Science.gov

Sample records for ranque-hilsch vortex tube

  1. Effect of Mach number, valve angle and length to diameter ratio on thermal performance in flow of air through Ranque Hilsch vortex tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devade, Kiran D.; Pise, Ashok T.

    2017-01-01

    Ranque Hilsch vortex tube is a device that can produce cold and hot air streams simultaneously from pressurized air. Performance of vortex tube is influenced by a number of geometrical and operational parameters. In this study parametric analysis of vortex tube is carried out. Air is used as the working fluid and geometrical parameters like length to diameter ratio (15, 16, 17, 18), exit valve angles (30°-90°), orifice diameters (5, 6 and 7 mm), 2 entry nozzles and tube divergence angle 4° is used for experimentation. Operational parameters like pressure (200-600 kPa), cold mass fraction (0-1) is varied and effect of Mach number at the inlet of the tube is investigated. The vortex tube is tested at sub sonic (0 < Ma < 1), sonic (Ma = 1) and supersonic (1 < Ma < 2) Mach number, and its effect on thermal performance is analysed. As a result it is observed that, higher COP and low cold end temperature is obtained at subsonic Ma. As CMF increases, COP rises and cold and temperature drops. Optimum performance of the tube is observed for CMF up to 0.5. Experimental correlations are proposed for optimum COP. Parametric correlation is developed for geometrical and operational parameters.

  2. Analytical and numerical performance models of a Heisenberg Vortex Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunge, C. D.; Cavender, K. A.; Matveev, K. I.; Leachman, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Analytical and numerical investigations of a Heisenberg Vortex Tube (HVT) are performed to estimate the cooling potential with cryogenic hydrogen. The Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube (RHVT) is a device that tangentially injects a compressed fluid stream into a cylindrical geometry to promote enthalpy streaming and temperature separation between inner and outer flows. The HVT is the result of lining the inside of a RHVT with a hydrogen catalyst. This is the first concept to utilize the endothermic heat of para-orthohydrogen conversion to aid primary cooling. A review of 1st order vortex tube models available in the literature is presented and adapted to accommodate cryogenic hydrogen properties. These first order model predictions are compared with 2-D axisymmetric Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations.

  3. The Hilsch Tube, Rossby Vortices, and a Carnot Engine: Angular Momentum Transport in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckley, Howard F.; Klein, B.; Milburn, M.; Schindel, P.; Westpfahl, D. J.; Teare, S.; Li, H.; Colgate, S. A.

    2008-05-01

    We are attempting to demonstrate that the common laboratory vortex or Hilsch tube is a paradigm for the angular momentum transport by Rossby vortices in Keplerian accretion disks, either in super massive black hole formation or in star formation. Near supersonic rotating flow is induced in a cylinder by gas pressure injected through a tangential nozzle in a typical Ranque vortex or Hilsch tube. The gas exits through both an on-axis hole and a peripheral radially-aligned hole. The surprising result, demonstrated in hundreds of class rooms, is that one of the exit gas streams is hot and the other is cold. Depressing is that the typical explanation is given in terms of a "Maxwell daemon” that separates hot molecules from cold molecules, just as is the basis of any perpetual motion machine that violates the second law of thermodynamics. Instead we believe that the rotational flow is unstable to the formation of Rossby vortices that co-rotate with the azimuthal flow and act like semi-ridged turbine vanes. These quasi-vanes act like a Carnot turbine engine to the flow that escapes on axis and is therefore cooled by doing work. With the resulting free-energy, the vortices accelerate the peripheral flow which in turn becomes hot by friction with the cylinder wall. As a first step we expect to demonstrate that a free-running turbine, where metal vanes form the Carnot engine, will demonstrate the temperature effect. Such a suggestive result may lead to funding of time-dependent Schlerian photography of a vortex tube that can demonstrate the formation and pressure distribution of the Rossby vortices and coherent transport of angular momentum. This work is supported by a cooperative agreement between the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, the University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the U.S. Dept. of Energy.

  4. Three-dimensional numerical investigation of the separation process in a vortex tube at different operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Seyed Ehsan; Sadeghiazad, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Air separators provide safe, clean, and appropriate air flow to engines and are widely used in vehicles with large engines such as ships and submarines. In this operational study, the separation process inside a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube cleaning (cooling) system is investigated to analyze the impact of the operating gas type on the vortex tube performance; the operating gases used are air, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. The computational fluid dynamic model used is equipped with a three-dimensional structure, and the steady-state condition is applied during computations. The standard k-ɛ turbulence model is employed to resolve nonlinear flow equations, and various key parameters, such as hot and cold exhaust thermal drops, and power separation rates, are described numerically. The results show that nitrogen dioxide creates the greatest separation power out of all gases tested, and the numerical results are validated by good agreement with available experimental data. In addition, a comparison is made between the use of two different boundary conditions, the pressure-far-field and the pressure-outlet, when analyzing complex turbulent flows inside the air separators. Results present a comprehensive and practical solution for use in future numerical studies.

  5. Vortices and turbulence (The 23rd Lanchester Memorial Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, G. M.

    1983-12-01

    A comprehensive discussion is presented concerning the phenomena characteristically treated in vortex and turbulence theory, as well as the degree of success achieved by various computation and visualization methods and theoretical models developed for vortex flow behavior prediction. Note is taken of the pioneering research conducted by F. W. Lanchester in 1893-1907, and attention is given to vortex tip and edge generation by rectangular and delta wings, the cool core effect of the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube, the modeling of shear flows by means of vortex array methods, the classification and modelling of turbulent flows (together with a taxonomy of their calculation methods), and NASA ILLIAC IV computations of two-dimensional channel flow. Also noted are recent results concerning the boundary layer coherent structure of a flat plate at zero pressure gradient, including the regeneration structure and flow distortion and breakdown of a turbulent boundary layer.

  6. Vortex line topology during vortex tube reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGavin, P.; Pontin, D. I.

    2018-05-01

    This paper addresses reconnection of vortex tubes, with particular focus on the topology of the vortex lines (field lines of the vorticity). This analysis of vortex line topology reveals key features of the reconnection process, such as the generation of many small flux rings, formed when reconnection occurs in multiple locations in the vortex sheet between the tubes. Consideration of three-dimensional reconnection principles leads to a robust measurement of the reconnection rate, even once instabilities break the symmetry. It also allows us to identify internal reconnection of vortex lines within the individual vortex tubes. Finally, the introduction of a third vortex tube is shown to render the vortex reconnection process fully three-dimensional, leading to a fundamental change in the topological structure of the process. An additional interesting feature is the generation of vorticity null points.

  7. Review of vortex tube expansion in vapour compression refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yefeng; Yu, Jun

    2018-05-01

    A vortex tube expansion device replacing the throttle valve is proposed to improve the efficiency of vapour compression refrigeration cycle by reducing the loss of irreversibility in expansion process. The vortex tube is well-suited for these applications because it is simple, compact, light, quiet. Thus, this paper presents an overview of the thermodynamic analysis of vapour compression refrigeration cycle with vortex tube expansion device using different refrigerants. The paper also reviews the experiments and the calculations presented in previous studies on temperature separation in the vortex tube. The temperature separation mechanism and the flow-field inside the vortex tubes is explored by measuring the pressure, velocity, and temperature fields.

  8. Vortex tube can increase liquid hydrocarbon recovery at plant inlet

    SciTech Connect

    Hajdik, B.; Lorey, M.; Steinle, J.

    1997-09-08

    Use of a vortex-tube device yields improved inlet gas-liquid separation, when compared with a Joule-Thomson system, but is less costly and complex than a true isentropic system, such as a turboexpander. Because the vortex-tube unit provides separation as well as pressure reduction, the capital cost of a Joule-Thomson system with valve and separator will be similar to that of the vortex-tube system. Future applications of vortex-tube units will be concentrated where performance improvements over Joule-Thomson units, at low capital cost, are required. The operating characteristics of a vortex tube permit gas, in part, to be reduced in temperature to lessmore » than that normally achievable through isenthalpic expansion. The following three examples show how vortex technology can be applied to achieve these aims.« less

  9. Heat transfer simulation of unsteady swirling flow in a vortex tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veretennikov, S. V.; Piralishvili, Sh A.; Evdokimov, O. A.; Guryanov, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    Effectiveness of not-adiabatic vortex tube application in the cooling systems of gas turbine blades depends on characteristics of swirling flows formed in the energy separation chamber. An analysis of the flow structure in the vortex tube channels has shown a presence of a complex three-dimensional spiral vortex, formed under relatively high turbulence intensity and vortex core precession. This indicates the presence of a significant unsteady flow in the energy separation chamber of the vortex tube that has a great influence on convective heat transfer of the swirling flow to the inner surface of tube. The paper contains the results of investigation of gas dynamics and heat transfer in the vortex tube taking into account the flow unsteadiness.

  10. Cut-and-connect of two antiparallel vortex tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melander, Mogens V.; Hussain, Fazle

    1988-01-01

    Motivated by an early conjecture that vortex cut-and-connect plays a key role in mixing and production of turbulence, helicity and aerodynamic noise, the cross-linking of two antiparallel viscous vortex tubes via direct numerical simulation is studied. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a dealiased pseudo-spectral method with 64 cubed grid points in a periodic domain for initial Reynolds numbers Re up to 1000. The vortex tubes are given an initial sinusoidal perturbation to induce a collision and keep the two tubes pressed against each other as annihilation continues. Cross-sectional and wire plots of various properties depict three stages of evolution: (1) Inviscid induction causing vortex cores to first approach and form a contact zone with a dipole cross-section, and then to flatten and stretch; (2) Vorticity annihilation in the contact zone accompanied by bridging between the two vortices at both ends of the contact zone due to a collection of cross-linked vortex lines, now orthogonal to the initial vortex tubes. The direction of dipole advection in the contact zone reverses; and (3) Threading of the remnants of the original vortices in between the bridges as they pull apart. The crucial stage 2 is shown to be a simple consequence of vorticity annihilation in the contact zone, link-up of the un-annihilated parts of vortex lines, and stretching and advection by the vortex tube swirl of the cross-linked lines, which accumulate at stagnation points in front of the annihilating vortex dipole. It is claimed that bridging is the essence of any vorticity cross-linking and that annihilation is sustained by stretching of the dipole by the bridges. Vortex reconnection details are found to be insensitive to asymmetry. Modeling of the reconnection process is briefly examined. The 3D spatial details of scalar transport (at unity Schmidt number), enstrophy production, dissipation and helicity are also examined.

  11. UBIQUITOUS SOLAR ERUPTIONS DRIVEN BY MAGNETIZED VORTEX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Kitiashvili, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Lele, S. K.

    2013-06-10

    The solar surface is covered by high-speed jets transporting mass and energy into the solar corona and feeding the solar wind. The most prominent of these jets have been known as spicules. However, the mechanism initiating these eruption events is still unknown. Using realistic numerical simulations we find that small-scale eruptions are produced by ubiquitous magnetized vortex tubes generated by the Sun's turbulent convection in subsurface layers. The swirling vortex tubes (resembling tornadoes) penetrate into the solar atmosphere, capture and stretch background magnetic field, and push the surrounding material up, generating shocks. Our simulations reveal complicated high-speed flow patterns andmore » thermodynamic and magnetic structure in the erupting vortex tubes. The main new results are: (1) the eruptions are initiated in the subsurface layers and are driven by high-pressure gradients in the subphotosphere and photosphere and by the Lorentz force in the higher atmosphere layers; (2) the fluctuations in the vortex tubes penetrating into the chromosphere are quasi-periodic with a characteristic period of 2-5 minutes; and (3) the eruptions are highly non-uniform: the flows are predominantly downward in the vortex tube cores and upward in their surroundings; the plasma density and temperature vary significantly across the eruptions.« less

  12. On the formation of vortex rings in coaxial tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Lian

    2011-11-01

    The formation of vortex rings within coaxial tubes of different diameter is investigated experimentally and numerically. PIV measurements were carried out in a water tank equipped with a piston-cylinder apparatus used to generate vortex rings inside a series of coaxial tubes with tube to piston diameter ratios, DT / D , ranging from 4 to 1.5. In order to distinguish between the effect confinement has on the formation of isolated vortex rings from those formed with a trailing jet flow, non- dimensional stroke ratios below and above the formation number were investigated, L / D = 2 . 5 and 10 respectively. For DT / D > 2 and L / D s below the formation number the kinematics of the vortex rings follow classical inviscid theory in so much as their self-induced velocity decreases linearly with decreasing tube diameter in accordance with the image theorem. For DT / D <= 2 boundary layer separation along the tube wall begins to interfere with the vortex during its roll-up phase. For vortex rings below the formation number, the vortex core is briefly arrested upon completion of the piston stroke. On the other hand, long L / D s give rise to even more complex dynamics. When DT / D = 2 the interaction between boundary layer and the starting jet acts to suppress vortex ring formation altogether. However, as confinement is increased further to DT / D = 1 . 5 the formation of a lead vortex ring re-appears but with a circulation lower than the formation number before rapidly decaying.

  13. Finned Tube With Vortex Generators For A Heat Exchanger.

    DOEpatents

    Sohal, Manohar S.; O'Brien, James E.

    2005-12-20

    A system for and method of manufacturing a finned tube for a heat exchanger is disclosed herein. A continuous fin strip is provided with at one pair of vortex generators. A tube is rotated and linearly displaced while the continuous fin strip with vortex generators is spirally wrapped around the tube.

  14. Finned Tube With Vortex Generators For A Heat Exchanger.

    DOEpatents

    Sohal, Monohar S.; O'Brien, James E.

    2004-09-14

    A system for and method of manufacturing a finned tube for a heat exchanger is disclosed herein. A continuous fin strip is provided with at least one pair of vortex generators. A tube is rotated and linearly displaced while the continuous fin strip with vortex generators is spirally wrapped around the tube.

  15. Kinematics and dynamics of vortex rings in a tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Kinematic theory and flow visualization experiments were combined to examine the dynamic processes which control the evolution of vortex rings from very low to very high Reynolds numbers, and to assess the effects of the wall as a vortex ring travels up a tube. The kinematic relationships among the size, shape, speed, and strength of vortex rings in a tube were computed from the theory. Relatively simple flow visualization measurements were used to calculate the total circulation of a vortex rings at a given time. Using this method, the strength was computated and plotted as a function of time for experimentally produced vortex rings. Reynolds number relationships are established and quantitative differences among the three Reynolds number groups are discussed.

  16. Vortex rope instabilities in a model of conical draft tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripkin, Sergey; Tsoy, Mikhail; Kuibin, Pavel; Shtork, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    We report on experimental studies of the formation of vortex ropes in a laboratory simplified model of hydroturbine draft tube. Work is focused on the observation of various flow patterns at the different rotational speed of turbine runner at fixed flow rate. The measurements involve high-speed visualization and pressure pulsations recordings. Draft tube wall pressure pulsations are registered by pressure transducer for different flow regimes. Vortex rope precession frequency were calculated using FFT transform. The experiments showed interesting features of precessing vortex rope like twin spiral and formation of vortex ring.

  17. Laboratory Applications of the Vortex Tube.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are a brief explanation of the function of the vortex tube and some applications for the chemistry laboratory. It is a useful and inexpensive solution to many small-scale laboratory heating and cooling applications. (RH)

  18. DETECTION OF VORTEX TUBES IN SOLAR GRANULATION FROM OBSERVATIONS WITH SUNRISE

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, O.; Franz, M.; Bello Gonzalez, N.

    2010-11-10

    We have investigated a time series of continuum intensity maps and corresponding Dopplergrams of granulation in a very quiet solar region at the disk center, recorded with the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) on board the balloon-borne solar observatory SUNRISE. We find that granules frequently show substructure in the form of lanes composed of a leading bright rim and a trailing dark edge, which move together from the boundary of a granule into the granule itself. We find strikingly similar events in synthesized intensity maps from an ab initio numerical simulation of solar surface convection. From cross sections through the computationalmore » domain of the simulation, we conclude that these granular lanes are the visible signature of (horizontally oriented) vortex tubes. The characteristic optical appearance of vortex tubes at the solar surface is explained. We propose that the observed vortex tubes may represent only the large-scale end of a hierarchy of vortex tubes existing near the solar surface.« less

  19. Acoustic Resonance and Vortex Shedding from Tube Banks of Boiler Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamakawa, Hiromitsu; Matsue, Hiroto; Nishida, Eiichi; Fukano, Tohru

    This paper focuses on the relationship between acoustic resonance and vortex shedding from the tube banks of a boiler plant. We have built a model similar to the actual boiler plant to clarify the characteristics of acoustic resonance phenomena and vortex shedding. The model used in-line tube banks with a small tube pitch ratio. We examined the relationship between the acoustic resonance of the actual plant and that of the model, and measured the sound pressure level, acoustic pressure mode shape, spectrum of velocity fluctuation, and gap velocity. Gap velocity was defined as the mean velocity in the smallest gaps between two neighboring tubes in the transverse direction. As a result, the resonant frequencies and mode shapes of the acoustic resonances in the actual boiler plant agreed well with those in the similar model. We found many peak frequencies in the sound pressure level spectrum when acoustic resonances occurred. The typical Strouhal numbers at the onset velocity of acoustic resonances were about 0.19, 0.26 and 0.52. Periodic velocity fluctuation caused by vortex shedding was observed inside the tube banks without acoustic resonance. The Strouhal number measured for vortex shedding was 0.15. Acoustic resonances of higher-order modes were generated in this plant.

  20. Blind vortex tube as heat-rejecting heat exchanger for pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, M. P.; Fabris, D.; Sweeney, R. O.

    2002-05-01

    This project integrated several unusual design features in a coaxial pulse tube cooler driven by a G-M compressor. Design objectives were simplification of construction and validation of innovative components to replace screens. The MS*2 Stirling Cycle Code was used to develop the thermodynamic design of the cooler. The primary innovation being investigated is the vortex tube that serves as both the orifice and the heat-rejecting heat exchanger at the warm end of the pulse tube. The regenerator is etched stainless steel foil with a developmental etch pattern. The cold heat exchanger is a copper cup with axial slits in its wall. Flow straightening in the cold end of the pulse tube is accomplished in traditional fashion with screens, but flow in the warm end of the pulse tube passes through a diffuser nozzle that is an extension of the cold throat of the vortex tube. The G-M compressor is rated at 2 kW. The custom-built rotary valve permits operation at speeds up to about 12 Hz. A series of adjustments over a period of about 7 months improved cooling performance by an average of almost 20 K per month. A no-load temperature of 65 K has been achieved. Experimental apparatus and results of this patented device [1,2] are described.

  1. Rapid and selective brain cooling method using vortex tube: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bakhsheshi, Mohammad Fazel; Keenliside, Lynn; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2016-05-01

    Vortex tubes are simple mechanical devices to produce cold air from a stream of compressed air without any moving parts. The primary focus of the current study is to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of nasopharyngeal brain cooling method using a vortex tube. Experiments were conducted on 5 juvenile pigs. Nasopharygeal brain cooling was achieved by directing cooled air via a catheter in each nostril into the nasal cavities. A vortex tube was used to generate cold air using various sources of compressed air: (I) hospital medical air outlet (n = 1); (II) medical air cylinders (n = 3); and (III) scuba (diving) cylinders (n = 1). By using compressed air from a hospital medical air outlet at fixed inlet pressure of 50 PSI, maximum brain-rectal temperature gradient of -2°C was reached about 45-60 minutes by setting the flow rate of 25 L/min and temperature of -7°C at the cold air outlet. Similarly, by using medical air cylinders at fill-pressure of 2265 PSI and down regulate the inlet pressure to the vortex tube to 50 PSI, brain temperature could be reduced more rapidly by blowing -22°C ± 2°C air at a flow rate of 50 L/min; brain-body temperature gradient of -8°C was obtained about 30 minutes. Furthermore, we examined scuba cylinders as a portable source of compressed gas supply to the vortex tube. Likewise, by setting up the vortex tube to have an inlet pressure of 25 PSI and 50 L/min and -3°C at the cold air outlet, brain temperature decreased 4.5°C within 10-20 min. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Numerical research of the swirling supersonic gas flows in the self-vacuuming vortex tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volov, V. T.; Lyaskin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    This article presents the results of simulation for a special type of vortex tubes – self-vacuuming vortex tube (SVVT), for which extreme values of temperature separation and vacuum are realized. The main results of this study are the flow structure in the SVVT and energy loss estimations on oblique shock waves, gas friction, instant expansion and organization of vortex bundles in SVVT.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of a Heisenberg Vortex Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunge, Carl; Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Leachman, Jake

    2017-11-01

    A 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of a Heisenberg Vortex Tube (HVT) is performed to estimate cooling potential with cryogenic hydrogen. The main mechanism driving operation of the vortex tube is the use of fluid power for enthalpy streaming in a highly turbulent swirl in a dual-outlet tube. This enthalpy streaming creates a temperature separation between the outer and inner regions of the flow. Use of a catalyst on the peripheral wall of the centrifuge enables endothermic conversion of para-ortho hydrogen to aid primary cooling. A κ- ɛ turbulence model is used with a cryogenic, non-ideal equation of state, and para-orthohydrogen species evolution. The simulations are validated with experiments and strategies for parametric optimization of this device are presented.

  4. Vortex Rings Generated by a Shrouded Hartmann-Sprenger Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoof, Richard L. (Technical Monitor); Wilson, Jack

    2005-01-01

    The pulsed flow emitted from a shrouded Hartmann-Sprenger tube was sampled with high-frequency pressure transducers and with laser particle imaging velocimetry, and found to consist of a train of vortices. Thrust and mass flow were also monitored using a thrust plate and orifice, respectively. The tube and shroud lengths were altered to give four different operating frequencies. From the data, the radius, velocity, and circulation of the vortex rings was obtained. Each frequency corresponded to a different length to diameter ratio of the pulse of air leaving the driver shroud. Two of the frequencies had length to diameter ratios below the formation number, and two above. The formation number is the value of length to diameter ratio below which the pulse converts to a vortex ring only, and above which the pulse becomes a vortex ring plus a trailing jet. A modified version of the slug model of vortex ring formation was used to compare the observations with calculated values. Because the flow exit area is an annulus, vorticity is shed at both the inner and outer edge of the jet. This results in a reduced circulation compared with the value calculated from slug theory accounting only for the outer edge. If the value of circulation obtained from laser particle imaging velocimetry is used in the slug model calculation of vortex ring velocity, the agreement is quite good. The vortex ring radius, which does not depend on the circulation, agrees well with predictions from the slug model.

  5. A novel vortex tube-based N2-expander liquefaction process for enhancing the energy efficiency of natural gas liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qyyum, Muhammad Abdul; Wei, Feng; Hussain, Arif; Ali, Wahid; Sehee, Oh; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-11-01

    This research work unfolds a simple, safe, and environment-friendly energy efficient novel vortex tube-based natural gas liquefaction process (LNG). A vortex tube was introduced to the popular N2-expander liquefaction process to enhance the liquefaction efficiency. The process structure and condition were modified and optimized to take a potential advantage of the vortex tube on the natural gas liquefaction cycle. Two commercial simulators ANSYS® and Aspen HYSYS® were used to investigate the application of vortex tube in the refrigeration cycle of LNG process. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to simulate the vortex tube with nitrogen (N2) as a working fluid. Subsequently, the results of the CFD model were embedded in the Aspen HYSYS® to validate the proposed LNG liquefaction process. The proposed natural gas liquefaction process was optimized using the knowledge-based optimization (KBO) approach. The overall energy consumption was chosen as an objective function for optimization. The performance of the proposed liquefaction process was compared with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. The vortex tube-based LNG process showed a significant improvement of energy efficiency by 20% in comparison with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. This high energy efficiency was mainly due to the isentropic expansion of the vortex tube. It turned out that the high energy efficiency of vortex tube-based process is totally dependent on the refrigerant cold fraction, operating conditions as well as refrigerant cycle configurations.

  6. Vortex ring formation at the open end of a shock tube: A particle image velocimetry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakeri, J. H.; Das, D.; Krothapalli, A.; Lourenco, L.

    2004-04-01

    The vortex ring generated subsequent to the diffraction of a shock wave from the open end of a shock tube is studied using particle image velocimetry. We examine the early evolution of the compressible vortex ring for three-exit shock Mach numbers, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3. For the three cases studied, the ring formation is complete at about tUb/D=2, where t is time, Ub is fluid velocity behind shock as it exits the tube and D is tube diameter. Unlike in the case of piston generated incompressible vortex rings where the piston velocity variation with time is usually trapezoidal, in the shock-generated vortex ring case the exit fluid velocity doubles from its initial value Ub before it slowly decays to zero. At the end of the ring formation, its translation speed is observed to be about 0.7 Ub. During initial formation and propagation, a jet-like flow exists behind the vortex ring. The vortex ring detachment from the tailing jet, commonly referred to as pinch-off, is briefly discussed.

  7. Numerical investigation on nonlinear effect and vortex formation of oscillatory flow throughout a short tube in a thermoacoustic Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Peng; Chen, Hui; Liu, Yingwen

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional axisymmetric model of a thermoacoustic Stirling engine with a short tube where the cross section narrows has been developed. The transient streamlines and vortex formation through short tubes with different diameters in oscillatory flow have been investigated visually by computational fluid dynamics. Three dimensionless parameters, Reynolds number (Re), Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC), and Womersley number (Wo), are used to describe the flow regime and vortex characteristic throughout the short tube. High Re and Wo numbers indicate that the oscillatory flow develops into the turbulent flow through the short tube. The KC number has a direct effect on the transition of streamlines and the development of the vortex. For a small cross section where KC ≈ 1, streamlines rotate and the vortex forms at both sides of the short tube. The vortex stays in the main flow region, and intensity varies as streamlines are convected downstream. The velocity along the radius presents a Poiseuille profile within the influence of the vortex. For a large cross section where KC < 1, streamlines pass the short tube with little rotation and the vortex disappears in the main flow region and confines near the short tube. The velocity profile tends to be flat. The nonlinear effects including instantaneous pressure drop and power dissipation throughout the short tube are also discussed. It shows that the time averaged pressure drop is generated at the cost of power dissipation. Finally, the "effectiveness" is applied to evaluate the performance of the short tube. The results suggest that increasing the diameter of the short tube is in favor of reducing power dissipation, which is beneficial to improve "effectiveness."

  8. Influence of coolant tube curvature on film cooling effectiveness as detected by infrared imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papell, S. S.; Graham, R. W.; Cageao, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal film cooling footprints observed by infrared imagery from straight, curved, and looped coolant tube geometries are compared. It was hypothesized that the differences in secondary flow and in the turbulence structure of flow through these three tubes should influence the mixing properties between the coolant and the main stream. A flow visualization tunnel, an infrared camera and detector, and a Hilsch tube were employed to test the hypothesis.

  9. Detection of Vortex Tubes in Solar Granulation from Observations SUNRISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, O.; Franz, M.; González, N. B.; Nutto, C.; Rezaei, R.; Pillet, V. M.; Bonet, J. A.; Iniesta, J. C. d. T.; Domingo, V.; Solanki, S. K.; Knölker, M.; Schmidt, W.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.

    2012-05-01

    We investigated a time series of continuum intensity maps and Dopplergrams of granulation in a very quiet solar region at the disk center, recorded with the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) on board the balloon-borne solar observatory SUNRISE. We find that granules frequently show substructure in the form of lanes composed of a leading bright rim and a trailing dark edge, which move together from the boundary of a granule into the granule itself. We find strikingly similar events in synthesized intensity maps from an ab initio numerical simulation of solar surface convection. We conclude that these granular lanes are the visible signature of (horizontally oriented) vortex tubes. The characteristic optical appearance of vortex tubes at the solar surface is explained. This paper is a summary and update of the results previously presented in Steiner et al. (2010).

  10. Interactions between vortex tubes and magnetic-flux rings at high kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivotides, Demosthenes

    2018-03-01

    The interactions between vortex tubes and magnetic-flux rings in incompressible magnetohydrodynamics are investigated at high kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers, and over a wide range of the interaction parameter. The latter is a measure of the turnover time of the large-scale fluid motions in units of the magnetic damping time, or of the strength of the Lorentz force in units of the inertial force. The small interaction parameter results, which are related to kinematic turbulent dynamo studies, indicate the evolution of magnetic rings into flattened spirals wrapped around the vortex tubes. This process is also observed at intermediate interaction parameter values, only now the Lorentz force creates new vortical structures at the magnetic spiral edges, which have a striking solenoid vortex-line structure, and endow the flattened magnetic-spiral surfaces with a curvature. At high interaction parameter values, the decisive physical factor is Lorentz force effects. The latter create two (adjacent to the magnetic ring) vortex rings that reconnect with the vortex tube by forming an intriguing, serpentinelike, vortex-line structure, and generate, in turn, two new magnetic rings, adjacent to the initial one. In this regime, the morphologies of the vorticity and magnetic field structures are similar. The effects of these structures on kinetic and magnetic energy spectra, as well as on the direction of energy transfer between flow and magnetic fields, are also indicated.

  11. Vortex tubes in turbulence velocity fields at Reynolds numbers Re lambda approximately equal to 300-1300.

    PubMed

    Mouri, Hideaki; Hori, Akihiro; Kawashima, Yoshihide

    2004-12-01

    The most elementary structures of turbulence, i.e., vortex tubes, are studied using velocity data obtained in a laboratory experiment for boundary layers with Reynolds numbers Re(lambda) =295-1258 . We conduct conditional averaging for enhancements of a small-scale velocity increment and obtain the typical velocity profile for vortex tubes. Their radii are of the order of the Kolmogorov length. Their circulation velocities are of the order of the root-mean-square velocity fluctuation. We also obtain the distribution of the interval between successive enhancements of the velocity increment as the measure of the spatial distribution of vortex tubes. They tend to cluster together below about the integral length and more significantly below about the Taylor microscale. These properties are independent of the Reynolds number and are hence expected to be universal.

  12. Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the tube bank fin heat exchanger with fin punched with flow redistributors and curved triangular vortex generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Song; Jin, Hua; Song, KeWei; Wang, LiangChen; Wu, Xiang; Wang, LiangBi

    2017-10-01

    The heat transfer performance of the tube bank fin heat exchanger is limited by the air-side thermal resistance. Thus, enhancing the air-side heat transfer is an effective method to improve the performance of the heat exchanger. A new fin pattern with flow redistributors and curved triangular vortex generators is experimentally studied in this paper. The effects of the flow redistributors located in front of the tube stagnation point and the curved vortex generators located around the tube on the characteristics of heat transfer and pressure drop are discussed in detail. A performance comparison is also carried out between the fins with and without flow redistributors. The experimental results show that the flow redistributors stamped out from the fin in front of the tube stagnation points can decrease the friction factor at the cost of decreasing the heat transfer performance. Whether the combination of the flow redistributors and the curved vortex generators will present a better heat transfer performance depends on the size of the curved vortex generators. As for the studied two sizes of vortex generators, the heat transfer performance is promoted by the flow redistributors for the fin with larger size of vortex generators and the performance is suppressed by the flow redistributors for the fin with smaller vortex generators.

  13. Development of a High-Performance Fin-and-Tube Heat Exchanger with Vortex Generators for a Vending Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Masamichi; Saito, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Sadanari; Murata, Akira

    The effect of delta-wing-vortex generators (combination of a delta wing and a delta winglet pair) on the heat transfer performance of fin-and-tube heat exchangers for vending machines has been investegated. Flow visualizations, numerical simulations and heat transfer experiments were conducted to find an optimum geometrical shape and arrangement of the vortex generators. Maximum heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the combination of (a) the delta wing with the apex angle of 86 degrees and (b) the delta winglet pair with the inline angle of 45 degrees. In relatively low Reynolds number range, about 40 % increase in heat transfer coefficient was attained with the above mentioned combination of the vortex generators compared to the ordinary heat exchangers with plain fins. It was revealed that the heat transfer enhancement was attributed to (1) the longitudinal vortexes generated by the delta wing and (2) the reduction of wake area behind the tube. It was also found that an increase in the apex angle of the delta wing brought about heat transfer enhancement, and the scale as well as the streggth of the induced longitudinal vortices played an important role in the heat transfer performance.

  14. Mutual-friction induced instability of normal-fluid vortex tubes in superfluid helium-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivotides, Demosthenes

    2018-06-01

    It is shown that, as a result of its interactions with superfluid vorticity, a normal-fluid vortex tube in helium-4 becomes unstable and disintegrates. The superfluid vorticity acquires only a small (few percents of normal-fluid tube strength) polarization, whilst expanding in a front-like manner in the intervortex space of the normal-fluid, forming a dense, unstructured tangle in the process. The accompanied energy spectra scalings offer a structural explanation of analogous scalings in fully developed finite-temperature superfluid turbulence. A macroscopic mutual-friction model incorporating these findings is proposed.

  15. Experimental investigation of the mass flow gain factor in a draft tube with cavitation vortex rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, C.; Favrel, A.; Müller, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Alligné, S.; Avellan, F.

    2017-04-01

    At off-design operating operations, cavitating flow is often observed in hydraulic machines. The presence of a cavitation vortex rope may induce draft tube surge and electrical power swings at part load and full load operations. The stability analysis of these operating conditions requires a numerical pipe model taking into account the complexity of the two-phase flow. Among the hydroacoustic parameters describing the cavitating draft tube flow in the numerical model, the mass flow gain factor, representing the mass excitation source expressed as the rate of change of the cavitation volume as a function of the discharge, remains difficult to model. This paper presents a quasi-static method to estimate the mass flow gain factor in the draft tube for a given cavitation vortex rope volume in the case of a reduced scale physical model of a ν = 0.27 Francis turbine. The methodology is based on an experimental identification of the natural frequency of the test rig hydraulic system for different Thoma numbers. With the identification of the natural frequency, it is possible to model the wave speed, the cavitation compliance and the volume of the cavitation vortex rope. By applying this new methodology for different discharge values, it becomes possible to identify the mass flow gain factor and improve the accuracy of the system stability analysis.

  16. Vortex formation and instability in the left ventricle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Trung Bao; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Coffey, Dane; Keefe, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    We study the formation of the mitral vortex ring during early diastolic filling in a patient-specific left ventricle (LV) using direct numerical simulation. The geometry of the left ventricle is reconstructed from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data of a healthy human subject. The left ventricular kinematics is modeled via a cell-based activation methodology, which is inspired by cardiac electro-physiology and yields physiologic LV wall motion. In the fluid dynamics videos, we describe in detail the three-dimensional structure of the mitral vortex ring, which is formed during early diastolic filling. The ring starts to deform as it propagates toward the apex of the heart and becomes inclined. The trailing secondary vortex tubes are formed as the result of interaction between the vortex ring and the LV wall. These vortex tubes wrap around the circumference and begin to interact with and destabilize the mitral vortex ring. At the end of diastole, the vortex ring impinges on the LV wall and the large-scale intraventricular flow rotates in clockwise direction. We show for the first time that the mitral vortex ring evolution is dominated by a number of vortex-vortex and vortex-wall interactions, including lateral straining and deformation of vortex ring, the interaction of two vortex tubes with unequal strengths, helicity polarization of vortex tubes and twisting instabilities of the vortex cores.

  17. The two-dimensional instability of an incompressible vortex in a tube with energy-absorbent walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, E. G.; Moore, D. W.

    1994-07-01

    We have previously shown that a Rankine vortex in a compressible fluid is unstable to a perturbation in cross section, e.g. to a slightly eccentric ellipse. This result is surprising, because compressibility leads to a loss of energy from the perturbed vortex by acoustic radiation. An explanation, valid for small swirl Mach numbers, was provided by Kop'ev and Leont'ev. For small Mach numbers the flow in the neighborhood of the vortex can be treated as incompressible, from which it follows that the kinetic energy is greater for the circular vortex than for any other nearby shape. Thus the loss of energy by acoustic radiation will result in increasing departures from a circular cross section. We assert here that the instability is not inherently acoustic, but that any mechanism which can remove energy will result in instability. To support our contention, we examine the Rankine vortex in a concentric circular tube which has compliant walls. Linear theory first establishes that the instability exists in this case and an approximate theory for a small region of vorticity shows that the distortion increases indefinitely. This is confirmed, without the restriction on size, by a numerical solution of the integro-differential equation based on contour dynamics.

  18. Space and time reconstruction of the precessing vortex core in Francis turbine draft tube by 2D-PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favrel, A.; Müller, A.; Landry, C.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2016-11-01

    Francis turbines operating at part load conditions experience the development of a high swirling flow at the runner outlet, giving rise to the development of a cavitation precessing vortex rope in the draft tube. The latter acts as an excitation source for the hydro-mechanical system and may jeopardize the system stability if resonance conditions are met. Although many aspects of the part load issue have been widely studied in the past, the accurate stability analysis of hydro-power plants remains challenging. A better understanding of the vortex rope dynamics in a wide range of operating conditions is an important step towards the prediction and the transposition of the pressure fluctuations from reduced to prototype scale. For this purpose, an investigation of the flow velocity fields at the outlet of a Francis turbine reduced scale physical model operating at part load conditions is performed by means of 2D-PIV in three different horizontal cross-sections of the draft tube cone. The measurements are performed in cavitation-free conditions for three values of discharge factor, comprised between 60% and 81% of the value at the Best Efficiency Point. The present article describes a detailed methodology to properly recover the evolution of the velocity fields during one precession cycle by means of phase averaging. The vortex circulation is computed and the vortex trajectory over one typical precession period is finally recovered for each operating point. It is notably shown that below a given value of the discharge factor, the vortex dynamics abruptly change and loose its periodicity and coherence.

  19. Experimental Study of Shock Generated Compressible Vortex Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    2000-11-01

    Formation of a compressible vortex ring and generation of sound associated with it is studied experimentally. Impulse of a shock wave is used to generate a vortex ring from the open end of a shock-tube. Vortex ring formation process has been studied in details using particle image Velocimetry (PIV). As the shock wave exits the tube it diffracts and expands. A circular vortex sheet forms at the edge and rolls up into a vortex ring. Far field microphone measurement shows that the acoustic pressure consists of a spike due to shock wave followed by a low frequency pressure wave of decaying nature, superimposed with high frequency pressure wave. Acoustic waves consist of waves due to expansion, waves formed in the tube during diaphragm breakage and waves associated with the vortex ring and shear-layer vortices. Unsteady evolution of the vortex ring and shear-layer vortices in the jet behind the ring is studied by measuring the velocity field using PIV. Corresponding vorticity field, circulation around the vortex core and growth rate of the vortex core is calculated from the measured velocity field. The velocity field in a compressible vortex ring differs from that of an incompressible ring due to the contribution from both shock and vortex ring.

  20. Vortex ring motions in stratified media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auvity, Bruno; Koulal, Mokrane; Dupont, Pascal; Peerhossaini, Hassan

    2003-11-01

    The behavior of vortex rings generated in a stably stratified media has received only weak treatment in the literature. This configuration is believed to shed light on the basic phenomena involved in the collapse of wake in stratified fluid. The present study focused on experimental observations of the formation, the advection and the collapse of horizontal vortex rings in stratified media. Stable continuous vertical stratification was produced in a tank using the well-known two-tanks method. The generation of vortex ring was realized moving a piston through a tube. The maximum piston stroke achievable was seven tube diameters. The problem is mainly characterized by two parameters : the initial Reynolds number and the initial Froude number of the vortex ring. Both these numbers were varied in the study. The Reynolds number based on the tube diameter and piston velocity was in the range 1,500 - 5,500 and the Froude number based on the same parameters in the range 1.4 - 4.7. Dye visualizations were performed from the top and the side of the tank showing the vortex ring may develop an important asymmetry. Different processes to the complete collapse of the vortex ring were identified.

  1. LDV survey of cavitation and resonance effect on the precessing vortex rope dynamics in the draft tube of Francis turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favrel, A.; Müller, A.; Landry, C.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2016-11-01

    The large-scale penetration of the electrical grid by intermittent renewable energy sources requires a continuous operating range extension of hydropower plants. This causes the formation of unfavourable flow patterns in the draft tube of turbines and pump-turbines. At partial load operation, a precessing cavitation vortex rope is formed at the Francis turbine runner outlet, acting as an excitation source for the hydraulic system. In case of resonance, the resulting high-amplitude pressure pulsations can put at risk the stability of the machine and of the electrical grid to which it is connected. It is therefore crucial to understand and accurately simulate the underlying physical mechanisms in such conditions. However, the exact impact of cavitation and hydro-acoustic resonance on the flow velocity fluctuations in the draft tube remains to be established. The flow discharge pulsations expected to occur in the draft tube in resonance conditions have for instance never been verified experimentally. In this study, two-component Laser Doppler Velocimetry is used to investigate the axial and tangential velocity fluctuations at the runner outlet of a reduced scale physical model of a Francis turbine. The investigation is performed for a discharge equal to 64 % of the nominal value and three different pressure levels in the draft tube, including resonance and cavitation-free conditions. Based on the convective pressure fluctuations induced by the vortex precession, the periodical velocity fluctuations over one typical precession period are recovered by phase averaging. The impact of cavitation and hydro-acoustic resonance on both axial and tangential velocity fluctuations in terms of amplitude and phase shift is highlighted for the first time. It is shown that the occurrence of resonance does not have significant effects on the draft tube velocity fields, suggesting that the synchronous axial velocity fluctuations are surprisingly negligible compared to the velocity

  2. Mass, Energy, Entropy and Exergy Rate Balance in a Ranque-Hilsh Vortex Tube

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrascal Lecumberri, Edorta; Sala Lizarraga, José María

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a laboratory program designed for the Thermodynamics course offered in the Department of Thermal Engineering at the University of the Basque Country. With reference to one of the examples given in the textbook by Moran, Shapiro, Boettner and Bailey (2012), the balances of mass, energy, entropy and exergy…

  3. Compressible Vortex Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elavarasan, Ramasamy; Arakeri, Jayawant; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    1999-11-01

    The interaction of a high-speed vortex ring with a shock wave is one of the fundamental issues as it is a source of sound in supersonic jets. The complex flow field induced by the vortex alters the propagation of the shock wave greatly. In order to understand the process, a compressible vortex ring is studied in detail using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and shadowgraphic techniques. The high-speed vortex ring is generated from a shock tube and the shock wave, which precedes the vortex, is reflected back by a plate and made to interact with the vortex. The shadowgraph images indicate that the reflected shock front is influenced by the non-uniform flow induced by the vortex and is decelerated while passing through the vortex. It appears that after the interaction the shock is "split" into two. The PIV measurements provided clear picture about the evolution of the vortex at different time interval. The centerline velocity traces show the maximum velocity to be around 350 m/s. The velocity field, unlike in incompressible rings, contains contributions from both the shock and the vortex ring. The velocity distribution across the vortex core, core diameter and circulation are also calculated from the PIV data.

  4. Numerical study of the vortex tube reconnection using vortex particle method on many graphics cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, Henryk; Kosior, Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    Vortex Particle Methods are one of the most convenient ways of tracking the vorticity evolution. In the article we presented numerical recreation of the real life experiment concerning head-on collision of two vortex rings. In the experiment the evolution and reconnection of the vortex structures is tracked with passive markers (paint particles) which in viscous fluid does not follow the evolution of vorticity field. In numerical computations we showed the difference between vorticity evolution and movement of passive markers. The agreement with the experiment was very good. Due to problems with very long time of computations on a single processor the Vortex-in-Cell method was implemented on the multicore architecture of the graphics cards (GPUs). Vortex Particle Methods are very well suited for parallel computations. As there are myriads of particles in the flow and for each of them the same equations of motion have to be solved the SIMD architecture used in GPUs seems to be perfect. The main disadvantage in this case is the small amount of the RAM memory. To overcome this problem we created a multiGPU implementation of the VIC method. Some remarks on parallel computing are given in the article.

  5. On random pressure pulses in the turbine draft tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuibin, P. A.; Shtork, S. I.; Skripkin, S. G.; Tsoy, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    The flow in the conical part of the hydroturbine draft tube undergoes various instabilities due to deceleration and flow swirling at off-design operation points. In particular, the precessing vortex rope develops at part-load regimes in the draft tube. This rope induces periodical low-frequency pressure oscillations in the draft tube. Interaction of rotational (asynchronous) mode of disturbances with the elbow can bring to strong oscillations in the whole hydrodynamical system. Recent researches on flow structure in the discharge cone in a regime of free runner had revealed that helical-like vortex rope can be unstable itself. Some coils of helix close to each other and reconnection appears with generation of a vortex ring. The vortex ring moves toward the draft tube wall and downstream. The present research is focused on interaction of vortex ring with wall and generation of pressure pulses.

  6. Investigation of the viscous reconnection phenomenon of two vortex tubes through spectral simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsell, Guillaume; Dufresne, Louis; Dumas, Guy

    2016-09-01

    This paper aims to shed further light on the viscous reconnection phenomenon. To this end, we propose a robust and efficient method in order to quantify the degree of reconnection of two vortex tubes. This method is used to compare the evolutions of two simple initial vortex configurations: orthogonal and antiparallel. For the antiparallel configuration, the proposed method is compared with alternative estimators and it is found to improve accuracy since it can account properly for the formation of looping structures inside the domain. This observation being new, the physical mechanism for the formation of those looping structures is discussed. For the orthogonal configuration, we report results from simulations that were performed at a much higher vortex Reynolds number (ReΓ ≡ circulation/viscosity = 104) and finer resolution (N3 = 10243) than previously presented in the literature. The incompressible Navier-stokes equations are solved directly (Direct Numerical Simulation or DNS) using a Fourier pseudospectral algorithm with triply periodic boundary conditions. The associated zero-circulation constraint is circumvented by solving the governing equations in a proper rotating frame of reference. Using ideas similar to those behind our method to compute the degree of reconnection, we split the vorticity field into its reconnected and non-reconnected parts, which allows to create insightful visualizations of the evolving vortex topology. It also allows to detect regions in the vorticity field that are neither reconnected nor non-reconnected and thus must be associated to internal looping structures. Finally, the Reynolds number dependence of the reconnection time scale Trec is investigated in the range 500 ≤ ReΓ ≤ 10 000. For both initial configurations, the scaling is generally found to vary continuously as ReΓ is increased from T rec ˜ R eΓ - 1 to T rec ˜ R eΓ - 1 / 2 , thus providing quantitative support for previous claims that the reconnection

  7. Rotor Wake Vortex Definition Using 3C-PIV Measurements: Corrected for Vortex Orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughues Richard; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee

    2003-01-01

    Three-component (3-C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, within the wake across a rotor disk plane, are used to determine wake vortex definitions important for BVI (Blade Vortex Interaction) and broadband noise prediction. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted using a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). In this paper, measurements are presented of the wake vortex field over the advancing side of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition. The orientations of the vortex (tube) axes are found to have non-zero tilt angles with respect to the chosen PIV measurement cut planes, often on the order of 45 degrees. Methods for determining the orientation of the vortex axis and reorienting the measured PIV velocity maps (by rotation/projection) are presented. One method utilizes the vortex core axial velocity component, the other utilizes the swirl velocity components. Key vortex parameters such as vortex core size, strength, and core velocity distribution characteristics are determined from the reoriented PIV velocity maps. The results are compared with those determined from velocity maps that are not corrected for orientation. Knowledge of magnitudes and directions of the vortex axial and swirl velocity components as a function of streamwise location provide a basis for insight into the vortex evolution.

  8. An experimental and theoretical study of the flow phenomena within a vortex sink rate sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goglia, G. L.; Patel, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to obtain a description of the flow field within a vortex sink rate sensor and to observe the influence of viscous effects on its performance. The characteristics of the sensor are described. The method for conducting the test is reported. It was determined that for a specific mass flow rate and the geometry of the vortex chamber, the flow in the vortex chamber was only affected, locally, by the size of the sink tube diameter. Within the sink tube, all three velocity components were found to be higher for the small sink tube diameters. As the speed of rotation of the sensor was increased, the tangential velocities within the vortex chamber, as well as in the sink tube, increased in proportion to the speed of rotation.

  9. Heat Transfer Enhancement for Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers with Vortex Generators: Experimental and Numerical Results

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, James Edward; Sohal, Manohar Singh; Huff, George Albert

    2002-08-01

    A combined experimental and numerical investigation is under way to investigate heat transfer enhancement techniques that may be applicable to large-scale air-cooled condensers such as those used in geothermal power applications. The research is focused on whether air-side heat transfer can be improved through the use of finsurface vortex generators (winglets,) while maintaining low heat exchanger pressure drop. A transient heat transfer visualization and measurement technique has been employed in order to obtain detailed distributions of local heat transfer coefficients on model fin surfaces. Pressure drop measurements have also been acquired in a separate multiple-tube row apparatus. In addition, numericalmore » modeling techniques have been developed to allow prediction of local and average heat transfer for these low-Reynolds-number flows with and without winglets. Representative experimental and numerical results presented in this paper reveal quantitative details of local fin-surface heat transfer in the vicinity of a circular tube with a single delta winglet pair downstream of the cylinder. The winglets were triangular (delta) with a 1:2 height/length aspect ratio and a height equal to 90% of the channel height. Overall mean fin-surface Nusselt-number results indicate a significant level of heat transfer enhancement (average enhancement ratio 35%) associated with the deployment of the winglets with oval tubes. Pressure drop measurements have also been obtained for a variety of tube and winglet configurations using a single-channel flow apparatus that includes four tube rows in a staggered array. Comparisons of heat transfer and pressure drop results for the elliptical tube versus a circular tube with and without winglets are provided. Heat transfer and pressure-drop results have been obtained for flow Reynolds numbers based on channel height and mean flow velocity ranging from 700 to 6500.« less

  10. Vortex Ring Dynamics in Radially Confined Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Kelley; Niebel, Casandra; Jung, Sunghwan; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2010-11-01

    Vortex ring dynamics have been studied extensively in semi-infinite quiescent volumes. However, very little is known about vortex-ring formation in wall-bounded domains where vortex wall interaction will affect both the vortex ring pinch-off and propagation velocity. This study addresses this limitation and studies vortex formation in radially confined domains to analyze the affect of vortex-ring wall interaction on the formation and propagation of the vortex ring. Vortex rings were produced using a pneumatically driven piston cylinder arrangement and were ejected into a long cylindrical tube which defined the confined downstream domain. A range of confinement domains were studied with varying confinement diameters Velocity field measurements were performed using planar Time Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TRDPIV) and were processed using an in-house developed cross-correlation PIV algorithm. The experimental analysis was used to facilitate the development of a theoretical model to predict the variations in vortex ring circulation over time within confined domains.

  11. Tip leakage vortex dynamics and inception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oweis, Ghanem; Ceccio, Steven; Jessup, Stuart; Chesnakas, Christopher; Fry, David

    2002-11-01

    The McCormick rule for tip vortex cavitation scaling predicts that cavitation should take place in the vortex where the average core pressure deficit from the free stream is the largest along the vortex tube. The average core pressure deficit can be calculated from the vortex core size and circulation and these can be measured by LDV or hot wire, among other methods. The same rule applies to the tip vortex from a wall-bounded hydrofoil. Recent cavitation inception experiments on a ducted propeller in the NSWCCD 36 inch water tunnel combined with PIV and LDV measurements of the tip vortex flow are described. These tests reveal a disagreement between the actual inception location and that predicted by the McCormick rule. It is hypothesized that in this case the inception mechanism is related to local flow phenomena associated with local vortex unsteadiness, as opposed to the average vortex parameters (core size and circulation) used in the viscous scaling rule of McCormick. Discussion of the flow field measurements, bubble population, and the noise production from the inception events is given.

  12. Influence of perforated triple wing vortex generator on a turbulent flow through a circular tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Abhishek; Pandey, Lokesh; Singh, Satyendra

    2018-02-01

    Numerous studies has been observed in terms of enhancement of heat transfer by using passive techniques. In present work, a very unique perforated triple wing vortex generator has been used as an insert geometry, with different geometrical parameters of twist ratio (l/D = 2, 3 & 4) and Porosity (P A /T A = 0%, 10%, 20% & 30%). The experimentation has been performed for the wide range of Re (Re), varying between 3200 to 20,600, in order to investigate effect on heat transfer (Nu), friction factor (f) & thermal performance factor (η) in circular tube HEs with respect to different geometrical and flow parameters. Experimentation has been performed in 1.5 m length of test section with 68 mm diameter. Heat flux of 1000 W/m2 has been provided on the test section with the help of variable voltage transformer connected with Nicrome wire coiled heater located on the test section. There is a significant enhancement has been observed in terms of heat enhancement and pressure drop over the smooth tube. The experimental result shows 4.8 times improvement in heat transfer and 1.63 times improvement in thermal performance as compared to smooth tube HE. The statistical correlations have also been presented for Nu, f and η.

  13. Conjugate heat transfer of a finned tube. Part B: Heat transfer augmentation and avoidance of heat transfer reversal by longitudinal vortex generators

    SciTech Connect

    Fiebig, M.; Chen, Y.; Grosse-Gorgemann, A.

    1995-08-01

    Numerical investigations of three-dimensional flow and heat transfer in a finned tube with punched longitudinal vortex generators (LVG`s) are carried out for Reynolds number of 250 and 300. Air with a Prandtl number of 0.7 is used as the fluid. The flow is both thermally and hydrodynamically developing. The LVG is a delta winglet pair (DWP) punched out of the fin and is located directly behind the tube, symmetrically separated by one tube diameter. The DWP generates longitudinal vortices in the wake of the tube, defers flow separation on the tube, deflects the main stream into the tube wake, andmore » strong reduces the ``dead water zone.`` Heat transfer reversal is avoided by the DWP. Comparison of the span-averaged Nusselt numbers for the fin with and without DWP shows significant local heat transfer enhancement of several hundred percent in the tube wake. For Re = 300 and Fi = 200 the global heat transfer augmentation by a DWP, which amounts to only 2.5% of the fin area, is 31%.« less

  14. Rotor blade system with reduced blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leishman, John G. (Inventor); Han, Yong Oun (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A rotor blade system with reduced blade-vortex interaction noise includes a plurality of tube members embedded in proximity to a tip of each rotor blade. The inlets of the tube members are arrayed at the leading edge of the blade slightly above the chord plane, while the outlets are arrayed at the blade tip face. Such a design rapidly diffuses the vorticity contained within the concentrated tip vortex because of enhanced flow mixing in the inner core, which prevents the development of a laminar core region.

  15. Wake Vortex Transport and Decay in Ground Effect: Vortex Linking with the Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Han, Jongil

    2000-01-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out with a three-dimensional Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model to explore the sensitivity of vortex decay and transport in ground effect (IGE). The vortex decay rates are found to be strongly enhanced following maximum descent into ground effect. The nondimensional decay rate is found to be insensitive to the initial values of circulation, height, and vortex separation. The information gained from these simulations is used to construct a simple decay relationship. This relationship compares well with observed data from an IGE case study. Similarly, a relationship for lateral drift due to ground effect is constructed from the LES data. In the second part of this paper, vortex linking with the ground is investigated. Our numerical simulations of wake vortices for IGE show that a vortex may link with its image beneath the ground, if the intensity of the ambient turbulence is moderate to high. This linking with the ground (which is observed in real cases)gives the appearance of a vortex tube that bends to become vertically oriented and which terminates at the ground. From the simulations conducted, the linking time for vortices in the free atmosphere; i.e., a function of ambient turbulence intensity.

  16. Helicity within the vortex filament model.

    PubMed

    Hänninen, R; Hietala, N; Salman, H

    2016-11-24

    Kinetic helicity is one of the invariants of the Euler equations that is associated with the topology of vortex lines within the fluid. In superfluids, the vorticity is concentrated along vortex filaments. In this setting, helicity would be expected to acquire its simplest form. However, the lack of a core structure for vortex filaments appears to result in a helicity that does not retain its key attribute as a quadratic invariant. By defining a spanwise vector to the vortex through the use of a Seifert framing, we are able to introduce twist and henceforth recover the key properties of helicity. We present several examples for calculating internal twist to illustrate why the centreline helicity alone will lead to ambiguous results if a twist contribution is not introduced. Our choice of the spanwise vector can be expressed in terms of the tangential component of velocity along the filament. Since the tangential velocity does not alter the configuration of the vortex at later times, we are able to recover a similar equation for the internal twist angle to that of classical vortex tubes. Our results allow us to explain how a quasi-classical limit of helicity emerges from helicity considerations for individual superfluid vortex filaments.

  17. Helicity within the vortex filament model

    PubMed Central

    Hänninen, R.; Hietala, N.; Salman, H.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic helicity is one of the invariants of the Euler equations that is associated with the topology of vortex lines within the fluid. In superfluids, the vorticity is concentrated along vortex filaments. In this setting, helicity would be expected to acquire its simplest form. However, the lack of a core structure for vortex filaments appears to result in a helicity that does not retain its key attribute as a quadratic invariant. By defining a spanwise vector to the vortex through the use of a Seifert framing, we are able to introduce twist and henceforth recover the key properties of helicity. We present several examples for calculating internal twist to illustrate why the centreline helicity alone will lead to ambiguous results if a twist contribution is not introduced. Our choice of the spanwise vector can be expressed in terms of the tangential component of velocity along the filament. Since the tangential velocity does not alter the configuration of the vortex at later times, we are able to recover a similar equation for the internal twist angle to that of classical vortex tubes. Our results allow us to explain how a quasi-classical limit of helicity emerges from helicity considerations for individual superfluid vortex filaments. PMID:27883029

  18. An experimental and theoretical study of the flow phenomena within a vortex sink rate sensor. Ph.D. Thesis - Old Dominion Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    A description of the flow field within a vortex sink rate sensor was obtained, and the influence of viscous effects on its performance was observed. The sensor basically consisted of a vortex chamber and a sink tube. The vortex chamber consisted of two circular coaxial disks held apart, at their periphery, by a porous coupling. One circular disk had an opening to permit the mounting of the sink tube, in such a manner that the vortex chamber as well as the sink tube had a common axis of rotation. Air was supplied radially to the sensor through its porous coupling as the sensor was rotated at various speeds. Particular emphasis was directed toward an understanding of the flow field in the sink tube region. Thus velocity measurements at various stations along the length of the sink tube as well as along a given radius at any designated station were taken.

  19. Magnetic Shocks and Substructures Excited by Torsional Alfvén Wave Interactions in Merging Expanding Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, B.; Fedun, V.; Gent, F. A.; Verth, G.; Erdélyi, R.

    2018-04-01

    Vortex motions are frequently observed on the solar photosphere. These motions may play a key role in the transport of energy and momentum from the lower atmosphere into the upper solar atmosphere, contributing to coronal heating. The lower solar atmosphere also consists of complex networks of flux tubes that expand and merge throughout the chromosphere and upper atmosphere. We perform numerical simulations to investigate the behavior of vortex-driven waves propagating in a pair of such flux tubes in a non-force-free equilibrium with a realistically modeled solar atmosphere. The two flux tubes are independently perturbed at their footpoints by counter-rotating vortex motions. When the flux tubes merge, the vortex motions interact both linearly and nonlinearly. The linear interactions generate many small-scale transient magnetic substructures due to the magnetic stress imposed by the vortex motions. Thus, an initially monolithic tube is separated into a complex multithreaded tube due to the photospheric vortex motions. The wave interactions also drive a superposition that increases in amplitude until it exceeds the local Mach number and produces shocks that propagate upward with speeds of approximately 50 km s‑1. The shocks act as conduits transporting momentum and energy upward, and heating the local plasma by more than an order of magnitude, with a peak temperature of approximately 60,000 K. Therefore, we present a new mechanism for the generation of magnetic waveguides from the lower solar atmosphere to the solar corona. This wave guide appears as the result of interacting perturbations in neighboring flux tubes. Thus, the interactions of photospheric vortex motions is a potentially significant mechanism for energy transfer from the lower to upper solar atmosphere.

  20. Influence of upstream disturbance on the draft-tube flow of Francis turbine under part-load conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Zheng, Xianghao; Zhang, Yu-ning; Li, Shengcai

    2018-02-01

    Owing to the part-load operations for the enhancement of grid flexibility, the Francis turbine often suffers from severe low-frequency and large-amplitude hydraulic instability, which is mostly pertinent to the highly unsteady swirling vortex rope in the draft tube. The influence of disturbances in the upstream (e.g., large-scale vortex structures in the spiral casing) on the draft-tube vortex flow is not well understood yet. In the present paper, the influence of the upstream disturbances on the vortical flow in the draft tube is studied based on the vortex identification method and the analysis of several important parameters (e.g., the swirl number and the velocity profile). For a small guide vane opening (representing the part-load condition), the vortices triggered in the spiral casing propagate downstream and significantly affect the swirling vortex-rope precession in the draft tube, leading to the changes of the intensity and the processional frequency of the swirling vortex rope. When the guide vane opening approaches the optimum one (representing the full-load condition), the upstream disturbance becomes weaker and thus its influences on the downstream flow are very limited.

  1. Experimental studies of one-way reaction front barriers in three-dimensional vortex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, Joanie; Doan, Minh; Simons, Jj; Mitchell, Kevin; Solomon, Tom

    2017-11-01

    We present results of experimental studies of the evolution of the excitable, Ruthenium (Ru)-catalyzed, Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction in a three-dimensional (3D) flow composed of the superposition of horizontal and vertical vortex chains. The reaction fronts are imaged in 3D with a scanning, laser-induced fluorescence technique that takes advantage of the differential fluoresence of the Ruthenium indicated at the front. When the horizontal and vertical vortex chains are lined up, a dominant scroll structure is observed that acts as a one-way barrier blocking fronts propagating across vortex boundaries and into vortex centers. A second, quarter-tube barrier is observed along the edges of the unit cell. When the vortices are shifted relative to each other, tube-like barriers are observed in the interior. All of these barriers are compared with burning invariant manifolds predicted from a 6D set of differential equations describing the evolution of front elements in the flow. Supported by NSF Grants DMR-1361881 and DUE-1317446.

  2. Vortex dynamics during blade-vortex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Di; Gregory, James W.

    2015-05-01

    Vortex dynamics during parallel blade-vortex interactions (BVIs) were investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Vortices were generated by applying a rapid pitch-up motion to an airfoil through a pneumatic system, and the subsequent interactions with a downstream, unloaded target airfoil were studied. The blade-vortex interactions may be classified into three categories in terms of vortex behavior: close interaction, very close interaction, and collision. For each type of interaction, the vortex trajectory and strength variation were obtained from phase-averaged PIV data. The PIV results revealed the mechanisms of vortex decay and the effects of several key parameters on vortex dynamics, including separation distance (h/c), Reynolds number, and vortex sense. Generally, BVI has two main stages: interaction between vortex and leading edge (vortex-LE interaction) and interaction between vortex and boundary layer (vortex-BL interaction). Vortex-LE interaction, with its small separation distance, is dominated by inviscid decay of vortex strength due to pressure gradients near the leading edge. Therefore, the decay rate is determined by separation distance and vortex strength, but it is relatively insensitive to Reynolds number. Vortex-LE interaction will become a viscous-type interaction if there is enough separation distance. Vortex-BL interaction is inherently dominated by viscous effects, so the decay rate is dependent on Reynolds number. Vortex sense also has great impact on vortex-BL interaction because it changes the velocity field and shear stress near the surface.

  3. Numerical investigation on the performance of fin and tube heat exchangers using rectangular vortex generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeshan, Mohd; Hazarika, Saheera Azmi; Nath, Sujit; Bhanja, Dipankar

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, a 3-D numerical investigation has been performed to explore the effect of attack angles on the thermal-hydraulic performance of fin and tube heat exchanger (FTHE) using rectangular winglet pairs (RWPs). RWPs are placed adjacent to the tubes and three attack angels are considered for the study i.e. 5°, 15° and 25°. The effect of attack angles are examined on the heat transfer characteristics as well as in pressure drop penalty with airside Reynolds number Rea ranges from 500 to 900. Two performance evaluation criteria namely PEC1 i.e. area goodness factor (j/f) and PEC2 i.e. heat transfer rate per unit fan power consumption (Q/Pf) are considered for the performance evaluation. Furthermore, MOORA method is applied to obtain the performance order of FTHE configurations by taking PEC1 and PEC2 as beneficial attributes and fan power Pf as a non-beneficial attribute, keeping equal importance to each attribute. The results show that 5° attack angle provides the better performance in terms of PEC1 as heat transfer coefficient is increased by 27.70% at Rea=500 and 32.73% at Rea=900 respectively with 13.01% increased pressure drop penalty at Rea=500 and 14.26% at Rea=900 respectively. In terms of PEC2, though the 5° attack angle provides the high values of Q/Pf factor among the 15° and 25° attack angles, but it is found insignificant to replace the baseline configuration i.e. plain fin and tube heat exchanger configuration without vortex generators. Moreover, in MOORA optimization analysis also, it is found that 5° attack angle provides the better thermal-hydraulic performance.

  4. Numerical Investigation of the Flow Structure in a Kaplan Draft Tube at Part Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddahian, R.; Cervantes, M. J.; Sotoudeh, N.

    2016-11-01

    This research presents numerical simulation of the unsteady flow field inside the draft tube of a Kaplan turbine at part load condition. Due to curvature of streamlines, the ordinary two-equations turbulence models fail to predict the flow features. Therefore, a modification of the Shear Stress Transport (SST-SAS) model is utilized to approximate the turbulent stresses. A guide vane, complete runner and draft tube are considered to insure the real boundary conditions at the draft tube inlet. The outlet boundary is assumed to discharge into the atmosphere. The obtained pressure fluctuations inside the draft tube are in good agreement with available experimental data. In order to further investigate the RVR formation and its movement, the λ2 criterion, relating the position of the vortex core and strength to the second largest Eigen value of the velocity gradient tensor, is employed. The method used for vortex identification shows the flow structure and vortex motion inside the draft tube accurately.

  5. Augmentation of heat transfer by longitudinal vortices in plate-fin heat exchangers with two rows of tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, R. Jr.; Yanagihara, J.I.

    1999-07-01

    The thermal performance of fin-tube compact heat exchangers is highly affected by the thermal resistance occurring on the air side, which is much higher than the thermal resistance inside the tubes. Since this kind of heat exchanger is widely used in these days, with applications on air-conditioning, refrigeration, automobilistic industry and many other areas, the development of more efficient and cheaper heat exchangers is highly attractive, because it will permit the manufacturing of more competitive equipments. This work presents results of numerical simulations for fin-tube compact heat exchangers using smooth fins and longitudinal vortex generators. The computational model has twomore » rows of round tubes in staggered arrangement. Built-in delta winglet vortex generators were used, and its geometric dimensions were chosen according to the best results of literature. The steady-state numerical simulations were carried out at Re = 300, with a code based on the finite volume method. The typical configuration, where the vortex generators of both tube rows have identical parameters set, was compared with new ones where the vortex generators of the second row have different attack angles and positions. The global and local influence of vortex generators on heat transfer and flow losses are analyzed by comparison with a smooth fin model without vortex generators. The results show that a best heat transfer performance can be obtained by positioning the vortex generators of the second row at a particular position and angle of attack, when the increasing of the flow losses was smaller than the heat transfer enhancement achieved.« less

  6. On the upper part load vortex rope in Francis turbine: Experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolet, C.; Zobeiri, A.; Maruzewski, P.; Avellan, F.

    2010-08-01

    The swirling flow developing in Francis turbine draft tube under part load operation leads to pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 times the runner rotational frequency resulting from the so-called vortex breakdown. For low cavitation number, the flow features a cavitation vortex rope animated with precession motion. Under given conditions, these pressure fluctuations may lead to undesirable pressure fluctuations in the entire hydraulic system and also produce active power oscillations. For the upper part load range, between 0.7 and 0.85 times the best efficiency discharge, pressure fluctuations may appear in a higher frequency range of 2 to 4 times the runner rotational speed and feature modulations with vortex rope precession. It has been pointed out that for this particular operating point, the vortex rope features elliptical cross section and is animated of a self-rotation. This paper presents an experimental investigation focusing on this peculiar phenomenon, defined as the upper part load vortex rope. The experimental investigation is carried out on a high specific speed Francis turbine scale model installed on a test rig of the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The selected operating point corresponds to a discharge of 0.83 times the best efficiency discharge. Observations of the cavitation vortex carried out with high speed camera have been recorded and synchronized with pressure fluctuations measurements at the draft tube cone. First, the vortex rope self rotation frequency is evidenced and the related frequency is deduced. Then, the influence of the sigma cavitation number on vortex rope shape and pressure fluctuations is presented. The waterfall diagram of the pressure fluctuations evidences resonance effects with the hydraulic circuit. The time evolution of the vortex rope volume is compared with pressure fluctuations time evolution using image processing. Finally, the influence of the Froude number on the vortex rope shape and

  7. A novel scenario of aperiodical impacts appearance in the turbine draft tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, S. V.; Kuibin, P. A.; Shtork, S. I.; Skripkin, S. G.; Sonin, V. I.; Tsoy, M. A.; Ustimenko, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    The swirling flow in the discharge cone of hydroturbine is characterized by various self-induced instabilities and associated low frequency phenomena when the turbine is operated far from the best efficiency point. In particular, the precessing vortex rope develops at part-load regimes in the draft tube. This rope can serve a reason of the periodical low- frequency pressure oscillations in the whole hydrodynamical system. During the experimental research of flow structure in the discharge cone in a regime of free runner new interesting phenomenon was discovered. Due to instability some coils of helical vortex close to each other and reconnection appears with generation of a vortex ring. The experiments were fulfilled at the cavitational conditions when a cavity arises in the vortex core. So the phenomenon was registered with help of visualization by the high speed video recording. The vortex ring after the reconnection moves apart from the main vortex rope toward the wall and downstream. When it reaches the area with high pressure the cavity collapses with generation of pressure impact. The mechanism of cavitational vortex rings generation and their further collapse can serve as a prototype of the aperiodical pressure impacts inside the turbine draft tube.

  8. Vortex-Surface Interactions: Vortex Dynamics and Instabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-16

    31 May 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VORTEX -SURFACE INTERACTIONS: VORTEX DYNAMICS AND INSTABILITIES Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00014-12...new natural instabilities coming from vortex - vortex or vortex -surface interactions, but also ultimately the possibility to control these flows...design of vortex generators to modify surface pressures. We find a short wave instability of the secondary vortices that are created by the

  9. Experimental and numerical study on thermal-hydraulic performance of wing-shaped-tubes-bundle equipped with winglet vortex generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelatief, Mohamed A.; Sayed Ahmed, Sayed Ahmed E.; Mesalhy, Osama M.

    2018-03-01

    The present work evaluates, experimentally and numerically, by the aid of commercial code FLUENT 6.3.26, the effects of relative locations (ΔX or ΔY), heights (hw), and span-angle (θ) of winglet-vortex-generators (WVGs) on thermal-hydraulic performance enhancement for down-stream and/or up-stream wing-shaped-tubes bundle heat exchangers for air Re ranging from 1.85 × 103 to 9.7 × 103 while water Re = 5 × 102. hw is set as 5 mm, 7.5 mm and 10 mm. For tube down-stream, θ is set as 0° (Base-line-case) and from 5° to 45° clockwise common-flow up (CFUp) and counterclockwise common-flow down (CFDn) while for tube up-stream it is set as -5°, -10° and -15° CFUp. Results show that the increase of θ counterclockwise-(CFDn) or clockwise-(CFUp) leads to increase the values of Nu number. Using WVGs with (+5 ° ≤ θ ≤ +45°) results in increasing Nu number by about from 34 to 48% comparing with that of base-line-case. The lowest values of drag coefficient ( f) for tube down-stream are obtained at +5° CFDn and -15° CFUp with respect to the base-line case. For tube up-stream, Nu number increases by increasing θ from 0° to -5° and the values of Nu number for θ varying from -5° to -15° have no significant changes. ( f) increases with hw and has negligible effect on ha. Furthermore, optimization analyses of θ and longitudinal fin (LF) are utilized, in four cases, for finding the optimum combination and maximum efficiency. The highest values of heat transfer parameters such as effectiveness (ɛ), area goodness factor (G) and efficiency index (η) and the lowest values of fluid-flow parameters like ( f) and hence the best efficiency, are achieved for -15° CFUp down-stream, ("case 3" of -15° CFUp down-stream and 6 mm LF height) and +5° CFDn down-stream. Correlations of Nu number, ( f) and (ɛ) as a function of θ and Re for the studied cases are performed.

  10. 3-D Digitization of Stereoscopic Jet-in-Crossflow Vortex Structure Images via Augmented Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdson, Lorenz; Strand, Christopher; Watson, Graeme; Nault, Joshua; Tucker, Ryan

    2006-11-01

    Stereoscopic images of smoke-laden vortex flows have proven useful for understanding the topology of the embedded 3-D vortex structures. Images from two cameras allow a perception of the 3-D structure via the use of red/blue eye glasses. The human brain has an astonishing capacity to calculate and present to the observer the complex turbulent smoke volume. We have developed a technique whereby a virtual cursor is introduced to the perception, which creates an ``augmented reality.'' The perceived position of this cursor in the 3-D field can be precisely controlled by the observer. It can be brought near a characteristic vortex structure in order to digitally estimate the spatial coordinates of that feature. A calibration procedure accounts for camera positioning. Vortex tubes can be traced and recorded for later or real time supersposition of tube skeleton models. These models can be readily digitally obtained for display in graphics systems to allow complete exploration from any location or perspective. A unique feature of this technology is the use of the human brain to naturally perform the difficult computation of the shape of the translucent smoke volume. Examples are given of application to low velocity ratio and Reynolds number elevated jets-in-crossflow.

  11. On the combination of kinematics with flow visualization to compute total circulation - Application to vortex rings in a tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, J. G.; Chang, I.-D.

    1980-01-01

    To date the computation of the total circulation, or strength of a vortex has required detailed measurements of the velocity field within the vortex. In this paper a method is described in which the kinematics of the vortical flow field is exploited to calculate the strength of a vortex from relatively simple flow visualization measurements. There are several advantages in the technique, the most important being the newly acquired ability to calculate the transient changes in strength of a single vortex as it evolves. The method is applied to the study of vortex rings, although the development can be carried over directly to study vortex pairs, and it is expected that it can be generalized to other flows which contain regions of concentrated vorticity. The accuracy of the method as applied to vortex rings, assessed in part by comparing with the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) measurements of Sullivan et al., is shown to be excellent.

  12. Temperature and pressure measurements at cold exit of counter-flow vortex tube with flow visualization of reversed flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Mohd Hazwan bin; Katanoda, Hiroshi; Morita, Hiromitsu

    2015-02-01

    In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the counter-flow vortex tube (VT), the temperature and pressure of the cold flow were measured, and the existence and behavior of the reversed flow at the cold exit was studied using a simple flow visualization technique consisting of a 0.75mm-diameter needle, and an oil paint droplet. It is observed through this experiment that the Pitot pressure at the cold exit center can either be lower or higher than atmospheric pressure, depending on the inlet pressure and the cold fraction, and that a reversed flow is observed when the Pitot pressure at the cold exit center is lower than atmospheric pressure. In addition, it is observed that when reducing the cold fraction from unity at any arbitrary inlet pressure, the region of reversed and colder flow in the central part of cold exit extends in the downstream direction.

  13. Vortex methods and vortex statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Chorin, A.J.

    Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible, inviscid, isentropic flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus if the vorticity is known at time t = 0, one can deduce the flow at a later time by simply following it around. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that makes use of this observation. Even more generally, the analysis of vortex methods leads, to problems that are closely related to problems in quantum physics and field theory, as well asmore » in harmonic analysis. A broad enough definition of vortex methods ends up by encompassing much of science. Even the purely computational aspects of vortex methods encompass a range of ideas for which vorticity may not be the best unifying theme. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (``blobs``) and those whose understanding contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Vortex methods for inviscid flow lead to systems of ordinary differential equations that can be readily clothed in Hamiltonian form, both in three and two space dimensions, and they can preserve exactly a number of invariants of the Euler equations, including topological invariants. Their viscous versions resemble Langevin equations. As a result, they provide a very useful cartoon of statistical hydrodynamics, i.e., of turbulence, one that can to some extent be analyzed analytically and more importantly, explored numerically, with important implications also for superfluids, superconductors, and even polymers. In the authors view, vortex ``blob`` methods provide the most promising path to the understanding of these phenomena.« less

  14. Certainties and Uncertainties in CFD Prediction of the End of the Vortex Behaviour in Centrifugal Separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarev, Gleb I.; Hoffmann, Alex C.

    2011-09-01

    This paper compares CFD simulations of the `end of the vortex' (EoV) behaviour in centrifugal separators with experiment. The EoV was studied in `swirl tubes', cylindrical cyclone separators with swirl vanes. We refer to the EoV as the phenomenon whereby the core of the vortex does not reach the bottom of the separator, but deviates from the swirl tube axis and attaches to the wall, where it rotates at some level above the bottom. The crucial parameters governing the EoV are geometrical, specifically the ratio of the separator length to its diameter (L/D), and operational, specifically the fluid flowrate. Swirl tubes with varying body lengths have been studied experimentally and numerically. CFD simulations were carried out using the commercial package Star-CD. The 3-D Navier-Stokes equations were solved using the finite volume method based on the SIMPLE pressure-correction algorithm and the LES turbulence model. The vortex behaviour was very similar between the experiments and the numerical simulations, this agreement being both qualitative and quantitative. However, there were some cases where the CFD predictions showed only qualitative agreement with experiments, with some of the parameter-values delimiting given types of flows being somewhat different between experiment and simulations.

  15. Vortex coupling in trailing vortex-wing interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of trailing vortices of an upstream wing with rigid and flexible downstream wings has been investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel, using particle image velocimetry, hot-wire, force, and deformation measurements. Counter-rotating upstream vortices exhibit increased meandering when they are close to the tip of the downstream wing. The upstream vortex forms a pair with the vortex shed from the downstream wing and then exhibits large displacements around the wing tip. This coupled motion of the pair has been found to cause large lift fluctuations on the downstream wing. The meandering of the vortex pair occurs at the natural meandering frequency of the isolated vortex, with a low Strouhal number, and is not affected by the frequency of the large-amplitude wing oscillations if the downstream wing is flexible. The displacement of the leading vortex is larger than that of the trailing vortex; however, it causes highly correlated variations of the core radius, core vorticity, and circulation of the trailing vortex with the coupled meandering motion. In contrast, co-rotating vortices do not exhibit any increased meandering.

  16. Reduction of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    DOEpatents

    Bernitsas, Michael M; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2014-04-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.

  17. Dynamic Runner Forces and Pressure Fluctuations on the Draft Tube Wall of a Model Pump-Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, O.; Ruprecht, A.; Göde, E.; Riedelbauch, S.

    2016-11-01

    When Francis-turbines and pump-turbines operate at off-design conditions, typically a vortex rope develops. The vortex rope causes pressure oscillations leading to fluctuations of the forces affecting the runner. The presence of dynamic runner forces over a long period of time might damage the bearings and possibly the runner. In this experimental investigation, the fluctuating part of the runner forces and the pressure oscillations on the draft tube wall were measured on a model pump-turbine with a simplified straight cone draft tube in different operating conditions. The investigation focuses on the correlation of the pressure fluctuations frequency measured at the draft tube wall with the frequency of the fluctuating forces on the runner. The comparison between pressure fluctuations and dynamic forces shows a significant correlation in all operating points. For the comparison of different components in the spatial directions of the forces, the pressure fluctuations were separated in a synchronous part and a rotating part for operating points with higher amplitudes. The rotating pressure fluctuations correlate with the radial forces especially in the operating points with a rotating vortex rope. At frequencies with higher amplitudes in the pressure fluctuations caused by the vortex rope movement, there are also higher amplitudes in the radial forces at the same frequencies.

  18. Magnetic monopole versus vortex as gauge-invariant topological objects for quark confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Sasago, Takaaki; Shinohara, Toru; Shibata, Akihiro; Kato, Seikou

    2017-12-01

    First, we give a gauge-independent definition of chromomagnetic monopoles in SU(N) Yang-Mills theory which is derived through a non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator. Then we discuss how such magnetic monopoles can give a nontrivial contribution to the Wilson loop operator for understanding the area law of the Wilson loop average. Next, we discuss how the magnetic monopole condensation picture are compatible with the vortex condensation picture as another promising scenario for quark confinement. We analyze the profile function of the magnetic flux tube as the non-Abelian vortex solution of U(N) gauge-Higgs model, which is to be compared with numerical simulations of the SU(N) Yang-Mills theory on a lattice. This analysis gives an estimate of the string tension based on the vortex condensation picture, and possible interactions between two non-Abelian vortices.

  19. Origin and Manipulation of Stable Vortex Ground States in Permalloy Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael; Meier, Thomas Norbert Gerhard; Dirnberger, Florian; Kákay, Attila; Decker, Martin; Wintz, Sebastian; Finizio, Simone; Josten, Elisabeth; Raabe, Jörg; Kronseder, Matthias; Bougeard, Dominique; Lindner, Jürgen; Back, Christian Horst

    2018-05-09

    We present a detailed study on the static magnetic properties of individual permalloy nanotubes (NTs) with hexagonal cross-sections. Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) measurements and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) are used to investigate their magnetic ground states and its stability. We find that the magnetization in zero applied magnetic field is in a very stable vortex state. Its origin is attributed to a strong growth-induced anisotropy with easy axis perpendicular to the long axis of the tubes. AMR measurements of individual NTs in combination with micromagnetic simulations allow the determination of the magnitude of the growth-induced anisotropy for different types of NT coatings. We show that the strength of the anisotropy can be controlled by introducing a buffer layer underneath the magnetic layer. The magnetic ground states depend on the external magnetic field history and are directly imaged using STXM. Stable vortex domains can be introduced by external magnetic fields and can be erased by radio-frequency magnetic fields applied at the center of the tubes via a strip line antenna.

  20. Effects of homogeneous condensation in compressible flows: Ludwieg-tube experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xisheng; Lamanna, Grazia; Holten, A. P. C.; van Dongen, M. E. H.

    Effects of homogeneous nucleation and subsequent droplet growth in compressible flows in humid nitrogen are investigated numerically and experimentally. A Ludwieg tube is employed to produce expansion flows. Corresponding to different configurations, three types of experiment are carried out in such a tube. First, the phase transition in a strong unsteady expansion wave is investigated to demonstrate the mutual interaction between the unsteady flow and the condensation process and also the formation of condensation-induced shock waves. The role of condensation-induced shocks in the gradual transition from a frozen initial structure to an equilibrium structure is explained. Second, the condensing flow in a slender supersonic nozzle G2 is considered. Particular attention is given to condensation-induced oscillations and to the transition from symmetrical mode-1 oscillations to asymmetrical mode-2 oscillations in a starting nozzle flow, as first observed by Adam & Schnerr. The transition is also found numerically, but the amplitude, frequency and transition time are not yet well predicted. Third, a sharp-edged obstacle is placed in the tube to generate a starting vortex. Condensation in the vortex is found. Owing to the release of latent heat of condensation, an increase in the pressure and temperature in the vortex core is observed. Condensation-induced shock waves are found, for a sufficiently high initial saturation ratio, which interact with the starting vortex, resulting in a very complex flow. As time proceeds, a subsonic or transonic free jet is formed downstream of the sharp-edged obstacle, which becomes oscillatory for a relatively high main-flow velocity and for a sufficiently high humidity.

  1. The VOrtex Ring Transit EXperiment (VORTEX) GAS project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilen, Sven G.; Langenderfer, Lynn S.; Jardon, Rebecca D.; Cutlip, Hansford H.; Kazerooni, Alexander C.; Thweatt, Amber L.; Lester, Joseph L.; Bernal, Luis P.

    1995-01-01

    Get Away Special (GAS) payload G-093, also called VORTEX (VOrtex Ring Transit EXperiment), is an investigation of the propagation of a vortex ring through a liquid-gas interface in microgravity. This process results in the formation of one or more liquid droplets similar to earth based liquid atomization systems. In the absence of gravity, surface tension effects dominate the drop formation process. The Shuttle's microgravity environment allows the study of the same fluid atomization processes as using a larger drop size than is possible on Earth. This enables detailed experimental studies of the complex flow processes encountered in liquid atomization systems. With VORTEX, deformations in both the vortex ring and the fluid surface will be measured closely for the first time in a parameters range that accurately resembles liquid atomization. The experimental apparatus will record images of the interactions for analysis after the payload has been returned to earth. The current design of the VORTEX payload consists of a fluid test cell with a vortex ring generator, digital imaging system, laser illumination system, computer based controller, batteries for payload power, and an array of housekeeping and payload monitoring sensors. It is a self-contained experiment and will be flown on board the Space Shuttle in a 5 cubic feet GAS canister. The VORTEX Project is entirely run by students at the University of Michigan but is overseen by a faculty advisor acting as the payload customer and the contact person with NASA. This paper summarizes both the technical and programmatic aspects of the VORTEX Project.

  2. Flux tubes in the SU(3) vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardaci, M. S.; Cea, P.; Cosmai, L.; Falcone, R.; Papa, A.

    We analyze the distribution of the chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair in the SU(3) vacuum. We find that the transverse profile of the flux tube resembles the dual version of the Abrikosov vortex field distribution and give an estimate of the London penetration length in the confined vacuum.

  3. Vortex rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Leonard, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The vortex-ring problem in fluid mechanics is examined generally in terms of formation, the steady state, the duration of the rings, and vortex interactions. The formation is studied by examining the generation of laminar and turbulent vortex rings and their resulting structures with attention given to the three stages of laminar ring development. Inviscid dynamics is addressed to show how core dynamics affects overall ring motion, and laminar vortex structures are described in two dimensions. Viscous and inviscid structures are related in terms of 'leapfrogging', head-on collisions, and collisions with a no-slip wall. Linear instability theory is shown to successfully describe observational data, although late stages in the breakdown are not completely understood. This study of vortex rings has important implications for key aerodynamic issues including sound generation, transport and mixing, and vortex interactions.

  4. Persistent magnetic vortex flow at a supergranular vertex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requerey, Iker S.; Cobo, Basilio Ruiz; Gošić, Milan; Bellot Rubio, Luis R.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Photospheric vortex flows are thought to play a key role in the evolution of magnetic fields. Recent studies show that these swirling motions are ubiquitous in the solar surface convection and occur in a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Their interplay with magnetic fields is poorly characterized, however. Aims: We study the relation between a persistent photospheric vortex flow and the evolution of a network magnetic element at a supergranular vertex. Methods: We used long-duration sequences of continuum intensity images acquired with Hinode and the local correlation-tracking method to derive the horizontal photospheric flows. Supergranular cells are detected as large-scale divergence structures in the flow maps. At their vertices, and cospatial with network magnetic elements, the velocity flows converge on a central point. Results: One of these converging flows is observed as a vortex during the whole 24 h time series. It consists of three consecutive vortices that appear nearly at the same location. At their core, a network magnetic element is also detected. Its evolution is strongly correlated to that of the vortices. The magnetic feature is concentrated and evacuated when it is caught by the vortices and is weakened and fragmented after the whirls disappear. Conclusions: This evolutionary behavior supports the picture presented previously, where a small flux tube becomes stable when it is surrounded by a vortex flow. A movie attached to Fig. 2 is available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  5. Vortex equations: Singularities, numerical solution, and axisymmetric vortex breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossel, H. H.

    1972-01-01

    A method of weighted residuals for the computation of rotationally symmetric quasi-cylindrical viscous incompressible vortex flow is presented and used to compute a wide variety of vortex flows. The method approximates the axial velocity and circulation profiles by series of exponentials having (N + 1) and N free parameters, respectively. Formal integration results in a set of (2N + 1) ordinary differential equations for the free parameters. The governing equations are shown to have an infinite number of discrete singularities corresponding to critical values of the swirl parameters. The computations point to the controlling influence of the inner core flow on vortex behavior. They also confirm the existence of two particular critical swirl parameter values: one separates vortex flow which decays smoothly from vortex flow which eventually breaks down, and the second is the first singularity of the quasi-cylindrical system, at which point physical vortex breakdown is thought to occur.

  6. Performance improvement in a tubular heat exchanger by punched delta-winglet vortex generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanoknaiyakarn, C.; Promvonge, P.; Thianpong, C.; Skullong, S.

    2018-01-01

    A novel tubular heat exchanger incorporated with punched delta-winglet vortex generators (called perforated delta-winglet vortex generator, P-DWVG) is proposed for improving its thermal performance and energy saving. The P-DWVG elements are punched out from a straight tape having its width nearly equal to the tube diameter before insertion. The main aim at employing the P-DWVG insert is to produce counter-rotating vortices along the tube to promote turbulence intensity inside as well as to transport the cold fluid at the central core to the near-wall regions. The experiment was performed to study thermal behaviors in a uniform heat-fluxed tube inserted with P-DWVGs. The P-DWVGs with the attack angle of 45° were mounted periodically with three different blockage ratios (BR = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) and two pitch ratios (PR = 2 and 3). Air as the test fluid was varied to obtain turbulent airflow for Reynolds number (Re) in a range of 4,150-25,500. The experimental results show that the P-DWVG provides a considerable increase in the rate of heat transfer around 3.1-4.01 times whereas friction factor increases around 11.44- 34.23 times higher than the plain tube. To assess the real benefits of P-DWVGs, thermal performance factor (TEF) is examined and in the range of 1.39-1.48 where its maximum is at BR = 0.1 and PR = 2.

  7. PREFACE: Special section on vortex rings Special section on vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2009-10-01

    This special section of Fluid Dynamics Research includes five articles on vortex rings in both classical and quantum fluids. The leading scientists of the field describe the trends in and the state-of-the-art development of experiments, theories and numerical simulations of vortex rings. The year 2008 was the 150th anniversary of 'vortex motion' since Hermann von Helmholtz opened up this field. In 1858, Helmholtz published a paper in Crelle's Journal which put forward the concept of 'vorticity' and made the first analysis of vortex motion. Fluid mechanics before that was limited to irrotational motion. In the absence of vorticity, the motion of an incompressible homogeneous fluid is virtually equivalent to a rigid-body motion in the sense that the fluid motion is determined once the boundary configuration is specified. Helmholtz proved, among other things, that, without viscosity, a vortex line is frozen into the fluid. This Helmholtz's law immediately implies the preservation of knots and links of vortex lines and its implication is enormous. One of the major trends of fluid mechanics since the latter half of the 20th century is to clarify the topological meaning of Helmholtz's law and to exploit it to develop theoretical and numerical methods to find the solutions of the Euler equations and to develop experimental techniques to gain an insight into fluid motion. Vortex rings are prominent coherent structures in a variety of fluid motions from the microscopic scale, through human and mesoscale to astrophysical scales, and have attracted people's interest. The late professor Philip G Saffman (1981) emphasized the significance of studies on vortex rings. One particular motion exemplifies the whole range of problems of vortex motion and is also a commonly known phenomenon, namely the vortex ring or smoke ring. Vortex rings are easily produced by dropping drops of one liquid into another, or by puffing fluid out of a hole, or by exhaling smoke if one has the skill

  8. Wingtip vortex turbine investigation for vortex energy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyounis, William K.; Patterson, James C., Jr.; Stough, H. P., III; Wunschel, Alfred J.; Curran, Patrick D.

    1990-01-01

    A flight test investigation has been conducted to determine the performance of wingtip vortex turbines and their effect on aircraft performance. The turbines were designed to recover part of the large energy loss (induced drag) caused by the wingtip vortex. The turbine, driven by the vortex flow, reduces the strength of the vortex, resulting in an associated induced drag reduction. A four-blade turbine was mounted on each wingtip of a single-engine, T-tail, general aviation airplane. Two sets of turbine blades were tested, one with a 15' twist (washin) and one with no twist. Th power recovered by the turbine and the installed drag increment were measured. A trade-off between turbine power and induced drag reduction was found to be a function of turbine blade incidence angle. This test has demonstrated that the wingtip vortex turbine is an attractive alternate, as well as an emergency, power source.

  9. Analysis and control of asymmetric vortex flows and supersonic vortex breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.

    1991-01-01

    Topics relative to the analysis and control of asymmetric vortex flow and supersonic vortex breakdown are discussed. Specific topics include the computation of compressible, quasi-axisymmetric slender vortex flow and breakdown; supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown; and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes asymmetric solutions for cones and cone-cylinder configurations.

  10. Vortex formation at the open end of an acoustic waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Del Rio, Leon; Rendon, Pablo L.; Malaga, Carlos; Zenit, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    For high enough levels of acoustic pressure inside a cylindrical tube, a nonlinear mechanism is responsible for the formation of annular vortices at the open end of the tube, which results in energy loss. Higher sound pressure levels in the tube lead, in turn, to larger values of the acoustic velocity at the exit, and thus to higher Reynolds numbers. It has been observed [Buick et al., 2011] that, provided the magnitude of the acoustic velocity is large enough, two nonlinear regimes are possible: in the first regime, the vorticity appears only in the immediate vicinity of the tube; for higher velocities, vortex rings are formed at the open end of the tube and are advected outwards. We use a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to simulate the velocity and the pressure fields at the exit of the tube in 3D, with Reynolds numbers based on the acoustic boundary layer thickness 18 >Rδ > 1.8 . We also conduct experiments with phase-locked particle image velocimetry (PL-PIV) 2D within a range of 25.5 >Rδ > 10.2 . Experimental and numerical results are compared for a range of Womersley numbers. The effects of varying both the tube geometry and the end shape are addressed.

  11. Point vortex modelling of the wake dynamics behind asymmetric vortex generator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldacchino, D.; Ferreira, C.; Ragni, D.; van Bussel, G. J. W.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present a simple inviscid point vortex model to study the dynamics of asymmetric vortex rows, as might appear behind misaligned vortex generator vanes. Starting from the existing solution of the infinite vortex cascade, a numerical model of four base-vortices is chosen to represent two primary counter-rotating vortex pairs and their mirror plane images, introducing the vortex strength ratio as a free parameter. The resulting system of equations is also defined in terms of the vortex row separation and the qualitative features of the ensuing motion are mapped. A translating and orbiting regime are identified for different cascade separations. The latter occurs for all unequal strength vortex pairs. Thus, the motion is further classified by studying the cyclic behaviour of the orbiting regime and it is shown that for small mismatches in vortex strength, the orbiting length and time scales are sufficiently large as to appear, in the near wake, as translational (non-orbiting). However, for larger mismatches in vortex strength, the orbiting motion approaches the order of the starting height of the vortex. Comparisons between experimental data and the potential flow model show qualitative agreement whilst viscous effects account for the major discrepancies. Despite this, the model captures the orbital mode observed in the measurements and provides an impetus for considering the impact of these complex interactions on vortex generator designs.

  12. Evidence of small-scale magnetic concentrations dragged by vortex motion of solar photospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmaceda, L.; Vargas Domínguez, S.; Palacios, J.; Cabello, I.; Domingo, V.

    2010-04-01

    Vortex-type motions have been measured by tracking bright points in high-resolution observations of the solar photosphere. These small-scale motions are thought to be determinant in the evolution of magnetic footpoints and their interaction with plasma and therefore likely to play a role in heating the upper solar atmosphere by twisting magnetic flux tubes. We report the observation of magnetic concentrations being dragged towards the center of a convective vortex motion in the solar photosphere from high-resolution ground-based and space-borne data. We describe this event by analyzing a series of images at different solar atmospheric layers. By computing horizontal proper motions, we detect a vortex whose center appears to be the draining point for the magnetic concentrations detected in magnetograms and well-correlated with the locations of bright points seen in G-band and CN images.

  13. ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments after Clinical Use.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ya; Zhou, Huimin; Coil, Jeffrey M; Aljazaeri, Bassim; Buttar, Rene; Wang, Zhejun; Zheng, Yu-feng; Haapasalo, Markus

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and mode of ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue instrument defects after clinical use in a graduate endodontic program and to examine the impact of clinical use on the instruments' metallurgical properties. A total of 330 ProFile Vortex and 1136 Vortex Blue instruments from the graduate program were collected after each had been used in 3 teeth. The incidence and type of instrument defects were analyzed. The lateral surfaces and fracture surfaces of the fractured files were examined by using scanning electron microscopy. Unused and used instruments were examined by full and partial differential scanning calorimetry. No fractures were observed in the 330 ProFile Vortex instruments, whereas 20 (6.1%) revealed bent or blunt defects. Only 2 of the 1136 Vortex Blue files fractured during clinical use. The cause of fracture was shear stress. The fractures occurred at the tip end of the spirals. Only 1.8% (21 of 1136) of the Vortex Blue files had blunt tips. Austenite-finish temperatures were very similar for unused and used ProFile Vortex files and were all greater than 50°C. The austenite-finish temperatures of used and unused Vortex Blue files (38.5°C) were lower than those in ProFile Vortex instruments (P < .001). However, the transformation behavior of Vortex Blue files had an obvious 2-stage transformation, martensite-to-R phase and R-to-austenite phase. The trends of differential scanning calorimetry plots of unused Vortex Blue instruments and clinically used instruments were very similar. The risk of ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue instrument fracture is very low when instruments are discarded after clinical use in the graduate endodontic program. The Vortex Blue files have metallurgical behavior different from ProFile Vortex instruments. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Secondary Vortex Structures in Vortex Generator Induced Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velte, Clara; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Passive rectangular vane actuators can induce a longitudinal vortex that redistributes the momentum in the boundary layer to control the flow. Recent experiments [1] as well as previous studies [2] have shown that a secondary vortex of opposite sign is generated along with the primary one, supposedly from local separation of the boundary layer due to the primary vortex. 2D flow visualizations of a vortex in the vicinity of a boundary support this hypothesis [3]. These secondary vortices are studied for various configurations -- single generator, counter- and co-rotating cascades. The objective is to study their removal through cancelation in cascades using Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry and flow visualization.[4pt] [1] Velte, Hansen and Okulov, J. Fluid Mech. 619, 2009.[0pt] [2] Zhang, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 21 2000.[0pt] [3] Harris, Miller and Williamson, APS abstract 2009.

  15. CFD Modelling of a Quadrupole Vortex Inside a Cylindrical Channel for Research into Advanced Hybrid Rocket Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, B.; Majdalani, J.

    2014-11-01

    This study relies on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools to analyse a possible method for creating a stable quadrupole vortex within a simulated, circular-port, cylindrical rocket chamber. A model of the vortex generator is created in a SolidWorks CAD program and then the grid is generated using the Pointwise mesh generation software. The non-reactive flowfield is simulated using an open source computational program, Stanford University Unstructured (SU2). Subsequent analysis and visualization are performed using ParaView. The vortex generation approach that we employ consists of four tangentially injected monopole vortex generators that are arranged symmetrically with respect to the center of the chamber in such a way to produce a quadrupole vortex with a common downwash. The present investigation focuses on characterizing the flow dynamics so that future investigations can be undertaken with increasing levels of complexity. Our CFD simulations help to elucidate the onset of vortex filaments within the monopole tubes, and the evolution of quadrupole vortices downstream of the injection faceplate. Our results indicate that the quadrupole vortices produced using the present injection pattern can become quickly unstable to the extent of dissipating soon after being introduced into simulated rocket chamber. We conclude that a change in the geometrical configuration will be necessary to produce more stable quadrupoles.

  16. Front propagation in a vortex lattice: dependence on boundary conditions and vortex depth.

    PubMed

    Beauvier, E; Bodea, S; Pocheau, A

    2016-11-04

    We experimentally address the propagation of reaction-diffusion fronts in vortex lattices by combining, in a Hele-Shaw cell and at low Reynolds number, forced electroconvective flows and an autocatalytic reaction in solution. We consider both vortex chains and vortex arrays, the former referring to mixed free/rigid boundary conditions for vortices and the latter to free boundary conditions. Varying the depth of the fluid layer, we observe no variation of the mean front velocities for vortex arrays and a noticeable variation for vortex chains. This questions the two-dimensional character of front propagation in low Reynolds number vortex lattices, as well as the mechanisms of this dependence.

  17. Discrete-vortex model for the symmetric-vortex flow on cones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gainer, Thomas G.

    1990-01-01

    A relatively simple but accurate potential flow model was developed for studying the symmetric vortex flow on cones. The model is a modified version of the model first developed by Bryson, in which discrete vortices and straight-line feeding sheets were used to represent the flow field. It differs, however, in the zero-force condition used to position the vortices and determine their circulation strengths. The Bryson model imposed the condition that the net force on the feeding sheets and discrete vortices must be zero. The proposed model satisfies this zero-force condition by having the vortices move as free vortices, at a velocity equal to at the local crossflow velocity at their centers. When the free-vortex assumption is made, a solution is obtained in the form of two nonlinear algebraic equations that relate the vortex center coordinates and vortex strengths to the cone angle and angle of attack. The vortex center locations calculated using the model are in good agreement with experimental values. The cone normal forces as well as center locations are in good agreement with the vortex cloud method of calculating symmetric flow fields.

  18. Prediction and control of vortex-dominated and vortex-wake flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama

    1993-01-01

    This progress report documents the accomplishments achieved in the period from December 1, 1992 until November 30, 1993. These accomplishments include publications, national and international presentations, NASA presentations, and the research group supported under this grant. Topics covered by documents incorporated into this progress report include: active control of asymmetric conical flow using spinning and rotary oscillation; supersonic vortex breakdown over a delta wing in transonic flow; shock-vortex interaction over a 65-degree delta wing in transonic flow; three dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown; numerical simulation and physical aspects of supersonic vortex breakdown; and prediction of asymmetric vortical flows around slender bodies using Navier-Stokes equations.

  19. Preliminary study of the three-dimensional deformation of the vortex in Karman vortex street

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Guocan; Guo, Liang; Wu, Zuobin; Ma, Huiyang

    1992-03-01

    The mechanism for 3D evolution of the isolated Karman vortex and the thin-vortex filament in a circular cylinder wake is studied numerically using the LIA method. The results show that the vortex motion is unstable for small 3D disturbances in the separated wake of a circular cylinder. Karman vortex in the time-averaged wake flowfield wolves into a horseshoe-spoon-like 3D structure. The thin vortex filament deforms three-dimensionally in the braid and generates streamwise vortex structures which incline to the region maximum-deformation direction of the flowfield.

  20. Vortex/boundary layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, A. D.; Bradshaw, P.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed and high quality measurements with hot-wires and pressure probes are presented for two different interactions between a vortex pair with common flow down and a turbulent boundary layer. The interactions studied have larger values of the vortex circulation parameter than those studied previously. The results indicate that the boundary layer under the vortex pair is thinned by lateral divergence and that boundary layer fluid is entrained into the vortex. The effect of the interaction on the vortex core (other than the inviscid effect of the image vortices behind the surface) is small.

  1. Rotating hot-wire investigation of the vortex responsible for blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontana, Richard Remo

    1988-01-01

    This distribution of the circumferential velocity of the vortex responsible for blade-vortex interaction noise was measured using a rotating hot-wire rake synchronously meshed with a model helicopter rotor at the blade passage frequency. Simultaneous far-field acoustic data and blade differential pressure measurements were obtained. Results show that the shape of the measured far-field acoustic blade-vortex interaction signature depends on the blade-vortex interaction geometry. The experimental results are compared with the Widnall-Wolf model for blade-vortex interaction noise.

  2. A vortex-filament and core model for wings with edge vortex separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, J. L.; Lan, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    A vortex filament-vortex core method for predicting aerodynamic characteristics of slender wings with edge vortex separation was developed. Semi-empirical but simple methods were used to determine the initial positions of the free sheet and vortex core. Comparison with available data indicates that: (1) the present method is generally accurate in predicting the lift and induced drag coefficients but the predicted pitching moment is too positive; (2) the spanwise lifting pressure distributions estimated by the one vortex core solution of the present method are significantly better than the results of Mehrotra's method relative to the pressure peak values for the flat delta; (3) the two vortex core system applied to the double delta and strake wings produce overall aerodynamic characteristics which have good agreement with data except for the pitching moment; and (4) the computer time for the present method is about two thirds of that of Mehrotra's method.

  3. Vortex Flow Aerodynamics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. F. (Editor); Osborn, R. F. (Editor); Foughner, J. T., Jr. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Vortex modeling techniques and experimental studies of research configurations utilizing vortex flows are discussed. Also discussed are vortex flap investigations using generic and airplane research models and vortex flap theoretical analysis and design studies.

  4. Some Progress in Large-Eddy Simulation using the 3-D Vortex Particle Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckelmans, G. S.

    1995-01-01

    This two-month visit at CTR was devoted to investigating possibilities in LES modeling in the context of the 3-D vortex particle method (=vortex element method, VEM) for unbounded flows. A dedicated code was developed for that purpose. Although O(N(sup 2)) and thus slow, it offers the advantage that it can easily be modified to try out many ideas on problems involving up to N approx. 10(exp 4) particles. Energy spectrums (which require O(N(sup 2)) operations per wavenumber) are also computed. Progress was realized in the following areas: particle redistribution schemes, relaxation schemes to maintain the solenoidal condition on the particle vorticity field, simple LES models and their VEM extension, possible new avenues in LES. Model problems that involve strong interaction between vortex tubes were computed, together with diagnostics: total vorticity, linear and angular impulse, energy and energy spectrum, enstrophy. More work is needed, however, especially regarding relaxation schemes and further validation and development of LES models for VEM. Finally, what works well will eventually have to be incorporated into the fast parallel tree code.

  5. Vortex mass in a superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simula, Tapio

    2018-02-01

    We consider the inertial mass of a vortex in a superfluid. We obtain a vortex mass that is well defined and is determined microscopically and self-consistently by the elementary excitation energy of the kelvon quasiparticle localized within the vortex core. The obtained result for the vortex mass is found to be consistent with experimental observations on superfluid quantum gases and vortex rings in water. We propose a method to measure the inertial rest mass and Berry phase of a vortex in superfluid Bose and Fermi gases.

  6. Geostrophic Vortex Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Generalized Kirchhoff Vortices 176 B. The 2-Level Rankine Vortex: Critical Points & Stability 181 C. Tripolar Coherent Euler Vortices 186 7...spontaneously in spectral simulations. One such example is provided by the tripolar vortex structureE which will be examined in detail in Chapter 6. It...of the tripolar coherent vortex structures that have recently been observed in very high resolution numerical simulations of two- dimensional

  7. Hollow vortex Gaussian beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, GuoQuan; Cai, YangJian; Dai, ChaoQing

    2013-05-01

    A kind of hollow vortex Gaussian beam is introduced. Based on the Collins integral, an analytical propagation formula of a hollow vortex Gaussian beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived. Due to the special distribution of the optical field, which is caused by the initial vortex phase, the dark region of a hollow vortex Gaussian beam will not disappear upon propagation. The analytical expressions for the beam propagation factor, the kurtosis parameter, and the orbital angular momentum density of a hollow vortex Gaussian beam passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system are also derived, respectively. The beam propagation factor is determined by the beam order and the topological charge. The kurtosis parameter and the orbital angular momentum density depend on beam order n, topological charge m, parameter γ, and transfer matrix elements A and D. As a numerical example, the propagation properties of a hollow vortex Gaussian beam in free space are demonstrated. The hollow vortex Gaussian beam has eminent propagation stability and has crucial application prospects in optical micromanipulation.

  8. Control of submersible vortex flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Donaldson, C. D.

    1990-01-01

    Vortex flows produced by submersibles typically unfavorably influence key figures of merit such as acoustic and nonacoustic stealth, control effectiveness/maneuverability, and propulsor efficiency/body drag. Sources of such organized, primarily longitudinal, vorticity include the basic body (nose and sides) and appendages (both base/intersection and tip regions) such as the fairwater, dive planes, rear control surfaces, and propulsor stators/tips. Two fundamentally different vortex control approaches are available: (1) deintensification of the amplitude and/or organization of the vortex during its initiation process; and (2) downstream vortex disablement. Vortex control techniques applicable to the initiation region (deintensification approach) include transverse pressure gradient minimization via altered body cross section, appendage dillets, fillets, and sweep, and various appendage tip and spanload treatment along with the use of active controls to minimize control surface size and motions. Vortex disablement can be accomplished either via use of control vortices (which can also be used to steer the vortices off-board), direct unwinding, inducement of vortex bursting, or segmentation/tailoring for enhanced dissipation. Submersible-applicable vortex control technology is also included derived from various aeronautical applications such as mitigation of the wing wake vortex hazard and flight aircraft maneuverability at high angle of attack as well as the status of vortex effects upon, and mitigation of, nonlinear control forces on submersibles. Specific suggestions for submersible-applicable vortex control techniques are presented.

  9. The Vortex Lattice Method for the Rotor-Vortex Interaction Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padakannaya, R.

    1974-01-01

    The rotor blade-vortex interaction problem and the resulting impulsive airloads which generate undesirable noise levels are discussed. A numerical lifting surface method to predict unsteady aerodynamic forces induced on a finite aspect ratio rectangular wing by a straight, free vortex placed at an arbitrary angle in a subsonic incompressible free stream is developed first. Using a rigid wake assumption, the wake vortices are assumed to move downsteam with the free steam velocity. Unsteady load distributions are obtained which compare favorably with the results of planar lifting surface theory. The vortex lattice method has been extended to a single bladed rotor operating at high advance ratios and encountering a free vortex from a fixed wing upstream of the rotor. The predicted unsteady load distributions on the model rotor blade are generally in agreement with the experimental results. This method has also been extended to full scale rotor flight cases in which vortex induced loads near the tip of a rotor blade were indicated. In both the model and the full scale rotor blade airload calculations a flat planar wake was assumed which is a good approximation at large advance ratios because the downwash is small in comparison to the free stream at large advance ratios. The large fluctuations in the measured airloads near the tip of the rotor blade on the advance side is predicted closely by the vortex lattice method.

  10. Longitudinal Plasmoid in High-Speed Vortex Gas Flow Created by Capacity HF Discharge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-28

    interferometer with high space resolution, PIV method, FTIR spectrometer, optical spectrometer, pressure sensors with high time resolution, IR pyrometer and...of strong LP-vortex interaction. Intensive acoustic waves are created by CHFD in swirl flow in this regime. 38. Study of control of a longitudinal...quartz tube, 4- HF ball electrode, 5- Tesla’s transformer, 6- microwave interferometer, 7- video camera, 8-optical pyrometer , 9-pressure sensor, 10

  11. The Physics of Twisted Magnetic Tubes Rising in a Stratified Medium: Two-dimensional Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emonet, T.; Moreno-Insertis, F.

    1998-01-01

    The physics of a twisted magnetic flux tube rising in a stratified medium is studied using a numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code. The problem considered is fully compressible (has no Boussinesq approximation), includes ohmic resistivity, and is two-dimensional, i.e., there is no variation of the variables in the direction of the tube axis. We study a high-plasma β-case with a small ratio of radius to external pressure scale height. The results obtained will therefore be of relevance to understanding the transport of magnetic flux across the solar convection zone. We confirm that a sufficient twist of the field lines around the tube axis can suppress the conversion of the tube into two vortex rolls. For a tube with a relative density deficit on the order of 1/β (the classical Parker buoyancy) and a radius smaller than the pressure scale height (R2<tube with this degree of twist is studied in detail, including the initial transient phase, the internal torsional oscillations, and the asymptotic, quasi-stationary phase. During the initial phase, the outermost, weakly magnetized layers of the tube are torn off its main body and endowed with vorticity. They yield a trailing magnetized wake with two vortex rolls. The fraction of the total magnetic flux that is brought to the wake is a function of the initial degree of twist. In the weakly twisted case, most of the initial tube is turned into vortex rolls. With a strong initial twist, the tube rises with only a small deformation and no substantial loss of magnetic flux. The formation of the wake and the loss of flux from the main body of the tube are basically complete after the initial transient phase. A sharp interface between the tube interior and the external flows is formed at the tube front and sides; this area has the characteristic features of a magnetic boundary layer. Its

  12. The singing vortex.

    PubMed

    Arndt, R; Pennings, P; Bosschers, J; van Terwisga, T

    2015-10-06

    Marine propellers display several forms of cavitation. Of these, propeller-tip vortex cavitation is one of the important factors in propeller design. The dynamic behaviour of the tip vortex is responsible for hull vibration and noise. Thus, cavitation in the vortices trailing from tips of propeller blades has been studied extensively. Under certain circumstances cavitating vortices have been observed to have wave-like disturbances on the surfaces of vapour cores. Intense sound at discrete frequencies can result from a coupling between tip vortex disturbances and oscillating sheet cavitation on the surfaces of the propeller blades. This research article focuses on the dynamics of vortex cavitation and more in particular on the energy and frequency content of the radiated pressures.

  13. Vortex dynamics studies in supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergine, Fabrizio

    This dissertation covers the study of selected vortex interaction scenarios both in cold and high enthalpy reacting flows. Specifically, the experimental results and the analysis of the flowfields resulting from two selected supersonic vortex interaction modes in a Mach 2.5 cold flow are presented. Additionally, the experiment design, based on vortex dynamics concepts, and the reacting plume survey of two pylon injectors in a Mach 2.4 high enthalpy flow are shown. All the cold flow experiments were conducted in the supersonic wind tunnel of the Aerodynamics Research Center at the University of Texas at Arlington. A strut injector equipped with specified ramp configurations was designed and used to produce the flowfields of interest. The reacting flow experiments were conducted in the the Expansion Tube Facility located in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory of Stanford University. A detailed description of the supersonic wind tunnel, the instrumentation, the strut injector and the supersonic wake flow downstream is shown as part of the characterization of the facility. As Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry was the principal flow measurement technique used in this work to probe the streamwise vortices shed from ramps mounted on the strut, this dissertation provides a deep overview of the challenges and the application of the aforementioned technique to the survey of vortical flows. Moreover, the dissertation provides the comprehensive analysis of the mean and fluctuating velocity flowfields associated with two distinct vortex dynamics scenarios, as chosen by means of the outcomes of the simulations of a reduced order model developed in the research group. Specifically, the same streamwise vortices (strength, size and Reynolds number) were used experimentally to investigate both a case in which the resulting dynamics evolve in a vortex merging scenario and a case where the merging process is voluntarily avoided in order to focus the analysis on the

  14. Front propagation in a regular vortex lattice: Dependence on the vortex structure.

    PubMed

    Beauvier, E; Bodea, S; Pocheau, A

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the dependence on the vortex structure of the propagation of fronts in stirred flows. For this, we consider a regular set of vortices whose structure is changed by varying both their boundary conditions and their aspect ratios. These configurations are investigated experimentally in autocatalytic solutions stirred by electroconvective flows and numerically from kinematic simulations based on the determination of the dominant Fourier mode of the vortex stream function in each of them. For free lateral boundary conditions, i.e., in an extended vortex lattice, it is found that both the flow structure and the front propagation negligibly depend on vortex aspect ratios. For rigid lateral boundary conditions, i.e., in a vortex chain, vortices involve a slight dependence on their aspect ratios which surprisingly yields a noticeable decrease of the enhancement of front velocity by flow advection. These different behaviors reveal a sensitivity of the mean front velocity on the flow subscales. It emphasizes the intrinsic multiscale nature of front propagation in stirred flows and the need to take into account not only the intensity of vortex flows but also their inner structure to determine front propagation at a large scale. Differences between experiments and simulations suggest the occurrence of secondary flows in vortex chains at large velocity and large aspect ratios.

  15. The effect of tip vortex structure on helicopter noise due to blade/vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, T. L.; Widnall, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    A potential cause of helicopter impulsive noise, commonly called blade slap, is the unsteady lift fluctuation on a rotor blade due to interaction with the vortex trailed from another blade. The relationship between vortex structure and the intensity of the acoustic signal is investigated. The analysis is based on a theoretical model for blade/vortex interaction. Unsteady lift on the blades due to blade/vortex interaction is calculated using linear unsteady aerodynamic theory, and expressions are derived for the directivity, frequency spectrum, and transient signal of the radiated noise. An inviscid rollup model is used to calculate the velocity profile in the trailing vortex from the spanwise distribution of blade tip loading. A few cases of tip loading are investigated, and numerical results are presented for the unsteady lift and acoustic signal due to blade/vortex interaction. The intensity of the acoustic signal is shown to be quite sensitive to changes in tip vortex structure.

  16. The singing vortex

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, R.; Pennings, P.; Bosschers, J.; van Terwisga, T.

    2015-01-01

    Marine propellers display several forms of cavitation. Of these, propeller-tip vortex cavitation is one of the important factors in propeller design. The dynamic behaviour of the tip vortex is responsible for hull vibration and noise. Thus, cavitation in the vortices trailing from tips of propeller blades has been studied extensively. Under certain circumstances cavitating vortices have been observed to have wave-like disturbances on the surfaces of vapour cores. Intense sound at discrete frequencies can result from a coupling between tip vortex disturbances and oscillating sheet cavitation on the surfaces of the propeller blades. This research article focuses on the dynamics of vortex cavitation and more in particular on the energy and frequency content of the radiated pressures. PMID:26442147

  17. Local Heat Transfer for Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers using Oval Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, James Edward; Sohal, Manohar Singh

    2000-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of forced convection heat transfer in a narrow rectangular duct fitted with either a circular tube or an elliptical tube in crossflow. The duct was designed to simulate a single passage in a fin-tube heat exchanger. Heat transfer measurements were obtained using a transient technique in which a heated airflow is suddenly introduced to the test section. High-resolution local fin-surface temperature distributions were obtained at several times after initiation of the transient using an imaging infrared camera. Corresponding local fin-surface heat transfer coefficient distributions were then calculated from a locally appliedmore » one-dimensional semi-infinite inverse heat conduction model. Heat transfer results were obtained over an airflow rate ranging from 1.56 x 10-3 to 15.6 x 10-3 kg/s. These flow rates correspond to a duct-height Reynolds number range of 630 – 6300 with a duct height of 1.106 cm and a duct width-toheight ratio, W/H, of 11.25. The test cylinder was sized such that the diameter-to-duct height ratio, D/H is 5. The elliptical tube had an aspect ratio of 3:1 and a/H equal to 4.33. Results presented in this paper reveal visual and quantitative details of local fin-surface heat transfer distributions in the vicinity of circular and oval tubes and their relationship to the complex horseshoe vortex system that forms in the flow stagnation region. Fin surface stagnation-region Nusselt numbers are shown to be proportional to the square-root of Reynolds number.« less

  18. Phase diagrams of vortex matter with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions in layered superconductors.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyou; Varney, Christopher N; Fangohr, Hans; Babaev, Egor

    2017-01-25

    It was recently proposed to use the stray magnetic fields of superconducting vortex lattices to trap ultracold atoms for building quantum emulators. This calls for new methods for engineering and manipulating of the vortex states. One of the possible routes utilizes type-1.5 superconducting layered systems with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions. In order to explore the possible vortex states that can be engineered, we present two phase diagrams of phenomenological vortex matter models with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions featuring several attractive and repulsive length scales. The phase diagrams exhibit a plethora of phases, including conventional 2D lattice phases, five stripe phases, dimer, trimer, and tetramer phases, void phases, and stable low-temperature disordered phases. The transitions between these states can be controlled by the value of an applied external field.

  19. Supersonic shock wave/vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settles, G. S.; Cattafesta, L.

    1993-01-01

    Although shock wave/vortex interaction is a basic and important fluid dynamics problem, very little research has been conducted on this topic. Therefore, a detailed experimental study of the interaction between a supersonic streamwise turbulent vortex and a shock wave was carried out at the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory. A vortex is produced by replaceable swirl vanes located upstream of the throat of various converging-diverging nozzles. The supersonic vortex is then injected into either a coflowing supersonic stream or ambient air. The structure of the isolated vortex is investigated in a supersonic wind tunnel using miniature, fast-response, five-hole and total temperature probes and in a free jet using laser Doppler velocimetry. The cases tested have unit Reynolds numbers in excess of 25 million per meter, axial Mach numbers ranging from 2.5 to 4.0, and peak tangential Mach numbers from 0 (i.e., a pure jet) to about 0.7. The results show that the typical supersonic wake-like vortex consists of a non-isentropic, rotational core, where the reduced circulation distribution is self similar, and an outer isentropic, irrotational region. The vortex core is also a region of significant turbulent fluctuations. Radial profiles of turbulent kinetic energy and axial-tangential Reynolds stress are presented. The interactions between the vortex and both oblique and normal shock waves are investigated using nonintrusive optical diagnostics (i.e. schlieren, planar laser scattering, and laser Doppler velocimetry). Of the various types, two Mach 2.5 overexpanded-nozzle Mach disc interactions are examined in detail. Below a certain vortex strength, a 'weak' interaction exists in which the normal shock is perturbed locally into an unsteady 'bubble' shock near the vortex axis, but vortex breakdown (i.e., a stagnation point) does not occur. For stronger vortices, a random unsteady 'strong' interaction results that causes vortex breakdown. The vortex core reforms downstream of

  20. High Speed Vortex Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    A review of the research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data reviewed is for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft. These data are presented and discussed relative to the design of future vehicles. Also presented is a brief historical review of the extensive body of high-speed vortex flow research from the 1940s to the present in order to provide perspective of the NASA LaRC's high-speed research results. Data are presented which show the types of vortex structures which occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures to vehicle performance and control is discussed. The data presented shows the presence of both small- and large scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices and the downstream fins. It was shown that these vortex flow interference effects could be both positive and negative. Data are shown which highlights the effect that leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber has on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. The observed flow fields for delta wings (i.e. separation bubble, classical vortex, vortex with shock, etc.) are discussed in the context of' aircraft design. And data have been shown that indicate that aerodynamic performance improvements are available by considering vortex flows as a primary design feature. Finally a discussing of a design approach for wings which utilize vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speed is presented.

  1. Vortex flow hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, A. M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to quantify the hysteresis associated with various vortex flow transition points and to determine the effect of planform geometry. The transition points observed consisted of the appearance (or disappearance) of trailing edge vortex burst and the transition to (or from) flat plate or totally separated flows. Flow visualization with smoke injected into the vortices was used to identify the transitions on a series of semi-span models tested in a low speed tunnel. The planforms tested included simple deltas (55 deg to 80 deg sweep), cranked wings with varying tip panel sweep and dihedral, and a straked wing. High speed movies at 1000 frames per second were made of the vortex flow visualization in order to better understand the dynamics of vortex flow, burst and transition.

  2. Ozone decrease outside Arctic polar vortex due to polar vortex processing in 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyoshi, H.; Sugata, S.; Yoshiki, M.; Sugita, T.

    2006-11-01

    We examine the effect of polar vortex processing on ozone concentrations outside the 1997 Arctic polar vortex. The Arctic vortex in this year was well isolated, cold, and circumpolar, and it broke up unusually late. However, time threshold diagnostics (TTD) analysis using a middle vortex boundary defined by the first derivative of the equivalent latitude gradient of potential vorticity and calculations using the nudging chemical transport model (CTM) of the Center for Climate System Research/National Institute for Environmental Studies (CCSR/NIES) show that there were intermittently several relatively large transport events from the vortex to the outside region in the lower stratosphere, with timescales and spatial scales that can be resolved at T42 CTM horizontal resolution (2.8° by 2.8° grid). These intermittent outflow events of polar air are also identified in TTD analysis using an outer vortex boundary defined by the second derivative of potential vorticity and a boundary defined by the N2O concentration. These intermittent events had a significant effect on the ozone concentration outside the vortex near the boundary in this year. A CTM calculation with a polar chemical ozone tracer shows that the effect on the ozone concentration outside the polar vortex near the vortex boundary in the equivalent latitude band of 55°-65°N and 450 K is 0.3 ppmv (15-20% of the ozone concentration at this height) and that on the total ozone is 12-15 Dobson units (1 DU = 0.001 atm cm) (3-4% of the total ozone) by the end of April just before the final vortex breakup. The effect in the equivalent latitude band of 30°-60°N is much smaller, with a reduction of 2 DU at the end of March and 4 DU by the end of April (less than 1% of the total ozone). The effect is about the half if we use the inner boundary or a boundary of 73°N equivalent latitude for the polar tracer calculations. The CTM calculations also show that these polar vortex processing effects might be masked at

  3. Persistence of metastable vortex lattice domains in MgB2 in the presence of vortex motion.

    PubMed

    Rastovski, C; Schlesinger, K J; Gannon, W J; Dewhurst, C D; DeBeer-Schmitt, L; Zhigadlo, N D; Karpinski, J; Eskildsen, M R

    2013-09-06

    Recently, extensive vortex lattice metastability was reported in MgB2 in connection with a second-order rotational phase transition. However, the mechanism responsible for these well-ordered metastable vortex lattice phases is not well understood. Using small-angle neutron scattering, we studied the vortex lattice in MgB2 as it was driven from a metastable to the ground state through a series of small changes in the applied magnetic field. Our results show that metastable vortex lattice domains persist in the presence of substantial vortex motion and directly demonstrate that the metastability is not due to vortex pinning. Instead, we propose that it is due to the jamming of counterrotated vortex lattice domains which prevents a rotation to the ground state orientation.

  4. Mode coupling in vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyyuboğlu, Halil T.

    2018-05-01

    We examine the mode coupling in vortex beams. Mode coupling also known as the crosstalk takes place due to turbulent characteristics of the atmospheric communication medium. This way, the transmitted intrinsic mode of the vortex beam leaks power to other extrinsic modes, thus preventing the correct detection of the transmitted symbol which is usually encoded into the mode index or the orbital angular momentum state of the vortex beam. Here we investigate the normalized power mode coupling ratios of several types of vortex beams, namely, Gaussian vortex beam, Bessel Gaussian beam, hypergeometric Gaussian beam and Laguerre Gaussian beam. It is found that smaller mode numbers lead to less mode coupling. The same is partially observed for increasing source sizes. Comparing the vortex beams amongst themselves, it is seen that hypergeometric Gaussian beam is the one retaining the most power in intrinsic mode during propagation, but only at lowest mode index of unity. At higher mode indices this advantage passes over to the Gaussian vortex beam.

  5. Vortex/surface interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodstein, G. C. R.; George, A. R.; Hui, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the interaction of a vortex generated upstream in a flow field with a downstream aerodynamic surface that possesses a large chord. The flow is assumed to be steady, incompressible, inviscid and irrotational, and the surface to be semiinfinite. The vortex is considered to be a straight vortex filament. To lowest order the problem is modeled using potential theory, where the 3D Laplace's equation for the velocity potential on the surface is solved exactly. The closed-form equation for pressure distribution obtained from this theory is found to have a square root singularity at the leading-edge. It also converges, as x goes to infinity, to the solution of the 2D point-vortex/infinite plane problem. The pressure coefficient presents an anti-symmetric behavior, near the leading-edge and a symmetric behavior as x goes to infinity.

  6. Vortex-dislodged cells from bone marrow trephine biopsy yield satisfactory results for flow cytometric immunophenotyping.

    PubMed

    Bommannan, K; Sachdeva, M U S; Gupta, M; Bose, P; Kumar, N; Sharma, P; Naseem, S; Ahluwalia, J; Das, R; Varma, N

    2016-10-01

    A good bone marrow (BM) sample is essential in evaluating many hematologic disorders. An unsuccessful BM aspiration (BMA) procedure precludes a successful flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) in most hematologic malignancies. Apart from FCI, most ancillary diagnostic techniques in hematology are less informative. We describe the feasibility of FCI in vortex-dislodged cell preparation obtained from unfixed trephine biopsy (TB) specimens. In pancytopenic patients and dry tap cases, routine diagnostic BMA and TB samples were complemented by additional trephine biopsies. These supplementary cores were immediately transferred into sterile tubes filled with phosphate-buffered saline, vortexed, and centrifuged. The cell pellet obtained was used for flow cytometric immunophenotyping. Of 7955 BMAs performed in 42 months, 34 dry tap cases were eligible for the study. Vortexing rendered a cell pellet in 94% of the cases (32 of 34), and FCI rendered a rapid diagnosis in 100% of the cases (32 of 32) where cell pellets were available. We describe an efficient procedure which could be effectively utilized in resource-limited centers and reduce the frequency of repeat BMA procedures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Vortex and half-vortex dynamics in a nonlinear spinor quantum fluid

    PubMed Central

    Dominici, Lorenzo; Dagvadorj, Galbadrakh; Fellows, Jonathan M.; Ballarini, Dario; De Giorgi, Milena; Marchetti, Francesca M.; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Bramati, Alberto; Gigli, Giuseppe; Szymańska, Marzena H.; Sanvitto, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Vortices are archetypal objects that recur in the universe across the scale of complexity, from subatomic particles to galaxies and black holes. Their appearance is connected with spontaneous symmetry breaking and phase transitions. In Bose-Einstein condensates and superfluids, vortices are both point-like and quantized quasiparticles. We use a two-dimensional (2D) fluid of polaritons, bosonic particles constituted by hybrid photonic and electronic oscillations, to study quantum vortex dynamics. Polaritons benefit from easiness of wave function phase detection, a spinor nature sustaining half-integer vorticity, strong nonlinearity, and tuning of the background disorder. We can directly generate by resonant pulsed excitations a polariton condensate carrying either a full or half-integer vortex as initial condition and follow their coherent evolution using ultrafast imaging on the picosecond scale. The observations highlight a rich phenomenology, such as the spiraling of the half-vortex and the joint path of the twin charges of a full vortex, until the moment of their splitting. Furthermore, we observe the ordered branching into newly generated secondary couples, associated with the breaking of radial and azimuthal symmetries. This allows us to devise the interplay of nonlinearity and sample disorder in shaping the fluid and driving the vortex dynamics. In addition, our observations suggest that phase singularities may be seen as fundamental particles whose quantized events span from pair creation and recombination to 2D+t topological vortex strings. PMID:26665174

  8. Vortex and half-vortex dynamics in a nonlinear spinor quantum fluid.

    PubMed

    Dominici, Lorenzo; Dagvadorj, Galbadrakh; Fellows, Jonathan M; Ballarini, Dario; De Giorgi, Milena; Marchetti, Francesca M; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Bramati, Alberto; Gigli, Giuseppe; Szymańska, Marzena H; Sanvitto, Daniele

    2015-12-01

    Vortices are archetypal objects that recur in the universe across the scale of complexity, from subatomic particles to galaxies and black holes. Their appearance is connected with spontaneous symmetry breaking and phase transitions. In Bose-Einstein condensates and superfluids, vortices are both point-like and quantized quasiparticles. We use a two-dimensional (2D) fluid of polaritons, bosonic particles constituted by hybrid photonic and electronic oscillations, to study quantum vortex dynamics. Polaritons benefit from easiness of wave function phase detection, a spinor nature sustaining half-integer vorticity, strong nonlinearity, and tuning of the background disorder. We can directly generate by resonant pulsed excitations a polariton condensate carrying either a full or half-integer vortex as initial condition and follow their coherent evolution using ultrafast imaging on the picosecond scale. The observations highlight a rich phenomenology, such as the spiraling of the half-vortex and the joint path of the twin charges of a full vortex, until the moment of their splitting. Furthermore, we observe the ordered branching into newly generated secondary couples, associated with the breaking of radial and azimuthal symmetries. This allows us to devise the interplay of nonlinearity and sample disorder in shaping the fluid and driving the vortex dynamics. In addition, our observations suggest that phase singularities may be seen as fundamental particles whose quantized events span from pair creation and recombination to 2D+t topological vortex strings.

  9. Vortex generation and wave-vortex interaction over a concave plate with roughness and suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertolotti, Fabio

    1993-01-01

    The generation and amplification of vortices by surface homogeneities, both in the form of surface waviness and of wall-normal velocity, is investigated using the nonlinear parabolic stability equations. Transients and issues of algebraic growth are avoided through the use of a similarity solution as initial condition for the vortex. In the absence of curvature, the vortex decays as the square root of 1/x when flowing over streamwise aligned riblets of constant height, and grows as the square root of x when flowing over a corresponding streamwise aligned variation of blowing/suction transpiration velocity. However, in the presence of wall inhomogeneities having both streamwise and spanwise periodicity, the growth of the vortex can be much larger. In the presence of curvature, the vortex develops into a Gortler vortex. The 'direct' and 'indirect' interaction mechanisms possible in wave-vortex interaction are presented. The 'direct' interaction does not lead to strong resonance with the flow conditions investigated. The 'indirect' interaction leads to K-type transition.

  10. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; ...

    2016-08-09

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, in this paper, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details ofmore » the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Finally, our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.« less

  11. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, in this paper, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details ofmore » the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Finally, our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.« less

  12. Steady axisymmetric vortex flows with swirl and shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elcrat, Alan R.; Fornberg, Bengt; Miller, Kenneth G.

    A general procedure is presented for computing axisymmetric swirling vortices which are steady with respect to an inviscid flow that is either uniform at infinity or includes shear. We consider cases both with and without a spherical obstacle. Choices of numerical parameters are given which yield vortex rings with swirl, attached vortices with swirl analogous to spherical vortices found by Moffatt, tubes of vorticity extending to infinity and Beltrami flows. When there is a spherical obstacle we have found multiple solutions for each set of parameters. Flows are found by numerically solving the Bragg-Hawthorne equation using a non-Newton-based iterative procedure which is robust in its dependence on an initial guess.

  13. An Organic Vortex Laser.

    PubMed

    Stellinga, Daan; Pietrzyk, Monika E; Glackin, James M E; Wang, Yue; Bansal, Ashu K; Turnbull, Graham A; Dholakia, Kishan; Samuel, Ifor D W; Krauss, Thomas F

    2018-03-27

    Optical vortex beams are at the heart of a number of novel research directions, both as carriers of information and for the investigation of optical activity and chiral molecules. Optical vortex beams are beams of light with a helical wavefront and associated orbital angular momentum. They are typically generated using bulk optics methods or by a passive element such as a forked grating or a metasurface to imprint the required phase distribution onto an incident beam. Since many applications benefit from further miniaturization, a more integrated yet scalable method is highly desirable. Here, we demonstrate the generation of an azimuthally polarized vortex beam directly by an organic semiconductor laser that meets these requirements. The organic vortex laser uses a spiral grating as a feedback element that gives control over phase, handedness, and degree of helicity of the emitted beam. We demonstrate vortex beams up to an azimuthal index l = 3 that can be readily multiplexed into an array configuration.

  14. On the formation modes in vortex interaction for multiple co-axial co-rotating vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Suyang; Liu, Hong; Xiang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Interaction among multiple vortices is of particular importance to biological locomotion. It plays an essential role in the force and energy capture. This study examines the motion and dynamics of multiple co-axial co-rotating vortex rings. The vortex rings, which have the same formation time, are successively generated in a piston-cylinder apparatus by accurately controlling the interval time. The flow fields are visualized by the finite-time Lyapunov exponent and then repelling Lagrangian coherent structures (r-LCSs) are determined. Two types of vortex interactions ("strong" and "weak") are defined by investigating the r-LCSs: a strong interaction is indicated by connected r-LCSs showing a channel for fluid transport (termed as a "flux window"); a weak interaction is indicated by disconnected r-LCSs between the vortex rings. For strong interaction, leapfrogging and merger of vortex rings can happen in the later stage of the evolution process; however, the rings are separated for weak interaction. Two distinct formation modes, the formation enhancement mode (FEM) and formation restraint mode (FRM), refer to the effect of one or multiple vortex ring(s) on the initial circulation of the subsequently formed vortex ring. In the FEM, the circulation of a vortex ring is larger than that of an isolated (without interaction) vortex ring. On the other hand, the situation is opposite in the FRM. A dimensionless number reflecting the interaction mechanism, "structure stretching number" S*, is proposed, which evaluates the induced effect of the wake vortices on the formation of a vortex ring. A limiting S* (SL*=(2 ±0.4 ) ×1 0-4) is the bifurcation point of the two formation modes. The augmentation of circulation reaches up to 10% for the FEM when S*SL*), the circulation decreases for at most 20%. The newly defined formation modes and number could shed light on the understanding of the dynamics of multiple vortex ring flows.

  15. Analysis of Predicted Aircraft Wake Vortex Transport and Comparison with Experiment Volume I -- Wake Vortex Predictive System Study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-04-01

    A unifying wake vortex transport model is developed and applied to a wake vortex predictive system concept. The fundamentals of vortex motion underlying the predictive model are discussed including vortex decay, bursting and instability phenomena. A ...

  16. High-charge and multiple-star vortex coronagraphy from stacked vector vortex phase masks.

    PubMed

    Aleksanyan, Artur; Brasselet, Etienne

    2018-02-01

    Optical vortex phase masks are now installed at many ground-based large telescopes for high-contrast astronomical imaging. To date, such instrumental advances have been restricted to the use of helical phase masks of the lowest even order, while future giant telescopes will require high-order masks. Here we propose a single-stage on-axis scheme to create high-order vortex coronagraphs based on second-order vortex phase masks. By extending our approach to an off-axis design, we also explore the implementation of multiple-star vortex coronagraphy. An experimental laboratory demonstration is reported and supported by numerical simulations. These results offer a practical roadmap to the development of future coronagraphic tools with enhanced performances.

  17. Flow structure of vortex-wing interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Christopher K.

    Impingement of a streamwise-oriented vortex upon a fin, tail, blade or wing represents a fundamental class of flow-structure interaction that extends across a range of applications. This interaction can give rise to time-averaged loading, as well as unsteady loading known as buffeting. The loading is sensitive to parameters of the incident vortex as well as the location of vortex impingement on the downstream aerodynamic surface, generically designated as a wing. Particle image velocimetry is employed to determine patterns of velocity, vorticity, swirl ratio, and streamlines on successive cross-flow planes upstream of and along the wing, which lead to volume representations and thereby characterization of the interaction. At locations upstream of the leading edge of the wing, the evolution of the incident vortex is affected by the presence of the wing, and is highly dependent on the spanwise location of vortex impingement. Even at spanwise locations of impingement well outboard of the wing tip, a substantial influence on the structure of the incident vortex at locations significantly upstream of the leading edge of the wing was observed. For spanwise locations close to or intersecting the vortex core, the effects of upstream influence of the wing on the vortex are to: decrease the swirl ratio; increase the streamwise velocity deficit; decrease the streamwise vorticity; increase the azimuthal vorticity; increase the upwash; decrease the downwash; and increase the root-mean-square fluctuations of both streamwise velocity and vorticity. The interrelationship between these effects is addressed, including the rapid attenuation of axial vorticity in presence of an enhanced defect of axial velocity in the central region of the vortex. Moreover, when the incident vortex is aligned with, or inboard of, the tip of the wing, the swirl ratio decreases to values associated with instability of the vortex, giving rise to enhanced values of azimuthal vorticity relative to the

  18. Thermal analysis of the vortex tube based thermocycler for fast DNA amplification: Experimental and two-dimensional numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, V.; Whitney, Scott E.; Ebmeier, Ryan J.; Padhye, Nisha V.; Nelson, Michael; Viljoen, Hendrik J.; Gogos, George

    2006-09-01

    In this article, experimental and numerical analyses to investigate the thermal control of an innovative vortex tube based polymerase chain reaction (VT-PCR) thermocycler are described. VT-PCR is capable of rapid DNA amplification and real-time optical detection. The device rapidly cycles six 20μl 96bp λ-DNA samples between the PCR stages (denaturation, annealing, and elongation) for 30cycles in approximately 6min. Two-dimensional numerical simulations have been carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT v.6.2.16. Experiments and CFD simulations have been carried out to measure/predict the temperature variation between the samples and within each sample. Heat transfer rate (primarily dictated by the temperature differences between the samples and the external air heating or cooling them) governs the temperature distribution between and within the samples. Temperature variation between and within the samples during the denaturation stage has been quite uniform (maximum variation around ±0.5 and 1.6°C, respectively). During cooling, by adjusting the cold release valves in the VT-PCR during some stage of cooling, the heat transfer rate has been controlled. Improved thermal control, which increases the efficiency of the PCR process, has been obtained both experimentally and numerically by slightly decreasing the rate of cooling. Thus, almost uniform temperature distribution between and within the samples (within 1°C) has been attained for the annealing stage as well. It is shown that the VT-PCR is a fully functional PCR machine capable of amplifying specific DNA target sequences in less time than conventional PCR devices.

  19. A vortex-filament and core model for wings with edge vortex separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, J. L.; Lan, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    A method for predicting aerodynamic characteristics of slender wings with edge vortex separation was developed. Semiempirical but simple methods were used to determine the initial positions of the free sheet and vortex core. Comparison with available data indicates that: the present method is generally accurate in predicting the lift and induced drag coefficients but the predicted pitching moment is too positive; the spanwise lifting pressure distributions estimated by the one vortex core solution of the present method are significantly better than the results of Mehrotra's method relative to the pressure peak values for the flat delta; the two vortex core system applied to the double delta and strake wing produce overall aerodynamic characteristics which have good agreement with data except for the pitching moment; and the computer time for the present method is about two thirds of that of Mehrotra's method.

  20. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  1. Interaction of Vortex Ring with Cutting Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musta, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of a vortex ring impinging on a thin cutting plate was made experimentally using Volumetric 3-component Velocitmetry (v3v) technique. The vortex rings were generated with piston-cylinder vortex ring generator using piston stroke-to-diameter ratios and Re at 2-3 and 1500 - 3000, respectively. The cutting of vortex rings below center line leads to the formation of secondary vortices on each side of the plate which is look like two vortex rings, and a third vortex ring propagates further downstream in the direction of the initial vortex ring, which is previously showed by flow visualization study of Weigand (1993) and called ``trifurcation''. Trifurcation is very sensitive to the initial Reynolds number and the position of the plate with respect to the vortex ring generator pipe. The present work seeks more detailed investigation on the trifurcation using V3V technique. Conditions for the formation of trifurcation is analyzed and compared with Weigand (1993). The formed secondary vortex rings and the propagation of initial vortex ring in the downstream of the plate are analyzed by calculating their circulation, energy and trajectories.

  2. Non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams.

    PubMed

    Aadhi, A; Vaity, Pravin; Chithrabhanu, P; Reddy, Salla Gangi; Prabakar, Shashi; Singh, R P

    2016-02-10

    Vector vortex beams are classified into four types depending upon spatial variation in their polarization vector. We have generated all four of these types of vector vortex beams by using a modified polarization Sagnac interferometer with a vortex lens. Further, we have studied the non-coaxial superposition of two vector vortex beams. It is observed that the superposition of two vector vortex beams with same polarization singularity leads to a beam with another kind of polarization singularity in their interaction region. The results may be of importance in ultrahigh security of the polarization-encrypted data that utilizes vector vortex beams and multiple optical trapping with non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams. We verified our experimental results with theory.

  3. Some observations of tip-vortex cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, R. E. A.; Arakeri, V. H.; Higuchi, H.

    1991-08-01

    Cavitation has been observed in the trailing vortex system of an elliptic platform hydrofoil. A complex dependence on Reynolds number and gas content is noted at inception. Some of the observations can be related to tension effects associated with the lack of sufficiently large-sized nuclei. Inception measurements are compared with estimates of pressure in the vortex obtained from LDV measurements of velocity within the vortex. It is concluded that a complete correlation is not possible without knowledge of the fluctuating levels of pressure in tip-vortex flows. When cavitation is fully developed, the observed tip-vortex trajectory flows. When cavitation is fully developed, the observed tip-vortex trajectory shows a surprising lack of dependence on any of the physical parameters varied, such as angle of attack, Reynolds number, cavitation number, and dissolved gas content.

  4. Wake Vortex and Groundwind Meteorological Measurements

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-05-01

    Wake vortex groundwind and meteorological measurements obtained by DOT-TSC at John F. Kennedy (JKF) International Airport have been reduced, analyzed, and correlated with a theoretical vortex transport model. The predictive Wake Vortex Transport Mode...

  5. Variable residence time vortex combustor

    DOEpatents

    Melconian, Jerry O.

    1987-01-01

    A variable residence time vortex combustor including a primary combustion chamber for containing a combustion vortex, and a plurality of louvres peripherally disposed about the primary combustion chamber and longitudinally distributed along its primary axis. The louvres are inclined to impel air about the primary combustion chamber to cool its interior surfaces and to impel air inwardly to assist in driving the combustion vortex in a first rotational direction and to feed combustion in the primary combustion chamber. The vortex combustor also includes a second combustion chamber having a secondary zone and a narrowed waist region in the primary combustion chamber interconnecting the output of the primary combustion chamber with the secondary zone for passing only lower density particles and trapping higher density particles in the combustion vortex in the primary combustion chamber for substantial combustion.

  6. Vortex rings impinging on permeable boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujal-Colilles, Anna; Dalziel, Stuart B.; Bateman, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with vortex rings impinging permeable and solid boundaries are presented in order to investigate the influence of permeability. Utilizing Particle Image Velocimetry, we compared the behaviour of a vortex ring impinging four different reticulated foams (with permeability k ˜ 26 - 85 × 10-8 m2) and a solid boundary. Results show how permeability affects the stretching phenomena of the vortex ring and the formation and evolution of the secondary vortex ring with opposite sign. Moreover, permeability also affects the macroscopic no-slip boundary condition found on the solid boundary, turning it into an apparent slip boundary condition for the most permeable boundary. The apparent slip-boundary condition and the flux exchange between the ambient fluid and the foam are jointly responsible for both the modified formation of the secondary vortex and changes on the vortex ring diameter increase.

  7. Investigation of the Vortex Tab. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffler, K. D.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was made into the drag reduction capability of vortex tabs on delta wing vortex flaps. The vortex tab is an up-deflected leading edge portion of the vortex flap. Tab deflection augments vortex suction on the flap, thus improving its thrust, but the tab itself is drag producing. Whether a net improvement in the drag reduction can be obtained with vortex tabs, in comparison with plane vortex flaps of the same total area, was the objective of this investigation. Wind tunnel tests were conducted on two models, and analytical studies were performed on one of them using a free vortex sheet theory.

  8. Vortex diode jet

    DOEpatents

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.

  9. Experimental Study of Shock-Induced Compression and Vortex Generation in the Shock-Bubble Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Devesh; Motl, Bradley; Niederhaus, John; Oakley, Jason; Anderson, Mark; Bonazza, Riccardo; Greenough, Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    Results are presented from experiments studying the interaction of a planar shock wave of strength 1.4 tube with a square internal cross-section, 0.254 m on a side, equipped with a pneumatically driven retracting bubble injector. The absence of a bubble holder during shock wave passage allows for a cleaner initial condition while avoiding complications associated with holder/shock interaction. As the planar shock passes over the bubble, the intense vortical and nonlinear acoustic phenomena characterized initially by Haas and Sturtevant (J. Fluid. Mech., 1987) are observed, including vortex ring formation, intense mixing, and growth of turbulence-like features. Flow visualizations are obtained using planar laser diagnostics rather than integral measures. The origin and growth of distinctive counter-rotating secondary vortical features are observed in high Mach number experiments. A number of features of the shock bubble interaction are investigated and parameterized with the incident M and the initial density difference. These include the axial and lateral extents of the bubble, the translational velocity of the bubble and associated vortex rings, and the circulation of the vortex rings.

  10. Vortex Design Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protas, Bartosz

    2007-11-01

    In this investigation we are concerned with a family of solutions of the 2D steady--state Euler equations, known as the Prandtl--Batchelor flows, which are characterized by the presence of finite--area vortex patches embedded in an irrotational flow. We are interested in flows in the exterior of a circular cylinder and with a uniform stream at infinity, since such flows are often employed as models of bluff body wakes in the high--Reynolds number limit. The ``vortex design'' problem we consider consists in determining a distribution of the wall--normal velocity on parts of the cylinder boundary such that the vortex patches modelling the wake vortices will have a prescribed shape and location. Such inverse problem have applications in various areas of flow control, such as mitigation of the wake hazard. We show how this problem can be solved computationally by formulating it as a free--boundary optimization problem. In particular, we demonstrate that derivation of the adjoint system, required to compute the cost functional gradient, is facilitated by application of the shape differential calculus. Finally, solutions of the vortex design problem are illustrated with computational examples.

  11. Atomic Josephson Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaurov, Vitaliy; Kuklov, Anatoly

    2006-03-01

    We show that atomic Josephson vortices [1] in a quasi-1D atomic junction can be controllably manipulated by imposing a tunneling bias current created by a difference of chemical potentials on the atomic BEC waveguides forming the junction. This effect, which has its origin in the Berry phase structure of a vortex, turns out to be very robust in the whole range of the parameters where such vortices can exist [2]. Acceleration of the vortex up to a certain threshold speed, determined by the strength of the Josephson coupling, results in the phase slip causing switching of the vorticity. This effect is directly related to the interconversion [1], when slow variation of the coupling can cause transformation of the vortex into the dark soliton and vice verse. We also propose that a Josephson vortex can be created by the phase imprinting technique and can be identified by a specific tangential feature in the interference picture produced by expanding clouds released from the waveguides [2]. [1] V. M. Kaurov , A. B. Kuklov, Phys. Rev. A 71, 11601(R) (2005). [2] V. M. Kaurov , A. B. Kuklov cond-mat/0508342

  12. An investigation of the vortex method

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, Jr., Duaine Wright

    The vortex method is a numerical scheme for solving the vorticity transport equation. Chorin introduced modern vortex methods. The vortex method is a Lagrangian, grid free method which has less intrinsic diffusion than many grid schemes. It is adaptive in the sense that elements are needed only where the vorticity is non-zero. Our description of vortex methods begins with the point vortex method of Rosenhead for two dimensional inviscid flow, and builds upon it to eventually cover the case of three dimensional slightly viscous flow with boundaries. This section gives an introduction to the fundamentals of the vortex method. Thismore » is done in order to give a basic impression of the previous work and its line of development, as well as develop some notation and concepts which will be used later. The purpose here is not to give a full review of vortex methods or the contributions made by all the researchers in the field. Please refer to the excellent review papers in Sethian and Gustafson, chapters 1 Sethian, 2 Hald, 3 Sethian, 8 Chorin provide a solid introduction to vortex methods, including convergence theory, application in two dimensions and connection to statistical mechanics and polymers. Much of the information in this review is taken from those chapters, Chorin and Marsden and Batchelor, the chapters are also useful for their extensive bibliographies.« less

  13. NASA aircraft trailing vortex research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    A brief description is given of NASA's comprehensive program to study the aircraft trailing vortex problem. Wind tunnel experiments are used to develop the detailed processes of wing tip vortex formation and explore different means to either prevent trailing vortices from forming or induce early break-up. Flight tests provide information on trailing vortex system behavior behind large transport aircraft, both near the ground, as in the vicinity of the airport, and at cruise/holding pattern altitudes. Results from some flight tests are used to show how pilots might avoid the dangerous areas when flying in the vicinity of large transport aircraft. Other flight tests will be made to verify and evaluate trailing vortex elimination schemes developed in the model tests. Laser Doppler velocimeters being developed for use in the research program and to locate and measure vortex winds in the airport area are discussed. Field tests have shown that the laser Doppler velocimeter measurements compare well with those from cup anemometers.

  14. White-light optical vortex coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanburapa, Prachyathit

    An optical vortex is characterized by a dark core of destructive interference in a light beam. One of the methods commonly employed to create an optical vortex is by using a computer-generated hologram. A vortex hologram pattern is computed from the interference pattern between a reference plane wave and a vortex wave, resulting in a forked grating pattern. In astronomy, an optical vortex coronagraph is one of the most promising high contrast imaging techniques for the direct imaging of extra-solar planets. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets is a challenging task since the brightness of the parent star is extremely high compared to its orbiting planets. The on-axis light from the parent star gets diffracted in the coronagraph, forming a "ring of fire" pattern, whereas the slightly off-axis light from the planet remains intact. Lyot stop can then be used to block the ring of fire pattern, thus allowing only the planetary light to get through to the imaging camera. Contrast enhancements of 106 or more are possible, provided the vortex lens (spiral phase plate) has exceptional optical quality. By using a vortex hologram with a 4 microm pitch, and an f/300 focusing lens, we were able to demonstrate the creation of a "ring of fire" using a white light emitting diode as a source. A dispersion compensating linear diffraction grating of 4 microm pitch was used to bring the rings together to form a single white light ring of fire. To our knowledge, this is the first time a vortex hologram based OVC has been demonstrated, resulting in a well-formed white light ring of fire. Experimental results show measured power contrast of 1/515 when HeNe laser source was used as a light source and 1/77 when using a white light emitting diode.

  15. ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl

    2010-01-01

    ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.

  16. Scattering of a vortex pair by a single quantum vortex in a Bose–Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, L. A., E-mail: smirnov-lev@allp.sci-nnov.ru; Smirnov, A. I., E-mail: smirnov@appl.sci-nnov.ru; Mironov, V. A.

    We analyze the scattering of vortex pairs (the particular case of 2D dark solitons) by a single quantum vortex in a Bose–Einstein condensate with repulsive interaction between atoms. For this purpose, an asymptotic theory describing the dynamics of such 2D soliton-like formations in an arbitrary smoothly nonuniform flow of a ultracold Bose gas is developed. Disregarding the radiation loss associated with acoustic wave emission, we demonstrate that vortex–antivortex pairs can be put in correspondence with quasiparticles, and their behavior can be described by canonical Hamilton equations. For these equations, we determine the integrals of motion that can be used tomore » classify various regimes of scattering of vortex pairs by a single quantum vortex. Theoretical constructions are confirmed by numerical calculations performed directly in terms of the Gross–Pitaevskii equation. We propose a method for estimating the radiation loss in a collision of a soliton-like formation with a phase singularity. It is shown by direct numerical simulation that under certain conditions, the interaction of vortex pairs with a core of a single quantum vortex is accompanied by quite intense acoustic wave emission; as a result, the conditions for applicability of the asymptotic theory developed here are violated. In particular, it is visually demonstrated by a specific example how radiation losses lead to a transformation of a vortex–antivortex pair into a vortex-free 2D dark soliton (i.e., to the annihilation of phase singularities).« less

  17. Spectral analysis of point-vortex dynamics: first application to vortex polygons in a circular domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speetjens, M. F. M.; Meleshko, V. V.; van Heijst, G. J. F.

    2014-06-01

    The present study addresses the classical problem of the dynamics and stability of a cluster of N-point vortices of equal strength arranged in a polygonal configuration (‘N-vortex polygons’). In unbounded domains, such N-vortex polygons are unconditionally stable for N\\leqslant 7. Confinement in a circular domain tightens the stability conditions to N\\leqslant 6 and a maximum polygon size relative to the domain radius. This work expands on existing studies on stability and integrability by a first giving an exploratory spectral analysis of the dynamics of N vortex polygons in circular domains. Key to this is that the spectral signature of the time evolution of vortex positions reflects their qualitative behaviour. Expressing vortex motion by a generic evolution operator (the so-called Koopman operator) provides a rigorous framework for such spectral analyses. This paves the way to further differentiation and classification of point-vortex behaviour beyond stability and integrability. The concept of Koopman-based spectral analysis is demonstrated for N-vortex polygons. This reveals that conditional stability can be seen as a local form of integrability and confirms an important generic link between spectrum and dynamics: discrete spectra imply regular (quasi-periodic) motion; continuous (sub-)spectra imply chaotic motion. Moreover, this exposes rich nonlinear dynamics as intermittency between regular and chaotic motion and quasi-coherent structures formed by chaotic vortices. Dedicated to the memory of Slava Meleshko, a dear friend and inspiring colleague.

  18. Full-potential modeling of blade-vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. E.; Caradonna, F. X.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison is made of four different models for predicting the unsteady loading induced by a vortex passing close to an airfoil. (1) The first model approximates the vortex effect as a change in the airfoil angle of attack. (2) The second model is related to the first but, instead of imposing only a constant velocity on the airfoil, the distributed effect of the vortex is computed and used. This is analogous to a lifting surface method. (3) The third model is to specify a branch cut discontinuity in the potential field. The vortex is modeled as a jump in potential across the branch cut, the edge of which represents the center of the vortex. (4) The fourth method models the vortex expressing the potential as the sum of a known potential due to the vortex and an unknown perturbation due to the airfoil. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the four vortex models described above and to determine their relative merits and suitability for use in large three-dimensional codes.

  19. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  20. Influence of the Runner Gap on the Flow Field in the Draft Tube of a Low Head Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junginger, Bernd; Riedelbauch, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    The gap flow of axial turbines is usually neglected in the design process of hydraulic machines, although it can lead to a stabilization of the draft tube flow. Though, this negligence of the gap can falsify the flow field in the draft tube. Presented in this paper are simulations of an axial propeller turbine operated at Δγ = Δγ BEP with Q > Qbep . Simulations of four gap sizes, using a mesh with about 15 million elements for the entire machine, are performed. Additionally, two turbulence models are applied, the k-ω-SST and the SAS-SST model. At the evaluated operating point a full load vortex develops. Depending on the turbulence model the developing vortex rope can either arise from the hub in a straight shape or in a shape resembling a corkscrew. Integral quantities such as head and torque are compared with experimental model test results performed in the laboratory of the Institute. Flow field simulation results are evaluated for different gap widths. Furthermore, the impact of the gap flow respectively the gap size can be observed in velocity profiles evaluated at different positions downstream the runner until to the end of the draft tube cone. Moreover, the pressure signals recorded at the beginning of the draft tube cone are also affected by the gap flow.

  1. Evolution of a plasma vortex in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Chu, Hong-Yu

    2016-01-01

    We report the generation of a vortex-shaped plasma in air by using a capacitively coupled dielectric barrier discharge system. We show that a vortex-shaped plasma can be produced inside a helium gas vortex and is capable of propagating for 3 cm. The fluctuation of the plasma ring shows a scaling relation with the Reynolds number of the vortex. The transient discharge reveals the property of corona discharge, where the conducting channel within the gas vortex and the blur plasma emission are observed at each half voltage cycle.

  2. Evolution of a plasma vortex in air.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Chu, Hong-Yu

    2016-01-01

    We report the generation of a vortex-shaped plasma in air by using a capacitively coupled dielectric barrier discharge system. We show that a vortex-shaped plasma can be produced inside a helium gas vortex and is capable of propagating for 3 cm. The fluctuation of the plasma ring shows a scaling relation with the Reynolds number of the vortex. The transient discharge reveals the property of corona discharge, where the conducting channel within the gas vortex and the blur plasma emission are observed at each half voltage cycle.

  3. Vortex Thermometry for Turbulent Two-Dimensional Fluids.

    PubMed

    Groszek, Andrew J; Davis, Matthew J; Paganin, David M; Helmerson, Kristian; Simula, Tapio P

    2018-01-19

    We introduce a new method of statistical analysis to characterize the dynamics of turbulent fluids in two dimensions. We establish that, in equilibrium, the vortex distributions can be uniquely connected to the temperature of the vortex gas, and we apply this vortex thermometry to characterize simulations of decaying superfluid turbulence. We confirm the hypothesis of vortex evaporative heating leading to Onsager vortices proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 165302 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.165302, and we find previously unidentified vortex power-law distributions that emerge from the dynamics.

  4. An Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) for Dynamical Wake Vortex Spacing Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    A concept is presented for the development and implementation of a prototype Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The purpose of the AVOSS is to use current and short-term predictions of the atmospheric state in approach and departure corridors to provide, to ATC facilities, dynamical weather dependent separation criteria with adequate stability and lead time for use in establishing arrival scheduling. The AVOSS will accomplish this task through a combination of wake vortex transport and decay predictions, weather state knowledge, defined aircraft operational procedures and corridors, and wake vortex safety sensors. Work is currently underway to address the critical disciplines and knowledge needs so as to implement and demonstrate a prototype AVOSS in the 1999/2000 time frame.

  5. Analytical model of the optical vortex microscope.

    PubMed

    Płocinniczak, Łukasz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz

    2016-04-20

    This paper presents an analytical model of the optical vortex scanning microscope. In this microscope the Gaussian beam with an embedded optical vortex is focused into the sample plane. Additionally, the optical vortex can be moved inside the beam, which allows fine scanning of the sample. We provide an analytical solution of the whole path of the beam in the system (within paraxial approximation)-from the vortex lens to the observation plane situated on the CCD camera. The calculations are performed step by step from one optical element to the next. We show that at each step, the expression for light complex amplitude has the same form with only four coefficients modified. We also derive a simple expression for the vortex trajectory of small vortex displacements.

  6. Birth and evolution of an optical vortex.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Sponselli, Anna; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Villoresi, Paolo

    2016-07-25

    When a phase singularity is suddenly imprinted on the axis of an ordinary Gaussian beam, an optical vortex appears and starts to grow radially, by effect of diffraction. This radial growth and the subsequent evolution of the optical vortex under focusing or imaging can be well described in general within the recently introduced theory of circular beams, which generalize the hypergeometric-Gaussian beams and which obey novel kinds of ABCD rules. Here, we investigate experimentally these vortex propagation phenomena and test the validity of circular-beam theory. Moreover, we analyze the difference in radial structure between the newly generated optical vortex and the vortex obtained in the image plane, where perfect imaging would lead to complete closure of the vortex core.

  7. Axisymmetric contour dynamics for buoyant vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Vortex rings are important in many fluid flows in engineering and environmental applications. A family of steady propagating vortex rings including thin-core rings and Hill's spherical vortex was obtained by Norbury (1973). However, the dynamics of vortex rings in the presence of buoyancy has not been investigated yet in detail. When the core of a ring is thin, we may formulate reduced equations using momentum balance for vortex filaments, but that is not the case for ``fat'' rings. In our study, we use contour dynamics to study the time evolution of axisymmetric vortex rings when the density of the fluid inside the ring differs from that of the ambient. Axisymmetry leads to an almost-conserved material variable when the Boussinesq approximation is made. A set of integro-differential equations is solved numerically for these buoyant vortex rings. The same physical settings are also used to run a DNS code and compare to the results from contour dynamics.

  8. Microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Hua-Zhou; Li, Ying; Li, Bo; Ma, Ren-Min

    2016-12-01

    A microscale vortex laser is a new type of coherent light source with small footprint that can directly generate vector vortex beams. However, a microscale laser with controlled topological charge, which is crucial for virtually any of its application, is still unrevealed. Here we present a microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge. The vortex laser eigenmode was synthesized in a metamaterial engineered non-Hermitian micro-ring cavity system at exceptional point. We also show that the vortex laser cavity can operate at exceptional point stably to lase under optical pumping. The microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge can serve as a unique and general building block for next-generation photonic integrated circuits and coherent vortex beam sources. The method we used here can be employed to generate lasing eigenmode with other complex functionalities. Project supported by the “Youth 1000 Talent Plan” Fund, Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 201421) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574012 and 61521004).

  9. The Effect of the Air-Delivery Method on Parameters of the Precessing Vortex Core in a Hydrodynamic Vortex Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, S. V.; Shtork, S. I.; Yusupov, R. R.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of the method of gas-phase injection into a swirled fluid flow on parameters of a precessing vortex core is studied experimentally. Conditions of the appearance of the vortex-core precession effect were modeled in a hydrodynamic sudden expansion vortex chamber. The dependences of the vortexcore precession frequency, flow-pulsation level, and full pressure differential in the vortex chamber on the consumption gas content in the flow have been obtained. The results of measurements permit one to determine optimum conditions for the most effective control of vortex-core precession.

  10. An Introduction to Vortex Breakdown and Vortex Core Bursting (Introduction a la Rupture et a l’Eclatement du Noyau des Vortex).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    solved by the use of finite - .- core vortex filament models (Chorin and Bernard, 1973). A recent paper by Stremel (1984) briefly reviewed this...history of vortex sheet numerical modeling and presented a ’state of the art’ numerical technique. Stremel compared his numerical results with experimental

  11. Wingtip vortex turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A means for extracting rotational energy from the vortex created at aircraft wing tips which consists of a turbine with blades located in the crossflow of the vortex and attached downstream of the wingtip. The turbine has blades attached to a core. When the aircraft is in motion, rotation of a core transmits energy to a centrally attached shaft. The rotational energy thus generated may be put to use within the airfoil or aircraft fuselage.

  12. Vortex-Core Reversal Dynamics: Towards Vortex Random Access Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Koog

    2011-03-01

    An energy-efficient, ultrahigh-density, ultrafast, and nonvolatile solid-state universal memory is a long-held dream in the field of information-storage technology. The magnetic random access memory (MRAM) along with a spin-transfer-torque switching mechanism is a strong candidate-means of realizing that dream, given its nonvolatility, infinite endurance, and fast random access. Magnetic vortices in patterned soft magnetic dots promise ground-breaking applications in information-storage devices, owing to the very stable twofold ground states of either their upward or downward core magnetization orientation and plausible core switching by in-plane alternating magnetic fields or spin-polarized currents. However, two technologically most important but very challenging issues --- low-power recording and reliable selection of each memory cell with already existing cross-point architectures --- have not yet been resolved for the basic operations in information storage, that is, writing (recording) and readout. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a magnetic vortex random access memory (VRAM) in the basic cross-point architecture. This unique VRAM offers reliable cell selection and low-power-consumption control of switching of out-of-plane core magnetizations using specially designed rotating magnetic fields generated by two orthogonal and unipolar Gaussian-pulse currents along with optimized pulse width and time delay. Our achievement of a new device based on a new material, that is, a medium composed of patterned vortex-state disks, together with the new physics on ultrafast vortex-core switching dynamics, can stimulate further fruitful research on MRAMs that are based on vortex-state dot arrays.

  13. Starting Vortex Identified as Key to Unsteady Ejector Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    Unsteady ejectors are currently under investigation for use in some pulse-detonation-engine-based propulsion systems. Experimental measurements made in the past, and recently at the NASA Glenn Research Center, have demonstrated that thrust augmentation can be enhanced considerably when the driver is unsteady. In ejector systems, thrust augmentation is defined as = T(sup Total)/T(sup j), where T(sup Total) is the total thrust of the combined ejector and driving jet and T(sup j) is the thrust due to the driving jet alone. There are three images in this figure, one for each of the named thrust sources. The images are color contours of measured instantaneous vorticity. Each image is an ensemble average of at least 150 phase-locked measurements. The flow is from right to left, and the shape and location of each driver is shown on the far right of each image. The emitted vortex is a clearly defined "doughnut" of highly vortical (spinning) flow. In these planar images, the vortex appears as two distorted circles, one above, and one below the axis of symmetry. Because they are spinning in the opposite direction, the two circles have vorticity of opposite sign and thus are different colors. There is also a rectangle shown in each image. Its width represents the ejector diameter that was found experimentally to yield the highest thrust augmentation. It is apparent that the optimal ejector diameter is that which just "captures" the vortex: that is, the diameter bounding the outermost edge of the vortex structure. The exact mechanism behind the enhanced performance is unclear; however, it is believed to be related to the powerful vortex emitted with each pulse of the unsteady driver. As such, particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurements were obtained for three unsteady drivers: a pulsejet, a resonance tube, and a speaker-driven jet. All the drivers were tested with ejectors, and all exhibited performance enhancement over similarly sized steady drivers. The characteristic

  14. A Hybrid Vortex Sheet / Point Vortex Model for Unsteady Separated Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darakananda, Darwin; Eldredge, Jeff D.; Colonius, Tim; Williams, David R.

    2015-11-01

    The control of separated flow over an airfoil is essential for obtaining lift enhancement, drag reduction, and the overall ability to perform high agility maneuvers. In order to develop reliable flight control systems capable of realizing agile maneuvers, we need a low-order aerodynamics model that can accurately predict the force response of an airfoil to arbitrary disturbances and/or actuation. In the present work, we integrate vortex sheets and variable strength point vortices into a method that is able to capture the formation of coherent vortex structures while remaining computationally tractable for control purposes. The role of the vortex sheet is limited to tracking the dynamics of the shear layer immediately behind the airfoil. When parts of the sheet develop into large scale structures, those sections are replaced by variable strength point vortices. We prevent the vortex sheets from growing indefinitely by truncating the tips of the sheets and transfering their circulation into nearby point vortices whenever the length of sheet exceeds a threshold. We demonstrate the model on a variety of canonical problems, including pitch-up and impulse translation of an airfoil at various angles of attack. Support by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-14-1-0328) with program manager Dr. Douglas Smith is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Measurement of vortex velocities over a wide range of vortex age, downstream distance and free stream velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorke, J. B.; Moffett, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to obtain vortex velocity signatures over a wide parameter range encompassing the data conditions of several previous researchers while maintaining a common instrumentation and test facility. The generating wing panel was configured with both a revolved airfoil tip shape and a square tip shape and had a semispan aspect of 4.05/1.0 with a 121.9 cm span. Free stream velocity was varied from 6.1 m/sec to 76.2 m/sec and the vortex core velocities were measured at locations 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 chordlengths downstream of the wing trailing edge, yielding vortex ages up to 2.0 seconds. Wing pitch angles of 6, 8, 9 and 12 deg were investigated. Detailed surface pressure distributions and wing force measurements were obtained for each wing tip configuration. Correlation with vortex velocity data taken in previous experiments is good. During the rollup process, vortex core parameters appear to be dependent primarily on vortex age. Trending in the plateau and decay regions is more complex and the machanisms appear to be more unstable.

  16. Shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, H. A.; Liu, C. H.

    1992-01-01

    Computational simulation and study of shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes are considered for bound (internal) and unbound (external) flow domains. The problem is formulated using the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations which are solved using an implicit, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. For the bound flow domain, a supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct and the problem is solved for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. For the unbound domain, a supersonic swirling flow issued from a nozzle into a uniform supersonic flow of lower Mach number is considered for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. The results show several modes of breakdown; e.g., no-breakdown, transient single-bubble breakdown, transient multi-bubble breakdown, periodic multi-bubble multi-frequency breakdown and helical breakdown.

  17. Vortex model of open channel flows with gravel beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Brian James

    visualization. Under the specific conditions of a turbulent burst the fluid domain is organized as a braided flow of vortices connected by prime knot patterns of thin-cored flux tubes embedded on an abstract vortex surface itself having topology of a Klein bottle. This model explains observed streamline patterns in the vicinity of a strong turbulent burst in a gravel-bed river as a coherent structure in the turbulent velocity field. KEY WORDS: Open channel flow, turbulence, gravel-bed rivers, coherent structures, velocity distributions

  18. Large-scale vortex structures and local heat release in lean turbulent swirling jet-flames under vortex breakdown conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikishev, Leonid; Lobasov, Aleksei; Sharaborin, Dmitriy; Markovich, Dmitriy; Dulin, Vladimir; Hanjalic, Kemal

    2017-11-01

    We investigate flame-flow interactions in an atmospheric turbulent high-swirl methane/air lean jet-flame at Re from 5,000 to 10,000 and equivalence ratio below 0.75 at the conditions of vortex breakdown. The focus is on the spatial correlation between the propagation of large-scale vortex structures, including precessing vortex core, and the variations of the local heat release. The measurements are performed by planar laser-induced fluorescence of hydroxyl and formaldehyde, applied simultaneously with the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry technique. The data are processed by the proper orthogonal decomposition. The swirl rate exceeded critical value for the vortex breakdown resulting in the formation of a processing vortex core and secondary helical vortex filaments that dominate the unsteady flow dynamics both of the non-reacting and reacting jet flows. The flame front is located in the inner mixing layer between the recirculation zone and the annular swirling jet. A pair of helical vortex structures, surrounding the flame, stretch it and cause local flame extinction before the flame is blown away. This work is supported by Russian Science Foundation (Grant No 16-19-10566).

  19. Vortex Flow Correlation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    vorticity model used on the wing as well as on the leading-edge vortex sheet. Since the trailing-edge wake vorti- city does not have the close...z SECTION B-B ( WAKE ) FIGURE 11. FLOW PAST A SLENDER WING WITH LEADING-EDGE VORTEX FLOW 49 * -- A water tunnel is useful in visualizing the reversed...on fighter aircraft which generate strong vortical flows. The differences in apparent mass between a model in air and a model in water require analysis

  20. Dynamics of Isolated Tip Vortex Cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennings, Pepijn; Bosschers, Johan; van Terwisga, Tom

    2014-11-01

    Performance of ship propellers and comfort levels in the surroundings are limited by various forms of cavitation. Amongst these forms tip vortex cavitation is one of the first appearing forms and is expected to be mainly responsible for the emission of broadband pressure fluctuations typically occurring between the 4th to the 7th blade passing frequency (approx. 40--70 Hz). These radiated pressure pulses are likely to excite parts of the hull structure resulting in a design compromise between efficiency and comfort. Insight is needed in the mechanism of acoustic emission from the oscillations by a tip vortex cavity. In the current experimental study the tip vortex cavity from a blade with an elliptic planform and sections based on NACA 662 - 415 with meanline a = 0 . 8 is observed using high speed shadowgraphy in combination with blade force and acoustic measurements. An analytic model describing three main cavity deformation modes is verified and used to explain the origin of a cavity eigenfrequency or ``vortex singing'' phenomenon observed by Maines and Arndt (1997) on the tip vortex cavity originating from the same blade. As no hydrodynamic sound originating from the tip vortex cavity was observed it is posed that a tip flow instability is essential for ``vortex singing.'' This research was funded by the Lloyd's Register Foundation as part of the International Institute for Cavitation Research.

  1. Flow visualizations of perpendicular blade vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rife, Michael C.; Davenport, William J.

    1992-01-01

    Helium bubble flow visualizations have been performed to study perpendicular interaction of a turbulent trailing vortex and a rectangular wing in the Virginia Tech Stability Tunnel. Many combinations of vortex strength, vortex-blade separation (Z(sub s)) and blade angle of attack were studied. Photographs of representative cases are presented. A range of phenomena were observed. For Z(sub s) greater than a few percent chord the vortex is deflected as it passes the blade under the influence of the local streamline curvature and its image in the blade. Initially the interaction appears to have no influence on the core. Downstream, however, the vortex core begins to diffuse and grow, presumably as a consequence of its interaction with the blade wake. The magnitude of these effects increases with reduction in Z(sub s). For Z(sub s) near zero the form of the interaction changes and becomes dependent on the vortex strength. For lower strengths the vortex appears to split into two filaments on the leading edge of the blade, one passing on the pressure and one passing on the suction side. At higher strengths the vortex bursts in the vicinity of the leading edge. In either case the core of its remnants then rapidly diffuse with distance downstream. Increase in Reynolds number did not qualitatively affect the flow apart from decreasing the amplitude of the small low-frequency wandering motions of the vortex. Changes in wing tip geometry and boundary layer trip had very little effect.

  2. The modelling of symmetric airfoil vortex generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichert, B. A.; Wendt, B. J.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted to determine the dependence of vortex generator geometry and impinging flow conditions on shed vortex circulation and crossplane peak vorticity for one type of vortex generator. The vortex generator is a symmetric airfoil having a NACA 0012 cross-sectional profile. The geometry and flow parameters varied include angle-of-attack alfa, chordlength c, span h, and Mach number M. The vortex generators are mounted either in isolation or in a symmetric counter-rotating array configuration on the inside surface of a straight pipe. The turbulent boundary layer thickness to pipe radius ratio is delta/R = 0. 17. Circulation and peak vorticity data are derived from crossplane velocity measurements conducted at or about 1 chord downstream of the vortex generator trailing edge. Shed vortex circulation is observed to be proportional to M, alfa, and h/delta. With these parameters held constant, circulation is observed to fall off in monotonic fashion with increasing airfoil aspect ratio AR. Shed vortex peak vorticity is also observed to be proportional to M, alfa, and h/delta. Unlike circulation, however, peak vorticity is observed to increase with increasing aspect ratio, reaching a peak value at AR approx. 2.0 before falling off.

  3. Modeling Vortex Generators in the Wind-US Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudek, Julianne C.

    2010-01-01

    A source term model which simulates the effects of vortex generators was implemented into the Wind-US Navier Stokes code. The source term added to the Navier-Stokes equations simulates the lift force which would result from a vane-type vortex generator in the flowfield. The implementation is user-friendly, requiring the user to specify only three quantities for each desired vortex generator: the range of grid points over which the force is to be applied and the planform area and angle of incidence of the physical vane. The model behavior was evaluated for subsonic flow in a rectangular duct with a single vane vortex generator, supersonic flow in a rectangular duct with a counterrotating vortex generator pair, and subsonic flow in an S-duct with 22 co-rotating vortex generators. The validation results indicate that the source term vortex generator model provides a useful tool for screening vortex generator configurations and gives comparable results to solutions computed using a gridded vane.

  4. Rotor Vortex Filaments: Living on the Slipstream's Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of rotor wake evolution in hover and axial flow by deriving an analytical solution for the time dependent behavior of vortex filament circulation and core size. This solution is applicable only for vortex filaments in the rotor far-wake. A primarily inviscid vortex/shear layer interaction (where the slipstream boundary is modeled as a shear layer) has been identified in this analytical treatment. This vortex/shear layer interaction results in decreasing, vortex filament circulation and core size with time. The inviscid vortex/shear layer interaction is shown, in a first-order treatment, to be of greater magnitude than viscous diffusion effects. The rate of contraction, and ultimate collapse, of the vortex filament core is found to be directly proportional to the rotor inflow velocity. This new insight into vortex filament decay promises to help reconcile several disparate observations made in the literature and will, hopefully, promote new advances in theoretical modeling of rotor wakes.

  5. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.

    2017-02-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications.

  6. Documentation for Three Wake Vortex Model Data Sets from Simulation of Flight 587 Wake Vortex Encounter Accident Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, George F.

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a general description for data sets of a wake vortex system in a turbulent environment. The turbulence and thermal stratification of the environment are representative of the conditions on November 12, 2001 near John F. Kennedy International Airport. The simulation assumes no ambient winds. The full three dimensional simulation of the wake vortex system from a Boeing 747 predicts vortex circulation levels at 80% of their initial value at the time of the proposed vortex encounter. The linked vortex oval orientation showed no twisting, and the oval elevations at the widest point were about 20 meters higher than where the vortex pair joined. Fred Proctor of NASA?s Langley Research Center presented the results from this work at the NTSB public hearing that started 29 October 2002. This document contains a description of each data set including: variables, coordinate system, data format, and sample plots. Also included are instructions on how to read the data.

  7. Rewritable ferroelectric vortex pairs in BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Jin, Yaming; Lu, Xiaomei; Yang, Jan-Chi; Chu, Ying-Hao; Huang, Fengzhen; Zhu, Jinsong; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2017-08-01

    Ferroelectric vortex in multiferroic materials has been considered as a promising alternative to current memory cells for the merit of high storage density. However, the formation of regular natural ferroelectric vortex is difficult, restricting the achievement of vortex memory device. Here, we demonstrated the creation of ferroelectric vortex-antivortex pairs in BiFeO3 thin films by using local electric field. The evolution of the polar vortex structure is studied by piezoresponse force microscopy at nanoscale. The results reveal that the patterns and stability of vortex structures are sensitive to the poling position. Consecutive writing and erasing processes cause no influence on the original domain configuration. The Z4 proper coloring vortex-antivortex network is then analyzed by graph theory, which verifies the rationality of artificial vortex-antivortex pairs. This study paves a foundation for artificial regulation of vortex, which provides a possible pathway for the design and realization of non-volatile vortex memory devices and logical devices.

  8. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  9. Numerical and experimental evidence of the inter-blade cavitation vortex development at deep part load operation of a Francis turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Müller, A.; Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Avellan, F.

    2016-11-01

    Francis turbines are subject to various types of the cavitation flow depending on the operating conditions. In order to compensate for the stochastic nature of renewable energy sources, it is more and more required to extend the operating range of the generating units, from deep part load to full load conditions. In the deep part load condition, the formation of cavitation vortices in the turbine blade to blade channels called inter-blade cavitation vortex is often observed. The understanding of the dynamic characteristics of these inter-blade vortices and their formation mechanisms is of key importance in an effort of developing reliable flow simulation tools. This paper reports the numerical and experimental investigations carried out in order to establish the vortex characteristics, especially the inception and the development of the vortex structure. The unsteady RANS simulation for the multiphase flow is performed with the SST- SAS turbulence model by using the commercial flow solver ANSYS CFX. The simulation results in terms of the vortex structure and the cavitation volume are evaluated by comparing them to the flow visualizations of the blade channel acquired through a specially instrumented guide vane as well as from the downstream of the runner across the draft tube cone. The inter-blade cavitation vortex is successfully captured by the simulation and both numerical and experimental results evidence that the inter-blade vortices are attached to the runner hub.

  10. Chicago Monostatic Acoustic Vortex Sensing System. Volume IV. Wake Vortex Decay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    analysis here, the peak velocity core radius cannot be directly compared to the present results. If one applies the analysis of Table 10 to the LDV vortex...Tietjens, O.G., Applied Hydro- and Aeromechanics, Dover, New York, 1957, pp. 158-163. 11. Hallock, J.N., "Vortex Advisory System Safety Analysis, Vol. I...Stability and Control Characteristics Model DC-9-30 Jet Transport," LB-32323, Dec. 1966 (revised Oct. 1968), Douglas Aircraft Company , Long Beach, CA. 13

  11. Vortex Flows at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.

    2003-01-01

    A review of research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data are for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft with Mach numbers of 1.5 to 4.6. Data are presented to show the types of vortex structures that occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures on vehicle performance and control. The data show the presence of both small- and large-scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices. Data are shown that highlight the effect of leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. Finally, a discussion of a design approach for wings that use vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speeds is presented.

  12. Internal structure of a vortex breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Leonard, A.; Spalart, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    An axisymmetric vortex breakdown was well simulated by the vortex filament method. The agreement with the experiment was qualitatively good. In particular, the structure in the interior of the vortex breakdown was ensured to a great degree by the present simulation. The second breakdown, or spiral type, which occurs downstream of the first axisymmetric breakdown, was simulated more similarly to the experiment than before. It shows a kink of the vortex filaments and strong three-dimensionality. Furthermore, a relatively low velocity region was observed near the second breakdown. It was also found that it takes some time for this physical phenomenon to attain its final stage. The comparison with the experiment is getting better as time goes on. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the comparison of the simulated results with the experiment. The present results help to make clear the mechanism of a vortex breakdown.

  13. Improving Vortex Generators to Enhance the Performance of Air-Cooled Condensers in a Geothermal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Manohar S. Sohal

    2005-09-01

    terms of Colburn j-factor) associated with deployment of the winglets with circular as well as oval tubes. In general, toe-in (common flow up) type winglets appear to have better performance than the toe-out (common flow down) type winglets. Comparisons of heat transfer and pressure drop results for the elliptical tube versus a circular tube with and without winglets are provided. During the course of their independent research, all of the researchers have established that about 10 to 30% enhancement in Colburn j-factor is expected. However, actual increase in heat transfer rate from a heat exchanger employing finned tubes with winglets may be smaller, perhaps on the order of 2 to 5%. It is also concluded that for any specific application, more full-size experimentation is needed to optimize the winglet design for a specific heat exchanger application. If in place of a circular tube, an oval tube can be economically used in a bundle, it is expected that the pressure drop across the tube bundle with the application of vortex generators (winglets) will be similar to that in a conventional circular tube bundle. It is hoped that the results of this research will demonstrate the benefits of applying vortex generators (winglets) on the fins to improve the heat transfer from the air-side of the tube bundle.« less

  14. Vortex dynamics in the wake of a pivoted cylinder undergoing vortex-induced vibrations with elliptic trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, Erik; Morton, Christopher; Yarusevych, Serhiy

    2018-05-01

    Vortex-induced vibrations of a pivoted cylinder are investigated experimentally at a fixed Reynolds number of 3100, a mass ratio of 10.8, and a range of reduced velocities, 4.42 ≤ U^* ≤ 9.05. For these conditions, the cylinder traces elliptic trajectories, with the experimental conditions producing three out of four possible combinations of orbiting direction and primary axis alignment relative to the incoming flow. The study focuses on the quantitative analysis of wake topology and its relation to this type of structural response. Velocity fields were measured using time-resolved, two-component particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV). These results show that phase-averaged wake topology generally agrees with the Morse and Williamson (J Fluids Struct 25(4):697-712, 2009) shedding map for one-degree-of-freedom vortex-induced vibrations, with 2S, 2{P}o, and 2P shedding patterns observed within the range of reduced velocities studied here. Vortex tracking and vortex strength quantification are used to analyze the vortex shedding process and how it relates to cylinder response. In the case of 2S vortex shedding, vortices are shed when the cylinder is approaching the maximum transverse displacement and reaches the streamwise equilibrium. 2P vortices are shed approximately half a period earlier in the cylinder's elliptic trajectory. Leading vortices shed immediately after the peak in transverse oscillation and trailing vortices shed near the equilibrium of transverse oscillation. The orientation and direction of the cylinder's elliptic trajectory are shown to influence the timing of vortex shedding, inducing changes in the 2P wake topology.

  15. VORCOR: A computer program for calculating characteristics of wings with edge vortex separation by using a vortex-filament and-core model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, J. L.; Mehrotra, S. C.; Lan, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code base on an improved vortex filament/vortex core method for predicting aerodynamic characteristics of slender wings with edge vortex separations is developed. The code is applicable to camber wings, straked wings or wings with leading edge vortex flaps at subsonic speeds. The prediction of lifting pressure distribution and the computer time are improved by using a pair of concentrated vortex cores above the wing surface. The main features of this computer program are: (1) arbitrary camber shape may be defined and an option for exactly defining leading edge flap geometry is also provided; (2) the side edge vortex system is incorporated.

  16. Vortex matter stabilized by many-body interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S.; Vagov, A.; Shanenko, A. A.; Axt, V. M.; Aguiar, J. Albino

    2017-10-01

    This work investigates interactions of vortices in superconducting materials between standard types I and II, in the domain of the so-called intertype (IT) superconductivity. Contrary to common expectations, the many-body (many-vortex) contribution is not a correction to the pair-vortex interaction here but plays a crucial role in the formation of the IT vortex matter. In particular, the many-body interactions stabilize vortex clusters that otherwise could not exist. Furthermore, clusters with large numbers of vortices become more stable when approaching the boundary between the intertype domain and type I. This indicates that IT superconductors develop a peculiar unconventional type of the vortex matter governed by the many-body interactions of vortices.

  17. Vortex Wakes of Subsonic Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    A historical overview will be presented of the research conducted on the structure and modification of the vortices generated by the lifting surfaces of subsonic transport aircraft. The seminar will describe the three areas of vortex research; namely, the magnitude of the hazard posed, efforts to reduce the hazard to an acceptable level, and efforts to develop a systematic means for avoiding vortex wakes. It is first pointed out that the characteristics of lift-generated vortices are related to the aerodynamic shapes that produce them and that various arrangements of surfaces can be used to produce different vortex structures. The largest portion of the research conducted to date has been directed at finding ways to reduce the hazard potential of lift-generated vortices shed by subsonic transport aircraft in the vicinity of airports during landing and takeoff operations. It is stressed that lift-generated vortex wakes are so complex that progress towards a solution requires application of a combined theoretical and experimental research program because either alone often leads to incorrect conclusions. It is concluded that a satisfactory aerodynamic solution to the wake-vortex problem at airports has not yet been found but a reduction in the impact of the wake-vortex hazard on airport capacity may become available in the foreseeable future through wake-vortex avoidance concepts currently under study. The material to be presented in this overview is drawn from articles published in aerospace journals that are available publicly.

  18. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.

    1995-01-01

    An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.

  19. Vortex Ring Interaction with a Heated Screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jason; Krueger, Paul S.

    2008-11-01

    Previous examinations of vortex rings impinging on porous screens has shown the reformation of the vortex ring with a lower velocity after passing through the screen, the creation of secondary vortices, and mixing. A heated screen could, in principle, alter the vortex-screen interaction by changing the local liquid viscosity and density. In the present investigation, a mechanical piston-cylinder vortex ring generator was used to create vortex rings in an aqueous sucrose solution. The rings impinged on a screen of horizontal wires that were heated using electrical current. The flow was visualized with food color and video imaging. Tests with and without heat were conducted at a piston stroke-to-jet diameter ratio of 4 and a jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1000. The vortex rings slowed after passing through the screen, but in tests with heat, they maintained a higher fraction of their before-screen velocity due to reduction in fluid viscosity near the wires. In addition, small ``fingers'' that developed on the front of the vortex rings as they passed through the screen exhibited positive buoyancy effects in the heated case.

  20. Mitigation of tip vortex cavitation by means of air injection on a Kaplan turbine scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivetti, A.; Angulo, M.; Lucino, C.; Liscia, S.

    2014-03-01

    Kaplan turbines operating at full-load conditions may undergo excessive vibration, noise and cavitation. In such cases, damage by erosion associated to tip vortex cavitation can be observed at the discharge ring. This phenomenon involves design features such as (1) overhang of guide vanes; (2) blade profile; (3) gap increasing size with blade opening; (4) suction head; (5) operation point; and (6) discharge ring stiffness, among others. Tip vortex cavitation may cause erosion at the discharge ring and draft tube inlet following a wavy pattern, in which the number of vanes can be clearly identified. Injection of pressurized air above the runner blade centerline was tested as a mean to mitigate discharge ring cavitation damage on a scale model. Air entrance was observed by means of a high-speed camera in order to track the air trajectory toward its mergence with the tip vortex cavitation core. Post-processing of acceleration signals shows that the level of vibration and the RSI frequency amplitude decrease proportionally with air flow rate injected. These findings reveal the potential mitigating effect of air injection in preventing cavitation damage and will be useful in further tests to be performed on prototype, aiming at determining the optimum air flow rate, size and distribution of the injectors.

  1. Experimental investigation of the local wave speed in a draft tube with cavitation vortex rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, C.; Favrel, A.; Müller, A.; Nicolet, C.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2014-03-01

    Hydraulic machines operating in a wider range are subjected to cavitation developments inducing undesirable pressure pulsations which could lead to potential instability of the power plant. The occurrence of pulsating cavitation volumes in the runner and the draft tube is considered as a mass source of the system and is depending on the cavitation compliance. This dynamic parameter represents the cavitation volume variation with the respect to a variation of pressure and defines implicitly the local wave speed in the draft tube. This parameter is also decisive for an accurate prediction of system eigen frequencies. Therefore, the local wave speed in the draft tube is intrinsically linked to the eigen frequencies of the hydraulic system. Thus, if the natural frequency of a hydraulic system can be determined experimentally, it also becomes possible to estimate a local wave speed in the draft tube with a numerical model. In the present study, the reduced scale model of a Francis turbine (v=0.29) was investigated at off-design conditions. In order to measure the first eigenmode of the hydraulic test rig, an additional discharge was injected at the inlet of the hydraulic turbine at a variable frequency and amplitude to excite the system. Thus, with different pressure sensors installed on the test rig, the first eigenmode was determined. Then, a hydro-acoustic test rig model was developed with the In-house EPFL SIMSEN software and the local wave speed in the draft tube was adjusted to obtain the same first eigen frequency as that measured experimentally. Finally, this method was applied for different Thoma and Froude numbers at part load conditions.

  2. Interaction of a vortex and a premixed flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferziger, Joel H.; Rutland, Christopher J.

    1989-01-01

    The interaction of a vortex structure and a premixed flame is studied. The presence of pressure gradients in the vortex and density gradients in the flame result in a complicated interaction. This interaction has been examined when the flame and vortex are fully coupled and in two special cases where they are decoupled: a frozen flame case and a frozen vortex case. In the frozen flame case the main effect of the flame on the vortex is through the barocline torque term. This has been modeled for high Damkoehler numbers. In the frozen vortex case the main effect, at moderate Damkoehler numbers, is to convect the flame around the vortex. At low Damkoehler numbers, depending on the length scales, pockets of unburned gas can form or the flame structure can be significantly changed. The two frozen cases provide a basis for understanding the full interaction.

  3. Guiding principles for vortex flow controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    In the practice of vortex flow controls, the most important factor is that the persistency and obstinacy of a concentrated vortex depend on its stability and dissipation. In this paper, the modern nonlinear stability theory for circulation-preserving flows is summarized, and the dissipation for general viscous flows is analyzed in terms of the evolution of total enstrophy. These analyses provide a theoretical base for understanding relevant physics of vortex flows, and lead to some guiding principles and methods for their controls. Case studies taken from various theoretical and/or experimental works of vortex controls, due to the present authors as well as others, confirm the feasibility of the recommended principles and methods.

  4. Spin Vortex Resonance in Non-planar Ferromagnetic Dots

    DOE PAGES

    Ding, Junjia; Lapa, Pavel; Jain, Shikha; ...

    2016-05-04

    In planar structures, the vortex resonance frequency changes little as a function of an in-plane magnetic field as long as the vortex state persists. Altering the topography of the element leads to a vastly different dynamic response that arises due to the local vortex core confinement effect. In this work, we studied the magnetic excitations in non-planar ferromagnetic dots using a broadband microwave spectroscopy technique. Two distinct regimes of vortex gyration were detected depending on the vortex core position. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with micromagnetic simulations.

  5. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.

  6. Vortex Filaments in Grids for Scalable, Fine Smoke Simulation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhang; Weixin, Si; Yinling, Qian; Hanqiu, Sun; Jing, Qin; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Vortex modeling can produce attractive visual effects of dynamic fluids, which are widely applicable for dynamic media, computer games, special effects, and virtual reality systems. However, it is challenging to effectively simulate intensive and fine detailed fluids such as smoke with fast increasing vortex filaments and smoke particles. The authors propose a novel vortex filaments in grids scheme in which the uniform grids dynamically bridge the vortex filaments and smoke particles for scalable, fine smoke simulation with macroscopic vortex structures. Using the vortex model, their approach supports the trade-off between simulation speed and scale of details. After computing the whole velocity, external control can be easily exerted on the embedded grid to guide the vortex-based smoke motion. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of using the proposed scheme for a visually plausible smoke simulation with macroscopic vortex structures.

  7. Giant moving vortex mass in thick magnetic nanodots

    PubMed Central

    Guslienko, K. Y.; Kakazei, G. N.; Ding, J.; Liu, X. M.; Adeyeye, A. O.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic vortex is one of the simplest topologically non-trivial textures in condensed matter physics. It is the ground state of submicron magnetic elements (dots) of different shapes: cylindrical, square etc. So far, the vast majority of the vortex dynamics studies were focused on thin dots with thickness 5–50 nm and only uniform across the thickness vortex excitation modes were observed. Here we explore the fundamental vortex mode in relatively thick (50–100 nm) dots using broadband ferromagnetic resonance and show that dimensionality increase leads to qualitatively new excitation spectra. We demonstrate that the fundamental mode frequency cannot be explained without introducing a giant vortex mass, which is a result of the vortex distortion due to interaction with spin waves. The vortex mass depends on the system geometry and is non-local because of important role of the dipolar interaction. The mass is rather small for thin dots. However, its importance increases drastically with the dot thickness increasing. PMID:26355430

  8. Giant moving vortex mass in thick magnetic nanodots.

    PubMed

    Guslienko, K Y; Kakazei, G N; Ding, J; Liu, X M; Adeyeye, A O

    2015-09-10

    Magnetic vortex is one of the simplest topologically non-trivial textures in condensed matter physics. It is the ground state of submicron magnetic elements (dots) of different shapes: cylindrical, square etc. So far, the vast majority of the vortex dynamics studies were focused on thin dots with thickness 5-50 nm and only uniform across the thickness vortex excitation modes were observed. Here we explore the fundamental vortex mode in relatively thick (50-100 nm) dots using broadband ferromagnetic resonance and show that dimensionality increase leads to qualitatively new excitation spectra. We demonstrate that the fundamental mode frequency cannot be explained without introducing a giant vortex mass, which is a result of the vortex distortion due to interaction with spin waves. The vortex mass depends on the system geometry and is non-local because of important role of the dipolar interaction. The mass is rather small for thin dots. However, its importance increases drastically with the dot thickness increasing.

  9. Flow visualization study of a vortex-wing interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.; Lim, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    A flow visualization study in water was completed on the interaction of a streamwise vortex with a laminar boundary layer on a two-dimensional wing. The vortex was generated at the tip of a finite wing at incidence, mounted perpendicular to the main wing, and having the same chord as the main wing. The Reynolds number based on wing chord was about 5000. Two different visualization techniques were used. One involved the injection of two different colored dyes into the vortex and the boundary layer. The other technique utilized hydrogen bubbles as an indicator. The position of the vortex was varied in a directional normal to the wing. The angle of attack of the main wing was varied from -5 to +12.5 deg. The vortex induced noticeable cross flows in the wing boundary layer from a distance equivalent to 0.75 chords. When very close to the wing, the vortex entrained boundary layer fluid and caused a cross flow separation which resulted in a secondary vortex.

  10. Modeling Vortex Generators in a Navier-Stokes Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudek, Julianne C.

    2011-01-01

    A source-term model that simulates the effects of vortex generators was implemented into the Wind-US Navier-Stokes code. The source term added to the Navier-Stokes equations simulates the lift force that would result from a vane-type vortex generator in the flowfield. The implementation is user-friendly, requiring the user to specify only three quantities for each desired vortex generator: the range of grid points over which the force is to be applied and the planform area and angle of incidence of the physical vane. The model behavior was evaluated for subsonic flow in a rectangular duct with a single vane vortex generator, subsonic flow in an S-duct with 22 corotating vortex generators, and supersonic flow in a rectangular duct with a counter-rotating vortex-generator pair. The model was also used to successfully simulate microramps in supersonic flow by treating each microramp as a pair of vanes with opposite angles of incidence. The validation results indicate that the source-term vortex-generator model provides a useful tool for screening vortex-generator configurations and gives comparable results to solutions computed using gridded vanes.

  11. Non-Abelian vortex lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallarita, Gianni; Peterson, Adam

    2018-04-01

    We perform a numerical study of the phase diagram of the model proposed in [M. Shifman, Phys. Rev. D 87, 025025 (2013)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.025025], which is a simple model containing non-Abelian vortices. As per the case of Abrikosov vortices, we map out a region of parameter space in which the system prefers the formation of vortices in ordered lattice structures. These are generalizations of Abrikosov vortex lattices with extra orientational moduli in the vortex cores. At sufficiently large lattice spacing the low energy theory is described by a sum of C P (1 ) theories, each located on a vortex site. As the lattice spacing becomes smaller, when the self-interaction of the orientational field becomes relevant, only an overall rotation in internal space survives.

  12. Nonlinear ion acoustic waves scattered by vortexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Yuji; Yoshida, Zensho

    2016-09-01

    The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy is the archetype of infinite-dimensional integrable systems, which describes nonlinear ion acoustic waves in two-dimensional space. This remarkably ordered system resides on a singular submanifold (leaf) embedded in a larger phase space of more general ion acoustic waves (low-frequency electrostatic perturbations). The KP hierarchy is characterized not only by small amplitudes but also by irrotational (zero-vorticity) velocity fields. In fact, the KP equation is derived by eliminating vorticity at every order of the reductive perturbation. Here, we modify the scaling of the velocity field so as to introduce a vortex term. The newly derived system of equations consists of a generalized three-dimensional KP equation and a two-dimensional vortex equation. The former describes 'scattering' of vortex-free waves by ambient vortexes that are determined by the latter. We say that the vortexes are 'ambient' because they do not receive reciprocal reactions from the waves (i.e., the vortex equation is independent of the wave fields). This model describes a minimal departure from the integrable KP system. By the Painlevé test, we delineate how the vorticity term violates integrability, bringing about an essential three-dimensionality to the solutions. By numerical simulation, we show how the solitons are scattered by vortexes and become chaotic.

  13. Tunable magnetic vortex resonance in a potential well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnicke, P.; Wohlhüter, P.; Suszka, A. K.; Stevenson, S. E.; Heyderman, L. J.; Raabe, J.

    2017-11-01

    We use frequency-resolved x-ray microscopy to fully characterize the potential well of a magnetic vortex in a soft ferromagnetic permalloy square. The vortex core is excited with magnetic broadband pulses and simultaneously displaced with a static magnetic field. We observe a frequency increase (blueshift) in the gyrotropic mode of the vortex core with increasing bias field. Supported by micromagnetic simulations, we show that this frequency increase is accompanied by internal deformation of the vortex core. The ability to modify the inner structure of the vortex core provides a mechanism to control the dynamics of magnetic vortices.

  14. Dynamic Control of Collapse in a Vortex Airy Beam

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Chew, Khian-Hooi; He, Sailing

    2013-01-01

    Here we study systematically the self-focusing dynamics and collapse of vortex Airy optical beams in a Kerr medium. The collapse is suppressed compared to a non-vortex Airy beam in a Kerr medium due to the existence of vortex fields. The locations of collapse depend sensitively on the initial power, vortex order, and modulation parameters. The collapse may occur in a position where the initial field is nearly zero, while no collapse appears in the region where the initial field is mainly distributed. Compared with a non-vortex Airy beam, the collapse of a vortex Airy beam can occur at a position away from the area of the initial field distribution. Our study shows the possibility of controlling and manipulating the collapse, especially the precise position of collapse, by purposely choosing appropriate initial power, vortex order or modulation parameters of a vortex Airy beam. PMID:23518858

  15. Aperiodicity Correction for Rotor Tip Vortex Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramasamy, Manikandan; Paetzel, Ryan; Bhagwat, Mahendra J.

    2011-01-01

    The initial roll-up of a tip vortex trailing from a model-scale, hovering rotor was measured using particle image velocimetry. The unique feature of the measurements was that a microscope was attached to the camera to allow much higher spatial resolution than hitherto possible. This also posed some unique challenges. In particular, the existing methodologies to correct for aperiodicity in the tip vortex locations could not be easily extended to the present measurements. The difficulty stemmed from the inability to accurately determine the vortex center, which is a prerequisite for the correction procedure. A new method is proposed for determining the vortex center, as well as the vortex core properties, using a least-squares fit approach. This approach has the obvious advantage that the properties are derived from not just a few points near the vortex core, but from a much larger area of flow measurements. Results clearly demonstrate the advantage in the form of reduced variation in the estimated core properties, and also the self-consistent results obtained using three different aperiodicity correction methods.

  16. Counterexamples to Moffatt's statements on vortex knots.

    PubMed

    Bogoyavlenskij, Oleg

    2017-04-01

    One of the well-known problems of hydrodynamics is studied: the problem of classification of vortex knots for ideal fluid flows. In the literature there are known Moffatt statements that all torus knots K_{m,n} for all rational numbers m/n (0vortex knots for each one of the considered axisymmetric fluid flows. We prove that actually such a uniformity does not exist because it does not correspond to the facts. Namely, we derive a complete classification of all vortex knots realized for the fluid flows studied by Moffatt and demonstrate that the real structure of vortex knots is much more rich because the sets of mutually nonisotopic vortex knots realized for different axisymmetric fluid flows are all different. An exact formula for the limit of the hydrodynamic safety factor q_{h} at a vortex axis is derived for arbitrary axisymmetric fluid equilibria. Another exact formula is obtained for the limit of the magnetohydrodynamics safety factor q at a magnetic axis for the general axisymmetric plasma equilibria.

  17. Vector spherical quasi-Gaussian vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2014-02-01

    Model equations for describing and efficiently computing the radiation profiles of tightly spherically focused higher-order electromagnetic beams of vortex nature are derived stemming from a vectorial analysis with the complex-source-point method. This solution, termed as a high-order quasi-Gaussian (qG) vortex beam, exactly satisfies the vector Helmholtz and Maxwell's equations. It is characterized by a nonzero integer degree and order (n,m), respectively, an arbitrary waist w0, a diffraction convergence length known as the Rayleigh range zR, and an azimuthal phase dependency in the form of a complex exponential corresponding to a vortex beam. An attractive feature of the high-order solution is the rigorous description of strongly focused (or strongly divergent) vortex wave fields without the need of either the higher-order corrections or the numerically intensive methods. Closed-form expressions and computational results illustrate the analysis and some properties of the high-order qG vortex beams based on the axial and transverse polarization schemes of the vector potentials with emphasis on the beam waist.

  18. Robust vortex lines, vortex rings, and hopfions in three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, R. N.; Wang, Wenlong; Ticknor, Christopher

    Performing a systematic Bogoliubov–de Gennes spectral analysis, we illustrate that stationary vortex lines, vortex rings, and more exotic states, such as hopfions, are robust in three-dimensional atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, for large parameter intervals. Importantly, we find that the hopfion can be stabilized in a simple parabolic trap, without the need for trap rotation or inhomogeneous interactions. We supplement our spectral analysis by studying the dynamics of such stationary states; we find them to be robust against significant perturbations of the initial state. In the unstable regimes, we not only identify the unstable mode, such as a quadrupolar or hexapolar mode,more » but we also observe the corresponding instability dynamics. Moreover, deep in the Thomas-Fermi regime, we investigate the particlelike behavior of vortex rings and hopfions.« less

  19. Robust vortex lines, vortex rings, and hopfions in three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates

    DOE PAGES

    Bisset, R. N.; Wang, Wenlong; Ticknor, Christopher; ...

    2015-12-07

    Performing a systematic Bogoliubov–de Gennes spectral analysis, we illustrate that stationary vortex lines, vortex rings, and more exotic states, such as hopfions, are robust in three-dimensional atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, for large parameter intervals. Importantly, we find that the hopfion can be stabilized in a simple parabolic trap, without the need for trap rotation or inhomogeneous interactions. We supplement our spectral analysis by studying the dynamics of such stationary states; we find them to be robust against significant perturbations of the initial state. In the unstable regimes, we not only identify the unstable mode, such as a quadrupolar or hexapolar mode,more » but we also observe the corresponding instability dynamics. Moreover, deep in the Thomas-Fermi regime, we investigate the particlelike behavior of vortex rings and hopfions.« less

  20. Topological Vortex and Knotted Dissipative Optical 3D Solitons Generated by 2D Vortex Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veretenov, N. A.; Fedorov, S. V.; Rosanov, N. N.

    2017-12-01

    We predict a new class of three-dimensional (3D) topological dissipative optical one-component solitons in homogeneous laser media with fast saturable absorption. Their skeletons formed by vortex lines where the field vanishes are tangles, i.e., Nc knotted or unknotted, linked or unlinked closed lines and M unclosed lines that thread all the closed lines and end at the infinitely far soliton periphery. They are generated by embedding two-dimensional laser solitons or their complexes in 3D space after their rotation around an unclosed, infinite vortex line with topological charge M0 (Nc , M , and M0 are integers). With such structure propagation, the "hula-hoop" solitons form; their stability is confirmed numerically. For the solitons found, all vortex lines have unit topological charge: the number of closed lines Nc=1 and 2 (unknots, trefoils, and Solomon knots links); unclosed vortex lines are unknotted and unlinked, their number M =1 , 2, and 3.

  1. Topological Vortex and Knotted Dissipative Optical 3D Solitons Generated by 2D Vortex Solitons.

    PubMed

    Veretenov, N A; Fedorov, S V; Rosanov, N N

    2017-12-29

    We predict a new class of three-dimensional (3D) topological dissipative optical one-component solitons in homogeneous laser media with fast saturable absorption. Their skeletons formed by vortex lines where the field vanishes are tangles, i.e., N_{c} knotted or unknotted, linked or unlinked closed lines and M unclosed lines that thread all the closed lines and end at the infinitely far soliton periphery. They are generated by embedding two-dimensional laser solitons or their complexes in 3D space after their rotation around an unclosed, infinite vortex line with topological charge M_{0} (N_{c}, M, and M_{0} are integers). With such structure propagation, the "hula-hoop" solitons form; their stability is confirmed numerically. For the solitons found, all vortex lines have unit topological charge: the number of closed lines N_{c}=1 and 2 (unknots, trefoils, and Solomon knots links); unclosed vortex lines are unknotted and unlinked, their number M=1, 2, and 3.

  2. Flux tubes and coherence length in the SU(3) vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cea, P.; Cosmai, L.; Cuteri, F.; Papa, A.

    An estimate of the London penetration and coherence lengths in the vacuum of the SU(3) pure gauge theory is given downstream an analysis of the transverse profile of the chromoelectric flux tubes. Within ordinary superconductivity, a simple variational model for the magnitude of the normalized order parameter of an isolated vortex produces an analytic expression for magnetic field and supercurrent density. In the picture of SU(3) vacuum as dual superconductor, this expression provides us with the function that fits the chromoelectric field data. The smearing procedure is used in order to reduce noise.

  3. Vortex methods for separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalart, Philippe R.

    1988-01-01

    The numerical solution of the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations by Lagrangian vortex methods is discussed. The mathematical background is presented and includes the relationship with traditional point-vortex studies, convergence to smooth solutions of the Euler equations, and the essential differences between two and three-dimensional cases. The difficulties in extending the method to viscous or compressible flows are explained. Two-dimensional flows around bluff bodies are emphasized. Robustness of the method and the assessment of accuracy, vortex-core profiles, time-marching schemes, numerical dissipation, and efficient programming are treated. Operation counts for unbounded and periodic flows are given, and two algorithms designed to speed up the calculations are described.

  4. The Vortex of Burgers in Protoplanetary Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamyan, M. G.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of a Burgers vortex on formation of planetesimals in a protoplanetary disc in local approach is considered. It is shown that there is not any circular orbit for rigid particles in centrifugal balance; only stable position in Burgers vortex under the influence of centrifugal, Coriolis, pressure gradient and Stokes drag forces is the center of vortex. The two-dimensional anticyclonic Burgers vortex with homogeneously rotating kernel and a converging radial stream of substance can effectively accumulate in its nuclear area the meter- sized rigid particles of total mass ˜1028g for characteristic time ˜106yr.

  5. Particle-vortex symmetric liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an effective theory with manifest particle-vortex symmetry for disordered thin films undergoing a magnetic field-tuned superconductor-insulator transition. The theory may enable one to access both the critical properties of the strong-disorder limit, which has recently been confirmed by Breznay et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 280 (2016), 10.1073/pnas.1522435113] to exhibit particle-vortex symmetric electrical response, and the nearby metallic phase discovered earlier by Mason and Kapitulnik [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5341 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.5341] in less disordered samples. Within the effective theory, the Cooper-pair and field-induced vortex degrees of freedom are simultaneously incorporated into an electrically neutral Dirac fermion minimally coupled to a (emergent) Chern-Simons gauge field. A derivation of the theory follows upon mapping the superconductor-insulator transition to the integer quantum Hall plateau transition and the subsequent use of Son's particle-hole symmetric composite Fermi liquid. Remarkably, particle-vortex symmetric response does not require the introduction of disorder; rather, it results when the Dirac fermions exhibit vanishing Hall effect. The theory predicts approximately equal (diagonal) thermopower and Nernst signal with a deviation parameterized by the measured electrical Hall response at the symmetric point.

  6. A counter-rotating vortex pair in inviscid fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibah, Ummu; Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2017-12-01

    We study the motion of a counter-rotating vortex pair with the circulations ±Γ move in incompressible fluid. The assumption is made that the core is very thin, that is the core radius σ is much smaller than the vortex radius d such that ɛ = σ/d ≪ 1. With this condition, the method of matched asymptotic expansion is employed. The solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and the Biot-Savart law, regarding the inner and outer solutions respectively, are constructed in the form of a small parameter. An asymptotic expansion of the Biot-Savart law near the vortex core provides with the matching condition for an asymptotic expansion for limiting the Navier-Stokes equations for large radius r. The general formula of an anti-parallel vortex pair is established. At leading order O(ɛ0), we apply the special case in inviscid fluid, the Rankine vortex, a circular vortex of uniform vorticity. Furthermore at leading order O(ɛ5) we show the traveling speed of a vortex pair.

  7. Robust and adjustable C-shaped electron vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousley, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Babiker, M.; Yuan, J.

    2017-06-01

    Wavefront engineering is an important quantum technology, often applied to the production of states carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). Here, we demonstrate the design and production of robust C-shaped beam states carrying OAM, in which the usual doughnut-shaped transverse intensity structure of the vortex beam contains an adjustable gap. We find that the presence of the vortex lines in the core of the beam is crucial for maintaining the stability of the C-shape structure during beam propagation. The topological charge of the vortex core controls mainly the size of the C-shape, while its opening angle is related to the presence of vortex-anti-vortex loops. We demonstrate the generation and characterisation of C-shaped electron vortex beams, although the result is equally applicable to other quantum waves. C-shaped electron vortex beams have potential applications in nanoscale fabrication of planar split-ring structures and three-dimensional chiral structures as well as depth sensing and magnetic field determination through rotation of the gap in the C-shape.

  8. 3D vortex formation of drag-based propulsors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daegyoum; Gharib, Morteza

    2008-11-01

    Three dimensional vortex formation mechanism of impulsively rotating plates is studied experimentally using defocusing digital particle image velocimetry. The plate face is normal to the moving direction to simulate drag-based propulsion and only one power stroke is considered. In order to compare the effect of shape on vortex generation, three different shapes of plate (rectangular, triangular and duck's webbed-foot shapes) are used. These three cases show striking differences in vortex formation process during power stroke. Axial flow is shown to play an important role in the tip vortex formation. Correlation between hydrodynamic forces acting on the plate and vortex formation processes is described.

  9. Interaction of a turbulent vortex with a lifting surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D. J.; Roberts, L.

    1985-01-01

    The impulsive noise due to blade-vortex-interaction is analyzing in the time domain for the extreme case when the blade cuts through the center of the vortex core with the assumptions of no distortion of the vortex path or of the vortex core. An analytical turbulent vortex core model, described in terms of the tip aerodynamic parameters, is used and its effects on the unsteady loading and maximum acoustic pressure during the interaction are determined.

  10. Devices that Alter the Tip Vortex of a Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlister, Kenneth W.; Tung, Chee; Heineck, James T.

    2001-01-01

    Small devices were attached near the tip of a hovering rotor blade 'in order to alter the structure and trajectory of the trailing vortex. Stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) images were used to quantify the wake behind the rotor blade during the first revolution. A procedure for analyzing the 3D-velocity field is presented that includes a method for accounting for vortex wander. The results show that a vortex generator can alter the trajectory of the trailing vortex and that a major change in the size and intensity of the trailing vortex can be achieved by introducing a high level of turbulence into the core of the vortex.

  11. Interaction of a Vortex with Axial Flow and a Cylindrical Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radcliff, T. D.; Burgraff, O. R.; Conlisk, A. T.

    1998-11-01

    The direct collision of a vortex with a surface is an important problem because significant impulsive loads may be generated leading to premature fatigue. Experimental results for the impingement of a tip-vortex on a cylindrical airframe indicate that a suction peak forms on the top of the airframe which is subsequently reduced within milliseconds of vortex-surface contact. A simple line-vortex model can predict the experimental results until the vortex is within a vortex-core radius of the airframe. After this the model predicts continually deepening rather than lessening suction. Study of the experimental results suggests that axial flow within the core of a tip-vortex has an impact on the airframe pressure distribution upon close approach. The mechanism for this is hypothesized to be the inviscid redistribution of the vorticity field within the vortex coupled with deformation of the vortex core. Two models of a tip-vortex with axial flow are considered. First a classical line vortex with a cut-off parameter is superimposed with suitably placed vortex rings. This model simulates the helically wound vortex shed by the rotor tip. Inclusion of axial flow is found to prevent thinning of the vortex core as the vortex stretches around the cylindrical surface during the collision process. With less thinning, vorticity is observed to overlap the solid cylinder, highlighting the fact that the vortex core must deform from its original cylindrical shape. A second model is developed in which axial and azimuthal vorticity are uniformly distributed throughout a rectangular-section vortex. Area and aspect ratio of this vortex can be varied independently to simulate deformation of the vortex core. Both vorticity redistribution and core deformation are shown to be important to properly calculate the local induced pressure loads. The computational results are compared with the results of experiments conducted at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

  12. Tempest in a glass tube: A helical vortex formation in a complex plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitou, Yoshifumi; Ishihara, Osamu; Ishihara

    2014-12-01

    A collective behavior of dust particles in a complex plasma with a magnetic field (up to 4 kG) is investigated. Dust particles form a dust disk which is rotating in a horizontal plane pushed by ions rotating with the E × B drift as a trigger force. The thickness of the disk is determined by controlling the experimental conditions. The disk rotates in a horizontal plane and forms a two-dimensional thin structure when the pressure pAr is relatively high. The dust particles are ejected from near the disk center and form a rotation in the vertical plane and, hence, forms a helical vortex when the disk is thick for relatively low pAr . The reason the dust disk has the different thickness is due to the neutral pressure. Under a higher (lower) neutral gas pressure, the disk becomes two (three) dimensional due to the influence of the neutral drag force.

  13. Hydroelectric System Response to Part Load Vortex Rope Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alligné, S.; Nicolet, C.; Bégum, A.; Landry, C.; Gomes, J.; Avellan, F.

    2016-11-01

    The prediction of pressure and output power fluctuations amplitudes on Francis turbine prototype is a challenge for hydro-equipment industry since it is subjected to guarantees to ensure smooth and reliable operation of the hydro units. The European FP7 research project Hyperbole aims to setup a methodology to transpose the pressure fluctuations induced by the cavitation vortex rope on the reduced scale model to the prototype generating units. A Francis turbine unit of 444MW with a specific speed value of v = 0.29, is considered as case study. A SIMSEN model of the power station including electrical system, controllers, rotating train and hydraulic system with transposed draft tube excitation sources is setup. Based on this model, a frequency analysis of the hydroelectric system is performed to analyse potential interactions between hydraulic excitation sources and electrical components.

  14. Vortex Lattices in the Bose-Fermi Superfluid Mixture.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuzhu; Qi, Ran; Shi, Zhe-Yu; Zhai, Hui

    2017-02-24

    In this Letter we show that the vortex lattice structure in the Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture can undergo a sequence of structure transitions when the Fermi superfluid is tuned from the BCS regime to the BEC regime. This is due to the difference in the vortex core structure of a Fermi superfluid in the BCS regime and in the BEC regime. In the BCS regime the vortex core is nearly filled, while the density at the vortex core gradually decreases until it empties out in the BEC regime. Therefore, with the density-density interaction between the Bose and the Fermi superfluids, interaction between the two sets of vortex lattices gets stronger in the BEC regime, which yields the structure transition of vortex lattices. In view of the recent realization of this superfluid mixture and vortices therein, our theoretical predication can be verified experimentally in the near future.

  15. Titan South Polar Vortex in Motion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-10

    This image from a movie captured by NASAS Cassini spacecraft shows a south polar vortex, or shows a south polar vortex, or a swirling mass of gas around the pole in the atmosphere, at Saturn moon Titan.

  16. Vortex reconnection in the K-type transitional channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yaomin; Yang, Yue; Chen, Shiyi

    2016-11-01

    Vortex reconnection, as the topological change of vortex lines or surfaces, is a critical process in transitional flows, but is challenging to accurately characterize in shear flows. We apply the vortex-surface field (VSF), whose isosurface is the vortex surface consisting of vortex lines, to study vortex reconnection in the K-type temporal transition in channel flow. Based on the VSF, both qualitative visualization and quantitative analysis are used to investigate the reconnection between the hairpin-like vortical structures evolving from the opposite channel halves. The incipient vortex reconnection is characterized by the vanishing minimum distance between a pair of vortex surfaces and the reduction of vorticity flux through the region enclosed by the VSF isolines on the spanwise symmetric plane. In addition, we find that the surge of the wall friction coefficient begins at the identified reconnection time, which is discussed with the induced velocity during reconnection and the Biot-Sarvart law. This work has been supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11522215 and 11521091), and the Thousand Young Talents Program of China.

  17. Vortex interaction with a leading-edge of finite thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, D.; Rockwell, Donald

    1987-01-01

    Vortex interaction with a thick elliptical leading-edge at zero relative offset produces a pronounced secondary vortes of opposite sense that travels with the same phase speed as the primaty vortex along the lower surface of the edge. The edge thickness (scale) relative to the incident vorticity field has a strong effect on the distortion of the incident primary vortex during the impingement processs. When the thickness is sufficiently small, there is a definite severing of the incident vortex and the portion of the incident vortex that travels along the upper part of the elliptical surface has a considerably larger phase speed than that along the lower surface; this suggests that the integrated loading along the upper surface is more strongly correlated. When the thickness becomes too large, then most, if not all, of the incident vortex passes below the leading-edge. On the other hand, the relative tranverse offset of the edge with respect to the center of the incident vortex has a significant effect on the secondary vortex formation.

  18. Nonlinear Binormal Flow of Vortex Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, Scott; Carr, Lincoln

    2015-11-01

    With the current advances in vortex imaging of Bose-Einstein condensates occurring at the Universities of Arizona, São Paulo and Cambridge, interest in vortex filament dynamics is experiencing a resurgence. Recent simulations, Salman (2013), depict dissipative mechanisms resulting from vortex ring emissions and Kelvin wave generation associated with vortex self-intersections. As the local induction approximation fails to capture reconnection events, it lacks a similar dissipative mechanism. On the other hand, Strong&Carr (2012) showed that the exact representation of the velocity field induced by a curved segment of vortex contains higher-order corrections expressed in powers of curvature. This nonlinear binormal flow can be transformed, Hasimoto (1972), into a fully nonlinear equation of Schrödinger type. Continued transformation, Madelung (1926), reveals that the filament's square curvature obeys a quasilinear scalar conservation law with source term. This implies a broader range of filament dynamics than is possible with the integrable linear binormal flow. In this talk we show the affect higher-order corrections have on filament dynamics and discuss physical scales for which they may be witnessed in future experiments. Partially supported by NSF.

  19. Drift due to viscous vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, Thomas; Spagnolie, Saverio; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2016-11-01

    Biomixing is the study of fluid mixing due to swimming organisms. While large organisms typically produce turbulent flows in their wake, small organisms produce less turbulent wakes; the main mechanism of mixing is the induced net particle displacement (drift). Several experiments have examined this drift for small jellyfish, which produce vortex rings that trap and transport a fair amount of fluid. Inviscid theory implies infinite particle displacements for the trapped fluid, so the effect of viscosity must be included to understand the damping of real vortex motion. We use a model viscous vortex ring to compute particle displacements and other relevant quantities, such as the integrated moments of the displacement. Fluid entrainment at the tail end of a growing vortex 'envelope' is found to play an important role in the total fluid transport and drift. Partially supported by NSF Grant DMS-1109315.

  20. Valley Vortex States in Sonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2016-03-01

    Valleytronics is quickly emerging as an exciting field in fundamental and applied research. In this Letter, we study the acoustic version of valley states in sonic crystals and reveal a vortex nature of such states. In addition to the selection rules established for exciting valley polarized states, a mimicked valley Hall effect of sound is proposed further. The extraordinary chirality of valley vortex states, detectable in experiments, may open a new possibility in sound manipulations. This is appealing to scalar acoustics that lacks a spin degree of freedom inherently. In addition, the valley selection enables a handy way to create vortex matter in acoustics, in which the vortex chirality can be controlled flexibly. Potential applications can be anticipated with the exotic interaction of acoustic vortices with matter, such as to trigger the rotation of the trapped microparticles without contact.

  1. The Acoustically Driven Vortex Cannon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Spencer B.; Gee, Kent L.

    2014-01-01

    Vortex cannons have been used by physics teachers for years, mostly to teach the continuity principle. In its simplest form, a vortex cannon is an empty coffee can with a hole cut in the bottom and the lid replaced. More elaborate models can be purchased through various scientific suppliers under names such as "Air Cannon" and…

  2. How to perform measurements in a hovering animal's wake: physical modelling of the vortex wake of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed Central

    Tytell, Eric D; Ellington, Charles P

    2003-01-01

    The vortex wake structure of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using a vortex ring generator. Based on existing kinematic and morphological data, a piston and tube apparatus was constructed to produce circular vortex rings with the same size and disc loading as a hovering hawkmoth. Results show that the artificial rings were initially laminar, but developed turbulence owing to azimuthal wave instability. The initial impulse and circulation were accurately estimated for laminar rings using particle image velocimetry; after the transition to turbulence, initial circulation was generally underestimated. The underestimate for turbulent rings can be corrected if the transition time and velocity profile are accurately known, but this correction will not be feasible for experiments on real animals. It is therefore crucial that the circulation and impulse be estimated while the wake vortices are still laminar. The scaling of the ring Reynolds number suggests that flying animals of about the size of hawkmoths may be the largest animals whose wakes stay laminar for long enough to perform such measurements during hovering. Thus, at low advance ratios, they may be the largest animals for which wake circulation and impulse can be accurately measured. PMID:14561347

  3. Wake vortex separation standards : analysis methods

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    Wake vortex separation standards are used to prevent hazardous wake vortex encounters. A "safe" separation model can be used to assess the safety of proposed changes in the standards. A safe separation model can be derived from an encounter hazard mo...

  4. Controlling abruptly autofocusing vortex beams to mitigate crosstalk and vortex splitting in free-space optical communication.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Guo, Lixin; Cheng, Mingjian; Li, Jiangting

    2018-05-14

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode crosstalk induced by atmospheric turbulence is a challenging phenomenon commonly occurring in OAM-based free-space optical (FSO) communication. Recent advances have facilitated new practicable methods using abruptly autofocusing light beams for weakening the turbulence effect on the FSO link. In this work, we show that a circular phase-locked Airy vortex beam array (AVBA) with sufficient elements has the inherent ability to form an abruptly autofocusing light beam carrying OAM, and its focusing properties can be controlled on demand by adjusting the topological charge values and locations of these vortices embedded in the array elements. The performance of a tailored Airy vortex beam array (TAVBA) through atmospheric turbulence is numerically studied. In a comparison with the ring Airy vortex beam (RAVB), the results indicate that TAVBA can be a superior light source for effectively reducing the intermodal crosstalk and vortex splitting, thus leading to improvement in the FSO system performance.

  5. Point vortex interactions on a toroidal surface.

    PubMed

    Sakajo, Takashi; Shimizu, Yuuki

    2016-07-01

    Owing to non-constant curvature and a handle structure, it is not easy to imagine intuitively how flows with vortex structures evolve on a toroidal surface compared with those in a plane, on a sphere and a flat torus. In order to cultivate an insight into vortex interactions on this manifold, we derive the evolution equation for N -point vortices from Green's function associated with the Laplace-Beltrami operator there, and we then formulate it as a Hamiltonian dynamical system with the help of the symplectic geometry and the uniformization theorem. Based on this Hamiltonian formulation, we show that the 2-vortex problem is integrable. We also investigate the point vortex equilibria and the motion of two-point vortices with the strengths of the same magnitude as one of the fundamental vortex interactions. As a result, we find some characteristic interactions between point vortices on the torus. In particular, two identical point vortices can be locally repulsive under a certain circumstance.

  6. Vortex Shedding Inside a Baffled Air Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Philip; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Common in the operation of both segmented and un-segmented large solid rocket motors is the occurrence of vortex shedding within the motor chamber. A portion of the energy within a shed vortex is converted to acoustic energy, potentially driving the longitudinal acoustic modes of the motor in a quasi-discrete fashion. This vortex shedding-acoustic mode excitation event occurs for every Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) operation, giving rise to subsequent axial thrust oscillations. In order to better understand this vortex shedding/acoustic mode excitation phenomena, unsteady CFD simulations were run for both a test geometry and the full scale RSRM geometry. This paper covers the results from the subscale geometry runs, which were based on work focusing on the RSRM hydrodynamics. Unsteady CFD simulation parameters, including boundary conditions and post-processing returns, are reviewed. The results were further post-processed to identify active acoustic modes and vortex shedding characteristics. Probable locations for acoustic energy generation, and subsequent acoustic mode excitation, are discussed.

  7. Point vortex interactions on a toroidal surface

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yuuki

    2016-01-01

    Owing to non-constant curvature and a handle structure, it is not easy to imagine intuitively how flows with vortex structures evolve on a toroidal surface compared with those in a plane, on a sphere and a flat torus. In order to cultivate an insight into vortex interactions on this manifold, we derive the evolution equation for N-point vortices from Green's function associated with the Laplace–Beltrami operator there, and we then formulate it as a Hamiltonian dynamical system with the help of the symplectic geometry and the uniformization theorem. Based on this Hamiltonian formulation, we show that the 2-vortex problem is integrable. We also investigate the point vortex equilibria and the motion of two-point vortices with the strengths of the same magnitude as one of the fundamental vortex interactions. As a result, we find some characteristic interactions between point vortices on the torus. In particular, two identical point vortices can be locally repulsive under a certain circumstance. PMID:27493577

  8. Characteristics of a trapped-vortex (TV) combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, K.-Y.; Gross, L. P.; Trump, D. D.; Roquemore, W. M.

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of a Trapped-Vortex (TV) combustor are presented. A vortex is trapped in the cavity established between two disks mounted in tandem. Fuel and air are injected directly into the cavity in such a way as to increase the vortex strength. Some air from the annular flow is also entrained into the recirculation zone of the vortex. Lean blow-out limits of the combustor are determined for a wide range of annular air flow rates. These data indicate that the lean blow-out limits are considerably lower for the TV combustor than for flames stabilized using swirl or bluff-bodies. The pressure loss through the annular duct is also low, being less than 2% for the flow conditions in this study. The instantaneous shape of the recirculation zone of the trapped vortex is measured using a two-color PIV technique. Temperature profiles obtained with CARS indicate a well mixed recirculation zone and demonstrate the impact of primary air injection on the local equivalence ratio.

  9. A universal time scale for vortex ring formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharib, Morteza; Rambod, Edmond; Shariff, Karim

    1998-04-01

    The formation of vortex rings generated through impulsively started jets is studied experimentally. Utilizing a piston/cylinder arrangement in a water tank, the velocity and vorticity fields of vortex rings are obtained using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) for a wide range of piston stroke to diameter (L/D) ratios. The results indicate that the flow field generated by large L/D consists of a leading vortex ring followed by a trailing jet. The vorticity field of the leading vortex ring formed is disconnected from that of the trailing jet. On the other hand, flow fields generated by small stroke ratios show only a single vortex ring. The transition between these two distinct states is observed to occur at a stroke ratio of approximately 4, which, in this paper, is referred to as the ‘formation number’. In all cases, the maximum circulation that a vortex ring can attain during its formation is reached at this non-dimensional time or formation number. The universality of this number was tested by generating vortex rings with different jet exit diameters and boundaries, as well as with various non-impulsive piston velocities. It is shown that the ‘formation number’ lies in the range of 3.6 4.5 for a broad range of flow conditions. An explanation is provided for the existence of the formation number based on the Kelvin Benjamin variational principle for steady axis-touching vortex rings. It is shown that based on the measured impulse, circulation and energy of the observed vortex rings, the Kelvin Benjamin principle correctly predicts the range of observed formation numbers.

  10. Excitation of high density surface plasmon polariton vortex array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chun-Fu; Chu, Shu-Chun

    2018-06-01

    This study proposes a method to excite surface plasmon polariton (SPP) vortex array of high spatial density on metal/air interface. A doughnut vector beam was incident at four rectangularly arranged slits to excite SPP vortex array. The doughnut vector beam used in this study has the same field intensity distribution as the regular doughnut laser mode, TEM01* mode, but a different polarization distribution. The SPP vortex array is achieved through the matching of both polarization state and phase state of the incident doughnut vector beam with the four slits. The SPP field distribution excited in this study contains stable array-distributed time-varying optical vortices. Theoretical derivation, analytical calculation and numerical simulation were used to discuss the characteristics of the induced SPP vortex array. The period of the SPP vortex array induced by the proposed method had only half SPPs wavelength. In addition, the vortex number in an excited SPP vortex array can be increased by enlarging the structure.

  11. Interactions of a co-rotating vortex pair at multiple offsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, Kyle J.; Barber, Tracie J.; Diasinos, Sammy; Doig, Graham

    2017-05-01

    Two NACA0012 vanes at various lateral offsets were investigated by wind tunnel testing to observe the interactions between the streamwise vortices. The vanes were separated by nine chord lengths in the streamwise direction to allow the upstream vortex to impact on the downstream geometry. These vanes were evaluated at an angle of incidence of 8° and a Reynolds number of 7 ×104 using particle image velocimetry. A helical motion of the vortices was observed, with rotational rate increasing as the offset was reduced to the point of vortex merging. Downstream meandering of the weaker vortex was found to increase in magnitude near the point of vortex merging. The merging process occurred more rapidly when the upstream vortex was passed on the pressure side of the vane, with the downstream vortex being produced with less circulation and consequently merging into the upstream vortex. The merging distance was found to be statistical rather than deterministic quantity, indicating that the meandering of the vortices affected their separations and energies. This resulted in a fluctuation of the merging location. A loss of circulation associated with the merging process was identified, with the process of achieving vortex circularity causing vorticity diffusion, however all merged cases maintained higher circulation than a single vortex condition. The presence of the upstream vortex was found to reduce the strength of the downstream vortex in all offsets evaluated.

  12. Vortex Analysis of Intra-Aneurismal Flow in Cerebral Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Kevin; Haferman, Christopher; Chintalapani, Gouthami; Jiang, Jingfeng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop an alternative vortex analysis method by measuring structure ofIntracranial aneurysm (IA) flow vortexes across the cardiac cycle, to quantify temporal stability of aneurismal flow. Hemodynamics were modeled in "patient-specific" geometries, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Modified versions of known λ 2 and Q -criterion methods identified vortex regions; then regions were segmented out using the classical marching cube algorithm. Temporal stability was measured by the degree of vortex overlap (DVO) at each step of a cardiac cycle against a cycle-averaged vortex and by the change in number of cores over the cycle. No statistical differences exist in DVO or number of vortex cores between 5 terminal IAs and 5 sidewall IAs. No strong correlation exists between vortex core characteristics and geometric or hemodynamic characteristics of IAs. Statistical independence suggests this proposed method may provide novel IA information. However, threshold values used to determine the vortex core regions and resolution of velocity data influenced analysis outcomes and have to be addressed in future studies. In conclusions, preliminary results show that the proposed methodology may help give novel insight toward aneurismal flow characteristic and help in future risk assessment given more developments.

  13. Updated Results for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, Robert E.; Lai, David Y.; Delisi, Donald P.; Mellman, George R.

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an Inverse Model for inverting aircraft wake vortex data. The objective of the inverse modeling is to obtain estimates of the vortex circulation decay and crosswind vertical profiles, using time history measurements of the lateral and vertical position of aircraft vortices. The Inverse Model performs iterative forward model runs using estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Outputs from an Inverse Model run are the best estimates of the time history of the vortex circulation derived from the observed data, the vertical crosswind profile, and several vortex parameters. The forward model, named SHRAPA, used in this inverse modeling is a modified version of the Shear-APA model, and it is described in Section 2 of this document. Details of the Inverse Model are presented in Section 3. The Inverse Model was applied to lidar-observed vortex data at three airports: FAA acquired data from San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and Denver International Airport (DEN), and NASA acquired data from Memphis International Airport (MEM). The results are compared with observed data. This Inverse Model validation is documented in Section 4. A summary is given in Section 5. A user's guide for the inverse wake vortex model is presented in a separate NorthWest Research Associates technical report (Lai and Delisi, 2007a).

  14. Vortex wake control via smart structures technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bilanin, Alan J.; McKillip, Robert M., Jr.

    1996-05-01

    Control of trailing vortex wakes is an important challenges for both military and civilian applications. This paper summarizes an assessment of the feasibility of mitigating adverse vortex wake effects using control surfaces actuated via Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) technology. The assessment involved a combined computational/design analysis that identified methods for introducing small secondary vortices to promote the deintensification of vortex wakes of submarines and aircraft. Computational analyses of wake breakup using this `vortex leveraging' strategy were undertaken, and showed dramatic increases in the dissipation rate of concentrated vortex wakes. This paper briefly summarizes these results and describes the preliminary design of actuation mechanisms for the deflectable surfaces that effect the required time-varying wake perturbations. These surfaces, which build on the high-force, high- deflection capabilities of SMA materials, are shown to be well suited for the very low frequency actuation requirements of the wake deintensification mission. The paper outlines the assessment of device performance capabilities and describes the sizing studies undertaken for full-scale Vortex Leveraging Tabs (VLTs) designed for use in hydrodynamic and aerodynamic applications. Results obtained to date indicate that the proposed VLTs can accelerate wake breakup by over a factor of three and can be implemented using deflectable surfaces actuated using SMAs.

  15. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.

  16. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  17. RANS computations of tip vortex cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decaix, Jean; Balarac, Guillaume; Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed; Münch, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    The present study is related to the development of the tip vortex cavitation in Kaplan turbines. The investigation is carried out on a simplified test case consisting of a NACA0009 blade with a gap between the blade tip and the side wall. Computations with and without cavitation are performed using a R ANS modelling and a transport equation for the liquid volume fraction. Compared with experimental data, the R ANS computations turn out to be able to capture accurately the development of the tip vortex. The simulations have also highlighted the influence of cavitation on the tip vortex trajectory.

  18. Aerosol Effects on Microphysical Processes, Storm Structure, and Cold Pool Strength in Simulated Supercell Thunderstorms from VORTEX-2 and VORTEX-SE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, M.; Dawson, D. T., II; Baldwin, M. E.; Mansell, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration has been found to strongly affect microphysical, dynamical and thermodynamical processes in supercells and other deep convective storms. Moreover, recent simulation studies have shown aerosols effects differ between higher- and lower-CAPE environments. Owing to the known sensitivity of severe storms to microphysical differences, studying the impact of aerosols supercell storms different environments is of clear societal importance. Tornadic environments in the southwastern U.S. are generally characterized by lower magnitudes CAPE and deeper tropospheric moisture than those in the Great Plains. These two regions were the focus of Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX)-2 and VORTEX-Southeast (SE) field campaigns, respectively. In our study, we simulate several cases from VORTEX-2 and -SE with the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Model at 6 different CCN concentrations (100-3000 cm-3). We use NSSL 3-moment microphysics parameterization schemeto explicitly predict precipitation particle size distributions and microphysirocess rates. Overall, storms under the higher-CAPE VORTEX-2 environments are more sensitiveto the change of CCN than those under the lower-CAPE VORTEX-SE environments. Updraft volume decreases as CCN increases for the VORTEX-2 cases, whereas the opposite is true but with a much weaker trend for the VORTEX-SE cases. Moreover, the cold pool strength drops dramatically as CCN surpasses 1000 cm-3n the VORTEX-2 cases but barely changes for the VORTEX-SE cases. Through a microphysics budget analysis, we show the change of the importance of ice processes is key to the differing sensitivities. in the VORTEX-2 cases, deposition to ice nuclei, cloud drop freezing and rain drop freezing in the upper levels (5-11km) contribute more to latent heating since more rain and cloud drops are lifted above the freezing level due to stronger updrafts. For CCN concentration over 1000

  19. The Aerodynamic and Dynamic Loading of a Slender Structure by an Impacting Tornado-Like Vortex: The Influence of Relative Vortex-to-Structure Size on Structural Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Matthew N.

    Structural loading produced by an impacting vortex is a hazardous phenomenon that is encountered in numerous applications ranging from the destruction of residences by tornados to the chopping of tip vortices by rotors. Adequate design of structures to resist vortex-induced structural loading necessitates study of the phenomenon that control the structural loading produced by an impacting vortex. This body of work extends the current knowledge base of vortex-structure interaction by evaluating the influence of the relative vortex-to-structure size on the structural loading that the vortex produces. A computer model is utilized to directly simulate the two-dimensional impact of an impinging vortex with a slender, cylindrical structure. The vortex's tangential velocity profile (TVP) is defined by a normalization of the Vatistas analytical (TVP) which realistically replicates the documented spectrum of measured vortex TVPs. The impinging vortex's maximum tangential velocity is fixed, and the vortex's critical radius is incremented from one to one-hundred times the structure's diameter. When the impinging vortex is small, it interacts with vortices produced on the structure by the free stream, and maximum force coefficient amplitudes vary by more than 400% when the impinging vortex impacts the structure at different times. Maximum drag and lift force coefficient amplitudes reach asymptotic values as the impinging vortex's size increases that are respectively 94.77% and 10.66% less than maximum force coefficients produced by an equivalent maximum velocity free stream. The vortex produces maximum structural loading when its path is shifted above the structure's centerline, and maximum drag and lift force coefficients are respectively up to 4.80% and 34.07% greater than maximum force coefficients produced by an equivalent-velocity free stream. Finally, the dynamic load factor (DLF) concept is used to develop a generalized methodology to assess the dynamic amplification of

  20. Vortex-antivortex phenomena in superconductors with antidot arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdiyorov, Golibjon; Milosevic, Milorad; Geurts, Roeland; Peeters, Francois

    2007-03-01

    We investigated in detail the vortex configurations in superconducting films with regular antidot-arrays within the non-linear Ginzburg-Landau theory, where demagnetization effects and overlapping vortex cores are fully taken into account (contrary to the London approach). In addition to the well-known matching phenomena, we predict: (i) the nucleation of giant-vortex states at interstitial sites; (ii) the combination of giant- and multi-vortices at rational matching fields; and (iii) for particular interstitial vorticity, the symmetry imposed creation of vortex-antivortex configurations. As a consequence of (iii), we predict resistance maxima at particular matching fields, opposite to the expected minima due to commensurability effects. Using the same principle, we stabilized vortex-antivortex molecules in finite submicron superconducting polygons by strategically placed nanoholes. Compared to earlier predictions, we enhanced the stamina of the antivortex with respect to temperature, applied fields and geometrical defects in the sample. Further, increased vortex-antivortex spacing and pronounced amplitudes of the local magnetic field in our system make these fascinating structures observable by e.g. Scanning Tunneling or Hall probe microscopy.

  1. Magnetic vortex nucleation modes in static magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vanatka, Marek; Urbanek, Michal; Jira, Roman

    The magnetic vortex nucleation process in nanometer- and micrometer-sized magnetic disks undergoes several phases with distinct spin configurations called the nucleation states. Before formation of the final vortex state, small submicron disks typically proceed through the so-called C-state while the larger micron-sized disks proceed through the more complicated vortex-pair state or the buckling state. This work classifies the nucleation states using micromagnetic simulations and provides evidence for the stability of vortex-pair and buckling states in static magnetic fields using magnetic imaging techniques and electrical transport measurements. Lorentz Transmission Electron Microscopy and Magnetic Transmission X-ray Microscopy are employed to reveal themore » details of spin configuration in each of the nucleation states. We further show that it is possible to unambiguously identify these states by electrical measurements via the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect. Combination of the electrical transport and magnetic imaging techniques confirms stability of a vortex-antivortex-vortex spin configuration which emerges from the buckling state in static magnetic fields.« less

  2. Magnetic vortex nucleation modes in static magnetic fields

    DOE PAGES

    Vanatka, Marek; Urbanek, Michal; Jira, Roman; ...

    2017-10-03

    The magnetic vortex nucleation process in nanometer- and micrometer-sized magnetic disks undergoes several phases with distinct spin configurations called the nucleation states. Before formation of the final vortex state, small submicron disks typically proceed through the so-called C-state while the larger micron-sized disks proceed through the more complicated vortex-pair state or the buckling state. This work classifies the nucleation states using micromagnetic simulations and provides evidence for the stability of vortex-pair and buckling states in static magnetic fields using magnetic imaging techniques and electrical transport measurements. Lorentz Transmission Electron Microscopy and Magnetic Transmission X-ray Microscopy are employed to reveal themore » details of spin configuration in each of the nucleation states. We further show that it is possible to unambiguously identify these states by electrical measurements via the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect. Combination of the electrical transport and magnetic imaging techniques confirms stability of a vortex-antivortex-vortex spin configuration which emerges from the buckling state in static magnetic fields.« less

  3. Vectorial diffraction properties of THz vortex Bessel beams.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen; Wang, Xinke; Sun, Wenfeng; Feng, Shengfei; Han, Peng; Ye, Jiasheng; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-22

    A vortex Bessel beam combines the merits of an optical vortex and a Bessel beam, including a spiral wave front and a non-diffractive feature, which has immense application potentials in optical trapping, optical fabrication, optical communications, and so on. Here, linearly and circularly polarized vortex Bessel beams in the terahertz (THz) frequency range are generated by utilizing a THz quarter wave plate, a spiral phase plate, and Teflon axicons with different opening angles. Taking advantage of a THz focal-plane imaging system, vectorial diffraction properties of the THz vortex Bessel beams are comprehensively characterized and discussed, including the transverse (Ex, Ey) and longitudinal (Ez) polarization components. The experimental phenomena are accurately simulated by adopting the vectorial Rayleigh diffraction integral. By varying the opening angle of the axicon, the characteristic parameters of these THz vortex Bessel beams are exhibited and compared, including the light spot size, the diffraction-free range, and the phase evolution process. This work provides the precise experimental and theoretical bases for the comprehension and application of a THz vortex Bessel beam.

  4. Waves in a Cloudy Vortex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Waves in a Cloudy Vortex DAVID A. SCHECTER Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado MICHAEL T. MONTGOMERY...waves account for precessing tilts and elliptical (triangular, square, etc.) deformations of the vortex core. If the Rossby number of the cyclone ex...ceeds unity, its baroclinic VR waves can efficiently ex- Corresponding author address: Dr. David Schecter, NorthWest Research Associates, 14508 NE 20th

  5. Longitudinal vortex control - Techniques and applications (The 32nd Lanchester Lecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of vortex control applications and current techniques for the control of longitudinal vortices produced by bodies, leading edges, tips and intersections. Vortex control has up till now been performed by many approaches in an empirical fashion, assisted by the essentially inviscid nature of much of longitudinal vortex behavior. Attention is given to Reynolds number sensitivities, vortex breakdown and interactions, vortex control on highly swept wings, and vortex control in juncture flows.

  6. Effective vortex mass from microscopic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung Hoon; Kim, June Seo; Kim, Min Jae; Ao, Ping

    2005-03-01

    We calculate the effective mass of a single quantized vortex in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductor at finite temperature. Based on effective action approach, we arrive at the effective mass of a vortex as integral of the spectral function J(ω) divided by ω3 over frequency. The spectral function is given in terms of the quantum-mechanical transition elements of the gradient of the Hamiltonian between two Bogoliubov-deGennes (BdG) eigenstates. Based on self-consistent numerical diagonalization of the BdG equation we find that the effective mass per unit length of vortex at zero temperature is of order m(kfξ0)2 ( kf=Fermi momentum, ξ0=coherence length), essentially equaling the electron mass displaced within the coherence length from the vortex core. Transitions between the core states are responsible for most of the mass. The mass reaches a maximum value at T≈0.5Tc and decreases continuously to zero at Tc .

  7. Instability of vortex pair leapfrogging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tophøj, Laust; Aref, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Leapfrogging is a periodic solution of the four-vortex problem with two positive and two negative point vortices all of the same absolute circulation arranged as co-axial vortex pairs. The set of co-axial motions can be parameterized by the ratio 0 < α < 1 of vortex pair sizes at the time when one pair passes through the other. Leapfrogging occurs for α > σ2, where σ = sqrt{2}-1 is the silver ratio. The motion is known in full analytical detail since the 1877 thesis of Gröbli and a well known 1894 paper by Love. Acheson ["Instability of vortex leapfrogging," Eur. J. Phys. 21, 269-273 (2000)], 10.1088/0143-0807/21/3/310 determined by numerical experiments that leapfrogging is linearly unstable for σ2 < α < 0.382, but apparently stable for larger α. Here we derive a linear system of equations governing small perturbations of the leapfrogging motion. We show that symmetry-breaking perturbations are essentially governed by a 2D linear system with time-periodic coefficients and perform a Floquet analysis. We find transition from linearly unstable to stable leapfrogging at α = ϕ2 ≈ 0.381966, where φ = 1/2(sqrt{5}-1) is the golden ratio. Acheson also suggested that there was a sharp transition between a "disintegration" instability mode, where two pairs fly off to infinity, and a "walkabout" mode, where the vortices depart from leapfrogging but still remain within a finite distance of one another. We show numerically that this transition is more gradual, a result that we relate to earlier investigations of chaotic scattering of vortex pairs [L. Tophøj and H. Aref, "Chaotic scattering of two identical point vortex pairs revisited," Phys. Fluids 20, 093605 (2008)], 10.1063/1.2974830. Both leapfrogging and "walkabout" motions can appear as intermediate states in chaotic scattering at the same values of linear impulse and energy.

  8. On the structure of the turbulent vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, L.

    1985-01-01

    The trailing vortex generated by a lifting surface, the structure of its turbulent core and the influence of axial flow within the vortex on its initial persistence and on its subsequent decay are described. Similarity solutions of the turbulent diffusion equation are given in closed form and results are expressed in sufficiently simple terms that the influence of the lifting surface parameters on the length of persistence and the rate of decay of the vortex can be evaluated.

  9. Effect of the collector tube profile on Pitot pump performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komaki, K.; Kanemoto, T.; Sagara, K.; Umekage, T.

    2013-12-01

    The pitot pump is composed of the rotating casing with the impeller channel and the pitot tube type collector as the discharge line. The radial impeller feeds water to the rotating casing. The water rotating together with the casing is caught by the stationary pitot tube type collector, and then discharges to the outside. This type pump, as the extra high head pump, is provided mainly for boiler feed systems, and has been designed by trial and error. To optimize the pump profiles, it is desirable to investigate not only performances but also internal flow conditions. This paper discusses experimentally and numerically the relation between the pump performances and the flow conditions in the rotating casing. The moderately larger dimensions of the collector make the pump head and the discharge high with the higher hydraulic efficiency. The flow in the casing is almost the forced vortex type whose velocity is in proportion to the radius but the core velocity is affected with the drag force of the stationary collector. Based upon the above results, the profile of the pitot tube type collector was optimized with the numerical simulation.

  10. Inclined Jet in Crossflow Interacting with a Vortex Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Rigby, D .L.; Heidmann, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment is conducted on the effectiveness of a vortex generator in preventing liftoff of a jet in crossflow, with possible relevance to film-cooling applications. The jet issues into the boundary layer at an angle of 20 degreees to the freestream. The effect of a triangular ramp-shaped vortex generator is studied while varying its geometry and location. Detailed flowfield properties are obtained for a case in which the height of the vortex generator and the diameter of the orifice are comparable with the approach boundary-layer thickness. The vortex generator produces a streamwise vortex pair with a vorticity magnitude 3 times larger (and of opposite sense) than that found in the jet in crossflow alone. Such a vortex generator appears to be most effective in keeping the jet attached to the wall. The effect of parametric variation is studied mostly from surveys 10 diameters downstream from the orifice. Results over a range of jet-to-freestream momentum flux ratio (1 < J < 11) show that the vortex generator has a significant effect even at the highest J covered in the experiment. When the vortex generator height is halved, there is a liftoff of the jet. On the other hand, when the height is doubled, the jet core is dissipated due to larger turbulence intensity. Varying the location of the vortex generator, over a distance of three diameters from the orifice, is found to have little impact. Rounding off the edges of the vortex generator with the increasing radius of curvature progressively diminishes its effect. However, allowing for a small radius of curvature may be quite tolerable in practice.

  11. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-01-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined. PMID:29507524

  12. Wake Vortex Field Measurement Program at Memphis, Tennessee: Data Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, S. D.; Dasey, T. J.; Freehart, R. E.; Heinrichs, R. M.; Mathews, M. P.; Perras, G. H.; Rowe, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    Eliminating or reducing current restrictions in the air traffic control system due to wake vortex considerations would yield increased capacity, decreased delays, and cost savings. Current wake vortex separation standards are widely viewed as very conservative under most conditions. However, scientific uncertainty about wake vortex behavior under different atmospheric conditions remains a barrier to development of an adaptive vortex spacing system. The objective of the wake vortex field measurement efforts during December, 1994 and August, 1995 at Memphis, TN were to record wake vortex behavior for varying atmospheric conditions and types of aircraft. This effort is part of a larger effort by the NASA Langley Research Center to develop an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) as an element of the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. The TAP program is being performed in concert with the FAA Terminal Air Traffic Control Automation (TATCA) program and ATC Automation. Wake vortex behavior was observed using a mobile continuous-wave (CW) coherent laser Doppler radar (lidar) developed at Lincoln Laboratory. This lidar features a number of improvements over previous systems, including the first-ever demonstration of an automatic wake vortex detection and tracking algorithm.

  13. Observation of superconducting vortex clusters in S/F hybrids

    DOE PAGES

    Di Giorgio, C.; Bobba, F.; Cucolo, A. M.; ...

    2016-12-09

    While Abrikosov vortices repel each other and form a uniform vortex lattice in bulk type-II superconductors, strong confinement potential profoundly affects their spatial distribution eventually leading to vortex cluster formation. The confinement could be induced by the geometric boundaries in mesoscopic-size superconductors or by the spatial modulation of the magnetic field in superconductor/ ferromagnet (S/F) hybrids. Here we study the vortex confinement in S/F thin film heterostructures and we observe that vortex clusters appear near magnetization inhomogeneities in the ferromagnet, called bifurcations. We use magnetic force microscopy to image magnetic bifurcations and superconducting vortices, while high resolution scanning tunneling microscopymore » is used to obtain detailed information of the local electronic density of states outside and inside the vortex cluster. We find an intervortex spacing at the bifurcation shorter than the one predicted for the same superconductor in a uniform magnetic field equal to the thermodynamical upper critical field H c2. This result is due to a local enhanced stray field and a competition between vortex-vortex repulsion and Lorentz force. Here, our findings suggest that special magnetic topologies could result in S/F hybrids that support superconductivity even when locally the vortex density exceeds the thermodynamic critical threshold value beyond which the superconductivity is destroyed.« less

  14. Vortex Analysis of Intra-Aneurismal Flow in Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Sunderland, Kevin; Haferman, Christopher; Chintalapani, Gouthami

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop an alternative vortex analysis method by measuring structure ofIntracranial aneurysm (IA) flow vortexes across the cardiac cycle, to quantify temporal stability of aneurismal flow. Hemodynamics were modeled in “patient-specific” geometries, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Modified versions of known λ 2 and Q-criterion methods identified vortex regions; then regions were segmented out using the classical marching cube algorithm. Temporal stability was measured by the degree of vortex overlap (DVO) at each step of a cardiac cycle against a cycle-averaged vortex and by the change in number of cores over the cycle. No statistical differences exist in DVO or number of vortex cores between 5 terminal IAs and 5 sidewall IAs. No strong correlation exists between vortex core characteristics and geometric or hemodynamic characteristics of IAs. Statistical independence suggests this proposed method may provide novel IA information. However, threshold values used to determine the vortex core regions and resolution of velocity data influenced analysis outcomes and have to be addressed in future studies. In conclusions, preliminary results show that the proposed methodology may help give novel insight toward aneurismal flow characteristic and help in future risk assessment given more developments. PMID:27891172

  15. Observation of superconducting vortex clusters in S/F hybrids.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, C; Bobba, F; Cucolo, A M; Scarfato, A; Moore, S A; Karapetrov, G; D'Agostino, D; Novosad, V; Yefremenko, V; Iavarone, M

    2016-12-09

    While Abrikosov vortices repel each other and form a uniform vortex lattice in bulk type-II superconductors, strong confinement potential profoundly affects their spatial distribution eventually leading to vortex cluster formation. The confinement could be induced by the geometric boundaries in mesoscopic-size superconductors or by the spatial modulation of the magnetic field in superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) hybrids. Here we study the vortex confinement in S/F thin film heterostructures and we observe that vortex clusters appear near magnetization inhomogeneities in the ferromagnet, called bifurcations. We use magnetic force microscopy to image magnetic bifurcations and superconducting vortices, while high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy is used to obtain detailed information of the local electronic density of states outside and inside the vortex cluster. We find an intervortex spacing at the bifurcation shorter than the one predicted for the same superconductor in a uniform magnetic field equal to the thermodynamical upper critical field H c2 . This result is due to a local enhanced stray field and a competition between vortex-vortex repulsion and Lorentz force. Our findings suggest that special magnetic topologies could result in S/F hybrids that support superconductivity even when locally the vortex density exceeds the thermodynamic critical threshold value beyond which the superconductivity is destroyed.

  16. Observation of superconducting vortex clusters in S/F hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Di Giorgio, C.; Bobba, F.; Cucolo, A. M.; Scarfato, A.; Moore, S. A.; Karapetrov, G.; D’Agostino, D.; Novosad, V.; Yefremenko, V.; Iavarone, M.

    2016-01-01

    While Abrikosov vortices repel each other and form a uniform vortex lattice in bulk type-II superconductors, strong confinement potential profoundly affects their spatial distribution eventually leading to vortex cluster formation. The confinement could be induced by the geometric boundaries in mesoscopic-size superconductors or by the spatial modulation of the magnetic field in superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) hybrids. Here we study the vortex confinement in S/F thin film heterostructures and we observe that vortex clusters appear near magnetization inhomogeneities in the ferromagnet, called bifurcations. We use magnetic force microscopy to image magnetic bifurcations and superconducting vortices, while high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy is used to obtain detailed information of the local electronic density of states outside and inside the vortex cluster. We find an intervortex spacing at the bifurcation shorter than the one predicted for the same superconductor in a uniform magnetic field equal to the thermodynamical upper critical field Hc2. This result is due to a local enhanced stray field and a competition between vortex-vortex repulsion and Lorentz force. Our findings suggest that special magnetic topologies could result in S/F hybrids that support superconductivity even when locally the vortex density exceeds the thermodynamic critical threshold value beyond which the superconductivity is destroyed. PMID:27934898

  17. Feasibility of wake vortex monitoring systems for air terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. J.; Shrider, K. R.; Lawrence, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    Wake vortex monitoring systems, especially those using laser Doppler sensors, were investigated. The initial phases of the effort involved talking with potential users (air traffic controllers, pilots, etc.) of a wake vortex monitoring system to determine system requirements from the user's viewpoint. These discussions involved the volumes of airspace to be monitored for vortices, and potential methods of using the monitored vortex data once the data are available. A subsequent task led to determining a suitable mathematical model of the vortex phenomena and developing a mathematical model of the laser Doppler sensor for monitoring the vortex flow field. The mathematical models were used in combination to help evaluate the capability of laser Doppler instrumentation in monitoring vortex flow fields both in the near vicinity of the sensor (within 1 kilometer and at long ranges(10 kilometers).

  18. Majorana Kramers pair in a nematic vortex

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Fengcheng; Martin, Ivar

    A time-reversal (TR) invariant topological superconductor is characterized by a Kramers pair of Majorana zero-energy modes on boundaries and in a core of a TR invariant vortex. A vortex defect that preserves TR symmetry has remained primarily of theoretical interest, since typically a magnetic field, which explicitly breaks TR, needs to be applied to create vortices in superconductors. In this paper, we show that an odd-parity topological superconductor with a nematic pairing order parameter can host a nematic vortex that preserves TR symmetry and binds a Majorana Kramers pair. Such a nematic superconductor could be realized in metal-doped Bi 2Semore » 3, as suggested by recent experiments. We provide an analytic solution for the zero modes in a continuous nematic vortex. In lattice, crystalline anisotropy can pin the two-component order parameter along high-symmetry directions. We show that a discrete nematic vortex, which forms when three nematic domains meet, also supports a TR pair of Majorana modes. Lastly, we discuss possible experiments to probe the zero modes.« less

  19. Majorana Kramers pair in a nematic vortex

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Fengcheng; Martin, Ivar

    2017-06-05

    A time-reversal (TR) invariant topological superconductor is characterized by a Kramers pair of Majorana zero-energy modes on boundaries and in a core of a TR invariant vortex. A vortex defect that preserves TR symmetry has remained primarily of theoretical interest, since typically a magnetic field, which explicitly breaks TR, needs to be applied to create vortices in superconductors. In this paper, we show that an odd-parity topological superconductor with a nematic pairing order parameter can host a nematic vortex that preserves TR symmetry and binds a Majorana Kramers pair. Such a nematic superconductor could be realized in metal-doped Bi 2Semore » 3, as suggested by recent experiments. We provide an analytic solution for the zero modes in a continuous nematic vortex. In lattice, crystalline anisotropy can pin the two-component order parameter along high-symmetry directions. We show that a discrete nematic vortex, which forms when three nematic domains meet, also supports a TR pair of Majorana modes. Lastly, we discuss possible experiments to probe the zero modes.« less

  20. Helicity conservation under quantum reconnection of vortex rings.

    PubMed

    Zuccher, Simone; Ricca, Renzo L

    2015-12-01

    Here we show that under quantum reconnection, simulated by using the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation, self-helicity of a system of two interacting vortex rings remains conserved. By resolving the fine structure of the vortex cores, we demonstrate that the total length of the vortex system reaches a maximum at the reconnection time, while both writhe helicity and twist helicity remain separately unchanged throughout the process. Self-helicity is computed by two independent methods, and topological information is based on the extraction and analysis of geometric quantities such as writhe, total torsion, and intrinsic twist of the reconnecting vortex rings.

  1. Three-wave electron vortex lattices for measuring nanofields.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, C; Boothroyd, C B; Chang, S L Y; Dunin-Borkowski, R E

    2015-01-01

    It is demonstrated how an electron-optical arrangement consisting of two electron biprisms can be used to generate three-wave vortex lattices with effective lattice spacings between 0.1 and 1 nm. The presence of vortices in these lattices was verified by using a third biprism to perform direct phase measurements via off-axis electron holography. The use of three-wave lattices for nanoscale electromagnetic field measurements via vortex interferometry is discussed, including the accuracy of vortex position measurements and the interpretation of three-wave vortex lattices in the presence of partial spatial coherence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of supersonic corner vortex in a hypersonic inlet/isolator model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He-Xia; Tan, Hui-Jun; Sun, Shu; Ling, Yu

    2016-12-01

    There are complex corner vortex flows in a rectangular hypersonic inlet/isolator. The corner vortex propagates downstream and interacts with the shocks and expansion waves in the isolator repeatedly. The supersonic corner vortex in a generic hypersonic inlet/isolator model is theoretically and numerically analyzed at a freestream Mach number of 4.92. The cross-flow topology of the corner vortex flow is found to obey Zhang's theory ["Analytical analysis of subsonic and supersonic vortex formation," Acta Aerodyn. Sin. 13, 259-264 (1995)] strictly, except for the short process with the vortex core situated in a subsonic flow which is surrounded by a supersonic flow. In general, the evolution history of the corner vortex under the influence of the background waves in the hypersonic inlet/isolator model can be classified into two types, namely, from the adverse pressure gradient region to the favorable pressure gradient region and the reversed one. For type 1, the corner vortex is a one-celled vortex with the cross-sectional streamlines spiraling inwards at first. Then the Hopf bifurcation occurs and the streamlines in the outer part of the limit cycle switch to spiraling outwards, yielding a two-celled vortex. The limit cycle shrinks gradually and finally vanishes with the streamlines of the entire corner vortex spiraling outwards. For type 2, the cross-sectional streamlines of the corner vortex spiral outwards first. Then a stable limit cycle is formed, yielding a two-celled vortex. The short-lived limit cycle forces the streamlines in the corner vortex to change the spiraling trends rapidly. Although it is found in this paper that there are some defects on the theoretical proof of the limit cycle, Zhang's theory is proven useful for the prediction and qualitative analysis of the complex corner vortex in a hypersonic inlet/isolator. In addition, three conservation laws inside the limit cycle are obtained.

  3. Exact analytical formulae for linearly distributed vortex and source sheets in uence computation in 2D vortex methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmina, K. S.; Marchevsky, I. K.; Ryatina, E. P.

    2017-11-01

    We consider the methodology of numerical schemes development for two-dimensional vortex method. We describe two different approaches to deriving integral equation for unknown vortex sheet intensity. We simulate the velocity of the surface line of an airfoil as the influence of attached vortex and source sheets. We consider a polygonal approximation of the airfoil and assume intensity distributions of free and attached vortex sheets and attached source sheet to be approximated with piecewise constant or piecewise linear (continuous or discontinuous) functions. We describe several specific numerical schemes that provide different accuracy and have a different computational cost. The study shows that a Galerkin-type approach to solving boundary integral equation requires computing several integrals and double integrals over the panels. We obtain exact analytical formulae for all the necessary integrals, which makes it possible to raise significantly the accuracy of vortex sheet intensity computation and improve the quality of velocity and vorticity field representation, especially in proximity to the surface line of the airfoil. All the formulae are written down in the invariant form and depend only on the geometric relationship between the positions of the beginnings and ends of the panels.

  4. Vortex ventilation in the laboratory environment.

    PubMed

    Meisenzahl, Lawrence R

    2014-01-01

    Assured containment at low airflow has long eluded the users of ventilated enclosures including chemical fume hoods used throughout industry. It is proposed that containment will be enhanced in a hood that has a particular interior shape that causes a natural vortex to occur. The sustained vortex improves the containment of contaminants within the enclosure at low airflow. This hypothesis was tested using the ASHRAE 110 tracer gas test. A known volume of tracer gas was emitted in the hood. A MIRAN SapphIRe infrared spectrometer was used to measure the concentration of tracer gas that escapes the enclosure. The design of the experiment included a written operating procedure, data collection plan, and statistical analysis of the data. A chemical fume hood of traditional design was tested. The hood interior was then reconstructed to enhance the development of a vortex inside the enclosure. The hood was retested using the same method to compare the performance of the traditional interior shape with the enhanced vortex shape. In every aspect, the vortex hood showed significant improvement over the traditional hood design. Use of the Hood Index characterizing the dilution of gas in an air stream as a logarithmic function indicates a causal relationship between containment and volumetric airflow through an enclosure. Use of the vortex effect for ventilated enclosures can provide better protection for the user and lower operating cost for the owner. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a data collection spreadsheet, data analysis, and data collection procedure.].

  5. On Compressible Vortex Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secchi, Paolo

    2005-05-01

    We introduce the main known results of the theory of incompressible and compressible vortex sheets. Moreover, we present recent results obtained by the author with J. F. Coulombel about supersonic compressible vortex sheets in two space dimensions. The problem is a nonlinear free boundary hyperbolic problem with two difficulties: the free boundary is characteristic and the Lopatinski condition holds only in a weak sense, yielding losses of derivatives. Under a supersonic condition that precludes violent instabilities, we prove an energy estimate for the boundary value problem obtained by linearization around an unsteady piecewise solution.

  6. Vortex pairs on surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Koiller, Jair; Boatto, Stefanella

    2009-05-06

    A pair of infinitesimally close opposite vortices moving on a curved surface moves along a geodesic, according to a conjecture by Kimura. We outline a proof. Numerical simulations are presented for a pair of opposite vortices at a close but nonzero distance on a surface of revolution, the catenoid. We conjecture that the vortex pair system on a triaxial ellipsoid is a KAM perturbation of Jacobi's geodesic problem. We outline some preliminary calculations required for this study. Finding the surfaces for which the vortex pair system is integrable is in order.

  7. A new look at sound generation by blade/vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, J. C.; Mason, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    As a preliminary attempt to understand the dynamics of blade/vortex interaction, the two-dimensional problem of a rectilinear vortex filament interacting with a Joukowski airfoil is analyzed in both the lifting and nonlifting cases. The vortex velocity components could be obtained analytically and integrated to determine the vortex trajectory. With this information, the aeroacoustic low-frequency Green's function approach could then be employed to calculate the sound produced during the encounter. The results indicate that the vortex path deviates considerably from simple convection due to the presence of the airfoil and that a reasonably sharp sound pulse is radiated during the interaction whose fundamental frequency is critically dependent upon whether the vortex passes above or below the airfoil. Determination of this gross parameter of the interaction is shown to be highly nonlinearly dependent upon airfoil circulation, vortex circulation, and initial position.

  8. A theoretical formulation of wave-vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    A unified theoretical formulation for wave-vortex interaction, designated the '(omega, Pi) framework,' is presented. Based on the orthogonal decomposition of fluid dynamic interactions, the formulation can be used to study a variety of problems, including the interaction of a longitudinal (acoustic) wave and/or transverse (vortical) wave with a main vortex flow. Moreover, the formulation permits a unified treatment of wave-vortex interaction at various approximate levels, where the normal 'piston' process and tangential 'rubbing' process can be approximated dfferently.

  9. 'Optimal' vortex rings and aquatic propulsion mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Linden, P. F.; Turner, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    Fishes swim by flapping their tail and other fins. Other sea creatures, such as squid and salps, eject fluid intermittently as a jet. We discuss the fluid mechanics behind these propulsion mechanisms and show that these animals produce optimal vortex rings, which give the maximum thrust for a given energy input. We show that fishes optimize both their steady swimming efficiency and their ability to accelerate and turn by producing an individual optimal ring with each flap of the tail or fin. Salps produce vortex rings directly by ejecting a volume of fluid through a rear orifice, and these are also optimal. An important implication of this paper is that the repetition of vortex production is not necessary for an individual vortex to have the 'optimal' characteristics. PMID:15156924

  10. Symmetry breaking motion of a vortex pair in a driven cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, John; Osman, Kahar; Farias, Jason

    2002-11-01

    The two-dimensional driven cavity problem with an anti-symmetric sinusoidal forcing has been found to exhibit a subcritical symmetry breaking bifurcation (Farias and McHugh, Phys. Fluids, 2002). Equilibrium solutions are either a symmetric vortex pair or an asymmetric motion. The asymmetric motion is an asymmetric vortex pair at low Reynolds numbers, but merges into a three vortex motion at higher Reynolds numbers. The asymmetric solution is obtained by initiating the flow with a single vortex centered in the domain. Symmetric motion is obtained with no initial vortex, or weak initial vortex. The steady three-vortex motion occurs at a Reynolds number of approximately 3000, where the symmetric vortex pair has already gone through a Hopf bifurcation. Further two-dimensional results show that forcing with two full oscillations across the top of the cavity results in two steady vortex motions, depending on initial conditions. Three-dimensional results have even more steady solutions. The results are computational and theoretical.

  11. Vortex Advisory System. Volume I. Effectiveness for Selected Airports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    analysis of tens of thousands of vortex tracks. Wind velocity was found to be the primary determinant of vortex behavior. The VAS uses wind-velocity...and the correlation of vortex be- havior with the ambient winds. Analysis showed that a wind-rose criterion could be used to determine when interarrival...Washington DC. 2. Hallock, J.N., " Vortex Advisory System Safety Analysis , Vol. I: Analytical Model ," FAA-RD-78-68,1, Sep. 1978, DOT/ Transportation

  12. Cavitation and Wake Structure of Unsteady Tip Vortex Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-10

    wake structure generated by three-dimensional lifting surfaces. No longer can the wake be modeled as a simple horseshoe vortex structure with the tip...first initiates. -13- Z Strtn vortex "~Bound vortex "’ ; b Wake 2 Figure 1.5 Far-Field Horseshoe Model of a Finite Wing This figure shows a finite wing...Figure 1.11 Simplified Illustration of Wake Structure Behind an Oscillating Wing This schematic shows a simplified model of the trailing vortex

  13. Spectral Characteristics of Wake Vortex Sound During Roll-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr. (Technical Monitor); Zhang, Yan; Wang, Frank Y.; Hardin, Jay C.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the sound spectra generated by a trailing aircraft vortex during its rolling-up process. The study demonstrates that a rolling-up vortex could produce low frequency (less than 100 Hz) sound with very high intensity (60 dB above threshold of human hearing) at a distance of 200 ft from the vortex core. The spectrum then drops o rapidly thereafter. A rigorous analytical approach has been adopted in this report to derive the spectrum of vortex sound. First, the sound pressure was solved from an alternative treatment of the Lighthill s acoustic analogy approach [1]. After the application of Green s function for free space, a tensor analysis was applied to permit the removal of the source term singularity of the wave equation in the far field. Consequently, the sound pressure is expressed in terms of the retarded time that indicates the time history and spacial distribution of the sound source. The Fourier transformation is then applied to the sound pressure to compute its spectrum. As a result, the Fourier transformation greatly simplifies the expression of the vortex sound pressure involving the retarded time, so that the numerical computation is applicable with ease for axisymmetric line vortices during the rolling-up process. The vortex model assumes that the vortex circulation is proportional to the time and the core radius is a constant. In addition, the velocity profile is assumed to be self-similar along the aircraft flight path, so that a benchmark vortex velocity profile can be devised to obtain a closed form solution, which is then used to validate the numerical calculations for other more realistic vortex profiles for which no closed form solutions are available. The study suggests that acoustic sensors operating at low frequency band could be profitably deployed for detecting the vortex sound during the rolling-up process.

  14. Antisymmetric vortex interactions in the wake behind a step cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Cai; Jiang, Fengjian; Pettersen, Bjørnar; Andersson, Helge I.

    2017-10-01

    Flow around a step cylinder at the Reynolds number 150 was simulated by directly solving the full Navier-Stokes equations. The configuration was adopted from the work of Morton and Yarusevych ["Vortex shedding in the wake of a step cylinder," Phys. Fluids 22, 083602 (2010)], in which the wake dynamics were systematically described. A more detailed investigation of the vortex dislocation process has now been performed. Two kinds of new loop vortex structures were identified. Additionally, antisymmetric vortex interactions in two adjacent vortex dislocation processes were observed and explained. The results in this letter serve as a supplement for a more thorough understanding of the vortex dynamics in the step cylinder wake.

  15. Modification of vortex ring formation using dilute polymer solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Daniel; Krane, Michael; Peltier, Joel; Patterson, Eric; Fontaine, Arnold

    2006-11-01

    This talk will present the results of an experimental study to determine the effect of dilute polymer solution on the formation of a vortex ring. Experiments were conducted in a large, glass tank, filled with water. Vortex rings were produced by injecting a slug of dilute polymer solution into the tank through a nozzle. The injection was controlled by a prescribed piston motion in the nozzle. For the same piston motion, vortex rings were produced for 3 concentrations of the polymer solution, including one with no polymer. The vortex ring flowfield was measured using DPIV. Differences between the 3 cases of polymer concentration in vortex ring formation time, circulation, size, and convection speed are presented.

  16. Vortex Ring Formation in a Starting Buoyant Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottebaum, Tait; Shusser, Michael; Gharib, Morteza

    1999-11-01

    Vortex ring formation in starting buoyant plumes is studied experimentally. Buoyant plumes are produced using a heating element at the base of a water tank. Digital particle image velocimetry and thermometry (DPIVT) is used to obtain the velocity and temperature fields, from which the vorticity and density fields are determined. The results indicate that the circulation of the vortex ring initially grows and saturates at later times. This saturation process is associated with the disconnection of the vorticity field of the vortex ring from that of the trailing plume. This is analogous to the pinch off of a vortex ring produced by a piston as reported by Gharib et al (1998 JFM 360, 121-140). Similar to the definition used by Gharib et al, a 'formation number' can be defined as the normalized time at which the circulation produced by the buoyancy source is equal to the peak circulation achieved by the vortex ring. This formation number is examined for a variety of plume density ratios. The results are compared to predictions of a model based on the Kelvin-Benjamin variational principle for steady axis-touching vortex rings.

  17. Magnetization reversal in circular vortex dots of small radius.

    PubMed

    Goiriena-Goikoetxea, M; Guslienko, K Y; Rouco, M; Orue, I; Berganza, E; Jaafar, M; Asenjo, A; Fernández-Gubieda, M L; Fernández Barquín, L; García-Arribas, A

    2017-08-10

    We present a detailed study of the magnetic behavior of Permalloy (Ni 80 Fe 20 alloy) circular nanodots with small radii (30 nm and 70 nm) and different thicknesses (30 nm or 50 nm). Despite the small size of the dots, the measured hysteresis loops manifestly display the features of classical vortex behavior with zero remanence and lobes at high magnetic fields. This is remarkable because the size of the magnetic vortex core is comparable to the dot diameter, as revealed by magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations. The dot ground states are close to the border of the vortex stability and, depending on the dot size, the magnetization distribution combines attributes of the typical vortex, single domain states or even presents features resembling magnetic skyrmions. An analytical model of the dot magnetization reversal, accounting for the large vortex core size, is developed to explain the observed behavior, providing a rather good agreement with the experimental results. The study extends the understanding of magnetic nanodots beyond the classical vortex concept (where the vortex core spins have a negligible influence on the magnetic behavior) and can therefore be useful for improving emerging spintronic applications, such as spin-torque nano-oscillators. It also delimits the feasibility of producing a well-defined vortex configuration in sub-100 nm dots, enabling the intracellular magneto-mechanical actuation for biomedical applications.

  18. Logic operations based on magnetic-vortex-state networks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunsung; Choi, Youn-Seok; Lee, Ki-Suk; Han, Dong-Soo; Yu, Young-Sang; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2012-05-22

    Logic operations based on coupled magnetic vortices were experimentally demonstrated. We utilized a simple chain structure consisting of three physically separated but dipolar-coupled vortex-state Permalloy disks as well as two electrodes for application of the logical inputs. We directly monitored the vortex gyrations in the middle disk, as the logical output, by time-resolved full-field soft X-ray microscopy measurements. By manipulating the relative polarization configurations of both end disks, two different logic operations are programmable: the XOR operation for the parallel polarization and the OR operation for the antiparallel polarization. This work paves the way for new-type programmable logic gates based on the coupled vortex-gyration dynamics achievable in vortex-state networks. The advantages are as follows: a low-power input signal by means of resonant vortex excitation, low-energy dissipation during signal transportation by selection of low-damping materials, and a simple patterned-array structure.

  19. Starting buoyant plumes and vortex ring pinch-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottebaum, Tait; Gharib, Mory

    2003-11-01

    The vortex ring formation process of a starting buoyant plume was studied experimentally. Buoyant plumes were produced using a heating element at the base of a water tank. The velocity and temperature fields in the flow were measured using digital particle image thermometry and velocimetry (DPITV), allowing the density and vorticity fields to be determined. The vortex ring initially grew, with additional circulation being supplied by the trailing plume. At later times, the vortex ring became disconnected from the trailing plume. This is analogous to the pinch-off of a vortex ring produced by a piston-cylinder apparatus reported by Gharib et al (1998 JFM 360: 121-140). The existence of a pinch-off process for starting buoyant plumes has many implications for environmental flows. Of particular interest is the effect of vortex ring pinch-off on the dispersal of particulates and contaminants in intermittent or sudden convection events.

  20. Investigation of rotor blade tip-vortex aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, W. S.

    1971-01-01

    Several aspects of the aerodynamics of rotor blade tip vortices are examined. Two particular categories are dealt with; (1) dynamic loads on a blade passing close to or intersecting a trailing vortex, and (2) the response of the trailing vortex core to changes in the flow. Results for both categories are in reasonable agreement with existing data, although lower pressure gradients were obtained than anticipated for category one. A correlation between trailing edge sweep angle at the tip and vortex core size was noted for category two.

  1. Anomalous Josephson effect controlled by an Abrikosov vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, S.; Goldobin, E.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.; Tamarat, Ph.; Lounis, B.; Buzdin, A.

    2017-12-01

    The possibility of a fast and precise Abrikosov vortex manipulation by a focused laser beam opens the way to create laser-driven Josephson junctions. We theoretically demonstrate that a vortex pinned in the vicinity of the Josephson junction generates an arbitrary ground state phase which can be equal not only to 0 or π but to any desired φ0 value in between. Such φ0 junctions have many peculiar properties and may be effectively controlled by the optically driven Abrikosov vortex. Also we theoretically show that the Josephson junction with the embedded vortex can serve as an ultrafast memory cell operating at sub THz frequencies.

  2. Vortex properties of two-dimensional superconducting Pb films.

    PubMed

    Ning, Y X; Song, C L; Wang, Y L; Chen, Xi; Jia, J F; Xue, Q K; Ma, X C

    2010-02-17

    Using low temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) we have investigated the vortex behaviours of two-dimensional superconducting Pb films at different thicknesses. STS at the vortex core shows an evolution of electronic states with film thickness. Transition from the clean limit to the dirty limit of superconductivity is identified, which can be ascribed to the decreased electronic mean free path induced by stronger scattering from the disordered interface at smaller thicknesses. A magnetic field dependent vortex core size is observed even for such a low- κ superconductor. The weak pinning induced by surface defects leads to the formation of a distorted hexagonal vortex lattice.

  3. Wavelength-versatile optical vortex lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omatsu, Takashige; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Lee, Andrew J.

    2017-12-01

    The unique properties of optical vortex beams, in particular their spiral wavefront, have resulted in the emergence of a wide range of unique applications for this type of laser output. These applications include optical tweezing, free space optical communications, microfabrication, environmental optics, and astrophysics. However, much like the laser in its infancy, the adaptation of this type of laser output requires a diversity of wavelengths. We report on recent progress on development of optical vortex laser sources and in particular, focus on their wavelength extension, where nonlinear optical processes have been used to generate vortex laser beams with wavelengths which span the ultraviolet to infrared. We show that nonlinear optical conversion can be used to not only diversify the output wavelength of these sources, but can be used to uniquely engineer the wavefront and spatial properties of the laser output.

  4. Reactive Flow Control of Delta Wing Vortex (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    wing aircraft. A substantial amount of research has been dedicated to the control of aerodynamic flows using both passive and active control mechanisms...Passive vortex control devices such as vortex generators and winglets attach to the wing and require no energy input. Passive vortex control...leading edges is also effective for changing the aerodynamic characteristics of delta wings [2] [3]. Gutmark and Guillot [5] proposed controlling

  5. Interaction of vortex rings with multiple permeable screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musta, Mustafa N.; Krueger, Paul S.

    2014-11-01

    Interaction of a vortex ring impinging on multiple permeable screens orthogonal to the ring axis was studied to experimentally investigate the persistence and decay of vortical structures inside the screen array using digital particle image velocimetry in a refractive index matched environment. The permeable screens had porosities (open area ratios) of 83.8%, 69.0%, and 55.7% and were held by a transparent frame that allowed the screen spacing to be changed. Vortex rings were generated using a piston-cylinder mechanism at nominal jet Reynolds numbers of 1000, 2000, and 3000 with piston stroke length-to-diameter ratios of 2 and 3. The interaction of vortex rings with the porous medium showed a strong dependence of the overall flow evolution on the screen porosity, with a central flow being preserved and vortex ring-like structures (with smaller diameter than the primary vortex ring) being generated near the centerline. Due to the large rod size used in the screens, immediate reformation of the transmitted vortex ring with size comparable to the primary ring (as has been observed with thin screens) was not observed in most cases. Since the screens have lower complexity and high open area ratios, centerline vortex ring-like flow structures formed with comparable size to the screen pore size and penetrated through the screens. In the case of low porosity screens (55.7%) with large screen spacing, re-emergence of large scale (large separation), weak vortical structures/pairs (analogous to a transmitted vortex ring) was observed downstream of the first screen. Additional smaller scale vortical structures were generated by the interaction of the vortex ring with subsequent screens. The size distribution of the generated vortical structures were shown to be strongly affected by porosity, with smaller vortical structures playing a stronger role as porosity decreased. Finally, porosity significantly affected the decay of total energy, but the effect of screen spacing

  6. Vortex Simulation of Turbulent Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-19

    used in this simulation was more representative of that of a wake . The difference between the stability and long-time behavior of wakes and shear...several important issues, summarized next, cast some doubt on the conclusions of these simulations. Using desingularized vortex sheets to model shear...17, 1991. 8. Krishnan, A. and Ghoniem, A.F., "Simulation of the Roll-up and Mixing in Rayleigh- Taylor Flow using the Vortex /Transport Element Method

  7. Origin and dynamics of vortex rings in drop splashing

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Ji San; Park, Su Ji; Lee, Jun Ho; ...

    2015-09-04

    A vortex is a flow phenomenon that is very commonly observed in nature. More than a century, a vortex ring that forms during drop splashing has caught the attention of many scientists due to its importance in understanding fluid mixing and mass transport processes. However, the origin of the vortices and their dynamics remain unclear, mostly due to the lack of appropriate visualization methods. Here, with ultrafast X-ray phase-contrast imaging, we show that the formation of vortex rings originates from the energy transfer by capillary waves generated at the moment of the drop impact. Interestingly, we find a row ofmore » vortex rings along the drop wall, as demonstrated by a phase diagram established here, with different power-law dependencies of the angular velocities on the Reynolds number. These results provide important insight that allows understanding and modelling any type of vortex rings in nature, beyond just vortex rings during drop splashing.« less

  8. Origin and dynamics of vortex rings in drop splashing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji San; Park, Su Ji; Lee, Jun Ho; Weon, Byung Mook; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-09-04

    A vortex is a flow phenomenon that is very commonly observed in nature. More than a century, a vortex ring that forms during drop splashing has caught the attention of many scientists due to its importance in understanding fluid mixing and mass transport processes. However, the origin of the vortices and their dynamics remain unclear, mostly due to the lack of appropriate visualization methods. Here, with ultrafast X-ray phase-contrast imaging, we show that the formation of vortex rings originates from the energy transfer by capillary waves generated at the moment of the drop impact. Interestingly, we find a row of vortex rings along the drop wall, as demonstrated by a phase diagram established here, with different power-law dependencies of the angular velocities on the Reynolds number. These results provide important insight that allows understanding and modelling any type of vortex rings in nature, beyond just vortex rings during drop splashing.

  9. Origin and dynamics of vortex rings in drop splashing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji San; Park, Su Ji; Lee, Jun Ho; Weon, Byung Mook; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-01-01

    A vortex is a flow phenomenon that is very commonly observed in nature. More than a century, a vortex ring that forms during drop splashing has caught the attention of many scientists due to its importance in understanding fluid mixing and mass transport processes. However, the origin of the vortices and their dynamics remain unclear, mostly due to the lack of appropriate visualization methods. Here, with ultrafast X-ray phase-contrast imaging, we show that the formation of vortex rings originates from the energy transfer by capillary waves generated at the moment of the drop impact. Interestingly, we find a row of vortex rings along the drop wall, as demonstrated by a phase diagram established here, with different power-law dependencies of the angular velocities on the Reynolds number. These results provide important insight that allows understanding and modelling any type of vortex rings in nature, beyond just vortex rings during drop splashing. PMID:26337704

  10. Stable dissipative optical vortex clusters by inhomogeneous effective diffusion.

    PubMed

    Li, Huishan; Lai, Shiquan; Qui, Yunli; Zhu, Xing; Xie, Jianing; Mihalache, Dumitru; He, Yingji

    2017-10-30

    We numerically show the generation of robust vortex clusters embedded in a two-dimensional beam propagating in a dissipative medium described by the generic cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with an inhomogeneous effective diffusion term, which is asymmetrical in the two transverse directions and periodically modulated in the longitudinal direction. We show the generation of stable optical vortex clusters for different values of the winding number (topological charge) of the input optical beam. We have found that the number of individual vortex solitons that form the robust vortex cluster is equal to the winding number of the input beam. We have obtained the relationships between the amplitudes and oscillation periods of the inhomogeneous effective diffusion and the cubic gain and diffusion (viscosity) parameters, which depict the regions of existence and stability of vortex clusters. The obtained results offer a method to form robust vortex clusters embedded in two-dimensional optical beams, and we envisage potential applications in the area of structured light.

  11. Optical vortex beams: Generation, propagation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wen

    An optical vortex (also known as a screw dislocation or phase singularity) is one type of optical singularity that has a spiral phase wave front around a singularity point where the phase is undefined. Optical vortex beams have a lot of applications in areas such as optical communications, LADAR (laser detection and ranging) system, optical tweezers, optical trapping and laser beam shaping. The concepts of optical vortex beams and methods of generation are briefly discussed. The properties of optical vortex beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence have been studied. A numerical modeling is developed and validated which has been applied to study the high order properties of optical vortex beams propagating though a turbulent atmosphere. The simulation results demonstrate the advantage that vectorial vortex beams may be more stable and maintain beam integrity better when they propagate through turbulent atmosphere. As one important application of optical vortex beams, the laser beam shaping is introduced and studied. We propose and demonstrate a method to generate a 2D flat-top beam profile using the second order full Poincare beams. Its applications in two-dimensional flat-top beam shaping with spatially variant polarization under low numerical aperture focusing have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. A novel compact flat-top beam shaper based on the proposed method has been designed, fabricated and tested. Experimental results show that high quality flat-top profile can be obtained with steep edge roll-off. The tolerance to different input beam sizes of the beam shaper is also verified in the experimental demonstration. The proposed and experimentally verified LC beam shaper has the potential to become a promising candidate for compact and low-cost flat-top beam shaping in areas such as laser processing/machining, lithography and medical treatment.

  12. Intraventricular vortex properties in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Benito, Yolanda; Alhama, Marta; Yotti, Raquel; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Pérez-David, Esther; González-Mansilla, Ana; Santa-Marta, Cristina; Barrio, Alicia; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; del Álamo, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Vortices may have a role in optimizing the mechanical efficiency and blood mixing of the left ventricle (LV). We aimed to characterize the size, position, circulation, and kinetic energy (KE) of LV main vortex cores in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and analyze their physiological correlates. We used digital processing of color-Doppler images to study flow evolution in 61 patients with NIDCM and 61 age-matched control subjects. Vortex features showed a characteristic biphasic temporal course during diastole. Because late filling contributed significantly to flow entrainment, vortex KE reached its maximum at the time of the peak A wave, storing 26 ± 20% of total KE delivered by inflow (range: 1–74%). Patients with NIDCM showed larger and stronger vortices than control subjects (circulation: 0.008 ± 0.007 vs. 0.006 ± 0.005 m2/s, respectively, P = 0.02; KE: 7 ± 8 vs. 5 ± 5 mJ/m, P = 0.04), even when corrected for LV size. This helped confining the filling jet in the dilated ventricle. The vortex Reynolds number was also higher in the NIDCM group. By multivariate analysis, vortex KE was related to the KE generated by inflow and to chamber short-axis diameter. In 21 patients studied head to head, Doppler measurements of circulation and KE closely correlated with phase-contract magnetic resonance values (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82 and 0.76, respectively). Thus, the biphasic nature of filling determines normal vortex physiology. Vortex formation is exaggerated in patients with NIDCM due to chamber remodeling, and enlarged vortices are helpful for ameliorating convective pressure losses and facilitating transport. These findings can be accurately studied using ultrasound. PMID:24414062

  13. Generation of intense high-order vortex harmonics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Shen, Baifei; Shi, Yin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lingang; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yi, Longqiong; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-05-01

    This Letter presents for the first time a scheme to generate intense high-order optical vortices that carry orbital angular momentum in the extreme ultraviolet region based on relativistic harmonics from the surface of a solid target. In the three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, the high-order harmonics of the high-order vortex mode is generated in both reflected and transmitted light beams when a linearly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulse impinges on a solid foil. The azimuthal mode of the harmonics scales with its order. The intensity of the high-order vortex harmonics is close to the relativistic region, with the pulse duration down to attosecond scale. The obtained intense vortex beam possesses the combined properties of fine transversal structure due to the high-order mode and the fine longitudinal structure due to the short wavelength of the high-order harmonics. In addition to the application in high-resolution detection in both spatial and temporal scales, it also presents new opportunities in the intense vortex required fields, such as the inner shell ionization process and high energy twisted photons generation by Thomson scattering of such an intense vortex beam off relativistic electrons.

  14. NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.; Charnock, James K.; Bagwell, Donald R.; Grigsby, Donner

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several systems to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These systems provide current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, and real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors. The goal of the NASA program is to provide the research and development to demonstrate an engineering model AVOSS in real-time operation at a major airport. The demonstration is only of concept feasibility, and additional effort is required to deploy an operational system for actual aircraft spacing reduction. This paper describes the AVOSS system architecture, a wake vortex facility established at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), initial operational experience with the AVOSS system, and emerging considerations for subsystem requirements. Results of the initial system operation suggest a significant potential for reduced spacing.

  15. Vortex Generators in a Two-Dimensional, External-Compression Supersonic Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baydar, Ezgihan; Lu, Frank K.; Slater, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Vortex generators within a two-dimensional, external-compression supersonic inlet for Mach 1.6 were investigated to determine their ability to increase total pressure recovery, reduce total pressure distortion, and improve the boundary layer. The vortex generators studied included vanes and ramps. The geometric factors of the vortex generators studied included height, length, spacing, and positions upstream and downstream of the inlet terminal shock. The flow through the inlet was simulated through the computational solution of the steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on multi-block, structured grids. The vortex generators were simulated by either gridding the geometry of the vortex generators or modeling the vortices generated by the vortex generators. The inlet performance was characterized by the inlet total pressure recovery, total pressure distortion, and incompressible shape factor of the boundary-layer at the engine face. The results suggested that downstream vanes reduced the distortion and improved the boundary layer. The height of the vortex generators had the greatest effect of the geometric factors.

  16. Point vortex model for prediction of sound generated by a wing with flap interacting with a passing vortex.

    PubMed

    Manela, A; Huang, L

    2013-04-01

    Acoustic signature of a rigid wing, equipped with a movable downstream flap and interacting with a line vortex, is studied in a two-dimensional low-Mach number flow. The flap is attached to the airfoil via a torsion spring, and the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem is analyzed using thin-airfoil methodology and application of the emended Brown and Michael equation. It is found that incident vortex passage above the airfoil excites flap motion at the system natural frequency, amplified above all other frequencies contained in the forcing vortex. Far-field radiation is analyzed using Powell-Howe analogy, yielding the leading order dipole-type signature of the system. It is shown that direct flap motion has a negligible effect on total sound radiation. The characteristic acoustic signature of the system is dominated by vortex sound, consisting of relatively strong leading and trailing edge interactions of the airfoil with the incident vortex, together with late-time wake sound resulting from induced flap motion. In comparison with the counterpart rigid (non-flapped) configuration, it is found that the flap may act as sound amplifier or absorber, depending on the value of flap-fluid natural frequency. The study complements existing analyses examining sound radiation in static- and detached-flap configurations.

  17. Development of a nonlinear vortex method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, O. A.

    1982-01-01

    Steady and unsteady Nonliner Hybrid Vortex (NHV) method, for low aspect ratio wings at large angles of attack, is developed. The method uses vortex panels with first-order vorticity distribution (equivalent to second-order doublet distribution) to calculate the induced velocity in the near field using closed form expressions. In the far field, the distributed vorticity is reduced to concentrated vortex lines and the simpler Biot-Savart's law is employed. The method is applied to rectangular wings in steady and unsteady flows without any restriction on the order of magnitude of the disturbances in the flow field. The numerical results show that the method accurately predicts the distributed aerodynamic loads and that it is of acceptable computational efficiency.

  18. Vortex line in the unitary Fermi gas

    DOE PAGES

    Madeira, Lucas; Vitiello, Silvio A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; ...

    2016-04-06

    Here, we report diffusion Monte Carlo results for the ground state of unpolarized spin-1/2 fermions in a cylindrical container and properties of the system with a vortex-line excitation. The density profile of the system with a vortex line presents a nonzero density at the core. We also calculate the ground-state energy per particle, the superfluid pairing gap, and the excitation energy per particle. Finally, these simulations can be extended to calculate the properties of vortex excitations in other strongly interacting systems such as superfluid neutron matter using realistic nuclear Hamiltonians.

  19. Vortex flow during early and late left ventricular filling in normal subjects: quantitative characterization using retrospectively-gated 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance and three-dimensional vortex core analysis.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, Mohammed S M; Calkoen, Emmeline E; Westenberg, Jos J M; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; Roest, Arno A W; van der Geest, Rob J

    2014-09-27

    LV diastolic vortex formation has been suggested to critically contribute to efficient blood pumping function, while altered vortex formation has been associated with LV pathologies. Therefore, quantitative characterization of vortex flow might provide a novel objective tool for evaluating LV function. The objectives of this study were 1) assess feasibility of vortex flow analysis during both early and late diastolic filling in vivo in normal subjects using 4D Flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with retrospective cardiac gating and 3D vortex core analysis 2) establish normal quantitative parameters characterizing 3D LV vortex flow during both early and late ventricular filling in normal subjects. With full ethical approval, twenty-four healthy volunteers (mean age: 20±10 years) underwent whole-heart 4D Flow CMR. The Lambda2-method was used to extract 3D LV vortex ring cores from the blood flow velocity field during early (E) and late (A) diastolic filling. The 3D location of the center of vortex ring core was characterized using cylindrical cardiac coordinates (Circumferential, Longitudinal (L), Radial (R)). Comparison between E and A filling was done with a paired T-test. The orientation of the vortex ring core was measured and the ring shape was quantified by the circularity index (CI). Finally, the Spearman's correlation between the shapes of mitral inflow pattern and formed vortex ring cores was tested. Distinct E- and A-vortex ring cores were observed with centers of A-vortex rings significantly closer to the mitral valve annulus (E-vortex L=0.19±0.04 versus A-vortex L=0.15±0.05; p=0.0001), closer to the ventricle's long-axis (E-vortex: R=0.27±0.07, A-vortex: R=0.20±0.09, p=0.048) and more elliptical in shape (E-vortex: CI=0.79±0.09, A-vortex: CI=0.57±0.06; <0.001) compared to E-vortex. The circumferential location and orientation relative to LV long-axis for both E- and A-vortex ring cores were similar. Good to strong correlation was found

  20. Wake vortex effects on parallel runway operations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-01-06

    Aircraft wake vortex behavior in ground effect between two parallel runways at Frankfurt/Main International Airport was studied. The distance and time of vortex demise were examined as a function of crosswind, aircraft type, and a measure of atmosphe...

  1. Determining the vortex tilt relative to a superconductor surface

    DOE PAGES

    Kogan, V. G.; Kirtley, J. R.

    2017-11-20

    Here, it is of interest to determine the exit angle of a vortex from a superconductor surface, since this affects the intervortex interactions and their consequences. Two ways to determine this angle are to image the vortex magnetic fields above the surface, or the vortex core shape at the surface. In this work we evaluate the field h(x,y,z) above a flat superconducting surface x,y and the currents J(x,y) at that surface for a straight vortex tilted relative to the normal to the surface, for both the isotropic and anisotropic cases. In principle, these results can be used to determine themore » vortex exit tilt angle from analyses of magnetic field imaging or density of states data.« less

  2. Investigation of propagation dynamics of truncated vector vortex beams.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, P; Perumangatt, C; Lal, Nijil; Singh, R P; Srinivasan, B

    2018-06-01

    In this Letter, we experimentally investigate the propagation dynamics of truncated vector vortex beams generated using a Sagnac interferometer. Upon focusing, the truncated vector vortex beam is found to regain its original intensity structure within the Rayleigh range. In order to explain such behavior, the propagation dynamics of a truncated vector vortex beam is simulated by decomposing it into the sum of integral charge beams with associated complex weights. We also show that the polarization of the truncated composite vector vortex beam is preserved all along the propagation axis. The experimental observations are consistent with theoretical predictions based on previous literature and are in good agreement with our simulation results. The results hold importance as vector vortex modes are eigenmodes of the optical fiber.

  3. A vortex wake capturing method for potential flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, E. M.; Stremel, P. M.

    1982-01-01

    A method is presented for modifying finite difference solutions of the potential equation to include the calculation of non-planar vortex wake features. The approach is an adaptation of Baker's 'cloud in cell' algorithm developed for the stream function-vorticity equations. The vortex wake is tracked in a Lagrangian frame of reference as a group of discrete vortex filaments. These are distributed to the Eulerian mesh system on which the velocity is calculated by a finite difference solution of the potential equation. An artificial viscosity introduced by the finite difference equations removes the singular nature of the vortex filaments. Computed examples are given for the two-dimensional time dependent roll-up of vortex wakes generated by wings with different spanwise loading distributions.

  4. Intracavity vortex beam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo, Darryl; Aït-Ameur, Kamel; Forbes, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we explore vortex beams and in particular the generation of single LG0l modes and superpositions thereof. Vortex beams carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) and this intrinsic property makes them prevalent in transferring this OAM to matter and to be used in quantum information processing. We explore an extra-cavity and intra-cavity approach in LG0l mode generation respectively. The outputs of a Porro-prism resonator are represented by "petals" and we show that through a full modal decomposition, the "petal" fields are a superposition of two LG0l modes.

  5. Kaplan turbine tip vortex cavitation - analysis and prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motycak, L.; Skotak, A.; Kupcik, R.

    2012-11-01

    The work is focused on one type of Kaplan turbine runner cavitation - a tip vortex cavitation. For detailed description of the tip vortex, the CFD analysis is used. On the basis of this analysis it is possible to estimate the intensity of cavitating vortex core, danger of possible blade surface and runner chamber cavitation pitting. In the paper, the ways how to avoid the pitting effect of the tip vortex are described. In order to prevent the blade surface against pitting, the following possibilities as the change of geometry of the runner blade, dimension of tip clearance and finally the installation of the anti-cavitation lips are discussed. The knowledge of the shape and intensity of the tip vortex helps to design the anti-cavitation lips more sophistically. After all, the results of the model tests of the Kaplan runner with or without anti-cavitation lips and the results of the CFD analysis are compared.

  6. Unsteady Ejector Performance: An Experimental Investigation Using a Resonance Tube Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2002-01-01

    A statistically designed experiment to characterize thrust augmentation for unsteady ejectors has been conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The variable parameters included ejector diameter, length, and nose radius. The pulsed jet driving the ejectors was produced by a shrouded resonance (or Hartmann-Sprenger) tube. In contrast to steady ejectors, an optimum ejector diameter was found, which coincided with the diameter of the vortex ring created at the pulsed jet exit. Measurements of ejector exit velocity using a hot-wire permitted evaluation of the mass augmentation ratio, which was found to correlate to thrust augmentation following a formula derived for steady ejectors.

  7. The interaction between a propagating coastal vortex and topographic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Simon Wyn

    This thesis investigates the motion of a point vortex near coastal topography in a rotating frame of reference at constant latitude (f-plane) in the linear and weakly nonlinear limits. Topography is considered in the form of an infinitely long escarpment running parallel to a wall. The vortex motion and topographic waves are governed by the conservation of quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity in shallow water, from which a nonlinear system of equations is derived. First the linear limit is studied for three cases; a weak vortex on- and off-shelf and a weak vortex close to the wall. For the first two cases it is shown that to leading order the vortex motion is stationary and a solution for the topographic waves at the escarpment can be found in terms of Fourier integrals. For a weak vortex close to a wall, the leading order solution is a steadily propagating vortex with a topographic wavetrain at the step. Numerical results for the higher order interactions are also presented and explained in terms of conservation of momentum in the along-shore direction. For the second case a resonant interaction between the vortex and the waves occurs when the vortex speed is equal to the maximum group velocity of the waves and the linear response becomes unbounded at large times. Thus it becomes necessary to examine the weakly nonlinear near-resonant case. Using a long wave approximation a nonlinear evolution equation for the interface separating the two regions of differing relative potential vorticity is derived and has similar form to the BDA (Benjamin, Davies, Acrivos 1967) equation. Results for the leading order steadily propagating vortex and for the vortex-wave feedback problem are calculated numerically using spectral multi-step Adams methods.

  8. Laminar Horse Shoe Vortex for a Triangular Cylinder Flat Plate Juncture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Muhammad Yamin; Zhang, H.; Hu, B.; Sohail, Muhammad Amjad; Muhammad, Zaka

    2011-09-01

    Juncture Flows are 3-D flows which occur when fluid, flowing on a flat surface encounters an obstacle on its way. The flow separates from the surface due to the adverse pressure gradient produced by the obstacle and rolls up to form a vortical structure known as "Horse Shoe Vortex". Studies and research is underway to completely identify and understand different hidden features of the horse shoe vortex. In the present study the structure of horse shoe vortex for a Triangular cylinder flat plate juncture is visualized using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The diameter Reynolds number experimented is within the range of 2 000 ≤ ReA ≤ 8 000. The flow characteristics are studied for the horse shoe vortex and the flow is categorized into different flow regimes. (1) Steady or static vortex system, (2) periodic amalgamating vortex system, and (3) periodic break away vortex system. The range for different vortex systems is also calculated with shedding frequency for the periodic unsteady vortex system. Most importantly the range of Reynolds number for which the above mentioned vortex systems exist is much higher for Sharp leading edge cylinder than for blunt (circular and Elliptical) and flat (Square) leading edge cylinders studied earlier.

  9. Numerical study of the properties of optical vortex array laser tweezers.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chun-Fu; Chu, Shu-Chun

    2013-11-04

    Chu et al. constructed a kind of Ince-Gaussian modes (IGM)-based vortex array laser beams consisting of p x p embedded optical vortexes from Ince-Gaussian modes, IG(e)(p,p) modes [Opt. Express 16, 19934 (2008)]. Such an IGM-based vortex array laser beams maintains its vortex array profile during both propagation and focusing, and is applicable to optical tweezers. This study uses the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method to study the properties of the IGM-based vortex array laser tweezers while it traps dielectric particles. This study calculates the resultant force exerted on the spherical dielectric particles of different sizes situated at the IGM-based vortex array laser beam waist. Numerical results show that the number of trapping spots of a structure light (i.e. IGM-based vortex laser beam), is depended on the relation between the trapped particle size and the structure light beam size. While the trapped particle is small comparing to the beam size of the IGM-based vortex array laser beams, the IGM-based vortex array laser beams tweezers are suitable for multiple traps. Conversely, the tweezers is suitable for single traps. The results of this study is useful to the future development of the vortex array laser tweezers applications.

  10. OWC with vortex beams in data center networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupferman, Judy; Arnon, Shlomi

    2017-10-01

    Data centers are a key building block in the rapidly growing area of internet technology. A typical data center has tens of thousands of servers, and communication between them must be flexible and robust. Vortex light beams have orbital angular momentum and can provide a useful and flexible method for optical wireless communication in data centers. Vortex beams can be generated with orbital angular momentum but independent of polarization, and used in a multiplexed system. We propose a multiplexing vortex system to increase the communication capacity using optical wireless communication for data center networks. We then evaluate performance. This paper is intended for use as an engineering guideline for design of vortex multiplexing in data center applications.

  11. Vortex circulation and polarity patterns in closely packed cap arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Streubel, Robert; Kronast, Florian; Reiche, Christopher F.; ...

    2016-01-25

    For this work, we studied curvature-driven modifications to the magnetostatic coupling of vortex circulation and polarity in soft-magnetic closely packed cap arrays. A phase diagram for the magnetic remanent/transition states at room temperature as a function of diameter and thickness was assembled. For specimens with vortex remanent state (40 nm-thick Permalloy on 330 nm spherical nanoparticles), both vortex circulation and polarity were visualized. Intercap coupling upon vortex nucleation leads to the formation of vortex circulation patterns in closely packed arrays. The remanent circulation pattern can be tailored choosing the direction of the applied magnetic field with respect to the symmetrymore » axis of the hexagonal array. An even and random distribution of vortex polarity indicates the absence of any circulation-polarity coupling.« less

  12. Vortex breakdown incipience: Theoretical considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Stanley A.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    The sensitivity of the onset and the location of vortex breakdowns in concentrated vortex cores, and the pronounced tendency of the breakdowns to migrate upstream have been characteristic observations of experimental investigations; they have also been features of numerical simulations and led to questions about the validity of these simulations. This behavior seems to be inconsistent with the strong time-like axial evolution of the flow, as expressed explicitly, for example, by the quasi-cylindrical approximate equations for this flow. An order-of-magnitude analysis of the equations of motion near breakdown leads to a modified set of governing equations, analysis of which demonstrates that the interplay between radial inertial, pressure, and viscous forces gives an elliptic character to these concentrated swirling flows. Analytical, asymptotic, and numerical solutions of a simplified non-linear equation are presented; these qualitatively exhibit the features of vortex onset and location noted above.

  13. Magnetic Vortex Based Transistor Operations

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, D.; Barman, S.; Barman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan–out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT). PMID:24531235

  14. Magnetic vortex based transistor operations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D; Barman, S; Barman, A

    2014-02-17

    Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan-out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT).

  15. Magnetic Vortex Based Transistor Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D.; Barman, S.; Barman, A.

    2014-02-01

    Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan-out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT).

  16. Wake-Vortex Hazards During Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; James, Kevin D.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Even though the hazard posed by lift-generated wakes of subsonic transport aircraft has been studied extensively for approach and departure at airports, only a small amount of effort has gone into the potential hazard at cruise altitude. This paper reports on a studio of the wake-vortex hazard during cruise because encounters may become more prevalent when free-flight becomes available and each aircraft, is free to choose its own route between destinations. In order to address the problem, the various fluid-dynamic stages that vortex wakes usually go through as they age will be described along with estimates of the potential hazard that each stage poses. It appears that a rolling-moment hazard can be just as severe at cruise as for approach at airports, but it only persists for several minutes. However, the hazard posed by the downwash in the wake due to the lift on the generator aircraft persists for tens of minutes in a long narrow region behind the generating aircraft. The hazard consists of severe vertical loads when an encountering aircraft crosses the wake. A technique for avoiding vortex wakes at cruise altitude will be described. To date the hazard posed by lift-generated vortex wakes and their persistence at cruise altitudes has been identified and subdivided into several tasks. Analyses of the loads to be encounter and are underway and should be completed shortly. A review of published literature on the subject has been nearly completed (see text) and photographs of vortex wakes at cruise altitudes have been taken and the various stages of decay have been identified. It remains to study and sort the photographs for those that best illustrate the various stages of decay after they are shed by subsonic transport aircraft at cruise altitudes. The present status of the analysis and the paper are described.

  17. Theory and applications of free-electron vortex states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliokh, K. Y.; Ivanov, I. P.; Guzzinati, G.; Clark, L.; Van Boxem, R.; Béché, A.; Juchtmans, R.; Alonso, M. A.; Schattschneider, P.; Nori, F.; Verbeeck, J.

    2017-05-01

    Both classical and quantum waves can form vortices : entities with helical phase fronts and circulating current densities. These features determine the intrinsic orbital angular momentum carried by localized vortex states. In the past 25 years, optical vortex beams have become an inherent part of modern optics, with many remarkable achievements and applications. In the past decade, it has been realized and demonstrated that such vortex beams or wavepackets can also appear in free electron waves, in particular, in electron microscopy. Interest in free-electron vortex states quickly spread over different areas of physics: from basic aspects of quantum mechanics, via applications for fine probing of matter (including individual atoms), to high-energy particle collision and radiation processes. Here we provide a comprehensive review of theoretical and experimental studies in this emerging field of research. We describe the main properties of electron vortex states, experimental achievements and possible applications within transmission electron microscopy, as well as the possible role of vortex electrons in relativistic and high-energy processes. We aim to provide a balanced description including a pedagogical introduction, solid theoretical basis, and a wide range of practical details. Special attention is paid to translating theoretical insights into suggestions for future experiments, in electron microscopy and beyond, in any situation where free electrons occur.

  18. Interaction of a trailing vortex with an oscillating wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, C.; Fishman, G.; Rockwell, D.

    2018-01-01

    A technique of particle image velocimetry is employed to characterize the flow structure of a trailing vortex incident upon the tip region of an oscillating wing (plate). The amplitude and velocity of the wing are nearly two orders of magnitude smaller than the wing chord and free stream velocity, respectively. Depending upon the outboard displacement of the incident vortex relative to the wing tip, distinctive patterns of upwash, downwash, and shed vorticity are observed. These patterns are a strong function of the phase of the wing motion during its oscillation cycle. At a given phase, the wing oscillation induces upwash that is reinforced by the upwash of the incident vortex, giving a maximum net upwash. Conversely, when these two origins of upwash counteract, rather than reinforce, one another during the oscillation cycle, the net upwash attains minimum value. Analogous interpretations hold for regions of maximum and minimum net downwash located outboard of the regions of upwash. The magnitude and scale of the vorticity shed from the tip of the wing are directly correlated with the net upwash, which takes different forms related to the outboard displacement of the incident vortex. As the location of the incident vortex is displaced towards the wing tip, both the maximum upwash and the maximum vorticity of the tip vortex initially increase and then decrease. For the limiting case where the incident vortex impinges directly upon the tip of the wing, there is no tip vortex or induced region of upwash. Furthermore, at small values of vortex displacement from the wing tip, the position of the incident vortex varies significantly from its nominal position during the oscillation cycle. All of the foregoing features are interpreted in conjunction with the flow topology in the form of streamlines and critical points, superposed on patterns of vorticity. It is shown that despite the small amplitude of the wing motion, the flow topology is fundamentally different at

  19. Study of the velocity distribution influence upon the pressure pulsations in draft tube model of hydro-turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonin, V.; Ustimenko, A.; Kuibin, P.; Litvinov, I.; Shtork, S.

    2016-11-01

    One of the mechanisms of generation of powerful pressure pulsations in the circuit of the turbine is a precessing vortex core, formed behind the runner at the operation points with partial or forced loads, when the flow has significant residual swirl. To study periodic pressure pulsations behind the runner the authors of this paper use approaches of experimental modeling and methods of computational fluid dynamics. The influence of velocity distributions at the output of the hydro turbine runner on pressure pulsations was studied based on analysis of the existing and possible velocity distributions in hydraulic turbines and selection of the distribution in the extended range. Preliminary numerical calculations have showed that the velocity distribution can be modeled without reproduction of the entire geometry of the circuit, using a combination of two blade cascades of the rotor and stator. Experimental verification of numerical results was carried out in an air bench, using the method of 3D-printing for fabrication of the blade cascades and the geometry of the draft tube of hydraulic turbine. Measurements of the velocity field at the input to a draft tube cone and registration of pressure pulsations due to precessing vortex core have allowed building correlations between the velocity distribution character and the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the pulsations.

  20. Using a plenoptic sensor to reconstruct vortex phase structures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chensheng; Ko, Jonathan; Davis, Christopher C

    2016-07-15

    A branch point problem and its solution commonly involve recognizing and reconstructing a vortex phase structure around a singular point. In laser beam propagation through random media, the destructive phase contributions from various parts of a vortex phase structure will cause a dark area in the center of the beam's intensity profile. This null of intensity can, in turn, prevent the vortex phase structure from being recognized. In this Letter, we show how to use a plenoptic sensor to transform the light field of a vortex beam so that a simple and direct reconstruction algorithm can be applied to reveal the vortex phase structure. As a result, we show that the plenoptic sensor is effective in detecting branch points and can be used to reconstruct phase distortion in a beam in a wide sense.

  1. Quantum oscillations in vortex-liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sumilan; Zhang, Shizhong; Randeria, Mohit

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by observations of quantum oscillations in underdoped cuprates [1], we examine the electronic density of states (DOS) in a vortex-liquid state, where long-range phase coherence is destroyed by an external magnetic field H but the local pairing amplitude survives. We note that this regime is distinct from that studied in most of the recent theories, which have focused on either a Fermi liquid with a competing order parameter or on a d-wave vortex lattice. The cuprate experiments are very likely in a resistive vortex-liquid state. We generalize the s-wave analysis of Maki and Stephen [2] to d-wave pairing and examine various regimes of the chemical potential, gap and field. We find that the (1/H) oscillations of the DOS at the chemical potential in a d-wave vortex-liquid are much more robust, i.e., have a reduced damping, compared to the s-wave case. We critically investigate the conventional wisdom relating the observed frequency to the area of an underlying Fermi surface. We also show that the oscillations in the DOS cross over to a √H behavior in the low field limit, in agreement with the recent specific heat measurements. [1] L. Taillefer, J. Phys. Cond. Mat. 21, 164212 (2009). [2] M. J. Stephen, Phys. Rev. B 45, 5481 (1992).

  2. Vortex-Airfoil Interaction and Application of Methods for Digital Fringe Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-15

    angles of attack. Different kinds of bluff bodies are used as vortex generators. Their wake is a Karman vortex street consisting of strong vortices of...Table of Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. A model for vortex paths around a profile and the sound generated by vortex -profile interaction 2"-- 3...I’ S.TTE(d~,t. TYPE OF PIrPORT a PERID COWERED ’. * Vortex -airfoil interaction and application of *methods for digital fringe analysis . 1 6

  3. Development of a perturbation generator for vortex stability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riester, J. E.; Ash, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Theory predicts vortex instability when subjected to certain types of disturbances. It was desired to build a device which could introduce controlled velocity perturbations into a trailing line vortex in order to study the effects on stability. A perturbation generator was designed and manufactured which can be attached to the centerbody of an airfoil type vortex generator. Details of design tests and manufacturing of the perturbation generator are presented. The device produced controlled perturbation with frequencies in excess of 250 Hz. Preliminary testing and evaluation of the perturbation generator performance was conducted in a 4 inch cylindrical pipe. Observations of vortex shedding frequencies from a centerbody were measured. Further evaluation with the perturbation generator attached to the vortex generator in a 2 x 3 foot wind tunnel were also conducted. Hot-wire anemometry was used to confirm the perturbation generator's ability to introduce controlled frequency fluctuations. Comparison of the energy levels of the disturbances in the vortex core was made between locations 42 chord lengths and 15 chord lengths downstream.

  4. On hairpin vortex generation from near-wall streamwise vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yinshan; Huang, Weixi; Xu, Chunxiao

    2015-04-01

    The generation of a hairpin vortex from near-wall streamwise vortices is studied via the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the streak transient growth in the minimal channel flow at . The streak profile is obtained by conditionally averaging the DNS data of the fully developed turbulent channel flow at the same Reynolds number. The near-wall streamwise vortices are produced by the transient growth of the streak which is initially subjected to the sinuous perturbation of the spanwise velocity. It is shown that the arch head of the hairpin vortex first grows from the downstream end of the stronger streamwise vortex and then connects with the weaker, opposite-signed streamwise vortex in their overlap region, forming a complete individual hairpin structure. The vorticity transport along the vortex lines indicates that the strength increase and the spatial expansion of the arch head are due to the stretching and the turning of the vorticity vector, respectively. The hairpin packets could be further produced from the generated individual hairpin vortex following the parent-offspring process.

  5. Vortex rings from Sphagnum moss capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Dwight; Strassman, Sam; Cha, Jung; Chang, Emily; Guo, Xinyi; Edwards, Joan

    2010-11-01

    The capsules of Sphagnum moss use vortex rings to disperse spores to suitable habitats many kilometers away. Vortex rings are created by the sudden release of pressurized air when the capsule ruptures, and are an efficient way to carry the small spores with low terminal velocities to heights where they can be carried by turbulent wind currents. We will present our computational model of these explosions, which are carried out using a 2-D large eddy simulation (LES) on FLUENT. Our simulations can reproduce the observed motion of the spore clouds observed from moss capsules with high-speed videos, and we will discuss the roles of bursting pressure, cap mass, and capsule morphology on the formation and quality of vortex rings created by this plant.

  6. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in vortex systems with two repulsive lengthscales.

    PubMed

    Curran, P J; Desoky, W M; Milosević, M V; Chaves, A; Laloë, J-B; Moodera, J S; Bending, S J

    2015-10-23

    Scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM) has been used to study vortex structures in thin epitaxial films of the superconductor MgB2. Unusual vortex patterns observed in MgB2 single crystals have previously been attributed to a competition between short-range repulsive and long-range attractive vortex-vortex interactions in this two band superconductor; the type 1.5 superconductivity scenario. Our films have much higher levels of disorder than bulk single crystals and therefore both superconducting condensates are expected to be pushed deep into the type 2 regime with purely repulsive vortex interactions. We observe broken symmetry vortex patterns at low fields in all samples after field-cooling from above Tc. These are consistent with those seen in systems with competing repulsions on disparate length scales, and remarkably similar structures are reproduced in dirty two band Ginzburg-Landau calculations, where the simulation parameters have been defined by experimental observations. This suggests that in our dirty MgB2 films, the symmetry of the vortex structures is broken by the presence of vortex repulsions with two different lengthscales, originating from the two distinct superconducting condensates. This represents an entirely new mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking in systems of superconducting vortices, with important implications for pinning phenomena and high current density applications.

  7. Random center vortex lines in continuous 3D space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Höllwieser, Roman; Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Operngasse 9, 1040 Vienna; Altarawneh, Derar

    2016-01-22

    We present a model of center vortices, represented by closed random lines in continuous 2+1-dimensional space-time. These random lines are modeled as being piece-wise linear and an ensemble is generated by Monte Carlo methods. The physical space in which the vortex lines are defined is a cuboid with periodic boundary conditions. Besides moving, growing and shrinking of the vortex configuration, also reconnections are allowed. Our ensemble therefore contains not a fixed, but a variable number of closed vortex lines. This is expected to be important for realizing the deconfining phase transition. Using the model, we study both vortex percolation andmore » the potential V(R) between quark and anti-quark as a function of distance R at different vortex densities, vortex segment lengths, reconnection conditions and at different temperatures. We have found three deconfinement phase transitions, as a function of density, as a function of vortex segment length, and as a function of temperature. The model reproduces the qualitative features of confinement physics seen in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory.« less

  8. Coherence of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Igor P.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper the theoretical research of coherent properties of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian optical beams propagating in turbulent atmosphere are developed. The approach to the analysis of this problem is based on the analytical solution of the equation for the transverse second-order mutual coherence function of a field of optical radiation. The behavior of integral scale of coherence degree of vortex Bessel-Gaussian optical beams depending on parameters of an optical beam and characteristics of turbulent atmosphere is particularly considered. It is shown that the integral scale of coherence degree of a vortex Bessel-Gaussian optical beam essentially depends on value of a topological charge of a vortex optical beam. With increase in a topological charge of a vortex Bessel-Gaussian optical beam the value of integral scale of coherence degree of a vortex Bessel-Gaussian optical beam are decreased.

  9. Vortex scaling ranges in two-dimensional turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, B. H.; Dritschel, D. G.; Scott, R. K.

    2017-11-01

    We survey the role of coherent vortices in two-dimensional turbulence, including formation mechanisms, implications for classical similarity and inertial range theories, and characteristics of the vortex populations. We review early work on the spatial and temporal scaling properties of vortices in freely evolving turbulence and more recent developments, including a spatiotemporal scaling theory for vortices in the forced inverse energy cascade. We emphasize that Kraichnan-Batchelor similarity theories and vortex scaling theories are best viewed as complementary and together provide a more complete description of two-dimensional turbulence. In particular, similarity theory has a continued role in describing the weak filamentary sea between the vortices. Moreover, we locate both classical inertial and vortex scaling ranges within the broader framework of scaling in far-from-equilibrium systems, which generically exhibit multiple fixed point solutions with distinct scaling behaviour. We describe how stationary transport in a range of scales comoving with the dilatation of flow features, as measured by the growth in vortex area, constrains the vortex number density in both freely evolving and forced two-dimensional turbulence. The new theories for coherent vortices reveal previously hidden nontrivial scaling, point to new dynamical understanding, and provide a novel exciting window into two-dimensional turbulence.

  10. Metamorphosis of a Hairpin Vortex into a Young Turbulent Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.; Joslin, Ronald D.

    1995-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation was used to study the formation and growth of a hairpin vortex in a flat-plate boundary layer and its later development into a young turbulent spot. Fluid injection through a slit in the wall triggered the initial vortex. The legs of the vortex were stretched into a hairpin shape as it traveled downstream. Multiple hairpin vortex heads developed between the stretched legs. New vortices formed beneath the streamwise-elongated vortex legs. The continued development of additional vortices resulted in the formation of a traveling region of highly disturbed ow with an arrowhead shape similar to that of a turbulent spot.

  11. Leading-edge vortex research: Some nonplanar concepts and current challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. F.; Osborn, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Some background information is provided for the Vortex Flow Aerodynamics Conference and that current slender wing airplanes do not use variable leading edge geometry to improve transonic drag polar is shown. Highlights of some of the initial studies combining wing camber, or flaps, with vortex flow are presented. Current vortex flap studies were reviewed to show that there is a large subsonic data base and that transonic and supersonic generic studies have begun. There is a need for validated flow field solvers to calculate vortex/shock interactions at transonic and supersonic speeds. Many important research opportunities exist for fundamental vortex flow investigations and for designing advanced fighter concepts.

  12. Experimental and analytical studies in fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goglia, Gene L.; Ibrahim, Adel

    1984-01-01

    The first objective was to analyze and design a true airspeed sensor which will replace the conventional pitot-static pressure transducer for small commercial aircraft. The second objective was to obtain a numerical solution and predict the frequency response which is generated by the vortex whistle at a certain airspeed. It was concluded flow rate measurements indicate that the vortex tube sound frequency is linearly proportional to the frequency response. The vortex tube whistle frequency is dependent upon geometrical parameters to such an extent that: an increase in vortex tube length produces a decrease in frequency response and that an increase in the exhaust nozzle length produces an increase in the frequency precession. An increase in the vortex tube diameter produces a decrease in frequency precession. An increase in swirler diameter produces a decrease in frequency. An increase in the location distance of the microphone pickup signal point from the inside edge of the exit nozzle produces an increase in frequency response. The experimental results indicate that those parameters most significantly effecting frequency are in descending order of importance microphone location, vortex tube diameter, exit nozzle length, vortex tube length, and swirler diameter.

  13. History-dependent dissipative vortex dynamics in superconducting arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Durkin, Malcolm; Mondragon-Shem, Ian; Eley, Serena Merteen

    In this study, we perform current (I)-voltage (V) measurements on low resistance superconductor-normal-superconductor arrays in finite magnetic fields, focusing on the dilute vortex population regime. We observe significant deviations from predicted behavior, notably the absence of a differential resistance peak near the vortex depinning current, and a broad linear I-V region with an extrapolated I intercept equal to the depinning current. Comparing these results to an overdamped molecular vortex model, we find that this behavior can be explained by the presence of a history-dependent dissipative force. Lastly, this approach has not been considered previously, to our knowledge, yet it ismore » crucial for obtaining a correct description of the vortex dynamics in superconducting arrays.« less

  14. History-dependent dissipative vortex dynamics in superconducting arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Durkin, Malcolm; Mondragon-Shem, Ian; Eley, Serena Merteen; ...

    2016-07-14

    In this study, we perform current (I)-voltage (V) measurements on low resistance superconductor-normal-superconductor arrays in finite magnetic fields, focusing on the dilute vortex population regime. We observe significant deviations from predicted behavior, notably the absence of a differential resistance peak near the vortex depinning current, and a broad linear I-V region with an extrapolated I intercept equal to the depinning current. Comparing these results to an overdamped molecular vortex model, we find that this behavior can be explained by the presence of a history-dependent dissipative force. Lastly, this approach has not been considered previously, to our knowledge, yet it ismore » crucial for obtaining a correct description of the vortex dynamics in superconducting arrays.« less

  15. The challenges of simulating wake vortex encounters and assessing separation criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, R. E.; Stuever, Robert A.; Vicroy, Dan D.

    1993-01-01

    During landings and take-offs, the longitudinal spacing between airplanes is in part determined by the safe separation required to avoid the trailing vortex wake of the preceding aircraft. Safe exploration of the feasibility of reducing longitudinal separation standards will require use of aircraft simulators. This paper discusses the approaches to vortex modeling, methods for modeling the aircraft/vortex interaction, some of the previous attempts of defining vortex hazard criteria, and current understanding of the development of vortex hazard criteria.

  16. Application of Wind Tunnel Free-Flight Technique for Wake Vortex Encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Stuever, Robert A.; Buttrill, Catherine W.

    1997-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel to assess the free-flight test technique as a tool in research on wake vortex encounters. A typical 17.5-percent scale business-class jet airplane model was flown behind a stationary wing mounted in the forward portion of the wind tunnel test section. The span ratio (model span-generating wingspan) was 0.75. The wing angle of attack could be adjusted to produce a vortex of desired strength. The test airplane model was successfully flown in the vortex and through the vortex for a range of vortex strengths. Data obtained included the model airplane body axis accelerations, angular rates, attitudes, and control positions as a function of vortex strength and relative position. Pilot comments and video records were also recorded during the vortex encounters.

  17. Head losses prediction and analysis in a bulb turbine draft tube under different operating conditions using unsteady simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, S.; Balarac, G.; Métais, O.; Ségoufin, C.

    2016-11-01

    Flow prediction in a bulb turbine draft tube is conducted for two operating points using Unsteady RANS (URANS) simulations and Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The inlet boundary condition of the draft tube calculation is a rotating two dimensional velocity profile exported from a RANS guide vane- runner calculation. Numerical results are compared with experimental data in order to validate the flow field and head losses prediction. Velocity profiles prediction is improved with LES in the center of the draft tube compared to URANS results. Moreover, more complex flow structures are obtained with LES. A local analysis of the predicted flow field using the energy balance in the draft tube is then introduced in order to detect the hydrodynamic instabilities responsible for head losses in the draft tube. In particular, the production of turbulent kinetic energy next to the draft tube wall and in the central vortex structure is found to be responsible for a large part of the mean kinetic energy dissipation in the draft tube and thus for head losses. This analysis is used in order to understand the differences in head losses for different operating points. The numerical methodology could then be improved thanks to an in-depth understanding of the local flow topology.

  18. Topological dynamics of vortex-line networks in hexagonal manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Fei; Wang, Nan; Wang, Xueyun; Ji, Yanzhou; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Chen, Long-Qing

    2018-01-01

    The two-dimensional X Y model is the first well-studied system with topological point defects. On the other hand, although topological line defects are common in three-dimensional systems, the evolution mechanism of line defects is not fully understood. The six domains in hexagonal manganites converge to vortex lines in three dimensions. Using phase-field simulations, we predicted that during the domain coarsening process, the vortex-line network undergoes three types of basic topological changes, i.e., vortex-line loop shrinking, coalescence, and splitting. It is shown that the vortex-antivortex annihilation controls the scaling dynamics.

  19. Stabilization of Inviscid Vortex Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protas, Bartosz; Sakajo, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    In this study we investigate the problem of stabilizing inviscid vortex sheets via feedback control. Such models, expressed in terms of the Birkhoff-Rott equation, are often used to describe the Kevin-Helmholtz instability of shear layers and are known to be strongly unstable to small-scale perturbations. First, we consider the linear stability of a straight vortex sheet in the periodic setting with actuation in the form of an array of point vortices or sources located a certain distance away from the sheet. We establish conditions under which this system is controllable and observable. Next, using methods of the linear control theory, we synthesize a feedback control strategy which stabilizes a straight vortex sheet in the linear regime. Given the poor conditioning of the discretized problem, reliable solution of the resulting algebraic Riccati equation requires the use of high-precision arithmetic. Finally, we demonstrate that this control approach also succeeds in the nonlinear regime, provided the magnitude of the initial perturbation is sufficiently small.

  20. Vortex Core Size in the Rotor Near-Wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2003-01-01

    Using a kinetic energy conservation approach, a number of simple analytic expressions are derived for estimating the core size of tip vortices in the near-wake of rotors in hover and axial-flow flight. The influence of thrust, induced power losses, advance ratio, and vortex structure on rotor vortex core size is assessed. Experimental data from the literature is compared to the analytical results derived in this paper. In general, three conclusions can be drawn from the work in this paper. First, the greater the rotor thrust, t h e larger the vortex core size in the rotor near-wake. Second, the more efficient a rotor is with respect to induced power losses, the smaller the resulting vortex core size. Third, and lastly, vortex core size initially decreases for low axial-flow advance ratios, but for large advance ratios core size asymptotically increases to a nominal upper limit. Insights gained from this work should enable improved modeling of rotary-wing aerodynamics, as well as provide a framework for improved experimental investigations of rotor a n d advanced propeller wakes.

  1. Current induced vortex wall dynamics in helical magnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roostaei, Bahman

    2015-03-01

    Nontrivial topology of interfaces separating phases with opposite chirality in helical magnetic metals result in new effects as they interact with spin polarized current. These interfaces or vortex walls consist of a one dimensional array of vortex lines. We predict that adiabatic transfer of angular momentum between vortex array and spin polarized current will result in topological Hall effect in multi-domain samples. Also we predict that the motion of the vortex array will result in a new damping mechanism for magnetic moments based on Lenz's law. We study the dynamics of these walls interacting with electric current and use fundamental electromagnetic laws to quantify those predictions. On the other hand discrete nature of vortex walls affects their pinning and results in low depinning current density. We predict the value of this current using collective pinning theory.

  2. An Improved Wake Vortex Tracking Algorithm for Multiple Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, George F.; Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    The accurate tracking of vortex evolution from Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data is a complex and computationally intensive problem. The vortex tracking requires the analysis of very large three-dimensional and time-varying datasets. The complexity of the problem is further compounded by the fact that these vortices are embedded in a background turbulence field, and they may interact with the ground surface. Another level of complication can arise, if vortices from multiple aircrafts are simulated. This paper presents a new technique for post-processing LES data to obtain wake vortex tracks and wake intensities. The new approach isolates vortices by defining "regions of interest" (ROI) around each vortex and has the ability to identify vortex pairs from multiple aircraft. The paper describes the new methodology for tracking wake vortices and presents application of the technique for single and multiple aircraft.

  3. Thermally Driven Inhibition of Superconducting Vortex Avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Antonio; Aliev, Farkhad G.; Moshchalkov, Victor V.; Galperin, Yuri M.

    2017-09-01

    Complex systems close to their critical state can exhibit abrupt transitions—avalanches—between their metastable states. It is a challenging task to understand the mechanism of the avalanches and control their behavior. Here, we investigate microwave stimulation of avalanches in the so-called vortex matter of type-II superconductors—a system of interacting Abrikosov vortices close to the critical (Bean) state. Our main finding is that the avalanche incubation strongly depends on the excitation frequency, a completely unexpected behavior observed close to the so-called depinning frequencies. Namely, the triggered vortex avalanches in Pb superconducting films become effectively inhibited approaching the critical temperature or critical magnetic field when the microwave stimulus is close to the vortex depinning frequency. We suggest a simple model explaining the observed counterintuitive behaviors as a manifestation of the strongly nonlinear dependence of the driven vortex core size on the microwave excitation intensity. This paves the way to controlling avalanches in superconductor-based devices through their nonlinear response.

  4. Vortex ring behavior provides the epigenetic blueprint for the human heart

    PubMed Central

    Arvidsson, Per M.; Kovács, Sándor J.; Töger, Johannes; Borgquist, Rasmus; Heiberg, Einar; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The laws of fluid dynamics govern vortex ring formation and precede cardiac development by billions of years, suggesting that diastolic vortex ring formation is instrumental in defining the shape of the heart. Using novel and validated magnetic resonance imaging measurements, we show that the healthy left ventricle moves in tandem with the expanding vortex ring, indicating that cardiac form and function is epigenetically optimized to accommodate vortex ring formation for volume pumping. Healthy hearts demonstrate a strong coupling between vortex and cardiac volumes (R2 = 0.83), but this optimized phenotype is lost in heart failure, suggesting restoration of normal vortex ring dynamics as a new, and possibly important consideration for individualized heart failure treatment. Vortex ring volume was unrelated to early rapid filling (E-wave) velocity in patients and controls. Characteristics of vortex-wall interaction provide unique physiologic and mechanistic information about cardiac diastolic function that may be applied to guide the design and implantation of prosthetic valves, and have potential clinical utility as therapeutic targets for tailored medicine or measures of cardiac health. PMID:26915473

  5. Vortex ring behavior provides the epigenetic blueprint for the human heart.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Per M; Kovács, Sándor J; Töger, Johannes; Borgquist, Rasmus; Heiberg, Einar; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan

    2016-02-26

    The laws of fluid dynamics govern vortex ring formation and precede cardiac development by billions of years, suggesting that diastolic vortex ring formation is instrumental in defining the shape of the heart. Using novel and validated magnetic resonance imaging measurements, we show that the healthy left ventricle moves in tandem with the expanding vortex ring, indicating that cardiac form and function is epigenetically optimized to accommodate vortex ring formation for volume pumping. Healthy hearts demonstrate a strong coupling between vortex and cardiac volumes (R(2) = 0.83), but this optimized phenotype is lost in heart failure, suggesting restoration of normal vortex ring dynamics as a new, and possibly important consideration for individualized heart failure treatment. Vortex ring volume was unrelated to early rapid filling (E-wave) velocity in patients and controls. Characteristics of vortex-wall interaction provide unique physiologic and mechanistic information about cardiac diastolic function that may be applied to guide the design and implantation of prosthetic valves, and have potential clinical utility as therapeutic targets for tailored medicine or measures of cardiac health.

  6. Phenotypic heterogeneity in the endothelium of the human vortex vein system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Paula K; Tan, Priscilla E Z; Cringle, Stephen J; McAllister, Ian L; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2013-10-01

    The vortex vein system is the drainage pathway for the choroidal circulation and serves an important function in the effective drainage of the exceptionally high blood flow from the choroidal circulation. As there are only 4-6 vortex veins, a large volume of blood must be drained from many choroidal veins into each individual vortex vein. The vortex vein system must also cope with passing through tissues of different rigidity and significant pressure gradient as it transverses from the intrao-cular to the extra-ocular compartments. However, little is known about how the vortex vein system works under such complex situations in both physiological and pathological condition. Endothelial cells play a vital role in other vascular systems, but they have not been studied in detail in the vortex vein system. The purpose of this study is to characterise the intracellular structures and morphology in both the intra-and extra-ocular regions of the human vortex vein system. We hypothesise the presence of endothelial phenotypic heterogeneity through the vortex vein system. The inferior temporal vortex vein system from human donor eyes were obtained and studied histologically using confocal microscopy. The f-actin cytoskeleton and nuclei were labelled using Alexa Fluor conjugated Phalloidin and YO-PRO-1. Eight regions of the vortex vein system were examined with the venous endothelium studied in detail with quantitative data obtained for endothelial cell and nuclei size and shape. Significant endothelial phenotypic heterogeneity was found throughout the vortex vein system with the most obvious differences observed between the ampulla and its downstream regions. Variation in the distribution pattern of smooth muscle cells, in particular the absence of smooth muscle cells around the ampulla, was noted. Our results suggest the presence of significantly different haemodynamic forces in different regions of the vortex vein system and indicate that the vortex vein system may play

  7. Stability of Mars' annular polar vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seviour, W.; Waugh, D.; Scott, R.

    2016-12-01

    In common with the Earth and several other planetary bodies, the martian atmosphere exhibits regions of high potential vorticity (PV) near the winter pole, known as polar vortices. On Earth, PV increases monotonically from the equator to pole, however, on Mars there is a local minimum at the pole, with an annulus of high PV encircling it. Recently produced reanalyses of the martian atmospheric circulation have confirmed that this annular vortex is a persistent feature, forming in autumn and lasting until spring. This finding is surprising since an isolated band of PV is barotropically unstable, a result going back to Rayleigh. Here we investigate the stability of an annular vortex using numerical integrations of the rotating shallow water equations. We show that the mode of instability and its growth rate strongly depends upon the latitude and width of the annulus. By introducing thermal relaxation with a time scale similar to that of the instability we are able to simulate a persistent annular vortex with similar characteristics as that observed in the martian atmosphere. This time scale, typically 1-2 sols, is similar to thermal relaxation timescales which have been estimated for the martian atmosphere. We also demonstrate that the persistence of an annular vortex is robust to topographic forcing, as long as it is below a certain amplitude. We hence propose that the persistence of this barotropically unstable annular vortex is permitted due to the combination of short radiative relaxation time scales and relatively weak topographic forcing in the martian polar atmosphere.

  8. Organic monolith frits encased in polyether ether ketone tubing with improved durability for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2015-09-01

    This study introduces a preparation method for polymer-encased monolith frits with improved durability for liquid chromatography columns. The inner surface of the polyether ether ketone tubing is pretreated with sulfuric acid in the presence of catalysts (vanadium oxide and sodium sulfate). The tubing was rinsed with water and acetone, flushed with nitrogen, and treated with glycidyl methacrylate. After washing, the monolith reaction mixture composed of lauryl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, initiator, and porogenic solvent was filled in the tubing and subjected to in situ polymerization. The tubing was cut into thin slices and used as frits for microcolumns. To check their durability, the frit slices were placed in a vial and a heavy impact was applied on the vial by a vortex mixer for various periods. The frits made in the presence of catalysts were found to be more durable than those made without catalysts. Furthermore, when the monolith-incorporated tubing was used as a chromatography column, the column prepared in the presence of catalysts resulted in a better separation efficiency. The separation performance of the columns installed with the polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits was comparable to that of the columns installed with the commercial stainless-steel screen frits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Research on aircraft trailing vortex detection based on laser's multiplex information echo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Nan-xiang; Wu, Yong-hua; Hu, Yi-hua; Lei, Wu-hu

    2010-10-01

    Airfoil trailing vortex is an important reason for the crash, and vortex detection is the basic premise for the civil aeronautics boards to make the flight measures and protect civil aviation's security. So a new method of aircraft trailing vortex detection based on laser's multiplex information echo has been proposed in this paper. According to the classical aerodynamics theories, the formation mechanism of the trailing vortex from the airfoil wingtip has been analyzed, and the vortex model of Boeing 737 in the taking-off phase has also been established on the FLUENT software platform. Combining with the unique morphological structure characteristics of trailing vortex, we have discussed the vortex's possible impact on the frequency, amplitude and phase information of laser echo, and expounded the principle of detecting vortex based on fusing this information variation of laser echo. In order to prove the feasibility of this detecting technique, the field experiment of detecting the vortex of civil Boeing 737 by laser has been carried on. The experimental result has shown that the aircraft vortex could be found really in the laser scanning area, and its diffusion characteristic has been very similar to the previous simulation result. Therefore, this vortex detection means based on laser's multiplex information echo was proved to be practicable relatively in this paper. It will provide the detection and identification of aircraft's trailing vortex a new way, and have massive research value and extensive application prospect as well.

  10. Full-Potential Modeling of Blade-Vortex Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    modeled by any arbitrary distribution. Stremel (ref. 23) uses a method in which the vortex is modeled with an area-weighted distribution of vorticity. A...Helicopter Rotor. Ph.D. Thesis, StanfordUniv., 1978. 23. Stremel , P. M.: Computational Methods for Non-Planar Vortex Wake Flow Fields. M.S. Thesis

  11. Spectrum study on unsteadiness of shock wave-vortex ring interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiangrui; Yan, Yonghua; Yang, Yong; Dong, Gang; Liu, Chaoqun

    2018-05-01

    Shock oscillation with low-frequency unsteadiness commonly occurs in supersonic flows and is a top priority for the control of flow separation caused by shock wave and boundary layer interaction. In this paper, the interaction of the shock caused by the compression ramp and the vortex rings generated by a micro-vortex generator (MVG) in a supersonic flow at Ma = 2.5 is simulated by the implicit large eddy simulation method. The analysis of observation and the frequency of both the vortex ring motion and the shock oscillation is carried out. The results show that the shock produced by a compression ramp flow at Ma = 2.5 has a dominant non-dimensional low frequency, which is around St = 0.002, while the vortex rings behind the MVG have a dominant high frequency which is around St = 0.038. The dominant low frequency of the shock, which is harmful, can be removed or weakened through the shock-vortex ring interaction by the vortex rings which generate high frequency fluctuations. In the shock and vortex ring interaction region, a dominant high frequency St = 0.037-0.038 has been detected rather than the low frequency St = 0.002, which indicates that the vortex ring is stiff enough to break or weaken the shock. This analysis could provide an effective tool to remove or weaken the low frequency pressure fluctuation below 500 Hz, which has a negative effect on the flight vehicle structures and the environmental protection, through the high frequency vortex generation.

  12. Influence of Initial Vorticity Distribution on Axisymmetric Vortex Breakdown and Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical treatment has been developed to study some of the axisymmetric vortex breakdown and reconnection fluid dynamic processes underlying body-vortex interactions that are frequently manifested in rotorcraft and propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft wakes. In particular, the presence of negative vorticity in the inner core of a vortex filament (one example of which is examined in this paper) subsequent to "cutting" by a solid body has a profound influence on the vortex reconnection, leading to analog flow behavior similar to vortex breakdown phenomena described in the literature. Initial vorticity distributions (three specific examples which are examined) without an inner core of negative vorticity do not exhibit vortex breakdown and instead manifest diffusion-like properties while undergoing vortex reconnection. Though this work focuses on laminar vortical flow, this work is anticipated to provide valuable insight into rotary-wing aerodynamics as well as other types of vortical flow phenomena.

  13. Influence of multiband sign-changing superconductivity on vortex cores and vortex pinning in stoichiometric high-Tc CaKFe4As4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fente, Antón; Meier, William R.; Kong, Tai; Kogan, Vladimir G.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Guillamón, Isabel; Suderow, Hermann

    2018-04-01

    We use a scanning tunneling microscope to study the superconducting density of states and vortex lattice of single crystals of CaKFe4As4 . This material has a critical temperature of Tc=35 K, one of the highest among stoichiometric iron based superconductors (FeBSCs), and is comparable to Tc found near optimal doping in other FeBSCs. We observe quasiparticle scattering from defects with a pattern related to interband scattering between zone centered hole sheets. We measure the tunneling conductance in vortex cores and find a peak due to Caroli-de Gennes-Matricon bound states. The peak is located above the Fermi level, showing that CaKFe4As4 is a clean superconductor with vortex core bound states close to the so-called extreme quantum limit. We identify locations where the superconducting order parameter is strongly suppressed due to pair breaking. Vortices are pinned at these locations, and the length scale of the suppression of the order parameter is of order of the vortex core size. As a consequence, the vortex lattice is disordered up to 8 T.

  14. Numerical Simulations of Vortex Shedding in Hydraulic Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel; Marcu, Bogdan

    2004-01-01

    Turbomachines for rocket propulsion applications operate with many different working fluids and flow conditions. Oxidizer boost turbines often operate in liquid oxygen, resulting in an incompressible flow field. Vortex shedding from airfoils in this flow environment can have adverse effects on both turbine performance and durability. In this study the effects of vortex shedding in a low-pressure oxidizer turbine are investigated. Benchmark results are also presented for vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder. The predicted results are compared with available experimental data.

  15. Internal scanning method as unique imaging method of optical vortex scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz

    2018-06-01

    The internal scanning method is specific for the optical vortex microscope. It allows to move the vortex point inside the focused vortex beam with nanometer resolution while the whole beam stays in place. Thus the sample illuminated by the focused vortex beam can be scanned just by the vortex point. We show that this method enables high resolution imaging. The paper presents the preliminary experimental results obtained with the first basic image recovery procedure. A prospect of developing more powerful tools for topography recovery with the optical vortex scanning microscope is discussed shortly.

  16. Investigation of compressible vortex flow characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.

    1977-01-01

    The nature of intense air vortices was studied and the factors which determine the intensity and rate of decay of both single and pairs of vortices were investigated. Vortex parameters of axial pressure differential, circulation, outflow rates, separation distance and directions of rotation were varied. Unconfined vortices, generated by a single rotating cage, were intensified by an increasing axial pressure gradient. Breakdown occurred when the axial gradient became negligible. The core radius was a function of the axial gradient. Dual vortices, generated by two counterrotating cages, rotated opposite to the attached cages. With minimum spacing only one vortex was formed which rotated in a direction opposite to the attached cage. When one cage rotated at half the speed of the other cage, one vortex formed at the higher speed cage rotating in the cage direction.

  17. Vortex formation and saturation for low-aspect-ratio rotating flat-plate fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoria, Adam C.; Ringuette, Matthew J.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate experimentally the unsteady, three-dimensional vortex formation of low-aspect-ratio, trapezoidal flat-plate fins undergoing rotation from rest at a 90° angle of attack and Reynolds numbers of O(103). The objectives are to characterize the unsteady three-dimensional vortex structure, examine vortex saturation, and understand the effects of the root-to-tip flow for different velocity programs. The experiments are conducted in a water tank facility, and the diagnostic tools are dye flow visualization and digital particle image velocimetry. The dye visualizations show that the low-aspect-ratio plate produces symmetric ring-like vortices comprised mainly of tip-edge vorticity. They also indicate the presence of the root-to-tip velocity. For large rotational amplitudes, the primary ring-like vortex sheds and a secondary ring-like vortex is generated while the plate is still in motion, indicating saturation of the leading vortex. The time-varying vortex circulation in the flow symmetry plane provides quantitative evidence of vortex saturation. The phenomenon of saturation is observed for several plate velocity programs. The temporal development of the vortex circulation is often complex, which prevents an objective determination of an exact saturation time. This is the result of an interaction between the developing vortex and the root-to-tip flow, which breaks apart the vortex. However, it is possible to define a range of time during which the vortex reaches saturation. A formation-parameter definition is investigated and is found to reasonably predict the state corresponding to the pinch-off of the initial tip vortex across the velocity programs tested. This event is the lower bound on the saturation time range.

  18. On the scaling and dynamics of periodically generated vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Hossein; Asgharzadeh, Hafez; Borazjani, Iman; Scientific Computing; Biofluids Team

    2017-11-01

    Periodically generated vortex rings are observed in nature, e.g., left ventricle or jellyfish, but their scaling and dynamics is not completely well understood. We are interested in identifying the main parameters governing the propagation and dynamics of periodically generated vortex rings. Therefore, vortex rings, generated periodically through a circular cylinder into a tank, is numerically investigated for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re), non-dimensional periods (T), and stroke ratios (stroke time to period) for a simple square wave. Based on the results, by using the averaged inflow velocity in definition of Reynolds number and non-dimensional period, vortex ring velocity becomes approximately independent of the stroke ratio. The results also show that reducing Reynolds number or increasing non-dimensional period increases the translational velocity of vortex ring. Based on our test cases, an empirical relation is proposed to predict the location of vortex cores propagating into domain which shows good agreement with other experimental data. The vortex instabilities and interactions are also visualized and discussed. This work was supported by AHA Grant 13SDG17220022, NIH Grant R03EB014860, and the Center of Computational Research (CCR) of University at Buffalo.

  19. On the electron vortex beam wavefunction within a crystal.

    PubMed

    Mendis, B G

    2015-10-01

    Electron vortex beams are distorted by scattering within a crystal, so that the wavefunction can effectively be decomposed into many vortex components. Using a Bloch wave approach equations are derived for vortex beam decomposition at any given depth and with respect to any frame of reference. In the kinematic limit (small specimen thickness) scattering largely takes place at the neighbouring atom columns with a local phase change of π/2rad. When viewed along the beam propagation direction only one vortex component is present at the specimen entrance surface (i.e. the 'free space' vortex in vacuum), but at larger depths the probe is in a mixed state due to Bragg scattering. Simulations show that there is no direct correlation between vortex components and the 〈Lz〉 pendellösung, i.e. at a given depth probes with relatively constant 〈Lz〉 can be in a more mixed state compared to those with more rapidly varying 〈Lz〉. This suggests that minimising oscillations in the 〈Lz〉 pendellösung by probe channelling is not the only criterion for generating a strong electron energy loss magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD) signal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trimmed noncoplanar planforms with minimum vortex drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Vortex-lattice subsonic method determines mean camber surface for trimmed noncoplanar planforms with minimum vortex drag. Multiple surfaces can be designed together to yield trimmed configuration with minimum induced drag at some specified lift coefficient. Program is applicable to isolated wings, wing-canard configuration, tandem wing, and wing-winglet configuration.

  1. Trailing Vortex-Induced Loads During Close Encounters in Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J; Kelly, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The trailing vortex induced aerodynamic loads on a Falcon 20G business jet flying in the wake of a DC-8 are predicted to provide a preflight estimate of safe trail distances during flight test measurements in the wake. Static and dynamic loads on the airframe flying in the near wake are shown at a matrix of locations, and the dynamic motion of the Falcon 20G during traverses of the DC-8 primary trailing vortex is simulated. Safe trailing distances for the test flights are determined, and optimum vortex traverse schemes are identified to moderate the motion of the trailing aircraft during close encounters with the vortex wake.

  2. Vortex Ring Interaction With a Coaxially Aligned Cylinderical Rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Rajmanoharan, P.; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr

    1998-11-01

    We present results of experiments of a fully developed vortex ring interacting with a cylinderical rod, having a rounded nose, placed coaxially in line with the motion of the ring. The pressure field of the translating ring causes unsteady boundary layer separation and results in the formation of one or more ( secondary ) vortex rings, that subsequently interact. The nature and strength of the interaction depends on the ratio of the cylinder diameter to the ring diameter. For the larger diameter cylinders the vortex ring travels a few ring diameters before it breaks up. For the smaller diameter cylinders the vortex ring speed decreases slowly and, simultaneously, its diameter increases.

  3. Senkyo and Vortex

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-28

    NASA Cassini spacecraft simultaneously peers through the haze in Titan equatorial region down to its surface and captures the vortex of clouds hovering over its south pole just to the right of the terminator on the moon dark side.

  4. Aircraft wake vortex measurements at Denver International Airport

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-05-10

    Airport capacity is constrained, in part, by spacing requirements associated with the wake vortex hazard. NASA's Wake Vortex Avoidance Project has a goal to establish the feasibility of reducing this spacing while maintaining safety. Passive acoustic...

  5. Calculation of symmetric and asymmetric vortex seperation on cones and tangent ogives based on discrete vortex models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, S.; Lan, C. Edward

    1988-01-01

    An inviscid discrete vortex model, with newly derived expressions for the tangential velocity imposed at the separation points, is used to investigate the symmetric and asymmetric vortex separation on cones and tangent ogives. The circumferential locations of separation are taken from experimental data. Based on a slender body theory, the resulting simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations in a cross-flow plane are solved with Broyden's modified Newton-Raphson method. Total force coefficients are obtained through momentum principle with new expressions for nonconical flow. It is shown through the method of function deflation that multiple solutions exist at large enough angles of attack, even with symmetric separation points. These additional solutions are asymmetric in vortex separation and produce side force coefficients which agree well with data for cones and tangent ogives.

  6. A Scanning laser-velocimeter technique for measuring two-dimensional wake-vortex velocity distributions. [Langley Vortex Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartrell, L. R.; Rhodes, D. B.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid scanning two dimensional laser velocimeter (LV) has been used to measure simultaneously the vortex vertical and axial velocity distributions in the Langley Vortex Research Facility. This system utilized a two dimensional Bragg cell for removing flow direction ambiguity by translating the optical frequency for each velocity component, which was separated by band-pass filters. A rotational scan mechanism provided an incremental rapid scan to compensate for the large displacement of the vortex with time. The data were processed with a digital counter and an on-line minicomputer. Vaporized kerosene (0.5 micron to 5 micron particle sizes) was used for flow visualization and LV scattering centers. The overall measured mean-velocity uncertainity is less than 2 percent. These measurements were obtained from ensemble averaging of individual realizations.

  7. Ferroelectric nanostructure having switchable multi-stable vortex states

    DOEpatents

    Naumov, Ivan I [Fayetteville, AR; Bellaiche, Laurent M [Fayetteville, AR; Prosandeev, Sergey A [Fayetteville, AR; Ponomareva, Inna V [Fayetteville, AR; Kornev, Igor A [Fayetteville, AR

    2009-09-22

    A ferroelectric nanostructure formed as a low dimensional nano-scale ferroelectric material having at least one vortex ring of polarization generating an ordered toroid moment switchable between multi-stable states. A stress-free ferroelectric nanodot under open-circuit-like electrical boundary conditions maintains such a vortex structure for their local dipoles when subject to a transverse inhomogeneous static electric field controlling the direction of the macroscopic toroidal moment. Stress is also capable of controlling the vortex's chirality, because of the electromechanical coupling that exists in ferroelectric nanodots.

  8. Numerical investigation of a vortex ring impinging on a coaxial aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiacheng; Peterson, Sean D.

    2017-11-01

    Recent advancements in smart materials have sparked an interest in the development of small scale fluidic energy harvesters for powering distributed applications in aquatic environments, where coherent vortex structures are prevalent. Thus, it is crucial to investigate the interaction of viscous vortices in the proximity of a thin plate (a common harvester configuration). Hence, the present study systematically examines the interaction of a vortex ring impinging on an infinitesimally thin wall with a coaxially aligned annular aperture. The rigid aperture serves as an axisymmetric counterpart of the thin plate, and the vortex ring represents a typical coherent vortex structure. The results indicate that the vortex dynamics can be categorized into two regimes based on the aperture to ring radius ratio (Rr). The rebound regime (Rr < 0.9) exhibits the classical unsteady boundary layer interaction in a vortex ring-wall collision. The vortex ring is able to slip past the aperture when Rr >= 0.9 , and an increase in the vortex ring impulse is observed for 1.0 <= Rr <= 1.3 due to fluid entrainment. Furthermore, pressure loadings are also compared to elucidate an optimal energy harvesting strategy in vortex impact configurations. This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) Discovery Grant (RGPIN-05778) and Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarship (CGS-D).

  9. On the Scattering of Sound by a Rectilinear Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HOWE, M. S.

    1999-11-01

    A re-examination is made of the two-dimensional interaction of a plane, time-harmonic sound wave with a rectilinear vortex of small core diameter at low Mach number. Sakov [1] and Ford and Smith [2] have independently resolved the “infinite forward scatter” paradox encountered in earlier applications of the Born approximation to this problem. The first order scattered field (Born approximation) has nulls in the forward and back scattering directions, but the interaction of the wave with non-acoustically compact components of the vortex velocity field causes wavefront distortion, and the phase of the incident wave to undergo a significant variation across a parabolic domain whose axis extends along the direction of forward scatter from the vortex core. The transmitted wave crests of the incident wave become concave and convex, respectively, on opposite sides of the axis of the parabola, and focusing and defocusing of wave energy produces corresponding increases and decreases in wave amplitude. Wave front curvature decreases with increasing distance from the vortex core, with the result that the wave amplitude and phase are asymptotically equal to the respective values they would have attained in the absence of the vortex. The transverse acoustic dipole generated by translational motion of the vortex at the incident wave acoustic particle velocity, and the interaction of the incident wave with acoustically compact components of the vortex velocity field, are responsible for a system of cylindrically spreading, scattered waves outside the parabolic domain.

  10. Visualization of vortex structures and analysis of frequency of PVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesheva, E. S.; Shtork, S. I.; Alekseenko, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the results of the study of large-scale vortex structures in a model chamber. Methods of forming quasi-stationary vortices of various shapes by changing the geometric parameters of the chamber have been proposed. In the model chamber with a tangential swirl of the flow, a rectilinear vortex, single helical and double helical vortices were obtained. The double helical structure of the vortex is unique due to its immovability around the axis of the chamber. The resulting structures slowly oscillate around their own axes, which is called the vortex core precession; while the oscillation frequency depends linearly on the liquid flow rate. The use of stationary vortex structures in power plants will increase the efficiency of combustion chambers and reduce slagging.

  11. Numerical Simulations of Vortex Generator Vanes and Jets on a Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Lin, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a single low-profile vortex generator vane, which is only a small fraction of the boundary-layer thickness, and a vortex generating jet have been performed for flows over a flat plate. The numerical simulations were computed by solving the steady-state solution to the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The vortex generating vane results were evaluated by comparing the strength and trajectory of the streamwise vortex to experimental particle image velocimetry measurements. From the numerical simulations of the vane case, it was observed that the Shear-Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model resulted in a better prediction of the streamwise peak vorticity and trajectory when compared to the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model. It is shown in this investigation that the estimation of the turbulent eddy viscosity near the vortex core, for both the vane and jet simulations, was higher for the SA model when compared to the SST model. Even though the numerical simulations of the vortex generating vane were able to predict the trajectory of the stream-wise vortex, the initial magnitude and decay of the peak streamwise vorticity were significantly under predicted. A comparison of the positive circulation associated with the streamwise vortex showed that while the numerical simulations produced a more diffused vortex, the vortex strength compared very well to the experimental observations. A grid resolution study for the vortex generating vane was also performed showing that the diffusion of the vortex was not a result of insufficient grid resolution. Comparisons were also made between a fully modeled trapezoidal vane with finite thickness to a simply modeled rectangular thin vane. The comparisons showed that the simply modeled rectangular vane produced a streamwise vortex which had a strength and trajectory very similar to the fully modeled trapezoidal vane.

  12. Glory, Vortex Street off Baja California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On June 19, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured both a vortex street and a glory visible amid the lattice of clouds over the Pacific Ocean off Baja California. In this image, the swirling clouds known as vortex streets appear along the left edge of the image, stretching southward from Isla Guadalupe. Another NASA satellite captured an earlier example of vortex streets in June 2000. These atmospheric vortices, known as Von Karman vortex streets, often occur in the wake of an obstacle to air flow, such as an island. Stratocumulus clouds--low-lying, sheets of puffy clouds-- over the ocean show the impact of the island on air flow visible though their alternating pattern of clockwise and counter-clockwise swirls. Southeast of the vortex street, a glory, which resembles a rainbow, hovers above the cloud cover. The glory is faint but large, 200 to 300 kilometers long, along a north-south orientation. This phenomenon can occur when the satellite passes directly between the Sun and a bank of clouds below. (People also observe them while looking down on clouds from airplanes.) Not just any kind of cloud can produce a glory; only clouds composed entirely of water droplets (as opposed to ice crystals) can make them. The droplets that form glories generally have diameters of less than 50 micrometers (a micrometers is a millionth of a meter). The water droplets bend the light, showing its different wavelengths, or colors. In this glory, reds and oranges are most visible. NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center.

  13. Borneo vortex and mesoscale convective rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseki, S.; Koh, T.-Y.; Teo, C.-K.

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated how the Borneo vortex develops over the equatorial South China Sea under cold surge conditions in December during the Asian winter monsoon. Composite analysis using reanalysis and satellite data sets has revealed that absolute vorticity and water vapour are transported by strong cold surges from upstream of the South China Sea to around the Equator. Rainfall is correspondingly enhanced over the equatorial South China Sea. A semi-idealized experiment reproduced the Borneo vortex over the equatorial South China Sea during a "perpetual" cold surge. The Borneo vortex is manifested as a meso-α cyclone with a comma-shaped rainband in the northeast sector of the cyclone. Vorticity budget analysis showed that the growth/maintenance of the meso-α cyclone was achieved mainly by the vortex stretching. This vortex stretching is due to the upward motion forced by the latent heat release around the cyclone centre. The comma-shaped rainband consists of clusters of meso-β-scale rainfall cells. The intense rainfall in the comma head (comma tail) is generated by the confluence of the warmer and wetter cyclonic easterly flow (cyclonic southeasterly flow) and the cooler and drier northeasterly surge in the northwestern (northeastern) sector of the cyclone. Intense upward motion and heavy rainfall resulted due to the low-level convergence and the favourable thermodynamic profile at the confluence zone. In particular, the convergence in the northwestern sector is responsible for maintenance of the meso-α cyclone system. At both meso-α and meso-β scales, the convergence is ultimately caused by the deviatoric strain in the confluence wind pattern but is significantly self-enhanced by the nonlinear dynamics.

  14. A New Dark Vortex on Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Michael H.; Tollefson, Joshua; Hsu, Andrew I.; de Pater, Imke; Simon, Amy A.; Hueso, Ricardo; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín; Sromovsky, Lawrence; Fry, Patrick; Luszcz-Cook, Statia; Hammel, Heidi; Delcroix, Marc; de Kleer, Katherine; Orton, Glenn S.; Baranec, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    An outburst of cloud activity on Neptune in 2015 led to speculation about whether the clouds were convective in nature, a wave phenomenon, or bright companions to an unseen dark vortex (similar to the Great Dark Spot studied in detail by Voyager 2). The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) finally answered this question by discovering a new dark vortex at 45 degrees south planetographic latitude, named SDS-2015 for “southern dark spot discovered in 2015.” SDS-2015 is only the fifth dark vortex ever seen on Neptune. In this paper, we report on imaging of SDS-2015 using HST’s Wide Field Camera 3 across four epochs: 2015 September, 2016 May, 2016 October, and 2017 October. We find that the size of SDS-2015 did not exceed 20 degrees of longitude, more than a factor of two smaller than the Voyager dark spots, but only slightly smaller than previous northern-hemisphere dark spots. A slow (1.7–2.5 deg/year) poleward drift was observed for the vortex. Properties of SDS-2015 and its surroundings suggest that the meridional wind shear may be twice as strong at the deep level of the vortex as it is at the level of cloud-tracked winds. Over the 2015–2017 period, the dark spot’s contrast weakened from about -7 % to about -3 % , while companion clouds shifted from offset to centered, a similar evolution to some historical dark spots. The properties and evolution of SDS-2015 highlight the diversity of Neptune’s dark spots and the need for faster cadence dark spot observations in the future.

  15. Low energy consumption vortex wave flow membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Weilong; Hu, Xiaohong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Tao; Sun, Youshan

    2017-11-01

    In order to reduce the energy consumption and membrane fouling of the conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR), a kind of low energy consumption vortex wave flow MBR was exploited based on the combination of biofilm process and membrane filtration process, as well as the vortex wave flow technique. The experimental results showed that the vortex wave flow state in the membrane module could be formed when the Reynolds number (Re) of liquid was adjusted between 450 and 1,050, and the membrane flux declined more slowly in the vortex wave flow state than those in the laminar flow state and turbulent flow state. The MBR system was used to treat domestic wastewater under the condition of vortex wave flow state for 30 days. The results showed that the removal efficiency for CODcr and NH 3 -N was 82% and 98% respectively, and the permeate quality met the requirement of 'Water quality standard for urban miscellaneous water consumption (GB/T 18920-2002)'. Analysis of the energy consumption of the MBR showed that the average energy consumption was 1.90 ± 0.55 kWh/m 3 (permeate), which was only two thirds of conventional MBR energy consumption.

  16. Vortex leading edge flap assembly for supersonic airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A leading edge flap (16) for supersonic transport airplanes is disclosed. In its stowed position, the leading edge flap forms the lower surface of the wing leading edge up to the horizontal center of the leading edge radius. For low speed operation, the vortex leading edge flap moves forward and rotates down. The upward curve of the flap leading edge triggers flow separation on the flap and rotational flow on the upper surface of the flap (vortex). The rounded shape of the upper fixed leading edge provides the conditions for a controlled reattachment of the flow on the upper wing surface and therefore a stable vortex. The vortex generates lift and a nose-up pitching moment. This improves maximum lift at low speed, reduces attitude for a given lift coefficient and improves lift to drag ratio. The mechanism (27) to move the vortex flap consists of two spanwise supports (24) with two diverging straight tracks (64 and 68) each and a screw drive mechanism (62) in the center of the flap panel (29). The flap motion is essentially normal to the airloads and therefore requires only low actuation forces.

  17. Symmetrical collision of multiple vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, R. H.; Reyes, T.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we investigate the motion, interaction, and simultaneous collision between many initially stable vortex rings arranged symmetrically in two initial configurations, three and six rings making an angle of 60 and 120° between their straight path lines, respectively. We report results for laminar vortex rings in air obtained through numerical simulations of the ring velocity, pressure, and vorticity fields, both in free flight and during the entire collision. Each collision was studied for small Reynolds numbers R e <1 03 based on both the self-induced velocity and diameter of the ring. The case of three rings produces secondary vortical structures formed by laterally expanding dipolar arms with top and bottom secondary vortex rings. The case of six colliding rings produces, as secondary structures, two big rings moving in opposite directions, a process that reminds us of the head-on collision of two rings [T. T. Lim and T. B. Nickels, "Instability and reconnection in the head-on collision of two vortex rings," Nature 357, 225-227 (1992)] under a hypothetical time reversal transformation. Both collisions display a characteristic kinetic energy evolution where mean collision stages can be identified within the range of Reynolds numbers investigated here.

  18. Evolution of vortex-surface fields in transitional boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yue; Zhao, Yaomin; Xiong, Shiying

    2016-11-01

    We apply the vortex-surface field (VSF), a Lagrangian-based structure-identification method, to the DNS database of transitional boundary layers. The VSFs are constructed from the vorticity fields within a sliding window at different times and locations using a recently developed boundary-constraint method. The isosurfaces of VSF, representing vortex surfaces consisting of vortex lines with different wall distances in the laminar stage, show different evolutionary geometries in transition. We observe that the vortex surfaces with significant deformation evolve from wall-parallel planar sheets through hairpin-like structures and packets into a turbulent spot with regeneration of small-scale hairpins. From quantitative analysis, we show that a small number of representative or influential vortex surfaces can contribute significantly to the increase of the drag coefficient in transition, which implies a reduced-order model based on VSF. This work has been supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11472015, 11522215 and 11521091), and the Thousand Young Talents Program of China.

  19. Magnetic vortex core reversal by excitation of spin waves.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Matthias; Weigand, Markus; Curcic, Michael; Noske, Matthias; Sproll, Markus; Vansteenkiste, Arne; Van Waeyenberge, Bartel; Stoll, Hermann; Woltersdorf, Georg; Back, Christian H; Schuetz, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Micron-sized magnetic platelets in the flux-closed vortex state are characterized by an in-plane curling magnetization and a nanometer-sized perpendicularly magnetized vortex core. Having the simplest non-trivial configuration, these objects are of general interest to micromagnetics and may offer new routes for spintronics applications. Essential progress in the understanding of nonlinear vortex dynamics was achieved when low-field core toggling by excitation of the gyrotropic eigenmode at sub-GHz frequencies was established. At frequencies more than an order of magnitude higher vortex state structures possess spin wave eigenmodes arising from the magneto-static interaction. Here we demonstrate experimentally that the unidirectional vortex core reversal process also occurs when such azimuthal modes are excited. These results are confirmed by micromagnetic simulations, which clearly show the selection rules for this novel reversal mechanism. Our analysis reveals that for spin-wave excitation the concept of a critical velocity as the switching condition has to be modified.

  20. Efficient topological chaos embedded in the blinking vortex system.

    PubMed

    Kin, Eiko; Sakajo, Takashi

    2005-06-01

    We consider the particle mixing in the plane by two vortex points appearing one after the other, called the blinking vortex system. Mathematical and numerical studies of the system reveal that the chaotic particle mixing, i.e., the chaotic advection, is observed due to the homoclinic chaos, but the mixing region is restricted locally in the neighborhood of the vortex points. The present article shows that it is possible to realize a global and efficient chaotic advection in the blinking vortex system with the help of the Thurston-Nielsen theory, which classifies periodic orbits for homeomorphisms in the plane into three types: periodic, reducible, and pseudo-Anosov (pA). It is mathematically shown that periodic orbits of pA type generate a complicated dynamics, which is called topological chaos. We show that the combination of the local chaotic mixing due to the topological chaos and the dipole-like return orbits realize an efficient and global particle mixing in the blinking vortex system.

  1. Chicago monostatic acoustic vortex sensing system : Vol. IV. wake vortex decay

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-07-01

    A Monostatic Acoustic Vortex Sensing System (MAVSS) was installed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport to measure the strength and decay of aircraft wake vortices from landing aircraft. The MAVSS consists of an array of acoustic antennas which m...

  2. Flame-vortex interactions imaged in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, James F.; Dahm, Werner J. A.; Sichel, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The scientific objective is to obtain high quality color-enhanced digital images of a vortex exerting aerodynamic strain on premixed and nonpremixed flames with the complicating effects of buoyancy removed. The images will provide universal (buoyancy free) scaling relations that are required to improve several types of models of turbulent combustion, including KIVA-3, discrete vortex, and large-eddy simulations. The images will be used to help quantify several source terms in the models, including those due to flame stretch, flame-generated vorticity, flame curvature, and preferential diffusion, for a range of vortex sizes and flame conditions. The experiment is an ideal way to study turbulence-chemistry interactions and isolate the effect of vortices of different sizes and strengths in a repeatable manner. A parallel computational effort is being conducted which considers full chemistry and preferential diffusion.

  3. Relationship Between Vortex Meander and Ambient Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Meyn, Larry A.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts are currently underway to increase the capacity of airports by use of closely-spaced parallel runways. If such an objective is to be achieved safely and efficiently during both visual and instrument flight conditions, it will be necessary to develop more precise methods for the prediction of the motion and spread of the hazard posed by the lift-generated vortex-wakes of aircraft, and their uncertainties. The purpose of the present study is to relate the motion induced in vortex filaments by turbulence in the ambient flow field to the measured turbulence in the flow field. The problem came about when observations made in the two largest NASA wind tunnels indicated that extended exposure of vortex wakes to the turbulence in the wind tunnel air stream causes the centers of the vortices to meander about with time at a given downstream station where wake measurements are being made. Although such a behavior was expected, the turbulence level based on the maximum amplitude of meander was much less than the root-mean-squared value measured in the free-stream of the wind tunnel by use of hot-film anemometers. An analysis of the time-dependent motion of segments of vortex filaments as they interact with an eddy, indicates that the inertia of the filaments retards their motion enough in the early part of their travel to account for a large part of the difference in the two determinations of turbulence level. Migration of vortex filaments from one turbulent eddy to another (probably with a different orientation), is believed to account for the remainder of the difference. Methods that may possibly be developed for use in the measurement of the magnitude of the more intense eddies in turbulent flow fields and how they should be adjusted to predict vortex meander are then discussed.

  4. Spin-orbit torque induced magnetic vortex polarity reversal utilizing spin-Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Cai, Li; Liu, Baojun; Yang, Xiaokuo; Cui, Huanqing; Wang, Sen; Wei, Bo

    2018-05-01

    We propose an effective magnetic vortex polarity reversal scheme that makes use of spin-orbit torque introduced by spin-Hall effect in heavy-metal/ferromagnet multilayers structure, which can result in subnanosecond polarity reversal without endangering the structural stability. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to investigate the spin-Hall effect driven dynamics evolution of magnetic vortex. The mechanism of magnetic vortex polarity reversal is uncovered by a quantitative analysis of exchange energy density, magnetostatic energy density, and their total energy density. The simulation results indicate that the magnetic vortex polarity is reversed through the nucleation-annihilation process of topological vortex-antivortex pair. This scheme is an attractive option for ultra-fast magnetic vortex polarity reversal, which can be used as the guidelines for the choice of polarity reversal scheme in vortex-based random access memory.

  5. Note: a simple experimental arrangement to generate optical vortex beams.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhirendra; Das, Abhijit; Boruah, Bosanta R

    2013-02-01

    In this Note, we present a simple experimental arrangement to generate optical vortex beams. We have demonstrated how by taking print of an interferogram on a transparent sheet, vortex beams with various topological charges can be generated. Experimental results show that the vortex beam indeed carries the topological charge that is used to compute the interferograms. In addition to being simple and inexpensive, one major advantage of the arrangement is that it makes it possible to generate different vortex beams quickly, unlike using the photographic process to create the holograms.

  6. Doppler radar detection of vortex hazard indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nespor, Jerald D.; Hudson, B.; Stegall, R. L.; Freedman, Jerome E.

    1994-01-01

    Wake vortex experiments were conducted at White Sands Missile Range, NM using the AN/MPS-39 Multiple Object Tracking Radar (MOTR). The purpose of these experiments was twofold. The first objective was to verify that radar returns from wake vortex are observed for some time after the passage of an aircraft. The second objective was to verify that other vortex hazard indicators such as ambient wind speed and direction could also be detected. The present study addresses the Doppler characteristics of wake vortex and clear air returns based upon measurements employing MOTR, a very sensitive C-Band phased array radar. In this regard, the experiment was conducted so that the spectral characteristics could be determined on a dwell to-dwell basis. Results are presented from measurements of the backscattered power (equivalent structure constant), radial velocity and spectral width when the aircraft flies transverse and axial to the radar beam. The statistics of the backscattered power and spectral width for each case are given. In addition, the scan strategy, experimental test procedure and radar parameters are presented.

  7. Optical vortex generation from a diode-pumped alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, G. M.; Minassian, A.; Damzen, M. J.

    2018-04-01

    We present the demonstration of an optical vortex mode directly generated from a diode-pumped alexandrite slab laser, operating in the bounce geometry. This is the first demonstration of an optical vortex mode generated from an alexandrite laser or from any other vibronic laser. An output power of 2 W for a vortex mode with a ‘topological charge’ of 1 was achieved and the laser was made to oscillate with both left- and right-handed vorticity. The laser operated at two distinct wavelengths simultaneously, 755 and 759 nm, due to birefringent filtering in the alexandrite gain medium. The result offers the prospect of broadly wavelength tunable vortex generation directly from a laser.

  8. Forward rotor vortex effects on counter rotating propeller noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laur, Michele; Squires, Becky; Nagel, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Three configurations of a model counter rotating propeller manipulate the blade tip flow by: placing the CRP at angle of attack, installing shrouds, and turning the upstream blades to provide forward sweep. Flow visualization and flow measurements with thermal anemometry show no evidence of a tip vortex; however, a leading edge vortex was detected on aft swept blades. The modifications served to alter the strength and/or path of the leading edge vortex. The vortical flow is eliminated by forward sweep on the upstream propeller blades. Far field acoustic data from each test indicate only small influences on the level and directivity of the BPFs. The interaction tone at the sum of the two BPF's was significantly altered in a consistent manner. As the vortex system varied, the interaction tone was affected: far field noise levels in the forward quandrant increased and the characteristic noise minimum near the plane of rotation became less pronounced and in some cases were eliminated. If the forward propeller leading edge vortex system does not impact the rear propeller in the standard manner, a net increase in the primary interaction tone occurs for the model tested. If the leading edge vortex is removed, the interaction tone increases.

  9. Vortex flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.

  10. Experimental framework to study tip vortex interactions in multirotor wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Rongnan; Araya, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    We present an experimental study to compare the dynamic characteristics of tip vortices shed from a propeller in a crossflow to similar characteristics of an isolated vortex column generated in a closed system. Our aim is to evaluate the feasibility of using this simple isolated system to study the more complicated three-dimensional vortex interactions inherent to multirotor wakes, where the local unsteadiness generated by one rotor can strongly impact the performance of nearby rotors. Time-resolved particle image velocimetry is used to measure the velocity field of the propeller wake flow in a wind tunnel and the vortex column in a water tank. Specific attention is placed on analyzing the observed vortex core precession in the isolated system and comparing this to characteristic tip-vortex wandering phenomenon.

  11. Vortex attraction and the formation of sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1992-01-01

    A downdraft vortex ring in a stratified atmosphere exhibits universal attraction for nearby vertical magnetic flux bundles. It is speculated that the magnetic fields emerging through the surface of the sun are individually encircled by one or more subsurface vortex rings, providing an important part of the observed clustering of magnetic fibrils to form pores and sunspots.

  12. Experimental investigations of on-demand vortex generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saddoughi, Seyed G.

    1994-12-01

    Conventional vortex generators as found on many civil aircrafts are mainly for off-design conditions - e.g. suppression of separation or loss of aileron power when the Mach number accidentally rises above the design (cruise) value. In normal conditions they perform no useful function and exert a significant drag penalty. Recently there have been advances in new designs for passive vortex generators and boundary layer control. While traditionally the generators heights were of the order of the boundary layer thickness (delta), recent advances have been made where generators of the order of delta/4 have been shown to be effective. The advancement of MIcro-Electro-Mechanical (MEM) devices has prompted several efforts in exploring the possibility of using such devices in turbulence control. These new devices offer the possibility of boundary layer manipulation through the production of vortices, momentum jets, or other features in the flow. However, the energy output of each device is low in general, but they can be used in large numbers. Therefore, the possibility of moving from passive vortex generators to active (on-demand) devices becomes of interest. Replacement of fixed rectangular or delta-wing generators by devices that could be activated when needed would produce substantial economies. Our proposed application is not strictly 'active' control: the vortex generators would simply be switched on, all together, when needed (e.g. when the aircraft Mach number exceeded a certain limit). To this extent our scheme is simpler; however, to promote mixing and suppress separation we desire to deposit longitudinal vortices into the outer layer of the boundary layer as in conventional vortex generators. This requires a larger device although an alternative might be an array of smaller devices, for example, a longitudinal row with phase differences in the modulation signals so that the periodic vortices join up. The vortex pair with common flow up has the advantage that it

  13. Experimental investigations of on-demand vortex generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saddoughi, Seyed G.

    1994-01-01

    Conventional vortex generators as found on many civil aircrafts are mainly for off-design conditions - e.g. suppression of separation or loss of aileron power when the Mach number accidentally rises above the design (cruise) value. In normal conditions they perform no useful function and exert a significant drag penalty. Recently there have been advances in new designs for passive vortex generators and boundary layer control. While traditionally the generators heights were of the order of the boundary layer thickness (delta), recent advances have been made where generators of the order of delta/4 have been shown to be effective. The advancement of MIcro-Electro-Mechanical (MEM) devices has prompted several efforts in exploring the possibility of using such devices in turbulence control. These new devices offer the possibility of boundary layer manipulation through the production of vortices, momentum jets, or other features in the flow. However, the energy output of each device is low in general, but they can be used in large numbers. Therefore, the possibility of moving from passive vortex generators to active (on-demand) devices becomes of interest. Replacement of fixed rectangular or delta-wing generators by devices that could be activated when needed would produce substantial economies. Our proposed application is not strictly 'active' control: the vortex generators would simply be switched on, all together, when needed (e.g. when the aircraft Mach number exceeded a certain limit). To this extent our scheme is simpler; however, to promote mixing and suppress separation we desire to deposit longitudinal vortices into the outer layer of the boundary layer as in conventional vortex generators. This requires a larger device although an alternative might be an array of smaller devices, for example, a longitudinal row with phase differences in the modulation signals so that the periodic vortices join up. The vortex pair with common flow up has the advantage that it

  14. Vortex Flux Pinning in Type-Ii Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mohammad-Khair A. M.

    1995-01-01

    Rotational magnetization vector measurements on polycrystalline samples of rm YBa_2Cu _3O_7 (YBCO) and (Ba, K)BiO _3 at various fixed fields (H) and temperatures (T) reveal that the vortex flux density (B) in a rotational state consists of a component B_{rm R}, which rotates rigidly with sample rotation, and a B_{rm F} component, which stays at a fixed frictional angle (theta _{rm F}) relative to H. Also, B_{rm R} decreases and ultimately vanishes with increasing H, while B _{rm F} grows monotonically, implying that the vortex pinning strength have a broad distribution. This has been confirmed by the measurements on YBCO of the remanent flux density B^ {rm rm} which can be decomposed analogously into B_{R} ^{} and B_ {F}^{} at angle theta_{F}^{} relative to H. The quantity Hsin theta_{rm F},, which at equilibrium equals tau_{rm p}/mu (the average pinning torque per vortex of moment mu) decreases with increasing high H. This result and the distribution in the strength of the pinning are shown to be consistent with the collective pinning process of vortex bundling. At fixed H, tau_{rm p} decreases rapidly with increasing T, varying approximately as T^{-0.8} for both samples. For polycrystalline YBCO at 4.2 K, B_ {rm R} and B_{ rm F} are found to relax differently with time. The negative creep sign of B_ {rm R} indicates that the number of rotational vortices decreases with time, whereas B _{rm F} shows a positive creep with a negative change in theta_ {rm F}, which indicates that more frictional vortices enter the sample with a tendency of alignment in the direction of H. For grain-oriented YBCO at 4.2 K, the vortex creep measurements of B along the c-axis at different fields showed that: whenever the hysteretic changes of H are reversed in sign, the vortex flux creep (dB/dlogt) decreases very rapidly to zero, where it lingers before changing sign. At the same turning values of H, (dB/dH) also goes to zero. These properties are attributable to the reversals of the

  15. Polarity-Dependent Vortex Pinning and Spontaneous Vortex-Antivortex Structures in Superconductor/Ferromagnet Hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bending, Simon J.; Milošević, Milorad V.; Moshchalkov, Victor V.

    Hybrid structures composed of superconducting films that are magnetically coupled to arrays of nanoscale ferromagnetic dots have attracted enormous interest in recent years. Broadly speaking, such systems fall into one of two distinct regimes. Ferromagnetic dots with weak moments pin free vortices, leading to enhanced superconducting critical currents, particularly when the conditions for commensurability are satisfied. Dots with strong moments spontaneously generate one or more vortex-antivortex (V-AV) pairs which lead to a rich variety of pinning, anti-pinning and annihilation phenomena. We describe high resolution Hall probe microscopy of flux structures in various hybrid samples composed of superconducting Pb films deposited on arrays of ferromagnetic Co or Co/Pt dots with both weak and strong moments. We show directly that dots with very weak perpendicular magnetic moments do not induce vortex-antivortex pairs, but still act as strong polarity-dependent vortex pinning centres for free vortices. In contrast, we have directly observed spontaneous V-AV pairs induced by large moment dots with both in-plane and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and studied the rich physical phenomena that arise when they interact with added "free" (anti)fluxons in an applied magnetic field. The interpretation of our imaging results is supported by bulk magnetometry measurements and state-of-the-art Ginzburg-Landau and London theory calculations.

  16. A new methodology for free wake analysis using curved vortex elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, Donald B.; Teske, Milton E.; Quackenbush, Todd R.

    1987-01-01

    A method using curved vortex elements was developed for helicopter rotor free wake calculations. The Basic Curve Vortex Element (BCVE) is derived from the approximate Biot-Savart integration for a parabolic arc filament. When used in conjunction with a scheme to fit the elements along a vortex filament contour, this method has a significant advantage in overall accuracy and efficiency when compared to the traditional straight-line element approach. A theoretical and numerical analysis shows that free wake flows involving close interactions between filaments should utilize curved vortex elements in order to guarantee a consistent level of accuracy. The curved element method was implemented into a forward flight free wake analysis, featuring an adaptive far wake model that utilizes free wake information to extend the vortex filaments beyond the free wake regions. The curved vortex element free wake, coupled with this far wake model, exhibited rapid convergence, even in regions where the free wake and far wake turns are interlaced. Sample calculations are presented for tip vortex motion at various advance ratios for single and multiple blade rotors. Cross-flow plots reveal that the overall downstream wake flow resembles a trailing vortex pair. A preliminary assessment shows that the rotor downwash field is insensitive to element size, even for relatively large curved elements.

  17. Aeroacoustic interaction of a distributed vortex with a lifting Joukowski airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, J. C.; Lamkin, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    A first principles computational aeroacoustics calculation of the flow and noise fields produced by the interaction of a distributed vortex with a lifting Joukowski airfoil is accomplished at the Reynolds number of 200. The case considered is that where the circulations of the vortex and the airfoil are of opposite sign, corresponding to blade vortex interaction on the retreating side of a single helicopter rotor. The results show that the flow is unsteady, even in the absence of the incoming vortex, resulting in trailing edge noise generation. After the vortex is input, it initially experiences a quite rapid apparent diffusion rate produced by stretching in the airfoil velocity gradients. Consideration of the effects of finite vortex size and viscosity causes the noise radiation during the encounter to be much less impulsive than predicted by previous analyses.

  18. High-speed schlieren videography of vortex-ring impact on a wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissner, Benjamin; Hargather, Michael; Settles, Gary

    2011-11-01

    Ring vortices of approximately 20 cm diameter are generated through the use of an Airzooka toy. To make the vortex visible, it is seeded with difluoroethane gas, producing a refractive-index difference with the air. A 1-meter-diameter, single-mirror, double-pass schlieren system is used to visualize the ring-vortex motion, and also to provide the wall with which the vortex collides. High-speed imaging is provided by a Photron SA-1 digital video camera. The Airzooka is fired toward the mirror almost along the optical axis of the schlieren system, so that the view of the vortex-mirror collision is normal to the path of vortex motion. Vortex-wall interactions similar to those first observed by Walker et al. (JFM 181, 1987) are recorded at high speed. The presentation will consist of a screening and discussion of these video results.

  19. Measurements of a turbulent horseshoe vortex formed around a cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckerle, W. A.; Langston, L. S.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to characterize a symmetrical horseshoe vortex system in front of and around a single large-diameter right cylinder centered between the sidewalls of a wind tunnel. Surface flow visualization and surface static pressure measurements as well as extensive mean velocity and pressure measurements in and around the vortex system were acquired. The results lend new insight into the formation and development of the vortex system. Contrary to what has been assumed previously, a strong vortex was not identified in the streamwise plane of symmetry, but started a significant angular distance away from it. Rather than the multiple vortex systems reported by others, only a single primary vortex and saddle point were found. The scale of the separation process at the saddle point was much smaller than the scale of the approaching boundary layer thickness. Results of the present study not only shed light on such phenomena as the nonsymmetrical endwall flow in axial turbomachinery but can also be used as a test case for three-dimensional computational fluid mechanics computer codes.

  20. The vortex theory and its significance in aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A

    1930-01-01

    This report will present ideas closely related to the vortex conception and illustrate them in the simplest possible terms. In addition to these general considerations, this report will attempt to show the application of the vortex theory in connection with the wing theory.

  1. Wake Vortex Transport in Proximity to the Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David W.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2000-01-01

    A sensitivity study for aircraft wake vortex transport has been conducted using a validated large eddy simulation (LES) model. The study assumes neutrally stratified and nonturbulent environments and includes the consequences of the ground. The numerical results show that the nondimensional lateral transport is primarily influenced by the magnitude of the ambient crosswind and is insensitive to aircraft type. In most of the simulations, the ground effect extends the lateral position of the downwind vortex about one initial vortex spacing (b(sub o)) in the downstream direction. Further extension by as much as one b(sub o) occurs when the downwind vortex remains 'in ground effect' (IGE) for relatively long periods of time. Results also show that a layer-averaged ambient wind velocity can be used to bound the time for lateral transport of wake vortices to insure safe operations on a parallel runway.

  2. Stability Results, Almost Global Generalized Beltrami Fields and Applications to Vortex Structures in the Euler Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enciso, Alberto; Poyato, David; Soler, Juan

    2018-05-01

    Strong Beltrami fields, that is, vector fields in three dimensions whose curl is the product of the field itself by a constant factor, have long played a key role in fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics. In particular, they are the kind of stationary solutions of the Euler equations where one has been able to show the existence of vortex structures (vortex tubes and vortex lines) of arbitrarily complicated topology. On the contrary, there are very few results about the existence of generalized Beltrami fields, that is, divergence-free fields whose curl is the field times a non-constant function. In fact, generalized Beltrami fields (which are also stationary solutions to the Euler equations) have been recently shown to be rare, in the sense that for "most" proportionality factors there are no nontrivial Beltrami fields of high enough regularity (e.g., of class {C^{6,α}}), not even locally. Our objective in this work is to show that, nevertheless, there are "many" Beltrami fields with non-constant factor, even realizing arbitrarily complicated vortex structures. This fact is relevant in the study of turbulent configurations. The core results are an "almost global" stability theorem for strong Beltrami fields, which ensures that a global strong Beltrami field with suitable decay at infinity can be perturbed to get "many" Beltrami fields with non-constant factor of arbitrarily high regularity and defined in the exterior of an arbitrarily small ball, and a "local" stability theorem for generalized Beltrami fields, which is an analogous perturbative result which is valid for any kind of Beltrami field (not just with a constant factor) but only applies to small enough domains. The proof relies on an iterative scheme of Grad-Rubin type. For this purpose, we study the Neumann problem for the inhomogeneous Beltrami equation in exterior domains via a boundary integral equation method and we obtain Hölder estimates, a sharp decay at infinity and some compactness

  3. Equilibrium vortex structures of type-II/1 superconducting films with washboard pinning landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C. A.; Xu, X. B.; Xu, X. N.; Wang, Z. H.; Gu, M.

    2018-05-01

    We numerically study the equilibrium vortex structures of type-II/1 superconducting films with a periodic quasi-one-dimensional corrugated substrate. We show as a function of substrate period and pinning strength that, the vortex system displays a variety of vortex phases including arrays consisted of vortex clumps with different morphologies, ordered vortex stripes parallel and perpendicular to pinning troughs, and ordered one-dimensional vortex chains. Our simulations are helpful in understanding the structural modulations for extensive systems with both competing interactions and competing periodicities.

  4. Formation and behavior of counter-rotating vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadri, V.; Krueger, P. S.

    2017-08-01

    Concentric, counter-rotating vortex ring formation by transient jet ejection between concentric cylinders was studied numerically to determine the effects of cylinder gap ratio, Δ R/R, and jet stroke length-to-gap ratio, L/Δ R, on the evolution of the vorticity and the trajectories of the resulting axisymmetric vortex pair. The flow was simulated at a jet Reynolds number of 1000 (based on Δ R and the jet velocity), L/Δ R in the range 1-20, and Δ R/R in the range 0.05-0.25. Five characteristic flow evolution patterns were observed and classified based on L/Δ R and Δ R/R. The results showed that the relative position, relative strength, and radii of the vortex rings during and soon after formation played a prominent role in the evolution of the trajectories of their vorticity centroids at the later time. The conditions on relative strength of the vortices necessary for them to travel together as a pair following formation were studied, and factors affecting differences in vortex circulation following formation were investigated. In addition to the characteristics of the primary vortices, the stopping vortices had a strong influence on the initial vortex configuration and effected the long-time flow evolution at low L/Δ R and small Δ R/R. For long L/Δ R and small Δ R/R, shedding of vorticity was sometimes observed and this shedding was related to the Kelvin-Benjamin variational principle of maximal energy for steadily translating vortex rings.

  5. Vortex boundary-layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, P.

    1986-01-01

    Parametric studies to identify a vortex generator were completed. Data acquisition in the first chosen configuration, in which a longitudinal vortex pair generated by an isolated delta wing starts to merge with a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate fairly close to the leading edge is nearly completed. Work on a delta-wing/flat-plate combination, consisting of a flow visualization and hot wire measurements taken with a computer controlled traverse gear and data logging system were completed. Data taking and analysis have continued, and sample results for another cross stream plane are presented. Available data include all mean velocity components, second order mean products of turbulent fluctuations, and third order mean products. Implementation of a faster data logging system was accomplished.

  6. Experimental examination of vorticity stripping from a wing-tip vortex in free-stream turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Hari C.; Bailey, Sean C. C.

    2018-03-01

    Time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted of a wing-tip vortex decaying in free-stream turbulence. The objective of the research was to experimentally investigate the mechanism causing the increased rate of decay of the vortex in the presence of turbulence. It was observed that the circulation of the vortex core experienced periods of rapid loss and recovery when immersed in free-stream turbulence. These events were not observed when the vortex was in a laminar free stream. A connection was made between these events and distortion of the vortex, coinciding with stripping of core fluid from the vortex core. Specifically, vortex stripping events were connected to asymmetry in the vortex core, and this asymmetry was associated with instances of rapid circulation loss. The increased rate of decay of the vortex in turbulence coincided with the formation of secondary vortical structures which wrapped azimuthally around the primary vortex.

  7. Centre vortex removal restores chiral symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trewartha, Daniel; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of centre vortices on dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is investigated through the light hadron spectrum on the lattice. Recent studies of the quark propagator and other quantities have provided evidence that centre vortices are the fundamental objects underpinning dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in {SU}(3) gauge theory. For the first time, we use the chiral overlap fermion action to study the low-lying hadron spectrum on lattice ensembles consisting of Monte Carlo, vortex-removed, and vortex-projected gauge fields. We find that gauge field configurations consisting solely of smoothed centre vortices are capable of reproducing all the salient features of the hadron spectrum, including dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. The hadron spectrum on vortex-removed fields shows clear signals of chiral symmetry restoration at light values of the bare quark mass, while at heavy masses the spectrum is consistent with a theory of weakly interacting constituent quarks.

  8. Vortex knots in tangled quantum eigenfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alexander J.; Dennis, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Tangles of string typically become knotted, from macroscopic twine down to long-chain macromolecules such as DNA. Here, we demonstrate that knotting also occurs in quantum wavefunctions, where the tangled filaments are vortices (nodal lines/phase singularities). The probability that a vortex loop is knotted is found to increase with its length, and a wide gamut of knots from standard tabulations occur. The results follow from computer simulations of random superpositions of degenerate eigenstates of three simple quantum systems: a cube with periodic boundaries, the isotropic three-dimensional harmonic oscillator and the 3-sphere. In the latter two cases, vortex knots occur frequently, even in random eigenfunctions at relatively low energy, and are constrained by the spatial symmetries of the modes. The results suggest that knotted vortex structures are generic in complex three-dimensional wave systems, establishing a topological commonality between wave chaos, polymers and turbulent Bose–Einstein condensates. PMID:27468801

  9. Generation of Multiple Vortex Beams with Specified Vortex Number from Lasers with Controlled Ince-Gaussian Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Shu-Chun

    2008-07-01

    This study proposes a systematic method of selecting excitations of part of Ince-Gaussian modes (IGMs) and a three-lens configuration for generating multiple vortex beams with forced IGMs in the model of laser-diode (LD)-pumped solid-state lasers. Simply changing the lateral off-axis position of the tight pump beam focus on the laser crystal can produce the desired multiple optical vortex beam from the laser in a well-controlled manner using a proposed astigmatic mode converter assembled into one body with the laser cavity.

  10. a Numerical Simulation of a Tornado-Scale Vortex in a Three-Dimensional Cloud Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicker, Louis John

    1990-01-01

    One of the more spectacular and elusive events of nature is the tornado. Usually spawned by a highly organized, lasting, and rotating thunderstorm called a "supercell", tornadoes are one of the most destructive atmospheric phenomena. Tornadoes almost always have length and time scales smaller than the measurable scales within the observing network of surface stations, conventional radar, Doppler radar and satellites. Therefore direct observations of tornadoes and their parent features are rarely obtained. Consequently, understanding of these phenomena will generally have to come from theoretical work, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations. In this thesis we seek to understand the process of tornadogenesis within the context of a fully three-dimensional cloud model. Very high horizontal and vertical resolution is used to capture a developing tornado-scale vortex during the simulation of a strongly rotating supercell storm simulated within the 3 April 1964 environment from Witchita Fall, Texas. To better represent the influence of surface friction on the vortex flow, a simple surface layer parametrization of the vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum is added to the model. Results from the simulation show that a tornado -scale vortex forms along the western edge of the mesocyclone, intensifies and rotates cyclonically around the center of the mesocyclone over a several minute period. The inclusion of the surface layer parameterization increases the low -level velocity convergence. Surface vertical vorticity is greater than 0.43 s^{-1} for thirty seconds and greater than 0.3 s^ {-1} for several minutes. During tornadogenesis, pressures at the surface fall 3-4 mb in thirty seconds and a pressure gradient develops of over 7 mb from the outer edge of the tornado to the center. A vortex tube extends from the surface to over 2.5 km aloft and tilts to the northwest. Analyses show that tornadogenesis occurs when the vertical velocity gradients along the western

  11. On the three-dimensional interaction of a rotor-tip vortex with a cylindrical surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Burggraf, Odus R.; Conlisk, A. T.

    2000-12-01

    The collision of a strong vortex with a surface is an important problem because significant impulsive loads may be generated. Prediction of helicopter fatigue lifetime may be limited by an inability to predict these loads accurately. Experimental results for the impingement of a helicopter rotor-tip vortex on a cylindrical airframe show a suction peak on the top of the airframe that strengthens and then weakens within milliseconds. A simple line-vortex model can predict the experimental results if the vortex is at least two vortex-core radii away from the airframe. After this, the model predicts continually deepening rather than lessening suction as the vortex stretches. Experimental results suggest that axial flow within the core of a tip vortex has an impact on the airframe pressure distribution upon close approach. The mechanism for this is hypothesized to be the inviscid redistribution of the vorticity field within the vortex as the axial velocity stagnates. Two models of a tip vortex with axial flow are considered. First, a classical axisymmetric line vortex with a cutoff parameter is superimposed with vortex ringlets suitably placed to represent the helically wound vortex shed by the rotor tip. Thus, inclusion of axial flow is found to advect vortex core thinning away from the point of closest interaction as the vortex stretches around the cylindrical surface during the collision process. With less local thinning, vorticity in the cutoff parameter model significantly overlaps the solid cylinder in an unphysical manner, highlighting the fact that the vortex core must deform from its original cylindrical shape. A second model is then developed in which axial and azimuthal vorticity are confined within a rectangular-section vortex. Area and aspect ratio of this vortex can be varied independently to simulate deformation of the vortex core. Both axial velocity and core deformation are shown to be important to calculate the local induced pressure loads properly

  12. Theoretical study on second-harmonic generation of focused vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Daolong; Wang, Jing; Ma, Jingui; Zhou, Bingjie; Yuan, Peng; Xie, Guoqiang; Zhu, Heyuan; Qian, Liejia

    2018-03-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) provides a promising route for generating vortex beams of both short wavelength and large topological charge. Here we theoretically investigate the efficiency optimization and beam characteristics of focused vortex-beam SHG. Owing to the increasing beam divergence, vortex beams have distinct features in SHG optimization compared with a Gaussian beam. We show that, under the noncritical phase-matching condition, the Boyd and Kleinman prediction of the optimal focusing parameter for Gaussian-beam SHG remains valid for vortex-beam SHG. However, under the critical phase-matching condition, which is sensitive to the beam divergence, the Boyd and Kleinman prediction is no longer valid. In contrast, the optimal focusing parameter for maximizing the SHG efficiency strongly depends on the vortex order. We also investigate the effects of focusing and phase-matching conditions on the second-harmonic beam characteristics.

  13. Proceedings of the NASA First Wake Vortex Dynamic Spacing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creduer, Leonard (Editor); Perry, R. Brad (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    A Government and Industry workshop on wake vortex dynamic spacing systems was conducted on May 13-15, 1997, at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to disclose the status of ongoing NASA wake vortex R&D to the international community and to seek feedback on the direction of future work to assure an optimized research approach. Workshop sessions examined wake vortex characterization and physics, wake sensor technologies, aircraft/wake encounters, terminal area weather characterization and prediction, and wake vortex systems integration and implementation. A final workshop session surveyed the Government and Industry perspectives on the NASA research underway and related international wake vortex activities. This document contains the proceedings of the workshop including the presenters' slides, the discussion following each presentation, the wrap-up panel discussion, and the attendees' evaluation feedback.

  14. Electromagnetic Radiation from Vortex Flow in Type-II Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2006-11-01

    We show that a moving vortex lattice, as it comes to a crystal edge, radiates into a free space the harmonics of the washboard frequency, ω0=2πv/a, up to a superconducting gap, Δ/ℏ. Here v is the velocity of the vortex lattice and a is the intervortex spacing. We compute radiation power and show that this effect can be used for the generation of terahertz radiation and for characterization of moving vortex lattices.

  15. Magnetic vortex nucleation/annihilation in artificial-ferrimagnet microdisks

    DOE PAGES

    Lapa, Pavel N.; Ding, Junjia; Phatak, Charudatta; ...

    2017-08-28

    The topological nature of magnetic-vortex state gives rise to peculiar magnetization reversal observed in magnetic microdisks. Interestingly, magnetostatic and exchange energies which drive this reversal can be effectively controlled in artificial ferrimagnet heterostructures composed of rare-earth and transition metals. [Py(t)/Gd(t)] 25 (t=1 or 2 nm) superlattices demonstrate a pronounced change of the magnetization and exchange stiffness in a 10–300 K temperature range as well as very small magnetic anisotropy. Due to these properties, the magnetization of cylindrical microdisks composed of these artificial ferrimagnets can be transformed from the vortex to uniformly-magnetized states in a permanent magnetic field by changing themore » temperature. We explored the behavior of magnetization in 1.5-µm [Py(t)/Gd(t)] 25 (t=1 or 2 nm) disks at different temperatures and magnetic fields and observed that due to the energy barrier separating vortex and uniformly-magnetized states, the vortex nucleation and annihilation occur at different temperatures. This causes the temperature dependences of the Py/Gd disks magnetization to demonstrate unique hysteretic behavior in a narrow temperature range. It was discovered that for the [Py(2 nm)/Gd(2 nm)] 25 microdisks the vortex can be metastable at a certain temperature range.« less

  16. Possible nodal vortex state in CeRu2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadono, R.; Higemoto, W.; Koda, A.; Ohishi, K.; Yokoo, T.; Akimitsu, J.; Hedo, M.; Inada, Y.; O¯nuki, Y.; Yamamoto, E.; Haga, Y.

    2001-06-01

    The microscopic property of magnetic vortices in the mixed state of a high-quality CeRu2 crystal has been studied by muon spin rotation. We have found that the spatial distribution of magnetic induction B(r) probed by muons is perfectly described by the London model for the triangular vortex lattice with appropriate modifications to incorporate the high-field cutoff around the vortex core and the effect of long-range defects in the vortex lattice structure at lower fields. The vortex core radius is proportional to H(β-1)/2 with β~=0.53 (H being the magnetic field), which is in good agreement with the recently observed nonlinear field dependence of the electronic specific heat coefficient γ~Hβ. In particular, the anomalous increase of magnetic penetration depth in accordance with the peak effect in dc magnetization (>=H*~=3 T at 2.0 K) has been confirmed; this cannot be explained by the conventional pair-breaking effect due to magnetic field. In addition, the spontaneous enhancement of flux pinning, which is also associated with the peak effect, has been demonstrated microscopically. These results strongly suggest the onset of collective pinning induced by a new vortex state having an anomalously enhanced quasiparticle density of states for H>=H*.

  17. Magnetic vortex nucleation/annihilation in artificial-ferrimagnet microdisks

    SciTech Connect

    Lapa, Pavel N.; Ding, Junjia; Phatak, Charudatta

    The topological nature of magnetic-vortex state gives rise to peculiar magnetization reversal observed in magnetic microdisks. Interestingly, magnetostatic and exchange energies which drive this reversal can be effectively controlled in artificial ferrimagnet heterostructures composed of rare-earth and transition metals. [Py(t)/Gd(t)] 25 (t=1 or 2 nm) superlattices demonstrate a pronounced change of the magnetization and exchange stiffness in a 10–300 K temperature range as well as very small magnetic anisotropy. Due to these properties, the magnetization of cylindrical microdisks composed of these artificial ferrimagnets can be transformed from the vortex to uniformly-magnetized states in a permanent magnetic field by changing themore » temperature. We explored the behavior of magnetization in 1.5-µm [Py(t)/Gd(t)] 25 (t=1 or 2 nm) disks at different temperatures and magnetic fields and observed that due to the energy barrier separating vortex and uniformly-magnetized states, the vortex nucleation and annihilation occur at different temperatures. This causes the temperature dependences of the Py/Gd disks magnetization to demonstrate unique hysteretic behavior in a narrow temperature range. It was discovered that for the [Py(2 nm)/Gd(2 nm)] 25 microdisks the vortex can be metastable at a certain temperature range.« less

  18. Dynamics of the vortex wakes of flying and swimming vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Rayner, J M

    1995-01-01

    The vortex wakes of flying and swimming animals provide evidence of the history of aero- and hydrodynamic force generation during the locomotor cycle. Vortex-induced momentum flux in the wake is the reaction of forces the animal imposes on its environment, which must be in equilibrium with inertial and external forces. In flying birds and bats, the flapping wings generate lift both to provide thrust and to support the weight. Distinct wingbeat and wake movement patterns can be identified as gaits. In flow visualization experiments, only two wake patterns have been identified: a vortex ring gait with inactive upstroke, and a continuous vortex gait with active upstroke. These gaits may be modelled theoretically by free vortex and lifting line theory to predict mechanical energy consumption, aerodynamic forces and muscle activity. Longer-winged birds undergo a distinct gait change with speed, but shorter-winged species use the vortex ring gait at all speeds. In swimming fish, the situation is more complex: the wake vortices form a reversed von Kármán vortex street, but little is known about the mechanism of generation of the wake, or about how it varies with speed and acceleration or with body form and swimming mode. An unresolved complicating factor is the interaction between the drag wake of the flapping fish body and the thrusting wake from the tail.

  19. Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Dwight L; Edwards, Joan

    2010-07-23

    Sphagnum spores, which have low terminal velocities, are carried by turbulent wind currents to establish colonies many kilometers away. However, spores that are easily kept aloft are also rapidly decelerated in still air; thus, dispersal range depends strongly on release height. Vascular plants grow tall to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, but nonvascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently high. High-speed videos show that exploding capsules of Sphagnum generate vortex rings to efficiently carry spores high enough to be dispersed by turbulent air currents. Spores launched ballistically at similar speeds through still air would travel a few millimeters and not easily reach turbulent air. Vortex rings are used by animals; here, we report vortex rings generated by plants.

  20. Vortex-flow aerodynamics - An emerging design capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Promising current theoretical and simulational developments in the field of leading edge vortex-generating delta, arrow ogival wings are reported, along with the history of theory and experiment leading to them. The effects of wing slenderness, leading edge nose radius, Mach number and incidence variations, and planform on the onset of vortex generation and redistribution of aerodynamic loads are considered. The range of design possibilities in this field are consequential for the future development of strategic aircraft, supersonic transports and commercial cargo aircraft which will possess low-speed, high-lift capability by virtue of leading edge vortex generation and control without recourse to heavy and expensive leading edge high-lift devices and compound airfoils. Attention is given to interactive graphics simulation devices recently developed.

  1. An analysis of blade vortex interaction aerodynamics and acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The impulsive noise associated with helicopter flight due to Blade-Vortex Interaction, sometimes called blade slap is analyzed especially for the case of a close encounter of the blade-tip vortex with a following blade. Three parts of the phenomena are considered: the tip-vortex structure generated by the rotating blade, the unsteady pressure produced on the following blade during the interaction, and the acoustic radiation due to the unsteady pressure field. To simplify the problem, the analysis was confined to the situation where the vortex is aligned parallel to the blade span in which case the maximum acoustic pressure results. Acoustic radiation due to the interaction is analyzed in space-fixed coordinates and in the time domain with the unsteady pressure on the blade surface as the source of chordwise compact, but spanwise non-compact radiation. Maximum acoustic pressure is related to the vortex core size and Reynolds number which are in turn functions of the blade-tip aerodynamic parameters. Finally noise reduction and performance are considered.

  2. Studies of perturbed three vortex dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmore, Denis; Ting, Lu; Knio, Omar

    2007-06-01

    It is well known that the dynamics of three point vortices moving in an ideal fluid in the plane can be expressed in Hamiltonian form, where the resulting equations of motion are completely integrable in the sense of Liouville and Arnold. The focus of this investigation is on the persistence of regular behavior (especially periodic motion) associated with completely integrable systems for certain (admissible) kinds of Hamiltonian perturbations of the three vortex system in a plane. After a brief survey of the dynamics of the integrable planar three vortex system, it is shown that the admissible class of perturbed systems is broad enough to include three vortices in a half plane, three coaxial slender vortex rings in three space, and "restricted" four vortex dynamics in a plane. Included are two basic categories of results for admissible perturbations: (i) general theorems for the persistence of invariant tori and periodic orbits using Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser- and Poincaré-Birkhoff-type arguments and (ii) more specific and quantitative conclusions of a classical perturbation theory nature guaranteeing the existence of periodic orbits of the perturbed system close to cycles of the unperturbed system, which occur in abundance near centers. In addition, several numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the validity of the theorems as well as indicating their limitations as manifested by transitions to chaotic dynamics.

  3. Propagation of partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam through oceanic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dajun; Yin, Hongming; Wang, Guiqiu; Wang, Yaochuan

    2017-11-01

    The partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam generated by a Schell-model source has been introduced. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the cross-spectral density function of a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in oceanic turbulence is derived. The influences of coherence length, topological charge M, and oceanic turbulence on the spreading properties and position of the coherence vortex for a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam are analyzed in detail. The results show that a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in stronger oceanic turbulence will evolve into a Gaussian-like beam more rapidly as the propagation distance increases, and the number of coherent vortices will change.

  4. Quasi-ideal dynamics of vortex solitons embedded in flattop nonlinear Bessel beams.

    PubMed

    Porras, Miguel A; Ramos, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    The applications of vortex solitons are severely limited by the diffraction and self-defocusing spreading of the background beam where they are nested. Nonlinear Bessel beams in self-defocusing media are nondiffracting, flattop beams where the nested vortex solitons can survive for propagation distances that are one order of magnitude larger than in the Gaussian or super-Gaussian beams. The dynamics of the vortex solitons is studied numerically and found to approach that in the ideal, uniform background, preventing vortex spiraling and decay, which eases vortex steering for applications.

  5. Vortex Formation and Foraging in Polyphenic Spadefoot Toad Tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Bazazi, Sepideh; Pfennig, Karin S; Handegard, Nils Olav; Couzin, Iain D

    2012-06-01

    Animal aggregations are widespread in nature and can exhibit complex emergent properties not found at an individual level. We investigate one such example here, collective vortex formation by congeneric spadefoot toad tadpoles: Spea bombifrons and S. multiplicata. Tadpoles of these species develop into either an omnivorous or a carnivorous (cannibalistic) morph depending on diet. Previous studies show S. multiplicata are more likely to develop into omnivores and feed on suspended organic matter in the water body. The omnivorous morph is frequently social, forming aggregates that move and forage together, and form vortices in which they adopt a distinctive slowly-rotating circular formation. This behaviour has been speculated to act as a means to agitate the substratum in ponds and thus could be a collective foraging strategy. Here we perform a quantitative investigation of the behaviour of tadpoles within aggregates. We found that only S. multiplicata groups exhibited vortex formation, suggesting that social interactions differ between species. The probability of collectively forming a vortex, in response to introduced food particles, increased for higher tadpole densities and when tadpoles were hungry. Individuals inside a vortex moved faster and exhibited higher (by approximately 27%) tailbeat frequencies than those outside the vortex, thus incurring a personal energetic cost. The resulting environmental modification, however, suggests vortex behaviour may be an adaptation to actively create, and exploit, a resource patch within the environment.

  6. Experimental Study of the Structure of a Wingtip Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Elgin A.; Wright, Christopher T.

    2000-01-01

    A complete look at the near-field development and subsequent role-up of a wingtip vortex from a NACA 0015 wing section is investigated. Two separate but equally important surveys of the vortex structure in the region adjacent to the wingtip and approximately one chord length downstream of the trailing edge are performed. The two surveys provide qualitative flow-visualization an quantitative velocity measurement data. The near-field development and subsequent role-up of the vortex structures is strongly influenced by the angle-of-attack and the end-cap treatment of the wing section. The velocity field near the wingtip of the NACA 0015 wing section was measured with a triple-sensor hot wire probe and compared to flow visualization images produced with titanium tetrachloride smoke injection and laser illumination. The flat end-cap results indicate the formation of multiple, relatively strong vortex structures as opposed to the formation of a single vortex produced with the round end-cap. The multiple vortices generated by the flat end-cap are seen to rotate around a common ce te in a helical pattern until they eventually merge into a single vortex. Compared to a non-dimensional loading parameter, the results of the velocity and flow visualization data shows a "jetlike" axial velocity profile for loading parameter values on the order of 0.1 and a "wakelike" profile for much lower loading parameter values.

  7. Theoretical and Numerical Studies of a Vortex - Interaction Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, To-Ming

    The problem of vortex-airfoil interaction has received considerable interest in the helicopter industry. This phenomenon has been shown to be a major source of noise, vibration, and structural fatigue in helicopter flight. Since unsteady flow is always associated with vortex shedding and movement of free vortices, the problem of vortex-airfoil interaction also serves as a basic building block in unsteady aerodynamics. A careful study of the vortex-airfoil interaction reveals the major effects of the vortices on the generation of unsteady aerodynamic forces, especially the lift. The present work establishes three different flow models to study the vortex-airfoil interaction problem: a theoretical model, an inviscid flow model, and a viscous flow model. In the first two models, a newly developed aerodynamic force theorem has been successfully applied to identify the contributions to unsteady forces from various vortical systems in the flow field. Through viscous flow analysis, different features of laminar interaction, turbulent attached interaction, and turbulent separated interaction are examined. Along with the study of the vortex-airfoil interaction problem, several new schemes are developed for inviscid and viscous flow solutions. New formulas are derived to determine the trailing edge flow conditions, such as flow velocity and direction, in unsteady inviscid flow. A new iteration scheme that is faster for higher Reynolds number is developed for solving the viscous flow problem.

  8. Passive Control of Vortex Shedding via Screen Shroud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, A. M.; Zhou, T.

    2017-12-01

    The turbulent wake of screen-shrouded cylinders were experimentally investigated using flow visualization. Screen cylinders made from screen mesh of various porosity (37%, 49%, 61% and 67%) were used as the shrouds. The main purpose of the study is to examine the effect of screen porosity, β and screen diameter ratio, dw /D (wire diameter to cylinder diameter ratio) on the vortex development behind the shrouded cylinders, particularly in supressing the vortex shedding from a circular cylinder. The diameter ratio between the screen shroud and the plain cylinder, D/d was 2.0. The flow Reynolds number based on the shroud diameter, ReD was about 1000. Results showed that the inclusion of the screen shrouds has significant impact on the wake of the circular cylinder. With larger value of the non-dimensional parameter βdw /D, vortex was impaired and the formation length was longer in the shrouded cylinder wake. The vortex generation mechanism was also discussed.

  9. Multipole Vortex Blobs (MVB): Symplectic Geometry and Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Holm, Darryl D; Jacobs, Henry O

    2017-01-01

    Vortex blob methods are typically characterized by a regularization length scale, below which the dynamics are trivial for isolated blobs. In this article, we observe that the dynamics need not be trivial if one is willing to consider distributional derivatives of Dirac delta functionals as valid vorticity distributions. More specifically, a new singular vortex theory is presented for regularized Euler fluid equations of ideal incompressible flow in the plane. We determine the conditions under which such regularized Euler fluid equations may admit vorticity singularities which are stronger than delta functions, e.g., derivatives of delta functions. We also describe the symplectic geometry associated with these augmented vortex structures, and we characterize the dynamics as Hamiltonian. Applications to the design of numerical methods similar to vortex blob methods are also discussed. Such findings illuminate the rich dynamics which occur below the regularization length scale and enlighten our perspective on the potential for regularized fluid models to capture multiscale phenomena.

  10. Interaction of a shock with a longitudinal vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Y.; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the shock/longitudinal vortex interaction problem in axisymmetric geometry. Linearized analysis for small vortex strength is performed, and compared with results from a high order axisymmetric shock-fitted Euler solution obtained for this purpose. It is confirmed that for weak vortices, predictions from linear theory agree well with results from nonlinear numerical simulations at the shock location. To handle very strong longitudinal vortices, which may ultimately break the shock, we use an axisymmetric high order essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) shock capturing scheme. Comparison of shock-captured and shock-fitted results are performed in their regions of common validity. We also study the vortex breakdown as a function of Mach number ranging from 1.3 to 10, thus extending the range of existing results. For vortex strengths above a critical value. a triple point forms on the shock and a secondary shock forms to provide the necessary deceleration so that the fluid velocity can adjust to downstream conditions at the shock.

  11. Featured Image: A New Dark Vortex on Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    This remarkable series of images by the Hubble Space Telescope (click for the full view) track a dark vortex only the fifth ever observed on Neptune as it evolves in Neptunes atmosphere. These Hubble images, presented in a recent study led by Michael Wong (University of California, Berkeley), were taken in 2015 September, 2016 May, 2016 October, and 2017 October; the observations have monitored the evolution of the vortex as it has gradually weakened and drifted polewards. Confirmation of the vortex solved a puzzle that arose in 2015, when astronomers spotted an unexplained outburst of cloud activity on Neptune. This outburst was likely a group of bright companion clouds that form as air flows over high-pressure dark vortices, causing gases to freeze into methane ice crystals. To learn more about what the authors have since learned by studying this vortex, check out the paper below.CitationMichael H. Wong et al 2018 AJ 155 117. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aaa6d6

  12. Persistent tangled vortex rings in generic excitable media.

    PubMed

    Winfree, A T

    1994-09-15

    Excitable media are exemplified by a range of living systems, such as mammalian heart muscle and its cells and Xenopus eggs. They also occur in non-living systems such as the autocatalytic Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. In most of these systems, activity patterns, such as concentration waves, typically radiate as spiral waves from a vortex of excitation created by some nonuniform stimulus. In three-dimensional systems, the vortex is commonly a line, and these vortex lines can form linked and knotted rings which contract into compact, particle-like bundles. In most previous work these stable 'organizing centres' have been found to be symmetrical and can be classified topologically. Here I show through numerical studies of a generic excitable medium that the more general configuration of vortex lines is a turbulent tangle, which is robust against changes in the parameters of the system or perturbations to it. In view of their stability, I suggest that these turbulent tangles should be observable in any of the many known excitable media.

  13. Aircraft Wake Vortex Measurements at Denver International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, Robert P.; Wang, Frank Y.; Booth, Earl R.; Watts, Michael E.; Fenichel, Neil; D'Errico, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    Airport capacity is constrained, in part, by spacing requirements associated with the wake vortex hazard. NASA's Wake Vortex Avoidance Project has a goal to establish the feasibility of reducing this spacing while maintaining safety. Passive acoustic phased array sensors, if shown to have operational potential, may aid in this effort by detecting and tracking the vortices. During August/September 2003, NASA and the USDOT sponsored a wake acoustics test at the Denver International Airport. The central instrument of the test was a large microphone phased array. This paper describes the test in general terms and gives an overview of the array hardware. It outlines one of the analysis techniques that is being applied to the data and gives sample results. The technique is able to clearly resolve the wake vortices of landing aircraft and measure their separation, height, and sinking rate. These observations permit an indirect estimate of the vortex circulation. The array also provides visualization of the vortex evolution, including the Crow instability.

  14. Simulations of the vortex in the Dellenback abrupt expansion, resembling a hydro turbine draft tube operating at part-load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, H.

    2012-11-01

    This work presents an OpenFOAM case-study, based on the experimental studies of the swirling flow in the abrupt expansion by Dellenback et al.[1]. The case yields similar flow conditions as those of a helical vortex rope in a hydro turbine draft tube working at part-load. The case-study is set up similar to the ERCOFTAC Conical Diffuser and Centrifugal Pump OpenFOAM case-studies [2,3], making all the files available and the results fully reproducable using OpenSource software. The mesh generation is done using m4 scripting and the OpenFOAM built-in blockMesh mesh generator. The swirling inlet boundary condition is specified as an axi-symmetric profile. The outlet boundary condition uses the zeroGradient condition for all variables except for the pressure, which uses the fixed mean value boundary condition. The wall static pressure is probed at a number of locations during the simulations, and post-processing of the time-averaged solution is done using the OpenFOAM sample utility. Gnuplot scripts are provided for plotting the results. The computational results are compared to one of the operating conditions studied by Dellenback, and measurements for all the experimentally studied operating conditions are available in the case-study. Results from five cases are here presented, based on the kEpsilon model, the kOmegaSST model, and a filtered version of the same kOmegaSST model, named kOmegaSSTF [4,5]. Two different inlet boundary conditions are evaluated. It is shown that kEpsilon and kOmegaSST give steady solutions, while kOmegaSSTF gives a highly unsteady solution. The time-averaged solution of the kOmegaSSTF model is much more accurate than the other models. The kEpsilon and kOmegaSST models are thus unable to accurately model the effect of the large-scale unsteadiness, while kOmegaSSTF resolves those scales and models only the smaller scales. The use of two different boundary conditions shows that the boundary conditions are more important than the choice between

  15. Quasi-Porous Plug With Vortex Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    Pressure-letdown valve combines quasi-porous-plug and vortex-chamber in one controllable unit. Valve useful in fossil-energy plants for reducing pressures in such erosive two-phase process streams as steam/water, coal slurries, or combustion gases with entrained particles. Quasi-Porous Plug consists of plenums separated by perforated plates. Number or size of perforations increases with each succeeding stage to compensate for expansion. In Vortex Chamber, control flow varies to control swirl and therefore difference between inlet and outlet pressures.

  16. Vortex scaling ranges in two-dimensional turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Helen; Scott, Richard; Dritschel, David

    2017-11-01

    We introduce a scaling theory for vortices in the forced inverse energy cascade of 2D turbulence. Far-from-equilibrium systems generically exhibit multiple scaling regimes associated with transport of conserved quantities. Motivated by this observation, we model a three-part time-evolving vortex number density distribution, n (A) tαiA-ri , i ∈ 1 , 2 , 3 , conserving the first three moments of ωv2n (A) in three distinct scaling ranges. Here ωv2 is the `vortex intensity', or mean square vorticity evaluated over vortices, and areas A are intense regions of vorticity bounded by vorticity isolines. We predict αi and ri by enforcing conservation in `comoving intervals', whose endpoints evolve at the vortex growth rate; this amounts to assuming invariance under the dilatation of flow features associated with the inverse cascade, and that vortex area growth is the appropriate measure of dilatation in all scaling ranges. High resolution numerical simulations verify the predictions, which are insensitive to the vorticity threshold used to isolate the areas. Similar concepts can be applied to model vortices in decaying 2D turbulence, pointing toward a unified description of vortices in both systems.

  17. Separator

    SciTech Connect

    Ashbrook, C.L.

    1970-09-22

    A separator consists of a housing having an upper fluid inlet and a lower fluid outlet in the sides of the housing. An inverted conical tube is disposed internally of the housing and is in fluid communication with the fluid inlet. The upper fluid inlet tangentially intersects the inverted conical tube so as to create a rotating vortex upon introduction of the mixture. Axially disposed within the vortex tube at the upper end is a withdrawal tube for removing lighter mixture components that are drawn toward the center of the tube. At the lower end of the vortex tube ismore » an adjustable impact plate for transmitting a concussion wave through the vortexed body, so as to cause cavitation. Heavier mixture components gravitate toward the lower fluid outlet and are withdrawn through it. (7 claims)« less

  18. Wing Wake Vortices and Temporal Vortex Pair Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, C. H. K.; Leweke, T.; Miller, G. D.

    In this presentation we include selected results which have originated from vortex dynamics studies conducted at Cornell, in collaboration with IRPHE, Marseille. These studies concern, in particular, the spatial development of delta wing trailing vortices, and the temporal development of counter-rotating vortex pairs. There are, as might be expected, similarities in the instabilities of both of these basic flows, as shown in our laboratory-scale studies. In the case of the spatial development of vortex pairs in the wake of a delta wing, either in free flight or towed from an XY carriage system in a towing tank, we have found three distinct instability length scales as the trailing vortex pair travels downstream. The first (smallest-scale) instability is found immediately behind the delta wing, and this scales on the thickness of the two shear layers separating from the wing trailing edge. The second (short-wave) instability, at an intermediate distance downstream, scales on the primary vortex core dimensions. The third (long-wave) instability far downstream represents the classical "Crow" instability (Crow, 1970), scaling on the distance between the two primary vortices. By imposing disturbances on the delta wing incident velocity, we find that the long-wave instability is receptive to a range of wavelengths. Our experimental measurements of instability growth rates are compared with theoretical predictions, which are based on the theory of Widnall et al. (1971), and which require, as input, DPIV measurements of axial and circumferential velocity profiles. This represents the first time that theoretical and experimental growth rates have been compared, without the imposition of ad-hoc assumptions regarding the vorticity distribution. The agreement with theory appears to be good. The ease with which a Delta wing may be flown in free flight was demonstrated at the Symposium, using a giant polystyrene triangular wing, launched from the back of the auditorium, and ably

  19. Computation of the tip vortex flowfield for advanced aircraft propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Tommy M.; Dejong, Frederick J.; Levy, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    The tip vortex flowfield plays a significant role in the performance of advanced aircraft propellers. The flowfield in the tip region is complex, three-dimensional and viscous with large secondary velocities. An analysis is presented using an approximate set of equations which contains the physics required by the tip vortex flowfield, but which does not require the resources of the full Navier-Stokes equations. A computer code was developed to predict the tip vortex flowfield of advanced aircraft propellers. A grid generation package was developed to allow specification of a variety of advanced aircraft propeller shapes. Calculations of the tip vortex generation on an SR3 type blade at high Reynolds numbers were made using this code and a parametric study was performed to show the effect of tip thickness on tip vortex intensity. In addition, calculations of the tip vortex generation on a NACA 0012 type blade were made, including the flowfield downstream of the blade trailing edge. Comparison of flowfield calculations with experimental data from an F4 blade was made. A user's manual was also prepared for the computer code (NASA CR-182178).

  20. Integral momenta of vortex Bessel-Gaussian beams in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Lukin, Igor P

    2016-04-20

    The orbital angular momentum of vortex Bessel-Gaussian beams propagating in turbulent atmosphere is studied theoretically. The field of an optical beam is determined through the solution of the paraxial wave equation for a randomly inhomogeneous medium with fluctuations of the refraction index of the turbulent atmosphere. Peculiarities in the behavior of the total power of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam at the receiver (or transmitter) are examined. The dependence of the total power of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam on optical beam parameters, namely, the transverse wave number of optical radiation, amplitude factor radius, and, especially, topological charge of the optical beam, is analyzed in detail. It turns out that the mean value of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam remains constant during propagation in the turbulent atmosphere. It is shown that the variance of fluctuations of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam propagating in turbulent atmosphere calculated with the "mean-intensity" approximation is equal to zero identically. Thus, it is possible to declare confidently that the variance of fluctuations of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere is not very large.

  1. Dynamics of vortex quadrupoles in nonrotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Hu, Zhi-Qiang; Zou, Shan; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-07-28

    Dynamics of vortex clusters is essential for understanding diverse superfluid phenomena. In this paper, we examine the dynamics of vortex quadrupoles in a trapped two-dimensional (2D) Bose-Einstein condensate. We find that the movement of these vortex-clusters fall into three distinct regimes which are fully described by the radial positions of the vortices in a 2D isotropic harmonic trap, or by the major radius (minor radius) of the elliptical equipotential lines decided by the vortex positions in a 2D anisotropic harmonic trap. In the "recombination" and "exchange" regimes the quadrupole structure maintains, while the vortices annihilate each other permanently in the "annihilation" regime. We find that the mechanism of the charge flipping in the "exchange" regime and the disappearance of the quadrupole structure in the "annihilation" regime are both through an intermediate state where two vortex dipoles connected through a soliton ring. We give the parameter ranges for these three regimes in coordinate space for a specific initial configuration and phase diagram of the vortex positions with respect to the Thomas-Fermi radius of the condensate. We show that the results are also applicable to systems with quantum fluctuations for the short-time evolution.

  2. Ultrashort vortex from a Gaussian pulse - An achromatic-interferometric approach.

    PubMed

    Naik, Dinesh N; Saad, Nabil A; Rao, D Narayana; Viswanathan, Nirmal K

    2017-05-24

    The more than a century old Sagnac interferometer is put to first of its kind use to generate an achromatic single-charge vortex equivalent to a Laguerre-Gaussian beam possessing orbital angular momentum (OAM). The interference of counter-propagating polychromatic Gaussian beams of beam waist ω λ with correlated linear phase (ϕ 0  ≥ 0.025 λ) and lateral shear (y 0  ≥ 0.05 ω λ ) in orthogonal directions is shown to create a vortex phase distribution around the null interference. Using a wavelength-tunable continuous-wave laser the entire range of visible wavelengths is shown to satisfy the condition for vortex generation to achieve a highly stable white-light vortex with excellent propagation integrity. The application capablitiy of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by generating ultrashort optical vortex pulses, its nonlinear frequency conversion and transforming them to vector pulses. We believe that our scheme for generating robust achromatic vortex (implemented with only mirrors and a beam-splitter) pulses in the femtosecond regime, with no conceivable spectral-temporal range and peak-power limitations, can have significant advantages for a variety of applications.

  3. Signatures of two-step impurity mediated vortex lattice melting in Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Bishwajyoti

    2017-04-01

    We study impurity mediated vortex lattice melting in a rotating two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Impurities are introduced either through a protocol in which vortex lattice is produced in an impurity potential or first creating the vortex lattice in the absence of random pinning and then cranking up the impurity potential. These two protocols have obvious relation with the two commonly known protocols of creating vortex lattice in a type-II superconductor: zero field cooling protocol and the field cooling protocol respectively. Time-splitting Crank-Nicolson method has been used to numerically simulate the vortex lattice dynamics. It is shown that the vortex lattice follows a two-step melting via loss of positional and orientational order. This vortex lattice melting process in BEC closely mimics the recently observed two-step melting of vortex matter in weakly pinned type-II superconductor Co-intercalated NbSe2. Also, using numerical perturbation analysis, we compare between the states obtained in two protocols and show that the vortex lattice states are metastable and more disordered when impurities are introduced after the formation of an ordered vortex lattice. The author would like to thank SERB, Govt. of India and BCUD-SPPU for financial support through research Grants.

  4. The migration and growth of nuclei in an ideal vortex flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingxin; Chen, Linya; Shao, Xueming

    2016-12-01

    Tip vortex cavitation occurs on ship propellers which can cause significant noise compared to the wet flow. In order to predict the inception of tip vortex cavitation, numerous researches have been investigated about the detailed flow field around the tip. According to informed studies, the inception of tip vortex cavitation is affected by many factors. To understand the effect of water quality on cavitation inception, the motion of nuclei in an ideal vortex flow, i.e., the Rankine vortex flow, was investigated. The one-way coupling point-particle tracking model was employed to simulate the trajectory of nuclei. Meanwhile, Rayleigh-Plesset equation was introduced to describe the growth of nuclei. The results show that the nucleus size has a significant effect on nucleus' trajectory. The capture time of a nucleus is approximately inversely proportional to its radius. The growth of nucleus accelerates its migration in the vortex flow and shortens its capture time, especially for the case of explosive growth.

  5. On nonlinear Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interaction in three-dimensional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dominic A. R.; Smith, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The instability of an incompressible three-dimensional boundary layer (that is, one with cross-flow) is considered theoretically and computationally in the context of vortex/wave interactions. Specifically the work centers on two low amplitude, lower-branch Tollmien-Schlichting waves which mutually interact to induce a weak longitudinal vortex flow; the vortex motion, in turn, gives rise to significant wave-modulation via wall-shear forcing. The characteristic Reynolds number is taken as a large parameter and, as a consequence, the waves' and the vortex motion are governed primarily by triple-deck theory. The nonlinear interaction is captured by a viscous partial-differential system for the vortex coupled with a pair of amplitude equations for each wave pressure. Three distinct possibilities were found to emerge for the nonlinear behavior of the flow solution downstream - an algebraic finite-distance singularity, far downstream saturation or far-downstream wave-decay (leaving pure vortex flow) - depending on the input conditions, the wave angles, and the size of the cross-flow.

  6. Computation of the turbulent boundary layer downstream of vortex generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Paul K.

    1987-12-01

    The approximate analysis of three-dimensional incompressible turbulent boundary layer downstream of vortex generators is presented. Extensive numerical computations are carried out to assess the effectiveness of single-row, counter-rotating vane-type vortex generators to alleviate flow separation lines. Flow separation downstream of the vortex generators on a thick airfoil are determined in terms of size, location, and arrangement of the vortex generators. These lines are compared with the separation line without the vortex generators. High efficiency is obtained with the moderately slender rectangular blade of the generator. The results indicate that separations is alleviated more effectively in the region closer to the symmetry axis of the generator than in the outer region of the symmetry axis. No optimum conditions for the alleviation of flow separation are established in this investigation, and no comparisons are made with other analytical results and experimental data.

  7. Shell Games. VORTEX: Virginia's Oyster Reef Teaching EXperience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Juliana M.; Mann, Roger; Clark, Vicki P.

    This document introduces Virginia's Oyster Reef Teaching EXperience (VORTEX), which is an interdisciplinary program focusing on the importance of oyster reef communities in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The VORTEX program uses field and laboratory experiences supported by multimedia instruction. This document presents an overview on the biology of…

  8. Critical behavior at a dynamic vortex insulator-to-metal transition

    DOE PAGES

    Poccia, Nicola; Baturina, Tatyana I.; Coneri, Francesco; ...

    2015-09-10

    An array of superconducting islands placed on a normal metal film offers a tunable realization of nanopatterned superconductivity. This system enables elucidating open questions concerning the nature of competing vortex states and phase transitions between them. A square array creates the egg crate potential in which magnetic field-induced vortices are frozen into a vortex insulator. We observe a vortex insulator-to-vortex metal transition driven by the applied electric current and determine critical exponents strikingly coinciding with those for thermodynamic liquid-gas transition. Lastly, our findings offer a comprehensive description of dynamic critical behavior and establish a deep connection between equilibrium and nonequilibriummore » phase transitions.« less

  9. Large-eddy substitution via vortex cancellation for wall turbulence control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginley, C. B.; Beeler, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    A system of co-rotating longitudinal vortices was used to introduce streamline (as opposed to wall) curvature into a turbulent wall flow. Two methods of vortex cancellation, unwinding and self-annihilation, were tested as a means of removing the vortices once they had processed most of the incoming turbulent boundary layer. Vortex unwinding, which uses vorticity of the opposite sign, was shown to be a viable method for cancelling the co-rotating vortices. Vortex self-annihilation, caused by interference effects resulting from a close initial spanwise vortex spacing, eliminated the vortices within 60 delta downstream. In each case, reductions in boundary layer entrainment were found once the vortices were cancelled.

  10. Calculation of two dimensional vortex/surface interference using panel methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskew, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of panel methods to the calculation of vortex/surface interference characteristics in two dimensional flow was studied over a range of situations starting with the simple case of a vortex above a plane and proceeding to the case of vortex separation from a prescribed point on a thick section. Low order and high order panel methods were examined, but the main factor influencing the accuracy of the solution was the distance between control stations in relation to the height of the vortex above the surface. Improvements over the basic solutions were demonstrated using a technique based on subpanels and an applied doublet distribution.

  11. Critical behavior at a dynamic vortex insulator-to-metal transition.

    PubMed

    Poccia, Nicola; Baturina, Tatyana I; Coneri, Francesco; Molenaar, Cor G; Wang, X Renshaw; Bianconi, Ginestra; Brinkman, Alexander; Hilgenkamp, Hans; Golubov, Alexander A; Vinokur, Valerii M

    2015-09-11

    An array of superconducting islands placed on a normal metal film offers a tunable realization of nanopatterned superconductivity. This system enables investigation of the nature of competing vortex states and phase transitions between them. A square array creates the eggcrate potential in which magnetic field-induced vortices are frozen into a vortex insulator. We observed a vortex insulator-vortex metal transition driven by the applied electric current and determined critical exponents that coincided with those for thermodynamic liquid-gas transition. Our findings offer a comprehensive description of dynamic critical behavior and establish a deep connection between equilibrium and nonequilibrium phase transitions. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Centre vortex removal restores chiral symmetry

    DOE PAGES

    Trewartha, Daniel; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.

    2017-11-15

    The influence of centre vortices on dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is investigated through the light hadron spectrum on the lattice. Recent studies of the quark propagator and other quantities have provided evidence that centre vortices are the fundamental objects underpinning dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in SU(3) gauge theory. For the first time, we use the chiral overlap fermion action to study the low-lying hadron spectrum on lattice ensembles consisting of Monte Carlo, vortex-removed, and vortex-projected gauge fields. We find that gauge field configurations consisting solely of smoothed centre vortices are capable of reproducing all the salient features of the hadronmore » spectrum, including dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. In conclusion, the hadron spectrum on vortex-removed fields shows clear signals of chiral symmetry restoration at light values of the bare quark mass, while at heavy masses the spectrum is consistent with a theory of weakly-interacting constituent quarks.« less

  13. Model of random center vortex lines in continuous 2 +1 -dimensional spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarawneh, Derar; Engelhardt, Michael; Höllwieser, Roman

    2016-12-01

    A picture of confinement in QCD based on a condensate of thick vortices with fluxes in the center of the gauge group (center vortices) is studied. Previous concrete model realizations of this picture utilized a hypercubic space-time scaffolding, which, together with many advantages, also has some disadvantages, e.g., in the treatment of vortex topological charge. In the present work, we explore a center vortex model which does not rely on such a scaffolding. Vortices are represented by closed random lines in continuous 2 +1 -dimensional space-time. These random lines are modeled as being piecewise linear, and an ensemble is generated by Monte Carlo methods. The physical space in which the vortex lines are defined is a torus with periodic boundary conditions. Besides moving, growing, and shrinking of the vortex configurations, also reconnections are allowed. Our ensemble therefore contains not a fixed but a variable number of closed vortex lines. This is expected to be important for realizing the deconfining phase transition. We study both vortex percolation and the potential V (R ) between the quark and antiquark as a function of distance R at different vortex densities, vortex segment lengths, reconnection conditions, and at different temperatures. We find three deconfinement phase transitions, as a function of density, as a function of vortex segment length, and as a function of temperature.

  14. Vortex maneuver lift for super-cruise configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. F.; Gloss, B. B.; Lamar, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the theoretical and experimental research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center is presented to investigate the subsonic vortex-lift producing capabilities for two classes of Super-Cruise designs: a close-coupled wing-canard arrangement and a slender wing configuration. In addition, several analytical methods are discussed for estimating critical structural design loads for thin, highly swept wings having separated leading-edge vortex flows.

  15. Elliptical vortex and oblique vortex lattice in the FeSe superconductor based on the nematicity and mixed superconducting orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Da-Chuan; Lv, Yang-Yang; Li, Jun; Zhu, Bei-Yi; Wang, Qiang-Hua; Wang, Hua-Bing; Wu, Pei-Heng

    2018-03-01

    The electronic nematic phase is characterized as an ordered state of matter with rotational symmetry breaking, and has been well studied in the quantum Hall system and the high-Tc superconductors, regardless of cuprate or pnictide family. The nematic state in high-Tc systems often relates to the structural transition or electronic instability in the normal phase. Nevertheless, the electronic states below the superconducting transition temperature is still an open question. With high-resolution scanning tunneling microscope measurements, direct observation of vortex core in FeSe thin films revealed the nematic superconducting state by Song et al. Here, motivated by the experiment, we construct the extended Ginzburg-Landau free energy to describe the elliptical vortex, where a mixed s-wave and d-wave superconducting order is coupled to the nematic order. The nematic order induces the mixture of two superconducting orders and enhances the anisotropic interaction between the two superconducting orders, resulting in a symmetry breaking from C4 to C2. Consequently, the vortex cores are stretched into an elliptical shape. In the equilibrium state, the elliptical vortices assemble a lozenge-like vortex lattice, being well consistent with experimental results.

  16. Exploratory wind-tunnel investigation of a wingtip-mounted vortex turbine for vortex energy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J. C., Jr.; Flechner, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    The Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel was used for tests to determine the possibility of recovering, with a turbine-type device, part of the energy loss associated with the lift-induced vortex system. Tests were conducted on a semispan model with an unswept, untapered wing, with and without a wingtip-mounted vortex turbine. Three sets of turbine blades were tested to determine the effect of airfoil section shape and planform. The tests were conducted at a Mach number of 0.70 over an angle-of-attack range from 0 deg. to 4 deg. at a Reynolds number of 3.82 x 10 to the 6th power based on the wing reference chord of 13 in.

  17. Detection of cavitation vortex in hydraulic turbines using acoustic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candel, I.; Bunea, F.; Dunca, G.; Bucur, D. M.; Ioana, C.; Reeb, B.; Ciocan, G. D.

    2014-03-01

    Cavitation phenomena are known for their destructive capacity in hydraulic machineries and are caused by the pressure decrease followed by an implosion when the cavitation bubbles find an adverse pressure gradient. A helical vortex appears in the turbine diffuser cone at partial flow rate operation and can be cavitating in its core. Cavity volumes and vortex frequencies vary with the under-pressure level. If the vortex frequency comes close to one of the eigen frequencies of the turbine, a resonance phenomenon may occur, the unsteady fluctuations can be amplified and lead to important turbine and hydraulic circuit damage. Conventional cavitation vortex detection techniques are based on passive devices (pressure sensors or accelerometers). Limited sensor bandwidths and low frequency response limit the vortex detection and characterization information provided by the passive techniques. In order to go beyond these techniques and develop a new active one that will remove these drawbacks, previous work in the field has shown that techniques based on acoustic signals using adapted signal content to a particular hydraulic situation, can be more robust and accurate. The cavitation vortex effects in the water flow profile downstream hydraulic turbines runner are responsible for signal content modifications. Basic signal techniques use narrow band signals traveling inside the flow from an emitting transducer to a receiving one (active sensors). Emissions of wide band signals in the flow during the apparition and development of the vortex embeds changes in the received signals. Signal processing methods are used to estimate the cavitation apparition and evolution. Tests done in a reduced scale facility showed that due to the increasing flow rate, the signal -- vortex interaction is seen as modifications on the received signal's high order statistics and bandwidth. Wide band acoustic transducers have a higher dynamic range over mechanical elements; the system's reaction time

  18. Copepods' Response to Burgers' Vortex: Deconstructing Interactions of Copepods with Turbulence.

    PubMed

    Webster, D R; Young, D L; Yen, J

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the behavioral response of two marine copepods, Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis, to a Burgers' vortex intended to mimic the characteristics of a turbulent vortex that a copepod is likely to encounter in the coastal or near-surface zone. Behavioral assays of copepods were conducted for two vortices that correspond to turbulent conditions with mean dissipation rates of turbulence of 0.009 and 0.096 cm(2) s(-3) (denoted turbulence level 2 and level 3, respectively). In particular, the Burgers' vortex parameters (i.e., circulation and rate of axial strain rate) were specified to match a vortex corresponding to the median rate of dissipation due to viscosity for each target level of turbulence. Three-dimensional trajectories were quantified for analysis of swimming kinematics and response to hydrodynamic cues. Acartia tonsa did not significantly respond to the vortex corresponding to turbulence level 2. In contrast, A. tonsa significantly altered their swimming behavior in the turbulence-level-3 vortex, including increased relative speed of swimming, angle of alignment of the trajectory with the axis of the vortex, ratio of net-to-gross displacement, and acceleration during escape, along with decreased turn frequency (relative to stagnant control conditions). Further, the location of A. tonsa escapes was preferentially in the core of the stronger vortex, indicating that the hydrodynamic cue triggering the distinctive escape behavior was vorticity. In contrast, T. longicornis did not reveal a behavioral response to either the turbulence level 2 or the level 3 vortex. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Longitudinal disordering of vortex lattices in anisotropic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harshman, D. R.; Brandt, E. H.; Fiory, A. T.; Inui, M.; Mitzi, D. B.; Schneemeyer, L. F.; Waszczak, J. V.

    1993-02-01

    Vortex disordering in superconducting crystals is shown to be markedly sensitive to penetration-depth anisotropy. At low temperature and high magnetic field, the muon-spin-rotation spectra for the highly anisotropic Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ material are found to be anomalously narrow and symmetric about the applied field, in a manner consistent with a layered vortex sublattice structure with pinning-induced misalignment between layers. In contrast, spectra for the less-anisotropic YBa2Cu3O7-δ compounds taken at comparable fields are broader and asymmetric, showing that the vortex lattices are aligned parallel to the applied-field direction.

  20. Convection vortex at dayside of high latitude ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, I. I.; Feldstein, Y. I.; Greenwald, R. A.

    Investigation of mesoscale convection in the dayside sector by SuperDARN radars has revealed the existence in afternoon sector a convection vortex whose location, intensity and convection direction coincide with the polar cap geomagnetic disturbances (DPC), which is reviewed thoroughly. Possible mechanism of the DPC generation are also described. Importance of the Earth's co-rotation potential is discussed. The existence of DPC vortex is interpreted in the framework of three dimensional current system with the field-aligned currents of coaxial cable type. In the vortex focus, the current outflowing from the ionosphere is concentrated whereas the inflowing current is distributed along the current system periphery.

  1. Analysis and control of supersonic vortex breakdown flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis and computation of steady, compressible, quasi-axisymmetric flow of an isolated, slender vortex are considered. The compressible, Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to a simpler set by using the slenderness and quasi-axisymmetry assumptions. The resulting set along with a compatibility equation are transformed from the diverging physical domain to a rectangular computational domain. Solving for a compatible set of initial profiles and specifying a compatible set of boundary conditions, the equations are solved using a type-differencing scheme. Vortex breakdown locations are detected by the failure of the scheme to converge. Computational examples include isolated vortex flows at different Mach numbers, external axial-pressure gradients and swirl ratios.

  2. Supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    An extensive computational study of supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown in a configured circular duct is presented. The unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used. The NS equations are solved for the quasi-axisymmetric flows using an implicit, upwind, flux difference splitting, finite volume scheme. The quasi-axisymmetric solutions are time accurate and are obtained by forcing the components of the flowfield vector to be equal on two axial planes, which are in close proximity of each other. The effect of Reynolds number, for laminar flows, on the evolution and persistence of vortex breakdown, is studied. Finally, the effect of swirl ration at the duct inlet is investigated.

  3. Copepod behavior response to Burgers' vortex treatments mimicking turbulent eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmi, D.; Webster, D. R.; Fields, D. M.

    2017-11-01

    Copepods detect hydrodynamic cues in the water by their mechanosensory setae. We expect that copepods sense the flow structure of turbulent eddies in order to evoke behavioral responses that lead to population-scale distribution patterns. In this study, the copepods' response to the Burgers' vortex is examined. The Burgers' vortex is a steady-state solution of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations that allows us to mimic turbulent vortices at the appropriate scale and eliminate the stochastic nature of turbulence. We generate vortices in the laboratory oriented in the horizontal and vertical directions each with four intensity levels. The objective of including vortex orientation as a parameter in the study is to quantify directional responses that lead to vertical population distribution patterns. The four intensity levels correspond to target vortex characteristics of eddies corresponding to the typical dissipative vortices in isotropic turbulence with mean turbulent dissipation rates in the range of 0.002 to 0.25 cm2/s3. These vortices mimic the characteristics of eddies that copepods most likely encounter in coastal zones. We hypothesize that the response of copepods to hydrodynamic features depends on their sensory architecture and relative orientation with respect to gravity. Tomo-PIV is used to quantify the vortex circulation and axial strain rate for each vortex treatment. Three-dimensional trajectories of the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus are analyzed to examine their swimming kinematics in and around the vortex to quantify the hydrodynamic cues that trigger their behavior.

  4. Influence of Structural Parameters on the Performance of Vortex Valve Variable-Thrust Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xianggeng; Li, Jiang; He, Guoqiang

    2017-04-01

    The vortex valve solid variable thrust motor is a new solid motor which can achieve Vehicle system trajectory optimization and motor energy management. Numerical calculation was performed to investigate the influence of vortex chamber diameter, vortex chamber shape, and vortex chamber height of the vortex valve solid variable thrust motor on modulation performance. The test results verified that the calculation results are consistent with laboratory results with a maximum error of 9.5%. The research drew the following major conclusions: the optimal modulation performance was achieved in a cylindrical vortex chamber, increasing the vortex chamber diameter improved the modulation performance of the vortex valve solid variable thrust motor, optimal modulation performance could be achieved when the height of the vortex chamber is half of the vortex chamber outlet diameter, and the hot gas control flow could result in an enhancement of modulation performance. The results can provide the basis for establishing the design method of the vortex valve solid variable thrust motor.

  5. Decoding algorithm for vortex communications receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupferman, Judy; Arnon, Shlomi

    2018-01-01

    Vortex light beams can provide a tremendous alphabet for encoding information. We derive a symbol decoding algorithm for a direct detection matrix detector vortex beam receiver using Laguerre Gauss (LG) modes, and develop a mathematical model of symbol error rate (SER) for this receiver. We compare SER as a function of signal to noise ratio (SNR) for our algorithm and for the Pearson correlation algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive treatment of a decoding algorithm of a matrix detector for an LG receiver.

  6. Multi-Model Ensemble Wake Vortex Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerner, Stephan; Holzaepfel, Frank; Ahmad, Nash'at N.

    2015-01-01

    Several multi-model ensemble methods are investigated for predicting wake vortex transport and decay. This study is a joint effort between National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt to develop a multi-model ensemble capability using their wake models. An overview of different multi-model ensemble methods and their feasibility for wake applications is presented. The methods include Reliability Ensemble Averaging, Bayesian Model Averaging, and Monte Carlo Simulations. The methodologies are evaluated using data from wake vortex field experiments.

  7. Three-dimensional vortex wake structure of flapping wings in hovering flight.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Roll, Jesse; Liu, Yun; Troolin, Daniel R; Deng, Xinyan

    2014-02-06

    Flapping wings continuously create and send vortices into their wake, while imparting downward momentum into the surrounding fluid. However, experimental studies concerning the details of the three-dimensional vorticity distribution and evolution in the far wake are limited. In this study, the three-dimensional vortex wake structure in both the near and far field of a dynamically scaled flapping wing was investigated experimentally, using volumetric three-component velocimetry. A single wing, with shape and kinematics similar to those of a fruitfly, was examined. The overall result of the wing action is to create an integrated vortex structure consisting of a tip vortex (TV), trailing-edge shear layer (TESL) and leading-edge vortex. The TESL rolls up into a root vortex (RV) as it is shed from the wing, and together with the TV, contracts radially and stretches tangentially in the downstream wake. The downwash is distributed in an arc-shaped region enclosed by the stretched tangential vorticity of the TVs and the RVs. A closed vortex ring structure is not observed in the current study owing to the lack of well-established starting and stopping vortex structures that smoothly connect the TV and RV. An evaluation of the vorticity transport equation shows that both the TV and the RV undergo vortex stretching while convecting downwards: a three-dimensional phenomenon in rotating flows. It also confirms that convection and secondary tilting and stretching effects dominate the evolution of vorticity.

  8. Vortex Flipping in Superconductor-Ferromagnet Spin Valve Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patino, Edgar J.; Aprili, Marco; Blamire, Mark; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2014-03-01

    We report in plane magnetization measurements on Ni/Nb/Ni/CoO and Co/Nb/Co/CoO spin valve structures with one of the ferromagnetic layers pinned by an antiferromagnetic layer. In samples with Ni, below the superconducting transition Tc, our results show strong evidence of vortex flipping driven by the ferromagnets magnetization. This is a direct consequence of proximity effect that leads to vortex supercurrents leakage into the ferromagnets. Here the polarized electron spins are subject to vortices magnetic field occasioning vortex flipping. Such novel mechanism has been made possible for the first time by fabrication of the F/S/F/AF multilayered spin valves with a thin-enough S layer to barely confine vortices inside as well as thin-enough F layers to align and control the magnetization within the plane. When Co is used there is no observation of vortex flipping effect. This is attributed to Co shorter coherence length. Interestingly instead a reduction in pinning field of about 400 Oe is observed when the Nb layer is in superconducting state. This effect cannot be explained in terms of vortex fields. In view of these facts any explanation must be directly related to proximity effect and thus a remarkable phenomenon that deserves further investigation. Programa Nacional de Ciencias Basicas COLCIENCIAS (No. 120452128168).

  9. Transition to Quantum Turbulence and the Propagation of Vortex Loops at Finite Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shinji; Adachi, Hiroyuki; Tsubota, Makoto

    2011-02-01

    We performed numerical simulation of the transition to quantum turbulence and the propagation of vortex loops at finite temperatures in order to understand the experiments using vibrating wires in superfluid 4He by Yano et al. We injected vortex rings to a finite volume in order to simulate emission of vortices from the wire. When the injected vortices are dilute, they should decay by mutual friction. When they are dense, however, vortex tangle are generated through vortex reconnections and emit large vortex loops. The large vortex loops can travel a long distance before disappearing, which is much different from the dilute case. The numerical results are consistent with the experimental results.

  10. Non-invasive determination of external forces in vortex-pair-cylinder interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, D.; Schröder, W.; Shashikanth, B. N.

    2012-06-01

    Expressions for the conserved linear and angular momenta of a dynamically coupled fluid + solid system are derived. Based on the knowledge of the flow velocity field, these expressions allow the determination of the external forces exerted on a body moving in the fluid such as, e.g., swimming fish. The verification of the derived conserved quantities is done numerically. The interaction of a vortex pair with a circular cylinder in various configurations of motions representing a generic test case for a dynamically coupled fluid + solid system is investigated in a weakly compressible Navier-Stokes setting using a Cartesian cut-cell method, i.e., the moving circular cylinder is represented by cut cells on a moving mesh. The objectives of this study are twofold. The first objective is to show the robustness of the derived expressions for the conserved linear and angular momenta with respect to bounded and discrete data sets. The second objective is to study the coupled dynamics of the vortex pair and a neutrally buoyant cylinder free to move in response to the fluid stresses exerted on its surface. A comparison of the vortex-body interaction with the case of a fixed circular cylinder evidences significant differences in the vortex dynamics. When the cylinder is fixed strong secondary vorticity is generated resulting in a repeating process between the primary vortex pair and the cylinder. In the neutrally buoyant cylinder case, a stable structure consisting of the primary vortex pair and secondary vorticity shear layers stays attached to the moving cylinder. In addition to these fundamental cases, the vortex-pair-cylinder interaction is studied for locomotion at constant speed and locomotion at constant thrust. It is shown that a similar vortex structure like in the neutrally buoyant cylinder case is obtained when the cylinder moves away from the approaching vortex pair at a constant speed smaller than the vortex pair translational velocity. Finally, the idealized

  11. Method and apparatus for enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays

    DOEpatents

    Janko, Boldizsar; Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan

    2015-07-14

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for strongly enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays. The conformal crystal array is constructed by a conformal transformation of a hexagonal lattice, producing a non-uniform structure with a gradient where the local six-fold coordination of the pinning sites is preserved, and with an arching effect. The conformal pinning arrays produce significantly enhanced vortex pinning over a much wider range of field than that found for other vortex pinning geometries with an equivalent number of vortex pinning sites, such as random, square, and triangular.

  12. Resonant-spin-ordering of vortex cores in interacting mesomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Shikha

    2013-03-01

    The magnetic system of interacting vortex-state elements have a dynamically reconfigurable ground state characterized by different relative polarities and chiralities of the individual disks; and have a corresponding dynamically controlled spectrum of collective excitation modes that determine the microwave absorption of the crystal. The development of effective methods for dynamic control of the ground state in this vortex-type magnonic crystal is of interest both from fundamental and technological viewpoints. Control of vortex chirality has been demonstrated previously using various techniques; however, control and manipulation of vortex polarities remain challenging. In this work, we present a robust and efficient way of selecting the ground state configuration of interacting magnetic elements using resonant-spin-ordering approach. This is achieved by driving the system from the linear regime of constant vortex gyrations to the non-linear regime of vortex-core reversals at a fixed excitation frequency of one of the coupled modes. Subsequently reducing the excitation field to the linear regime stabilizes the system to a polarity combination whose resonant frequency is decoupled from the initialization frequency. We have utilized the resonant approach to transition between the two polarity combinations (parallel or antiparallel) in a model system of connected dot-pairs which may form the building blocks of vortex-based magnonic crystals. Taking a step further, we have extended the technique by studying many-particle system for its potential as spin-torque oscillators or logic devices. Work at Argonne was supported by the U. S. DOE, Office of BES, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. This work was in part supported by grant DMR-1015175 from the U. S. National Science Foundation, by a Contract from the U.S. Army TARDEC and RDECOM.

  13. Vortex Rossby Waves in Asymmetric Basic Flow of Typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianju; Zhong, Zhong; Wang, Ju

    2018-05-01

    Wave ray theory is employed to study features of propagation pathways (rays) of vortex Rossby waves in typhoons with asymmetric basic flow, where the tangential asymmetric basic flow is constructed by superimposing the wavenumber-1 perturbation flow on the symmetric basic flow, and the radial basic flow is derived from the non-divergence equation. Results show that, in a certain distance, the influences of the asymmetry in the basic flow on group velocities and slopes of rays of vortex Rossby waves are mainly concentrated near the radius of maximum wind (RMW), whereas it decreases outside the RMW. The distributions of radial and tangential group velocities of the vortex Rossby waves in the asymmetric basic flow are closely related to the azimuth location of the maximum speed of the asymmetric basic flow, and the importance of radial and tangential basic flow on the group velocities would change with radius. In addition, the stronger asymmetry in the basic flow always corresponds to faster outward energy propagation of vortex Rossby waves. In short, the group velocities, and thereby the wave energy propagation and vortex Rossby wave ray slope in typhoons, would be changed by the asymmetry of the basic flow.

  14. Collapsing vortex filaments and the spectrum of quantum turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andryushchenko, V. A.; Nemirovskii, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    The method of correlation functions and the method of quantum vortex configurations are used to calculate the energy spectrum of a three-dimensional velocity field that is induced by collapsing (immediately before reconnection) vortex filaments. The formulation of this problem is motivated by the idea of modeling classical turbulence by a set of chaotic quantized vortex filaments. Among the various arguments that support the idea of quasi-classical behavior for quantum turbulence, the most persuasive is probably the resulting Kolmogorov energy spectrum resembling E ( k ) ∝ k - 5 / 3 that was obtained in a number of numerical studies. Another goal is associated with an important and intensely studied theme that relates to the role of hydrodynamic collapse in the formation of turbulence spectra. Calculations have demonstrated that vortex filaments create a velocity field at the moment of contact, which has a singularity. This configuration of vortex filaments generates the spectrum E(k), which bears the resemblance to the Kolmogorov law. A possible cause for this observation is discussed, as well as the likely reasons behind any deviations. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of both classical and quantum turbulence.

  15. The intraventricular filling vortex under heightened aortic blood pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelsen, Nicholas; Gaddam, Manikantam; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Hypertension, or high aortic blood pressure, can induce structural changes in the left ventricle (LV) such as concentric hypertrophy. Previous studies have identified that the intraventricular filling vortex serves as an effective means of blood transport during diastolic filling. However, a fundamental understanding of how hypertension affects this vortex is unavailable. This knowledge can be useful for improving diagnosis and treatment of related heart disease conditions, including hypertensive heart failure. In this experimental study, we hypothesized that the circulation of the filling vortex would diminish with increased aortic pressure. Using a LV physical model within a left heart simulator, we performed hemodynamic measurements to acquire pressure and volumetric inflow profiles and 2D particle image velocimetry to visualize the intraventricular flow fields. Peak aortic pressures of 120 mm Hg, 140 mm Hg, and 160 mm Hg were each tested at heart rates of 70, 100, and 110 beats per minute, under: 1) reduced ejection fraction (EF), and 2) constant EF. Our results indicate that peak vortex circulation is reduced under elevated aortic pressures. Hemodynamics and characteristics of the intraventricular filling vortex in all examined experimental cases will be presented.

  16. Transitions in the vortex wake behind the plunging profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozłowski, Tomasz; Kudela, Henryk

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigate numerically the vortex wake formation behind the profile performing simple harmonic motion known in the literature as plunging. This research was inspired by the flapping motion which is appropriate for birds, insects and fishes. We assume the two dimensional model of flow. Depending on the parameters such as plunging amplitude, frequency and the Reynolds number, we demonstrate many different types of vortex street behind the profile. It is well known that the type of vortex wake determines the hydrodynamic forces acting on the profile. Dependences of the plunging amplitude, the Strouhal number and various topology vortices are established by constructing the phase transition diagram. The areas in the diagram related to the drag, thrust, and lift force generation are captured. We notice also the areas where the vorticity field is disordered. The disordered vorticity field does not allow maintenance of the periodic forces on the profile. An increase in the Reynolds number leads to the transition of the vortex wake behind the profile. The transition is caused by the phenomenon of boundary layer eruption. Further increase of the Reynolds number causes the vortex street related to the generation of the lift force to vanish.

  17. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    DOEpatents

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; DePoy, D.

    1998-06-30

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell. 8 figs.

  18. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    DOEpatents

    Ashcroft, John; Campbell, Brian; DePoy, David

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  19. Reconfigurable superconducting vortex pinning potential for magnetic disks in hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, Estefani; Curran, Peter J.; Kim, Jangyong; Satchell, Nathan; Burnell, Gavin; Bending, Simon J.

    2017-03-01

    High resolution scanning Hall probe microscopy has been used to directly visualise the superconducting vortex behavior in hybrid structures consisting of a square array of micrometer-sized Py ferromagnetic disks covered by a superconducting Nb thin film. At remanence the disks exist in almost fully flux-closed magnetic vortex states, but the observed cloverleaf-like stray fields indicate the presence of weak in-plane anisotropy. Micromagnetic simulations suggest that the most likely origin is an unintentional shape anisotropy. We have studied the pinning of added free superconducting vortices as a function of the magnetisation state of the disks, and identified a range of different phenomena arising from competing energy contributions. We have also observed clear differences in the pinning landscape when the superconductor and the ferromagnet are electron ically coupled or insulated by a thin dielectric layer, with an indication of non-trivial vortex-vortex interactions. We demonstrate a complete reconfiguration of the vortex pinning potential when the magnetisation of the disks evolves from the vortex-like state to an onion-like one under an in-plane magnetic field. Our results are in good qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions and could form the basis of novel superconducting devices based on reconfigurable vortex pinning sites.

  20. Reconfigurable superconducting vortex pinning potential for magnetic disks in hybrid structures.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Estefani; Curran, Peter J; Kim, Jangyong; Satchell, Nathan; Burnell, Gavin; Bending, Simon J

    2017-03-24

    High resolution scanning Hall probe microscopy has been used to directly visualise the superconducting vortex behavior in hybrid structures consisting of a square array of micrometer-sized Py ferromagnetic disks covered by a superconducting Nb thin film. At remanence the disks exist in almost fully flux-closed magnetic vortex states, but the observed cloverleaf-like stray fields indicate the presence of weak in-plane anisotropy. Micromagnetic simulations suggest that the most likely origin is an unintentional shape anisotropy. We have studied the pinning of added free superconducting vortices as a function of the magnetisation state of the disks, and identified a range of different phenomena arising from competing energy contributions. We have also observed clear differences in the pinning landscape when the superconductor and the ferromagnet are electron ically coupled or insulated by a thin dielectric layer, with an indication of non-trivial vortex-vortex interactions. We demonstrate a complete reconfiguration of the vortex pinning potential when the magnetisation of the disks evolves from the vortex-like state to an onion-like one under an in-plane magnetic field. Our results are in good qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions and could form the basis of novel superconducting devices based on reconfigurable vortex pinning sites.