure how ranks change in time, using the Google Books Ngram dataset. Studying six languages between 1800 and 2009, we found that the rank diversity curves of languages are universal, adjusted with a sigmoid on log-normal scale. We are studying several other datasets (sports, economies, social systems, urban systems, earthquakes, artificial life). Rank diversity seems to be universal, independently of the shape of the rank distribution. I will present our work in progress towards a general description of the features of rank change in time, along with simple models which reproduce it 10. Davidon-Broyden rank-one minimization methods in Hilbert space with application to optimal control problems NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Straeter, T. A. 1972-01-01 The Davidon-Broyden class of rank one, quasi-Newton minimization methods is extended from Euclidean spaces to infinite-dimensional, real Hilbert spaces. For several techniques of choosing the step size, conditions are found which assure convergence of the associated iterates to the location of the minimum of a positive definite quadratic functional. For those techniques, convergence is achieved without the problem of the computation of a one-dimensional minimum at each iteration. The application of this class of minimization methods for the direct computation of the solution of an optimal control problem is outlined. The performance of various members of the class are compared by solving a sample optimal control problem. Finally, the sample problem is solved by other known gradient methods, and the results are compared with those obtained with the rank one quasi-Newton methods. 11. Hypothesis Testing of Population Percentiles via the Wald Test with Bootstrap Variance Estimates PubMed Central Johnson, William D.; Romer, Jacob E. 2016-01-01 Testing the equality of percentiles (quantiles) between populations is an effective method for robust, nonparametric comparison, especially when the distributions are asymmetric or irregularly shaped. Unlike global nonparametric tests for homogeneity such as the Kolmogorv-Smirnov test, testing the equality of a set of percentiles (i.e., a percentile profile) yields an estimate of the location and extent of the differences between the populations along the entire domain. The Wald test using bootstrap estimates of variance of the order statistics provides a unified method for hypothesis testing of functions of the population percentiles. Simulation studies are conducted to show performance of the method under various scenarios and to give suggestions on its use. Several examples are given to illustrate some useful applications to real data. PMID:27034909 12. Hypothesis Testing of Population Percentiles via the Wald Test with Bootstrap Variance Estimates. PubMed Johnson, William D; Romer, Jacob E 2016-02-01 Testing the equality of percentiles (quantiles) between populations is an effective method for robust, nonparametric comparison, especially when the distributions are asymmetric or irregularly shaped. Unlike global nonparametric tests for homogeneity such as the Kolmogorv-Smirnov test, testing the equality of a set of percentiles (i.e., a percentile profile) yields an estimate of the location and extent of the differences between the populations along the entire domain. The Wald test using bootstrap estimates of variance of the order statistics provides a unified method for hypothesis testing of functions of the population percentiles. Simulation studies are conducted to show performance of the method under various scenarios and to give suggestions on its use. Several examples are given to illustrate some useful applications to real data. 13. Semantic descriptor ranking: a quantitative method for evaluating qualitative verbal reports of visual cognition in the laboratory or the clinic PubMed Central Maestri, Matthew; Odel, Jeffrey; Hegdé, Jay 2014-01-01 For scientific, clinical, and machine learning purposes alike, it is desirable to quantify the verbal reports of high-level visual percepts. Methods to do this simply do not exist at present. Here we propose a novel methodological principle to help fill this gap, and provide empirical evidence designed to serve as the initial “proof” of this principle. In the proposed method, subjects view images of real-world scenes and describe, in their own words, what they saw. The verbal description is independently evaluated by several evaluators. Each evaluator assigns a rank score to the subject’s description of each visual object in each image using a novel ranking principle, which takes advantage of the well-known fact that semantic descriptions of real life objects and scenes can usually be rank-ordered. Thus, for instance, “animal,” “dog,” and “retriever” can be regarded as increasingly finer-level, and therefore higher ranking, descriptions of a given object. These numeric scores can preserve the richness of the original verbal description, and can be subsequently evaluated using conventional statistical procedures. We describe an exemplar implementation of this method and empirical data that show its feasibility. With appropriate future standardization and validation, this novel method can serve as an important tool to help quantify the subjective experience of the visual world. In addition to being a novel, potentially powerful testing tool, our method also represents, to our knowledge, the only available method for numerically representing verbal accounts of real-world experience. Given that its minimal requirements, i.e., a verbal description and the ground truth that elicited the description, our method has a wide variety of potential real-world applications. PMID:24624102 14. Semantic descriptor ranking: a quantitative method for evaluating qualitative verbal reports of visual cognition in the laboratory or the clinic. PubMed Maestri, Matthew; Odel, Jeffrey; Hegdé, Jay 2014-01-01 For scientific, clinical, and machine learning purposes alike, it is desirable to quantify the verbal reports of high-level visual percepts. Methods to do this simply do not exist at present. Here we propose a novel methodological principle to help fill this gap, and provide empirical evidence designed to serve as the initial "proof" of this principle. In the proposed method, subjects view images of real-world scenes and describe, in their own words, what they saw. The verbal description is independently evaluated by several evaluators. Each evaluator assigns a rank score to the subject's description of each visual object in each image using a novel ranking principle, which takes advantage of the well-known fact that semantic descriptions of real life objects and scenes can usually be rank-ordered. Thus, for instance, "animal," "dog," and "retriever" can be regarded as increasingly finer-level, and therefore higher ranking, descriptions of a given object. These numeric scores can preserve the richness of the original verbal description, and can be subsequently evaluated using conventional statistical procedures. We describe an exemplar implementation of this method and empirical data that show its feasibility. With appropriate future standardization and validation, this novel method can serve as an important tool to help quantify the subjective experience of the visual world. In addition to being a novel, potentially powerful testing tool, our method also represents, to our knowledge, the only available method for numerically representing verbal accounts of real-world experience. Given that its minimal requirements, i.e., a verbal description and the ground truth that elicited the description, our method has a wide variety of potential real-world applications. 15. Ranking games. PubMed Osterloh, Margit; Frey, Bruno S 2015-02-01 Research rankings based on bibliometrics today dominate governance in academia and determine careers in universities. Analytical approach to capture the incentives by users of rankings and by suppliers of rankings, both on an individual and an aggregate level. Rankings may produce unintended negative side effects. In particular, rankings substitute the "taste for science" by a "taste for publication." We show that the usefulness of rankings rests on several important assumptions challenged by recent research. We suggest as alternatives careful socialization and selection of scholars, supplemented by periodic self-evaluations and awards. The aim is to encourage controversial discourses in order to contribute meaningful to the advancement of science. © The Author(s) 2014. 16. Comparison of Document Index Graph Using TextRank and HITS Weighting Method in Automatic Text Summarization NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Hadyan, Fadhlil; Shaufiah; Arif Bijaksana, Moch. 2017-01-01 Automatic summarization is a system that can help someone to take the core information of a long text instantly. The system can help by summarizing text automatically. there’s Already many summarization systems that have been developed at this time but there are still many problems in those system. In this final task proposed summarization method using document index graph. This method utilizes the PageRank and HITS formula used to assess the web page, adapted to make an assessment of words in the sentences in a text document. The expected outcome of this final task is a system that can do summarization of a single document, by utilizing document index graph with TextRank and HITS to improve the quality of the summary results automatically. 17. Bias and imprecision in posture percentile variables estimated from short exposure samples PubMed Central 2012-01-01 Background Upper arm postures are believed to be an important risk determinant for musculoskeletal disorder development in the neck and shoulders. The 10th and 90th percentiles of the angular elevation distribution have been reported in many studies as measures of neutral and extreme postural exposures, and variation has been quantified by the 10th-90th percentile range. Further, the 50th percentile is commonly reported as a measure of "average" exposure. These four variables have been estimated using samples of observed or directly measured postures, typically using sampling durations between 5 and 120 min. Methods The present study examined the statistical properties of estimated full-shift values of the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile and the 10th-90th percentile range of right upper arm elevation obtained from samples of seven different durations, ranging from 5 to 240 min. The sampling strategies were realized by simulation, using a parent data set of 73 full-shift, continuous inclinometer recordings among hairdressers. For each shift, sampling duration and exposure variable, the mean, standard deviation and sample dispersion limits (2.5% and 97.5%) of all possible sample estimates obtained at one minute intervals were calculated and compared to the true full-shift exposure value. Results Estimates of the 10th percentile proved to be upward biased with limited sampling, and those of the 90th percentile and the percentile range, downward biased. The 50th percentile was also slightly upwards biased. For all variables, bias was more severe with shorter sampling durations, and it correlated significantly with the true full-shift value for the 10th and 90th percentiles and the percentile range. As expected, shorter samples led to decreased precision of the estimate; sample standard deviations correlated strongly with true full-shift exposure values. Conclusions The documented risk of pronounced bias and low precision of percentile estimates obtained from short 18. Ranking experts' preferences regarding measures and methods of assessment of welfare in dairy herds using Adaptive Conjoint Analysis. PubMed Lievaart, J J; Noordhuizen, J P T M 2011-07-01 Welfare in dairy herds can be addressed using different concepts. The difficulty is to extract which measures are the most important to practically address welfare at the herd level and the methods to assess traits considered most important. Therefore, the preferences of 24 acknowledged European welfare experts were ranked regarding 70 measures suitable to assess dairy cattle welfare at herd level using the Adaptive Conjoint Analysis (ACA; Sawtooth Software, Inc., Sequim, WA) technique. The experts were selected on the basis of 3 criteria: at least 5 yr experience in animal welfare research; recent scientific publications in the field of animal welfare; and, at the most, 3 animal species including dairy cattle as their field of expertise. The 70 traits were ranked by using the median ACA questionnaire utility scores and the range between the answers of the 24 experts. A high utility score with a low range between the answers of the experts was considered as suitable to assess welfare at farm level. Measures meeting these criteria were prevalence of lameness cases (107.3±11.7), competition for feed and water (96.4±13.9), and number of freestalls per 10 cows (84.8±13.3). Based on the utility score alone, these former measures were replaced by stereotypic behavior (111.7±17.1), prevalence of lameness cases (107.3±11.7), body condition score (108.0±18.9), and hock lesions (104.7±16.1). Subsequently, to demonstrate that the ACA technique can be used to rank either well-known or inconclusive methods of assessment, the methods for the traits lameness cases and the hygiene of the calving pen were ranked using another 2 ACA questionnaires. The results are based on the opinions of selected, internationally acknowledged dairy cattle welfare experts within the European Union. In the future, other parties like dairy farmers and farmers' organization should be included to achieve consensus about the most suitable traits applicable in practice. The currently investigated 19. Blood pressure percentiles in 22,051 German children and adolescents: The PEP Family Heart Study. PubMed Schwandt, Peter; Scholze, Juergen E; Bertsch, Thomas; Liepold, Evelyn; Haas, Gerda M 2015-05-01 Strong associations between blood pressure (BP) and overweight raise the question whether overweight children (body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile) should be included in the normative database. Using the LMS (Lamda-Mu-Sigma) method, we developed age-, gender-, and height-adjusted percentile curves for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at the 50th, 85th, 90th, 95th, and 97th percentiles in 22,051 German youths (18,917 normal-weight, 1,938 overweight, and 1,196 obese) aged 3-18 years from yearly cross-sectional surveys of the PEP Family Heart Study Nuremberg. Among children, we found no gender differences for BP and BMI. Male adolescents are taller and heavier. The mean prevalence of hypertension and obesity is 7.3% and 5.2% among children and 7.2% and 5.8% among adolescents, respectively. The prevalence of elevated BP increased substantially by weight groups achieving 24.4% in obese females and 21.9% in obese males with odds ratios of 5.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.1-7.5) and 4.3 (95% CI: 3.5-5.2), respectively. The shapes of the 10 LMS-smoothed SBP and DBP percentile curves differ substantially between gender and weight group. The normal-weight percentiles are nearly identical with the overall growth charts, but separate percentiles for overweight and obese youths provide considerably higher values, such as 148/91 vs. 136/86 mm Hg for a 17-year-old male and 136/91 vs. 123/81 mm Hg for female, respectively, at the 90th percentile. Because of substantially higher BP percentiles, separate databases for overweight and obese children and adolescents are strongly recommended. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com. 20. Using weight-for-age percentiles to screen for overweight and obese children and adolescents. PubMed Gamliel, Adir; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Siegel, Robert M; Fogelman, Yacov; Dubnov-Raz, Gal 2015-12-01 There are relatively low rates of screening for overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in primary care. A simplified method for such screening is needed. The study objective was to examine if weight-for-age percentiles are sufficiently sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. We used data from two distinct sources: four consecutive cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from the years 2005 to 2012, using participants aged 2-17.9 years for whom data on age, sex, weight, and height were available (n=12,884), and primary care clinic measurements (n=15,152). Primary outcomes were the threshold values of weight-for-age percentiles which best discriminated between normal weight, overweight, and obesity status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that weight-for-age percentiles well discriminated between normal weight and overweight and between non-obese and obese individuals (area under curve=0.956 and 0.977, respectively, both p<0.001). Following Classification and Regression Trees analysis, the 90th and 75th weight-for-age percentiles were chosen as appropriate cutoffs for obesity and overweight, respectively. These cutoffs had high sensitivity and negative predictive value in identifying obese participants (94.3% and 98.6%, respectively, for the 90th percentile) and in identifying overweight participants (93.2% and 95.9%, respectively, for the 75th percentile). The sensitivities and specificities were nearly identical across race and sex, and in the validation data from NHANES 2011 to 2012 and primary care. We conclude that weight-for-age percentiles can discriminate between normal weight, overweight and obese children, and adolescents. The 75th and 90th weight-for-age percentiles correspond well with the BMI cutoffs for pediatric overweight and obesity, respectively. 1. A comparison of methods of ranking the provision of periodontal services by dental practices in south Australia. PubMed Brown, L F 1995-03-01 Wide variations documented in the provision of periodontal services have raised concerns about possible under- and over-servicing. The aim of this study was to compare various methods used to measure the provision of periodontal services. The methods compared were procedure logs to measure service mix, audits of patients' records and patients' recall of treatment received at their last series of dental visits. The study was conducted among private general dental practices in Adelaide, South Australia. The first aspect of the study compared 2,290 patients' recall of receiving periodontal information, including oral hygiene instruction, or periodontal treatment at their last dental visit(s) with notations of their dental records. Discordance was high, with disagreement occurring in 71.5 per cent of cases for patient education, and 42.2 per cent of cases for periodontal treatment. Comparison of the ranking of the provision of periodontally-related services by 24 dental practices according to the three data collection methods showed that the ranking of a practice was significantly related to the data collection method used (Friedman's two-way ANOVA; P < 0.05). It was concluded that methods used to measure the provision of periodontal care are fallible, and that more than one method may be needed to record the full range of preventive and treatment services. 2. Reference percentiles for FEV1 and BMI in European children and adults with cystic fibrosis PubMed Central 2012-01-01 Background The clinical course of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is usually measured using the percent predicted FEV1 and BMI Z-score referenced against a healthy population, since achieving normality is the ultimate goal of CF care. Referencing against age and sex matched CF peers may provide valuable information for patients and for comparison between CF centers or populations. Here, we used a large database of European CF patients to compute CF specific reference equations for FEV1 and BMI, derived CF-specific percentile charts and compared these European data to their nearest international equivalents. Methods 34859 FEV1 and 40947 BMI observations were used to compute European CF specific percentiles. Quantile regression was applied to raw measurements as a function of sex, age and height. Results were compared with the North American equivalent for FEV1 and with the WHO 2007 normative values for BMI. Results FEV1 and BMI percentiles illustrated the large variability between CF patients receiving the best current care. The European CF specific percentiles for FEV1 were significantly different from those in the USA from an earlier era, with higher lung function in Europe. The CF specific percentiles for BMI declined relative to the WHO standard in older children. Lung function and BMI were similar in the two largest contributing European Countries (France and Germany). Conclusion The CF specific percentile approach applied to FEV1 and BMI allows referencing patients with respect to their peers. These data allow peer to peer and population comparisons in CF patients. PMID:22958330 3. Chronic dietary risk characterization for pesticide residues: a ranking and scoring method integrating agricultural uses and food contamination data. PubMed Nougadère, Alexandre; Reninger, Jean-Cédric; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles 2011-07-01 A method has been developed to identify pesticide residues and foodstuffs for inclusion in national monitoring programs with different priority levels. It combines two chronic dietary intake indicators: ATMDI based on maximum residue levels and agricultural uses, and EDI on food contamination data. The mean and 95th percentile of exposure were calculated for 490 substances using individual and national consumption data. The results show that mean ATMDI exceeds the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for 10% of the pesticides, and the mean upper-bound EDI is above the ADI for 1.8% of substances. A seven-level risk scale is presented for substances already analyzed in food in France and substances not currently sought. Of 336 substances analyzed, 70 pesticides of concern (levels 2-5) should be particularly monitored, 22 of which are priority pesticides (levels 4 and 5). Of 154 substances not sought, 36 pesticides of concern (levels 2-4) should be included in monitoring programs, including 8 priority pesticides (level 4). In order to refine exposure assessment, analytical improvements and developments are needed to lower the analytical limits for priority pesticide/commodity combinations. Developed nationally, this method could be applied at different geographic scales. 4. Bootstrap rank-ordered conditional mutual information (broCMI): A nonlinear input variable selection method for water resources modeling NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Quilty, John; Adamowski, Jan; Khalil, Bahaa; Rathinasamy, Maheswaran 2016-03-01 The input variable selection problem has recently garnered much interest in the time series modeling community, especially within water resources applications, demonstrating that information theoretic (nonlinear)-based input variable selection algorithms such as partial mutual information (PMI) selection (PMIS) provide an improved representation of the modeled process when compared to linear alternatives such as partial correlation input selection (PCIS). PMIS is a popular algorithm for water resources modeling problems considering nonlinear input variable selection; however, this method requires the specification of two nonlinear regression models, each with parametric settings that greatly influence the selected input variables. Other attempts to develop input variable selection methods using conditional mutual information (CMI) (an analog to PMI) have been formulated under different parametric pretenses such as k nearest-neighbor (KNN) statistics or kernel density estimates (KDE). In this paper, we introduce a new input variable selection method based on CMI that uses a nonparametric multivariate continuous probability estimator based on Edgeworth approximations (EA). We improve the EA method by considering the uncertainty in the input variable selection procedure by introducing a bootstrap resampling procedure that uses rank statistics to order the selected input sets; we name our proposed method bootstrap rank-ordered CMI (broCMI). We demonstrate the superior performance of broCMI when compared to CMI-based alternatives (EA, KDE, and KNN), PMIS, and PCIS input variable selection algorithms on a set of seven synthetic test problems and a real-world urban water demand (UWD) forecasting experiment in Ottawa, Canada. 5. How to Rank Journals. PubMed Bradshaw, Corey J A; Brook, Barry W 2016-01-01 There are now many methods available to assess the relative citation performance of peer-reviewed journals. Regardless of their individual faults and advantages, citation-based metrics are used by researchers to maximize the citation potential of their articles, and by employers to rank academic track records. The absolute value of any particular index is arguably meaningless unless compared to other journals, and different metrics result in divergent rankings. To provide a simple yet more objective way to rank journals within and among disciplines, we developed a κ-resampled composite journal rank incorporating five popular citation indices: Impact Factor, Immediacy Index, Source-Normalized Impact Per Paper, SCImago Journal Rank and Google 5-year h-index; this approach provides an index of relative rank uncertainty. We applied the approach to six sample sets of scientific journals from Ecology (n = 100 journals), Medicine (n = 100), Multidisciplinary (n = 50); Ecology + Multidisciplinary (n = 25), Obstetrics & Gynaecology (n = 25) and Marine Biology & Fisheries (n = 25). We then cross-compared the κ-resampled ranking for the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set to the results of a survey of 188 publishing ecologists who were asked to rank the same journals, and found a 0.68-0.84 Spearman's ρ correlation between the two rankings datasets. Our composite index approach therefore approximates relative journal reputation, at least for that discipline. Agglomerative and divisive clustering and multi-dimensional scaling techniques applied to the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set identified specific clusters of similarly ranked journals, with only Nature & Science separating out from the others. When comparing a selection of journals within or among disciplines, we recommend collecting multiple citation-based metrics for a sample of relevant and realistic journals to calculate the composite rankings and their relative uncertainty windows. 6. How to Rank Journals PubMed Central Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Brook, Barry W. 2016-01-01 There are now many methods available to assess the relative citation performance of peer-reviewed journals. Regardless of their individual faults and advantages, citation-based metrics are used by researchers to maximize the citation potential of their articles, and by employers to rank academic track records. The absolute value of any particular index is arguably meaningless unless compared to other journals, and different metrics result in divergent rankings. To provide a simple yet more objective way to rank journals within and among disciplines, we developed a κ-resampled composite journal rank incorporating five popular citation indices: Impact Factor, Immediacy Index, Source-Normalized Impact Per Paper, SCImago Journal Rank and Google 5-year h-index; this approach provides an index of relative rank uncertainty. We applied the approach to six sample sets of scientific journals from Ecology (n = 100 journals), Medicine (n = 100), Multidisciplinary (n = 50); Ecology + Multidisciplinary (n = 25), Obstetrics & Gynaecology (n = 25) and Marine Biology & Fisheries (n = 25). We then cross-compared the κ-resampled ranking for the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set to the results of a survey of 188 publishing ecologists who were asked to rank the same journals, and found a 0.68–0.84 Spearman’s ρ correlation between the two rankings datasets. Our composite index approach therefore approximates relative journal reputation, at least for that discipline. Agglomerative and divisive clustering and multi-dimensional scaling techniques applied to the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set identified specific clusters of similarly ranked journals, with only Nature & Science separating out from the others. When comparing a selection of journals within or among disciplines, we recommend collecting multiple citation-based metrics for a sample of relevant and realistic journals to calculate the composite rankings and their relative uncertainty windows. PMID:26930052 7. Relationship between Small Animal Intern Rank and Performance at a University Teaching Hospital. PubMed Hofmeister, Erik H; Saba, Corey; Kent, Marc; Creevy, Kate E 2015-01-01 The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between selection committee rankings of internship applicants and the performance of small animal interns. The hypothesis was that there would be a relationship between selection committee rank order and intern performance; the more highly an application was ranked, the better the intern's performance scores would be. In 2007, the Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery instituted a standardized approach to its intern selection process both to streamline the process and to track its effectiveness. At the end of intern years 2010-2014, every faculty member in the department was provided an intern assessment form for that year's class. There was no relationship between an individual intern's final rank by the selection committee and his/her performance either as a percentile score or a Likert-type score (p=.25, R2=0.04; p=0.31, R2=0.03, respectively). Likewise, when interns were divided into the top and bottom quartile based on their final rank by the selection committee, there was no relationship between their rank and their performance as a percentile score (median rank 15 vs. 20; p=.14) or Likert-type score (median rank 14 vs. 19; p=.27). Institutions that use a similar intern selection method may need to reconsider the time and effort being expended for an outcome that does not predict performance. Alternatively, specific criteria more predictive of performance outcomes should be identified and employed in the internship selection process. 8. Creating Composite Age Groups to Smooth Percentile Rank Distributions of Small Samples ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Lopez, Francesca; Olson, Amy; Bansal, Naveen 2011-01-01 Individually administered tests are often normed on small samples, a process that may result in irregularities within and across various age or grade distributions. Test users often smooth distributions guided by Thurstone assumptions (normality and linearity) to result in norms that adhere to assumptions made about how the data should look. Test… 9. Creating Composite Age Groups to Smooth Percentile Rank Distributions of Small Samples ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Lopez, Francesca; Olson, Amy; Bansal, Naveen 2011-01-01 Individually administered tests are often normed on small samples, a process that may result in irregularities within and across various age or grade distributions. Test users often smooth distributions guided by Thurstone assumptions (normality and linearity) to result in norms that adhere to assumptions made about how the data should look. Test… 10. Method and algorithm of ranking boiler plants at block electric power stations by the criterion of operation reliability and profitability NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Farhadzadeh, E. M.; Muradaliyev, A. Z.; Farzaliyev, Y. Z. 2015-10-01 A method and an algorithm of ranking of boiler installations based on their technical and economic indicators are proposed. One of the basic conditions for ranking is the independence of technical and economic indicators. The assessment of their interrelation was carried out with respect to the correlation rate. The analysis of calculation data has shown that the interrelation stability with respect to the value and sign persists only for those indicators that have an evident relationship between each other. One of the calculation steps is the normalization of quantitative estimates of technical and economic indicators, which makes it possible to eliminate differences in dimensions and indicator units. The analysis of the known methods of normalization has allowed one to recommend the relative deviation from the average value as a normalized value and to use the arithmetic mean of the normalized values of independent indicators of each boiler installation as an integrated index of performance reliability and profitability. The fundamental differences from the existing approach to assess the "weak components" of a boiler installation and the quality of monitoring of its operating regimes are that the given approach takes into account the reliability and profitability of the operation of all other analogous boiler installations of an electric power station; it also implements competing elements with respect to the quality of control among the operating personnel of separate boiler installations and is aimed at encouraging an increased quality of maintenance and repairs. 11. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation for drug-induced liver injury using a pair ranking method. PubMed Liu, Zhichao; Fang, Hong; Borlak, Jürgen; Roberts, Ruth; Tong, Weida 2017-01-11 Preclinical animal toxicity studies may not accurately predict human toxicity. In light of this, in vitro systems have been developed that have the potential to supplement or even replace animal use. We examined in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of gene expression data obtained from The Open Japanese Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System (Open TG-GATEs) for 131 compounds given to rats for 28 days, and to human or rat hepatocytes for 24 hours. Notably, a Pair Ranking (PRank) method was developed to assess IVIVE potential with a PRank score based on the preservation of the order of similarity rankings of compound pairs between the platforms using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to measure area under the curve (AUC). A high IVIVE potential was noted for rat primary hepatocytes when compared to rat 28-day studies (PRank score = 0.71) whereas the IVIVE potential for human primary hepatocytes compared to rat 28-day studies was lower (PRank score = 0.58), indicating that species difference plays a critical role in IVIVE. When limiting the analysis to only those drugs causing drug-induced liver injury, the IVIVE potential was slightly improved both for rats (from 0.71 to 0.76) and for humans (from 0.58 to 0.62). Similarly, PRank scores were improved when the analyses focused on specific hepatotoxic endpoints such as hepatocellular injury, or cholestatic injury. In conclusion, toxicogenomic data generated in vitro yields a ranking of drugs in their potential to cause toxicity as generated from in vivo analyses. 12. Ranking Profiles ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Van Der Werf, Martin 2007-01-01 This article presents the "U.S. News" ranking profiles of four colleges, namely: (1) Smith College; (2) Washington University in St. Louis; (3) Colorado State University at Fort Collins; and (4) Whitman College. Smith College was in the top 10 of the nation's liberal-arts colleges, or just outside it, almost since the "U.S.… 13. Reply to “Ranking filter methods for concentrating pathogens in lake water” USGS Publications Warehouse Bushon, Rebecca N.; Francy, Donna S.; Gallardo, Vicente J.; Lindquist, H.D. Alan; Villegas, Eric N.; Ware, Michael W. 2013-01-01 Accurately comparing filtration methods is indeed difficult. Our method (1) and the method described by Borchardt et al. for determining recoveries are both acceptable approaches; however, each is designed to achieve a different research goal. Our study was designed to compare recoveries of multiple microorganisms in surface-water samples. Because, in practice, water-matrix effects come into play throughout filtration, concentration, and detection processes, we felt it important to incorporate those effects into the recovery results. 14. Method for ranking biological habitats in oil spill response planning and impact assessment SciTech Connect Adams, J.K.; Benkert, K.A.; Keller, C.; White, R. 1984-08-01 The report describes a method that enables oil spill response planners to minimize the ecological impacts of oil spills by determining protection priorites for biological habitats. The objective of the method is to allow persons responding to an oil spill to quickly identify areas that should be protected first, second, and on to the extent that personnel and equipment are available. The first part of the report describes the rationale and general components of the method. The last part presents an application of the method to the Louisana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) spill response planning area. 28 references, 9 tables. 15. Estimation of a monotone percentile residual life function under random censorship. PubMed Franco-Pereira, Alba M; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo 2013-01-01 In this paper, we introduce a new estimator of a percentile residual life function with censored data under a monotonicity constraint. Specifically, it is assumed that the percentile residual life is a decreasing function. This assumption is useful when estimating the percentile residual life of units, which degenerate with age. We establish a law of the iterated logarithm for the proposed estimator, and its n-equivalence to the unrestricted estimator. The asymptotic normal distribution of the estimator and its strong approximation to a Gaussian process are also established. We investigate the finite sample performance of the monotone estimator in an extensive simulation study. Finally, data from a clinical trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver are analyzed with the proposed methods. One of the conclusions of our work is that the restricted estimator may be much more efficient than the unrestricted one. 16. Emotion Awareness Predicts Body Mass Index Percentile Trajectories in Youth. PubMed Whalen, Diana J; Belden, Andy C; Barch, Deanna; Luby, Joan 2015-10-01 To examine the rate of change in body mass index (BMI) percentile across 3 years in relation to emotion identification ability and brain-based reactivity in emotional processing regions. A longitudinal sample of 202 youths completed 3 functional magnetic resonance imaging-based facial processing tasks and behavioral emotion differentiation tasks. We examined the rate of change in the youth's BMI percentile as a function of reactivity in emotional processing brain regions and behavioral emotion identification tasks using multilevel modeling. Lower correct identification of both happiness and sadness measured behaviorally predicted increases in BMI percentile across development, whereas higher correct identification of both happiness and sadness predicted decreases in BMI percentile, while controlling for children's pubertal status, sex, ethnicity, IQ score, exposure to antipsychotic medication, family income-to-needs ratio, and externalizing, internalizing, and depressive symptoms. Greater neural activation in emotional reactivity regions to sad faces also predicted increases in BMI percentile during development, also controlling for the aforementioned covariates. Our findings provide longitudinal developmental data demonstrating links between both emotion identification ability and greater neural reactivity in emotional processing regions with trajectories of BMI percentiles across childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 17. Individual variability in preference for energy-dense foods fails to predict child BMI percentile. PubMed Potter, Christina; Griggs, Rebecca L; Ferriday, Danielle; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M 2017-04-01 Many studies show that higher dietary energy density is associated with greater body weight. Here we explored two propositions: i) that child BMI percentile is associated with individual differences in children's relative preference for energy-dense foods, ii) that child BMI percentile is associated with the same individual differences between their parents. Child-parent dyads were recruited from a local interactive science center in Bristol (UK). Using computerized tasks, participants ranked their preference and rated their liking for a range of snack foods that varied in energy density. Children (aged 3-14years, N=110) and parents completed the tasks for themselves. Parents also completed two further tasks in which they ranked the foods in the order that they would prioritize for their child, and again, in the order that they thought their child would choose. Children preferred (t(109)=3.91, p<0.001) and better liked the taste of (t(109)=3.28, p=0.001) higher energy-dense foods, and parents correctly estimated this outcome (t(109)=7.18, p<0.001). Conversely, lower energy-dense foods were preferred (t(109)=-4.63, p<0.001), better liked (t(109)=-2.75, p=0.007) and served (t(109)=-15.06, p<0.001) by parents. However, we found no evidence that child BMI percentile was associated with child or parent preference for, or liking of, energy-dense foods. Therefore, we suggest that the observed relationship between dietary energy density and body weight is not explained by individual differences in preference for energy density. 18. The oxygen sensitivity/compatibility ranking of several materials by different test methods NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Lockhart, Billy J.; Bryan, Coleman J.; Hampton, Michael D. 1989-01-01 Eleven materials were evaluated for oxygen compatibility using the following test methods: heat of combustion (ASTM D 2015), liquid oxygen impact (ASTM D 2512), pneumatic impact (ASTM G 74), gaseous mechanical impact (ASTM G 86), autogenous ignition temperature by pressurized differential scanning calorimeter, and the determination of the 50 percent reaction level in liquid oxygen using silicon carbide as a reaction enhancer. The eleven materials evaluated were: Teflon TFE, Vespel SP-21, Krytox 240AC, Viton PLV5010B, Fluorel E2160, Kel F 81, Fluorogold, Fluorogreen E-600, Rulon A, Garlock 8573, nylon 6/6. 19. Comments on: fold change rank ordering statistics: a new method for detecting differentially expressed genes. PubMed Dembélé, Doulaye; Kastner, Philippe 2016-11-15 We published a new method (BMC Bioinformatics 2014, 15:14) for searching for differentially expressed genes from two biological conditions datasets. The presentation of theorem 1 in this paper was incomplete. We received an anonymous comment about our publication that motivates the present work. Here, we present a complementary result which is necessary from the theoretical point of view to demonstrate our theorem. We also show that this result has no negative impact on our conclusions obtained with synthetic and experimental microarrays datasets. 20. An automated method for identification and ranking of hyperspectral target detections NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Basener, Bill 2011-06-01 In this paper we present a new methodology for automated target detection and identification in hyperspectral imagery. The standard paradigm for target detection in hyperspectral imagery is to run a detection algorithm, typically statistical in nature, and visually inspect each high-scoring pixel to decide whether it is a true detection or a false alarm. Detection filters have constant false alarm rates (CFARs) approaching 10-5, but these can still result in a large number of false alarms given multiple images and a large number of target materials. Here we introduce a new methodology for target detection and identification in hyperspectral imagery that shows promise for hard targets. The result is a greatly reduced false alarm rate and a practical methodology for aiding an analyst in quantitatively evaluating detected pixels. We demonstrate the utility of the method with results on data from the HyMap sensor over the Cooke City, MT. 1. A Chemical Risk Ranking and Scoring Method for the Selection of Harmful Substances to be Specially Controlled in Occupational Environments PubMed Central Shin, Saemi; Moon, Hyung-Il; Lee, Kwon Seob; Hong, Mun Ki; Byeon, Sang-Hoon 2014-01-01 This study aimed to devise a method for prioritizing hazardous chemicals for further regulatory action. To accomplish this objective, we chose appropriate indicators and algorithms. Nine indicators from the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals were used to identify categories to which the authors assigned numerical scores. Exposure indicators included handling volume, distribution, and exposure level. To test the method devised by this study, sixty-two harmful substances controlled by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in Korea, including acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and styrene were ranked using this proposed method. The correlation coefficients between total score and each indicator ranged from 0.160 to 0.641, and those between total score and hazard indicators ranged from 0.603 to 0.641. The latter were higher than the correlation coefficients between total score and exposure indicators, which ranged from 0.160 to 0.421. Correlations between individual indicators were low (−0.240 to 0.376), except for those between handling volume and distribution (0.613), suggesting that each indicator was not strongly correlated. The low correlations between each indicator mean that the indicators and independent and were well chosen for prioritizing harmful chemicals. This method proposed by this study can improve the cost efficiency of chemical management as utilized in occupational regulatory systems. PMID:25419874 2. A chemical risk ranking and scoring method for the selection of harmful substances to be specially controlled in occupational environments. PubMed Shin, Saemi; Moon, Hyung-Il; Lee, Kwon Seob; Hong, Mun Ki; Byeon, Sang-Hoon 2014-11-20 This study aimed to devise a method for prioritizing hazardous chemicals for further regulatory action. To accomplish this objective, we chose appropriate indicators and algorithms. Nine indicators from the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals were used to identify categories to which the authors assigned numerical scores. Exposure indicators included handling volume, distribution, and exposure level. To test the method devised by this study, sixty-two harmful substances controlled by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in Korea, including acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and styrene were ranked using this proposed method. The correlation coefficients between total score and each indicator ranged from 0.160 to 0.641, and those between total score and hazard indicators ranged from 0.603 to 0.641. The latter were higher than the correlation coefficients between total score and exposure indicators, which ranged from 0.160 to 0.421. Correlations between individual indicators were low (-0.240 to 0.376), except for those between handling volume and distribution (0.613), suggesting that each indicator was not strongly correlated. The low correlations between each indicator mean that the indicators and independent and were well chosen for prioritizing harmful chemicals. This method proposed by this study can improve the cost efficiency of chemical management as utilized in occupational regulatory systems. 3. An evaluation of percentile and maximum likelihood estimators of weibull paremeters Treesearch Stanley J. Zarnoch; Tommy R. Dell 1985-01-01 Two methods of estimating the three-parameter Weibull distribution were evaluated by computer simulation and field data comparison. Maximum likelihood estimators (MLB) with bias correction were calculated with the computer routine FITTER (Bailey 1974); percentile estimators (PCT) were those proposed by Zanakis (1979). The MLB estimators had superior smaller bias and... 4. A Comparison of Growth Percentile and Value-Added Models of Teacher Performance. Working Paper #39 ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Guarino, Cassandra M.; Reckase, Mark D.; Stacy, Brian W.; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M. 2014-01-01 School districts and state departments of education frequently must choose between a variety of methods to estimating teacher quality. This paper examines under what circumstances the decision between estimators of teacher quality is important. We examine estimates derived from student growth percentile measures and estimates derived from commonly… 5. A new method for comparing rankings through complex networks: Model and analysis of competitiveness of major European soccer leagues NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Criado, Regino; García, Esther; Pedroche, Francisco; Romance, Miguel 2013-12-01 In this paper, we show a new technique to analyze families of rankings. In particular, we focus on sports rankings and, more precisely, on soccer leagues. We consider that two teams compete when they change their relative positions in consecutive rankings. This allows to define a graph by linking teams that compete. We show how to use some structural properties of this competitivity graph to measure to what extend the teams in a league compete. These structural properties are the mean degree, the mean strength, and the clustering coefficient. We give a generalization of the Kendall's correlation coefficient to more than two rankings. We also show how to make a dynamic analysis of a league and how to compare different leagues. We apply this technique to analyze the four major European soccer leagues: Bundesliga, Italian Lega, Spanish Liga, and Premier League. We compare our results with the classical analysis of sport ranking based on measures of competitive balance. 6. A new method for comparing rankings through complex networks: model and analysis of competitiveness of major European soccer leagues. PubMed Criado, Regino; García, Esther; Pedroche, Francisco; Romance, Miguel 2013-12-01 In this paper, we show a new technique to analyze families of rankings. In particular, we focus on sports rankings and, more precisely, on soccer leagues. We consider that two teams compete when they change their relative positions in consecutive rankings. This allows to define a graph by linking teams that compete. We show how to use some structural properties of this competitivity graph to measure to what extend the teams in a league compete. These structural properties are the mean degree, the mean strength, and the clustering coefficient. We give a generalization of the Kendall's correlation coefficient to more than two rankings. We also show how to make a dynamic analysis of a league and how to compare different leagues. We apply this technique to analyze the four major European soccer leagues: Bundesliga, Italian Lega, Spanish Liga, and Premier League. We compare our results with the classical analysis of sport ranking based on measures of competitive balance. 7. MRPrimer: a MapReduce-based method for the thorough design of valid and ranked primers for PCR. PubMed Kim, Hyerin; Kang, NaNa; Chon, Kang-Wook; Kim, Seonho; Lee, NaHye; Koo, JaeHyung; Kim, Min-Soo 2015-11-16 Primer design is a fundamental technique that is widely used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although many methods have been proposed for primer design, they require a great deal of manual effort to generate feasible and valid primers, including homology tests on off-target sequences using BLAST-like tools. That approach is inconvenient for many target sequences of quantitative PCR (qPCR) due to considering the same stringent and allele-invariant constraints. To address this issue, we propose an entirely new method called MRPrimer that can design all feasible and valid primer pairs existing in a DNA database at once, while simultaneously checking a multitude of filtering constraints and validating primer specificity. Furthermore, MRPrimer suggests the best primer pair for each target sequence, based on a ranking method. Through qPCR analysis using 343 primer pairs and the corresponding sequencing and comparative analyses, we showed that the primer pairs designed by MRPrimer are very stable and effective for qPCR. In addition, MRPrimer is computationally efficient and scalable and therefore useful for quickly constructing an entire collection of feasible and valid primers for frequently updated databases like RefSeq. Furthermore, we suggest that MRPrimer can be utilized conveniently for experiments requiring primer design, especially real-time qPCR. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research. 8. MRPrimer: a MapReduce-based method for the thorough design of valid and ranked primers for PCR PubMed Central Kim, Hyerin; Kang, NaNa; Chon, Kang-Wook; Kim, Seonho; Lee, NaHye; Koo, JaeHyung; Kim, Min-Soo 2015-01-01 Primer design is a fundamental technique that is widely used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although many methods have been proposed for primer design, they require a great deal of manual effort to generate feasible and valid primers, including homology tests on off-target sequences using BLAST-like tools. That approach is inconvenient for many target sequences of quantitative PCR (qPCR) due to considering the same stringent and allele-invariant constraints. To address this issue, we propose an entirely new method called MRPrimer that can design all feasible and valid primer pairs existing in a DNA database at once, while simultaneously checking a multitude of filtering constraints and validating primer specificity. Furthermore, MRPrimer suggests the best primer pair for each target sequence, based on a ranking method. Through qPCR analysis using 343 primer pairs and the corresponding sequencing and comparative analyses, we showed that the primer pairs designed by MRPrimer are very stable and effective for qPCR. In addition, MRPrimer is computationally efficient and scalable and therefore useful for quickly constructing an entire collection of feasible and valid primers for frequently updated databases like RefSeq. Furthermore, we suggest that MRPrimer can be utilized conveniently for experiments requiring primer design, especially real-time qPCR. PMID:26109350 9. Rank-based methods as a non-parametric alternative of the T-statistic for the analysis of biological microarray data. PubMed Breitling, Rainer; Herzyk, Pawel 2005-10-01 We have recently introduced a rank-based test statistic, RankProducts (RP), as a new non-parametric method for detecting differentially expressed genes in microarray experiments. It has been shown to generate surprisingly good results with biological datasets. The basis for this performance and the limits of the method are, however, little understood. Here we explore the performance of such rank-based approaches under a variety of conditions using simulated microarray data, and compare it with classical Wilcoxon rank sums and t-statistics, which form the basis of most alternative differential gene expression detection techniques. We show that for realistic simulated microarray datasets, RP is more powerful and accurate for sorting genes by differential expression than t-statistics or Wilcoxon rank sums - in particular for replicate numbers below 10, which are most commonly used in biological experiments. Its relative performance is particularly strong when the data are contaminated by non-normal random noise or when the samples are very inhomogenous, e.g. because they come from different time points or contain a mixture of affected and unaffected cells. However, RP assumes equal measurement variance for all genes and tends to give overly optimistic p-values when this assumption is violated. It is therefore essential that proper variance stabilizing normalization is performed on the data before calculating the RP values. Where this is impossible, another rank-based variant of RP (average ranks) provides a useful alternative with very similar overall performance. The Perl scripts implementing the simulation and evaluation are available upon request. Implementations of the RP method are available for download from the authors website (http://www.brc.dcs.gla.ac.uk/glama). 10. Novel rank-based statistical methods reveal microRNAs with differential expression in multiple cancer types. PubMed Navon, Roy; Wang, Hui; Steinfeld, Israel; Tsalenko, Anya; Ben-Dor, Amir; Yakhini, Zohar 2009-11-25 MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate target genes at the post-transcriptional level and play important roles in cancer pathogenesis and development. Variation amongst individuals is a significant confounding factor in miRNA (or other) expression studies. The true character of biologically or clinically meaningful differential expression can be obscured by inter-patient variation. In this study we aim to identify miRNAs with consistent differential expression in multiple tumor types using a novel data analysis approach. Using microarrays we profiled the expression of more than 700 miRNAs in 28 matched tumor/normal samples from 8 different tumor types (breast, colon, liver, lung, lymphoma, ovary, prostate and testis). This set is unique in putting emphasis on minimizing tissue type and patient related variability using normal and tumor samples from the same patient. We develop scores for comparing miRNA expression in the above matched sample data based on a rigorous characterization of the distribution of order statistics over a discrete state set, including exact p-values. Specifically, we compute a Rank Consistency Score (RCoS) for every miRNA measured in our data. Our methods are also applicable in various other contexts. We compare our methods, as applied to matched samples, to paired t-test and to the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. We identify consistent (across the cancer types measured) differentially expressed miRNAs. 41 miRNAs are under-expressed in cancer compared to normal, at FDR (False Discovery Rate) of 0.05 and 17 are over-expressed at the same FDR level. Differentially expressed miRNAs include known oncomiRs (e.g miR-96) as well as miRNAs that were not previously universally associated with cancer. Specific examples include miR-133b and miR-486-5p, which are consistently down regulated and mir-629* which is consistently up regulated in cancer, in the context of our cohort. Data is available in GEO. Software is available at: http://bioinfo.cs.technion.ac.il/people/zohar/RCoS/ 11. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking PubMed Central 2012-01-01 Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. PMID:23157331 12. Examining the Reliability of Student Growth Percentiles Using Multidimensional IRT ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li 2015-01-01 Student growth percentiles (SGPs, Betebenner, 2009) are used to locate a student's current score in a conditional distribution based on the student's past scores. Currently, following Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is most often used operationally to estimate the SGPs. Alternatively, multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) may… 13. Examining the Reliability of Student Growth Percentiles Using Multidimensional IRT ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li 2015-01-01 Student growth percentiles (SGPs, Betebenner, 2009) are used to locate a student's current score in a conditional distribution based on the student's past scores. Currently, following Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is most often used operationally to estimate the SGPs. Alternatively, multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) may… 14. Ranking of causes lead to road accidents using a new linguistic variable in interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight of a decision making method NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Zamri, Nurnadiah; Abdullah, Lazim 2014-07-01 A linguistic data is a variable whose value is naturally language phase in dealing with too complex situation to be described properly in conventional quantitative expressions. However, all the past researchers on linguistic variables used positive fuzzy numbers in expressing meaning of symbolic word. It seems that positive and negative numbers were never put concurrently in defining linguistic variables. Accordingly, we intend to construct a new positive and negative linguistic variable in interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight for interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS (IT2 FTOPSIS). This paper uses a new linguistic variable in interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight to capture the problems on reducing number of road accidents due to all the previously mentioned methods had no discussion about ranking of factors associated with road accidents. Specifically the objective of this paper is to establish rankings of the selected factors associated with road accidents using a new positive and negative linguistic variable and interval type-2 fuzzy entropy weight in interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS. This new method is hoped can produce an optimal preference ranking of alternatives in accordance with a set of criterion wise ranking in selection of causes that lead to road accidents. The proposed method produces actionable results that laid the decision-making process. Besides, it does not require a complicated computation procedure and will be beneficial to decision analysis. 15. SibRank: Signed bipartite network analysis for neighbor-based collaborative ranking NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Shams, Bita; Haratizadeh, Saman 2016-09-01 Collaborative ranking is an emerging field of recommender systems that utilizes users' preference data rather than rating values. Unfortunately, neighbor-based collaborative ranking has gained little attention despite its more flexibility and justifiability. This paper proposes a novel framework, called SibRank that seeks to improve the state of the art neighbor-based collaborative ranking methods. SibRank represents users' preferences as a signed bipartite network, and finds similar users, through a novel personalized ranking algorithm in signed networks. 16. Should we use customized fetal growth percentiles in urban Canada? PubMed Melamed, Nir; Ray, Joel G; Shah, Prakesh S; Berger, Howard; Kingdom, John C 2014-02-01 An increasingly common challenge in antenatal care of the small for gestational age (SGA) fetus is the distinction between the constitutionally (physiologically) small fetus and the fetus affected by pathological intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We discuss here the rationale and the evidence for the use of customized growth percentiles for the purpose of distinguishing between the fetus with true IUGR and the fetus with constitutional SGA. We also provide estimates of the potential effects of adopting ethnicity-specific birth weight curves on the rates of SGA and large for gestational age status in multi-ethnic metropolitan cities in North America and Europe, such as the City of Toronto. Using customized growth percentiles would result in a considerable decline in the rate of a false-positive diagnosis of SGA among visible minorities, and improve the detection rate of true large for gestational age fetuses among these groups. 17. Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation PubMed Central Dou, Yong 2017-01-01 Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss) objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms. PMID:28293256 18. Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation. PubMed Chen, Kai; Li, Rongchun; Dou, Yong; Liang, Zhengfa; Lv, Qi 2017-01-01 Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss) objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms. 19. Standardized childhood fitness percentiles derived from school-based testing. PubMed Carrel, Aaron L; Bowser, John; White, Doug; Moberg, D Paul; Weaver, Brian; Hisgen, Jon; Eickhoff, Jens; Allen, David B 2012-07-01 To develop a statewide school-based program of measuring and reporting cardiovascular fitness levels in children, and to create age- and sex-specific cardiovascular fitness percentile-based distribution curves. A pilot study validated cardiovascular fitness assessment with Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) testing as an accurate predictor of cardiovascular fitness measured by maximal oxygen consumption treadmill testing. Schools throughout the state were then recruited to perform PACER and body mass index (BMI) measurement and report de-identified data to a centralized database. Data on 20 631 individual students with a mean age 12.1 ± 2.0 years, BMI of 21.4 ± 5.1, and a cardiovascular fitness measured with PACER of 29.7 ± 18.2 laps (estimated maximal oxygen consumption of 36.5 mL/kg/min) were submitted for analysis. Standardized fitness percentiles were calculated for age and sex. This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing, reporting, and recording annual school-based assessments of cardiovascular fitness to develop standardized childhood fitness percentiles on the basis of age and sex. Such data can be useful in comparing populations and assessing initiatives that aim to improve childhood fitness. Because health consequences of obesity result from both adiposity and physical inactivity, supplementation of BMI measurement with tracking of cardiovascular fitness adds a valuable tool for large-scale health assessment. Published by Mosby, Inc. 20. University Rankings in China ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Liu, Nian Cai; Liu, Li 2005-01-01 Since the mid 1990s of last Century, university rankings have become very popular in China. Six institutions have published such rankings; some of them have also detailed their ranking methodologies. This paper features a general introduction to university ranking in China, and to the methodologies of each ranking discussed. The paper also… 1. A rank-based nonparametric method for mapping quantitative trait loci in outbred half-sib pedigrees: application to milk production in a granddaughter design. PubMed Central Coppieters, W; Kvasz, A; Farnir, F; Arranz, J J; Grisart, B; Mackinnon, M; Georges, M 1998-01-01 We describe the development of a multipoint nonparametric quantitative trait loci mapping method based on the Wilcoxon rank-sum test applicable to outbred half-sib pedigrees. The method has been evaluated on a simulated dataset and its efficiency compared with interval mapping by using regression. It was shown that the rank-based approach is slightly inferior to regression when the residual variance is homoscedastic normal; however, in three out of four other scenarios envisaged, i.e., residual variance heteroscedastic normal, homoscedastic skewed, and homoscedastic positively kurtosed, the latter outperforms the former one. Both methods were applied to a real data set analyzing the effect of bovine chromosome 6 on milk yield and composition by using a 125-cM map comprising 15 microsatellites and a granddaughter design counting 1158 Holstein-Friesian sires. PMID:9649541 2. A Novel Multi-Sensor Environmental Perception Method Using Low-Rank Representation and a Particle Filter for Vehicle Reversing Safety. PubMed Zhang, Zutao; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Fubing; Meng, Guanjun; Salman, Waleed; Saleem, Layth; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chunbai; Hu, Guangdi; Liu, Yugang 2016-06-09 Environmental perception and information processing are two key steps of active safety for vehicle reversing. Single-sensor environmental perception cannot meet the need for vehicle reversing safety due to its low reliability. In this paper, we present a novel multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. The proposed system consists of four main steps, namely multi-sensor environmental perception, information fusion, target recognition and tracking using low-rank representation and a particle filter, and vehicle reversing speed control modules. First of all, the multi-sensor environmental perception module, based on a binocular-camera system and ultrasonic range finders, obtains the distance data for obstacles behind the vehicle when the vehicle is reversing. Secondly, the information fusion algorithm using an adaptive Kalman filter is used to process the data obtained with the multi-sensor environmental perception module, which greatly improves the robustness of the sensors. Then the framework of a particle filter and low-rank representation is used to track the main obstacles. The low-rank representation is used to optimize an objective particle template that has the smallest L-1 norm. Finally, the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking is under control of the proposed vehicle reversing control strategy prior to any potential collisions, making the reversing control safer and more reliable. The final system simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the validity of the proposed multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. 3. A Novel Multi-Sensor Environmental Perception Method Using Low-Rank Representation and a Particle Filter for Vehicle Reversing Safety PubMed Central Zhang, Zutao; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Fubing; Meng, Guanjun; Salman, Waleed; Saleem, Layth; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chunbai; Hu, Guangdi; Liu, Yugang 2016-01-01 Environmental perception and information processing are two key steps of active safety for vehicle reversing. Single-sensor environmental perception cannot meet the need for vehicle reversing safety due to its low reliability. In this paper, we present a novel multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. The proposed system consists of four main steps, namely multi-sensor environmental perception, information fusion, target recognition and tracking using low-rank representation and a particle filter, and vehicle reversing speed control modules. First of all, the multi-sensor environmental perception module, based on a binocular-camera system and ultrasonic range finders, obtains the distance data for obstacles behind the vehicle when the vehicle is reversing. Secondly, the information fusion algorithm using an adaptive Kalman filter is used to process the data obtained with the multi-sensor environmental perception module, which greatly improves the robustness of the sensors. Then the framework of a particle filter and low-rank representation is used to track the main obstacles. The low-rank representation is used to optimize an objective particle template that has the smallest L-1 norm. Finally, the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking is under control of the proposed vehicle reversing control strategy prior to any potential collisions, making the reversing control safer and more reliable. The final system simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the validity of the proposed multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. PMID:27294931 4. Wingate Anaerobic Test Percentile Norms in Colombian Healthy Adults. PubMed Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Albán, Carlos A; La Rotta-Villamizar, Diego R; Romero-García, Jesús A; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel 2016-01-01 The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) became one of the most convenient tests used to evaluate anaerobic capacity and the effectiveness of anaerobic training programs for a variety of power sports. However, its use and interpretation as an evaluative measurement are limited because there are few published reference values derived from large numbers of subjects in nonathletic populations. We present reference values for the WAnT in Colombian healthy adults (aged 20-80 years old). The sample comprised 1,873 subjects (64% men) from Cali, Colombia, who were recruited for the study between 2002 and 2012. The 30-second WAnT was performed on a Monark ergometer. The WAnT resistance was set at 0.075 kp · kg(-1) body mass (BM). The mean absolute peak power (PP), relative PP normalized to the BM, and the fatigue index (FI%) were calculated using the LMS method (L [curve Box-Cox], M [curve median], and S [curve coefficient of variation]) and expressed as tabulated percentiles from 3 to 97 and as smoothed centile curves (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P97). Mean ± SD values for the patients' anthropometric data were 38.1 ± 11.7 years of age, 72.7 ± 14.2 kg weight, 1.68 ± 0.09 m height, and 25.6 ± 4.2 body mass index. Our results show that mean absolute PP value, relative PP relative values normalized to BM, and FI were 527.4 ± 131.7 W, 7.6 ± 2.3 W · kg(-1), and 29.0 ± 15.7%, respectively. Men performed better than women in terms of PP and FI values. Nevertheless, the mean PP decreased with age and sex. Age-specific PP and FI normative values among healthy Colombian adults are defined. A more specific set of reference values is useful for clinicians and researchers studying anaerobic capacity in healthy adults. 5. [Physical activity patterns of school adolescents: Validity, reliability and percentiles proposal for their evaluation]. PubMed Cossío Bolaños, Marco; Méndez Cornejo, Jorge; Luarte Rocha, Cristian; Vargas Vitoria, Rodrigo; Canqui Flores, Bernabé; Gomez Campos, Rossana 2016-08-16 Regular physical activity (PA) during childhood and adolescence is important for the prevention of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. To validate a questionnaire for measuring patterns of PA, verify the reliability, comparing the levels of PA aligned with chronological and biological age, and to develop percentile curves to assess PA levels depending on biological maturation. Descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on a sample non-probabilistic quota of 3,176 Chilean adolescents (1685 males and 1491 females), with a mean age range from 10.0 to 18.9 years. An analysis was performed on, weight, standing and sitting height. The biological age through the years of peak growth rate and chronological age in years was determined. Body Mass Index was calculated and a survey of PA was applied. The LMS method was used to develop percentiles. The values for the confirmatory analysis showed saturations between 0.517 and 0.653. The value of adequacy of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) was 0.879 and with 70.8% of the variance explained. The Cronbach alpha values ranged from 0.81 to 0.86. There were differences between the genders when aligned chronological age. There were no differences when aligned by biological age. Percentiles are proposed to classify the PA of adolescents of both genders according to biological age and sex. The questionnaire used was valid and reliable, plus the PA should be evaluated by biological age. These findings led to the development of percentiles to assess PA according to biological age and gender. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved. 6. [Physical activity patterns of school adolescents: Validity, reliability and percentiles proposal for their evaluation]. PubMed Cossío Bolaños, Marco; Méndez Cornejo, Jorge; Luarte Rocha, Cristian; Vargas Vitoria, Rodrigo; Canqui Flores, Bernabé; Gomez Campos, Rossana 2017-02-01 Regular physical activity (PA) during childhood and adolescence is important for the prevention of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. To validate a questionnaire for measuring patterns of PA, verify the reliability, comparing the levels of PA aligned with chronological and biological age, and to develop percentile curves to assess PA levels depending on biological maturation. Descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on a sample non-probabilistic quota of 3,176 Chilean adolescents (1685 males and 1491 females), with a mean age range from 10.0 to 18.9 years. An analysis was performed on, weight, standing and sitting height. The biological age through the years of peak growth rate and chronological age in years was determined. Body Mass Index was calculated and a survey of PA was applied. The LMS method was used to develop percentiles. The values for the confirmatory analysis showed saturations between 0.517 and 0.653. The value of adequacy of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) was 0.879 and with 70.8% of the variance explained. The Cronbach alpha values ranged from 0.81 to 0.86. There were differences between the genders when aligned chronological age. There were no differences when aligned by biological age. Percentiles are proposed to classify the PA of adolescents of both genders according to biological age and sex. The questionnaire used was valid and reliable, plus the PA should be evaluated by biological age. These findings led to the development of percentiles to assess PA according to biological age and gender. 7. Estimated monthly percentile discharges at ungaged sites in the Upper Yellowstone River Basin in Montana USGS Publications Warehouse Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A. 1986-01-01 Once-monthly streamflow measurements were used to estimate selected percentile discharges on flow-duration curves of monthly mean discharge for 40 ungaged stream sites in the upper Yellowstone River basin in Montana. The estimation technique was a modification of the concurrent-discharge method previously described and used by H.C. Riggs to estimate annual mean discharge. The modified technique is based on the relationship of various mean seasonal discharges to the required discharges on the flow-duration curves. The mean seasonal discharges are estimated from the monthly streamflow measurements, and the percentile discharges are calculated from regression equations. The regression equations, developed from streamflow record at nine gaging stations, indicated a significant log-linear relationship between mean seasonal discharge and various percentile discharges. The technique was tested at two discontinued streamflow-gaging stations; the differences between estimated monthly discharges and those determined from the discharge record ranged from -31 to +27 percent at one site and from -14 to +85 percent at the other. The estimates at one site were unbiased, and the estimates at the other site were consistently larger than the recorded values. Based on the test results, the probable average error of the technique was + or - 30 percent for the 21 sites measured during the first year of the program and + or - 50 percent for the 19 sites measured during the second year. (USGS) 8. Percentile Distributions of Birth Weight according to Gestational Ages in Korea (2010-2012) PubMed Central 2016-01-01 The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010–2012), smoothed percentile curves (3rd–97th) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22–23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504 9. Multi-stage classification method oriented to aerial image based on low-rank recovery and multi-feature fusion sparse representation. PubMed Ma, Xu; Cheng, Yongmei; Hao, Shuai 2016-12-10 Automatic classification of terrain surfaces from an aerial image is essential for an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) landing at an unprepared site by using vision. Diverse terrain surfaces may show similar spectral properties due to the illumination and noise that easily cause poor classification performance. To address this issue, a multi-stage classification algorithm based on low-rank recovery and multi-feature fusion sparse representation is proposed. First, color moments and Gabor texture feature are extracted from training data and stacked as column vectors of a dictionary. Then we perform low-rank matrix recovery for the dictionary by using augmented Lagrange multipliers and construct a multi-stage terrain classifier. Experimental results on an aerial map database that we prepared verify the classification accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. 10. Ranking targets in structure-based virtual screening of three-dimensional protein libraries: methods and problems. PubMed Kellenberger, Esther; Foata, Nicolas; Rognan, Didier 2008-05-01 Structure-based virtual screening is a promising tool to identify putative targets for a specific ligand. Instead of docking multiple ligands into a single protein cavity, a single ligand is docked in a collection of binding sites. In inverse screening, hits are in fact targets which have been prioritized within the pool of best ranked proteins. The target rate depends on specificity and promiscuity in protein-ligand interactions and, to a considerable extent, on the effectiveness of the scoring function, which still is the Achilles' heel of molecular docking. In the present retrospective study, virtual screening of the sc-PDB target library by GOLD docking was carried out for four compounds (biotin, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen, 6-hydroxy-1,6-dihydropurine ribonucleoside, and methotrexate) of known sc-PDB targets and, several ranking protocols based on GOLD fitness score and topological molecular interaction fingerprint (IFP) comparison were evaluated. For the four investigated ligands, the fusion of GOLD fitness and two IFP scores allowed the recovery of most targets, including the rare proteins which are not readily suitable for statistical analysis, while significantly filtering out most false positive entries. The current survey suggests that selecting a small number of targets (<20) for experimental evaluation is achievable with a pure structure-based approach. 11. Dimension Reduction for Object Ranking NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Kamishima, Toshihiro; Akaho, Shotaro Ordered lists of objects are widely used as representational forms. Such ordered objects include Web search results and bestseller lists. Techniques for processing such ordinal data are being developed, particularly methods for an object ranking task: i.e., learning functions used to sort objects from sample orders. In this article, we propose two dimension reduction methods specifically designed to improve prediction performance in an object ranking task. 12. A New Method for Assessing the Statistical Significance in the Differential Functioning of Items and Tests (DFIT) Framework ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Oshima, T. C.; Raju, Nambury S.; Nanda, Alice O. 2006-01-01 A new item parameter replication method is proposed for assessing the statistical significance of the noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF) index associated with the differential functioning of items and tests framework. In this new method, a cutoff score for each item is determined by obtaining a (1-alpha ) percentile rank score… 13. A New Method for Assessing the Statistical Significance in the Differential Functioning of Items and Tests (DFIT) Framework ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Oshima, T. C.; Raju, Nambury S.; Nanda, Alice O. 2006-01-01 A new item parameter replication method is proposed for assessing the statistical significance of the noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF) index associated with the differential functioning of items and tests framework. In this new method, a cutoff score for each item is determined by obtaining a (1-alpha ) percentile rank score… 14. Quantifying aflatoxins in peanuts using fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with multi-way methods: Resurrecting second-order advantage in excitation-emission matrices with rank overlap problem. PubMed Sajjadi, S Maryam; Abdollahi, Hamid; Rahmanian, Reza; Bagheri, Leila 2016-03-05 A rapid, simple and inexpensive method using fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with multi-way methods for the determination of aflatoxins B1 and B2 in peanuts has been developed. In this method, aflatoxins are extracted with a mixture of water and methanol (90:10), and then monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy producing EEMs. Although the combination of EEMs and multi-way methods is commonly used to determine analytes in complex chemical systems with unknown interference(s), rank overlap problem in excitation and emission profiles may restrain the application of this strategy. If there is rank overlap in one mode, there are several three-way algorithms such as PARAFAC under some constraints that can resolve this kind of data successfully. However, the analysis of EEM data is impossible when some species have rank overlap in both modes because the information of the data matrix is equivalent to a zero-order data for that species, which is the case in our study. Aflatoxins B1 and B2 have the same shape of spectral profiles in both excitation and emission modes and we propose creating a third order data for each sample using solvent as a new additional selectivity mode. This third order data, in turn, converted to the second order data by augmentation, a fact which resurrects the second order advantage in original EEMs. The three-way data is constructed by stacking augmented data in the third way, and then analyzed by two powerful second order calibration methods (BLLS-RBL and PARAFAC) to quantify the analytes in four kinds of peanut samples. The results of both methods are in good agreement and reasonable recoveries are obtained. 15. Quantifying aflatoxins in peanuts using fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with multi-way methods: Resurrecting second-order advantage in excitation-emission matrices with rank overlap problem NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Sajjadi, S. Maryam; Abdollahi, Hamid; Rahmanian, Reza; Bagheri, Leila 2016-03-01 A rapid, simple and inexpensive method using fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with multi-way methods for the determination of aflatoxins B1 and B2 in peanuts has been developed. In this method, aflatoxins are extracted with a mixture of water and methanol (90:10), and then monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy producing EEMs. Although the combination of EEMs and multi-way methods is commonly used to determine analytes in complex chemical systems with unknown interference(s), rank overlap problem in excitation and emission profiles may restrain the application of this strategy. If there is rank overlap in one mode, there are several three-way algorithms such as PARAFAC under some constraints that can resolve this kind of data successfully. However, the analysis of EEM data is impossible when some species have rank overlap in both modes because the information of the data matrix is equivalent to a zero-order data for that species, which is the case in our study. Aflatoxins B1 and B2 have the same shape of spectral profiles in both excitation and emission modes and we propose creating a third order data for each sample using solvent as a new additional selectivity mode. This third order data, in turn, converted to the second order data by augmentation, a fact which resurrects the second order advantage in original EEMs. The three-way data is constructed by stacking augmented data in the third way, and then analyzed by two powerful second order calibration methods (BLLS-RBL and PARAFAC) to quantify the analytes in four kinds of peanut samples. The results of both methods are in good agreement and reasonable recoveries are obtained. 16. A simple surrogate test method to rank the wear performance of prospective ceramic materials under hip prosthesis edge-loading conditions. PubMed Sanders, Anthony P; Brannon, Rebecca M 2014-02-01 This research has developed a novel test method for evaluating the wear resistance of ceramic materials under severe contact stresses simulating edge loading in prosthetic hip bearings. Simply shaped test specimens - a cylinder and a spheroid - were designed as surrogates for an edge-loaded, head/liner implant pair. Equivalency of the simpler specimens was assured in the sense that their theoretical contact dimensions and pressures were identical, according to Hertzian contact theory, to those of the head/liner pair. The surrogates were fabricated in three ceramic materials: Al2 O3 , zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA), and ZrO2 . They were mated in three different material pairs and reciprocated under a 200 N normal contact force for 1000-2000 cycles, which created small (<1 mm(2) ) wear scars. The three material pairs were ranked by their wear resistance, quantified by the volume of abraded material measured using an interferometer. Similar tests were performed on edge-loaded hip implants in the same material pairs. The surrogates replicated the wear rankings of their full-scale implant counterparts and mimicked their friction force trends. The results show that a proxy test using simple test specimens can validly rank the wear performance of ceramic materials under severe, edge-loading contact stresses, while replicating the beginning stage of edge-loading wear. This simple wear test is therefore potentially useful for screening and ranking new, prospective materials early in their development, to produce optimized candidates for more complicated full-scale hip simulator wear tests. 17. Hasse diagram as a green analytical metrics tool: ranking of methods for benzo[a]pyrene determination in sediments. PubMed Bigus, Paulina; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek; Tobiszewski, Marek 2016-05-01 This study presents an application of the Hasse diagram technique (HDT) as the assessment tool to select the most appropriate analytical procedures according to their greenness or the best analytical performance. The dataset consists of analytical procedures for benzo[a]pyrene determination in sediment samples, which were described by 11 variables concerning their greenness and analytical performance. Two analyses with the HDT were performed-the first one with metrological variables and the second one with "green" variables as input data. Both HDT analyses ranked different analytical procedures as the most valuable, suggesting that green analytical chemistry is not in accordance with metrology when benzo[a]pyrene in sediment samples is determined. The HDT can be used as a good decision support tool to choose the proper analytical procedure concerning green analytical chemistry principles and analytical performance merits. 18. Rank Pooling for Action Recognition. PubMed Fernando, Basura; Gavves, Efstratios; Oramas M, Jose Oramas; Ghodrati, Amir; Tuytelaars, Tinne 2017-04-01 We propose a function-based temporal pooling method that captures the latent structure of the video sequence data - e.g., how frame-level features evolve over time in a video. We show how the parameters of a function that has been fit to the video data can serve as a robust new video representation. As a specific example, we learn a pooling function via ranking machines. By learning to rank the frame-level features of a video in chronological order, we obtain a new representation that captures the video-wide temporal dynamics of a video, suitable for action recognition. Other than ranking functions, we explore different parametric models that could also explain the temporal changes in videos. The proposed functional pooling methods, and rank pooling in particular, is easy to interpret and implement, fast to compute and effective in recognizing a wide variety of actions. We evaluate our method on various benchmarks for generic action, fine-grained action and gesture recognition. Results show that rank pooling brings an absolute improvement of 7-10 average pooling baseline. At the same time, rank pooling is compatible with and complementary to several appearance and local motion based methods and features, such as improved trajectories and deep learning features. 19. EJSCREEN National Percentiles Lookup Table--2015 Public Release EPA Pesticide Factsheets The USA table provides percentile breaks of important EJSCREEN elements (demographic indicators and indexes, environmental indicators and indexes) at the national summary level. This table provides support to the EJSCREEN reporting tools. EJSCREEN is an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for calculating EJ indexes, which can be used for highlighting places that may be candidates for further review, analysis, or outreach as the agency develops programs, policies and other activities.The National-scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) environmental indicators and EJ indexes, which include cancer risk, respiratory hazard, neurodevelopment hazard, and diesel particulate matter will be added into EJSCREEN during the first full public update after the soon-to-be-released 2011 dataset is made available. All NATA associated indicator and index elements are currently set to Null. 20. A flexible genome-wide bootstrap method that accounts for ranking and threshold-selection bias in GWAS interpretation and replication study design. PubMed Faye, Laura L; Sun, Lei; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos; Bull, Shelley B 2011-07-10 The phenomenon known as the winner's curse is a form of selection bias that affects estimates of genetic association. In genome-wide association studies (GWAS) the bias is exacerbated by the use of stringent selection thresholds and ranking over hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We develop an improved multi-locus bootstrap point estimate and confidence interval, which accounts for both ranking- and threshold-selection bias in the presence of genome-wide SNP linkage disequilibrium structure. The bootstrap method easily adapts to various study designs and alternative test statistics as well as complex SNP selection criteria. The latter is demonstrated by our application to the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium findings, in which the selection criterion was the minimum of the p-values for the additive and genotypic genetic effect models. In contrast, existing likelihood-based bias-reduced estimators account for the selection criterion applied to an SNP as if it were the only one tested, and so are more simple computationally, but do not address ranking across SNPs. Our simulation studies show that the bootstrap bias-reduced estimates are usually closer to the true genetic effect than the likelihood estimates and are less variable with a narrower confidence interval. Replication study sample size requirements computed from the bootstrap bias-reduced estimates are adequate 75-90 per cent of the time compared to 53-60 per cent of the time for the likelihood method. The bootstrap methods are implemented in a user-friendly package able to provide point and interval estimation for both binary and quantitative phenotypes in large-scale GWAS. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1. A combined molecular docking-based and pharmacophore-based target prediction strategy with a probabilistic fusion method for target ranking. PubMed Li, Guo-Bo; Yang, Ling-Ling; Xu, Yong; Wang, Wen-Jing; Li, Lin-Li; Yang, Sheng-Yong 2013-07-01 Herein, a combined molecular docking-based and pharmacophore-based target prediction strategy is presented, in which a probabilistic fusion method is suggested for target ranking. Establishment and validation of the combined strategy are described. A target database, termed TargetDB, was firstly constructed, which contains 1105 drug targets. Based on TargetDB, the molecular docking-based target prediction and pharmacophore-based target prediction protocols were established. A probabilistic fusion method was then developed by constructing probability assignment curves (PACs) against a set of selected targets. Finally the workflow for the combined molecular docking-based and pharmacophore-based target prediction strategy was established. Evaluations of the performance of the combined strategy were carried out against a set of structurally different single-target compounds and a well-known multi-target drug, 4H-tamoxifen, which results showed that the combined strategy consistently outperformed the sole use of docking-based and pharmacophore-based methods. Overall, this investigation provides a possible way for improving the accuracy of in silico target prediction and a method for target ranking. 2. Comparing Alternative Kernels for the Kernel Method of Test Equating: Gaussian, Logistic, and Uniform Kernels. Research Report. ETS RR-08-12 ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Lee, Yi-Hsuan; von Davier, Alina A. 2008-01-01 The kernel equating method (von Davier, Holland, & Thayer, 2004) is based on a flexible family of equipercentile-like equating functions that use a Gaussian kernel to continuize the discrete score distributions. While the classical equipercentile, or percentile-rank, equating method carries out the continuization step by linear interpolation,… 3. An Analytic Hierarchy Process–based Method to Rank the Critical Success Factors of Implementing a Pharmacy Barcode System PubMed Central Alharthi, Hana; Sultana, Nahid; Al-amoudi, Amjaad; Basudan, Afrah 2015-01-01 Pharmacy barcode scanning is used to reduce errors during the medication dispensing process. However, this technology has rarely been used in hospital pharmacies in Saudi Arabia. This article describes the barriers to successful implementation of a barcode scanning system in Saudi Arabia. A literature review was conducted to identify the relevant critical success factors (CSFs) for a successful dispensing barcode system implementation. Twenty-eight pharmacists from a local hospital in Saudi Arabia were interviewed to obtain their perception of these CSFs. In this study, planning (process flow issues and training requirements), resistance (fear of change, communication issues, and negative perceptions about technology), and technology (software, hardware, and vendor support) were identified as the main barriers. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), one of the most widely used tools for decision making in the presence of multiple criteria, was used to compare and rank these identified CSFs. The results of this study suggest that resistance barriers have a greater impact than planning and technology barriers. In particular, fear of change is the most critical factor, and training is the least critical factor. PMID:26807079 4. An Analytic Hierarchy Process-based Method to Rank the Critical Success Factors of Implementing a Pharmacy Barcode System. PubMed Alharthi, Hana; Sultana, Nahid; Al-Amoudi, Amjaad; Basudan, Afrah 2015-01-01 Pharmacy barcode scanning is used to reduce errors during the medication dispensing process. However, this technology has rarely been used in hospital pharmacies in Saudi Arabia. This article describes the barriers to successful implementation of a barcode scanning system in Saudi Arabia. A literature review was conducted to identify the relevant critical success factors (CSFs) for a successful dispensing barcode system implementation. Twenty-eight pharmacists from a local hospital in Saudi Arabia were interviewed to obtain their perception of these CSFs. In this study, planning (process flow issues and training requirements), resistance (fear of change, communication issues, and negative perceptions about technology), and technology (software, hardware, and vendor support) were identified as the main barriers. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), one of the most widely used tools for decision making in the presence of multiple criteria, was used to compare and rank these identified CSFs. The results of this study suggest that resistance barriers have a greater impact than planning and technology barriers. In particular, fear of change is the most critical factor, and training is the least critical factor. 5. A method for the design and development of medical or health care information websites to optimize search engine results page rankings on Google. PubMed Dunne, Suzanne; Cummins, Niamh Maria; Hannigan, Ailish; Shannon, Bill; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter 2013-08-27 The Internet is a widely used source of information for patients searching for medical/health care information. While many studies have assessed existing medical/health care information on the Internet, relatively few have examined methods for design and delivery of such websites, particularly those aimed at the general public. This study describes a method of evaluating material for new medical/health care websites, or for assessing those already in existence, which is correlated with higher rankings on Google's Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs). A website quality assessment (WQA) tool was developed using criteria related to the quality of the information to be contained in the website in addition to an assessment of the readability of the text. This was retrospectively applied to assess existing websites that provide information about generic medicines. The reproducibility of the WQA tool and its predictive validity were assessed in this study. The WQA tool demonstrated very high reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.95) between 2 independent users. A moderate to strong correlation was found between WQA scores and rankings on Google SERPs. Analogous correlations were seen between rankings and readability of websites as determined by Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scores. The use of the WQA tool developed in this study is recommended as part of the design phase of a medical or health care information provision website, along with assessment of readability of the material to be used. This may ensure that the website performs better on Google searches. The tool can also be used retrospectively to make improvements to existing websites, thus, potentially enabling better Google search result positions without incurring the costs associated with Search Engine Optimization (SEO) professionals or paid promotion. 6. Ranking the strategies for Indian medical tourism sector through the integration of SWOT analysis and TOPSIS method. PubMed Ajmera, Puneeta 2017-10-09 Purpose Organizations have to evaluate their internal and external environments in this highly competitive world. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis is a very useful technique which analyzes the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of an organization for taking strategic decisions and it also provides a foundation for the formulation of strategies. But the drawback of SWOT analysis is that it does not quantify the importance of individual factors affecting the organization and the individual factors are described in brief without weighing them. Because of this reason, SWOT analysis can be integrated with any multiple attribute decision-making (MADM) technique like the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), analytical hierarchy process, etc., to evaluate the best alternative among the available strategic alternatives. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this study, SWOT analysis is integrated with a multicriteria decision-making technique called TOPSIS to rank different strategies for Indian medical tourism in order of priority. Findings SO strategy (providing best facilitation and care to the medical tourists at par to developed countries) is the best strategy which matches with the four elements of S, W, O and T of SWOT matrix and 35 strategic indicators. Practical implications This paper proposes a solution based on a combined SWOT analysis and TOPSIS approach to help the organizations to evaluate and select strategies. Originality/value Creating a new technology or administering a new strategy always has some degree of resistance by employees. To minimize resistance, the author has used TOPSIS as it involves group thinking, requiring every manager of the organization to analyze and evaluate different alternatives and average measure of each parameter in final decision matrix. 7. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9–12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study PubMed Central Golle, Kathleen; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wick, Ditmar; Granacher, Urs 2015-01-01 Background Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9–12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. Methods Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40–1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10–11 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), agility (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test 8. Rank 4 Premodular Categories SciTech Connect Bruillard, Paul J.; Galindo, Cesar; Ng, Siu Hung; Plavnik, Julia; Rowell, Eric; Wang, Zhenghan 2016-09-01 We consider the classification problem for rank 4 premodular categories. We uncover a formula for the 2nd Frobenius-Schur indicator of a premodular category is determined and the classification of rank 4 premodular categories (up to Grothendieck equivalence) is completed. In the appendix we show rank finiteness for premodular categories. 9. Waist circumference percentiles among Turkish children under the age of 6 years. PubMed Hatipoglu, Nihal; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Poyrazoglu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Horoz, Duygu; Kurtoglu, Selim 2013-01-01 Waist circumference, a proxy measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Although there are numerous studies about waist circumference percentiles in children, only a few studies cover preschool children. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific waist circumference smoothed reference curves in Turkish preschool children to determine abdominal obesity prevalence and to compare them with reference curves obtained from different countries. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 2,947 children (1,471 boys and 1,476 girls) aged 0-6 years were included in the study. The subjects were divided according to their gender. Waist circumference was measured by using a standardized procedure. The age- and gender-specific waist circumference reference curves were constructed and smoothed with LMS method. The reference values of waist circumference, including 3rd, 10th 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles, and standard deviations were given for preschool children. Waist circumference values increased with age, and there were differences between genders. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was calculated as 10.1 % for boys and 10.7 % for girls. Having compared our data with two other countries' data, we found that our waist circumference data were significantly lower. This is the first cross-sectional study for age- and gender-specific references of 0- to 6-year-old Turkish children. The gender- and age-specific waist circumference percentiles can be used to determine the risk of central obesity. 10. Robust rankings: Review of multivariate assessments illustrated by the Shanghai rankings. PubMed Freyer, Leo 2014-01-01 Defined errors are entered into data collections in order to test their influence on the reliability of multivariate rankings. Random numbers and real ranking data serve as data origins. In the course of data collection small random errors often lead to a switch in ranking, which can influence the general ranking picture considerably. For stabilisation an objective weighting method is evaluated. The robustness of these rankings is then compared to the original forms. Robust forms of the published Shanghai top 100 rankings are calculated and compared to each other. As a result, the possibilities and restrictions of this type of weighting become recognisable. 11. Changing trend of percentile-based temperature indices over Pakistan NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Saleem, Farhan; Adrees, Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Zeng, Xiaodong 2017-04-01 This study evaluates the annual to interannual trends of percentile-indices temperature extremes during 1981-2010 for 27 synoptic stations spatially distributed over Pakistan. The indices were estimated using homogenized daily minimum (Tmin) and maximum (Tmax) temperatures. Indices defining the cold and hot extremes were calculated with the help of RClimDex software. A nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimates were used to determine the statistical significance and magnitude of a trend, respectively. The magnitude of trend was determined for various agro-ecological zones across Pakistan. We found that spatially averaged trends of cool nights (TN10p) and hot nights (TN90p) are more pronounced for the Northern Irrigated Plains during winter and spring. The zone of Sandy Deserts experienced the largest decrease in the frequency of cool days (TX10p) while, hot days (TX90p) frequency index was found to be more pronounced and significant for the Wet Mountains zone during spring. On an annual timescale, the magnitude of trend in hot nights was found to be larger than for hot days. The rate of change of warming in cool nights and cool days was found to be higher during spring and fall when compared to that of winter and summer. Overall, we found significant differences within the spatial distribution of day and night temperature extremes, indicating a trend of regional warming across Pakistan. 12. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness in 7- to 14-year-old children and adolescents from Jena, Germany. PubMed Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Glässer, N; Zellner, K 2012-05-01 To present age- and sex-specific percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, and to investigate long-term changes in skinfold thickness in children. A cross-sectional study of children and adolescents was conducted in Jena/Germany in 2005/2006. The sample consisted of 2132 children (1018 girls and 1114 boys) aged 7-14 years and equated to the anthropometric characteristics of the German sample included in the reference values for body mass index (BMI). Height, weight and triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived by the LMS method. Data were compared with historical data of Jena schoolchildren from 1975. In both sexes, skinfold thickness increased between 7 and 14 years of age in a sex-specific pattern, with generally higher median values for triceps and subscapular skinfold in girls than boys. A comparison with skinfold thickness measured in Jena schoolchildren three decades ago showed a significant increase in subcutaneous fat. The changes in the lower range (below the tenth percentile) of the distribution exceed those in the upper range (above the 90th percentile) for both triceps and subscapular skinfold in both sexes. Furthermore, this gain in subcutaneous fat mainly occurred in underweight and normal-weight subjects, whereas skinfold thickness remained nearly unchanged in overweight subjects. The up-to-date percentile curves for skinfold thickness provide a basis for monitoring of individuals and evaluation of long-term trends in German children and adolescents. The changes in skinfold thickness indicate an unfavourable increase in adiposity, as well as an unfavourable change in the relationship between BMI and body fat in children and adolescents over time. 13. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves PubMed Central Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio 2015-01-01 The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250 14. Percentile-based Empirical Distribution Function Estimates for Performance Evaluation of Healthcare Providers PubMed Central Paddock, Susan M.; Louis, Thomas A. 2010-01-01 Summary Hierarchical models are widely-used to characterize the performance of individual healthcare providers. However, little attention has been devoted to system-wide performance evaluations, the goals of which include identifying extreme (e.g., top 10%) provider performance and developing statistical benchmarks to define high-quality care. Obtaining optimal estimates of these quantities requires estimating the empirical distribution function (EDF) of provider-specific parameters that generate the dataset under consideration. However, the difficulty of obtaining uncertainty bounds for a square-error loss minimizing EDF estimate has hindered its use in system-wide performance evaluations. We therefore develop and study a percentile-based EDF estimate for univariate provider-specific parameters. We compute order statistics of samples drawn from the posterior distribution of provider-specific parameters to obtain relevant uncertainty assessments of an EDF estimate and its features, such as thresholds and percentiles. We apply our method to data from the Medicare End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, a health insurance program for people with irreversible kidney failure. We highlight the risk of misclassifying providers as exceptionally good or poor performers when uncertainty in statistical benchmark estimates is ignored. Given the high stakes of performance evaluations, statistical benchmarks should be accompanied by precision estimates. PMID:21918583 15. Percentile-based Empirical Distribution Function Estimates for Performance Evaluation of Healthcare Providers. PubMed Paddock, Susan M; Louis, Thomas A 2011-08-01 Hierarchical models are widely-used to characterize the performance of individual healthcare providers. However, little attention has been devoted to system-wide performance evaluations, the goals of which include identifying extreme (e.g., top 10%) provider performance and developing statistical benchmarks to define high-quality care. Obtaining optimal estimates of these quantities requires estimating the empirical distribution function (EDF) of provider-specific parameters that generate the dataset under consideration. However, the difficulty of obtaining uncertainty bounds for a square-error loss minimizing EDF estimate has hindered its use in system-wide performance evaluations. We therefore develop and study a percentile-based EDF estimate for univariate provider-specific parameters. We compute order statistics of samples drawn from the posterior distribution of provider-specific parameters to obtain relevant uncertainty assessments of an EDF estimate and its features, such as thresholds and percentiles. We apply our method to data from the Medicare End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, a health insurance program for people with irreversible kidney failure. We highlight the risk of misclassifying providers as exceptionally good or poor performers when uncertainty in statistical benchmark estimates is ignored. Given the high stakes of performance evaluations, statistical benchmarks should be accompanied by precision estimates. 16. Positive School Climate Is Associated With Lower Body Mass Index Percentile Among Urban Preadolescents PubMed Central Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M.; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R. 2015-01-01 BACKGROUND Schools are an important environmental context in children’s lives and are part of the complex web of factors that contribute to childhood obesity. Increasingly, attention has been placed on the importance of school climate (connectedness, academic standards, engagement, and student autonomy) as 1 domain of school environment beyond health policies and education that may have implications for student health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of school climate with body mass index (BMI) among urban preadolescents. METHODS Health surveys and physical measures were collected among fifth- and sixth-grade students from 12 randomly selected public schools in a small New England city. School climate surveys were completed district-wide by students and teachers. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the association between students’ BMI and schools’ climate scores. RESULTS After controlling for potentially confounding individual-level characteristics, a 1-unit increase in school climate score (indicating more positive climate) was associated with a 7-point decrease in students’ BMI percentile. CONCLUSIONS Positive school climate is associated with lower student BMI percentile. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms behind this relationship and to explore whether interventions promoting positive school climate can effectively prevent and/or reduce obesity. PMID:25040118 17. [A rank-order method for the integrated assessment of trends in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates in the subjects of the Russian Federation in 2006-2012]. PubMed Artamonova, G V; Maksimov, S A; Tabakaev, M V; Barbarash, L S 2016-01-01 To rank the subjects of the Russian Federation by the trend direction in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (including mortality from coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases) as a whole and at able-bodied age. The investigation used mortality rates from to the 2006 and 2012 data available in the Federal State Statistics Service on 81 subjects of the Russian Federation. According to mortality rates, each region was assigned a rank in 2006 and 2012. Trends in rank changes in the Russian Federation's regions were analyzed. A cluster analysis was used to group the subjects of the Russian Federation by trends in rank changes. The cluster analysis of rank changes from 2006 to 2012 could combine the Russian Federation's regions into 10 groups showing the similar trends in all-cause and circulatory disease mortality rates. Overall, the results of the ranking and further clusterization of the regions of the Russian Federation correspond to the trends in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates according to the data of other Russian investigations, by qualitatively complementing them. The trend rank-order method permits a comprehensive comparative analysis of changes in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the subjects of the Russian Federation both as a whole and at able-bodied age, which provides qualitatively new information complementing the universally accepted approaches to studying the population's mortality. 18. Evaluation of the growth percentiles of children with congenital heart disease. PubMed Martins da Silva, Viviane; de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos Venícios; Leite de Araujo, Thelma 2007-01-01 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between anthropometric measures of children with congenital heart disease with percentiles that represent their growth indicators. Anthropometric evaluations of 135 hospitalized children with congenital heart disease were performed in a hospital specialized in cardiac diseases in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. For the growth evaluation, percentiles of height by age, weight by height and weight by age were calculated. Children's average age was 4.74 months (+ 3.78) and 66.7% of the children were male. The medians of the three percentiles presented values below percentile 10, indicating a high proportion of values considered of risk. The subscapular thickness presented positive correlation with the three percentiles. The values of percentiles studied indicated growth delay. 19. Ranking species in mutualistic networks. PubMed Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A 2015-02-02 Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic "nested" structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm--similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity--here we propose a method which--by exploiting their nested architecture--allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made. 20. Ranking species in mutualistic networks PubMed Central Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A. 2015-01-01 Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic “nested” structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm –similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity– here we propose a method which –by exploiting their nested architecture– allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made. PMID:25640575 1. Percentile categorization of QT interval as an approach for identifying adult patients at risk for cardiovascular death. PubMed Mohebi, Reza; Jehan, Ayesha; Grober, Aaron; Froelicher, Victor 2017-08-01 The results from studies of the association of QT prolongation with cardiovascular death (CVD) have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to compare the major correction formulas to percentile values of QT for heart rate ranges as to their ability to remove the relationship of QT to heart rate and to predict CVD. Participants were 16,531 veterans who had an initial ECG at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Palo Alto, between March 31, 1987, and December 20, 1999, and were followed for CVD. The 4 major correction formulas (Bazett, Fridericia, Framingham, and Hodges) were used to correct QT interval. In addition, the percentiles for heart rate ranges as proposed by Schwartz were calculated. During median follow-up of 17.8 years, 455 CVD events occurred. When compared to the other equations, QTc Bazett had the greatest dependence on heart rate (R(2) = 0.18). The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for CVD was 2.08 (1.28-3.9) for the 98th percentile of QT interval by heart rate ranges, 2.05 (1.27-3.33) for QTc Bazett, 1.39 (0.44-4.34) for QTc Fridericia, 1.05 (0.26-4.24) for QTc Hodges, and 1.12 (0.28-4.52) for QTc Framingham. The hazard ratio of QTc Bazett was significantly higher than the other formulas except for the 98th percentile method. The Framingham, Hodges, and Fridericia equations remove the effect of heart rate on QT interval significantly better than the Bazett equation. Using QT-interval percentiles based on heart rate provides a consistent approach both for identifying those whose QT intervals prolong due to drugs or other stressors and for assessing CVD risk. Published by Elsevier Inc. 2. Centrality based Document Ranking DTIC Science & Technology 2014-11-01 approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their similarity. Given a query, we compute...similarity of the query with respect to every document in the graph . Based on these similarity values, documents are ranked for a given query...clinical documents using centrality based approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their 3. RankExplorer: Visualization of Ranking Changes in Large Time Series Data. PubMed Shi, Conglei; Cui, Weiwei; Liu, Shixia; Xu, Panpan; Chen, Wei; Qu, Huamin 2012-12-01 For many applications involving time series data, people are often interested in the changes of item values over time as well as their ranking changes. For example, people search many words via search engines like Google and Bing every day. Analysts are interested in both the absolute searching number for each word as well as their relative rankings. Both sets of statistics may change over time. For very large time series data with thousands of items, how to visually present ranking changes is an interesting challenge. In this paper, we propose RankExplorer, a novel visualization method based on ThemeRiver to reveal the ranking changes. Our method consists of four major components: 1) a segmentation method which partitions a large set of time series curves into a manageable number of ranking categories; 2) an extended ThemeRiver view with embedded color bars and changing glyphs to show the evolution of aggregation values related to each ranking category over time as well as the content changes in each ranking category; 3) a trend curve to show the degree of ranking changes over time; 4) rich user interactions to support interactive exploration of ranking changes. We have applied our method to some real time series data and the case studies demonstrate that our method can reveal the underlying patterns related to ranking changes which might otherwise be obscured in traditional visualizations. 4. Academic Quality Rankings of American Colleges and Universities. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Webster, David S. Past and current methods used in academic quality rankings of U.S. colleges and universities are discussed. In addition to a literature and historical review, modern quality rankings are compared with early (pre-1959) rankings, including past rankings of medical, dental, legal and black education. Also considered are the exemplary 1982 evaluation… 5. On Classification of Modular Categories by Rank: Table A.1 SciTech Connect Bruillard, Paul; Ng, Siu-Hung; Rowell, Eric C.; Wang, Zhenghan 2016-04-10 The feasibility of a classification-by-rank program for modular categories follows from the Rank-Finiteness Theorem. We develop arithmetic, representation theoretic and algebraic methods for classifying modular categories by rank. As an application, we determine all possible fusion rules for all rank=5 modular categories and describe the corresponding monoidal equivalence classes. 6. A comparison of hierarchical cluster analysis and league table rankings as methods for analysis and presentation of district health system performance data in Uganda. PubMed Tashobya, Christine K; Dubourg, Dominique; Ssengooba, Freddie; Speybroeck, Niko; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart 2016-03-01 In 2003, the Uganda Ministry of Health introduced the district league table for district health system performance assessment. The league table presents district performance against a number of input, process and output indicators and a composite index to rank districts. This study explores the use of hierarchical cluster analysis for analysing and presenting district health systems performance data and compares this approach with the use of the league table in Uganda. Ministry of Health and district plans and reports, and published documents were used to provide information on the development and utilization of the Uganda district league table. Quantitative data were accessed from the Ministry of Health databases. Statistical analysis using SPSS version 20 and hierarchical cluster analysis, utilizing Wards' method was used. The hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on the basis of seven clusters determined for each year from 2003 to 2010, ranging from a cluster of good through moderate-to-poor performers. The characteristics and membership of clusters varied from year to year and were determined by the identity and magnitude of performance of the individual variables. Criticisms of the league table include: perceived unfairness, as it did not take into consideration district peculiarities; and being oversummarized and not adequately informative. Clustering organizes the many data points into clusters of similar entities according to an agreed set of indicators and can provide the beginning point for identifying factors behind the observed performance of districts. Although league table ranking emphasize summation and external control, clustering has the potential to encourage a formative, learning approach. More research is required to shed more light on factors behind observed performance of the different clusters. Other countries especially low-income countries that share many similarities with Uganda can learn from these experiences. © The Author 2015 7. On Rank and Nullity ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Dobbs, David E. 2012-01-01 This note explains how Emil Artin's proof that row rank equals column rank for a matrix with entries in a field leads naturally to the formula for the nullity of a matrix and also to an algorithm for solving any system of linear equations in any number of variables. This material could be used in any course on matrix theory or linear algebra. 8. Memory Efficient Ranking. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Moffat, Alistair; And Others 1994-01-01 Describes an approximate document ranking process that uses a compact array of in-memory, low-precision approximations for document length. Combined with another rule for reducing the memory required by partial similarity accumulators, the approximation heuristic allows the ranking of large document collections using less than one byte of memory… 9. On Rank and Nullity ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Dobbs, David E. 2012-01-01 This note explains how Emil Artin's proof that row rank equals column rank for a matrix with entries in a field leads naturally to the formula for the nullity of a matrix and also to an algorithm for solving any system of linear equations in any number of variables. This material could be used in any course on matrix theory or linear algebra. 10. Hierarchical partial order ranking. PubMed Carlsen, Lars 2008-09-01 Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritization of polluted sites is given. 11. Colorado Growth Model--Brief Report: Student Growth Percentiles and FRL Status. Accountability & Data Analysis Unit ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Colorado Department of Education, 2013 2013-01-01 This report examines the relationship between socioeconomic status, as defined by a free-and-reduced lunch proxy variable, and student growth percentiles by elementary, middle, and high school grade levels for math, reading, and writing. Comparisons were made between median growth percentiles for each educational level by free and reduced lunch… 12. Ranking chemicals based on chronic toxicity data. PubMed De Rosa, C T; Stara, J F; Durkin, P R 1985-12-01 During the past 3 years, EPA's ECAO/Cincinnati has developed a method to rank chemicals based on chronic toxicity data. This ranking system reflects two primary attributes of every chemical: the minimum effective dose and the type of effect elicited at that dose. The purpose for developing this chronic toxicity ranking system was to provide the EPA with the technical background required to adjust the RQs of hazardous substances designated in Section 101(14) of CERCLA or "Superfund." This approach may have applications to other areas of interest to the EPA and other regulatory agencies where ranking of chemicals based on chronic toxicity is desired. 13. Rank-based decompositions of morphological templates. PubMed Sussner, P; Ritter, G X 2000-01-01 Methods for matrix decomposition have found numerous applications in image processing, in particular for the problem of template decomposition. Since existing matrix decomposition techniques are mainly concerned with the linear domain, we consider it timely to investigate matrix decomposition techniques in the nonlinear domain with applications in image processing. The mathematical basis for these investigations is the new theory of rank within minimax algebra. Thus far, only minimax decompositions of rank 1 and rank 2 matrices into outer product expansions are known to the image processing community. We derive a heuristic algorithm for the decomposition of matrices having arbitrary rank. 14. [Evaluation of physical fitness levels in children and adolescents: establishing percentile charts for the central region of Peru]. PubMed Bustamante, Alcibíades; Beunen, Gastón; Maia, José 2012-06-01 Construct percentile charts and physical fitness (PF) reference values stratified by age and sex of children and adolescents from Peru's central region. The sample was comprised of 7,843 subjects (4,155 females and 3,688 males) between the ages of 6 to 17 years old. Physical fitness was assessed using six tests developed by EUROFIT, FITNESSGRAM and AAPHERD. Percentile charts were developed separately for males and females using the LMS method calculated with LMSchartmaker software. Results. Males showed higher PF values with the exception of flexibility; a clear increase in PF with increasing age was verified. Inter-individual variability in both sexes is substantial. Charts and specific reference values by age and sex may be used for the assessment and interpretation of children's and adolescents' PF levels in Peru's central region. These findings may be of help to educators, public health professionals, parents, and policy-makers when assessing schools' physical education programs. 15. Investigation of oxidation and tautomerization of a recently synthesized Schiff base in micellar media using multivariate curve resolution alternative least squares and rank annihilation factor analysis methods. PubMed Afkhami, Abbas; Khajavi, Farzad; Khanmohammadi, Hamid 2009-08-11 The oxidation of the recently synthesized Schiff base 3,6-bis((2-aminoethyl-5-Br-salicyliden)thio)pyridazine (PABST) with hydrogen peroxide was investigated using spectrophotometric studies. The reaction rate order and observed rate constant of the oxidation reaction was obtained in the mixture of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF):water (30:70, v/v) at pH 10 using multivariate cure resolution alternative least squares (MCR-ALS) method and rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA). The effective parameters on the oxidation rate constant such as percents of DMF, the effect of transition metals like Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+) and Hg(2+) and the presence of surfactants were investigated. The keto-enol equilibria in DMF:water (30:70, v/v) solution at pH 7.6 was also investigated in the presence of surfactants. At concentrations above critical micelle concentration (cmc) of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), the keto form was the predominant species, while at concentrations above cmc of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the enol form was the predominant species. The kinetic reaction order and the rate constant of tautomerization in micellar medium were obtained using MCR-ALS and RAFA. The results obtained by both the methods were in a good agreement with each other. Also the effect of different volume percents of DMF on the rate constant of tautomerization was investigated. The neutral surfactant (Triton X-100) had no effect on tautomerization equilibrium. 16. New pediatric percentiles of liver enzyme serum levels (ALT, AST, GGT): Effects of age, sex, BMI and pubertal stage. PubMed Bussler, Sarah; Vogel, Mandy; Pietzner, Diana; Harms, Kristian; Buzek, Theresa; Penke, Melanie; Händel, Norman; Körner, Antje; Baumann, Ulrich; Kiess, Wieland; Flemming, Gunter 2017-09-19 The present study aims to clarify the effects of sex, age, BMI and puberty on transaminase serum levels in children and adolescents and to provide new age- and sex-related percentiles for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Venous blood and anthropometric data were collected from 4,126 cases. Excluded were cases of participants with potential hepatotoxic medication, with evidence of potential illness at the time of blood sampling and non-normal BMI (BMI < 10(th) or > 90(th) ). The resulting data (N = 3,131 cases) were used for the calculations of ALT, AST, and GGT percentiles. Age- and sex-related reference intervals were established by using an LMSP-type method. Serum levels of transaminases follow age-specific patterns and relate to the onset of puberty. This observation is more pronounced in girls than in boys. The ALT percentiles showed similar shaped patterns in both sexes. Multivariate regression confirmed significant effects of puberty and BMI-SDS (β = 2.21) on ALT. Surprisingly, AST serum levels were negatively influenced by age (β = -1.42) and BMI-SDS (β = -0.15). The GGT percentiles revealed significant sex-specific differences, correlated positively with age (β = 0.37) and showed significant association with BMI-SDS (β = 1.16). Current reference values of ALT, AST and GGT serum levels were calculated for children between 11 months and 16.0 years, using modern analytical and statistical methods. This study extends the current knowledge about transaminases by revealing influences of age, sex, BMI, and puberty on the serum concentrations of all three parameters and has for these parameters one of the largest sample sizes published so far. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. 17. Ranking Practice Variability in the Medical Student Performance Evaluation: So Bad, It's "Good". PubMed Boysen Osborn, Megan; Mattson, James; Yanuck, Justin; Anderson, Craig; Tekian, Ara; Fox, John Christian; Harris, Ilene B 2016-11-01 To examine the variability among medical schools in ranking systems used in medical student performance evaluations (MSPEs). The authors reviewed MSPEs from U.S. MD-granting medical schools received by the University of California, Irvine emergency medicine and internal medicine residency programs during 2012-2013 and 2014-2015. They recorded whether the school used a ranking system, the type of ranking system used, the size and description of student categories, the location of the ranking statement and category legend, and whether nonranking schools used language suggestive of rank. Of the 134 medical schools in the study sample, the majority (n = 101; 75%) provided ranks for students in the MSPE. Most of the ranking schools (n = 63; 62%) placed students into named category groups, but the number and size of groups varied. The most common descriptors used for these 63 schools' top, second, third, and lowest groups were "outstanding," "excellent," "very good," and "good," respectively, but each of these terms was used across a broad range of percentile ranks. Student ranks and school category legends were found in various locations. Many of the 33 schools that did not rank students included language suggestive of rank. There is extensive variation in ranking systems used in MSPEs. Program directors may find it difficult to use MSPEs to compare applicants, which may diminish the MSPE's value in the residency application process and negatively affect high-achieving students. A consistent approach to ranking students would benefit program directors, students, and student affairs officers. 18. A Ranking Approach to Genomic Selection PubMed Central Blondel, Mathieu; Onogi, Akio; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Ueda, Naonori 2015-01-01 Background Genomic selection (GS) is a recent selective breeding method which uses predictive models based on whole-genome molecular markers. Until now, existing studies formulated GS as the problem of modeling an individual’s breeding value for a particular trait of interest, i.e., as a regression problem. To assess predictive accuracy of the model, the Pearson correlation between observed and predicted trait values was used. Contributions In this paper, we propose to formulate GS as the problem of ranking individuals according to their breeding value. Our proposed framework allows us to employ machine learning methods for ranking which had previously not been considered in the GS literature. To assess ranking accuracy of a model, we introduce a new measure originating from the information retrieval literature called normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCG). NDCG rewards more strongly models which assign a high rank to individuals with high breeding value. Therefore, NDCG reflects a prerequisite objective in selective breeding: accurate selection of individuals with high breeding value. Results We conducted a comparison of 10 existing regression methods and 3 new ranking methods on 6 datasets, consisting of 4 plant species and 25 traits. Our experimental results suggest that tree-based ensemble methods including McRank, Random Forests and Gradient Boosting Regression Trees achieve excellent ranking accuracy. RKHS regression and RankSVM also achieve good accuracy when used with an RBF kernel. Traditional regression methods such as Bayesian lasso, wBSR and BayesC were found less suitable for ranking. Pearson correlation was found to correlate poorly with NDCG. Our study suggests two important messages. First, ranking methods are a promising research direction in GS. Second, NDCG can be a useful evaluation measure for GS. PMID:26068103 19. Ranking of Scientists: A New Approach. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Sen, B. K.; Pandalai, T. A.; Karanjai, Aruna 1998-01-01 Proposes a formula for the ranking of scientists based on diachronous citation counts. Generalizes the fact that the citation-generation potential is not the same for all papers, and states that the proposed method of ranking does not replace peer review, but rather acts as an aid for them. (Author/LRW) 20. Statistical Optimality in Multipartite Ranking and Ordinal Regression. PubMed Uematsu, Kazuki; Lee, Yoonkyung 2015-05-01 Statistical optimality in multipartite ranking is investigated as an extension of bipartite ranking. We consider the optimality of ranking algorithms through minimization of the theoretical risk which combines pairwise ranking errors of ordinal categories with differential ranking costs. The extension shows that for a certain class of convex loss functions including exponential loss, the optimal ranking function can be represented as a ratio of weighted conditional probability of upper categories to lower categories, where the weights are given by the misranking costs. This result also bridges traditional ranking methods such as proportional odds model in statistics with various ranking algorithms in machine learning. Further, the analysis of multipartite ranking with different costs provides a new perspective on non-smooth list-wise ranking measures such as the discounted cumulative gain and preference learning. We illustrate our findings with simulation study and real data analysis. 1. Expected value based ranking of intuitionistic fuzzy variables NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Kumar, Tanuj; Bajaj, Rakesh Kumar; Kaushik, Rajeev 2017-07-01 In the present paper, we introduce the idea of intuitionistic fuzzy variables by means of credibility theory. The mean value of intuitionistic fuzzy variables is obtained with the help of credibility distribution. Then, we develop a more comprehensive ranking method based on mean value of intuitionistic fuzzy variable. Also, we analyze the consistency of the propose ranking method with existing ranking methods. 2. Sync-rank: Robust Ranking, Constrained Ranking and Rank Aggregation via Eigenvector and SDP Synchronization DTIC Science & Technology 2015-04-28 spectral algorithms, semidefinite programming, rank aggregation, partial rankings, least squares, singular value decomposition, densest subgraph problem. 1...provided by Google [42, 53], eBay’s feedback-based reputation mechanism [64], Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) system for crowdsourcing which enables...compute a universal (non-negative) value πi associated to each item i, such that aij = πi πj , which can easily be seen as equivalent to the pairwise 3. The influence of pediatric tracheostomy on the body weight percentile of children. PubMed Yankasari, Shereen; Lee, Yoon Se; Chang, Won Kyung; Moon, Hyun; Kim, Jiwon; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Kim, Sang Yoon; Nam, Soon Yuhl 2016-12-01 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in body weight following tracheostomy in pediatric patients. Ninety-eight patients who underwent tracheostomy at the age of 0-6 years were enrolled. The body weight and growth percentile were measured before tracheostomy and at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The body weight and growth percentile were plotted against time, which was compared with Korean growth chart curve. A Retrospective observational cohort study was performed. The mean body weight increased gradually from 6.7 (±0.51) kg to 10.84 (±0.15) kg at 12 months post-surgery (p < 0.01). The growth percentile also increased from 24.41 (±3.18) to 40.6 (±4.10) during the follow-up period (p < 0.01). We analyzed the patients with a low growth percentile (≤50th percentile). In these patients, the mean body weight increased from 4.92 (±0.27) kg to 8.97 (±0.27) kg and the growth percentile also increased from 11.02 (±1.32) to 30.56 (±3.31) (all p < 0.01). Ventilator-independent patients also presented similar pattern of body weight and its percentile. Body weight increased after tracheostomy that was safely performed in children requiring airway management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. 4. A model for predicting the future incidence of coronary heart disease within percentiles of coronary heart disease risk. PubMed McNeil, J J; Peeters, A; Liew, D; Lim, S; Vos, T 2001-02-01 We present a method (The CHD Prevention Model) for modelling the incidence of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD) within various CHD risk percentiles of an adult population. The model provides a relatively simple tool for lifetime risk prediction for subgroups within a population. It allows an estimation of the absolute primary CHD risk in different populations and will help identify subgroups of the adult population where primary CHD prevention is most appropriate and cost-effective. The CHD risk distribution within the Australian population was modelled, based on the prevalence of CHD risk, individual estimates of integrated CHD risk, and current CHD mortality rates. Predicted incidence of first fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction within CHD risk strata of the Australian population was determined. Approximately 25% of CHD deaths were predicted to occur amongst those in the top 10 percentiles of integrated CHD risk, regardless of age group or gender. It was found that while all causes survival did not differ markedly between percentiles of CHD risk before the ages of around 50-60, event-free survival began visibly to differ about 5 years earlier. The CHD Prevention Model provides a means of predicting future CHD incidence amongst various strata of integrated CHD risk within an adult population. It has significant application both in individual risk counselling and in the identification of subgroups of the population where drug therapy to reduce CHD risk is most cost-effective. 5. Percentile Values of Physical Fitness Levels among Polish Children Aged 7 to 19 Years--a Population-Based Study. PubMed Dobosz, Janusz; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana, Jesús 2015-12-01 The objective of the study was to report gender and age-specific percentile values for fourteen commonly used field-based physical fitness tests among a national representative sample of Polish children aged 7 to 19 years. A descriptive cross-sectional and population-based study examines the physical fitness among a random and large national representative sample of schoolchildren aged 7 to 19 years in Poland. A sample of 49,281 children and adolescents (25,687 boys and 23,594 girls) was assessed by the EUROFIT fitness test battery, the International Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Tests and Cooper Test of physical fitness. The LMS statistical method was used. Smoothed gender and age-specific percentiles for the physical fitness tests in boys and girls aged 7 to 19 years are reported and expressed as both tabulated and curves values (2.3rd, 9th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 91st, and 97.7th). Figures showed greater physical fitness levels in boys, except for the flamingo balance, sit-and-reach, and stand-and-reach tests, in which girls performed slightly better. There was also a trend towards increased physical fitness levels as the age increased in both boys and girls. The percentile values provided will enable the correct interpretation and monitoring of fitness status of Polish children. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015. 6. Ranking of Rankings: Benchmarking Twenty-Five Higher Education Ranking Systems in Europe ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Stolz, Ingo; Hendel, Darwin D.; Horn, Aaron S. 2010-01-01 The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ranking practices of 25 European higher education ranking systems (HERSs). Ranking practices were assessed with 14 quantitative measures derived from the Berlin Principles on Ranking of Higher Education Institutions (BPs). HERSs were then ranked according to their degree of congruence with the BPs.… 7. Ranking of Rankings: Benchmarking Twenty-Five Higher Education Ranking Systems in Europe ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Stolz, Ingo; Hendel, Darwin D.; Horn, Aaron S. 2010-01-01 The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ranking practices of 25 European higher education ranking systems (HERSs). Ranking practices were assessed with 14 quantitative measures derived from the Berlin Principles on Ranking of Higher Education Institutions (BPs). HERSs were then ranked according to their degree of congruence with the BPs.… 8. Rasch analysis of rank-ordered data. PubMed Linacre, John M 2006-01-01 Theoretical and practical aspects of several methods for the construction of linear measures from rank-ordered data are presented. The final partial-rankings of 356 professional golfers participating in 47 stroke-play tournaments are used for illustration. The methods include decomposing the rankings into independent paired comparisons without ties, into dependent paired comparisons without ties and into independent paired comparisons with ties. A further method, which is easier to implement, entails modeling each tournament as a partial-credit item in which the rank of each golfer is treated as the observation of a category on a partial-credit rating scale. For the golf data, the partial-credit method yields measures with greater face validity than the paired comparison methods. The methods are implemented with the computer programs FACETS and WINSTEPS. 9. Multiplex PageRank. PubMed Halu, Arda; Mondragón, Raúl J; Panzarasa, Pietro; Bianconi, Ginestra 2013-01-01 Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the interaction between layers, we define the Additive, Multiplicative, Combined, and Neutral versions of Multiplex PageRank, and show how each version reflects the extent to which the importance of a node in one layer affects the importance the node can gain in another layer. We discuss these measures and apply them to an online multiplex social network. Findings indicate that taking the multiplex nature of the network into account helps uncover the emergence of rankings of nodes that differ from the rankings obtained from one single layer. Results provide support in favor of the salience of multiplex centrality measures, like Multiplex PageRank, for assessing the prominence of nodes embedded in multiple interacting networks, and for shedding a new light on structural properties that would otherwise remain undetected if each of the interacting networks were analyzed in isolation. 10. Using reduced rank regression methods to identify dietary patterns associated with obesity: a cross-country study among European and Australian adolescents. PubMed Huybrechts, Inge; Lioret, Sandrine; Mouratidou, Theodora; Gunter, Marc J; Manios, Yannis; Kersting, Mathilde; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; De Henauw, Stefaan; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Widhalm, Kurt; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; McNaughton, Sarah A 2017-01-01 This study aims to examine repeatability of reduced rank regression (RRR) methods in calculating dietary patterns (DP) and cross-sectional associations with overweight (OW)/obesity across European and Australian samples of adolescents. Data from two cross-sectional surveys in Europe (2006/2007 Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, including 1954 adolescents, 12-17 years) and Australia (2007 National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, including 1498 adolescents, 12-16 years) were used. Dietary intake was measured using two non-consecutive, 24-h recalls. RRR was used to identify DP using dietary energy density, fibre density and percentage of energy intake from fat as the intermediate variables. Associations between DP scores and body mass/fat were examined using multivariable linear and logistic regression as appropriate, stratified by sex. The first DP extracted (labelled 'energy dense, high fat, low fibre') explained 47 and 31 % of the response variation in Australian and European adolescents, respectively. It was similar for European and Australian adolescents and characterised by higher consumption of biscuits/cakes, chocolate/confectionery, crisps/savoury snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and lower consumption of yogurt, high-fibre bread, vegetables and fresh fruit. DP scores were inversely associated with BMI z-scores in Australian adolescent boys and borderline inverse in European adolescent boys (so as with %BF). Similarly, a lower likelihood for OW in boys was observed with higher DP scores in both surveys. No such relationships were observed in adolescent girls. In conclusion, the DP identified in this cross-country study was comparable for European and Australian adolescents, demonstrating robustness of the RRR method in calculating DP among populations. However, longitudinal designs are more relevant when studying diet-obesity associations, to prevent reverse causality. 11. Blood pressure percentile charts to identify high or low blood pressure in children. PubMed Banker, Ashish; Bell, Cynthia; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Samuels, Joshua 2016-07-19 The goal was to develop familiar blood pressure (BP) charts representing BP percentile curves similar to CDC growth charts to improve screening of both high and low BP in children. Since height accounts for substantially more BP variability than age and is a more direct measure of body size and maturation in children, height-specific BP percentile curves were drawn separately for males and females. We used the 2004 Fourth Report data source and equations to calculate the BP threshold value for each gender and 5 cm height group. By slightly underestimating a child's BP percentile for high BP and slightly overestimating a child's BP percentile for low BP, these charts guarantee 100 % sensitivity in detecting abnormal BP. Sensitivity and specificity of the chart cut-offs were confirmed in a sample of 1254 healthy children from a school-based blood pressure screening program. The 1st, 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 95th, and 99th BP percentile curves are depicted in the chart for each corresponding gender and height from 85 to 190 cm, mimicking the ubiquitous CDC "growth charts". Shaded areas of the chart differentiate abnormal BP status categories: hypotension, normal BP, prehypertension, Stage 1 hypertension, and Stage 2 hypertension. Sensitivity was confirmed to be 100 % with specificity above 94 %. These simplified BP charts improve upon currently available BP screening reference with the following features: (a) tracking BP longitudinally in an individual child, (b) full physiological range of BP percentiles represented in percentile curve format for rapid identification both high and low BP, (c) easy to use with absolute height alone avoiding the additional step of determining height percentile, (d) incorporation of adult threshold for pre-hypertension to assist in accurate transition from adolescence into adulthood, (e) high sensitivity and specificity to ensure all children at risk are identified with very few false positives. 12. Menstruation disorders in adolescents with eating disorders-target body mass index percentiles for their resolution. PubMed Vale, Beatriz; Brito, Sara; Paulos, Lígia; Moleiro, Pascoal 2014-04-01 To analyse the progression of body mass index in eating disorders and to determine the percentile for establishment and resolution of the disease. A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study. Review of clinical files of adolescents with eating disorders. Of the 62 female adolescents studied with eating disorders, 51 presented with eating disorder not otherwise specified, 10 anorexia nervosa, and 1 bulimia nervosa. Twenty-one of these adolescents had menstrual disorders; in that, 14 secondary amenorrhea and 7 menstrual irregularities (6 eating disorder not otherwise specified, and 1 bulimia nervosa). In average, in anorectic adolescents, the initial body mass index was in 75th percentile; secondary amenorrhea was established 1 month after onset of the disease; minimum weight was 76.6% of ideal body mass index (at 4th percentile) at 10.2 months of disease; and resolution of amenorrhea occurred at 24 months, with average weight recovery of 93.4% of the ideal. In eating disorder not otherwise specified with menstrual disorder (n=10), the mean initial body mass index was at 85th percentile; minimal weight was in average 97.7% of the ideal value (minimum body mass index was in 52nd percentile) at 14.9 months of disease; body mass index stabilization occurred at 1.6 year of disease; and mean body mass index was in 73rd percentile. Considering eating disorder not otherwise specified with secondary amenorrhea (n=4); secondary amenorrhea occurred at 4 months, with resolution at 12 months of disease (mean 65th percentile body mass index). One-third of the eating disorder group had menstrual disorder - two-thirds presented with amenorrhea. This study indicated that for the resolution of their menstrual disturbance the body mass index percentiles to be achieved by female adolescents with eating disorders was 25-50 in anorexia nervosa, and 50-75, in eating disorder not otherwise specified. 13. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru 2014-10-01 Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected. 14. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity. PubMed Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru 2014-10-17 Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected. 15. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity PubMed Central Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru 2014-01-01 Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected. PMID:25322852 16. Using a Spreadsheet to Compute the Maximum Wind Sector 99.5th Percentile X/Q Value in Accordance with DOE-STD-3009-2014. PubMed Vickers, Linda 2016-05-01 The U.S. Department of Energy Standard 3009-2014 requires one of two methods to determine the simple Gaussian relative concentration (X/Q) of pollutant at plume centerline downwind to a receptor for a 2-h exposure duration from a ground-level release (i.e., less than 10 m height) which are (1) the 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method and (2) the 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method. This paper describes how to determine the simple Gaussian 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method using an electronic spreadsheet. Refer to a previous paper to determine the simple Gaussian 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method using an electronic spreadsheet (Vickers 2015). The method described herein is simple, quick, accurate, and transparent because all of the data, calculations, and results are visible for validation and verification. 17. Waist circumference percentile thresholds for identifying adolescents with insulin resistance in clinical practice. PubMed Lee, Joyce M; Davis, Matthew M; Woolford, Susan J; Gurney, James G 2009-08-01 We formally evaluated waist circumference (WC) percentile cutoffs for predicting insulin resistance (IR) and whether different cutoffs should be used for adolescents of different race/ethnicities. Analysis was performed for 1575 adolescents aged 12-18 yr from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Adolescents were classified as having IR if they had a homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance level, a validated measure of IR, of >4.39, and WC percentile was classified according to previously published universal (all races combined) and race/ethnicity-specific WC percentile cutoffs. Receiver operating characteristic curves for predicting IR were constructed comparing the race/ethnicity-specific vs. universal WC percentile cutoffs, and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Comparing universal with race/ethnicity-specific WC percentiles, there were no significant differences in AUC for Black, Mexican-American, or White adolescents. Because race/ethnicity-specific thresholds did not discriminate better than universal WC thresholds, universal WC thresholds may be used effectively to identify adolescents with IR in primary care practices. A WC > or =75th or > or =90th percentile for all race/ethnicities combined would be appropriate to apply in clinical practice for identification of adolescents with IR, a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes. 18. Australian national birthweight percentiles by sex and gestational age for twins, 2001-2010. PubMed Li, Zhuoyang; Umstad, Mark P; Hilder, Lisa; Xu, Fenglian; Sullivan, Elizabeth A 2015-10-08 Birthweight remains one of the strongest predictors of perinatal mortality and disability. Birthweight percentiles form a reference that allows the detection of neonates at higher risk of neonatal and postneonatal morbidity. The aim of the study is to present updated national birthweight percentiles by gestational age for male and female twins born in Australia. Population data were extracted from the Australian National Perinatal Data Collection for twins born in Australia between 2001 and 2010. A total of 43,833 women gave birth to 87,666 twins in Australia which were included in the study analysis. Implausible birthweights were excluded using Tukey's methodology based on the interquartile range. Univariate analysis was used to examine the birthweight percentiles for liveborn twins born between 20 and 42 weeks gestation. Birthweight percentiles by gestational age were calculated for 85,925 live births (43,153 males and 42,706 females). Of these infants, 53.6% were born preterm (birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation) while 50.2% were low birthweight (<2500 g) and 8.7% were very low birthweight (<1500 g). The mean birthweight decreased from 2462 g in 2001 to 2440 g in 2010 for male twins, compared with 2485 g in 1991-94. For female twins, the mean birthweight decreased from 2375 g in 2001 to 2338 g in 2010, compared with 2382 g in 1991-94. The birthweight percentiles provide clinicians and researchers with up-to-date population norms of birthweight percentiles for twins in Australia. 19. Association between body mass index percentile trajectories in infancy and adiposity in childhood and early adulthood. PubMed Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Levy, Steven M 2017-01-01 To identify distinct body mass index (BMI) percentile trajectories during early childhood and examine adiposity levels in childhood and early adulthood according to the BMI percentile trajectories. Iowa Fluoride Study cohort parents (n = 1,093) reported their child's anthropometric data on average six times between ages 0 and 23 months. A subset of the cohort underwent DXA scans at approximately age 8 years (n = 495) and again at approximately age 19 years (n = 314). Group-based trajectory analysis was conducted to identify distinct BMI percentile trajectories from ages 0 to 23 months. Sex-specific age-adjusted linear regression analyses were conducted to compare fat mass index in childhood and early adulthood among subgroups that follow the distinct BMI percentile patterns. Four BMI percentile patterns were identified: consistently low (group 1: 9.8%), increase in the second year (group 2: 33.7%), increase in the first year (group 3: 23.9%), and consistently high (group 4: 32.6%). Compared with group 2 females, groups 3 and 4 females had higher fat mass index in childhood and early adulthood (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found in males. Females who experience a steep increase of BMI percentile in the first year of life, as opposed to a steep increase in the second year of life, may have higher body fat later in life, but this was not found in males. © 2016 The Obesity Society. 20. Precision of Student Growth Percentiles with Small Sample Sizes ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Culbertson, Michael J. 2016-01-01 States in the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Central region serve a largely rural population with many states enrolling fewer than 350,000 students. A common challenge identified among REL Central educators is identifying appropriate methods for analyzing data with small samples of students. In particular, members of the REL Central… 1. Ranking Information in Networks NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Eliassi-Rad, Tina; Henderson, Keith Given a network, we are interested in ranking sets of nodes that score highest on user-specified criteria. For instance in graphs from bibliographic data (e.g. PubMed), we would like to discover sets of authors with expertise in a wide range of disciplines. We present this ranking task as a Top-K problem; utilize fixed-memory heuristic search; and present performance of both the serial and distributed search algorithms on synthetic and real-world data sets. 2. Selection Methods for Undergraduate Admissions in Australia. Does the Australian Predominate Entry Scheme the Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank (ATAR) Have a Future? ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Blyth, Kathryn 2014-01-01 This article considers the Australian entry score system, the Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank (ATAR), and its usage as a selection mechanism for undergraduate places in Australian higher education institutions and asks whether its role as the main selection criterion will continue with the introduction of demand driven funding in 2012.… 3. Selection Methods for Undergraduate Admissions in Australia. Does the Australian Predominate Entry Scheme the Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank (ATAR) Have a Future? ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Blyth, Kathryn 2014-01-01 This article considers the Australian entry score system, the Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank (ATAR), and its usage as a selection mechanism for undergraduate places in Australian higher education institutions and asks whether its role as the main selection criterion will continue with the introduction of demand driven funding in 2012.… 4. Diversifying customer review rankings. PubMed Krestel, Ralf; Dokoohaki, Nima 2015-06-01 E-commerce Web sites owe much of their popularity to consumer reviews accompanying product descriptions. On-line customers spend hours and hours going through heaps of textual reviews to decide which products to buy. At the same time, each popular product has thousands of user-generated reviews, making it impossible for a buyer to read everything. Current approaches to display reviews to users or recommend an individual review for a product are based on the recency or helpfulness of each review. In this paper, we present a framework to rank product reviews by optimizing the coverage of the ranking with respect to sentiment or aspects, or by summarizing all reviews with the top-K reviews in the ranking. To accomplish this, we make use of the assigned star rating for a product as an indicator for a review's sentiment polarity and compare bag-of-words (language model) with topic models (latent Dirichlet allocation) as a mean to represent aspects. Our evaluation on manually annotated review data from a commercial review Web site demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach, outperforming plain recency ranking by 30% and obtaining best results by combining language and topic model representations. 5. Outflanking the Rankings Industry ERIC Educational Resources Information Center McGuire, Patricia 2007-01-01 In this article, the author argues that American higher education is allowing itself to be held hostage by the rankings industry, which can lead institutions to consider actions harmful to the public interest and encourage the public's infatuation with celebrity at the expense of substance. Instead of sitting quietly by during the upcoming ratings… 6. Playing the Rankings Game ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Farrell, Elizabeth F.; Van Der Werf, Martin 2007-01-01 While some colleges claim not to care what "U.S. News & World Report" says, and experts cite problems in the way its annual rankings are done, many institutions scramble to improve their positions. There are well-documented examples of institutions that have solicited nominal donations from alumni to boost their percentage of giving, encouraged… 7. Ranking facial attractiveness. PubMed Knight, Helen; Keith, Olly 2005-08-01 The first aim of this investigation was to assemble a group of photographs of 30 male and 30 female faces representing a standardized spectrum of facial attractiveness, against which orthognathic treatment outcomes could be compared. The second aim was to investigate the influence of the relationship between ANB differences and anterior lower face height (ALFH) percentages on facial attractiveness. The initial sample comprised standardized photographs of 41 female and 35 male Caucasian subjects. From these, the photographs of two groups of 30 male and 30 female subjects were compiled. A panel of six clinicians and six non-clinicians ranked the photographs. The results showed there to be a good level of reliability for each assessor when ranking the photographs on two occasions, particularly for the clinicians (female subjects r = 0.76-0.97, male subjects r = 0.72-0.94). Agreement among individuals within each group was also high, particularly when ranking facial attractiveness in male subjects (female subjects r = 0.57-0.84, male subjects r = 0.91-0.94). Antero-posterior (AP) discrepancies, as measured by soft tissue ANB, showed minimal correlation with facial attractiveness. However, a trend emerged that would suggest that in faces where the ANB varies widely from 5 degrees, the face is considered less attractive. The ALFH percentage also showed minimal correlation with facial attractiveness. However, there was a trend that suggested that greater ALFH percentages are considered less attractive in female faces, while in males the opposite trend was seen. Either of the two series of ranked photographs as judged by clinicians and non-clinicians could be used as a standard against which facial attractiveness could be assessed, as both were in total agreement about the most attractive faces. However, to judge the outcome of orthognathic treatment, the series of ranked photographs produced by the non-clinician group should be used as the 'standard' to reflect lay 8. Early efficacy of the ketogenic diet is not affected by initial body mass index percentile. PubMed Shull, Shastin; Diaz-Medina, Gloria; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Nickels, Katherine; Eckert, Susan; Wirrell, Elaine 2014-05-01 Predictors of the ketogenic diet's success in treating pediatric intractable epilepsy are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether initial body mass index and weight percentile impact early efficacy of the traditional ketogenic diet in children initiating therapy for intractable epilepsy. This retrospective study included all children initiating the ketogenic diet at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from January 2001 to December 2010 who had body mass index (children ≥2 years of age) or weight percentile (those <2 years of age) documented at diet initiation and seizure frequency recorded at diet initiation and one month. Responders were defined as achieving a >50% seizure reduction from baseline. Our cohort consisted of 48 patients (20 male) with a median age of 3.1 years. There was no significant correlation between initial body mass index or weight percentile and seizure frequency reduction at one month (P = 0.72, r = 0.26 and P = 0.91, r = 0.03). There was no significant association between body mass index or weight percentile quartile and responder rates (P = 0.21 and P = 0.57). Children considered overweight or obese at diet initiation (body mass index or weight percentile ≥85) did not have lower responder rates than those with body mass index or weight percentiles <85 (6/14 vs 19/34, respectively, P = 0.41). Greater initial body mass index and weight-for-age percentiles do not adversely affect the efficacy of the ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 9. Block models and personalized PageRank PubMed Central Kloumann, Isabel M.; Ugander, Johan; Kleinberg, Jon 2017-01-01 Methods for ranking the importance of nodes in a network have a rich history in machine learning and across domains that analyze structured data. Recent work has evaluated these methods through the “seed set expansion problem”: given a subset S of nodes from a community of interest in an underlying graph, can we reliably identify the rest of the community? We start from the observation that the most widely used techniques for this problem, personalized PageRank and heat kernel methods, operate in the space of “landing probabilities” of a random walk rooted at the seed set, ranking nodes according to weighted sums of landing probabilities of different length walks. Both schemes, however, lack an a priori relationship to the seed set objective. In this work, we develop a principled framework for evaluating ranking methods by studying seed set expansion applied to the stochastic block model. We derive the optimal gradient for separating the landing probabilities of two classes in a stochastic block model and find, surprisingly, that under reasonable assumptions the gradient is asymptotically equivalent to personalized PageRank for a specific choice of the PageRank parameter α that depends on the block model parameters. This connection provides a formal motivation for the success of personalized PageRank in seed set expansion and node ranking generally. We use this connection to propose more advanced techniques incorporating higher moments of landing probabilities; our advanced methods exhibit greatly improved performance, despite being simple linear classification rules, and are even competitive with belief propagation. PMID:27999183 10. Quantum Navigation and Ranking in Complex Networks NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Sánchez-Burillo, Eduardo; Duch, Jordi; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Zueco, David 2012-08-01 Complex networks are formal frameworks capturing the interdependencies between the elements of large systems and databases. This formalism allows to use network navigation methods to rank the importance that each constituent has on the global organization of the system. A key example is Pagerank navigation which is at the core of the most used search engine of the World Wide Web. Inspired in this classical algorithm, we define a quantum navigation method providing a unique ranking of the elements of a network. We analyze the convergence of quantum navigation to the stationary rank of networks and show that quantumness decreases the number of navigation steps before convergence. In addition, we show that quantum navigation allows to solve degeneracies found in classical ranks. By implementing the quantum algorithm in real networks, we confirm these improvements and show that quantum coherence unveils new hierarchical features about the global organization of complex systems. 11. Quantum Navigation and Ranking in Complex Networks PubMed Central Sánchez-Burillo, Eduardo; Duch, Jordi; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Zueco, David 2012-01-01 Complex networks are formal frameworks capturing the interdependencies between the elements of large systems and databases. This formalism allows to use network navigation methods to rank the importance that each constituent has on the global organization of the system. A key example is Pagerank navigation which is at the core of the most used search engine of the World Wide Web. Inspired in this classical algorithm, we define a quantum navigation method providing a unique ranking of the elements of a network. We analyze the convergence of quantum navigation to the stationary rank of networks and show that quantumness decreases the number of navigation steps before convergence. In addition, we show that quantum navigation allows to solve degeneracies found in classical ranks. By implementing the quantum algorithm in real networks, we confirm these improvements and show that quantum coherence unveils new hierarchical features about the global organization of complex systems. PMID:22930671 12. Use of Pearson's Chi-Square for Testing Equality of Percentile Profiles across Multiple Populations. PubMed Johnson, William D; Beyl, Robbie A; Burton, Jeffrey H; Johnson, Callie M; Romer, Jacob E; Zhang, Lei 2015-08-01 In large sample studies where distributions may be skewed and not readily transformed to symmetry, it may be of greater interest to compare different distributions in terms of percentiles rather than means. For example, it may be more informative to compare two or more populations with respect to their within population distributions by testing the hypothesis that their corresponding respective 10(th), 50(th), and 90(th) percentiles are equal. As a generalization of the median test, the proposed test statistic is asymptotically distributed as Chi-square with degrees of freedom dependent upon the number of percentiles tested and constraints of the null hypothesis. Results from simulation studies are used to validate the nominal 0.05 significance level under the null hypothesis, and asymptotic power properties that are suitable for testing equality of percentile profiles against selected profile discrepancies for a variety of underlying distributions. A pragmatic example is provided to illustrate the comparison of the percentile profiles for four body mass index distributions. 13. Global Low-Rank Image Restoration With Gaussian Mixture Model. PubMed Zhang, Sibo; Jiao, Licheng; Liu, Fang; Wang, Shuang 2017-06-27 Low-rank restoration has recently attracted a lot of attention in the research of computer vision. Empirical studies show that exploring the low-rank property of the patch groups can lead to superior restoration performance, however, there is limited achievement on the global low-rank restoration because the rank minimization at image level is too strong for the natural images which seldom match the low-rank condition. In this paper, we describe a flexible global low-rank restoration model which introduces the local statistical properties into the rank minimization. The proposed model can effectively recover the latent global low-rank structure via nuclear norm, as well as the fine details via Gaussian mixture model. An alternating scheme is developed to estimate the Gaussian parameters and the restored image, and it shows excellent convergence and stability. Besides, experiments on image and video sequence datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed method in image inpainting problems. 14. Generalization Performance of Regularized Ranking With Multiscale Kernels. PubMed Zhou, Yicong; Chen, Hong; Lan, Rushi; Pan, Zhibin 2016-05-01 The regularized kernel method for the ranking problem has attracted increasing attentions in machine learning. The previous regularized ranking algorithms are usually based on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces with a single kernel. In this paper, we go beyond this framework by investigating the generalization performance of the regularized ranking with multiscale kernels. A novel ranking algorithm with multiscale kernels is proposed and its representer theorem is proved. We establish the upper bound of the generalization error in terms of the complexity of hypothesis spaces. It shows that the multiscale ranking algorithm can achieve satisfactory learning rates under mild conditions. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for drug discovery and recommendation tasks. 15. Athletic Training Education Programs: To Rank or Not To Rank? PubMed Central Voll, Craig A.; Goodwin, Jeff E.; Pitney, William A. 1999-01-01 Objective: To discuss the literature regarding educational program ranking and to provide insights concerning undergraduate and graduate athletic training education ranking systems. Background: The demand for accountability and the need to evaluate the quality of educational programs have led to program ranking in many academic disciplines. As athletic training becomes more recognized within the medical community, determining a program's quality will become increasingly important. Description: We describe program rankings used in other disciplines for determining quality and providing measures of accountability. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of both subjective and objective ranking systems, as well as the arguments for using program rankings in athletic training. Future directions for program ranking and potential research questions are suggested. Applications: Ranking systems on the basis of levels of perceived quality and academic productivity of programs that prepare future professionals will help potential undergraduate and graduate students make informed decisions when selecting an educational program. PMID:16558548 16. An intertwined method for making low-rank, sum-of-product basis functions that makes it possible to compute vibrational spectra of molecules with more than 10 atoms NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Thomas, Phillip S.; Carrington, Tucker 2017-05-01 We propose a method for solving the vibrational Schrödinger equation with which one can compute spectra for molecules with more than ten atoms. It uses sum-of-product (SOP) basis functions stored in a canonical polyadic tensor format and generated by evaluating matrix-vector products. By doing a sequence of partial optimizations, in each of which the factors in a SOP basis function for a single coordinate are optimized, the rank of the basis functions is reduced as matrix-vector products are computed. This is better than using an alternating least squares method to reduce the rank, as is done in the reduced-rank block power method. Partial optimization is better because it speeds up the calculation by about an order of magnitude and allows one to significantly reduce the memory cost. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method by computing vibrational spectra of two molecules, ethylene oxide (C2H4O ) and cyclopentadiene (C5H6 ) , with 7 and 11 atoms, respectively. 17. Percentiles of body fat measured by bioelectrical impedance in children and adolescents from Bogotá (Colombia): the FUPRECOL study. PubMed Escobar-Cardozo, Germán D; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson 2016-04-01 The analysis of body composition is a fundamental part of nutritional status assessment. The objective of this study was to establish body fat percentiles by bioelectrical impedance in children and adolescents from Bogotá (Colombia) who were part of the FUPRECOL study (Asociación de la Fuerza Prensil con Manifestaciones Tempranas de Riesgo Cardiovascular en Niños y Adolescentes Colombianos - Association between prehensile force and early signs of cardiovascular risk in Colombian children and adolescents). This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 5850 students aged 9-17.9 years old from Bogotá (Colombia). Body fat percentage was measured using foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance (Tanita®, BF-689), by age and gender. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured, and sexual maturity was self-staged. Percentiles (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 and P97) and centile curves were estimated using the LMS method (L [BoxCox curve], M [median curve] and S [variation coefficient curve]), by age and gender. Subjects included were 2526 children and 3324 adolescents. Body fat percentages and centile curves by age and gender were established. For most age groups, values resulted higher among girls than boys. Participants with values above P90 were considered to have a high cardiovascular risk due to excess fat (boys > 23.428.3, girls > 31.0-34.1). Body fat percentage percentiles measured using bioelectrical impedance by age and gender are presented here and may be used as reference to assess nutritional status and to predict cardiovascular risk due to excess fat at an early age. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría. 18. Use of population-referenced total activity counts percentiles to assess and classify physical activity of population groups PubMed Central Wolff-Hughes, Dana L.; Troiano, Richard P.; Boyer, William R.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.; McClain, James J. 2016-01-01 Objectives Population-referenced total activity counts per day (TAC/d) percentiles provide public health practitioners a standardized measure of physical activity (PA) volume obtained from an accelerometer that can be compared across populations. The purpose of this study was to describe the application of TAC/d population-referenced percentiles to characterize the PA levels of population groups relative to US estimates. Methods A total of 679 adults participating in the 2011 NYC Physical Activity Transit survey wore an ActiGraph accelerometer on their hip for seven consecutive days. Accelerometer-derived TAC/d was classified into age- and gender-specific quartiles of US population-referenced TAC/d to compare differences in the distributions by borough (N=5). Results Males in Brooklyn, Manhattan, and Staten Island had significantly greater TAC/d than US males. Females in Brooklyn and Queens had significantly greater levels of TAC/d compared to US females. The proportion of males in each population-referenced TAC/d quartile varied significantly by borough (χ2(12)=2.63, p=0.002), with disproportionately more men in Manhattan and the Bronx found to be in the highest and lowest US population-referenced TAC/d quartiles, respectively. For females, there was no significant difference in US population-reference TAC/d quartile by borough (χ2(12)=1.09, p=0.36). Conclusions These results demonstrate the utility of population-referenced TAC/d percentiles in public health monitoring and surveillance. These findings also provide insights into the PA levels of NYC residents relative to the broader US population, which can be used to guide health promotion efforts. PMID:26876630 19. A note on rank reduction in sparse multivariate regression. PubMed Chen, Kun; Chan, Kung-Sik A reduced-rank regression with sparse singular value decomposition (RSSVD) approach was proposed by Chen et al. for conducting variable selection in a reduced-rank model. To jointly model the multivariate response, the method efficiently constructs a prespecified number of latent variables as some sparse linear combinations of the predictors. Here, we generalize the method to also perform rank reduction, and enable its usage in reduced-rank vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling to perform automatic rank determination and order selection. We show that in the context of stationary time-series data, the generalized approach correctly identifies both the model rank and the sparse dependence structure between the multivariate response and the predictors, with probability one asymptotically. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method by simulations and analyzing a macro-economical multivariate time series using a reduced-rank VAR model. 20. Ranking community health status to stimulate discussion of local public health issues: the Wisconsin County Health Rankings. PubMed Peppard, Paul E; Kindig, David A; Dranger, Elizabeth; Jovaag, Amanda; Remington, Patrick L 2008-02-01 United Health Foundation's America's Health Rankings, which ranks the states from "least healthy" to "healthiest," receives wide press coverage and promotes discussion of public health issues. The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute used the United Health Foundation's model to develop the Wisconsin County Health Rankings ("Health Rankings") from existing county-level data. The institute first released the rankings in 2004. A survey of the Wisconsin county health officers indicated that they intend to use the rankings for needs assessment, program planning, and discussion with county health boards. The institute implemented many of the health officers' suggestions for improvement of the rankings in subsequent editions. The methods employed to create the rankings should be applicable in other states. 1. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children With Fragile X Syndrome PubMed Central Hall, Scott S; Maynes, Natalee P; Reiss, Allan L 2009-01-01 Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS. Results showed that although aversion to eye contact is often thought to be unamenable to change in FXS, it can be shaped in some individuals using percentile schedules either alone or in combination with overcorrection. PMID:19721738 2. Using percentile schedules to increase eye contact in children with Fragile X syndrome. PubMed Hall, Scott S; Maynes, Natalee P; Reiss, Allan L 2009-01-01 Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS. Results showed that although aversion to eye contact is often thought to be unamenable to change in FXS, it can be shaped in some individuals using percentile schedules either alone or in combination with overcorrection. 3. Let your users do the ranking. SciTech Connect Spomer, Judith E. 2010-12-01 Ranking search results is a thorny issue for enterprise search. Search engines rank results using a variety of sophisticated algorithms, but users still complain that search can't ever seem to find anything useful or relevant! The challenge is to provide results that are ranked according to the users' definition of relevancy. Sandia National Laboratories has enhanced its commercial search engine to discover user preferences, re-ranking results accordingly. Immediate positive impact was achieved by modeling historical data consisting of user queries and subsequent result clicks. New data is incorporated into the model daily. An important benefit is that results improve naturally and automatically over time as a function of user actions. This session presents the method employed, how it was integrated with the search engine,metrics illustrating the subsequent improvement to the users' search experience, and plans for implementation with Sandia's FAST for SharePoint 2010 search engine. 4. Assessment of Self-Awareness of Cognitive Function: Correlations of Self-Ratings with Actual Performance Ranks for Tests of Processing Speed, Memory and Executive Function in Non-Clinical Samples. PubMed Rothlind, Johannes; Dukarm, Paul; Kraybill, Matthew 2016-12-28 For individuals with neurologic disorders, self-awareness of cognitive impairment is associated with improved treatment course and clinical outcome. However, methods for assessment of levels of self-awareness are limited, and most require collateral information, which may not be readily available. Although distortions in self-awareness are most often associated with low cognitive ability, the frequently mixed pattern of cognitive strengths and deficits in individuals with neurologic disorders complicates assessment. The present study explores relationships between actual test performance and self-ratings, utilizing a brief probe administered during testing. The "common-metric" approach solicits self-appraisal ratings in percentile equivalents and capitalizes on available normative data for specific standardized neuropsychological tests to allow direct comparisons. A convenience sample of 199 adults recruited from community sources participated in this study, including healthy adults and neuropsychologically "at-risk" volunteers who were HIV positive and/or endorsing heavy current alcohol consumption. Immediately following completion of standardized neuropsychological tests, participants estimated their own percentile ranking. Across study groups, participant's estimates of their own percentile rank were modestly correlated with actual performance ranking. Highest correlations were obtained for tests of learning, memory and conceptual reasoning, and executive function, with smaller correlations for simple tests of motor and psychomotor speed. The study reveals normal biases affecting the self-appraisal during standardized testing, and suggests that a common-metric approach for assessing self-appraisal may play a role in establishing clinical thresholds and identifying and quantifying reductions in insight in persons with neuropsychological deficits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e 5. Comparison of Updated Weight and Height Percentiles with Previous References in 6-17-Year-Old Children in Kayseri, Turkey PubMed Central Zararsız, Gökmen; Çiçek, Betül; Kondolot, Meda; Mazıcıoğlu, M. Mümtaz; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim 2017-01-01 Objective: To compare updated weight and height percentiles of 6-17-year-old children from all socio-economic levels in Kayseri with previous local references and other national/international data. Methods: The second study “Determination of Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents study (DAMTCA II)” was conducted in Kayseri, between October 2007 and April 2008. Weight and height measurements from 4321 (1926 boys, 2395 girls) school children aged between 6 to 17 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Using these data, weight and height percentile curves were produced with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) and compared with the most recent references. Results: Smoothed percentile curves including the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th, and 97th percentiles were obtained for boys and girls. These results were compared with DAMTCA I study and with two national (İstanbul and Ankara) and international data from Asia and from Europe. Conclusion: This study provides updated weight and height references for Turkish school children aged between 6 and 17 years residing in Kayseri. PMID:27507256 6. Do changes in body mass index percentile reflect changes in body composition in children? Data from the Fels Longitudinal Study. PubMed Demerath, Ellen W; Schubert, Christine M; Maynard, L Michele; Sun, Shumei S; Chumlea, W Cameron; Pickoff, Arthur; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Towne, Bradford; Siervogel, Roger M 2006-03-01 Our aim was to examine the degree to which changes in BMI percentile reflect changes in body fat and lean body mass during childhood and how age and gender affect these relationships. This analysis used serial data on 494 white boys and girls who were aged 8 to 18 years and participating in the Fels Longitudinal Study (total 2319 observations). Total body fat (TBF), total body fat-free mass (FFM), and percentage of body fat (%BF) were determined by hydrodensitometry, and then BMI was partitioned into its fat and fat-free components: fat mass index (FMI) and FFM index (FFMI). We calculated predicted changes (Delta) in FMI, FFMI, and %BF for each 10-unit increase in BMI percentile using mixed-effects models. FFMI had a linear relationship with BMI percentile, whereas FMI and %BF tended to increase dramatically only at higher BMI percentiles. Gender and age had significant effects on the relationship between BMI percentile and FFMI, FMI, and %BF. Predicted Delta%BF for boys 13 to 18 years of age was negative, suggesting loss of relative fatness for each 10-unit increase in BMI percentile. In this longitudinal study of white children, FFMI consistently increased with BMI percentile, whereas FMI and %BF had more complicated relationships with BMI percentile depending on gender, age, and whether BMI percentile was high or low. Our results suggest that BMI percentile changes may not accurately reflect changes in adiposity in children over time, particularly among male adolescents and children of lower BMI. 7. University Rankings and Social Science ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Marginson, Simon 2014-01-01 University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real… 8. University Rankings and Social Science ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Marginson, Simon 2014-01-01 University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real… 9. Empirical Percentile Growth Curves with Z-scores Considering Seasonal Compensatory Growths for Japanese Thoroughbred Horses PubMed Central ONODA, Tomoaki; YAMAMOTO, Ryuta; SAWAMURA, Kyohei; MURASE, Harutaka; NAMBO, Yasuo; INOUE, Yoshinobu; MATSUI, Akira; MIYAKE, Takeshi; HIRAI, Nobuhiro 2013-01-01 Percentile growth curves are often used as a clinical indicator to evaluate variations of children’s growth status. In this study, we propose empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores adapted for Japanese Thoroughbred horses, with considerations of the seasonal compensatory growth that is a typical characteristic of seasonal breeding animals. We previously developed new growth curve equations for Japanese Thoroughbreds adjusting for compensatory growth. Individual horses and residual effects were included as random effects in the growth curve equation model and their variance components were estimated. Based on the Z-scores of the estimated variance components, empirical percentile growth curves were constructed. A total of 5,594 and 5,680 body weight and age measurements of male and female Thoroughbreds, respectively, and 3,770 withers height and age measurements were used in the analyses. The developed empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores are computationally feasible and useful for monitoring individual growth parameters of body weight and withers height of young Thoroughbred horses, especially during compensatory growth periods. PMID:24834004 10. Student Growth Percentiles Based on MIRT: Implications of Calibrated Projection. CRESST Report 842 ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li; Choi, Kilchan 2014-01-01 This research concerns a new proposal for calculating student growth percentiles (SGP, Betebenner, 2009). In Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is used to estimate the SGPs. However, measurement error in the score estimates, which always exists in practice, leads to bias in the QR-­based estimates (Shang, 2012). One way to address this… 11. The Accuracy of Aggregate Student Growth Percentiles as Indicators of Educator Performance ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Castellano, Katherine E.; McCaffrey, Daniel F. 2017-01-01 Mean or median student growth percentiles (MGPs) are a popular measure of educator performance, but they lack rigorous evaluation. This study investigates the error in MGP due to test score measurement error (ME). Using analytic derivations, we find that errors in the commonly used MGP are correlated with average prior latent achievement: Teachers… 12. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years MedlinePlus 2 to 20 years: Boys NAME Stature-for-age and Weight-for-age percentiles RECORD # Mother’s Stature Date Age in cm 160 62 S 155 60 T 150 ... 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BMI* AGE (YEARS) cm 95 190 90 185 75 180 ... 13. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children with Fragile X Syndrome ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Hall, Scott S.; Maynes, Natalee P.; Reiss, Allan L. 2009-01-01 Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS.… 14. User Guide for the 2014-15 Teacher Median Student Growth Percentile Report ERIC Educational Resources Information Center New Jersey Department of Education, 2016 2016-01-01 On March 22, 2016, the New Jersey Department of Education ("the Department") published a broadcast memo sharing secure district access to 2014-15 median Student Growth Percentile (mSGP) data for all qualifying teachers. These data describe student growth from the last school year, and comprise 10% of qualifying teachers' 2014-15… 15. Hierarchical Rank Aggregation with Applications to Nanotoxicology. PubMed Patel, Trina; Telesca, Donatello; Rallo, Robert; George, Saji; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E 2013-06-01 The development of high throughput screening (HTS) assays in the field of nanotoxicology provide new opportunities for the hazard assessment and ranking of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). It is often necessary to rank lists of materials based on multiple risk assessment parameters, often aggregated across several measures of toxicity and possibly spanning an array of experimental platforms. Bayesian models coupled with the optimization of loss functions have been shown to provide an effective framework for conducting inference on ranks. In this article we present various loss-function-based ranking approaches for comparing ENM within experiments and toxicity parameters. Additionally, we propose a framework for the aggregation of ranks across different sources of evidence while allowing for differential weighting of this evidence based on its reliability and importance in risk ranking. We apply these methods to high throughput toxicity data on two human cell-lines, exposed to eight different nanomaterials, and measured in relation to four cytotoxicity outcomes. This article has supplementary material online. 16. Hierarchical Rank Aggregation with Applications to Nanotoxicology PubMed Central Telesca, Donatello; Rallo, Robert; George, Saji; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E. 2014-01-01 The development of high throughput screening (HTS) assays in the field of nanotoxicology provide new opportunities for the hazard assessment and ranking of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). It is often necessary to rank lists of materials based on multiple risk assessment parameters, often aggregated across several measures of toxicity and possibly spanning an array of experimental platforms. Bayesian models coupled with the optimization of loss functions have been shown to provide an effective framework for conducting inference on ranks. In this article we present various loss-function-based ranking approaches for comparing ENM within experiments and toxicity parameters. Additionally, we propose a framework for the aggregation of ranks across different sources of evidence while allowing for differential weighting of this evidence based on its reliability and importance in risk ranking. We apply these methods to high throughput toxicity data on two human cell-lines, exposed to eight different nanomaterials, and measured in relation to four cytotoxicity outcomes. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:24839387 17. Acculturation determines BMI percentile and noncore food intake in Hispanic children. PubMed Wiley, James F; Cloutier, Michelle M; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Hernandez, Dominica B; Grant, Autherene; Beaulieu, Annamarie; Gorin, Amy A 2014-03-01 Hispanic children in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity. The role of acculturation in obesity is unclear. This study examined the relation between child obesity, dietary intake, and maternal acculturation in Hispanic children. We hypothesized that children of more acculturated mothers would consume more unhealthy foods and would have higher body mass index (BMI) percentiles. A total of 209 Hispanic mothers of children aged 2-4 y (50% female, 35.3 ± 8.7 mo, BMI percentile: 73.1 ± 27.8, 30% obese, 19% overweight) were recruited for an obesity prevention/reversal study. The associations between baseline maternal acculturation [Brief Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (Brief ARSMA-II)], child BMI percentile, and child diet were examined. Factor analysis of the Brief ARSMA-II in Puerto Rican mothers resulted in 2 new factors, which were named the Hispanic Orientation Score (4 items, loadings: 0.64-0.81) and U.S. Mainland Orientation Score (6 items, loadings: -0.61-0.92). In the total sample, children who consumed more noncore foods were more likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.01). Additionally, children of mothers with greater acculturation to the United States consumed more noncore foods (P < 0.0001) and had higher BMI percentiles (P < 0.04). However, mothers with greater Hispanic acculturation served fewer noncore foods (P < 0.0001). In the Puerto Rican subgroup of mothers, Puerto Rican mothers with greater acculturation to the United States served more noncore foods (P < 0.0001), but there was no association between acculturation and child BMI percentile in this subgroup. These mothers, however, served fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P < 0.01) compared with non-Puerto Rican mothers, and this may have negated the effect of noncore food consumption on BMI percentile. These data suggest a complex relation between acculturation, noncore food consumption, and child BMI percentile in Puerto Rican and non-Puerto Rican 18. Development and Full Body Validation of a 5th Percentile Female Finite Element Model. PubMed Davis, Matthew L; Koya, Bharath; Schap, Jeremy M; Gayzik, F Scott 2016-11-01 To mitigate the societal impact of vehicle crash, researchers are using a variety of tools, including finite element models (FEMs). As part of the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) project, comprehensive medical image and anthropometrical data of the 5th percentile female (F05) were acquired for the explicit purpose of FEM development. The F05-O (occupant) FEM model consists of 981 parts, 2.6 million elements, 1.4 million nodes, and has a mass of 51.1 kg. The model was compared to experimental data in 10 validation cases ranging from localized rigid hub impacts to full body sled cases. In order to make direct comparisons to experimental data, which represent the mass of an average male, the model was compared to experimental corridors using two methods: 1) post-hoc scaling the outputs from the baseline F05-O model and 2) geometrically morphing the model to the body habitus of the average male to allow direct comparisons. This second step required running the morphed full body model in all 10 simulations for a total of 20 full body simulations presented. Overall, geometrically morphing the model was found to more closely match the target data with an average ISO score for the rigid impacts of 0.76 compared to 0.67 for the scaled responses. Based on these data, the morphed model was then used for model validation in the vehicle sled cases. Overall, the morphed model attained an average weighted score of 0.69 for the two sled impacts. Hard tissue injuries were also assessed and the baseline F05-O model was found to predict a greater occurrence of pelvic fractures compared to the GHBMC average male model, but predicted fewer rib fractures. 19. Different actuarial risk measures produce different risk rankings for sexual offenders. PubMed Barbaree, Howard E; Langton, Calvin M; Peacock, Edward J 2006-10-01 Percentile ranks were computed for N=262 sex offenders using each of 5 actuarial risk instruments commonly used with adult sex offenders (RRASOR, Static-99, VRAG, SORAG, and MnSOST-R). Mean differences between percentile ranks obtained by different actuarial measures were found to vary inversely with the correlation between the actuarial scores. Following studies of factor analyses of actuarial items, we argue that the discrepancies among actuarial instruments can be substantially accounted for by the way in which the factor Antisocial Behavior and various factors reflecting sexual deviance are represented among the items contained in each instrument. In the discussion, we provide guidance to clinicians in resolving discrepancies between instruments and we discuss implications for future developments in sex offender risk assessment. 20. The Privileges of Rank PubMed Central MacLean, Alair 2010-01-01 This article examines the effects of peacetime cold war military service on the life course according to four potentially overlapping theories that state that military service (1) was a disruption, (2) was a positive turning point, (3) allowed veterans to accumulate advantage, and (4) was an agent of social reproduction. The article argues that the extent to which the effect of military service on veterans' lives corresponds with one or another of the preceding theories depends on historical shifts in three dimensions: conscription, conflict, and benefits. Military service during the peacetime draft era of the late 1950s had a neutral effect on the socioeconomic attainment of enlisted veterans. However, it had a positive effect on veterans who served as officers, which partly stemmed from status reproduction and selection. Yet net of pre-service and educational differences by rank, officers in this peacetime draft era were still able to accumulate advantage. PMID:20842210 1. Neophilia Ranking of Scientific Journals PubMed Central Packalen, Mikko; Bhattacharya, Jay 2017-01-01 The ranking of scientific journals is important because of the signal it sends to scientists about what is considered most vital for scientific progress. Existing ranking systems focus on measuring the influence of a scientific paper (citations)—these rankings do not reward journals for publishing innovative work that builds on new ideas. We propose an alternative ranking based on the proclivity of journals to publish papers that build on new ideas, and we implement this ranking via a text-based analysis of all published biomedical papers dating back to 1946. In addition, we compare our neophilia ranking to citation-based (impact factor) rankings; this comparison shows that the two ranking approaches are distinct. Prior theoretical work suggests an active role for our neophilia index in science policy. Absent an explicit incentive to pursue novel science, scientists underinvest in innovative work because of a coordination problem: for work on a new idea to flourish, many scientists must decide to adopt it in their work. Rankings that are based purely on influence thus do not provide sufficient incentives for publishing innovative work. By contrast, adoption of the neophilia index as part of journal-ranking procedures by funding agencies and university administrators would provide an explicit incentive for journals to publish innovative work and thus help solve the coordination problem by increasing scientists' incentives to pursue innovative work. PMID:28713181 2. Ranking Community Health Status to Stimulate Discussion of Local Public Health Issues: The Wisconsin County Health Rankings PubMed Central Peppard, Paul E.; Kindig, David A.; Dranger, Elizabeth; Jovaag, Amanda; Remington, Patrick L. 2008-01-01 United Health Foundation’s America’s Health Rankings, which ranks the states from “least healthy” to “healthiest,” receives wide press coverage and promotes discussion of public health issues. The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute used the United Health Foundation’s model to develop the Wisconsin County Health Rankings (“Health Rankings”) from existing county-level data. The institute first released the rankings in 2004. A survey of the Wisconsin county health officers indicated that they intend to use the rankings for needs assessment, program planning, and discussion with county health boards. The institute implemented many of the health officers’ suggestions for improvement of the rankings in subsequent editions. The methods employed to create the rankings should be applicable in other states. PMID:18172156 3. Model diagnostics in reduced-rank estimation PubMed Central Chen, Kun 2016-01-01 Reduced-rank methods are very popular in high-dimensional multivariate analysis for conducting simultaneous dimension reduction and model estimation. However, the commonly-used reduced-rank methods are not robust, as the underlying reduced-rank structure can be easily distorted by only a few data outliers. Anomalies are bound to exist in big data problems, and in some applications they themselves could be of the primary interest. While naive residual analysis is often inadequate for outlier detection due to potential masking and swamping, robust reduced-rank estimation approaches could be computationally demanding. Under Stein's unbiased risk estimation framework, we propose a set of tools, including leverage score and generalized information score, to perform model diagnostics and outlier detection in large-scale reduced-rank estimation. The leverage scores give an exact decomposition of the so-called model degrees of freedom to the observation level, which lead to exact decomposition of many commonly-used information criteria; the resulting quantities are thus named information scores of the observations. The proposed information score approach provides a principled way of combining the residuals and leverage scores for anomaly detection. Simulation studies confirm that the proposed diagnostic tools work well. A pattern recognition example with hand-writing digital images and a time series analysis example with monthly U.S. macroeconomic data further demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approaches. PMID:28003860 4. Modeling Area-Level Health Rankings PubMed Central Courtemanche, Charles; Soneji, Samir; Tchernis, Rusty 2015-01-01 Objective Rank county health using a Bayesian factor analysis model. Data Sources Secondary county data from the National Center for Health Statistics (through 2007) and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (through 2009). Study Design Our model builds on the existing county health rankings (CHRs) by using data-derived weights to compute ranks from mortality and morbidity variables, and by quantifying uncertainty based on population, spatial correlation, and missing data. We apply our model to Wisconsin, which has comprehensive data, and Texas, which has substantial missing information. Data Collection Methods The data were downloaded from www.countyhealthrankings.org. Principal Findings Our estimated rankings are more similar to the CHRs for Wisconsin than Texas, as the data-derived factor weights are closer to the assigned weights for Wisconsin. The correlations between the CHRs and our ranks are 0.89 for Wisconsin and 0.65 for Texas. Uncertainty is especially severe for Texas given the state's substantial missing data. Conclusions The reliability of comprehensive CHRs varies from state to state. We advise focusing on the counties that remain among the least healthy after incorporating alternate weighting methods and accounting for uncertainty. Our results also highlight the need for broader geographic coverage in health data. PMID:26256684 5. Beyond Low Rank + Sparse: Multi-scale Low Rank Matrix Decomposition PubMed Central Ong, Frank; Lustig, Michael 2016-01-01 We present a natural generalization of the recent low rank + sparse matrix decomposition and consider the decomposition of matrices into components of multiple scales. Such decomposition is well motivated in practice as data matrices often exhibit local correlations in multiple scales. Concretely, we propose a multi-scale low rank modeling that represents a data matrix as a sum of block-wise low rank matrices with increasing scales of block sizes. We then consider the inverse problem of decomposing the data matrix into its multi-scale low rank components and approach the problem via a convex formulation. Theoretically, we show that under various incoherence conditions, the convex program recovers the multi-scale low rank components either exactly or approximately. Practically, we provide guidance on selecting the regularization parameters and incorporate cycle spinning to reduce blocking artifacts. Experimentally, we show that the multi-scale low rank decomposition provides a more intuitive decomposition than conventional low rank methods and demonstrate its effectiveness in four applications, including illumination normalization for face images, motion separation for surveillance videos, multi-scale modeling of the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and collaborative filtering exploiting age information. PMID:28450978 6. Beyond Low Rank + Sparse: Multi-scale Low Rank Matrix Decomposition. PubMed Ong, Frank; Lustig, Michael 2016-06-01 We present a natural generalization of the recent low rank + sparse matrix decomposition and consider the decomposition of matrices into components of multiple scales. Such decomposition is well motivated in practice as data matrices often exhibit local correlations in multiple scales. Concretely, we propose a multi-scale low rank modeling that represents a data matrix as a sum of block-wise low rank matrices with increasing scales of block sizes. We then consider the inverse problem of decomposing the data matrix into its multi-scale low rank components and approach the problem via a convex formulation. Theoretically, we show that under various incoherence conditions, the convex program recovers the multi-scale low rank components either exactly or approximately. Practically, we provide guidance on selecting the regularization parameters and incorporate cycle spinning to reduce blocking artifacts. Experimentally, we show that the multi-scale low rank decomposition provides a more intuitive decomposition than conventional low rank methods and demonstrate its effectiveness in four applications, including illumination normalization for face images, motion separation for surveillance videos, multi-scale modeling of the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and collaborative filtering exploiting age information. 7. Wikipedia ranking of world universities NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Lages, José; Patt, Antoine; Shepelyansky, Dima L. 2016-03-01 We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the wikipedia ranking of world Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60% overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history. 8. Low-rank coal research SciTech Connect Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L. 1989-01-01 This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization). 9. Plotting equation for gaussian percentiles and a spreadsheet program for generating probability plots USGS Publications Warehouse Balsillie, J.H.; Donoghue, J.F.; Butler, K.M.; Koch, J.L. 2002-01-01 Two-dimensional plotting tools can be of invaluable assistance in analytical scientific pursuits, and have been widely used in the analysis and interpretation of sedimentologic data. We consider, in this work, the use of arithmetic probability paper (APP). Most statistical computer applications do not allow for the generation of APP plots, because of apparent intractable nonlinearity of the percentile (or probability) axis of the plot. We have solved this problem by identifying an equation(s) for determining plotting positions of Gaussian percentiles (or probabilities), so that APP plots can easily be computer generated. An EXCEL example is presented, and a programmed, simple-to-use EXCEL application template is hereby made publicly available, whereby a complete granulometric analysis including data listing, moment measure calculations, and frequency and cumulative APP plots, is automatically produced. 10. Relationships between walking and percentiles of adiposity inolder and younger men SciTech Connect Williams, Paul T. 2005-06-01 To assess the relationship of weekly walking distance to percentiles of adiposity in elders (age {ge} 75 years), seniors (55 {le} age <75 years), middle-age men (35 {le} age <55 years), and younger men (18 {le} age <35 years old). Cross-sectional analyses of baseline questionnaires from 7,082 male participants of the National Walkers Health Study. The walkers BMIs were inversely and significantly associated with walking distance (kg/m{sup 2} per km/wk) in elders (slope {+-} SE: -0.032 {+-} 0.008), seniors (-0.045 {+-} 0.005), and middle-aged men (-0.037 {+-} 0.007), as were their waist circumferences (-0.091 {+-} 0.025, -0.045 {+-} 0.005, and -0.091 {+-} 0.015 cm per km/wk, respectively), and these slopes remained significant when adjusted statistically for reported weekly servings of meat, fish, fruit, and alcohol. The declines in BMI associated with walking distance were greater at the higher than lower percentiles of the BMI distribution. Specifically, compared to the decline at the 10th BMI percentile, the decline in BMI at the 90th percentile was 5.1-fold greater in elders, 5.9-fold greater in seniors, and 6.7-fold greater in middle-age men. The declines in waist circumference associated with walking distance were also greater among men with broader waistlines. Exercise-induced weight loss (or self-selection) causes an inverse relationship between adiposity and walking distance in men 35 and older that is substantially greater among fatter men. 11. Percentile distribution for anthropometric variables used to estimate body composition in pregnant women. PubMed Rached-Sosa, Ingrid; Henríquez-Pérez, Gladys 2015-09-01 Anthropometric indicators of body composition, reflective of fat and lean compartments in pregnant women, undergo changes throughout gestation. The adequate interpretation of these indicators requires the availability of percentile distribution values for each week of gestational age. The objective was to determine the percentile distribution for subcutaneous skin-fold thicknesses: biceps, triceps, subscapular, mid-thigh, and both arm fat and arm muscle areas for each week of gestational age. This descriptive and cross-sectional study included 4,481 measurements of anthropometric variables obtained from 745 pregnancies out of 719 subjects aged between 19 and 39 years, well-nourished, healthy, without clinical edema, single pregnancy, and validated gestational age. Evaluations were conducted at the Centro de Atencion Nutricional Infantil Antimano, between 1998 and 2012. The anthropometric measurements were performed by standardized anthropometrists. Descriptive statistics, bivariant correlations, and percentiles 3, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 97 were calculated for each week of pregnancy between weeks 8 thru 37. The number of measurements performed for each variable studied at each week of gestation ranged between 100 and 236. The behavior of the variables reflecting the fat component showed increases as the gestational age advanced (1.86 cm2), whereas the muscle area showed decreases (-0.02 cm2). The most noticeable variations were seen in the subscapular and mid-thigh skin-fold thicknesses 2.90 mm and 5.0 mm, respectively. The availability of percentile distributions of the anthropometric variables used in the evaluation of body composition for pregnant women per gestational age, contributes to optimizing the nutritional categorization in this population group. 12. Ranking efficient DMUs using minimizing distance in DEA NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Ziari, Shokrollah; Raissi, Sadigh 2016-01-01 In many applications, ranking of decision making units (DMUs) is a problematic technical task procedure to decision makers in data envelopment analysis (DEA), especially when there are extremely efficient DMUs. In such cases, many DEA models may usually get the same efficiency score for different DMUs. Hence, there is a growing interest in ranking techniques yet. The main purpose of this paper is to overcome the lack of infeasibility and unboundedness in some DEA ranking methods. The proposed method is for ranking extreme efficient DMUs in DEA based on exploiting the leave-one out and minimizing distance between DMU under evaluation and virtual DMU. 13. Low-Rank Matrix Factorization With Adaptive Graph Regularizer. PubMed Lu, Gui-Fu; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jian 2016-05-01 In this paper, we present a novel low-rank matrix factorization algorithm with adaptive graph regularizer (LMFAGR). We extend the recently proposed low-rank matrix with manifold regularization (MMF) method with an adaptive regularizer. Different from MMF, which constructs an affinity graph in advance, LMFAGR can simultaneously seek graph weight matrix and low-dimensional representations of data. That is, graph construction and low-rank matrix factorization are incorporated into a unified framework, which results in an automatically updated graph rather than a predefined one. The experimental results on some data sets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art low-rank matrix factorization methods. 14. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results SciTech Connect Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C. 1988-10-01 The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs. 15. A method to assess the ranking importance of uncertainties of residual and dissolution trapping of CO2 on a large-scale storage site NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Audigane, P.; Rohmer, J.; Manceau, J. C. 2014-12-01 The long term fate of mobile CO2 remaining after the injection period is a crucial issue for regulators and operators. There are needs to evaluate properly the amount of gas free to migrate and to estimate the fluid movements at long time scales. Often the difficulty is to manage the computational time to assess the large time and dimension scale of the problem. The second limitation is the large level of uncertainty associated to the computation prediction. A variance-based global sensitivity analysis is proposed to assess the importance ranking of uncertainty sources, with regards to the behavior of the mobile CO2 during the post-injection period. We consider three output parameters which characterize the location and the quantity of mobile CO2, considering residual and dissolution trapping. To circumvent both (i) the large number of computationally intensive reservoir-scale flow simulations and (ii) the different nature of uncertainties whether linked to parameters (continuous variables) or to modeling assumptions (scenario-like variables) we propose to use advanced meta-modeling techniques of ACOSSO-type. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated using a potential site for CO2 storage in the Paris basin (France), for which the amount, nature and quality of the data available at disposal and the associated uncertainties can be seen as representative to those of a storage project at the post-screening stage. A special attention has been paid to confront the results of the sensitivity analysis with the physical interpretation of the processes. 16. Bayesian Thurstonian models for ranking data using JAGS. PubMed Johnson, Timothy R; Kuhn, Kristine M 2013-09-01 A Thurstonian model for ranking data assumes that observed rankings are consistent with those of a set of underlying continuous variables. This model is appealing since it renders ranking data amenable to familiar models for continuous response variables-namely, linear regression models. To date, however, the use of Thurstonian models for ranking data has been very rare in practice. One reason for this may be that inferences based on these models require specialized technical methods. These methods have been developed to address computational challenges involved in these models but are not easy to implement without considerable technical expertise and are not widely available in software packages. To address this limitation, we show that Bayesian Thurstonian models for ranking data can be very easily implemented with the JAGS software package. We provide JAGS model files for Thurstonian ranking models for general use, discuss their implementation, and illustrate their use in analyses. 17. Resulting Shifts in Percentile and Standard Placements after Comparison of the BOD POD and DXA. PubMed Heden, Timothy; Shepard, Steve; Smith, John; Covington, Kay; Lecheminant, James The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the BOD POD® when compared to the DXA and if placement on a percentile chart and standard table is affected by any differences between the two measures. A total of 244 (27.7 ± 10.8 yrs, 77.3 ± 16.1 kg, 171.4 ± 10.1 cm, 26.31 ± 5.42 BMI) males and females between the ages of 18 and 52 were recruited to participate in this study. The participant's body fat percentage (%BF) was tested in random order on the BOD POD® and DXA during a 30-minute session following manufacturer's guidelines and procedures. Dependent t-test indicated the %BF measured by the BOD POD® (23.4% ± 12.8) was significantly lower when compared to the DXA (29.5% ± 12.1), p = .001. The Pearson's Product moment correlation was 0.95 (p = .001), indicating a very strong relationship between the two instruments. Using estimates of %BF from the BOD POD® also resulted in more favorable shifts on a percentile chart and standard table. Since a high correlation was evident between the two, the BOD POD® can be used as an instrument to track %BF changes over time during a diet and/or exercise intervention. However, caution should be made when classifying %BF with percentile charts or standard tables using the BOD POD® %BF estimates. 18. Adaptive urn designs for estimating several percentiles of a dose--response curve. PubMed Mugno, Raymond; Zhus, Wei; Rosenberger, William F 2004-07-15 Dose--response experiments are crucial in biomedical studies. There are usually multiple objectives in such experiments and among the goals is the estimation of several percentiles on the dose--response curve. Here we present the first non-parametric adaptive design approach to estimate several percentiles simultaneously via generalized Pólya urns. Theoretical properties of these designs are investigated and their performance is gaged by the locally compound optimal designs. As an example, we re-investigated a psychophysical experiment where one of the goals was to estimate the three quartiles. We show that these multiple-objective adaptive designs are more efficient than the original single-objective adaptive design targeting the median only. We also show that urn designs which target the optimal designs are slightly more efficient than those which target the desired percentiles directly. Guidelines are given as to when to use which type of design. Overall we are pleased with the efficiency results and hope compound adaptive designs proposed in this work or their variants may prove to be a viable non-parametric alternative in multiple-objective dose--response studies. 19. Resulting Shifts in Percentile and Standard Placements after Comparison of the BOD POD and DXA PubMed Central HEDEN, TIMOTHY; SHEPARD, STEVE; SMITH, JOHN; COVINGTON, KAY; LECHEMINANT, JAMES 2008-01-01 The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the BOD POD® when compared to the DXA and if placement on a percentile chart and standard table is affected by any differences between the two measures. A total of 244 (27.7 ± 10.8 yrs, 77.3 ± 16.1 kg, 171.4 ± 10.1 cm, 26.31 ± 5.42 BMI) males and females between the ages of 18 and 52 were recruited to participate in this study. The participant’s body fat percentage (%BF) was tested in random order on the BOD POD® and DXA during a 30-minute session following manufacturer’s guidelines and procedures. Dependent t-test indicated the %BF measured by the BOD POD® (23.4% ± 12.8) was significantly lower when compared to the DXA (29.5% ± 12.1), p = .001. The Pearson’s Product moment correlation was 0.95 (p = .001), indicating a very strong relationship between the two instruments. Using estimates of %BF from the BOD POD® also resulted in more favorable shifts on a percentile chart and standard table. Since a high correlation was evident between the two, the BOD POD® can be used as an instrument to track %BF changes over time during a diet and/or exercise intervention. However, caution should be made when classifying %BF with percentile charts or standard tables using the BOD POD® %BF estimates. PMID:27182302 20. Birthweight percentiles by gestational age and gender for children in the North of Mexico. PubMed Ríos, Jesús Manuel; Tufiño-Olivares, Edith; Reza-López, Sandra; Sanín, Luz Helena; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita 2008-03-01 The objective of this study was to determine the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of birthweight, by gestational age and sex, for newborns covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in the State of Chihuahua. To generate the database, we used IMSS hospitals' records in the State of Chihuahua, covering the period between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2004. We included singleton live births only, and excluded babies with congenital malformations. The birthweights of 88,368 children born at 21-44 weeks of gestation comprised our data. From these data, we calculated the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles for each sex, at 32-44 weeks of gestation. The observed cutoffs for the 10th percentile in our population were 40-250 g higher than those reported in other references with Mexican populations. These results constitute an updated birthweight reference that will allow the identification of newborns in the North region of the country with low birthweight-for-gestational age. Such information can be a useful instrument for preventing or diminishing associated risks. 1. Trend estimates of AERONET-observed and model-simulated AOT percentiles between 1993 and 2013 NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Yoon, Jongmin; Pozzer, Andrea; Chang, Dong Yeong; Lelieveld, Jos 2016-04-01 Recent Aerosol Optical thickness (AOT) trend studies used monthly or annual arithmetic means that discard details of the generally right-skewed AOT distributions. Potentially, such results can be biased by extreme values (including outliers). This study additionally uses percentiles (i.e., the lowest 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% of the monthly cumulative distributions fitted to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-observed and ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC)-model simulated AOTs) that are less affected by outliers caused by measurement error, cloud contamination and occasional extreme aerosol events. Since the limited statistical representativeness of monthly percentiles and means can lead to bias, this study adopts the number of observations as a weighting factor, which improves the statistical robustness of trend estimates. By analyzing the aerosol composition of AERONET-observed and EMAC-simulated AOTs in selected regions of interest, we distinguish the dominant aerosol types and investigate the causes of regional AOT trends. The simulated and observed trends are generally consistent with a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89) and small bias (slope±2σ = 0.75 ± 0.19). A significant decrease in EMAC-decomposed AOTs by water-soluble compounds and black carbon is found over the USA and the EU due to environmental regulation. In particular, a clear reversal in the AERONET AOT trend percentiles is found over the USA, probably related to the AOT diurnal cycle and the frequency of wildfires. 2. On the ranking of chemicals based on their PBT characteristics: comparison of different ranking methodologies using selected POPs as an illustrative example. PubMed Sailaukhanuly, Yerbolat; Zhakupbekova, Arai; Amutova, Farida; Carlsen, Lars 2013-01-01 Knowledge of the environmental behavior of chemicals is a fundamental part of the risk assessment process. The present paper discusses various methods of ranking of a series of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) according to the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) characteristics. Traditionally ranking has been done as an absolute (total) ranking applying various multicriteria data analysis methods like simple additive ranking (SAR) or various utility functions (UFs) based rankings. An attractive alternative to these ranking methodologies appears to be partial order ranking (POR). The present paper compares different ranking methods like SAR, UF and POR. Significant discrepancies between the rankings are noted and it is concluded that partial order ranking, as a method without any pre-assumptions concerning possible relation between the single parameters, appears as the most attractive ranking methodology. In addition to the initial ranking partial order methodology offers a wide variety of analytical tools to elucidate the interplay between the objects to be ranked and the ranking parameters. In the present study is included an analysis of the relative importance of the single P, B and T parameters. 3. A low rank approach to automatic differentiation. SciTech Connect Abdel-Khalik, H. S.; Hovland, P. D.; Lyons, A.; Stover, T. E.; Utke, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science; North Carolina State Univ.; Univ. of Chicago 2008-01-01 This manuscript introduces a new approach for increasing the efficiency of automatic differentiation (AD) computations for estimating the first order derivatives comprising the Jacobian matrix of a complex large-scale computational model. The objective is to approximate the entire Jacobian matrix with minimized computational and storage resources. This is achieved by finding low rank approximations to a Jacobian matrix via the Efficient Subspace Method (ESM). Low rank Jacobian matrices arise in many of today's important scientific and engineering problems, e.g. nuclear reactor calculations, weather climate modeling, geophysical applications, etc. A low rank approximation replaces the original Jacobian matrix J (whose size is dictated by the size of the input and output data streams) with matrices of much smaller dimensions (determined by the numerical rank of the Jacobian matrix). This process reveals the rank of the Jacobian matrix and can be obtained by ESM via a series of r randomized matrix-vector products of the form: Jq, and J{sup T} {omega} which can be evaluated by the AD forward and reverse modes, respectively. 4. Assessment of possible changes in return period and ranking of losses associated with European wind storms in a future climate NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Karremann, M. K.; Pinto, J. G.; Klawa, M.; Della-Marta, P. M.; Stowasser, M. 2010-09-01 Winter storms are one of the major natural hazards affecting Europe. Possible changes in return periods and ranking of European wind storms in a future climate are investigated based on transient GCM simulations. The intensity of a storm is quantified by the associated estimated loss, which is derived using the storm loss model originally developed by Klawa and Ulbrich (2003), here adapted to estimate losses for individual storms. Daily maximum wind speeds are used to compute the estimated loss for each storm considering exceedences of the local 98th wind percentile. If a storm affects Europe during more than one day, the largest daily loss is considered. The total estimated loss for a single storm is then given by the sum estimated loss values for all grid points affected by the storm. We focus our investigation on Western and Central Europe, particularly in the "core Europe" countries (Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, United Kingdom and Ireland). The method is first tested for wind storm losses based on ERA40 data. Results reveal that the method is able to estimate well the spatial extension and ranking of losses associated with historical storms. We use robust Extreme Value Analysis (EVA) techniques which fit an extreme value distribution to data above a high threshold to estimate the return periods of storm losses. In order to estimate possible changes in return periods and rankings of storm loss in a future climate, GCM data for recent (20C, 1960-2000) and future climate conditions (SRES A1B and A2, 2001-2100) is considered. Results show that both the number and intensity of extreme losses increases under future climate conditions. There is a strong shift of storm loss rankings, with a present day top 1 becoming a rank 6 (A1B) or rank 8 (A2) event. In particular, we found storms with estimated losses exceeding almost two times the largest events identified for the 20th century. Accordingly, a significant shortening of return periods of European 5. Semi-quantitative spectrographic analysis and rank correlation in geochemistry USGS Publications Warehouse Flanagan, F.J. 1957-01-01 The rank correlation coefficient, rs, which involves less computation than the product-moment correlation coefficient, r, can be used to indicate the degree of relationship between two elements. The method is applicable in situations where the assumptions underlying normal distribution correlation theory may not be satisfied. Semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses which are reported as grouped or partly ranked data can be used to calculate rank correlations between elements. ?? 1957. 6. Waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio reference percentiles for abdominal obesity among Greek adolescents. PubMed Bacopoulou, Flora; Efthymiou, Vasiliki; Landis, Georgios; Rentoumis, Anastasios; Chrousos, George P 2015-05-04 Indices predictive of adolescent central obesity include waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Such reference data are lacking for Greek adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed reference percentiles for abdominal obesity among Greek adolescents aged 12-17 years, to investigate possible obesity cut-offs of WHR and WHtR and to compare WC percentiles to other adolescent populations. A representative sample of 1610 high school adolescents (42.2% boys, 57.8% girls; mean age ± sd 14.4 ± 1.72 years) participated in this cross-sectional study in Attica, Greece, in 2013. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), WC, hip circumference (HC), WHR and WHtR were measured and percentiles were calculated using the LMS method. The relation between WHR, WHtR and general obesity, as defined by the International Obesity Task Force, was investigated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The discriminating power of WHR and WHtR was expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Greek adolescents' WC measurements at the 50th and 90th percentile were compared with their counterparts' smoothed percentiles from Norway, Turkey, Poland, South India, Germany and Kuwait. Boys had significantly higher mean in all measures than girls, except for BMI where there was no statistical difference in terms of gender. BMI, WC and HC showed an increasing trend with age. WC leveled off in both genders at the age of 17 years. WHR and WHtR showed a continuous decrease with advancing age. WHtR was a better predictor for general obesity in both boys and girls (AUC 95% CI 0.945-0.992) than the WHR (AUC 95% CI 0.758-0.870); the WHtR cut-off of 0.5 had sensitivity 91% and specificity 95% for both genders and all age groups combined. International comparisons showed that Greek adolescents had relatively high levels of abdominal obesity in early-middle adolescence but this did not persist at 7. Measurement Error Adjustment Using the SIMEX Method: An Application to Student Growth Percentiles ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Shang, Yi 2012-01-01 Growth models are used extensively in the context of educational accountability to evaluate student-, class-, and school-level growth. However, when error-prone test scores are used as independent variables or right-hand-side controls, the estimation of such growth models can be substantially biased. This article introduces a… 8. University Rankings in Critical Perspective ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Pusser, Brian; Marginson, Simon 2013-01-01 This article addresses global postsecondary ranking systems by using critical-theoretical perspectives on power. This research suggests rankings are at once a useful lens for studying power in higher education and an important instrument for the exercise of power in service of dominant norms in global higher education. (Contains 1 table and 1… 9. University Ranking as Social Exclusion ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris 2012-01-01 In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important… 10. Technical Pitfalls in University Rankings ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Bougnol, Marie-Laure; Dulá, Jose H. 2015-01-01 Academicians, experts, and other stakeholders have contributed extensively to the literature on university rankings also known as "league tables". Often the tone is critical usually focused on the subjective aspects of the process; e.g., the list of the universities' attributes used in the rankings, their respective weights, and the size… 11. Obsession with Rankings Goes Global ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Labi, Aisha 2008-01-01 A Chinese list of the world's top universities would seem an unlikely concern for French politicians. But this year, France's legislature took aim at the annual rankings produced by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, which claims to list the 500 best universities in the world. The highest-ranked French entry, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, comes in… 12. Obsession with Rankings Goes Global ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Labi, Aisha 2008-01-01 A Chinese list of the world's top universities would seem an unlikely concern for French politicians. But this year, France's legislature took aim at the annual rankings produced by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, which claims to list the 500 best universities in the world. The highest-ranked French entry, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, comes in… 13. University Rankings in Critical Perspective ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Pusser, Brian; Marginson, Simon 2013-01-01 This article addresses global postsecondary ranking systems by using critical-theoretical perspectives on power. This research suggests rankings are at once a useful lens for studying power in higher education and an important instrument for the exercise of power in service of dominant norms in global higher education. (Contains 1 table and 1… 14. University Ranking as Social Exclusion ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris 2012-01-01 In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important… 15. US dermatology residency program rankings. PubMed Aquino, Lisa L; Wen, Ge; Wu, Jashin J 2014-10-01 Unlike many other adult specialties, US News & World Report does not rank dermatology residency programs annually. We conducted a study to rank individual US dermatology residency programs based on set criteria. For each residency program, data from 2008 related to a number of factors were collected, including annual amount of National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Dermatology Foundation (DF) funding received; number of publications from full-time faculty members; number of faculty lectures given at 5 annual society meetings; and number of full-time faculty members who were on the editorial boards of 6 dermatology journals with the highest impact factors. Most of the data were obtained through extensive Internet searches, and missing data were obtained by contacting individual residency programs. The programs were ranked based on the prior factors according to a weighted ranking algorithm. A list of overall rankings also was created. 16. LogDet Rank Minimization with Application to Subspace Clustering. PubMed Kang, Zhao; Peng, Chong; Cheng, Jie; Cheng, Qiang 2015-01-01 Low-rank matrix is desired in many machine learning and computer vision problems. Most of the recent studies use the nuclear norm as a convex surrogate of the rank operator. However, all singular values are simply added together by the nuclear norm, and thus the rank may not be well approximated in practical problems. In this paper, we propose using a log-determinant (LogDet) function as a smooth and closer, though nonconvex, approximation to rank for obtaining a low-rank representation in subspace clustering. Augmented Lagrange multipliers strategy is applied to iteratively optimize the LogDet-based nonconvex objective function on potentially large-scale data. By making use of the angular information of principal directions of the resultant low-rank representation, an affinity graph matrix is constructed for spectral clustering. Experimental results on motion segmentation and face clustering data demonstrate that the proposed method often outperforms state-of-the-art subspace clustering algorithms. 17. Improving the Incoherence of a Learned Dictionary via Rank Shrinkage. PubMed Ubaru, Shashanka; Seghouane, Abd-Krim; Saad, Yousef 2017-01-01 This letter considers the problem of dictionary learning for sparse signal representation whose atoms have low mutual coherence. To learn such dictionaries, at each step, we first update the dictionary using the method of optimal directions (MOD) and then apply a dictionary rank shrinkage step to decrease its mutual coherence. In the rank shrinkage step, we first compute a rank 1 decomposition of the column-normalized least squares estimate of the dictionary obtained from the MOD step. We then shrink the rank of this learned dictionary by transforming the problem of reducing the rank to a nonnegative garrotte estimation problem and solving it using a path-wise coordinate descent approach. We establish theoretical results that show that the rank shrinkage step included will reduce the coherence of the dictionary, which is further validated by experimental results. Numerical experiments illustrating the performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison to various other well-known dictionary learning algorithms are also presented. 18. Extreme learning machine for ranking: generalization analysis and applications. PubMed Chen, Hong; Peng, Jiangtao; Zhou, Yicong; Li, Luoqing; Pan, Zhibin 2014-05-01 The extreme learning machine (ELM) has attracted increasing attention recently with its successful applications in classification and regression. In this paper, we investigate the generalization performance of ELM-based ranking. A new regularized ranking algorithm is proposed based on the combinations of activation functions in ELM. The generalization analysis is established for the ELM-based ranking (ELMRank) in terms of the covering numbers of hypothesis space. Empirical results on the benchmark datasets show the competitive performance of the ELMRank over the state-of-the-art ranking methods. 19. Quantum probability ranking principle for ligand-based virtual screening. PubMed Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Himmat, Mubarak; Ahmed, Ali; Saeed, Faisal 2017-04-01 Chemical libraries contain thousands of compounds that need screening, which increases the need for computational methods that can rank or prioritize compounds. The tools of virtual screening are widely exploited to enhance the cost effectiveness of lead drug discovery programs by ranking chemical compounds databases in decreasing probability of biological activity based upon probability ranking principle (PRP). In this paper, we developed a novel ranking approach for molecular compounds inspired by quantum mechanics, called quantum probability ranking principle (QPRP). The QPRP ranking criteria would make an attempt to draw an analogy between the physical experiment and molecular structure ranking process for 2D fingerprints in ligand based virtual screening (LBVS). The development of QPRP criteria in LBVS has employed the concepts of quantum at three different levels, firstly at representation level, this model makes an effort to develop a new framework of molecular representation by connecting the molecular compounds with mathematical quantum space. Secondly, estimate the similarity between chemical libraries and references based on quantum-based similarity searching method. Finally, rank the molecules using QPRP approach. Simulated virtual screening experiments with MDL drug data report (MDDR) data sets showed that QPRP outperformed the classical ranking principle (PRP) for molecular chemical compounds. 20. Quantum probability ranking principle for ligand-based virtual screening NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Himmat, Mubarak; Ahmed, Ali; Saeed, Faisal 2017-04-01 Chemical libraries contain thousands of compounds that need screening, which increases the need for computational methods that can rank or prioritize compounds. The tools of virtual screening are widely exploited to enhance the cost effectiveness of lead drug discovery programs by ranking chemical compounds databases in decreasing probability of biological activity based upon probability ranking principle (PRP). In this paper, we developed a novel ranking approach for molecular compounds inspired by quantum mechanics, called quantum probability ranking principle (QPRP). The QPRP ranking criteria would make an attempt to draw an analogy between the physical experiment and molecular structure ranking process for 2D fingerprints in ligand based virtual screening (LBVS). The development of QPRP criteria in LBVS has employed the concepts of quantum at three different levels, firstly at representation level, this model makes an effort to develop a new framework of molecular representation by connecting the molecular compounds with mathematical quantum space. Secondly, estimate the similarity between chemical libraries and references based on quantum-based similarity searching method. Finally, rank the molecules using QPRP approach. Simulated virtual screening experiments with MDL drug data report (MDDR) data sets showed that QPRP outperformed the classical ranking principle (PRP) for molecular chemical compounds. 1. Quantum probability ranking principle for ligand-based virtual screening NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Himmat, Mubarak; Ahmed, Ali; Saeed, Faisal 2017-02-01 Chemical libraries contain thousands of compounds that need screening, which increases the need for computational methods that can rank or prioritize compounds. The tools of virtual screening are widely exploited to enhance the cost effectiveness of lead drug discovery programs by ranking chemical compounds databases in decreasing probability of biological activity based upon probability ranking principle (PRP). In this paper, we developed a novel ranking approach for molecular compounds inspired by quantum mechanics, called quantum probability ranking principle (QPRP). The QPRP ranking criteria would make an attempt to draw an analogy between the physical experiment and molecular structure ranking process for 2D fingerprints in ligand based virtual screening (LBVS). The development of QPRP criteria in LBVS has employed the concepts of quantum at three different levels, firstly at representation level, this model makes an effort to develop a new framework of molecular representation by connecting the molecular compounds with mathematical quantum space. Secondly, estimate the similarity between chemical libraries and references based on quantum-based similarity searching method. Finally, rank the molecules using QPRP approach. Simulated virtual screening experiments with MDL drug data report (MDDR) data sets showed that QPRP outperformed the classical ranking principle (PRP) for molecular chemical compounds. 2. International ranking systems for universities and institutions: a critical appraisal PubMed Central Ioannidis, John PA; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Kavvoura, Fotini K; Tatsioni, Athina; Evangelou, Evangelos; Kouri, Ioanna; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina G; Liberopoulos, George 2007-01-01 Background Ranking of universities and institutions has attracted wide attention recently. Several systems have been proposed that attempt to rank academic institutions worldwide. Methods We review the two most publicly visible ranking systems, the Shanghai Jiao Tong University 'Academic Ranking of World Universities' and the Times Higher Education Supplement 'World University Rankings' and also briefly review other ranking systems that use different criteria. We assess the construct validity for educational and research excellence and the measurement validity of each of the proposed ranking criteria, and try to identify generic challenges in international ranking of universities and institutions. Results None of the reviewed criteria for international ranking seems to have very good construct validity for both educational and research excellence, and most don't have very good construct validity even for just one of these two aspects of excellence. Measurement error for many items is also considerable or is not possible to determine due to lack of publication of the relevant data and methodology details. The concordance between the 2006 rankings by Shanghai and Times is modest at best, with only 133 universities shared in their top 200 lists. The examination of the existing international ranking systems suggests that generic challenges include adjustment for institutional size, definition of institutions, implications of average measurements of excellence versus measurements of extremes, adjustments for scientific field, time frame of measurement and allocation of credit for excellence. Conclusion Naïve lists of international institutional rankings that do not address these fundamental challenges with transparent methods are misleading and should be abandoned. We make some suggestions on how focused and standardized evaluations of excellence could be improved and placed in proper context. PMID:17961208 3. Blood pressure percentiles by age and height for non-overweight Chinese children and adolescents: analysis of the china health and nutrition surveys 1991–2009 PubMed Central 2013-01-01 Background Hypertension is an important health problem in China and raised blood pressure in children may lead to future hypertension. Accordingly we aimed to provide a reference blood pressure table for age, gender and height in Chinese children. Methods A reference sample of subjects was drawn from the Chinese Health and National Survey 1999–2009 aged 7–17 years after excluding overweight and obese children, the 50th, 90th and 95th percentiles of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP)are presented corrected for height and age by gender. These values are compared with existing Chinese and US recommendations. Results Results for the 50th, 90th and 95th percentile of SBP and DBP for 6245 boys and 5707 girls were presented by age and height percentiles. These observations were lower than existing Chinese recommendations before 13 years of age at median heightbut went higher in those >13 years old. At same age and height, SBP levels of American children were overall higher than Chinese counterparts from this study by average 9–10 mm Hg, but DBP did not show overall or significant difference. Conclusions The first height-specific blood pressure reference values are proposed for Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–17 years. These are lower than existing US reference values and current Chinese cutoffs. PMID:24274040 4. Universal scaling in sports ranking NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Deng, Weibing; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu; Bulou, Alain; Wang, Qiuping A. 2012-09-01 Ranking is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human society. On the web pages of Forbes, one may find all kinds of rankings, such as the world's most powerful people, the world's richest people, the highest-earning tennis players, and so on and so forth. Herewith, we study a specific kind—sports ranking systems in which players' scores and/or prize money are accrued based on their performances in different matches. By investigating 40 data samples which span 12 different sports, we find that the distributions of scores and/or prize money follow universal power laws, with exponents nearly identical for most sports. In order to understand the origin of this universal scaling we focus on the tennis ranking systems. By checking the data we find that, for any pair of players, the probability that the higher-ranked player tops the lower-ranked opponent is proportional to the rank difference between the pair. Such a dependence can be well fitted to a sigmoidal function. By using this feature, we propose a simple toy model which can simulate the competition of players in different matches. The simulations yield results consistent with the empirical findings. Extensive simulation studies indicate that the model is quite robust with respect to the modifications of some parameters. 5. Percentile Fragment Size Predictions for Blasted Rock and the Fragmentation-Energy Fan NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Ouchterlony, Finn; Sanchidrián, José A.; Moser, Peter 2017-04-01 It is shown that blast fragmentation data in the form of sets of percentile fragment sizes, x P, as function of specific charge (powder factor, q) often form a set of straight lines in a log( x P) versus log( q) diagram that tend to converge on a common focal point. This is clear for single-hole shots with normal specific charge values in specimens of virgin material, and the phenomenon is called the fragmentation-energy fan. Field data from bench blasting with several holes in single or multiple rows in rock give data that scatter much more, but examples show that the fragmentation data tend to form such fans. The fan behavior implies that the slopes of the straight size versus specific charge lines in log-log space depend only on the percentile level in a given test setup. It is shown that this property can be derived for size distribution functions of the form P[ln( x max/ x)/ln( x max/ x 50)]. An example is the Swebrec function; for it to comply with the fragmentation-energy fan properties, the undulation parameter b must be constant. The existence of the fragmentation-energy fan contradicts two basic assumptions of the Kuz-Ram model: (1) that the Rosin-Rammler function reproduces the sieving data well and (2) that the uniformity index n is a constant, independent of q. This favors formulating the prediction formulas instead in terms of the percentile fragment size x P for arbitrary P values, parameters that by definition are independent of any size distribution, be it the Rosin-Rammler, Swebrec or other. A generalization of the fan behavior to include non-dimensional fragment sizes and an energy term with explicit size dependence seems possible to make. 6. Discordance with 3 Cardiac Troponin I and T Assays: Implications for the 99th Percentile Cutoff. PubMed Ungerer, Jacobus Petrus Johannes; Tate, Jillian Russyll; Pretorius, Carel Jacobus 2016-08-01 We compared the 99th percentile reference intervals with 3 modern cardiac troponin assays in a single cohort and tested the hypothesis that the same individuals will be identified as above the cutoff and that differences will be explained by analytical imprecision. Blood was collected from 2005 apparently healthy blood donors. Cardiac troponin was measured with Abbott Architect STAT high sensitive troponin I, Beckman Coulter Access AccuTnI+3, and Roche Elecsys troponin T highly sensitive assays. The 99th percentile cutoff limits were as follows: Abbott cardiac troponin I (cTnI) 28.9 ng/L; Beckman Coulter cTnI 31.3 ng/L; and Roche cardiac troponin T (cTnT) 15.9 ng/L. Correlation among the assays was poor: Abbott cTnI vs Beckman Coulter cTnI, R(2) = 0.18; Abbott cTnI vs Roche cTnT, R(2) = 0.04; and Beckman Coulter cTnI vs Roche cTnT R(2) = 0.01. Of the results above the cutoff 50% to 70% were unique to individual assays, with only 4 out of 20 individuals above the cutoff for all 3 assays. The observed differences among assays were larger than predicted from analytical imprecision. The 99th percentile cutoff values were in agreement with those reported elsewhere. The poor correlation and concordance amongst the assays were notable. The differences found could not be explained by analytical imprecision and indicate the presence of inaccuracy (bias) that is unique to sample and assay combinations. Based on these findings we recommend less emphasis on the cutoff value and greater emphasis on δ values in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry. 7. Ranking Theory and Conditional Reasoning. PubMed Skovgaard-Olsen, Niels 2016-05-01 Ranking theory is a formal epistemology that has been developed in over 600 pages in Spohn's recent book The Laws of Belief, which aims to provide a normative account of the dynamics of beliefs that presents an alternative to current probabilistic approaches. It has long been received in the AI community, but it has not yet found application in experimental psychology. The purpose of this paper is to derive clear, quantitative predictions by exploiting a parallel between ranking theory and a statistical model called logistic regression. This approach is illustrated by the development of a model for the conditional inference task using Spohn's (2013) ranking theoretic approach to conditionals. 8. State Report Appendix: Arizona Student Achievement Program, Spring 1997. Individual Percentile Rank Scores by School, District, County, and State, Grades 3 through 12. Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix. This is the 17th year of statewide student testing under the Arizona Student Achievement Program. To fulfill the requirements of Arizona law, a nationally standardized, norm-referenced achievement test in the subjects of reading, language, and mathematics must be adopted and implemented for Arizona schools. For the 1996-97 school year, the State… 9. The Ranking Phenomenon and the Experience of Academics in Taiwan ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Lo, William Yat Wai 2014-01-01 The primary aim of the paper is to examine how global university rankings have influenced the higher education sector in Taiwan from the perspective of academics. A qualitative case study method was used to examine how university ranking influenced the Taiwanese higher education at institutional and individual levels, respectively, thereby… 10. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals DOEpatents Quigley, David R. 1992-01-01 A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium. 11. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals DOEpatents Quigley, David R. 1992-12-01 A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium. 12. Rank-based pooling for deep convolutional neural networks. PubMed Shi, Zenglin; Ye, Yangdong; Wu, Yunpeng 2016-11-01 Pooling is a key mechanism in deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) which helps to achieve translation invariance. Numerous studies, both empirically and theoretically, show that pooling consistently boosts the performance of the CNNs. The conventional pooling methods are operated on activation values. In this work, we alternatively propose rank-based pooling. It is derived from the observations that ranking list is invariant under changes of activation values in a pooling region, and thus rank-based pooling operation may achieve more robust performance. In addition, the reasonable usage of rank can avoid the scale problems encountered by value-based methods. The novel pooling mechanism can be regarded as an instance of weighted pooling where a weighted sum of activations is used to generate the pooling output. This pooling mechanism can also be realized as rank-based average pooling (RAP), rank-based weighted pooling (RWP) and rank-based stochastic pooling (RSP) according to different weighting strategies. As another major contribution, we present a novel criterion to analyze the discriminant ability of various pooling methods, which is heavily under-researched in machine learning and computer vision community. Experimental results on several image benchmarks show that rank-based pooling outperforms the existing pooling methods in classification performance. We further demonstrate better performance on CIFAR datasets by integrating RSP into Network-in-Network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 13. Optimal ranking regime analysis of TreeFlow dendrohydrological reconstructions USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database The Optimal Ranking Regime (ORR) method was used to identify 6-100 year time windows containing significant ranking sequences in 55 western U.S. streamflow reconstructions, and reconstructions of the level of the Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay salinity during 1500-2007. The method’s ability t... 14. A theory of measuring, electing, and ranking PubMed Central Balinski, Michel; Laraki, Rida 2007-01-01 The impossibility theorems that abound in the theory of social choice show that there can be no satisfactory method for electing and ranking in the context of the traditional, 700-year-old model. A more realistic model, whose antecedents may be traced to Laplace and Galton, leads to a new theory that avoids all impossibilities with a simple and eminently practical method, “the majority judgement.” It has already been tested. PMID:17496140 15. A COMPARISON OF STUDENTS SCORING ABOVE THE EIGHTIETH PERCENTILE OR BELOW THE TWENTIETH PERCENTILE ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center CURRY, JOHN IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH THE FEASIBILITY OF A CUT-OFF SCORE FOR ENTRANCE INTO TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS AT NORTH TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY, SCORES OF 1,346 STUDENTS WHO EITHER PLACED ABOVE THE 80TH PERCENTILE (N-672) OR BELOW THE 20TH PERCENTILE (N-674) ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING WERE… 16. AptRank: an adaptive PageRank model for protein function prediction on bi-relational graphs. PubMed Jiang, Biaobin; Kloster, Kyle; Gleich, David F; Gribskov, Michael 2017-06-15 Diffusion-based network models are widely used for protein function prediction using protein network data and have been shown to outperform neighborhood-based and module-based methods. Recent studies have shown that integrating the hierarchical structure of the Gene Ontology (GO) data dramatically improves prediction accuracy. However, previous methods usually either used the GO hierarchy to refine the prediction results of multiple classifiers, or flattened the hierarchy into a function-function similarity kernel. No study has taken the GO hierarchy into account together with the protein network as a two-layer network model. We first construct a Bi-relational graph (Birg) model comprised of both protein-protein association and function-function hierarchical networks. We then propose two diffusion-based methods, BirgRank and AptRank, both of which use PageRank to diffuse information on this two-layer graph model. BirgRank is a direct application of traditional PageRank with fixed decay parameters. In contrast, AptRank utilizes an adaptive diffusion mechanism to improve the performance of BirgRank. We evaluate the ability of both methods to predict protein function on yeast, fly and human protein datasets, and compare with four previous methods: GeneMANIA, TMC, ProteinRank and clusDCA. We design four different validation strategies: missing function prediction, de novo function prediction, guided function prediction and newly discovered function prediction to comprehensively evaluate predictability of all six methods. We find that both BirgRank and AptRank outperform the previous methods, especially in missing function prediction when using only 10% of the data for training. The MATLAB code is available at https://github.rcac.purdue.edu/mgribsko/aptrank . gribskov@purdue.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. 17. Influence Analysis of Ranking Data. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Poon, Wai-Yin; Chan, Wai 2002-01-01 Developed diagnostic measures to identify observations in Thurstonian models for ranking data that unduly influence parameter estimates obtained by the partition maximum likelihood approach of W. Chan and P. Bender (1998). (SLD) 18. Influence Analysis of Ranking Data. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Poon, Wai-Yin; Chan, Wai 2002-01-01 Developed diagnostic measures to identify observations in Thurstonian models for ranking data that unduly influence parameter estimates obtained by the partition maximum likelihood approach of W. Chan and P. Bender (1998). (SLD) 19. An Analysis of the Differences between Density-of-Use Ranking and Raw-Use Ranking of Library Journal Use. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Mankin, Carole J.; Bastille, Jacqueline D. 1981-01-01 Compares raw-use ranking of journal titles held in libraries with dividing the raw-use frequency of titles by the actual linear shelf space of the title's file to obtain a density-of-use rank. The quality of the differences between the two methods is evaluated. Thirteen references are cited. (FM) 20. Label Ranking Algorithms: A Survey NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Vembu, Shankar; Gärtner, Thomas Label ranking is a complex prediction task where the goal is to map instances to a total order over a finite set of predefined labels. An interesting aspect of this problem is that it subsumes several supervised learning problems, such as multiclass prediction, multilabel classification, and hierarchical classification. Unsurprisingly, there exists a plethora of label ranking algorithms in the literature due, in part, to this versatile nature of the problem. In this paper, we survey these algorithms. 1. Positive school climate is associated with lower body mass index percentile among urban preadolescents. PubMed Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R 2014-08-01 Schools are an important environmental context in children's lives and are part of the complex web of factors that contribute to childhood obesity. Increasingly, attention has been placed on the importance of school climate (connectedness, academic standards, engagement, and student autonomy) as 1 domain of school environment beyond health policies and education that may have implications for student health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of school climate with body mass index (BMI) among urban preadolescents. Health surveys and physical measures were collected among fifth- and sixth-grade students from 12 randomly selected public schools in a small New England city. School climate surveys were completed district-wide by students and teachers. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the association between students' BMI and schools' climate scores. After controlling for potentially confounding individual-level characteristics, a 1-unit increase in school climate score (indicating more positive climate) was associated with a 7-point decrease in students' BMI percentile. Positive school climate is associated with lower student BMI percentile. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms behind this relationship and to explore whether interventions promoting positive school climate can effectively prevent and/or reduce obesity. © 2014, American School Health Association. 2. Evaluation of short neck: new neck length percentiles and linear correlations with height and sitting height. PubMed Mahajan, P V; Bharucha, B A 1994-10-01 Qualitative impressions of neck length are often used as aids to dysmorphology in syndromes like Turner, Noonan, Klippel-Feil and in craniovertebral anomalies, some of which have serious neurological implications. There are no national or international standards for neck length. The present study attempted to create standards and percentile charts for Indian children and compute age-independent correlations of neck length with linear measurements such as standing and sitting height. A total of 2724 children of both sexes between 3 and 15 years, whose heights and weights conformed to ICMR standards were inducted. Neck length was measured by a modified two-point discriminator between two fixed bony points-inion and spinous process of C7 with the head held in neutral position. Percentiles (5th-95th) were constructed for both sexes. Growth was rapid from 3 to 6 years. Neck length formed a mean of 12.7 +/- 4.58% of height and 20.1 +/- 6.73% of sitting height. Age independent linear regression equations: Neck length = 10 + (0.035 x height) and Neck length = 9.65 + (0.07 x sitting height) were highly significant (p < 0.001). Neck length relationships of 30 randomly selected normal children clustered around the regression lines and 16 with genetic syndromes fell below the regression lines. 3. Percentiles of the run-length distribution of the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) median chart NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Tan, K. L.; Chong, Z. L.; Khoo, M. B. C.; Teoh, W. L.; Teh, S. Y. 2017-09-01 Quality control is crucial in a wide variety of fields, as it can help to satisfy customers’ needs and requirements by enhancing and improving the products and services to a superior quality level. The EWMA median chart was proposed as a useful alternative to the EWMA \\bar{X} chart because the median-type chart is robust against contamination, outliers or small deviation from the normality assumption compared to the traditional \\bar{X}-type chart. To provide a complete understanding of the run-length distribution, the percentiles of the run-length distribution should be investigated rather than depending solely on the average run length (ARL) performance measure. This is because interpretation depending on the ARL alone can be misleading, as the process mean shifts change according to the skewness and shape of the run-length distribution, varying from almost symmetric when the magnitude of the mean shift is large, to highly right-skewed when the process is in-control (IC) or slightly out-of-control (OOC). Before computing the percentiles of the run-length distribution, optimal parameters of the EWMA median chart will be obtained by minimizing the OOC ARL, while retaining the IC ARL at a desired value. 4. The global need to define normality: the 99th percentile value of cardiac troponin. PubMed Sandoval, Yader; Apple, Fred S 2014-03-01 How to select a presumably normal population for the establishment of 99th percentile cutoffs for cardiac troponin assays has not been adequately addressed. Lack of attention to this question can result in misleading medical decision cutoffs. From our review of the peer-reviewed literature, including international recommendations, no uniform procedure is followed and no uniform guideline has been published by experts or regulatory agencies to guide researchers or manufacturers of cardiac troponin assays in their quest to define the health or "normality" of a reference population that is used to establish an accurate 99th percentile value. As we progress globally into the era of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays, we propose several suggested approaches to define presumably normal individuals by use of clinical and biomarker surrogates. Our uniform approach to defining who is normal and who may not be normal will help to define diagnostic and risk outcomes assessments in the management of patients with suspected myocardial injury, both for use in current clinical practice and clinical research, as well as for the potential future use of cardiac troponin in primary prevention. 5. The impact of random-effect misspecification on percentile estimation for longitudinal growth data. PubMed Cheon, Kyeongmi; Albert, Paul S; Zhang, Zhiwei 2012-12-10 Identifying unusual growth-related measurements or longitudinal patterns in growth is often the focus in fetal and pediatric medicine. For example, the goal of the ongoing National Fetal Growth Study is to develop both cross-sectional and longitudinal reference curves for ultrasound fetal growth measurements that can be used for this purpose. Current methodology for estimating cross-sectional and longitudinal reference curves relies mainly on the linear mixed model. The focus of this paper is on examining the robustness of percentile estimation to the assumptions with respect to the Gaussian random-effect assumption implicitly made in the standard linear mixed model. We also examine a random-effects distribution based on mixtures of normals and compare the two approaches under both correct and misspecified random-effects distributions. In general, we find that the standard linear mixed model is relatively robust for cross-sectional percentile estimation but less robust for longitudinal or 'personalized' reference curves based on the conditional distribution given prior ultrasound measurements. The methodology is illustrated with data from a longitudinal fetal growth study. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. 6. Ranking in evolving complex networks NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang 2017-05-01 Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes. 7. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants. PubMed Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A 2017-09-06 Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators. 8. Associated Factors and Standard Percentiles of Blood Pressure among the Adolescents of Jahrom City of Iran, 2014 PubMed Central Sarikhani, Yaser; Emamghorashi, Fatemeh; Jafari, Fatemeh; Tabrizi, Reza; Karimpour, Saeed; Kalateh sadati, Ahmad; Akbari, Maryam 2017-01-01 Background. High blood pressure in adults is directly correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension in childhood and adolescence could be considered among the major causes of this problem in adults. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with hypertension among the adolescents of Jahrom city in Iran and also standard percentiles of blood pressure were estimated for this group. Methods. In this community-based cross-sectional study 983 high school students from different areas of the city were included using a multistage random cluster sampling method in 2014. Blood pressure, weight, and height of each student measured using standard methods. Data were analyzed by statistical software SPSS 16. Results. In total, 498 male and 454 female students were included in this study. Average systolic blood pressure of students was 110.27 mmHg with a variation range of 80.6–151.3. Average diastolic blood pressure was 71.76 mmHg with the variation range of 49.3–105. Results of this study indicated that there was a significant relationship between gender, body mass index, and parental education level with systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the students (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Body mass index was one of the most important changeable factors associated with blood pressure in adolescents. Paying attention to this factor in adolescence could be effective in prevention of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. PMID:28191019 9. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails PubMed Central Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng 2015-01-01 PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes. PMID:26553630 10. The effects of percentile versus fixed criterion schedules on smoking with equal incentive magnitude for initial abstinence. PubMed Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R J 2014-08-01 Incentives have been successfully used to reduce smoking in hard-to-treat (HTT) smokers by progressively reinforcing lower levels of breath carbon monoxide (CO). When compared with schedules only providing incentives for smoking abstinence, using a progressive (percentile) criterion facilitates longer periods of smoking abstinence. However, participants receiving incentives for lower breath CO levels on percentile schedules typically earn more for their first abstinent breath CO sample relative to participants receiving incentives only for smoking abstinence. Many studies show that larger incentive magnitude increases abstinence rates. The present study tested the effects of different incentive schedules on rates of abstinence maintenance while holding the initial incentive magnitude constant for 93 HTT smokers to eliminate initial abstinence incentive magnitude as a potential confound. Smokers were randomized to percentile, fixed criterion, or random incentive schedules. The incentive magnitude for the first abstinent breath CO sample (<3 ppm) was5 for percentile and fixed criterion incentive participants, and then increased by \$0.50 for each consecutive abstinent breath CO sample. All groups had similar patterns of meeting the abstinence criterion for at least 1 visit. However, once this abstinence criterion was met, abstinence was more likely to be maintained by fixed criterion incentive participants. Unlike previous studies comparing percentile and fixed criterion schedules, percentile incentive schedules were not associated with longer periods of abstinence relative to fixed criterion incentive schedules. Further studies that manipulate initial incentive magnitude are needed to test whether the difference between the current and previous studies was due to initial incentive magnitude.

11. Ranking structures and rank-rank correlations of countries: The FIFA and UEFA cases

2014-04-01

Ranking of agents competing with each other in complex systems may lead to paradoxes according to the pre-chosen different measures. A discussion is presented on such rank-rank, similar or not, correlations based on the case of European countries ranked by UEFA and FIFA from different soccer competitions. The first question to be answered is whether an empirical and simple law is obtained for such (self-) organizations of complex sociological systems with such different measuring schemes. It is found that the power law form is not the best description contrary to many modern expectations. The stretched exponential is much more adequate. Moreover, it is found that the measuring rules lead to some inner structures in both cases.

12. Estimation of rank correlation for clustered data.

PubMed

Rosner, Bernard; Glynn, Robert J

2017-06-30

It is well known that the sample correlation coefficient (Rxy ) is the maximum likelihood estimator of the Pearson correlation (ρxy ) for independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) bivariate normal data. However, this is not true for ophthalmologic data where X (e.g., visual acuity) and Y (e.g., visual field) are available for each eye and there is positive intraclass correlation for both X and Y in fellow eyes. In this paper, we provide a regression-based approach for obtaining the maximum likelihood estimator of ρxy for clustered data, which can be implemented using standard mixed effects model software. This method is also extended to allow for estimation of partial correlation by controlling both X and Y for a vector U_ of other covariates. In addition, these methods can be extended to allow for estimation of rank correlation for clustered data by (i) converting ranks of both X and Y to the probit scale, (ii) estimating the Pearson correlation between probit scores for X and Y, and (iii) using the relationship between Pearson and rank correlation for bivariate normally distributed data. The validity of the methods in finite-sized samples is supported by simulation studies. Finally, two examples from ophthalmology and analgesic abuse are used to illustrate the methods. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

13. Social Bookmarking Induced Active Page Ranking

Takahashi, Tsubasa; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Keita

Social bookmarking services have recently made it possible for us to register and share our own bookmarks on the web and are attracting attention. The services let us get structured data: (URL, Username, Timestamp, Tag Set). And these data represent user interest in web pages. The number of bookmarks is a barometer of web page value. Some web pages have many bookmarks, but most of those bookmarks may have been posted far in the past. Therefore, even if a web page has many bookmarks, their value is not guaranteed. If most of the bookmarks are very old, the page may be obsolete. In this paper, by focusing on the timestamp sequence of social bookmarkings on web pages, we model their activation levels representing current values. Further, we improve our previously proposed ranking method for web search by introducing the activation level concept. Finally, through experiments, we show effectiveness of the proposed ranking method.

PubMed

Kong, Yu; Shao, Ming; Li, Kang; Fu, Yun

2017-01-04

In this paper, we consider the problem of learning multiple related tasks simultaneously with the goal of improving the generalization performance of individual tasks. The key challenge is to effectively exploit the shared information across multiple tasks as well as preserve the discriminative information for each individual task. To address this, we propose a novel probabilistic model for multitask learning (MTL) that can automatically balance between low-rank and sparsity constraints. The former assumes a low-rank structure of the underlying predictive hypothesis space to explicitly capture the relationship of different tasks and the latter learns the incoherent sparse patterns private to each task. We derive and perform inference via variational Bayesian methods. Experimental results on both regression and classification tasks on real-world applications demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in dealing with the MTL problems.

15. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals

SciTech Connect

Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

1992-04-15

The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals and to assess the properties of the modified coal towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives for this quarter were: (1) continuation of microbial consortia development and maintenance, (2) crude enzyme study using best decarboxylating organisms, (3) decarboxylation of lignite, demineralized Wyodak coal and model polymers, and (4) characterization of biotreated coals.

16. Semi-recumbent position and body mass percentiles: effects on intra-abdominal pressure measurements in critically ill children.

PubMed

Ejike, Janeth Chiaka; Kadry, Jose; Bahjri, Khaled; Mathur, Mudit

2010-02-01

Patient position and body mass index (BMI) affect intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measured by the intra-vesical method in adults. We sought to determine effects of patient position and BMI on IAP in children because accurate measurement and interpretation of IAP are important for patient management. Seventy-seven mechanically ventilated children (<18 years) admitted to a PICU were prospectively studied. IAP was taken with the head of the bed at 0 degrees and 30 degrees every 6 h over a 24-h period. Statistical methods included descriptives, univariate statistics to identify potential confounding variables and multivariable analysis to assess the impact of position on IAP after adjusting for the significant covariates. Seventy-seven patients had 290-paired IAP measurements. Mean IAP at 30 degrees was 10.6 +/- 4.0 compared to 8.4 +/- 4.0 at 0 degrees , which was significantly higher (p = 0.026) even after adjusting for age, gender and length. There was no correlation between IAP and actual BMI or BMI percentiles. Patient position should be considered when interpreting IAP. BMI did not influence IAP measurements in children.

17. Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks

Park, Juyong; Yook, Soon-Hyung

2014-08-01

Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest - essential in determining reward and penalty - is frequently an ambiguous task due to the incomplete (partially filled) nature of competition networks. Here we introduce the Natural Ranking,'' an unambiguous ranking method applicable to a round robin tournament, and formulate an analytical model based on the Bayesian formula for inferring the expected mean and error of the natural ranking of nodes from an incomplete network. We investigate its potential and uses in resolving important issues of ranking by applying it to real-world competition networks.

18. Ranking asteroid threats

Showstack, Randy

“Kiss your asteroid goodbye,” read the March 13, 1998, New York Post headline, which was far more sensational than Asteroid 1997 XF11's feared encounter with the Earth turned out to be. Fortunately, many other asteroids also have proven to be duds. But our pock-marked planet provides proof that occasional chunks of rock do shake up things on the Earth. They also suggest that it might be prudent to have some sort of method for sizing up potential danger—a type of Richter scale for understanding the risks posed by asteroids and comets. A new scale devised for rating the potential for near-Earth object (NEO) collisions with the planet may help to better communicate risks to scientists and the general public, according to the scale's creator, Richard Binzel, professor of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

19. Regression Equations for Monthly and Annual Mean and Selected Percentile Streamflows for Ungaged Rivers in Maine

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dudley, Robert W.

2015-12-03

The largest average errors of prediction are associated with regression equations for the lowest streamflows derived for months during which the lowest streamflows of the year occur (such as the 5 and 1 monthly percentiles for August and September). The regression equations have been derived on the basis of streamflow and basin characteristics data for unregulated, rural drainage basins without substantial streamflow or drainage modifications (for example, diversions and (or) regulation by dams or reservoirs, tile drainage, irrigation, channelization, and impervious paved surfaces), therefore using the equations for regulated or urbanized basins with substantial streamflow or drainage modifications will yield results of unknown error. Input basin characteristics derived using techniques or datasets other than those documented in this report or using values outside the ranges used to develop these regression equations also will yield results of unknown error.

20. Construction of hyperelliptic function fields of high three-rank

Bauer, M.; Jacobson, M. J., Jr.; Lee, Y.; Scheidler, R.

2008-03-01

We present several explicit constructions of hyperelliptic function fields whose Jacobian or ideal class group has large 3 -rank. Our focus is on finding examples for which the genus and the base field are as small as possible. Most of our methods are adapted from analogous techniques used for generating quadratic number fields whose ideal class groups have high 3 -rank, but one method, applicable to finding large l -ranks for odd primes l geq 3, is new and unique to function fields. Algorithms, examples, and numerical data are included.

1. Establishing percentile charts for hip joint capsule and synovial cavity thickness in apparently healthy children.

PubMed

Żuber, Zbigniew; Owczarek, Aleksander; Sobczyk, Małgorzata; Migas-Majoch, Agata; Turowska-Heydel, Dorota; Sternal, Agnieszka; Michalczak, Justyna; Chudek, Jerzy

2017-01-31

The usefulness of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) in paediatric population is limited by lack of reference values. One of such parameters is hip joint capsule thickness, postulated as an early measure for synovitis. However, the joint capsule is hardly a distinguished structure from slit synovial cavity in patients with little or no fluid collection. Therefore, in patients without effusion, it is more convenient to measure hip joint capsule thickness together with synovial cavity. The aim of the study was to establish percentile chart for hip joint capsule and synovial cavity thickness (HJC&SCT) in apparently healthy children. The analysis included 816 US of hip joint in 408 children without musculoskeletal disorders, distributed equally throughout the whole developmental period in 18 one-year subgroups. Hip joints US was performed according to standard protocol including measurement of HJC&SCT in a single rheumatology centre by three investigators. The 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th HJC&SCT percentile curves were depicted in the age and height charts for the combined group of girls and boys. The median HJC&SCT values were increasing with age from 3.7 (C10 - C90: 3.3 - 4.2) mm in the first year of life up to 6.7 (5.8 - 7.3) in 16 years old, and above. In a similar way the increase was seen with height from 3.9 (3.5 - 4.7) mm in shorter than 95 cm to 6.9 (6.2 - 7.4) mm in taller than 169 cm subjects. Intra-observer and inter-observer mean precision was less than 1.8 and 12.5%, respectively. The developed centile chart for hip joint capsule and synovial cavity thickness in the paediatric population is expected to improve detection of hip joint capsule disorders, including synovitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

2. Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Chest Model for the 5(th) Percentile Female.

PubMed

Kimpara, Hideyuki; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I; Iwamoto, Masami; Watanabe, Isao; Miki, Kazuo

2005-11-01

Several three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the human body have been developed to elucidate injury mechanisms due to automotive crashes. However, these models are mainly focused on 50(th) percentile male. As a first step towards a better understanding of injury biomechanics in the small female, a 3D FE model of a 5(th) percentile female human chest (FEM-5F) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of frontal impact, one set of lateral impact, two sets of oblique impact and a series of ballistic impacts. Two previous FE models, a small female Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS-AF05) occupant version 1.0Beta (Kimpara et al. 2002) and the Wayne State University Human Thoracic Model (WSUHTM, Wang 1995 and Shah et al. 2001) were integrated and modified for this model development. The model incorporated not only geometrical gender differences, such as location of the internal organs and structure of the bony skeleton, but also the biomechanical differences of the ribs due to gender. It includes a detailed description of the sternum, ribs, costal cartilage, thoracic spine, skin, superficial muscles, intercostal muscles, heart, lung, diaphragm, major blood vessels and simplified abdominal internal organs and has been validated against a series of six cadaveric experiments on the small female reported by Nahum et al. (1970), Kroell et al. (1974), Viano (1989), Talantikite et al. (1998) and Wilhelm (2003). Results predicted by the model were well-matched to these experimental data for a range of impact speeds and impactor masses. More research is needed in order to increase the accuracy of predicting rib fractures so that the mechanisms responsible for small female injury can be more clearly defined.

3. Development of a simplified finite element model of the 50th percentile male occupant lower extremity.

PubMed

Schwartz, Doron; Moreno, Daniel P; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

2014-01-01

A simplified lower extremity model was developed using the geometry from the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant model v4.1.1 (M50) as a base. This simplified model contains 31.4x103 elements and has structures that represent bone (assumed rigid) and soft tissue. This element total is substantially reduced compared to 117.7x103 elements in the original M50 lower extremity. The purpose of this simplified computational model is to output rapid kinematic and kinetic data when detailed structural response or injury prediction data is not required. The development process included evaluating the effects of element size, material properties, and contact definitions on total run time and response. Two simulations were performed to analyze this model; a 4.9 m/s knee bolster impact and a 6.9 m/s lateral knee impact using LS-DYNA R6.1.1. The 40 ms knee bolster impact and lateral knee impact tests required 5 and 7 minutes to run, respectively on 4 cores. The original detailed M50 lower extremity model required 94 and 112 minutes to run the same boundary conditions, on the same hardware, representing a reduction in run time of on average 94%. A quantitative comparison was made by comparing the peak force of the impacts between the two models. This simplified leg model will become a component in a simplified full body model of the seated, 50th percentile male occupant. The significantly reduced run time will be valuable for parametric studies with a full body finite element model.

4. Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function

PubMed Central

Fan, Ya-Ru; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le

2016-01-01

Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction. PMID:27583683

5. Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function.

PubMed

Fan, Ya-Ru; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le

2016-01-01

Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction.

6. Ranking inter-relationships between clusters

Wang, Tingting; Chen, Feng; Phoebe Chen, Yi-Ping

2011-12-01

The evaluation of the relationships between clusters is important to identify vital unknown information in many real-life applications, such as in the fields of crime detection, evolution trees, metallurgical industry and biology engraftment. This article proposes a method called 'mode pattern + mutual information' to rank the inter-relationship between clusters. The idea of the mode pattern is used to find outstanding objects from each cluster, and the mutual information criterion measures the close proximity of a pair of clusters. Our approach is different from the conventional algorithms of classifying and clustering, because our focus is not to classify objects into different clusters, but instead, we aim to rank the inter-relationship between clusters when the clusters are given. We conducted experiments on a wide range of real-life datasets, including image data and cancer diagnosis data. The experimental results show that our algorithm is effective and promising.

7. A critical appraisal of experimental factors influencing the definition of the 99th percentile limit for cardiac troponins.

PubMed

Panteghini, Mauro

2009-01-01

The recently released document by the Global Task Force on the "universal" definition of myocardial infarction (MI) recommends a single decision limit for cardiac troponin (cTn) corresponding to the 99th percentile limit of the reference value distribution [99th upper reference limit (URL)] for the diagnosis of patients presenting with suspected MI. However, use of this cut-off concentration posed a problem because most assays do not have the sensitivity to consistently measure cTn in the blood of apparently healthy individuals, with a high proportion of the values being below the method's detection limit. In addition to the influence of assay sensitivity, the 99th URL for cTn can vary depending on the reference population used, and its sample size. A marked difference can also be observed between the 99th URL obtained using plasma vs. that obtained with serum. Finally, some interferences with cTn measurement (e.g., by heterophile antibodies) may become more noticeable using assays that have increased analytical sensitivity that measure lower concentrations of these markers. In conclusion, a number of issues can markedly influence the definition of the 99th URL for cTn, which most clinicians are unaware of and may markedly condition the clinical performance of the test in routine practice.

8. Patient-Level Discordance in Population Percentiles of the TC/HDL-C Ratio Compared with LDL-C and Non-HDL-C: The Very Large Database of Lipids Study (VLDL-2B)

PubMed Central

Elshazly, Mohamed B.; Quispe, Renato; Michos, Erin D.; Sniderman, Allan D.; Toth, Peter P.; Banach, Maciej; Kulkarni, Krishnaji R.; Coresh, Josef; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Jones, Steven R.; Martin, Seth S.

2015-01-01

Background The total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio, estimated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and non-HDL-C are routinely available from the standard lipid profile. We aimed to assess the extent of patient-level discordance of TC/HDL-C with LDL-C and non-HDL-C because discordance suggests the possibility of additional information. Methods and Results We compared population percentiles of TC/HDL-C, Friedewald-estimated LDL-C, and non-HDL-C in 1,310,432 U.S. adults from the Very Large Database of Lipids. Lipid testing was performed by ultracentrifugation (VAP, Atherotech, AL). One in three patients had ≥25 percentile units discordance between TC/HDL-C and LDL-C while one in four had ≥25 percentile units discordance between TC/HDL-C and non-HDL-C. The proportion of patients with TC/HDL-C > LDL-C by ≥25 percentile units increased from 3% at triglycerides <100 mg/dL to 51% at triglycerides 200–399 mg/dL. On a smaller scale, TC/HDL-C > non-HDL-C discordance by ≥25 percentile units increased from 6% to 21%. In those with <15th percentile levels of LDL-C (<70 mg/dL) or non-HDL-C (<93 mg/dL), a respective 58% and 46% were above the percentile-equivalent TC/HDL-C of 2.6. Age, sex, and directly measured components of the standard lipid profile explained >86% of the variance in percentile discordance between TC/HDL-C vs. LDL-C and non-HDL-C. Conclusions In this contemporary, cross-sectional, big data analysis of U.S. adults who underwent advanced lipid testing, the extent of patient-level discordance suggests that TC/HDL-C may offer potential additional information to LDL-C and non-HDL-C. Future studies are required to determine the clinical implications of this observation. Clinical Trial Registration Information www.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01698489. PMID:26137953

9. The Globalization of College and University Rankings

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Altbach, Philip G.

2012-01-01

In the era of globalization, accountability, and benchmarking, university rankings have achieved a kind of iconic status. The major ones--the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU, or the "Shanghai rankings"), the QS (Quacquarelli Symonds Limited) World University Rankings, and the "Times Higher Education" World…

10. The Globalization of College and University Rankings

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Altbach, Philip G.

2012-01-01

In the era of globalization, accountability, and benchmarking, university rankings have achieved a kind of iconic status. The major ones--the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU, or the "Shanghai rankings"), the QS (Quacquarelli Symonds Limited) World University Rankings, and the "Times Higher Education" World…

11. Control over response number by a targeted percentile schedule: reinforcement loss and the acute effects of d-amphetamine.

PubMed Central

Galbicka, G; Fowler, K P; Ritch, Z J

1991-01-01

Two fixed-consecutive-number-like procedures were used to examine effects of acute d-amphetamine administration on control over response number. In both procedures, rats were required to press the left lever at least once and then press the right lever to complete a trial. The consecutive left-lever presses on each trial comprised a "run." Under the targeted percentile schedule, reinforcement was provided if the current run length was closer to the target length (16) than half of the most recent 24 runs. This differentially reinforced run length while holding reinforcement probability constant at .5. A second group acquired the differentiation under the targeted percentile schedule, but were then shifted to a procedure that yoked reinforcement probability by subject and run length to that obtained under the targeted percentile schedule. The two procedures generated practically identical control run lengths, response rates, reinforcement probabilities, and reinforcement rates. Administration of d-amphetamine disrupted percentile responding to a greater degree than yoked control responding. This disruption decreased reinforcement frequency less in the former than the latter procedure. The similar baseline responding under these two procedures suggests that this difference in sensitivity was due to behavioral adjustments to drug prompted by reduction of reinforcement density in the yoked control but not the percentile schedule. These adjustments attenuate the drug's effects under the former, but not the latter, procedure. PMID:1955813

12. Re-Ranking Algorithms for Name Tagging

DTIC Science & Technology

2006-06-01

incorporating information from relation extraction, event extraction, and coreference. We evaluate three state- of-the-art re-ranking algorithms ( MaxEnt - Rank...select the best analysis. Various supervised learn- ing algorithms have been adapted to the task of re- ranking for NLP systems, such as MaxEnt -Rank... MaxEnt -Rank, SVMRank and a new algorithm, p-Norm Push Ranking – for this problem, and show how an approach based on multi-stage re-ranking can

13. Time evolution of Wikipedia network ranking

Eom, Young-Ho; Frahm, Klaus M.; Benczúr, András; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

2013-12-01

We study the time evolution of ranking and spectral properties of the Google matrix of English Wikipedia hyperlink network during years 2003-2011. The statistical properties of ranking of Wikipedia articles via PageRank and CheiRank probabilities, as well as the matrix spectrum, are shown to be stabilized for 2007-2011. A special emphasis is done on ranking of Wikipedia personalities and universities. We show that PageRank selection is dominated by politicians while 2DRank, which combines PageRank and CheiRank, gives more accent on personalities of arts. The Wikipedia PageRank of universities recovers 80% of top universities of Shanghai ranking during the considered time period.

14. Weighted Discriminative Dictionary Learning based on Low-rank Representation

Chang, Heyou; Zheng, Hao

2017-01-01

Low-rank representation has been widely used in the field of pattern classification, especially when both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Dictionary plays an important role in low-rank representation. With respect to the semantic dictionary, the optimal representation matrix should be block-diagonal. However, traditional low-rank representation based dictionary learning methods cannot effectively exploit the discriminative information between data and dictionary. To address this problem, this paper proposed weighted discriminative dictionary learning based on low-rank representation, where a weighted representation regularization term is constructed. The regularization associates label information of both training samples and dictionary atoms, and encourages to generate a discriminative representation with class-wise block-diagonal structure, which can further improve the classification performance where both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Experimental results demonstrate advantages of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods.

15. Let Us Rank Journalism Programs

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weber, Joseph

2014-01-01

Unlike law, business, and medical schools, as well as universities in general, journalism schools and journalism programs have rarely been ranked. Publishers such as "U.S. News & World Report," "Forbes," "Bloomberg Businessweek," and "Washington Monthly" do not pay them much mind. What is the best…

16. Let Us Rank Journalism Programs

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weber, Joseph

2014-01-01

Unlike law, business, and medical schools, as well as universities in general, journalism schools and journalism programs have rarely been ranked. Publishers such as "U.S. News & World Report," "Forbes," "Bloomberg Businessweek," and "Washington Monthly" do not pay them much mind. What is the best…

17. Rank distributions: Frequency vs. magnitude.

PubMed

Velarde, Carlos; Robledo, Alberto

2017-01-01

We examine the relationship between two different types of ranked data, frequencies and magnitudes. We consider data that can be sorted out either way, through numbers of occurrences or size of the measures, as it is the case, say, of moon craters, earthquakes, billionaires, etc. We indicate that these two types of distributions are functional inverses of each other, and specify this link, first in terms of the assumed parent probability distribution that generates the data samples, and then in terms of an analog (deterministic) nonlinear iterated map that reproduces them. For the particular case of hyperbolic decay with rank the distributions are identical, that is, the classical Zipf plot, a pure power law. But their difference is largest when one displays logarithmic decay and its counterpart shows the inverse exponential decay, as it is the case of Benford law, or viceversa. For all intermediate decay rates generic differences appear not only between the power-law exponents for the midway rank decline but also for small and large rank. We extend the theoretical framework to include thermodynamic and statistical-mechanical concepts, such as entropies and configuration.

18. Relevance Preserving Projection and Ranking for Web Image Search Reranking.

PubMed

Ji, Zhong; Pang, Yanwei; Li, Xuelong

2015-11-01

An image search reranking (ISR) technique aims at refining text-based search results by mining images' visual content. Feature extraction and ranking function design are two key steps in ISR. Inspired by the idea of hypersphere in one-class classification, this paper proposes a feature extraction algorithm named hypersphere-based relevance preserving projection (HRPP) and a ranking function called hypersphere-based rank (H-Rank). Specifically, an HRPP is a spectral embedding algorithm to transform an original high-dimensional feature space into an intrinsically low-dimensional hypersphere space by preserving the manifold structure and a relevance relationship among the images. An H-Rank is a simple but effective ranking algorithm to sort the images by their distances to the hypersphere center. Moreover, to capture the user's intent with minimum human interaction, a reversed k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm is proposed, which harvests enough pseudorelevant images by requiring that the user gives only one click on the initially searched images. The HRPP method with reversed KNN is named one-click-based HRPP (OC-HRPP). Finally, an OC-HRPP algorithm and the H-Rank algorithm form a new ISR method, H-reranking. Extensive experimental results on three large real-world data sets show that the proposed algorithms are effective. Moreover, the fact that only one relevant image is required to be labeled makes it has a strong practical significance.

19. An efficient and rapid method for cDNA cloning from difficult templates using codon optimization and SOE-PCR: with human RANK and TIMP2 gene as examples.

PubMed

Huang, Gang; Wen, Qianjun; Gao, Qiangguo; Zhang, Fang; Bai, Yun

2011-10-01

As gene cloning from difficult templates with regionalized high GC content is a long recognized problem, we have developed a novel and reliable method to clone such genes. Firstly, the high GC content region of the target cDNA was synthesized directly after codon optimization and the remaining cDNA fragment without high GC content was generated by routine RT-PCR. Then the entire redesigned coding sequence of the target gene was obtained by fusing the above available two cDNA fragments with SOE-PCR (splicing by overlapping extension-PCR). We have cloned the human RANK gene (ten exons; CDS 1851 bp) using this strategy. The redesigned cDNA was transfected into an eukaryotic expression system (A459 cells) to verify its expression. RT-PCR and western blotting confirmed this. To validate our method, we also successfully cloned human TIMP2 gene (five exons; CDS 660 bp) also having a regionalized high GC content. Our strategy for combining codon optimization and SOE-PCR to clone difficult genes is thus feasible and potentially universally applicable.

20. Simple approach for ranking structure determining residues.

PubMed

Luna-Martínez, Oscar D; Vidal-Limón, Abraham; Villalba-Velázquez, Miryam I; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Uversky, Vladimir N; Becerril, Baltazar

2016-01-01

Mutating residues has been a common task in order to study structural properties of the protein of interest. Here, we propose and validate a simple method that allows the identification of structural determinants; i.e., residues essential for preservation of the stability of global structure, regardless of the protein topology. This method evaluates all of the residues in a 3D structure of a given globular protein by ranking them according to their connectivity and movement restrictions without topology constraints. Our results matched up with sequence-based predictors that look up for intrinsically disordered segments, suggesting that protein disorder can also be described with the proposed methodology.

1. Simple approach for ranking structure determining residues

PubMed Central

Luna-Martínez, Oscar D.; Vidal-Limón, Abraham; Villalba-Velázquez, Miryam I.; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Uversky, Vladimir N.

2016-01-01

Mutating residues has been a common task in order to study structural properties of the protein of interest. Here, we propose and validate a simple method that allows the identification of structural determinants; i.e., residues essential for preservation of the stability of global structure, regardless of the protein topology. This method evaluates all of the residues in a 3D structure of a given globular protein by ranking them according to their connectivity and movement restrictions without topology constraints. Our results matched up with sequence-based predictors that look up for intrinsically disordered segments, suggesting that protein disorder can also be described with the proposed methodology. PMID:27366642

2. A Nonconvex Optimization Framework for Low Rank Matrix Estimation*

PubMed Central

Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Zhaoran; Liu, Han

2016-01-01

We study the estimation of low rank matrices via nonconvex optimization. Compared with convex relaxation, nonconvex optimization exhibits superior empirical performance for large scale instances of low rank matrix estimation. However, the understanding of its theoretical guarantees are limited. In this paper, we define the notion of projected oracle divergence based on which we establish sufficient conditions for the success of nonconvex optimization. We illustrate the consequences of this general framework for matrix sensing. In particular, we prove that a broad class of nonconvex optimization algorithms, including alternating minimization and gradient-type methods, geometrically converge to the global optimum and exactly recover the true low rank matrices under standard conditions. PMID:28316458

3. Feature ranking and rank aggregation for automatic sleep stage classification: a comparative study.

PubMed

Najdi, Shirin; Gharbali, Ali Abdollahi; Fonseca, José Manuel

2017-08-18

Nowadays, sleep quality is one of the most important measures of healthy life, especially considering the huge number of sleep-related disorders. Identifying sleep stages using polysomnographic (PSG) signals is the traditional way of assessing sleep quality. However, the manual process of sleep stage classification is time-consuming, subjective and costly. Therefore, in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the sleep stage classification, researchers have been trying to develop automatic classification algorithms. Automatic sleep stage classification mainly consists of three steps: pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. Since classification accuracy is deeply affected by the extracted features, a poor feature vector will adversely affect the classifier and eventually lead to low classification accuracy. Therefore, special attention should be given to the feature extraction and selection process. In this paper the performance of seven feature selection methods, as well as two feature rank aggregation methods, were compared. Pz-Oz EEG, horizontal EOG and submental chin EMG recordings of 22 healthy males and females were used. A comprehensive feature set including 49 features was extracted from these recordings. The extracted features are among the most common and effective features used in sleep stage classification from temporal, spectral, entropy-based and nonlinear categories. The feature selection methods were evaluated and compared using three criteria: classification accuracy, stability, and similarity. Simulation results show that MRMR-MID achieves the highest classification performance while Fisher method provides the most stable ranking. In our simulations, the performance of the aggregation methods was in the average level, although they are known to generate more stable results and better accuracy. The Borda and RRA rank aggregation methods could not outperform significantly the conventional feature ranking methods. Among

4. Parental Activity as Influence on Childrens BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity.

PubMed

Erkelenz, Nanette; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Drenowatz, Clemens; Steinacker, Jürgen M

2014-09-01

Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children's lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA) and children's BMI percentiles (BMIPCT), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male) and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children's MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children's PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively). There was no association between parental and children's PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively). Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children. Key pointsA higher prevalence of overweight or obese children was found with inactive parents.Children's BMI percentiles were lower if both parents were physically active compared to children whose parents were both inactive or only had one physically

5. Parental Activity as Influence on Childrenˋs BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity

PubMed Central

Erkelenz, Nanette; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Drenowatz, Clemens; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

2014-01-01

Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children’s lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA) and children’s BMI percentiles (BMIPCT), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male) and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children’s MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children’s PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively). There was no association between parental and children’s PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively). Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children. Key points A higher prevalence of overweight or obese children was found with inactive parents. Children’s BMI percentiles were lower if both parents were physically active compared to children whose parents were both inactive or only had one

6. The relationship between dietary patterns, body mass index percentile, and household food security in young urban children.

PubMed

Trapp, Christine M; Burke, Georgine; Gorin, Amy A; Wiley, James F; Hernandez, Dominica; Crowell, Rebecca E; Grant, Autherene; Beaulieu, Annamarie; Cloutier, Michelle M

2015-04-01

The relationship between food insecurity and child obesity is unclear. Few studies have examined dietary patterns in children with regard to household food security and weight status. The aim of this study was to examine the association between household food security, dietary intake, and BMI percentile in low-income, preschool children. Low-income caregivers (n=222) with children ages 2-4 years were enrolled in a primary-care-based obesity prevention/reversal study (Steps to Growing Up Healthy) between October 2010 and December 2011. At baseline, demographic data, household food security status (US Household Food Security Instrument) and dietary intake (Children's Dietary Questionnaire; CDQ) were collected. BMI percentile was calculated from anthropometric data. Participating children were primarily Hispanic (90%), Medicaid insured (95%), 50% female, 35±8.7 months of age (mean±standard deviation), 19% overweight (BMI 85th-94th percentile), and 29% obese (≥95th percentile). Thirty-eight percent of interviews were conducted in Spanish. Twenty-five percent of households reported food insecurity. There was no association between household food insecurity and child BMI percentile. Dietary patterns of the children based on the CDQ did not differ by household food security status. Food group subscale scores (fruit and vegetable, fat from dairy, sweetened beverages, and noncore foods) on the CDQ did not differ between normal weight and overweight/obese children. Maternal depression and stress did not mediate the relationship between household food insecurity and child weight status. Hispanic children were more likely to be overweight or obese in both food-secure and food-insecure households. Household food insecurity was not associated with child BMI percentile in this study. Dietary intake patterns of children from food-insecure households were not different compared to those from food-secure households.

7. Pregnancy prognosis in women with anti-Müllerian hormone below the tenth percentile.

PubMed

Koshy, Aby Kottal; Gudi, Anil; Shah, Amit; Bhide, Priya; Timms, Peter; Homburg, Roy

2013-07-01

Although serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is considered a good predictor of ovarian response during in vitro fertilisation (IVF), pregnancies have been reported with low values, questioning its usefulness as a predictor of treatment outcome. A retrospective study was therefore carried out to assess the IVF treatment outcomes in women with AMH below the tenth percentile of the study population. In all, 134 women with AMH ≤ 3 pmol/L underwent 180 IVF cycles. The mean age at the time of treatment was 37 ± 5 years. Fifty-three (29.4%) cycles were abandoned because of poor response to gonadotrophins, 12 (6.7%) due to absence of eggs at oocyte retrieval and 18 (10%) due to fertilisation failure. Seven (3.8%) had a biochemical pregnancy, 4 (2.2%) had a missed miscarriage and 8 (4.4%) had a live birth. When stratified by age, women older than 42 years had less number of follicles (p < 0.05) and those older than 39 years had less oocytes (p < 0.01) compared to those 35 years and younger. Live births declined with increasing age, when age was assessed as a continuous variable (p = 0.023). Women with low AMH levels have a high probability of treatment cancellation, failure to proceed to embryo transfer and a low chance of achieving a viable pregnancy.

8. Percentiles and regional distribution of skinfold thickness among children and adolescents in Shandong, China.

PubMed

Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Chu, Zun-Hua

2015-01-01

Skinfold thicknesses (SFT) have long been considered important and valid measurements of subcutaneous fat. The present study reported the percentiles and regional distribution of SFT among children and adolescents in Shandong, China. Data for this study were obtained from a large cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren. A total of 42,268 students (21,200 boys and 21,068 girls) aged 7-18 years from 16 districts participated in this study. Triceps, subscapular, and abdomen SFT of all subjects were measured. Shandong children and adolescents had a high SFT level and substantial regional disparities in SFT were observed. Boys and girls resident in high socioeconomic status (SES) districts had higher SFT level than those living in moderate and low SES districts. The SFT level of children and adolescents is associated with regional SES in Shandong, China. This may be interpreted as a result of geographic variation between the districts in the process of urbanization, living standards, nutritional conditions, dietary patterns, and public health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

9. Percentile estimates for transferrin receptor in normal infants 9-15 mo of age.

PubMed

Yeung, G S; Zlotkin, S H

1997-08-01

To establish percentile estimates of transferrin receptor (TfR) for healthy infants, plasma TfR was measured in 485 healthy infants 9-15 mo of age from Edmonton, Toronto, Montreal, and Halifax. Education and income of the sample families were reflective of the average family based on the 1991 census estimates. The mean (+/-SD) plasma TfR concentration was 4.4 +/- 1.1 mg/L. As expected in the infant population, there were no differences in TfR concentrations as a result of sex, and within this small age range there was no significant change across age. Furthermore, the TfR concentration in plasma was not associated with hemoglobin, serum ferritin, or free erythrocyte protoporphyrin. TfR has been shown to be a sensitive, quantitative measure of tissue iron deficiency not affected by inflammation and is potentially important in the diagnosis of iron deficiency, but there is a lack of normative data, particularly in infants, who are at highest risk of iron deficiency. If TfR proves useful in the diagnosis of iron deficiency, the current data will be useful as a reference standard for healthy infants.

10. Percentile benchmarks in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Health Assessment Questionnaire as a quality indicator (QI)

PubMed Central

Krishnan, Eswar; Tugwell, Peter; Fries, James F

2004-01-01

Physicians are in need of a simple objective, standardized tool to compare their patients with rheumatoid arthritis, as a group and individually, with national standards. The Disability Index of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ-DI) is a simple, robust tool that can fulfill these needs. However, use of this tool as a quality indicator (QI) is hampered by the unavailability of national reference values or benchmarks based on large, multicentric, heterogenous longitudinal patient cohorts. We utilized the 20-year longitudinal prospective data from 11 data banks of Arthritis Rheumatism and Aging Medical Information to calculate reference values for HAQ-DI. Overall, 6436 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were longitudinally followed for 32,324 person-years over the 20 years from 1981 to 2000. There were 64,647 HAQ-DI measurements, with an average of 19 measurements per person. Overall, 75% of patients were women and 89% were Caucasian; the median baseline age was 58.4 years and the median baseline HAQ-DI was 1.13. Few patients were treated with biologics. The HAQ-DI values had a Gaussian distribution except for the approximately 10% of observations showing no disability. Percentile benchmarks allow disability outcomes to be compared and contrasted between different patient populations. Reference values for the HAQ-DI, presented here numerically and graphically, can be used in clinical practice as a QI measure to track functional disability outcomes and to measure response to therapy, and by arthritis patients in self-management programs. PMID:15535828

11. Total Knee Arthroplasty Outcomes in Top-Ranked and Non–Top-Ranked Orthopedic Hospitals: An Analysis of Medicare Administrative Data

PubMed Central

Cram, Peter; Cai, Xueya; Lu, Xin; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary S.; Miller, Benjamin J.

2012-01-01

Objective To examine outcomes of Medicare enrollees who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in top-ranked orthopedic hospitals identified through the U.S. News & World Report hospital rankings and 2 comparison groups of hospitals. Patients and Methods We used Medicare Part A data to identify patients who underwent primary TKA between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2006, in 3 groups of hospitals: (1) top-ranked according to U.S. News & World Report rankings; (2) not top-ranked, but eligible for ranking; and (3) not eligible for ranking by U.S. News & World Report. We compared the demographics and comorbidity of patients treated in the 3 hospital groups. We examined rates of postoperative adverse outcomes—a composite consisting of hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, wound infection, myocardial infarction, or mortality within 30 days of surgery. We also compared 30-day all-cause readmission rates and hospital length of stay (LOS) across groups. Results Our cohort consisted of 48 top-ranked hospitals (performing 10,477 primary TKAs), 288 eligible non–top-ranked hospitals (28,938 TKAs), and 481 hospitals not eligible for ranking (25,297 TKAs). Unadjusted rates of the composite outcome were modestly higher for top-ranked hospitals (4.3%, 455 patients) as compared with non–top-ranked hospitals (4.1%, 1191 patients) and hospitals ineligible for ranking (3.3%, 843 patients) (P<.001), but these differences were no longer significant after accounting for differences in patient complexity. Likewise, there were no significant differences in readmission rates or LOS across groups. Conclusion Rates of postoperative complications and readmission and hospital LOS were similar for Medicare patients who underwent primary TKA in top-ranked and non–top-ranked hospitals. PMID:22469347

12. Twisted Yangians of small rank

Guay, Nicolas; Regelskis, Vidas; Wendlandt, Curtis

2016-04-01

We study quantized enveloping algebras called twisted Yangians associated with the symmetric pairs of types CI, BDI, and DIII (in Cartan's classification) when the rank is small. We establish isomorphisms between these twisted Yangians and the well known Olshanskii's twisted Yangians of types AI and AII, and also with the Molev-Ragoucy reflection algebras associated with symmetric pairs of type AIII. We also construct isomorphisms with twisted Yangians in Drinfeld's original presentation.

13. Functional Multiplex PageRank

Iacovacci, Jacopo; Rahmede, Christoph; Arenas, Alex; Bianconi, Ginestra

2016-10-01

Recently it has been recognized that many complex social, technological and biological networks have a multilayer nature and can be described by multiplex networks. Multiplex networks are formed by a set of nodes connected by links having different connotations forming the different layers of the multiplex. Characterizing the centrality of the nodes in a multiplex network is a challenging task since the centrality of the node naturally depends on the importance associated to links of a certain type. Here we propose to assign to each node of a multiplex network a centrality called Functional Multiplex PageRank that is a function of the weights given to every different pattern of connections (multilinks) existent in the multiplex network between any two nodes. Since multilinks distinguish all the possible ways in which the links in different layers can overlap, the Functional Multiplex PageRank can describe important non-linear effects when large relevance or small relevance is assigned to multilinks with overlap. Here we apply the Functional Page Rank to the multiplex airport networks, to the neuronal network of the nematode C. elegans, and to social collaboration and citation networks between scientists. This analysis reveals important differences existing between the most central nodes of these networks, and the correlations between their so-called pattern to success.

14. Learning Robust and Discriminative Subspace With Low-Rank Constraints.

PubMed

Li, Sheng; Fu, Yun

2016-11-01

In this paper, we aim at learning robust and discriminative subspaces from noisy data. Subspace learning is widely used in extracting discriminative features for classification. However, when data are contaminated with severe noise, the performance of most existing subspace learning methods would be limited. Recent advances in low-rank modeling provide effective solutions for removing noise or outliers contained in sample sets, which motivates us to take advantage of low-rank constraints in order to exploit robust and discriminative subspace for classification. In particular, we present a discriminative subspace learning method called the supervised regularization-based robust subspace (SRRS) approach, by incorporating the low-rank constraint. SRRS seeks low-rank representations from the noisy data, and learns a discriminative subspace from the recovered clean data jointly. A supervised regularization function is designed to make use of the class label information, and therefore to enhance the discriminability of subspace. Our approach is formulated as a constrained rank-minimization problem. We design an inexact augmented Lagrange multiplier optimization algorithm to solve it. Unlike the existing sparse representation and low-rank learning methods, our approach learns a low-dimensional subspace from recovered data, and explicitly incorporates the supervised information. Our approach and some baselines are evaluated on the COIL-100, ALOI, Extended YaleB, FERET, AR, and KinFace databases. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, especially when the data contain considerable noise or variations.

15. Development of THOR-FLx: A Biofidelic Lower Extremity for Use with 5th Percentile Female Crash Test Dummies.

PubMed

Shams, Tariq; Beach, David; Huang, Tsai-Jeon; Rangarajan, N; Haffner, Mark

2002-11-01

A new lower leg/ankle/foot system has been designed and fabricated to assess the potential for lower limb injuries to small females in the automotive crash environment. The new lower extremity can be retrofitted at present to the distal femur of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III dummy. Future plans are for integration of this design into the 5th percentile female THOR dummy now under development. The anthropometry of the lower leg and foot is based mainly on data developed by Robbins for the 5th percentile female, while the biomechanical response requirements are based upon scaling of 50th percentile male THOR-Lx responses. The design consists of the knee, tibia, ankle joints, foot, a representation of the Achilles tendon, and associated flesh/skins. The new lower extremity, known as THOR-FLx, is designed to be biofidelic under dynamic axial loading of the tibia, static and dynamic dorsiflexion, static plantarflexion and inversion/eversion. Instrumentation includes accelerometers, load cells, and rotary potentiometers to capture relevant kinematic and dynamic information from the foot and tibia. This paper will describe the performance requirements for THOR-FLx, the methodology used in its' development, results of component tests, and the biofidelity tests conducted on the full assembly.

16. Analysis of the Stability of Teacher-Level Growth Scores from the Student Growth Percentile Model. REL 2016-104

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lash, Andrea; Makkonen, Reino; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min

2016-01-01

This study, undertaken at the request of the Nevada Department of Education, examined the stability over years of teacher-level growth scores from the Student Growth Percentile (SGP) model, which many states and districts have selected as a measure of effectiveness in their teacher evaluation systems. The authors conducted a generalizability study…

17. Body fat percentile curves for Korean children and adolescents: a data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

PubMed

Kim, Kirang; Yun, Sung Ha; Jang, Myoung Jin; Oh, Kyung Won

2013-03-01

A valid assessment of obesity in children and adolescents is important due to significant change in body composition during growth. This study aimed to develop percentile curves of body fat and fat free mass using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method, and to examine the relationship among body mass index (BMI), fat mass and fat free mass in Korean children and adolescents, using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010. The study subjects were 834 for boys and 745 for girls aged between 10 and 18 yr. Fat mass and fat free mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The patterns of development in body fat percentage, fat mass and fat free mass differed for boys and girls, showing a decreased fat mass with an increased fat free mass in boys but gradual increases with age in girls. The considerable proportion of boys and girls with relatively normal fat mass appeared to be misclassified to be at risk of overweight based on the BMI criteria. Therefore, the information on the percentiles of body fat and fat free mass with their patterns would be helpful to complement assessment of overweight and obesity based on BMI for Korean children and adolescents.

18. Ranking online quality and reputation via the user activity

Liu, Xiao-Lu; Guo, Qiang; Hou, Lei; Cheng, Can; Liu, Jian-Guo

2015-10-01

How to design an accurate algorithm for ranking the object quality and user reputation is of importance for online rating systems. In this paper we present an improved iterative algorithm for online ranking object quality and user reputation in terms of the user degree (IRUA), where the user's reputation is measured by his/her rating vector, the corresponding objects' quality vector and the user degree. The experimental results for the empirical networks show that the AUC values of the IRUA algorithm can reach 0.9065 and 0.8705 in Movielens and Netflix data sets, respectively, which is better than the results generated by the traditional iterative ranking methods. Meanwhile, the results for the synthetic networks indicate that user degree should be considered in real rating systems due to users' rating behaviors. Moreover, we find that enhancing or reducing the influences of the large-degree users could produce more accurate reputation ranking lists.

19. Diffusion of scientific credits and the ranking of scientists.

PubMed

Radicchi, Filippo; Fortunato, Santo; Markines, Benjamin; Vespignani, Alessandro

2009-11-01

Recently, the abundance of digital data is enabling the implementation of graph-based ranking algorithms that provide system level analysis for ranking publications and authors. Here, we take advantage of the entire Physical Review publication archive (1893-2006) to construct authors' networks where weighted edges, as measured from opportunely normalized citation counts, define a proxy for the mechanism of scientific credit transfer. On this network, we define a ranking method based on a diffusion algorithm that mimics the spreading of scientific credits on the network. We compare the results obtained with our algorithm with those obtained by local measures such as the citation count and provide a statistical analysis of the assignment of major career awards in the area of physics. A website where the algorithm is made available to perform customized rank analysis can be found at the address http://www.physauthorsrank.org.

20. Bias and Stability of Single Variable Classifiers for Feature Ranking and Selection

PubMed Central

2014-01-01

Feature rankings are often used for supervised dimension reduction especially when discriminating power of each feature is of interest, dimensionality of dataset is extremely high, or computational power is limited to perform more complicated methods. In practice, it is recommended to start dimension reduction via simple methods such as feature rankings before applying more complex approaches. Single Variable Classifier (SVC) ranking is a feature ranking based on the predictive performance of a classifier built using only a single feature. While benefiting from capabilities of classifiers, this ranking method is not as computationally intensive as wrappers. In this paper, we report the results of an extensive study on the bias and stability of such feature ranking method. We study whether the classifiers influence the SVC rankings or the discriminative power of features themselves has a dominant impact on the final rankings. We show the common intuition of using the same classifier for feature ranking and final classification does not always result in the best prediction performance. We then study if heterogeneous classifiers ensemble approaches provide more unbiased rankings and if they improve final classification performance. Furthermore, we calculate an empirical prediction performance loss for using the same classifier in SVC feature ranking and final classification from the optimal choices. PMID:25177107

1. Bias and Stability of Single Variable Classifiers for Feature Ranking and Selection.

PubMed

2014-11-01

Feature rankings are often used for supervised dimension reduction especially when discriminating power of each feature is of interest, dimensionality of dataset is extremely high, or computational power is limited to perform more complicated methods. In practice, it is recommended to start dimension reduction via simple methods such as feature rankings before applying more complex approaches. Single Variable Classifier (SVC) ranking is a feature ranking based on the predictive performance of a classifier built using only a single feature. While benefiting from capabilities of classifiers, this ranking method is not as computationally intensive as wrappers. In this paper, we report the results of an extensive study on the bias and stability of such feature ranking method. We study whether the classifiers influence the SVC rankings or the discriminative power of features themselves has a dominant impact on the final rankings. We show the common intuition of using the same classifier for feature ranking and final classification does not always result in the best prediction performance. We then study if heterogeneous classifiers ensemble approaches provide more unbiased rankings and if they improve final classification performance. Furthermore, we calculate an empirical prediction performance loss for using the same classifier in SVC feature ranking and final classification from the optimal choices.

2. Caipirini: using gene sets to rank literature

PubMed Central

2012-01-01

Background Keeping up-to-date with bioscience literature is becoming increasingly challenging. Several recent methods help meet this challenge by allowing literature search to be launched based on lists of abstracts that the user judges to be 'interesting'. Some methods go further by allowing the user to provide a second input set of 'uninteresting' abstracts; these two input sets are then used to search and rank literature by relevance. In this work we present the service 'Caipirini' (http://caipirini.org) that also allows two input sets, but takes the novel approach of allowing ranking of literature based on one or more sets of genes. Results To evaluate the usefulness of Caipirini, we used two test cases, one related to the human cell cycle, and a second related to disease defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis thaliana. In both cases, the new method achieved high precision in finding literature related to the biological mechanisms underlying the input data sets. Conclusions To our knowledge Caipirini is the first service enabling literature search directly based on biological relevance to gene sets; thus, Caipirini gives the research community a new way to unlock hidden knowledge from gene sets derived via high-throughput experiments. PMID:22297131

3. Robust Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices.

PubMed

Shi, Jiarong; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Xiuyun

2015-01-01

In recent years, the intrinsic low rank structure of some datasets has been extensively exploited to reduce dimensionality, remove noise and complete the missing entries. As a well-known technique for dimensionality reduction and data compression, Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices (GLRAM) claims its superiority on computation time and compression ratio over the SVD. However, GLRAM is very sensitive to sparse large noise or outliers and its robust version does not have been explored or solved yet. To address this problem, this paper proposes a robust method for GLRAM, named Robust GLRAM (RGLRAM). We first formulate RGLRAM as an l1-norm optimization problem which minimizes the l1-norm of the approximation errors. Secondly, we apply the technique of Augmented Lagrange Multipliers (ALM) to solve this l1-norm minimization problem and derive a corresponding iterative scheme. Then the weak convergence of the proposed algorithm is discussed under mild conditions. Next, we investigate a special case of RGLRAM and extend RGLRAM to a general tensor case. Finally, the extensive experiments on synthetic data show that it is possible for RGLRAM to exactly recover both the low rank and the sparse components while it may be difficult for previous state-of-the-art algorithms. We also discuss three issues on RGLRAM: the sensitivity to initialization, the generalization ability and the relationship between the running time and the size/number of matrices. Moreover, the experimental results on images of faces with large corruptions illustrate that RGLRAM obtains the best denoising and compression performance than other methods.

4. Robust Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices

PubMed Central

Shi, Jiarong; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Xiuyun

2015-01-01

In recent years, the intrinsic low rank structure of some datasets has been extensively exploited to reduce dimensionality, remove noise and complete the missing entries. As a well-known technique for dimensionality reduction and data compression, Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices (GLRAM) claims its superiority on computation time and compression ratio over the SVD. However, GLRAM is very sensitive to sparse large noise or outliers and its robust version does not have been explored or solved yet. To address this problem, this paper proposes a robust method for GLRAM, named Robust GLRAM (RGLRAM). We first formulate RGLRAM as an l1-norm optimization problem which minimizes the l1-norm of the approximation errors. Secondly, we apply the technique of Augmented Lagrange Multipliers (ALM) to solve this l1-norm minimization problem and derive a corresponding iterative scheme. Then the weak convergence of the proposed algorithm is discussed under mild conditions. Next, we investigate a special case of RGLRAM and extend RGLRAM to a general tensor case. Finally, the extensive experiments on synthetic data show that it is possible for RGLRAM to exactly recover both the low rank and the sparse components while it may be difficult for previous state-of-the-art algorithms. We also discuss three issues on RGLRAM: the sensitivity to initialization, the generalization ability and the relationship between the running time and the size/number of matrices. Moreover, the experimental results on images of faces with large corruptions illustrate that RGLRAM obtains the best denoising and compression performance than other methods. PMID:26367116

5. Bayesian Plackett-Luce Mixture Models for Partially Ranked Data.

PubMed

Mollica, Cristina; Tardella, Luca

2017-06-01

The elicitation of an ordinal judgment on multiple alternatives is often required in many psychological and behavioral experiments to investigate preference/choice orientation of a specific population. The Plackett-Luce model is one of the most popular and frequently applied parametric distributions to analyze rankings of a finite set of items. The present work introduces a Bayesian finite mixture of Plackett-Luce models to account for unobserved sample heterogeneity of partially ranked data. We describe an efficient way to incorporate the latent group structure in the data augmentation approach and the derivation of existing maximum likelihood procedures as special instances of the proposed Bayesian method. Inference can be conducted with the combination of the Expectation-Maximization algorithm for maximum a posteriori estimation and the Gibbs sampling iterative procedure. We additionally investigate several Bayesian criteria for selecting the optimal mixture configuration and describe diagnostic tools for assessing the fitness of ranking distributions conditionally and unconditionally on the number of ranked items. The utility of the novel Bayesian parametric Plackett-Luce mixture for characterizing sample heterogeneity is illustrated with several applications to simulated and real preference ranked data. We compare our method with the frequentist approach and a Bayesian nonparametric mixture model both assuming the Plackett-Luce model as a mixture component. Our analysis on real datasets reveals the importance of an accurate diagnostic check for an appropriate in-depth understanding of the heterogenous nature of the partial ranking data.

6. Evaluation of maximal mouth opening for healthy Indian children: Percentiles and impact of age, gender, and height.

PubMed

Patel, Shital M; Patel, Nehal H; Khaitan, Geet Gunjana A; Thanvi, Rashmi S; Patel, Parth; Joshi, Rajesh N

2016-01-01

Maximal mouth opening (MMO) is used as a marker of masticatory pathology. However, MMO among children varies considerably with their age, height, sex, and race. While accurate percentile of normal mouth opening and relationship with anthropometric measurement are not precisely defined for the Indian population, we designed prospective, observational study to define the percentiles for normal MMO in our children. A total of 985 children, 560 males and 425 females, in the age range of 5-18 years attending the pediatric clinic in a tertiary care center in Western India were studied. In addition to the basic demographic data, MMO was measured in these children. The children were asked to open their mouth maximally until no further opening was possible. The distance from the incisal edge of the upper incisor teeth to the incisal edge of the lower incisor teeth was measured using a calibrated fiber ruler. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the impact of other anthropometric measures such as age, gender, and height on MMO. The mean MMO for males was 44.24 (±5.84) mm and for females was 43.5 (±5.19) mm. Age- and height-related percentiles were created for girls and boys separately, showing the 5(th), 10(th), 25(th), 50(th), 75(th), 90(th), and 95(th) percentiles from 5 through 18 years of age with 86-185 cm height. The MMO percentile range for different age and height groups is established for the normal children. The mouth opening seems to increase with the age and especially with the height as per the skeletal growth. Height affects mouth opening more than the age.

7. Waist-to-Height Ratio Percentiles and Cutoffs for Obesity: A Cross-sectional Study in Brazilian Adolescents

PubMed Central

Zanetti Passos, Maria Aparecida; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; da Costa Machado, Helymar; Fisberg, Mauro

2014-01-01

ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the distribution of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) percentiles and cutoffs for obesity in Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study including adolescents aged 10 to 15 years was conducted in the city of São Paulo, Brazil; anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist-circumference) were taken, and WHtRs were calculated and then divided into percentiles derived by using Least Median of Squares (LMS) regression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used in determining cutoffs for obesity (BMI ≥97th percentile) and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparing variables. The study included 8,019 adolescents from 43 schools, of whom 54.5% were female, and 74.8% attended public schools. Boys had higher mean WHtR than girls (0.45±0.06 vs 0.44±0.05; p=0.002) and higher WHtR at the 95th percentile (0.56 vs 0.54; p<0.05). The WHtR cutoffs according to the WHO criteria ranged from 0.467 to 0.506 and 0.463 to 0.496 among girls and boys respectively, with high sensitivity (82.8-95%) and specificity (84-95.5%). The WHtR was significantly associated with body adiposity measured by BMI. Its age-specific percentiles and cutoffs may be used as additional surrogate markers of central obesity and its co-morbidities. PMID:25395904

8. Validation of the 5th and 95th Percentile Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

2014-01-01

NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley criteria and injury metrics extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD's). For the ATD injury metrics, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Furthermore, each of these ATD's is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. The requirements require that physical testing be performed with both ATD's to demonstrate compliance. Before compliance testing can be conducted, extensive modeling and simulation are required to determine appropriate test conditions, simulate conditions not feasible for testing, and assess design features to better ensure compliance testing is successful. While finite element (FE) models are currently available for many of the physical ATD's, currently there are no complete models for either the 5th percentile female or the 95th percentile male Hybrid III with a straight spine and articulating pelvis. The purpose of this work is to assess the accuracy of the existing Livermore Software Technology Corporation's FE models of the 5th and 95th percentile ATD's. To perform this assessment, a series of tests will be performed at Wright Patterson Air Force Research Lab using their horizontal impact accelerator sled test facility. The ATD's will be placed in the Orion seat with a modified-advanced-crew-escape-system (MACES) pressure suit and helmet, and driven with loadings similar to what is expected for the actual Orion vehicle during landing, launch abort, and chute deployment. Test data will be compared to analytical predictions and modelling uncertainty factors will be determined for each injury metric. Additionally, the test data will be used to

9. Inconsistent year-to-year fluctuations limit the conclusiveness of global higher education rankings for university management

PubMed Central

Sorz, Johannes; Wallner, Bernard; Seidler, Horst

2015-01-01

Backround. University rankings are getting very high international media attention, this holds particularly true for the Times Higher Education Ranking (THE) and the Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Academic Ranking of World Universities Ranking (ARWU). We therefore aimed to investigate how reliable the rankings are, especially for universities with lower ranking positions, that often show inconclusive year-to-year fluctuations in their rank, and if these rankings are thus a suitable basis for management purposes. Methods. We used the public available data from the web pages of the THE and the ARWU ranking to analyze the dynamics of change in score and ranking position from year to year, and we investigated possible causes for inconsistent fluctuations in the rankings by the means of regression analyses. Results. Regression analyses of results from the THE and ARWU from 2010–2014 show inconsistent fluctuations in the rank and score for universities with lower rank positions (below position 50) which lead to inconsistent “up and downs” in the total results, especially in the THE and to a lesser extent also in the ARWU. In both rankings, the mean year-to-year fluctuation of universities in groups of 50 universities aggregated by descending rank increases from less than 10% in the group of the 50 highest ranked universities to up to 60% in the group of the lowest ranked universities. Furthermore, year-to-year results do not correspond in THES- and ARWU-Rankings for universities below rank 50. Discussion. We conclude that the observed fluctuations in the THE do not correspond to actual university performance and ranking results are thus of limited conclusiveness for the university management of universities below a rank of 50. While the ARWU rankings seems more robust against inconsistent fluctuations, its year to year changes in the scores are very small, so essential changes from year to year could not be expected. Furthermore, year-to-year results do not

10. Inconsistent year-to-year fluctuations limit the conclusiveness of global higher education rankings for university management.

PubMed

Sorz, Johannes; Wallner, Bernard; Seidler, Horst; Fieder, Martin

2015-01-01

Backround. University rankings are getting very high international media attention, this holds particularly true for the Times Higher Education Ranking (THE) and the Shanghai Jiao Tong University's Academic Ranking of World Universities Ranking (ARWU). We therefore aimed to investigate how reliable the rankings are, especially for universities with lower ranking positions, that often show inconclusive year-to-year fluctuations in their rank, and if these rankings are thus a suitable basis for management purposes. Methods. We used the public available data from the web pages of the THE and the ARWU ranking to analyze the dynamics of change in score and ranking position from year to year, and we investigated possible causes for inconsistent fluctuations in the rankings by the means of regression analyses. Results. Regression analyses of results from the THE and ARWU from 2010-2014 show inconsistent fluctuations in the rank and score for universities with lower rank positions (below position 50) which lead to inconsistent "up and downs" in the total results, especially in the THE and to a lesser extent also in the ARWU. In both rankings, the mean year-to-year fluctuation of universities in groups of 50 universities aggregated by descending rank increases from less than 10% in the group of the 50 highest ranked universities to up to 60% in the group of the lowest ranked universities. Furthermore, year-to-year results do not correspond in THES- and ARWU-Rankings for universities below rank 50. Discussion. We conclude that the observed fluctuations in the THE do not correspond to actual university performance and ranking results are thus of limited conclusiveness for the university management of universities below a rank of 50. While the ARWU rankings seems more robust against inconsistent fluctuations, its year to year changes in the scores are very small, so essential changes from year to year could not be expected. Furthermore, year-to-year results do not correspond

11. Class Rank Weighs Down True Learning

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guskey, Thomas R.

2014-01-01

The process of determining class rank does not help students achieve more or reach higher levels of proficiency. Evidence indicates ranking students may diminish students' motivation. High school educators argue that they are compelled to rank-order graduating students because selective colleges and universities require information about…

12. Rank Ordering or Judge-Awarded Ratings?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linacre, John M.

Rank ordering examinees is an easier task for judges than is awarding numerical ratings. A measurement model for rankings based on Rasch's objectivity axioms provides linear, sample-independent and judge-independent measures. Estimates of examinee measures are obtained from the data set of rankings, along with standard errors and fit statistics.…

13. 14 CFR 1214.1105 - Final ranking.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Final ranking. 1214.1105 Section 1214.1105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1105 Final ranking. Final rankings will be based on a combination of...

14. 14 CFR 1214.1105 - Final ranking.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final ranking. 1214.1105 Section 1214.1105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1105 Final ranking. Final rankings will be based on a combination of...

15. 14 CFR 1214.1105 - Final ranking.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Final ranking. 1214.1105 Section 1214.1105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1105 Final ranking. Final rankings will be based on a combination of...

16. 14 CFR 1214.1105 - Final ranking.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Final ranking. 1214.1105 Section 1214.1105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1105 Final ranking. Final rankings will be based on a combination of...

17. A Comprehensive Analysis of Marketing Journal Rankings

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Steward, Michelle D.; Lewis, Bruce R.

2010-01-01

The purpose of this study is to offer a comprehensive assessment of journal standings in Marketing from two perspectives. The discipline perspective of rankings is obtained from a collection of published journal ranking studies during the past 15 years. The studies in the published ranking stream are assessed for reliability by examining internal…

18. The Privilege of Ranking: Google Plays Ball.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wiggins, Richard

2003-01-01

Discussion of ranking systems used in various settings, including college football and academic admissions, focuses on the Google search engine. Explains the PageRank mathematical formula that scores Web pages by connecting the number of links; limitations, including authenticity and accuracy of ranked Web pages; relevancy; adjusting algorithms;…

19. A Comprehensive Analysis of Marketing Journal Rankings

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Steward, Michelle D.; Lewis, Bruce R.

2010-01-01

The purpose of this study is to offer a comprehensive assessment of journal standings in Marketing from two perspectives. The discipline perspective of rankings is obtained from a collection of published journal ranking studies during the past 15 years. The studies in the published ranking stream are assessed for reliability by examining internal…

20. The Academic Ranking of World Universities

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Liu, Nian Cai; Cheng, Ying

2005-01-01

Shanghai Jiao Tong University has published on the Internet an Academic Ranking of World Universities that has attracted worldwide attention. Institutions are ranked according to academic or research performance and ranking indicators include major international awards, highly cited researchers in important fields, articles published in selected…

1. Ranking Reputation and Quality in Online Rating Systems

PubMed Central

Liao, Hao; Zeng, An; Xiao, Rui; Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Chen, Duan-Bing; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

2014-01-01

How to design an accurate and robust ranking algorithm is a fundamental problem with wide applications in many real systems. It is especially significant in online rating systems due to the existence of some spammers. In the literature, many well-performed iterative ranking methods have been proposed. These methods can effectively recognize the unreliable users and reduce their weight in judging the quality of objects, and finally lead to a more accurate evaluation of the online products. In this paper, we design an iterative ranking method with high performance in both accuracy and robustness. More specifically, a reputation redistribution process is introduced to enhance the influence of highly reputed users and two penalty factors enable the algorithm resistance to malicious behaviors. Validation of our method is performed in both artificial and real user-object bipartite networks. PMID:24819119

2. Ranking chemical structures for drug discovery: a new machine learning approach.

PubMed

Agarwal, Shivani; Dugar, Deepak; Sengupta, Shiladitya

2010-05-24

With chemical libraries increasingly containing millions of compounds or more, there is a fast-growing need for computational methods that can rank or prioritize compounds for screening. Machine learning methods have shown considerable promise for this task; indeed, classification methods such as support vector machines (SVMs), together with their variants, have been used in virtual screening to distinguish active compounds from inactive ones, while regression methods such as partial least-squares (PLS) and support vector regression (SVR) have been used in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for predicting biological activities of compounds. Recently, a new class of machine learning methods - namely, ranking methods, which are designed to directly optimize ranking performance - have been developed for ranking tasks such as web search that arise in information retrieval (IR) and other applications. Here we report the application of these new ranking methods in machine learning to the task of ranking chemical structures. Our experiments show that the new ranking methods give better ranking performance than both classification based methods in virtual screening and regression methods in QSAR analysis. We also make some interesting connections between ranking performance measures used in cheminformatics and those used in IR studies.

3. Local Rank Inference for Varying Coefficient Models.

PubMed

Wang, Lan; Kai, Bo; Li, Runze

2009-12-01

By allowing the regression coefficients to change with certain covariates, the class of varying coefficient models offers a flexible approach to modeling nonlinearity and interactions between covariates. This paper proposes a novel estimation procedure for the varying coefficient models based on local ranks. The new procedure provides a highly efficient and robust alternative to the local linear least squares method, and can be conveniently implemented using existing R software package. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations both reveal that the gain of the local rank estimator over the local linear least squares estimator, measured by the asymptotic mean squared error or the asymptotic mean integrated squared error, can be substantial. In the normal error case, the asymptotic relative efficiency for estimating both the coefficient functions and the derivative of the coefficient functions is above 96%; even in the worst case scenarios, the asymptotic relative efficiency has a lower bound 88.96% for estimating the coefficient functions, and a lower bound 89.91% for estimating their derivatives. The new estimator may achieve the nonparametric convergence rate even when the local linear least squares method fails due to infinite random error variance. We establish the large sample theory of the proposed procedure by utilizing results from generalized U-statistics, whose kernel function may depend on the sample size. We also extend a resampling approach, which perturbs the objective function repeatedly, to the generalized U-statistics setting; and demonstrate that it can accurately estimate the asymptotic covariance matrix.

4. Learning to rank image tags with limited training examples.

PubMed

Songhe Feng; Zheyun Feng; Rong Jin

2015-04-01

With an increasing number of images that are available in social media, image annotation has emerged as an important research topic due to its application in image matching and retrieval. Most studies cast image annotation into a multilabel classification problem. The main shortcoming of this approach is that it requires a large number of training images with clean and complete annotations in order to learn a reliable model for tag prediction. We address this limitation by developing a novel approach that combines the strength of tag ranking with the power of matrix recovery. Instead of having to make a binary decision for each tag, our approach ranks tags in the descending order of their relevance to the given image, significantly simplifying the problem. In addition, the proposed method aggregates the prediction models for different tags into a matrix, and casts tag ranking into a matrix recovery problem. It introduces the matrix trace norm to explicitly control the model complexity, so that a reliable prediction model can be learned for tag ranking even when the tag space is large and the number of training images is limited. Experiments on multiple well-known image data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework for tag ranking compared with the state-of-the-art approaches for image annotation and tag ranking.

5. Tool for Ranking Research Options

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

2005-01-01

Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

6. Issue Management Risk Ranking Systems

SciTech Connect

Novack, Steven David; Marshall, Frances Mc Clellan; Stromberg, Howard Merion; Grant, Gary Michael

1999-06-01

Thousands of safety issues have been collected on-line at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the Issue Management Plan. However, there has been no established approach to prioritize collected and future issues. The authors developed a methodology, based on hazards assessment, to identify and risk rank over 5000 safety issues collected at INEEL. This approach required that it was easily applied and understandable for site adaptation and commensurate with the Integrated Safety Plan. High-risk issues were investigated and mitigative/preventive measures were suggested and ranked based on a cost-benefit scheme to provide risk-informed safety measures. This methodology was consistent with other integrated safety management goals and tasks providing a site-wide risk informed decision tool to reduce hazardous conditions and focus resources on high-risk safety issues. As part of the issue management plan, this methodology was incorporated at the issue collection level and training was provided to management to better familiarize decision-makers with concepts of safety and risk. This prioritization methodology and issue dissemination procedure will be discussed. Results of issue prioritization and training efforts will be summarized. Difficulties and advantages of the process will be reported. Development and incorporation of this process into INEELs lessons learned reporting and the site-wide integrated safety management program will be shown with an emphasis on establishing self reliance and ownership of safety issues.

7. Issue Management Risk Ranking Systems

SciTech Connect

F. M. Marshall; G. M. Grant; H. M. Stromberg; S. D. Novack

1999-06-01

Thousands of safety issues have been collected on-line at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the Issue Management Plan. However, there has been no established approach to prioritize collected and future issues. The authors developed a methodology, based on hazards assessment, to identify and risk rank over 5000 safety issues collected at INEEL. This approach required that it was easily applied and understandable for site adaptation and commensurate with the Integrated Safety Plan. High-risk issues were investigated and mitigative/preventive measures were suggested and ranked based on a cost-benefit scheme to provide risk-informed safety measures. This methodology was consistent with other integrated safety management goals and tasks providing a site-wide risk-informed decision tool to reduce hazardous conditions and focus resources on high-risk safety issues. As part of the issue management plan, this methodology was incorporated at the issue collection level and training was provided to management to better familiarize decision-makers with concepts of safety and risk. This prioritization methodology and issue dissemination procedure will be discussed. Results of issue prioritization and training efforts will be summarized. Difficulties and advantages of the process will be reported. Development and incorporation of this process into INEEL's lessons learned reporting and the site-wide integrated safety management program will be shown with an emphasis on establishing self reliance and ownership of safety issues.

8. 24 CFR 599.401 - Ranking of applications.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... Communities § 599.401 Ranking of applications. (a) Ranking order. Rural and urban applications will be ranked... applications ranked first. (b) Separate ranking categories. After initial ranking, both rural and urban... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ranking of applications....

9. Impact of Doximity Residency Rankings on Emergency Medicine Applicant Rank Lists.

PubMed

Peterson, William J; Hopson, Laura R; Khandelwal, Sorabh; White, Melissa; Gallahue, Fiona E; Burkhardt, John; Rolston, Aimee M; Santen, Sally A

2016-05-01

This study investigates the impact of the Doximity rankings on the rank list choices made by residency applicants in emergency medicine (EM). We sent an 11-item survey by email to all students who applied to EM residency programs at four different institutions representing diverse geographical regions. Students were asked questions about their perception of Doximity rankings and how it may have impacted their rank list decisions. Response rate was 58% of 1,372 opened electronic surveys. This study found that a majority of medical students applying to residency in EM were aware of the Doximity rankings prior to submitting rank lists (67%). One-quarter of these applicants changed the number of programs and ranks of those programs when completing their rank list based on the Doximity rankings (26%). Though the absolute number of programs changed on the rank lists was small, the results demonstrate that the EM Doximity rankings impact applicant decision-making in ranking residency programs. While applicants do not find the Doximity rankings to be important compared to other factors in the application process, the Doximity rankings result in a small change in residency applicant ranking behavior. This unvalidated ranking, based principally on reputational data rather than objective outcome criteria, thus has the potential to be detrimental to students, programs, and the public. We feel it important for specialties to develop consensus around measurable training outcomes and provide freely accessible metrics for candidate education.

10. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

2010-10-01

The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

11. Reduced rank regression via adaptive nuclear norm penalization

PubMed Central

Chen, Kun; Dong, Hongbo; Chan, Kung-Sik

2014-01-01

Summary We propose an adaptive nuclear norm penalization approach for low-rank matrix approximation, and use it to develop a new reduced rank estimation method for high-dimensional multivariate regression. The adaptive nuclear norm is defined as the weighted sum of the singular values of the matrix, and it is generally non-convex under the natural restriction that the weight decreases with the singular value. However, we show that the proposed non-convex penalized regression method has a global optimal solution obtained from an adaptively soft-thresholded singular value decomposition. The method is computationally efficient, and the resulting solution path is continuous. The rank consistency of and prediction/estimation performance bounds for the estimator are established for a high-dimensional asymptotic regime. Simulation studies and an application in genetics demonstrate its efficacy. PMID:25045172

12. Multimodal biometric system using rank-level fusion approach.

PubMed

Monwar, Md Maruf; Gavrilova, Marina L

2009-08-01

In many real-world applications, unimodal biometric systems often face significant limitations due to sensitivity to noise, intraclass variability, data quality, nonuniversality, and other factors. Attempting to improve the performance of individual matchers in such situations may not prove to be highly effective. Multibiometric systems seek to alleviate some of these problems by providing multiple pieces of evidence of the same identity. These systems help achieve an increase in performance that may not be possible using a single-biometric indicator. This paper presents an effective fusion scheme that combines information presented by multiple domain experts based on the rank-level fusion integration method. The developed multimodal biometric system possesses a number of unique qualities, starting from utilizing principal component analysis and Fisher's linear discriminant methods for individual matchers (face, ear, and signature) identity authentication and utilizing the novel rank-level fusion method in order to consolidate the results obtained from different biometric matchers. The ranks of individual matchers are combined using the highest rank, Borda count, and logistic regression approaches. The results indicate that fusion of individual modalities can improve the overall performance of the biometric system, even in the presence of low quality data. Insights on multibiometric design using rank-level fusion and its performance on a variety of biometric databases are discussed in the concluding section.

13. Ranking Biomedical Annotations with Annotator's Semantic Relevancy

PubMed Central

2014-01-01

Biomedical annotation is a common and affective artifact for researchers to discuss, show opinion, and share discoveries. It becomes increasing popular in many online research communities, and implies much useful information. Ranking biomedical annotations is a critical problem for data user to efficiently get information. As the annotator's knowledge about the annotated entity normally determines quality of the annotations, we evaluate the knowledge, that is, semantic relationship between them, in two ways. The first is extracting relational information from credible websites by mining association rules between an annotator and a biomedical entity. The second way is frequent pattern mining from historical annotations, which reveals common features of biomedical entities that an annotator can annotate with high quality. We propose a weighted and concept-extended RDF model to represent an annotator, a biomedical entity, and their background attributes and merge information from the two ways as the context of an annotator. Based on that, we present a method to rank the annotations by evaluating their correctness according to user's vote and the semantic relevancy between the annotator and the annotated entity. The experimental results show that the approach is applicable and efficient even when data set is large. PMID:24899918

14. Rank order scaling of pictorial depth

PubMed Central

van Doorn, Andrea; Koenderink, Jan; Wagemans, Johan

2011-01-01

We address the topic of “pictorial depth” in cases of pictures that are unlike photographic renderings. The most basic measure of “depth” is no doubt that of depth order. We establish depth order through the pairwise depth-comparison method, involving all pairs from a set of 49 fiducial points. The pictorial space for this study was evoked by a capriccio (imaginary landscape) by Francesco Guardi (1712–1793). In such a drawing pictorial space is suggested by the artist through a small set of conventional depth cues. As a result typical Western observers tend to agree largely in their visual awareness when looking at such art. We rank depths for locations that are not on a single surface and far apart in pictorial space. We find that observers resolve about 40 distinct depth layers and agree largely in this. From a previous experiment we have metrical data for the same observers. The rank correlations between the results are high. Perhaps surprisingly, we find no correlation between the number of distinct depth layers and the total metrical depth range. Thus, the relation between subjective magnitude and discrimination threshold fails to hold for pictorial depth. PMID:23145256

15. Ranking biomedical annotations with annotator's semantic relevancy.

PubMed

Wu, Aihua

2014-01-01

Biomedical annotation is a common and affective artifact for researchers to discuss, show opinion, and share discoveries. It becomes increasing popular in many online research communities, and implies much useful information. Ranking biomedical annotations is a critical problem for data user to efficiently get information. As the annotator's knowledge about the annotated entity normally determines quality of the annotations, we evaluate the knowledge, that is, semantic relationship between them, in two ways. The first is extracting relational information from credible websites by mining association rules between an annotator and a biomedical entity. The second way is frequent pattern mining from historical annotations, which reveals common features of biomedical entities that an annotator can annotate with high quality. We propose a weighted and concept-extended RDF model to represent an annotator, a biomedical entity, and their background attributes and merge information from the two ways as the context of an annotator. Based on that, we present a method to rank the annotations by evaluating their correctness according to user's vote and the semantic relevancy between the annotator and the annotated entity. The experimental results show that the approach is applicable and efficient even when data set is large.

16. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

2010-01-01

The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

17. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

2010-01-01

The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

18. HOSPITAL MORBIDITY RANKINGS AND COMPLICATION SEVERITY IN VASCULAR SURGERY

PubMed Central

Girotti, Micah E.; Ko, Clifford Y.; Dimick, Justin B.

2012-01-01

Introduction The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) ranks hospitals based on risk-adjusted rates of post-operative complications. However, this approach does not consider the severity or number of complications that occurred. We sought to determine whether incorporating this information would alter hospital rankings. Methods Patients undergoing major vascular surgery in 206 NSQIP hospitals during 2008–2009 were examined (n=39, 519). We then categorized all post-operative complications as either minor or severe. We first evaluated the extent to which minor and severe complications increased a patient's risk of mortality and prolonged length of stay. We then ranked hospitals on two alternative approaches that included severity and number of complications. We determined the impact of these alternative methods by assessing the proportion of hospitals that moved out of the top and bottom 20% of hospitals compared to standard rankings. Results Compared to patients with minor complications, patients with severe complications have a higher mortality rate (16.2% vs. 3.6%, P<.001) and prolonged length of stay (66.7% vs. 53.3%, P<.001). Patients with multiple complications (2 or more) also had a higher mortality rate (23.7% vs. 6.0%, P<.001) and prolonged length of stay (77.0% vs. 50.1%, P<.001) than patients with only one complication. Compared to the current approach for assessing morbidity, ranking hospitals on severe complications resulted in 12 (29%) hospitals moving out of the top 20% and 10 (24%) hospitals moving out of the bottom 20%. A similar degree of reclassification was found when comparing the current rankings to an alternative approach that considered the number of different complications. Conclusions Although the severity and number of postoperative complications impact mortality and length of stay, and subsequently hospital rankings, existing measurement systems do not take this into account. Quality

19. Acoustic Reflex Thresholds in Normal and Cochlear-Impaired Ears: Effects of No-Response Rates on 90th Percentiles in a Large Sample.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gelfand, Stanley A.; And Others

1990-01-01

Ninetieth percentile cutoffs for acoustic reflex thresholds (ART) were determined for a sample of 1,374 adult subjects with normal hearing and sensorineural loss of cochlear origin. It was found that 12.2 percent had one ear ART elevated above the ninetieth percentile, but only 5.6 percent had more than one elevated ART. (DB)

20. Knowledge-guided gene ranking by coordinative component analysis.

PubMed

Wang, Chen; Xuan, Jianhua; Li, Huai; Wang, Yue; Zhan, Ming; Hoffman, Eric P; Clarke, Robert

2010-03-30

In cancer, gene networks and pathways often exhibit dynamic behavior, particularly during the process of carcinogenesis. Thus, it is important to prioritize those genes that are strongly associated with the functionality of a network. Traditional statistical methods are often inept to identify biologically relevant member genes, motivating researchers to incorporate biological knowledge into gene ranking methods. However, current integration strategies are often heuristic and fail to incorporate fully the true interplay between biological knowledge and gene expression data. To improve knowledge-guided gene ranking, we propose a novel method called coordinative component analysis (COCA) in this paper. COCA explicitly captures those genes within a specific biological context that are likely to be expressed in a coordinative manner. Formulated as an optimization problem to maximize the coordinative effort, COCA is designed to first extract the coordinative components based on a partial guidance from knowledge genes and then rank the genes according to their participation strengths. An embedded bootstrapping procedure is implemented to improve statistical robustness of the solutions. COCA was initially tested on simulation data and then on published gene expression microarray data to demonstrate its improved performance as compared to traditional statistical methods. Finally, the COCA approach has been applied to stem cell data to identify biologically relevant genes in signaling pathways. As a result, the COCA approach uncovers novel pathway members that may shed light into the pathway deregulation in cancers. We have developed a new integrative strategy to combine biological knowledge and microarray data for gene ranking. The method utilizes knowledge genes for a guidance to first extract coordinative components, and then rank the genes according to their contribution related to a network or pathway. The experimental results show that such a knowledge-guided strategy

1. Multiple indicators of poor diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes are associated with higher body mass index percentile but not glycemic control.

PubMed

Nansel, Tonja R; Haynie, Denise L; Lipsky, Leah M; Laffel, Lori M B; Mehta, Sanjeev N

2012-11-01

Diet is a cornerstone of type 1 diabetes treatment, and poor diet quality may affect glycemic control and other health outcomes. Yet diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes remains understudied. To evaluate multiple indicators of diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their associations with hemoglobin A1c and body mass index percentile. In this cross-sectional study, participants completed 3-day diet records, and data were abstracted from participants' medical records. Diet quality indicators included servings of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains; Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) score; Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 score (NRF 9.3); and glycemic index. Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes ≥ 1 year, aged 8 to 18 years, were recruited at routine clinic visits. Of 291 families enrolled, 252 provided diet data. Associations of diet quality indicators to HbA1c and body mass index percentile were examined using analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression. Participants demonstrated low adherence to dietary guidelines; mean HEI-2005 score was 53.4 ± 11.0 (range = 26.7 to 81.2). Intake of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains was less than half the recommended amount. Almost half of the participants' daily energy intake was derived from refined-grain products, desserts, chips, and sweetened beverages. Higher fruit (P = 0.04) and whole-grain (P = 0.03) intake were associated with lower HbA1c in unadjusted, but not adjusted analyses; vegetable intake, HEI-2005 score, NRF 9.3 score, and glycemic index were not associated with HbA1c. Higher fruit (P = 0.01) and whole-grain (P = 0.04) intake and NRF 9.3 score (P = 0.02), but not other diet quality indicators, were associated with lower body mass index percentile in adjusted analyses. Data demonstrate poor diet quality in youth with type 1 diabetes and provide support for the importance of diet quality for weight management. Future research on determinants of

2. Multiple Indicators of Poor Diet Quality in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Are Associated with Higher Body Mass Index Percentile but not Glycemic Control

PubMed Central

Nansel, Tonja R.; Haynie, Denise L.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Laffel, Lori M. B.; Mehta, Sanjeev N.

2014-01-01

Background Diet is a cornerstone of type 1 diabetes treatment, and poor diet quality may affect glycemic control and other health outcomes. Yet diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes remains understudied. Objective To evaluate multiple indicators of diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their associations with hemoglobin A1c and body mass index percentile. Design In this cross-sectional study, participants completed 3-day diet records, and data were abstracted from participants’ medical records. Diet quality indicators included servings of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains; Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) score; Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 score (NRF 9.3); and glycemic index. Participants/setting Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes ≥1 year, aged 8 to 18 years, were recruited at routine clinic visits. Of 291 families enrolled, 252 provided diet data. Statistical analyses Associations of diet quality indicators to HbA1c and body mass index percentile were examined using analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression. Results Participants demonstrated low adherence to dietary guidelines; mean HEI-2005 score was 53.4±11.0 (range = 26.7 to 81.2). Intake of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains was less than half the recommended amount. Almost half of the participants’ daily energy intake was derived from refined-grain products, desserts, chips, and sweetened beverages. Higher fruit (P=0.04) and whole-grain (P=0.03) intake were associated with lower HbA1c in unadjusted, but not adjusted analyses; vegetable intake, HEI-2005 score, NRF 9.3 score, and glycemic index were not associated with HbA1c. Higher fruit (P=0.01) and whole-grain (P=0.04) intake and NRF 9.3 score (P=0.02), but not other diet quality indicators, were associated with lower body mass index percentile in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Data demonstrate poor diet quality in youth with type 1 diabetes and provide support for the

3. Ranking using the Copeland score: a comparison with the Hasse diagram.

PubMed

Al-Sharrah, Ghanima

2010-05-24

This study concerns the problem of ranking objects (chemicals, projects, databases, etc.) when a number of indicators are available for these objects that convey different comparative information. There is no unique way to rank these objects while taking all indicators into account. Using the concept of partially ordered sets and the social choice theory, the Copeland score ranking methodology was applied outside of its usual political environment (voting) to rank objects in the sciences. This method avoids the disadvantages of the Hasse diagram and the linear extension usually used to resolve this issue. The ranking methodology was assessed using eight data sets, each with different numbers of objects and indicators. The results showed that the Copeland method appears to be an effective and stable tool for ranking objects, yielding results comparable to those of an evaluation by a Hasse diagram. Also, it has the advantage of facilitating the analysis of large partially ordered sets, which were practically impossible to handle using existing methods.

4. Ranking of simultaneously presented choice options in animal preference experiments.

PubMed

Halekoh, Ulrich; Jørgensen, Erik; Bak Jensen, Margit; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Studnitz, Merete; Højsgaard, Søren

2007-08-01

We considered experiments where animals chose one of all possible simultaneously presented options. The animals might be observed at repeated occasions. In the ethological literature the analysis is often focused on testing the global hypothesis of no difference in preferences by non-parametric methods. This fails to address the estimation of a ranking. Often this approach cannot adequately reflect the experimental setting and the repeated measurement structure. Therefore, we propose to model the choice probabilities for the options with a multinomial logistic model. The correlation induced by repeated measurements is incorporated by animal specific random intercepts. The ranking of the options is taken as the order of the choice probabilities. Adopting a Bayesian approach samples from the posterior distribution of the choice probabilities provide directly samples from the posterior of the rankings. Based on this an estimate of the ranking and description of its variability can be derived. The computation was performed via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and was implemented using WinBUGS. We illustrate our approach with an experiment to determine the preference of pigs for three different rooting materials. The proposed method allowed deriving an overall ranking for different combinations of the materials and the spatial positioning.

5. Sparse Contextual Activation for Efficient Visual Re-Ranking.

PubMed

Bai, Song; Bai, Xiang

2016-03-01

In this paper, we propose an extremely efficient algorithm for visual re-ranking. By considering the original pairwise distance in the contextual space, we develop a feature vector called sparse contextual activation (SCA) that encodes the local distribution of an image. Hence, re-ranking task can be simply accomplished by vector comparison under the generalized Jaccard metric, which has its theoretical meaning in the fuzzy set theory. In order to improve the time efficiency of re-ranking procedure, inverted index is successfully introduced to speed up the computation of generalized Jaccard metric. As a result, the average time cost of re-ranking for a certain query can be controlled within 1 ms. Furthermore, inspired by query expansion, we also develop an additional method called local consistency enhancement on the proposed SCA to improve the retrieval performance in an unsupervised manner. On the other hand, the retrieval performance using a single feature may not be satisfactory enough, which inspires us to fuse multiple complementary features for accurate retrieval. Based on SCA, a robust feature fusion algorithm is exploited that also preserves the characteristic of high time efficiency. We assess our proposed method in various visual re-ranking tasks. Experimental results on Princeton shape benchmark (3D object), WM-SRHEC07 (3D competition), YAEL data set B (face), MPEG-7 data set (shape), and Ukbench data set (image) manifest the effectiveness and efficiency of SCA.

6. Relations Among Some Low-Rank Subspace Recovery Models.

PubMed

Zhang, Hongyang; Lin, Zhouchen; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Junbin

2015-09-01

Recovering intrinsic low-dimensional subspaces from data distributed on them is a key preprocessing step to many applications. In recent years, a lot of work has modeled subspace recovery as low-rank minimization problems. We find that some representative models, such as robust principal component analysis (R-PCA), robust low-rank representation (R-LRR), and robust latent low-rank representation (R-LatLRR), are actually deeply connected. More specifically, we discover that once a solution to one of the models is obtained, we can obtain the solutions to other models in closed-form formulations. Since R-PCA is the simplest, our discovery makes it the center of low-rank subspace recovery models. Our work has two important implications. First, R-PCA has a solid theoretical foundation. Under certain conditions, we could find globally optimal solutions to these low-rank models at an overwhelming probability, although these models are nonconvex. Second, we can obtain significantly faster algorithms for these models by solving R-PCA first. The computation cost can be further cut by applying low-complexity randomized algorithms, for example, our novel l2,1 filtering algorithm, to R-PCA. Although for the moment the formal proof of our l2,1 filtering algorithm is not yet available, experiments verify the advantages of our algorithm over other state-of-the-art methods based on the alternating direction method.

7. Rank-based model selection for multiple ions quantum tomography

Guţă, Mădălin; Kypraios, Theodore; Dryden, Ian

2012-10-01

The statistical analysis of measurement data has become a key component of many quantum engineering experiments. As standard full state tomography becomes unfeasible for large dimensional quantum systems, one needs to exploit prior information and the ‘sparsity’ properties of the experimental state in order to reduce the dimensionality of the estimation problem. In this paper we propose model selection as a general principle for finding the simplest, or most parsimonious explanation of the data, by fitting different models and choosing the estimator with the best trade-off between likelihood fit and model complexity. We apply two well established model selection methods—the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC)—two models consisting of states of fixed rank and datasets such as are currently produced in multiple ions experiments. We test the performance of AIC and BIC on randomly chosen low rank states of four ions, and study the dependence of the selected rank with the number of measurement repetitions for one ion states. We then apply the methods to real data from a four ions experiment aimed at creating a Smolin state of rank 4. By applying the two methods together with the Pearson χ2 test we conclude that the data can be suitably described with a model whose rank is between 7 and 9. Additionally we find that the mean square error of the maximum likelihood estimator for pure states is close to that of the optimal over all possible measurements.

8. Decision Tree Modeling for Ranking Data

Yu, Philip L. H.; Wan, Wai Ming; Lee, Paul H.

Ranking/preference data arises from many applications in marketing, psychology, and politics. We establish a new decision tree model for the analysis of ranking data by adopting the concept of classification and regression tree. The existing splitting criteria are modified in a way that allows them to precisely measure the impurity of a set of ranking data. Two types of impurity measures for ranking data are introduced, namelyg-wise and top-k measures. Theoretical results show that the new measures exhibit properties of impurity functions. In model assessment, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) is applied to evaluate the tree performance. Experiments are carried out to investigate the predictive performance of the tree model for complete and partially ranked data and promising results are obtained. Finally, a real-world application of the proposed methodology to analyze a set of political rankings data is presented.

9. Error Analysis of Stochastic Gradient Descent Ranking.

PubMed

Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan

2012-12-31

Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error.

10. Dynamics of ranking processes in complex systems.

PubMed

Blumm, Nicholas; Ghoshal, Gourab; Forró, Zalán; Schich, Maximilian; Bianconi, Ginestra; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Barabási, Albert-László

2012-09-21

The world is addicted to ranking: everything, from the reputation of scientists, journals, and universities to purchasing decisions is driven by measured or perceived differences between them. Here, we analyze empirical data capturing real time ranking in a number of systems, helping to identify the universal characteristics of ranking dynamics. We develop a continuum theory that not only predicts the stability of the ranking process, but shows that a noise-induced phase transition is at the heart of the observed differences in ranking regimes. The key parameters of the continuum theory can be explicitly measured from data, allowing us to predict and experimentally document the existence of three phases that govern ranking stability.

11. Error analysis of stochastic gradient descent ranking.

PubMed

Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan

2013-06-01

Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error.

12. Dynamics of Ranking Processes in Complex Systems

Blumm, Nicholas; Ghoshal, Gourab; Forró, Zalán; Schich, Maximilian; Bianconi, Ginestra; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Barabási, Albert-László

2012-09-01

The world is addicted to ranking: everything, from the reputation of scientists, journals, and universities to purchasing decisions is driven by measured or perceived differences between them. Here, we analyze empirical data capturing real time ranking in a number of systems, helping to identify the universal characteristics of ranking dynamics. We develop a continuum theory that not only predicts the stability of the ranking process, but shows that a noise-induced phase transition is at the heart of the observed differences in ranking regimes. The key parameters of the continuum theory can be explicitly measured from data, allowing us to predict and experimentally document the existence of three phases that govern ranking stability.

13. Using Microsoft Excel to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI).

PubMed

Vickers, Linda D

2010-05-01

This paper describes the method using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399) to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI) in accordance with guidance from DOE-STD-3009-1994 and U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145-1982. The accurate determination of the 5% overall site X/Q value is the most important factor in the computation of the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI. This method should be used to validate software codes that compute the X/Q. The 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI must be compared to the U.S. DOE Evaluation Guide of 25 rem to determine the relative severity of hazard to the public from a postulated, unmitigated design basis accident that involves an offsite release of radioactive material.

14. Cross ranking of cities and regions: population versus income

Cerqueti, Roy; Ausloos, Marcel

2015-07-01

This paper explores the relationship between the inner economical structure of communities and their population distribution through a rank-rank analysis of official data, along statistical physics ideas within two techniques. The data is taken on Italian cities. The analysis is performed both at a global (national) and at a more local (regional) level in order to distinguish ‘macro’ and ‘micro’ aspects. First, the rank-size rule is found not to be a standard power law, as in many other studies, but a doubly decreasing power law. Next, the Kendall τ and the Spearman ρ rank correlation coefficients which measure pair concordance and the correlation between fluctuations in two rankings, respectively,—as a correlation function does in thermodynamics, are calculated for finding rank correlation (if any) between demography and wealth. Results show non only global disparities for the whole (country) set, but also (regional) disparities, when comparing the number of cities in regions, the number of inhabitants in cities and that in regions, as well as when comparing the aggregated tax income of the cities and that of regions. Different outliers are pointed out and justified. Interestingly, two classes of cities in the country and two classes of regions in the country are found. ‘Common sense’ social, political, and economic considerations sustain the findings. More importantly, the methods show that they allow to distinguish communities, very clearly, when specific criteria are numerically sound. A specific modeling for the findings is presented, i.e. for the doubly decreasing power law and the two phase system, based on statistics theory, e.g. urn filling. The model ideas can be expected to hold when similar rank relationship features are observed in fields. It is emphasized that the analysis makes more sense than one through a Pearson Π value-value correlation analysis

15. Otto Rank: beginnings, endings, and current experience.

PubMed

Novey, R

1983-01-01

I have traced the theories of Otto Rank as they appeared in his major technical writings. Against this background, I have discussed references to Rank in past and contemporary psychoanalytic literature. This paper describes three important contributions of Rank--his birth trauma theory, leading to his theory of the birth of the self; his emphasis on present experience (forerunner of the current "here-and-now" theory); and his writings about the creative potential of the termination process.

16. On Boolean matrices with full factor rank

SciTech Connect

Shitov, Ya

2013-11-30

It is demonstrated that every (0,1)-matrix of size n×m having Boolean rank n contains a column with at least √n/2−1 zero entries. This bound is shown to be asymptotically optimal. As a corollary, it is established that the size of a full-rank Boolean matrix is bounded from above by a function of its tropical and determinantal ranks. Bibliography: 16 titles.

17. Anaerobic processing of low-rank coals

SciTech Connect

Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

1992-01-01

The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals and to assess the properties of the modified coal towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives for this quarter were: (i) continuation of microbial consortia maintenance and completion of coal decarboxylation using batch reactor system, (ii) decarboxylation of model polymer, (iii) characterization of biotreated coals, and (iv) microautoclave liquefaction of the botreated coal. Progress is reported on the thermogravimetric analysis of coal biotreated in the absence of methanogens and under 5% hydrogen gas exhibits increased volatile carbon to fixed carbon ratio; that the microbial consortia developed on coal are being adapted to two different model polymers containing free carboxylic groups to examine decarboxylation ability of consortium; completion of experiments to decarboxylate two model polymers, polyacrylic acid and polymethyl methacrylate, have been completed; that the biotreated coal showed increase in THF-solubles.

18. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals

SciTech Connect

Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

1992-07-14

We are seeking to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals and to assess the properties of the modified coal towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives for this quarter were : continuation of microbial consortia development and maintenance, evaluation of commercial decarboxylase, decarboxylation of lignite, demineralized Wyodak coal and model polymer, and characterization of biotreated coals. Specifically we report that two batch fermentor systems were completed and three other fermentors under optimum conditions for coal decarboxylation are in progress; that inhibition of growth of methanogens in the batch fermentor system enhanced the carbon dioxide production; that adapted microbial consortium produced more gas from lignite than Wyodak subbituminous coal; that phenylalanine decarboxylase exhibited insignificant coal decarboxylation activity; that two different microbial consortia developed on coal seem to be effective in decarboxylation of a polymer containing free carboxylic groups; and that CHN analyses of additional biotreated coals reconfirm increase in H/C ratio by 3--6%.

19. Scalable ranked retrieval using document images

Jain, Rajiv; Oard, Douglas W.; Doermann, David

2013-12-01

Despite the explosion of text on the Internet, hard copy documents that have been scanned as images still play a significant role for some tasks. The best method to perform ranked retrieval on a large corpus of document images, however, remains an open research question. The most common approach has been to perform text retrieval using terms generated by optical character recognition. This paper, by contrast, examines whether a scalable segmentation-free image retrieval algorithm, which matches sub-images containing text or graphical objects, can provide additional benefit in satisfying a user's information needs on a large, real world dataset. Results on 7 million scanned pages from the CDIP v1.0 test collection show that content based image retrieval finds a substantial number of documents that text retrieval misses, and that when used as a basis for relevance feedback can yield improvements in retrieval effectiveness.

20. Ultrasonic ranking of toughness of tungsten carbide

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vary, A.; Hull, D. R.

1983-01-01

The feasibility of using ultrasonic attenuation measurements to rank tungsten carbide alloys according to their fracture toughness was demonstrated. Six samples of cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) were examined. These varied in cobalt content from approximately 2 to 16 weight percent. The toughness generally increased with increasing cobalt content. Toughness was first determined by the Palmqvist and short rod fracture toughness tests. Subsequently, ultrasonic attenuation measurements were correlated with both these mechanical test methods. It is shown that there is a strong increase in ultrasonic attenuation corresponding to increased toughness of the WC-Co alloys. A correlation between attenuation and toughness exists for a wide range of ultrasonic frequencies. However, the best correlation for the WC-Co alloys occurs when the attenuation coefficient measured in the vicinity of 100 megahertz is compared with toughness as determined by the Palmqvist technique.