Science.gov

Sample records for rapamycin regulates vascular

  1. Rapamycin reduced pulmonary vascular remodelling by inhibiting cell proliferation via Akt/mTOR signalling pathway down-regulation in the carotid artery-jugular vein shunt pulmonary hypertension rat model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaofan; Yao, Jianping; Yue, Yuan; Du, Shangming; Qin, Han; Hou, Jian; Wu, Zhongkai

    2017-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a common complication of congenital heart disease. However, effective treatments for PAH are rare. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of rapamycin on PAH in the carotid artery-jugular vein (CA-JV) shunt PAH rat model as well as the mechanism underlying these effects. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into the following 3 groups: a control group, a CA-JV shunt group and a treatment group. Rapamycin (2 mg/kg/day) was administered to the treatment group, and placebo was administered to the CA-JV shunt group. Haemodynamic evaluations, pulmonary tissue samplings for morphometry and immunofluorescence and western blot analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of rapamycin on PAH. Rapamycin attenuated the increase of right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and the right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy (RVSP: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.017; RV: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.022), as well as the intrapulmonary vessel thickening (thickness index: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.028; area index: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.014), induced by overcirculation of the pulmonary vasculature in the CA-JV shunt-induced PAH rat model. Rapamycin decreased the expression level of the indicated cell proliferation marker (α-smooth muscle actin) in the lung vessel and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway components (p-mTOR: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.004; p-Raptor: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.000; p-S6K1: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.000; p-Akt: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.001; p-Rheb: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.000) in pulmonary tissue. Rapamycin reduced pulmonary vascular remodelling by inhibiting cell proliferation via Akt/mTOR signalling pathway down-regulation in the CA-JV shunt-induced PAH model in rats. Thus, rapamycin may be a novel candidate drug for the treatment of

  2. Periadventitial Application of Rapamycin-Loaded Nanoparticles Produces Sustained Inhibition of Vascular Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lian-Wang; Si, Yi; Zhu, Men; Pilla, Srikanth; Liu, Bo; Gong, Shaoqin; Kent, K. Craig

    2014-01-01

    Open vascular reconstructions frequently fail due to the development of recurrent disease or intimal hyperplasia (IH). This paper reports a novel drug delivery method using a rapamycin-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs)/pluronic gel system that can be applied periadventitially around the carotid artery immediately following the open surgery. In vitro studies revealed that rapamycin dispersed in pluronic gel was rapidly released over 3 days whereas release of rapamycin from rapamycin-loaded PLGA NPs embedded in pluronic gel was more gradual over 4 weeks. In cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), rapamycin-loaded NPs produced durable (14 days versus 3 days for free rapamycin) inhibition of phosphorylation of S6 kinase (S6K1), a downstream target in the mTOR pathway. In a rat balloon injury model, periadventitial delivery of rapamycin-loaded NPs produced inhibition of phospho-S6K1 14 days after balloon injury. Immunostaining revealed that rapamycin-loaded NPs reduced SMC proliferation at both 14 and 28 days whereas rapamycin alone suppressed proliferation at day 14 only. Moreover, rapamycin-loaded NPs sustainably suppressed IH for at least 28 days following treatment, whereas rapamycin alone produced suppression on day 14 with rebound of IH by day 28. Since rapamycin, PLGA, and pluronic gel have all been approved by the FDA for other human therapies, this drug delivery method could potentially be translated into human use quickly to prevent failure of open vascular reconstructions. PMID:24586612

  3. RAPAMYCIN INCREASES LENGTH AND MECHANOSENSORY FUNCTION OF PRIMARY CILIA IN RENAL EPITHELIAL AND VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.

    PubMed

    Sherpa, Rinzhin T; Atkinson, Kimberly F; Ferreira, Viviana P; Nauli, Surya M

    2016-12-01

    Primary cilia arebiophysically-sensitive organelles responsible for sensing fluid-flow and transducing this stimulus into intracellular responses. Previous studies have shown that the primary cilia mediate flow-induced calcium influx, and sensitivity of cilia function to flow is correlated to cilia length. Cells with abnormal cilia length or function can lead to a host of diseases that are collectively termed as ciliopathies. Rapamycin, a potent inhibitor of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), has been demonstrated to be a potential pharmacological agent against the aberrant mTOR signaling seen in ciliopathies such as polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Here we look at the effects of rapamycin on ciliary length and function for the first time. Compared to controls, primary cilia in rapamycin-treated porcine renal epithelial and mouse vascular endothelial cells showed a significant increase in length. Graded increases in fluid-shear stress further indicates that rapamycin enhances cilia sensitivity to fluid flow. Treatment with rapamycin led to G0 arrest in porcine epithelial cells while no significant change in cell cycle were observed in rapamycin-treated mouse epithelial or endothelial cells, indicating a species-specific effect of rapamycin. Given the previousin vitro and in vivo studies establishing rapamycin as a potential therapeutic agent for ciliopathies, such as PKD and TSC, our studies show that rapamycin enhances ciliary function and sensitivity to fluid flow. The results of our studies suggest a potential ciliotherapeutic effect of rapamycin.

  4. Rapamycin up-regulates triglycerides in hepatocytes by down-regulating Prox1.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sora; Jeon, Ji-Sook; Kim, Su Bin; Hong, Young-Kwon; Ahn, Curie; Sung, Jung-Suk; Choi, Inho

    2016-02-27

    Although the prolonged use of rapamycin may cause unwanted side effects such as hyperlipidemia, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Prox1 is a transcription factor responsible for the development of several tissues including lymphatics and liver. There is growing evidences that Prox1 participates in metabolism in addition to embryogenesis. However, whether Prox1 is directly related to lipid metabolism is currently unknown. HepG2 human hepatoma cells were treated with rapamycin and total lipids were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The effect of rapamycin on the expression of Prox1 was determined by western blotting. To investigate the role of Prox1 in triglycerides regulation, siRNA and overexpression system were employed. Rapamycin was injected into mice for 2 weeks and total lipids and proteins in liver were measured by thin layer chromatography and western blot analysis, respectively. Rapamycin up-regulated the amount of triglyceride and down-regulated the expression of Prox1 in HepG2 cells by reducing protein half-life but did not affect its transcript. The loss-of-function of Prox1 was coincident with the increase of triglycerides in HepG2 cells treated with rapamycin. The up-regulation of triglycerides by rapamycin in HepG2 cells reverted to normal levels by the compensation of Prox1 using the overexpression system. Rapamycin also down-regulated Prox1 expression but increased triglycerides in mouse liver. This study suggests that rapamycin can increase the amount of triglycerides by down-regulating Prox1 expression in hepatocytes, which means that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is important for the regulation of triglycerides by maintaining Prox1 expression.

  5. Rapamycin (Sirolimus) alters mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway regulation and microRNA expression in mouse meiotic spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Koli, S; Reddy, K V R

    2015-09-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a signal transduction pathway that modulates translation initiation in several animals including mammals. Rapamaycin, an allosteric inhibitor of mTOR pathway, is often used as an immunosuppressive drug following kidney transplantation and causes gonadal dysfunction and defects in spermatogenesis. The molecular mechanism behind rapamycin-mediated testicular dysfunction is not known. We have therefore explored the contribution of rapamycin in mTOR regulation and microRNA (miRNA) expression in mouse spermatocytes, the intermediate stage of spermatogenesis, where meiosis takes place. In the present study, we optimized the isolation of highly pure and viable spermatocytes by flow sorting, treated them with rapamycin, and investigated the expression of mTOR and downstream effector molecules. Western blot and immunocytochemical analysis confirm that rapamycin treatment suppresses mTOR and phopsphorylated P70S6 kinase activities in spermatocytes, but not that of phosphorylated 4E-binding protein 1. Also, rapamycin treatment modulates the expression of several spermatocyte-specific miRNAs. To complement these finding an in vivo study was also performed. In silico prediction of target genes of these miRNAs and their functional pathway analysis revealed that, several of them are involved in crucial biological process, cellular process and catalytic activities. miRNA-transcription factor (TF) network analysis enlisted different TFs propelling the transcription machineries of these miRNAs. In silico prediction followed by quatitative real-time PCR revealed two of these TFs namely, PU.1 and CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) are down and upregulated, respectively, which may be the reason of the altered expression of miRNAs following rapamycin treatment. In conclusion, for the first time, the present study provides insight into how rapamycin regulates mTOR pathway and spermatocyte-specific miRNA expression which in turn, regulate expression of

  6. Differential Regulation of Cardiac Function and Intracardiac Cytokines by Rapamycin in Healthy and Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Luck, Christian; DeMarco, Vincent G; Mahmood, Abuzar; Gavini, Madhavi P; Pulakat, Lakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is comorbid with cardiovascular disease and impaired immunity. Rapamycin improves cardiac functions and extends lifespan by inhibiting the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). However, in diabetic murine models, Rapamycin elevates hyperglycemia and reduces longevity. Since Rapamycin is an immunosuppressant, we examined whether Rapamycin (750  μ g/kg/day) modulates intracardiac cytokines, which affect the cardiac immune response, and cardiac function in male lean (ZL) and diabetic obese Zucker (ZO) rats. Rapamycin suppressed levels of fasting triglycerides, insulin, and uric acid in ZO but increased glucose. Although Rapamycin improved multiple diastolic parameters ( E / E ', E '/ A ', E / Vp ) initially, these improvements were reversed or absent in ZO at the end of treatment, despite suppression of cardiac fibrosis and phosphoSer473Akt. Intracardiac cytokine protein profiling and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis indicated suppression of intracardiac immune defense in ZO, in response to Rapamycin treatment in both ZO and ZL. Rapamycin increased fibrosis in ZL without increasing phosphoSer473Akt and differentially modulated anti-fibrotic IL-10, IFN γ , and GM-CSF in ZL and ZO. Therefore, fundamental difference in intracardiac host defense between diabetic ZO and healthy ZL, combined with differential regulation of intracardiac cytokines by Rapamycin in ZO and ZL hearts, underlies differential cardiac outcomes of Rapamycin treatment in health and diabetes.

  7. Differential Regulation of Cardiac Function and Intracardiac Cytokines by Rapamycin in Healthy and Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Christian; DeMarco, Vincent G.; Mahmood, Abuzar; Gavini, Madhavi P.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is comorbid with cardiovascular disease and impaired immunity. Rapamycin improves cardiac functions and extends lifespan by inhibiting the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). However, in diabetic murine models, Rapamycin elevates hyperglycemia and reduces longevity. Since Rapamycin is an immunosuppressant, we examined whether Rapamycin (750 μg/kg/day) modulates intracardiac cytokines, which affect the cardiac immune response, and cardiac function in male lean (ZL) and diabetic obese Zucker (ZO) rats. Rapamycin suppressed levels of fasting triglycerides, insulin, and uric acid in ZO but increased glucose. Although Rapamycin improved multiple diastolic parameters (E/E′, E′/A′, E/Vp) initially, these improvements were reversed or absent in ZO at the end of treatment, despite suppression of cardiac fibrosis and phosphoSer473Akt. Intracardiac cytokine protein profiling and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis indicated suppression of intracardiac immune defense in ZO, in response to Rapamycin treatment in both ZO and ZL. Rapamycin increased fibrosis in ZL without increasing phosphoSer473Akt and differentially modulated anti-fibrotic IL-10, IFNγ, and GM-CSF in ZL and ZO. Therefore, fundamental difference in intracardiac host defense between diabetic ZO and healthy ZL, combined with differential regulation of intracardiac cytokines by Rapamycin in ZO and ZL hearts, underlies differential cardiac outcomes of Rapamycin treatment in health and diabetes. PMID:28408970

  8. Rapamycin rescues vascular, metabolic and learning deficits in apolipoprotein E4 transgenic mice with pre-symptomatic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Jahrling, Jordan B; Zhang, Wei; DeRosa, Nicholas; Bakshi, Vikas; Romero, Peter; Galvan, Veronica; Richardson, Arlan

    2017-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E ɛ4 allele is a common susceptibility gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Brain vascular and metabolic deficits can occur in cognitively normal apolipoprotein E ɛ4 carriers decades before the onset of Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this study was to determine whether early intervention using rapamycin could restore neurovascular and neurometabolic functions, and thus impede pathological progression of Alzheimer's disease-like symptoms in pre-symptomatic Apolipoprotein E ɛ4 transgenic mice. Using in vivo, multimodal neuroimaging, we found that apolipoprotein E ɛ4 mice treated with rapamycin had restored cerebral blood flow, blood-brain barrier integrity and glucose metabolism, compared to age- and gender-matched wild-type controls. The preserved vasculature and metabolism were associated with amelioration of incipient learning deficits. We also found that rapamycin restored the levels of the proinflammatory cyclophilin A in vasculature, which may contribute to the preservation of cerebrovascular function in the apolipoprotein E ɛ4 transgenics. Our results show that rapamycin improves functional outcomes in this mouse model and may have potential as an effective intervention to block progression of vascular, metabolic and early cognitive deficits in human Apolipoprotein E ɛ4 carriers. As rapamycin is FDA-approved and neuroimaging is readily used in humans, the results of the present study may provide the basis for future Alzheimer's disease intervention studies in human subjects. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Rapamycin regulates the proliferation of Huh7, a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, by up-regulating p53 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Sora; Jeon, Ji-Sook; Ahn, Curie

    Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR used extensively as an immunosuppressant, has been expanded recently to cancer therapy, because the mTOR signal is known to be up-regulated in various cancer cells including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In spite of extensive efforts to employ mTOR inhibitors as anti-HCC therapy, they have not yet been approved by the FDA. Because of the heterogeneity and complexity of molecular signaling in HCC, suitable biomarkers should be identified or discovered to improve clinical efficacy of mTOR-specific inhibitors to HCC cells. In this study, the effect of rapamycin was investigated on two different HCC cell lines,more » Huh7 cells and HepG2 cells. Rapamycin was found to inhibit the proliferation of Huh7 cells but not of HepG2 cells. Moreover, it was found that rapamycin can up-regulate p53 at the protein level, but not affect its transcript. To understand the critical role of p53 in the rapamycin effect, knock-down experiments were performed using small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The anti-proliferative effect of rapamycin on Huh7 cells clearly disappeared after blocking p53 production with siRNA, which indicates that p53 is a critical factor in the anti-proliferative effect of rapamycin in HCC cells. The over-expression system of p53 was also employed to mimic the effect of rapamycin and found that cell proliferation was clearly down-regulated by p53 over-expression. Finally, we found that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signal was regulated by p53 whose expression was induced by rapamycin. Overall, this study demonstrates that rapamycin inhibited the proliferation of Huh7 cells by up-regulating the expression of p53 and down-regulating the ERK1/2 signal, indicating that p53 is a useful biomarker for anti-cancer therapy using the specific inhibitor of mTOR signal, rapamycin, against hepatocellular carcinoma cells. - Highlights: • Rapamycin inhibits the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma

  10. Rapamycin down-regulates KCC2 expression and increases seizure susceptibility to convulsants in immature rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoxing; McMahon, John; Yang, Jun; Shin, Damian; Huang, Yunfei

    2012-01-01

    Summary Seizure susceptibility to neurological insults, including chemical convulsants, is age-dependent and most likely reflective of overall differences in brain excitability. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying development-dependent seizure susceptibility remain to be fully understood. Because the mTOR pathway regulates neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and cell survival, thereby influencing brain development, we tested if exposure of the immature brain to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin changes seizure susceptibility to neurological insults. We found that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin in immature rats (3 to 4 weeks old) increases the severity of seizures induced by pilocarpine, including lengthening the total seizure duration and reducing the latency to the onset of seizures. Rapamycin also reduces the minimal dose of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) necessary to induce clonic seizures. However, in mature rats, rapamycin does not significantly change the seizure sensitivity to pilocarpine and PTZ. Likewise, kainate sensitivity was not significantly affected by rapamycin treatment in either mature or immature rats. Additionally, rapamycin treatment down-regulates the expression of potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) in the thalamus and to a lesser degree in the hippocampus. Pharmacological inhibition of thalamic mTOR or KCC2 increases susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced seizure in immature rats. Thus, our study suggests a role for the mTOR pathway in age-dependent seizure susceptibility. PMID:22613737

  11. Chronic rapamycin restores brain vascular integrity and function through NO synthase activation and improves memory in symptomatic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zheng, Wei; Halloran, Jonathan J; Burbank, Raquel R; Hussong, Stacy A; Hart, Matthew J; Javors, Martin; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian; Muir, Eric; Solano Fonseca, Rene; Strong, Randy; Richardson, Arlan G; Lechleiter, James D; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Vascular pathology is a major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. We recently showed that chronic administration of the target-of-rapamycin (TOR) inhibitor rapamycin, which extends lifespan and delays aging, halts the progression of AD-like disease in transgenic human (h)APP mice modeling AD when administered before disease onset. Here we demonstrate that chronic reduction of TOR activity by rapamycin treatment started after disease onset restored cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain vascular density, reduced cerebral amyloid angiopathy and microhemorrhages, decreased amyloid burden, and improved cognitive function in symptomatic hAPP (AD) mice. Like acetylcholine (ACh), a potent vasodilator, acute rapamycin treatment induced the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and NO release in brain endothelium. Administration of the NOS inhibitor L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester reversed vasodilation as well as the protective effects of rapamycin on CBF and vasculature integrity, indicating that rapamycin preserves vascular density and CBF in AD mouse brains through NOS activation. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic reduction of TOR activity by rapamycin blocked the progression of AD-like cognitive and histopathological deficits by preserving brain vascular integrity and function. Drugs that inhibit the TOR pathway may have promise as a therapy for AD and possibly for vascular dementias. PMID:23801246

  12. Target of Rapamycin Signaling Regulates Metabolism, Growth, and Life Span in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Maozhi; Venglat, Prakash; Qiu, Shuqing; Feng, Li; Cao, Yongguo; Wang, Edwin; Xiang, Daoquan; Wang, Jinghe; Alexander, Danny; Chalivendra, Subbaiah; Logan, David; Mattoo, Autar; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Datla, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Target of Rapamycin (TOR) is a major nutrition and energy sensor that regulates growth and life span in yeast and animals. In plants, growth and life span are intertwined not only with nutrient acquisition from the soil and nutrition generation via photosynthesis but also with their unique modes of development and differentiation. How TOR functions in these processes has not yet been determined. To gain further insights, rapamycin-sensitive transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines (BP12) expressing yeast FK506 Binding Protein12 were developed. Inhibition of TOR in BP12 plants by rapamycin resulted in slower overall root, leaf, and shoot growth and development leading to poor nutrient uptake and light energy utilization. Experimental limitation of nutrient availability and light energy supply in wild-type Arabidopsis produced phenotypes observed with TOR knockdown plants, indicating a link between TOR signaling and nutrition/light energy status. Genetic and physiological studies together with RNA sequencing and metabolite analysis of TOR-suppressed lines revealed that TOR regulates development and life span in Arabidopsis by restructuring cell growth, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, gene expression, and rRNA and protein synthesis. Gain- and loss-of-function Ribosomal Protein S6 (RPS6) mutants additionally show that TOR function involves RPS6-mediated nutrition and light-dependent growth and life span in Arabidopsis. PMID:23275579

  13. Target of Rapamycin Complex 2 Regulates Actin Polarization and Endocytosis via Multiple Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Rispal, Delphine; Eltschinger, Sandra; Stahl, Michael; Vaga, Stefania; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Abraham, Yann; Filipuzzi, Ireos; Movva, N. Rao; Aebersold, Ruedi; Helliwell, Stephen B.; Loewith, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    Target of rapamycin is a Ser/Thr kinase that operates in two conserved multiprotein complexes, TORC1 and TORC2. Unlike TORC1, TORC2 is insensitive to rapamycin, and its functional characterization is less advanced. Previous genetic studies demonstrated that TORC2 depletion leads to loss of actin polarization and loss of endocytosis. To determine how TORC2 regulates these readouts, we engineered a yeast strain in which TORC2 can be specifically and acutely inhibited by the imidazoquinoline NVP-BHS345. Kinetic analyses following inhibition of TORC2, supported with quantitative phosphoproteomics, revealed that TORC2 regulates these readouts via distinct pathways as follows: rapidly through direct protein phosphorylation cascades and slowly through indirect changes in the tensile properties of the plasma membrane. The rapid signaling events are mediated in large part through the phospholipid flippase kinases Fpk1 and Fpk2, whereas the slow signaling pathway involves increased plasma membrane tension resulting from a gradual depletion of sphingolipids. Additional hits in our phosphoproteomic screens highlight the intricate control TORC2 exerts over diverse aspects of eukaryote cell physiology. PMID:25882841

  14. MicroRNA-99a inhibits insulin-induced proliferation, migration, dedifferentiation, and rapamycin resistance of vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zi-wei; Department of Cardiology, Kunming General Hospital of Chengdu Military Area; Guo, Rui-wei

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are characterized by insulin resistance and are subsequently at high risk for atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia has been associated with proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Moreover, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have been demonstrated to be the underlying signaling pathways. Recently, microRNA-99a (miR-99a) has been suggested to regulate the phenotypic changes of VSMCs in cancer cells. However, whether it is involved in insulin-induced changes of VSCMs has not been determined. In this study, we found that insulin induced proliferation,more » migration, and dedifferentiation of mouse VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the stimulating effects of high-dose insulin on proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of mouse VSMCs were found to be associated with the attenuation of the inhibitory effects of miR-99a on IGF-1R and mTOR signaling activities. Finally, we found that the inducing effect of high-dose insulin on proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of VSMCs was partially inhibited by an active mimic of miR-99a. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-99a plays a key regulatory role in the pathogenesis of insulin-induced proliferation, migration, and phenotype conversion of VSMCs at least partly via inhibition of IGF-1R and mTOR signaling. Our results provide evidence that miR-99a may be a novel target for the treatment of hyperinsulinemia-induced atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • Suggesting a new mechanism of insulin-triggered VSMC functions. • Providing a new therapeutic strategies that target atherosclerosis in T2DM patients. • Providing a new strategies that target in-stent restenosis in T2DM patients.« less

  15. Profiling the role of mammalian target of rapamycin in the vascular smooth muscle metabolome in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kudryashova, Tatiana V.; Goncharov, Dmitry A.; Pena, Andressa; Ihida-Stansbury, Kaori; DeLisser, Horace; Kawut, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (PAVSMCs), coupled with metabolic reprogramming, are key components of pulmonary vascular remodeling, a major and currently irreversible pathophysiological feature of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We recently reported that activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a key role in increased energy generation and maintenance of the proliferative, apoptosis-resistant PAVSMC phenotype in human PAH, but the downstream effects of mTOR activation on PAH PAVSMC metabolism are not clear. Using liquid and gas chromatography–based mass spectrometry, we performed pilot metabolomic profiling of human microvascular PAVSMCs from idiopathic-PAH subjects before and after treatment with the selective adenosine triphosphate–competitive mTOR inhibitor PP242 and from nondiseased lungs. We have shown that PAH PAVSMCs have a distinct metabolomic signature of altered metabolites—components of fatty acid synthesis, deficiency of sugars, amino sugars, and nucleotide sugars—intermediates of protein and lipid glycosylation, and downregulation of key biochemicals involved in glutathione and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism. We also report that mTOR inhibition attenuated or reversed the majority of the PAH-specific abnormalities in lipogenesis, glycosylation, glutathione, and NAD metabolism without affecting altered polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. Collectively, our data demonstrate a critical role of mTOR in major PAH PAVSMC metabolic abnormalities and suggest the existence of de novo lipid synthesis in PAVSMCs in human PAH that may represent a new, important component of disease pathogenesis worthy of future investigation. PMID:26697174

  16. Involvement of Heterogeneous Ribonucleoprotein F in the Regulation of Cell Proliferation via the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin/S6 Kinase 2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Eddy T. H.; Pardo, Olivier E.; Michael, Nicholas; Niewiarowski, Andrew; Totty, Nick; Volkova, Dariya; Tsaneva, Irina R.; Seckl, Michael J.; Gout, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The S6 kinases (S6Ks) have been linked to a number of cellular processes, including translation, insulin metabolism, cell survival, and RNA splicing. Signaling via the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways is critical in regulating the activity and subcellular localization of S6Ks. To date, nuclear functions of both S6K isoforms, S6K1 and S6K2, are not well understood. To better understand S6K nuclear roles, we employed affinity purification of S6Ks from nuclear preparations followed by mass spectrometry analysis for the identification of novel binding partners. In this study, we report that in contrast to S6K1, the S6K2 isoform specifically associates with a number of RNA-binding proteins, including heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). We focused on studying the mechanism and physiological relevance of the S6K2 interaction with hnRNP F/H. Interestingly, the S6K2-hnRNP F/H interaction was not affected by mitogenic stimulation, whereas mTOR binding to hnRNP F/H was induced by serum stimulation. In addition, we define a new role of hnRNP F in driving cell proliferation, which could be partially attenuated by rapamycin treatment. S6K2-driven cell proliferation, on the other hand, could be blocked by small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of hnRNP F. These results demonstrate that the specific interaction between mTOR and S6K2 with hnRNPs is implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:20308064

  17. Rapamycin inhibits oxidative and angiogenic mediators in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Gökhan; Kılınç, Metin; Ergün, Yusuf; Sahin, Elif

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the role of rapamycin in the prevention of diabetic oxidative stress and the regulation of angiogenic factors. Experimental animal study. Diabetes was induced in 20 adult male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Rats were randomly assigned into diabetic and rapamycin groups (n = 10). Ten healthy normal adult male rats of same age formed the control group. All groups were followed for 3 months. Rapamycin group received 1 mg/kg rapamycin via orogastric gavage during the last 4 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and biochemical oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde and nitrotyrosine), together with vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and pigment epithelium-derived factor, were measured in the retina. Blood biochemical analyses were also done. In the diabetic group, retinal malondialdehyde and nitrotyrosine levels were increased in comparison with control and rapamycin groups (p < 0.05). Rapamycin suppressed oxidative stress and showed a beneficial effect. It also decreased all angiomodulator cytokines compared with the diabetic group (p < 0.05). Correspondingly, rapamycin also decreased plasma malondialdehyde levels compared with the diabetic group (p = 0.037). Rapamycin may have a protective role against diabetes-induced oxidative retinal injury and may decrease angiomodulator cytokines. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR): a central regulator of male fertility?

    PubMed

    Jesus, Tito T; Oliveira, Pedro F; Sousa, Mário; Cheng, C Yan; Alves, Marco G

    2017-06-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cellular metabolic phenotype and is involved in virtually all aspects of cellular function. It integrates not only nutrient and energy-sensing pathways but also actin cytoskeleton organization, in response to environmental cues including growth factors and cellular energy levels. These events are pivotal for spermatogenesis and determine the reproductive potential of males. Yet, the molecular mechanisms by which mTOR signaling acts in male reproductive system remain a matter of debate. Here, we review the current knowledge on physiological and molecular events mediated by mTOR in testis and testicular cells. In recent years, mTOR inhibition has been explored as a prime strategy to develop novel therapeutic approaches to treat cancer, cardiovascular disease, autoimmunity, and metabolic disorders. However, the physiological consequences of mTOR dysregulation and inhibition to male reproductive potential are still not fully understood. Compelling evidence suggests that mTOR is an arising regulator of male fertility and better understanding of this atypical protein kinase coordinated action in testis will provide insightful information concerning its biological significance in other tissues/organs. We also discuss why a new generation of mTOR inhibitors aiming to be used in clinical practice may also need to include an integrative view on the effects in male reproductive system.

  19. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR): a central regulator of male fertility?

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Tito T.; Oliveira, Pedro F.; Sousa, M ario; Cheng, C. Yan; Alves, Marco G.

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cellular metabolic phenotype and is involved in virtually all aspects of cellular function. It integrates not only nutrient and energy-sensing pathways but also actin cytoskeleton organization, in response to environmental cues including growth factors and cellular energy levels. These events are pivotal for spermato-genesis and determine the reproductive potential of males. Yet, the molecular mechanisms by which mTOR signaling acts in male reproductive system remain a matter of debate. Here, we review the current knowledge on physiological and molecular events mediated by mTOR in testis and testicular cells. In recent years, mTOR inhibition has been explored as a prime strategy to develop novel therapeutic approaches to treat cancer, cardiovascular disease, autoimmunity, and metabolic disorders. However, the physiological consequences of mTOR dysregulation and inhibition to male reproductive potential are still not fully understood. Compelling evidence suggests that mTOR is an arising regulator of male fertility and better understanding of this atypical protein kinase coordinated action in testis will provide insightful information concerning its biological significance in other tissues/organs. We also discuss why a new generation of mTOR inhibitors aiming to be used in clinical practice may also need to include an integrative view on the effects in male reproductive system. PMID:28124577

  20. Rapamycin regulates autophagy and cell adhesion in induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sotthibundhu, Areechun; McDonagh, Katya; von Kriegsheim, Alexander; Garcia-Munoz, Amaya; Klawiter, Agnieszka; Thompson, Kerry; Chauhan, Kapil Dev; Krawczyk, Janusz; McInerney, Veronica; Dockery, Peter; Devine, Michael J; Kunath, Tilo; Barry, Frank; O'Brien, Timothy; Shen, Sanbing

    2016-11-15

    Cellular reprogramming is a stressful process, which requires cells to engulf somatic features and produce and maintain stemness machineries. Autophagy is a process to degrade unwanted proteins and is required for the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, the role of autophagy during iPSC maintenance remains undefined. Human iPSCs were investigated by microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting to detect autophagy machinery. Cells were treated with rapamycin to activate autophagy and with bafilomycin to block autophagy during iPSC maintenance. High concentrations of rapamycin treatment unexpectedly resulted in spontaneous formation of round floating spheres of uniform size, which were analyzed for differentiation into three germ layers. Mass spectrometry was deployed to reveal altered protein expression and pathways associated with rapamycin treatment. We demonstrate that human iPSCs express high basal levels of autophagy, including key components of APMKα, ULK1/2, BECLIN-1, ATG13, ATG101, ATG12, ATG3, ATG5, and LC3B. Block of autophagy by bafilomycin induces iPSC death and rapamycin attenuates the bafilomycin effect. Rapamycin treatment upregulates autophagy in iPSCs in a dose/time-dependent manner. High concentration of rapamycin reduces NANOG expression and induces spontaneous formation of round and uniformly sized embryoid bodies (EBs) with accelerated differentiation into three germ layers. Mass spectrometry analysis identifies actin cytoskeleton and adherens junctions as the major targets of rapamycin in mediating iPSC detachment and differentiation. High levels of basal autophagy activity are present during iPSC derivation and maintenance. Rapamycin alters expression of actin cytoskeleton and adherens junctions, induces uniform EB formation, and accelerates differentiation. IPSCs are sensitive to enzyme dissociation and require a lengthy differentiation time. The shape and size of EBs also play a role in the heterogeneity of

  1. Rapamycin inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of peritoneal mesothelium cells through regulation of Rho GTPases.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Shilong; Li, Meng; Xie, Xishao; Xie, Zhoutao; Zhou, Qin; Tian, Yuanshi; Lin, Weiqiang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Jiang, Hong; Shou, Zhangfei; Chen, Jianghua

    2016-06-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) is a key process of peritoneal fibrosis. Rapamycin has been previously shown to inhibit EMT of PMCs and prevent peritoneal fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the undefined molecular mechanisms by which rapamycin inhibits EMT of PMCs. To define the protective effect of rapamycin, we initially used a rat PD model which was daily infused with 20 mL of 4.25% high glucose (HG) dialysis solution for 6 weeks to induce fibrosis. The HG rats showed decreased ultrafiltration volume and obvious fibroproliferative response, with markedly increased peritoneal thickness and higher expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1. Rapamycin significantly ameliorated those pathological changes. Next, we treated rat PMCs with HG to induce EMT and/or rapamycin for indicated time. Rapamycin significantly inhibited HG-induced EMT, which manifests as increased expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, and collagen I, decreased expression of E-cadherin, and increased mobility. HG increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR. Importantly, rapamycin inhibits the RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 activated by HG. Moreover, rapamycin repaired the pattern of F-actin distribution induced by HG, reducing the formation of stress fiber, focal adhesion, lamellipodia, and filopodia. Thus, rapamycin shows an obvious protective effect on HG-induced EMT, by inhibiting the activation of Rho GTPases (RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42). © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. Tonic regulation of vascular permeability

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Fitz-Roy E.; Adamson, Roger H.

    2014-01-01

    Our major theme is that the layered structure of the endothelial barrier requires continuous activation of signaling pathways regulated by S1P and intracellular cAMP. These pathways modulate the adherens junction, continuity of tight junction strands, and the balance of synthesis and degradation of glycocalyx components. We evaluate recent evidence that baseline permeability is maintained by constant activity of mechanisms involving the small GTPases Rap1 and Rac1. In the basal state, the barrier is compromised when activities of the small GTPases are reduced by low S1P supply or delivery. With inflammatory stimulus, increased permeability can be understood in part as the action of signaling to reduce Rap1 and Rac1 activation. With the hypothesis that microvessel permeability and selectivity under both normal and inflammatory conditions are regulated by mechanisms that are continuously active it follows that when S1P or intracellular cAMP are elevated at the time of inflammatory stimulus, they can buffer changes induced by inflammatory agents and maintain normal barrier stability. When endothelium is exposed to inflammatory conditions and subsequently exposed to elevated S1P or intracellular cAMP, the same processes restore the functional barrier by first reestablishing the adherens junction, then modulating tight junctions and glycocalyx. In more extreme inflammatory conditions, loss of the inhibitory actions of Rac1 dependent mechanisms may promote expression of more inflammatory endothelial phenotypes by contributing to the up-regulation of RhoA dependent contractile mechanisms and the sustained loss of surface glycocalyx allowing access of inflammatory cells to the endothelium. PMID:23374222

  3. ACTIVATION OF EXTRACELLULAR REGULATED KINASE AND MECHANISTIC TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN PATHWAY IN FOCAL CORTICAL DYSPLASIA

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vinit V.; Guzman, Miguel; Carter, Angela N.; Rathore, Geetanjali; Yoshor, Daniel; Curry, Daniel; Wilfong, Angus; Agadi, Satish; Swann, John W.; Adesina, Adekunle M.; Bhattacharjee, Meenakshi B.; Anderson, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathology of resected brain tissue has revealed an association of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) with drug resistant epilepsy (DRE). Recent studies have shown that the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is hyperactivated in FCD as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (S6) at serine 240/244 (S240/244), a downstream target of mTOR. Moreover, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) has been shown to phosphorylate S6 at serine 235/236 (S235/236) and tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) at serine 664 (S664) leading to hyperactive mTOR signaling. We evaluated ERK phosphorylation of S6 and TSC2 in two types of FCD (FCD I and FCDII) as a candidate mechanism contributing to mTOR pathway dysregulation in this disorder. Tissue samples from patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS) served as a positive control. Immunostaining for phospho-S6 (pS6240/244 and pS6235/236), phospho-ERK (pERK), and phospho-TSC2 (pTSC2) was performed on resected brain tissue with FCD and TS. We found increased pS6240/244 and pS6235/236 staining in FCD I, FCD II, and TS compared to normal appearing tissue, while pERK and pTSC2 staining was increased only in FCD IIb and TS tissue. Our results suggest that both the ERK and mTOR pathways are dysregulated in FCD and TS; however, the signaling alterations are different for FCD I as compared to FCD II and TS. PMID:26381727

  4. Targeting Rapamycin to Podocytes Using a Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-Harnessed SAINT-Based Lipid Carrier System

    PubMed Central

    Visweswaran, Ganesh Ram R.; Gholizadeh, Shima; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Molema, Grietje; Kok, Robbert J.; Kamps, Jan. A. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Together with mesangial cells, glomerular endothelial cells and the basement membrane, podocytes constitute the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) of the kidney. Podocytes play a pivotal role in the progression of various kidney-related diseases such as glomerular sclerosis and glomerulonephritis that finally lead to chronic end-stage renal disease. During podocytopathies, the slit-diaphragm connecting the adjacent podocytes are detached leading to severe loss of proteins in the urine. The pathophysiology of podocytopathies makes podocytes a potential and challenging target for nanomedicine development, though there is a lack of known molecular targets for cell selective drug delivery. To identify VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor that is suitable for binding and internalization of nanomedicine carrier systems by podocytes, we investigated its expression in the immortalized podocyte cell lines AB8/13 and MPC-5, and in primary podocytes. Gene and protein expression analyses revealed that VCAM-1 expression is increased by podocytes upon TNFα-activation for up to 24 h. This was paralleled by anti-VCAM-1 antibody binding to the TNFα-activated cells, which can be employed as a ligand to facilitate the uptake of nanocarriers under inflammatory conditions. Hence, we next explored the possibilities of using VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor to deliver the potent immunosuppressant rapamycin to TNFα-activated podocytes using the lipid-based nanocarrier system Saint-O-Somes. Anti-VCAM-1-rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes more effectively inhibited the cell migration of AB8/13 cells than free rapamycin and non-targeted rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes indicating the potential of VCAM-1 targeted drug delivery to podocytes. PMID:26407295

  5. mTOR kinase structure, mechanism and regulation by the rapamycin-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haijuan; Rudge, Derek G.; Koos, Joseph D.; Vaidialingam, Bhamini; Yang, Hyo J.; Pavletich, Nikola P.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a phosphoinositide 3-kinase related protein kinase, controls cell growth in response to nutrients and growth factors and is frequently deregulated in cancer. Here we report co-crystal structures of a truncated mTOR-mLST8 complex with an ATP transition state mimic and with ATP-site inhibitors. The structures reveal an intrinsically active kinase conformation, with catalytic residues and mechanism remarkably similar to canonical protein kinases. The active site is highly recessed due to the FKBP12-Rapamycin binding (FRB) domain and an inhibitory helix protruding from the catalytic cleft. mTOR activating mutations map to the structural framework that holds these elements in place, indicating the kinase is controlled by restricted access. In vitro biochemistry indicates that the FRB domain acts as a gatekeeper, with its rapamycin-binding site interacting with substrates to grant them access to the restricted active site. FKBP12-rapamycin inhibits by directly blocking substrate recruitment and by further restricting active site access. The structures also reveal active site residues and conformational changes that underlie inhibitor potency and specificity. PMID:23636326

  6. Wild-type phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 improved the sensitivity of cells to rapamycin through regulating phosphorylation of Akt in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z; Wang, J; Zheng, Y; Yang, S; Liu, M; Chen, X; Wang, C; Hou, G

    2017-02-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in China, but the etiology and mode of carcinogenesis of this disease remain poorly understood. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), as a negative regulator of Akt/mTOR pathway, frequently mutates or is inactive in many cancers. Although mTOR has been thought a promising cancer therapeutic target, the sensitivity of tumor cells to rapamycin was still to be revaluated. In this study, we measured the effects of rapamycin on cell proliferation and phosphorylation of Akt in ESCC cells with varying degrees of differentiation. And then, the relationship between PTEN status and the sensitivity of cells to rapamycin was investigated in EC9706 cells with or without wild-type PTEN in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated ESCC cells with poor differentiation were insensitive to rapamycin of high concentration and rapamycin obviously promoted the phosphorylation of Akt in these cells, but it had no obvious effects on p-Akt in cells with well differentiation. Also, we showed that wild-type PTEN improved the sensitivity of poor differentiation cells to rapamycin through inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt in vitro and in vivo. This study explored the possible molecular mechanism of some ESCC cells insensitive to rapamycin and provided a measure for treating ESCC patients with PTEN inactivation using mTOR inhibitors. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  7. Profiling of the fetal and adult rat liver transcriptome and translatome reveals discordant regulation by the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR).

    PubMed

    Boylan, Joan M; Sanders, Jennifer A; Neretti, Nicola; Gruppuso, Philip A

    2015-07-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates growth factor signaling, nutrient abundance, cell growth, and proliferation. On the basis of our interest in somatic growth in the late gestation fetus, we characterized the role of mTOR in the regulation of hepatic gene expression and translation initiation in fetal and adult rats. Our strategy was to manipulate mTOR signaling in vivo and then characterize the transcriptome and translating mRNA in liver tissue. In adult rats, we used the nonproliferative growth model of refeeding after a period of fasting and the proliferative model of liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy. We also studied livers from preterm fetal rats (embryonic day 19) in which fetal hepatocytes are asynchronously proliferating. All three models employed rapamycin to inhibit mTOR signaling. Analysis of the transcriptome in fasted-refed animals showed rapamycin-mediated induction of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation. Genes associated with RNA processing were downregulated. In liver regeneration, rapamycin induced genes associated with lysosomal metabolism, steroid metabolism, and the acute phase response. In fetal animals, rapamycin inhibited expression of genes in several functional categories that were unrelated to effects in the adult animals. Translation control showed marked fetal-adult differences. In both adult models, rapamycin inhibited the translation of genes with complex 5' untranslated regions, including those encoding ribosomal proteins. Fetal translation was resistant to the effects of rapamycin. We conclude that the mTOR pathway in liver serves distinct physiological roles in the adult and fetus, with the latter representing a condition of rapamycin resistance. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Rapid regulation of nuclear proteins by rapamycin-induced translocation in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lin; Laor, Dana; Weisman, Ronit; Forsburg, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analysis of protein function requires a rapid means of inactivating the gene under study. Typically this exploits temperature sensitive mutations, or promoter shut-off techniques. We report the adaptation to Schizosaccharomyces pombe of the Anchor Away technique, originally designed in budding yeast (Haruki et al., 2008a). This method relies on a rapamycin-mediated interaction between the FRB and FKBP12 binding domains, to relocalize nuclear proteins of interest to the cytoplasm. We demonstrate a rapid nuclear depletion of abundant proteins as proof-of-principle. PMID:24733494

  9. Rapamycin: the cure for all that ails.

    PubMed

    Hasty, Paul

    2010-02-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling stimulates cell growth by regulating protein synthesis in response to a variety of stimuli in a wide range of species and is inhibited by rapamycin, a naturally occurring antifungal compound produced by bacteria and discovered on Easter Island or in the local vernacular, Rapa Nui (rapamycin's namesake). Recently, rapamycin was shown to extend life span for mice, even when administered late in life, suggesting that inhibiting the mammalian TOR pathway may improve health span for people.

  10. VESGEN Software for Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis is an automated software that maps and quantifies effects of vascular regulators on vascular morphology by analyzing important vessel parameters. Quantification parameters include vessel diameter, length, branch points, density, and fractal dimension. For vascular trees, measurements are reported as dependent functions of vessel branching generation. VESGEN maps and quantifies vascular morphological events according to fractal-based vascular branching generation. It also relies on careful imaging of branching and networked vascular form. It was developed as a plug-in for ImageJ (National Institutes of Health, USA). VESGEN uses image-processing concepts of 8-neighbor pixel connectivity, skeleton, and distance map to analyze 2D, black-and-white (binary) images of vascular trees, networks, and tree-network composites. VESGEN maps typically 5 to 12 (or more) generations of vascular branching, starting from a single parent vessel. These generations are tracked and measured for critical vascular parameters that include vessel diameter, length, density and number, and tortuosity per branching generation. The effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on vascular morphology and branching tested in human clinical or laboratory animal experimental studies are quantified by comparing vascular parameters with control groups. VESGEN provides a user interface to both guide and allow control over the users vascular analysis process. An option is provided to select a morphological tissue type of vascular trees, network or tree-network composites, which determines the general collections of algorithms, intermediate images, and output images and measurements that will be produced.

  11. Rapamycin promotes the anticancer action of dihydroartemisinin in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells by regulating expression of Atg7 and DAPK

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiujun; Zhou, Xianyao; Li, Chuan; Zhang, Xuemei; Li, Chang Long

    2018-01-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the influence of autophagy on the anticancer effect of dihydroartemisinin (DHA). The present study aimed to investigate this influence within human breast cancer cells. Changes in cell viability, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and associated genes were analyzed in MDA-MB-231 cells subjected to DHA following alteration in autophagy levels; the autophagy level was decreased following autophagy-related 7 (Atg7) knockdown or increased using rapamycin. The data indicated that rapamycin had the ability to notably enhance the anticancer effect of DHA on MDA-MB-231 cells. Autophagy induction may be key in mediating the anticancer effects of DHA, and rapamycin may regulate the death-associated protein kinase via the alteration of Atg7 expression, which would influence cell apoptosis. The present study presented a novel insight into enhancing the effectiveness of future treatment regimens for breast cancer using DHA. PMID:29545903

  12. Therapeutic potential of target of rapamycin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Easton, John B; Houghton, Peter J

    2004-12-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) functions within the cell as a transducer of information from various sources, including growth factors, energy sensors, and hypoxia sensors, as well as components of the cell regulating growth and division. Blocking TOR function mimics amino acid, and to some extent, growth factor deprivation and has a cytostatic effect on proliferating cells in vivo. Inhibition of TOR in vivo, utilising its namesake rapamycin, leads to immunosuppression. This property has been exploited successfully with the use of rapamycin and its derivatives as a therapeutic agent in the prevention of organ rejection after transplantation with relatively mild side effects when compared to other immunosuppressive agents. The cytostatic effect of TOR on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation has also recently been exploited in the therapeutic application of rapamycin to drug eluting stents for angioplasty. These stents significantly reduce the amount of arterial reblockage that results from proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells. In cancer, the effect of blocking TOR function on tumour growth and disease progression is currently of major interest and is the basis for a number of ongoing clinical trials. However, different cell types and tumours respond differently to TOR inhibition, and TOR is clearly not cytostatic for all types of cancer cells in vitro or in vivo. As the molecular details of how TOR functions and the targets of TOR activity are further elucidated, tumour and tissue specific functions are being identified that implicate TOR in angiogenesis, apoptosis, and the reversal of some forms of cellular transformation. This review will describe our current understanding of TOR function, describe the current strategies for employing TOR inhibitors in clinical and preclinical development, and outline future strategies for appropriate targets of TOR inhibitors in the treatment of disease.

  13. Phospholipase D and the Maintenance of Phosphatidic Acid Levels for Regulation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR)*

    PubMed Central

    Foster, David A.; Salloum, Darin; Menon, Deepak; Frias, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a critical metabolite at the heart of membrane phospholipid biosynthesis. However, PA also serves as a critical lipid second messenger that regulates several proteins implicated in the control of cell cycle progression and cell growth. Three major metabolic pathways generate PA: phospholipase D (PLD), diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), and lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT). The LPAAT pathway is integral to de novo membrane phospholipid biosynthesis, whereas the PLD and DGK pathways are activated in response to growth factors and stress. The PLD pathway is also responsive to nutrients. A key target for the lipid second messenger function of PA is mTOR, the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin, which integrates both nutrient and growth factor signals to control cell growth and proliferation. Although PLD has been widely implicated in the generation of PA needed for mTOR activation, it is becoming clear that PA generated via the LPAAT and DGK pathways is also involved in the regulation of mTOR. In this minireview, we highlight the coordinated maintenance of intracellular PA levels that regulate mTOR signals stimulated by growth factors and nutrients, including amino acids, lipids, glucose, and Gln. Emerging evidence indicates compensatory increases in one source of PA when another source is compromised, highlighting the importance of being able to adapt to stressful conditions that interfere with PA production. The regulation of PA levels has important implications for cancer cells that depend on PA and mTOR activity for survival. PMID:24990952

  14. Surgical trauma induces overgrowth in lower limb gigantism: regulation with use of rapamycin is promising.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rohan Sebastian; Harrison, William David; Graham, Kenneth; Nayagam, Durai

    2018-01-04

    We describe an unclassified overgrowth syndrome characterised by unregulated growth of dermal fibroblasts in the lower limbs of a 35-year-old woman. A PIK3CA gene mutation resulted in lower limb gigantism. Below the waist, she weighed 117 kg with each leg measuring over 100 cm in circumference. Her total adiposity was 50% accounted for by her legs mainly. Liposuction and surgical debulking were performed to reduce the size of the limbs but had exacerbated the overgrowth in her lower limbs. Systemic sepsis from an infected foot ulcer necessitated treatment by an above-knee amputation. Postoperatively, the stump increased in size by 19 kg. A trial of rapamycin to reverse the growth of the stump has shown promise. We discuss the clinical and genetic features of this previously unclassified disorder and the orthopaedic considerations involved. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Krüppel-like factor 4 is induced by rapamycin and mediates the anti-proliferative effect of rapamycin in rat carotid arteries after balloon injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhao, Beilei; Zhang, Yi; Tang, Zhihui; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Youyi; Zhang, Weizhen; Du, Jie; Chien, Shu; Wang, Nanping

    2012-04-01

    The transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), plays an important role in regulating the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This study aimed to examine the effect of rapamycin on the expression of KLF4 and the role of KLF4 in arterial neointimal formation. Expression of KLF4 was monitored using real-time PCR and immunoblotting in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. and in rat carotid arteries in vivo after balloon injury. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression and siRNA-mediated knockdown of KLF4 were used to examine the role of KLF4 in mediating the anti-proliferative role of rapamycin . KLF4-regulated genes were identified using cDNA microarray. Rapamycin induced the expression of KLF4 in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of KLF4 inhibited cell proliferation and the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream pathways, including 4EBP-1 and p70S6K in vascular smooth muscle cells and prevented the neointimal formation in the balloon-injured arteries. KLF4 up-regulated the expression of GADD45β, p57(kip2) and p27(kip1) . Furthermore, knockdown of KLF4 attenuated the anti-proliferative effect of rapamycin both in vitro and in vivo. KLF4 plays an important role in mediating the anti-proliferative effect of rapamycin in VSMCs and balloon-injured arteries. Thus, it is a potential target for the treatment of proliferative vascular disorders such as restenosis after angioplasty. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Dietary rapamycin supplementation reverses age-related vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress, while modulating nutrient-sensing, cell cycle, and senescence pathways.

    PubMed

    Lesniewski, Lisa A; Seals, Douglas R; Walker, Ashley E; Henson, Grant D; Blimline, Mark W; Trott, Daniel W; Bosshardt, Gary C; LaRocca, Thomas J; Lawson, Brooke R; Zigler, Melanie C; Donato, Anthony J

    2017-02-01

    Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, extends lifespan and reduces age-related disease. It is not known what role mTOR plays in the arterial aging phenotype or if mTOR inhibition by dietary rapamycin ameliorates age-related arterial dysfunction. To explore this, young (3.8 ± 0.6 months) and old (30.3 ± 0.2 months) male B6D2F1 mice were fed a rapamycin supplemented or control diet for 6-8 weeks. Although there were few other notable changes in animal characteristics after rapamycin treatment, we found that glucose tolerance improved in old mice, but was impaired in young mice, after rapamycin supplementation (both P < 0.05). Aging increased mTOR activation in arteries evidenced by elevated S6K phosphorylation (P < 0.01), and this was reversed after rapamycin treatment in old mice (P < 0.05). Aging was also associated with impaired endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) in the carotid artery (P < 0.05). Rapamycin improved EDD in old mice (P < 0.05). Superoxide production and NADPH oxidase expression were higher in arteries from old compared to young mice (P < 0.05), and rapamycin normalized these (P < 0.05) to levels not different from young mice. Scavenging superoxide improved carotid artery EDD in untreated (P < 0.05), but not rapamycin-treated, old mice. While aging increased large artery stiffness evidenced by increased aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV) (P < 0.01), rapamycin treatment reduced aortic PWV (P < 0.05) and collagen content (P < 0.05) in old mice. Aortic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and expression of the cell cycle-related proteins PTEN and p27kip were increased with rapamycin treatment in old mice (all P < 0.05). Lastly, aging resulted in augmentation of the arterial senescence marker, p19 (P < 0.05), and this was ameliorated by rapamycin treatment (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate beneficial effects of rapamycin treatment on arterial function in old mice and

  17. Phospholipase D and the maintenance of phosphatidic acid levels for regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).

    PubMed

    Foster, David A; Salloum, Darin; Menon, Deepak; Frias, Maria A

    2014-08-15

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a critical metabolite at the heart of membrane phospholipid biosynthesis. However, PA also serves as a critical lipid second messenger that regulates several proteins implicated in the control of cell cycle progression and cell growth. Three major metabolic pathways generate PA: phospholipase D (PLD), diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), and lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT). The LPAAT pathway is integral to de novo membrane phospholipid biosynthesis, whereas the PLD and DGK pathways are activated in response to growth factors and stress. The PLD pathway is also responsive to nutrients. A key target for the lipid second messenger function of PA is mTOR, the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin, which integrates both nutrient and growth factor signals to control cell growth and proliferation. Although PLD has been widely implicated in the generation of PA needed for mTOR activation, it is becoming clear that PA generated via the LPAAT and DGK pathways is also involved in the regulation of mTOR. In this minireview, we highlight the coordinated maintenance of intracellular PA levels that regulate mTOR signals stimulated by growth factors and nutrients, including amino acids, lipids, glucose, and Gln. Emerging evidence indicates compensatory increases in one source of PA when another source is compromised, highlighting the importance of being able to adapt to stressful conditions that interfere with PA production. The regulation of PA levels has important implications for cancer cells that depend on PA and mTOR activity for survival. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Mammalian target of rapamycin signalling modulates amino acid uptake by regulating transporter cell surface abundance in primary human trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Fredrick J; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Abnormal fetal growth increases the risk for perinatal complications and predisposes for the development of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in placental amino acid transport directly contribute to altered fetal growth. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating placental amino acid transport are largely unknown. Here we combined small interfering (si) RNA-mediated silencing approaches with protein expression/localization and functional studies in cultured primary human trophoblast cells to test the hypothesis that mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2) regulate amino acid transporters by post-translational mechanisms. Silencing raptor (inhibits mTORC1) or rictor (inhibits mTORC2) markedly decreased basal System A and System L amino acid transport activity but had no effect on growth factor-stimulated amino acid uptake. Simultaneous inhibition of mTORC1 and 2 completely inhibited both basal and growth factor-stimulated amino acid transport activity. In contrast, mTOR inhibition had no effect on serotonin transport. mTORC1 or mTORC2 silencing markedly decreased the plasma membrane expression of specific System A (SNAT2, SLC38A2) and System L (LAT1, SLC7A5) transporter isoforms without affecting global protein expression. In conclusion, mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate human trophoblast amino acid transporters by modulating the cell surface abundance of specific transporter isoforms. This is the first report showing regulation of amino acid transport by mTORC2. Because placental mTOR activity and amino acid transport are decreased in human intrauterine growth restriction our data are consistent with the possibility that dysregulation of placental mTOR plays an important role in the development of abnormal fetal growth.

  19. Fluoride-Induced Autophagy via the Regulation of Phosphorylation of Mammalian Targets of Rapamycin in Mice Leydig Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Zhu, Yuchen; Shi, Yan; Han, Yongli; Liang, Chen; Feng, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Heping; Eng, Michelle; Wang, Jundong

    2017-10-11

    Fluoride is known to impair testicular function and decrease testosterone levels, yet the underlying mechanisms remain inconclusive. The objective of this study is to investigate the roles of autophagy in fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity using both in vivo and in vitro Leydig cell models. Using transmission electron microscopy and monodansylcadaverine staining, we observed increasing numbers of autophagosomes in testicular tissue, especially in Leydig cells of fluoride-exposed mice. Further study revealed that fluoride increased the levels of mRNA and protein expression of autophagy markers LC3, Beclin1, and Atg 5 in primary Leydig cells. Furthermore, fluoride inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian targets of rapamycin and 4EBP1, which in turn resulted in a decrease in the levels of AKT and PI3K mRNA expression, as well as an elevation of the level of AMPK expression in both testes and primary Leydig cells. Additionally, fluoride exposure significantly changed the mRNA expression of the PDK1, TSC, and Atg13 regulator genes in primary Leydig cells but not in testicular cells. Taken together, our findings highlight the roles of autophagy in fluoride-induced testicular and Leydig cell damage and contribute to the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity.

  20. Regulation of D-cyclin translation inhibition in myeloma cells treated with mTOR inhibitors: Rationale for combined treatment with ERK inhibitors and rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Patrick; Shi, Yijiang; Hoang, Bao; Gera, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alan

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that heightened AKT activity sensitized multiple myeloma (MM) cells to the anti-tumor effects of the mTOR-inhibitor, CCI-779. To test the mechanism of AKT’s regulatory role, we stably transfected U266 MM cell lines with an activated AKT allele or empty vector. The AKT-transfected cells were more sensitive to cytostasis induced in vitro by rapamycin or in vivo by its analog, CCI-779, whereas cells with quiescent AKT were resistant. The ability of mTOR inhibitors to downregulate D-cyclin expression was significantly greater in AKT-transfected MM cells, due in part, to AKT’s ability to curtail cap-independent translation and internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity of D-cyclin transcripts. Similar AKT-dependent regulation of rapamycin responsiveness was demonstrated in a second myeloma model: the PTEN-null OPM-2 cell line transfected with wild type PTEN. As ERK/p38 activity facilitates IRES-mediated translation of some transcripts, we investigated ERK/p38 as regulators of AKT-dependent effects on rapamycin sensitivity. AKT-transfected U266 cells demonstrated significantly decreased ERK and p38 activity. However, only an ERK inhibitor prevented D-cyclin IRES activity in resistant “low AKT” myeloma cells. Furthermore, the ERK inhibitor successfully sensitized myeloma cells to rapamycin in terms of down regulated D-cyclin protein expression and G1 arrest. However, ectopic over-expression of an activated MEK gene did not increase cap-independent translation of D-cyclin in “high AKT” myeloma cells indicating that MEK/ERK activity was required but not sufficient for activation of the IRES. These data support a scenario where heightened AKT activity down-regulates D-cyclin IRES function in MM cells and ERK facilitates activity. PMID:19139116

  1. Target of rapamycin signaling regulates metabolism, growth, and lifespan in Arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    TOR is a major nutrition and energy sensor that regulates growth and lifespan in yeast and animals. In plants growth and lifespan are intertwined with not only nutrient acquisition but also nutrition generation and unique aspects of development and differentiation. How TOR functions in these process...

  2. Leucine Stimulates Insulin Secretion via Down-regulation of Surface Expression of Adrenergic α2A Receptor through the mTOR (Mammalian Target of Rapamycin) Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Dolinger, Michael; Ritaccio, Gabrielle; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph; Conti, David; Zhu, Xinjun; Huang, Yunfei

    2012-01-01

    The amino acid leucine is a potent secretagogue, capable of inducing insulin secretion. It also plays an important role in the regulation of mTOR activity, therefore, providing impetus to investigate if a leucine-sensing mechanism in the mTOR pathway is involved in insulin secretion. We found that leucine-induced insulin secretion was inhibited by both the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin as well as the adrenergic α2 receptor agonist clonidine. We also demonstrated that leucine down-regulated the surface expression of adrenergic α2A receptor via activation of the mTOR pathway. The leucine stimulatory effect on insulin secretion was attenuated in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats that overexpress adrenergic α2A receptors, confirming the role of leucine in insulin secretion. Thus, our data demonstrate that leucine regulates insulin secretion by modulating adrenergic α2 receptors through the mTOR pathway. The role of the mTOR pathway in metabolic homeostasis led us to a second important finding in this study; retrospective analysis of clinical data showed that co-administration of rapamycin and clonidine was associated with an increased incidence of new-onset diabetes in renal transplantation patients over those receiving rapamycin alone. We believe that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin along with activation of adrenergic α2 receptors by clonidine represents a double-hit to pancreatic islets that synergistically disturbs glucose homeostasis. This new insight may have important implications for the clinical management of renal transplant patients. PMID:22645144

  3. Regulation of cellular growth by the Drosophila target of rapamycin dTOR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongbing; Stallock, James P.; Ng, Joyce C.; Reinhard, Christoph; Neufeld, Thomas P.

    2000-01-01

    The TOR protein kinases (TOR1 and TOR2 in yeast; mTOR/FRAP/RAFT1 in mammals) promote cellular proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, but their role in development is poorly understood. Here, we show that the Drosophila TOR homolog dTOR is required cell autonomously for normal growth and proliferation during larval development, and for increases in cellular growth caused by activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. As in mammalian cells, the kinase activity of dTOR is required for growth factor-dependent phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) in vitro, and we demonstrate that overexpression of p70S6K in vivo can rescue dTOR mutant animals to viability. Loss of dTOR also results in cellular phenotypes characteristic of amino acid deprivation, including reduced nucleolar size, lipid vesicle aggregation in the larval fat body, and a cell type-specific pattern of cell cycle arrest that can be bypassed by overexpression of the S-phase regulator cyclin E. Our results suggest that dTOR regulates growth during animal development by coupling growth factor signaling to nutrient availability. PMID:11069888

  4. Target of Rapamycin Regulates Development and Ribosomal RNA Expression through Kinase Domain in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Maozhi; Qiu, Shuqing; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Feng, Li; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Datla, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) is a central regulator of cell growth, cell death, nutrition, starvation, hormone, and stress responses in diverse eukaryotes. However, very little is known about TOR signaling and the associated functional domains in plants. We have taken a genetic approach to dissect TOR functions in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and report here that the kinase domain is essential for the role of TOR in embryogenesis and 45S rRNA expression. Twelve new T-DNA insertion mutants, spanning 14.2 kb of TOR-encoding genomic region, have been characterized. Nine of these share expression of defective kinase domain and embryo arrest at 16 to 32 cell stage. However, three T-DNA insertion lines affecting FATC domain displayed normal embryo development, indicating that FATC domain was dispensable in Arabidopsis. Genetic complementation showed that the TOR kinase domain alone in tor-10/tor-10 mutant background can rescue early embryo lethality and restore normal development. Overexpression of full-length TOR or kinase domain in Arabidopsis displayed developmental abnormalities in meristem, leaf, root, stem, flowering time, and senescence. We further show that TOR, especially the kinase domain, plays a role in ribosome biogenesis by activating 45S rRNA production. Of the six putative nuclear localization sequences in the kinase domain, nuclear localization sequence 6 was identified to confer TOR nuclear targeting in transient expression assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that the HEAT repeat domain binds to 45S rRNA promoter and the 5′ external transcribed spacer elements motif. Together, these results show that TOR controls the embryogenesis, postembryonic development, and 45S rRNA production through its kinase domain in Arabidopsis. PMID:21266656

  5. Cytoglobin regulates blood pressure and vascular tone through nitric oxide metabolism in the vascular wall

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoping; El-Mahdy, Mohamed A.; Boslett, James; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Hemann, Craig; Abdelghany, Tamer M.; Ismail, Raed S.; Little, Sean C.; Zhou, Danlei; Thuy, Le Thi Thanh; Kawada, Norifumi; Zweier, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The identity of the specific nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) that serves as the main in vivo regulator of O2-dependent NO degradation in smooth muscle remains elusive. Cytoglobin (Cygb) is a recently discovered globin expressed in fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells with unknown function. Cygb, coupled with a cellular reducing system, efficiently regulates the rate of NO consumption by metabolizing NO in an O2-dependent manner with decreased NO consumption in physiological hypoxia. Here we show that Cygb is a major regulator of NO degradation and cardiovascular tone. Knockout of Cygb greatly prolongs NO decay, increases vascular relaxation, and lowers blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. We further demonstrate that downregulation of Cygb prevents angiotensin-mediated hypertension. Thus, Cygb has a critical role in the regulation of vascular tone and disease. We suggest that modulation of the expression and NOD activity of Cygb represents a strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:28393874

  6. Cytoglobin regulates blood pressure and vascular tone through nitric oxide metabolism in the vascular wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoping; El-Mahdy, Mohamed A.; Boslett, James; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Hemann, Craig; Abdelghany, Tamer M.; Ismail, Raed S.; Little, Sean C.; Zhou, Danlei; Thuy, Le Thi Thanh; Kawada, Norifumi; Zweier, Jay L.

    2017-04-01

    The identity of the specific nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) that serves as the main in vivo regulator of O2-dependent NO degradation in smooth muscle remains elusive. Cytoglobin (Cygb) is a recently discovered globin expressed in fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells with unknown function. Cygb, coupled with a cellular reducing system, efficiently regulates the rate of NO consumption by metabolizing NO in an O2-dependent manner with decreased NO consumption in physiological hypoxia. Here we show that Cygb is a major regulator of NO degradation and cardiovascular tone. Knockout of Cygb greatly prolongs NO decay, increases vascular relaxation, and lowers blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. We further demonstrate that downregulation of Cygb prevents angiotensin-mediated hypertension. Thus, Cygb has a critical role in the regulation of vascular tone and disease. We suggest that modulation of the expression and NOD activity of Cygb represents a strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Critical Endothelial Regulation by LRP5 during Retinal Vascular Development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Li, Qing; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Hokama, Madoka; Sardi, Sylvia H; Nagao, Masashi; Warman, Matthew L; Olsen, Bjorn R

    2016-01-01

    Vascular abnormalities in the eye are the leading cause of many forms of inherited and acquired human blindness. Loss-of-function mutations in the Wnt-binding co-receptor LRP5 leads to aberrant ocular vascularization and loss of vision in genetic disorders such as osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome. The canonical Wnt-β-catenin pathway is known to regulate retinal vascular development. However, it is unclear what precise role LPR5 plays in this process. Here, we show that loss of LRP5 function in mice causes retinal hypovascularization during development as well as retinal neovascularization in adulthood with disorganized and leaky vessels. Using a highly specific Flk1-CreBreier line for vascular endothelial cells, together with several genetic models, we demonstrate that loss of endothelium-derived LRP5 recapitulates the retinal vascular defects in Lrp5-/- mice. In addition, restoring LRP5 function only in endothelial cells in Lrp5-/- mice rescues their retinal vascular abnormalities. Furthermore, we show that retinal vascularization is regulated by LRP5 in a dosage dependent manner and does not depend on LRP6. Our study provides the first direct evidence that endothelium-derived LRP5 is both necessary and sufficient to mediate its critical role in the development and maintenance of retinal vasculature.

  8. Critical Endothelial Regulation by LRP5 during Retinal Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Li, Qing; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Hokama, Madoka; Sardi, Sylvia H.; Nagao, Masashi; Warman, Matthew L.; Olsen, Bjorn R.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular abnormalities in the eye are the leading cause of many forms of inherited and acquired human blindness. Loss-of-function mutations in the Wnt-binding co-receptor LRP5 leads to aberrant ocular vascularization and loss of vision in genetic disorders such as osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome. The canonical Wnt-β-catenin pathway is known to regulate retinal vascular development. However, it is unclear what precise role LPR5 plays in this process. Here, we show that loss of LRP5 function in mice causes retinal hypovascularization during development as well as retinal neovascularization in adulthood with disorganized and leaky vessels. Using a highly specific Flk1-CreBreier line for vascular endothelial cells, together with several genetic models, we demonstrate that loss of endothelium-derived LRP5 recapitulates the retinal vascular defects in Lrp5-/- mice. In addition, restoring LRP5 function only in endothelial cells in Lrp5-/- mice rescues their retinal vascular abnormalities. Furthermore, we show that retinal vascularization is regulated by LRP5 in a dosage dependent manner and does not depend on LRP6. Our study provides the first direct evidence that endothelium-derived LRP5 is both necessary and sufficient to mediate its critical role in the development and maintenance of retinal vasculature. PMID:27031698

  9. Dietary potassium regulates vascular calcification and arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Byon, Chang Hyun; Yang, Youfeng; Bradley, Wayne E; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Sanders, Paul W; Agarwal, Anupam; Wu, Hui; Chen, Yabing

    2017-10-05

    Vascular calcification is a risk factor that predicts adverse cardiovascular complications of several diseases including atherosclerosis. Reduced dietary potassium intake has been linked to cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and incidental stroke, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using the ApoE-deficient mouse model, we demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge that reduced dietary potassium (0.3%) promoted atherosclerotic vascular calcification and increased aortic stiffness, compared with normal (0.7%) potassium-fed mice. In contrast, increased dietary potassium (2.1%) attenuated vascular calcification and aortic stiffness. Mechanistically, reduction in the potassium concentration to the lower limit of the physiological range increased intracellular calcium, which activated a cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signal that subsequently enhanced autophagy and promoted vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. Inhibition of calcium signals and knockdown of either CREB or ATG7, an autophagy regulator, attenuated VSMC calcification induced by low potassium. Consistently, elevated autophagy and CREB signaling were demonstrated in the calcified arteries from low potassium diet-fed mice as well as aortic arteries exposed to low potassium ex vivo. These studies established a potentially novel causative role of dietary potassium intake in regulating atherosclerotic vascular calcification and stiffness, and uncovered mechanisms that offer opportunities to develop therapeutic strategies to control vascular disease.

  10. Dietary potassium regulates vascular calcification and arterial stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yong; Byon, Chang Hyun; Yang, Youfeng; Bradley, Wayne E.; Dell’Italia, Louis J.; Agarwal, Anupam; Wu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a risk factor that predicts adverse cardiovascular complications of several diseases including atherosclerosis. Reduced dietary potassium intake has been linked to cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and incidental stroke, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using the ApoE-deficient mouse model, we demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge that reduced dietary potassium (0.3%) promoted atherosclerotic vascular calcification and increased aortic stiffness, compared with normal (0.7%) potassium–fed mice. In contrast, increased dietary potassium (2.1%) attenuated vascular calcification and aortic stiffness. Mechanistically, reduction in the potassium concentration to the lower limit of the physiological range increased intracellular calcium, which activated a cAMP response element–binding protein (CREB) signal that subsequently enhanced autophagy and promoted vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. Inhibition of calcium signals and knockdown of either CREB or ATG7, an autophagy regulator, attenuated VSMC calcification induced by low potassium. Consistently, elevated autophagy and CREB signaling were demonstrated in the calcified arteries from low potassium diet–fed mice as well as aortic arteries exposed to low potassium ex vivo. These studies established a potentially novel causative role of dietary potassium intake in regulating atherosclerotic vascular calcification and stiffness, and uncovered mechanisms that offer opportunities to develop therapeutic strategies to control vascular disease. PMID:28978809

  11. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E.; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J.; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B.; Bowman, Frederick P.; Opotowsky, Alexander R.; Waxman, Aaron B.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A.; Maron, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10−9 to 10−7 M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor–small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro. Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo. Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.—Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery

  12. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth

  13. Regulation of thrombosis and vascular function by protein methionine oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Sean X; Stevens, Jeff W; Lentz, Steven R

    2015-06-18

    Redox biology is fundamental to both normal cellular homeostasis and pathological states associated with excessive oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species function not only as signaling molecules but also as redox regulators of protein function. In the vascular system, redox reactions help regulate key physiologic responses such as cell adhesion, vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, inflammatory gene expression, and apoptosis. During pathologic states, altered redox balance can cause vascular cell dysfunction and affect the equilibrium between procoagulant and anticoagulant systems, contributing to thrombotic vascular disease. This review focuses on the emerging role of a specific reversible redox reaction, protein methionine oxidation, in vascular disease and thrombosis. A growing number of cardiovascular and hemostatic proteins are recognized to undergo reversible methionine oxidation, in which methionine residues are posttranslationally oxidized to methionine sulfoxide. Protein methionine oxidation can be reversed by the action of stereospecific enzymes known as methionine sulfoxide reductases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a prototypical methionine redox sensor that responds to changes in the intracellular redox state via reversible oxidation of tandem methionine residues in its regulatory domain. Several other proteins with oxidation-sensitive methionine residues, including apolipoprotein A-I, thrombomodulin, and von Willebrand factor, may contribute to vascular disease and thrombosis. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Regulation of thrombosis and vascular function by protein methionine oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Sean X.; Stevens, Jeff W.

    2015-01-01

    Redox biology is fundamental to both normal cellular homeostasis and pathological states associated with excessive oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species function not only as signaling molecules but also as redox regulators of protein function. In the vascular system, redox reactions help regulate key physiologic responses such as cell adhesion, vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, inflammatory gene expression, and apoptosis. During pathologic states, altered redox balance can cause vascular cell dysfunction and affect the equilibrium between procoagulant and anticoagulant systems, contributing to thrombotic vascular disease. This review focuses on the emerging role of a specific reversible redox reaction, protein methionine oxidation, in vascular disease and thrombosis. A growing number of cardiovascular and hemostatic proteins are recognized to undergo reversible methionine oxidation, in which methionine residues are posttranslationally oxidized to methionine sulfoxide. Protein methionine oxidation can be reversed by the action of stereospecific enzymes known as methionine sulfoxide reductases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a prototypical methionine redox sensor that responds to changes in the intracellular redox state via reversible oxidation of tandem methionine residues in its regulatory domain. Several other proteins with oxidation-sensitive methionine residues, including apolipoprotein A-I, thrombomodulin, and von Willebrand factor, may contribute to vascular disease and thrombosis. PMID:25900980

  15. Involvement of the VDE homing endonuclease and rapamycin in regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GSH11 gene encoding the high affinity glutathione transporter.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Tsuyoshi; Hiraishi, Hiroyuki; Sammoto, Hiroyuki; Ono, Bun-Ichiro

    2003-10-10

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene HGT1/GSH11 encodes the high affinity glutathione transporter and is repressed by cysteine added to the culture medium. It has been found previously that a 5'-upstream cis-element, CCGCCACAC, is responsible for regulating GSH11 expression and that several proteins bind to this element (Miyake, T., Kanayama, M., Sammoto, H., and Ono, B. (2002) Mol. Genet. Genomics 266, 1004-1011). In this report we present evidence that the most prominent of these proteins is VDE, known previously as the homing endonuclease encoded by VMA1. We show also that GSH11 is not expressed in a VDE-deleted strain and that inability to express the GSH11 of this strain is overcome by introduction of the coding region of VDE or the entire VMA1 gene. It is also found that VDE does not cut DNA in the vicinity of the GSH11 cis-element. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of the target of rapamycin (TOR) signal-transduction system, is found to enhance expression of GSH11 in a VDE-dependent manner under conditions of sulfur starvation. These results indicate that GSH11 is regulated by a system sensitive to sulfur starvation (presumably via cysteine depletion) and a more general system involving the nutritional starvation signal mediated by the TOR system. Both systems need to be operational (inhibition of TOR and sulfur starvation) for full expression of GSH11.

  16. Biomechanical factors as regulators of biological responses to vascular grafts.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, J E; Glagov, S; Bassiouny, H S

    1999-03-01

    Biomechanical forces have been implicated in the induction and progression of intimal hyperplastic thickening in vein, prosthetic, and endovascular bypass grafts. Graft implantation imposes significant alterations is shear and tensile forces. Such physical forces play an important role in modulating those cellular and molecular events that underlie regulation of vascular healing and adaptation. Characterization of such hemodynamic variables that induce perpetual medial vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration will help in identification of those grafts at risk for occlusion and limited long-term patency and in design of therapeutic strategies that attenuate progressive intimal hyperplasia.

  17. Myocardin Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Inflammatory Activation and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ackers-Johnson, Matthew; Talasila, Amarnath; Sage, Andrew P; Long, Xiaochun; Bot, Ilze; Morrell, Nicholas W; Bennett, Martin R; Miano, Joseph M.; Sinha, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis, the cause of 50% of deaths in westernised societies, is widely regarded as a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) inflammatory activation in response to local pro-inflammatory stimuli contributes to disease progression and is a pervasive feature in developing atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, it is of considerable therapeutic importance to identify mechanisms that regulate the VSMC inflammatory response. Approach and Results We report that myocardin, a powerful myogenic transcriptional coactivator, negatively regulates VSMC inflammatory activation and vascular disease. Myocardin levels are reduced during atherosclerosis, in association with phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells. Myocardin deficiency accelerates atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic ApoE−/− mice. Conversely, increased myocardin expression potently abrogates the induction of an array of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in VSMCs. Expression of myocardin in VSMCs reduces lipid uptake, macrophage interaction, chemotaxis and macrophage-endothelial tethering in vitro, and attenuates monocyte accumulation within developing lesions in vivo. These results demonstrate that endogenous levels of myocardin are a critical regulator of vessel inflammation. Conclusions We propose myocardin as a guardian of the contractile, non-inflammatory VSMC phenotype, with loss of myocardin representing a critical permissive step in the process of phenotypic transition and inflammatory activation, at the onset of vascular disease. PMID:25614278

  18. DEPTOR regulates vascular endothelial cell activation and proinflammatory and angiogenic responses.

    PubMed

    Bruneau, Sarah; Nakayama, Hironao; Woda, Craig B; Flynn, Evelyn A; Briscoe, David M

    2013-09-05

    The maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis and the prevention of chronic inflammatory disease are dependent on the active process of inflammation resolution. In endothelial cells (ECs), proinflammation results from the activation of intracellular signaling responses and/or the inhibition of endogenous regulatory/pro-resolution signaling networks that, to date, are poorly defined. In this study, we find that DEP domain containing mTOR interacting protein (DEPTOR) is expressed in different microvascular ECs in vitro and in vivo, and using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown approach, we find that it regulates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 activation in part through independent mechanisms. Moreover, using limited gene arrays, we observed that DEPTOR regulates EC activation including mRNA expression of the T-cell chemoattractant chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CX3CL1, CCL5, and CCL20 and the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (P < .05). DEPTOR siRNA-transfected ECs also bound increased numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P < .005) and CD3+ T cells (P < .005) in adhesion assays in vitro and had increased migration and angiogenic responses in spheroid sprouting (P < .01) and wound healing (P < .01) assays. Collectively, these findings define DEPTOR as a critical upstream regulator of EC activation responses and suggest that it plays an important role in endogenous mechanisms of anti-inflammation and pro-resolution.

  19. DEPTOR regulates vascular endothelial cell activation and proinflammatory and angiogenic responses

    PubMed Central

    Bruneau, Sarah; Nakayama, Hironao; Woda, Craig B.; Flynn, Evelyn A.

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis and the prevention of chronic inflammatory disease are dependent on the active process of inflammation resolution. In endothelial cells (ECs), proinflammation results from the activation of intracellular signaling responses and/or the inhibition of endogenous regulatory/pro-resolution signaling networks that, to date, are poorly defined. In this study, we find that DEP domain containing mTOR interacting protein (DEPTOR) is expressed in different microvascular ECs in vitro and in vivo, and using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown approach, we find that it regulates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 activation in part through independent mechanisms. Moreover, using limited gene arrays, we observed that DEPTOR regulates EC activation including mRNA expression of the T-cell chemoattractant chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CX3CL1, CCL5, and CCL20 and the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (P < .05). DEPTOR siRNA-transfected ECs also bound increased numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P < .005) and CD3+ T cells (P < .005) in adhesion assays in vitro and had increased migration and angiogenic responses in spheroid sprouting (P < .01) and wound healing (P < .01) assays. Collectively, these findings define DEPTOR as a critical upstream regulator of EC activation responses and suggest that it plays an important role in endogenous mechanisms of anti-inflammation and pro-resolution. PMID:23881914

  20. Impact of Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate and Interleukin-6 on Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Regulation and Global Protein TranslationS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shaoming; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Gorospe, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine that exerts a wide range of cellular, physiological, and pathophysiological responses. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) antagonizes the cellular responsiveness to IL-6 through impairment in signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 activation and downstream signaling. To further elucidate the biological properties of PDTC, global gene expression profiling of human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells was carried out after treatment with PDTC or IL-6 for up to 8 h. Through an unbiased pathway analysis method, gene array analysis showed dramatic and temporal differences in expression changes in response to PDTC versus IL-6. A significant number of genes associated with metabolic pathways, inflammation, translation, and mitochondrial function were changed, with ribosomal protein genes and DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 protein (DDIT4) primarily up-regulated with PDTC but down-regulated with IL-6. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses validated the microarray data and showed the reciprocal expression pattern of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-negative regulator DDIT4 in response to PDTC versus IL-6. Cell treatment with PDTC resulted in a rapid and sustained activation of Akt and subsequently blocked the IL-6-mediated increase in mTOR complex 1 function through up-regulation in DDIT4 expression. Conversely, down-regulation of DDIT4 with small interfering RNA dampened the capacity of PDTC to block IL-6-dependent mTOR activation. The overall protein biosynthetic capacity of the cells was severely blunted by IL-6 but increased in a rapamycin-independent pathway by PDTC. These results demonstrate a critical effect of PDTC on mTOR complex 1 function and provide evidence that PDTC can reverse IL-6-related signaling via induction of DDIT4. PMID:21917559

  1. Phytochemical genistein in the regulation of vascular function: new insights.

    PubMed

    Si, Hongwei; Liu, Dongmin

    2007-01-01

    Genistein, a natural bioactive compound derived from legumes, has drawn wide attention during the last decade because of its potentially beneficial effects on some human degenerative diseases. It has a weak estrogenic effect and is a well-known non-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor at pharmacological doses. Epidemiological studies show that genistein intake is inversely associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Data from animal and in vitro studies suggest a protective role of genistein in cardiovascular events. However, the mechanisms of the genistein action on vascular protective effects are unclear. Past extensive studies exploring its hypolipidemic effect resulted in contradictory data. Genistein also is a relatively poor antioxidant. However, genistein protects against pro-inflammatory factor-induced vascular endothelial barrier dysfunction and inhibits leukocyte-endothelium interaction, thereby modulating vascular inflammation, a major event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Recent studies found that genistein exerts a novel non-genomic action by targeting on important signaling molecules in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Genistein rapidly activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase and production of nitric oxide in ECs. This genistein effect is novel since it is independent of its known effects, but mediated by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) cascade. Further studies demonstrated that genistein directly stimulates the plasma membrane-associated adenylate cyclases, leading to activation of the cAMP signaling pathway. In addition, genistein activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, ligand-activated nuclear receptors important to normal vascular function. Furthermore, genistein reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) by attenuating the expression of ROS-producing enzymes. These new findings reveal the novel roles for genistein in the regulation of vascular function and provide a basis for further

  2. Impaired sympathetic vascular regulation in humans after acute dynamic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwill, J. R.; Taylor, J. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The reduction in vascular resistance which accompanies acute dynamic exercise does not subside immediately during recovery, resulting in a post-exercise hypotension. This sustained vasodilatation suggests that sympathetic vascular regulation is altered after exercise. 2. Therefore, we assessed the baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow in response to arterial pressure changes, and transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance during a sympatho-excitatory stimulus (isometric handgrip exercise) after either exercise (60 min cycling at 60% peak aerobic power (VO2,peak)) or sham treatment (60 min seated rest) in nine healthy subjects. 3. Both muscle sympathetic nerve activity and calf vascular resistance were reduced after exercise (-29.7 +/- 8.8 and -25.3 +/- 9.1%, both P < 0.05). The baroreflex relation between diastolic pressure and sympathetic outflow was shifted downward after exercise (post-exercise intercept, 218 +/- 38 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1; post-sham intercept, 318 +/- 51 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1, P < 0.05), indicating less sympathetic outflow across all diastolic pressures. Further, the relation between sympathetic activity and vascular resistance was attenuated after exercise (post-exercise slope, 0.0031 +/- 0.0007 units (total integrated activity)-1 min; post-sham slope, 0.0100 +/- 0.0033 units (total integrated activity)-1 min, P < 0.05), indicating less vasoconstriction with any increase in sympathetic activity. 4. Thus, both baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow and the transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance are altered after dynamic exercise. We conclude that the vasodilation which underlies post-exercise hypotension results from both neural and vascular phenomena.

  3. The mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway regulates myocyte enhancer factor-2C phosphorylation levels through integrin-linked kinase in goat skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiqing; Ren, Yu; Pan, Wei; Dong, Zhenguo; Cang, Ming; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-11-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays a key role in muscle development and is involved in multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) regulates muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, how the mTOR signaling pathway regulates MEF2 activity remains unclear. We isolated goat skeletal muscle satellite cells (gSSCs) as model cells to explore mTOR signaling pathway regulation of MEF2C. We inhibited mTOR activity in gSSCs with PP242 and found that MEF2C phosphorylation was decreased and that muscle creatine kinase (MCK) expression was suppressed. Subsequently, we detected integrin-linked kinase (ILK) using MEF2C coimmunoprecipitation; ILK and MEF2C were colocalized in the gSSCs. We found that inhibiting mTOR activity increased ILK phosphorylation levels and that inhibiting ILK activity with Cpd 22 and knocking down ILK with small interfering RNA increased MEF2C phosphorylation and MCK expression. In the presence of Cpd 22, mTOR activity inhibition did not affect MEF2C phosphorylation. Moreover, ILK dephosphorylated MEF2C in vitro. These results suggest that the mTOR signaling pathway regulates MEF2C positively and regulates ILK negatively and that ILK regulates MEF2C negatively. It appears that the mTOR signaling pathway regulates MEF2C through ILK, further regulating the expression of muscle-related genes in gSSCs. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  4. YAP/TAZ regulates sprouting angiogenesis and vascular barrier maturation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoo Hyung; Kim, Jaeryung; Park, Do Young; Bae, Hosung; Lee, Da-Hye; Kim, Kyun Hoo; Hong, Seon Pyo; Jang, Seung Pil; Kwon, Young-Guen; Lim, Dae-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a multistep process that requires coordinated migration, proliferation, and junction formation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) to form new vessel branches in response to growth stimuli. Major intracellular signaling pathways that regulate angiogenesis have been well elucidated, but key transcriptional regulators that mediate these signaling pathways and control EC behaviors are only beginning to be understood. Here, we show that YAP/TAZ, a transcriptional coactivator that acts as an end effector of Hippo signaling, is critical for sprouting angiogenesis and vascular barrier formation and maturation. In mice, endothelial-specific deletion of Yap/Taz led to blunted-end, aneurysm-like tip ECs with fewer and dysmorphic filopodia at the vascular front, a hyper-pruned vascular network, reduced and disarranged distributions of tight and adherens junction proteins, disrupted barrier integrity, subsequent hemorrhage in growing retina and brain vessels, and reduced pathological choroidal neovascularization. Mechanistically, YAP/TAZ activates actin cytoskeleton remodeling, an important component of filopodia formation and junction assembly. Moreover, YAP/TAZ coordinates EC proliferation and metabolic activity by upregulating MYC signaling. Overall, these results show that YAP/TAZ plays multifaceted roles for EC behaviors, proliferation, junction assembly, and metabolism in sprouting angiogenesis and barrier formation and maturation and could be a potential therapeutic target for treating neovascular diseases. PMID:28805663

  5. Protein Kinase C as Regulator of Vascular Smooth Muscle Function and Potential Target in Vascular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ringvold, H C; Khalil, R A

    2017-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) plays an important role in maintaining vascular tone. In addition to Ca 2+ -dependent myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, protein kinase C (PKC) is a major regulator of VSM function. PKC is a family of conventional Ca 2+ -dependent α, β, and γ, novel Ca 2+ -independent δ, ɛ, θ, and η, and atypical ξ, and ι/λ isoforms. Inactive PKC is mainly cytosolic, and upon activation it undergoes phosphorylation, maturation, and translocation to the surface membrane, the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and other cell organelles; a process facilitated by scaffold proteins such as RACKs. Activated PKC phosphorylates different substrates including ion channels, pumps, and nuclear proteins. PKC also phosphorylates CPI-17 leading to inhibition of MLC phosphatase, increased MLC phosphorylation, and enhanced VSM contraction. PKC could also initiate a cascade of protein kinases leading to phosphorylation of the actin-binding proteins calponin and caldesmon, increased actin-myosin interaction, and VSM contraction. Increased PKC activity has been associated with vascular disorders including ischemia-reperfusion injury, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and diabetic vasculopathy. PKC inhibitors could test the role of PKC in different systems and could reduce PKC hyperactivity in vascular disorders. First-generation PKC inhibitors such as staurosporine and chelerythrine are not very specific. Isoform-specific PKC inhibitors such as ruboxistaurin have been tested in clinical trials. Target delivery of PKC pseudosubstrate inhibitory peptides and PKC siRNA may be useful in localized vascular disease. Further studies of PKC and its role in VSM should help design isoform-specific PKC modulators that are experimentally potent and clinically safe to target PKC in vascular disease. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Death receptors DR6 and TROY regulate brain vascular development.

    PubMed

    Tam, Stephen J; Richmond, David L; Kaminker, Joshua S; Modrusan, Zora; Martin-McNulty, Baby; Cao, Tim C; Weimer, Robby M; Carano, Richard A D; van Bruggen, Nick; Watts, Ryan J

    2012-02-14

    Signaling events that regulate central nervous system (CNS) angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier (BBB) formation are only beginning to be elucidated. By evaluating the gene expression profile of mouse vasculature, we identified DR6/TNFRSF21 and TROY/TNFRSF19 as regulators of CNS-specific angiogenesis in both zebrafish and mice. Furthermore, these two death receptors interact both genetically and physically and are required for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated JNK activation and subsequent human brain endothelial sprouting in vitro. Increasing beta-catenin levels in brain endothelium upregulate DR6 and TROY, indicating that these death receptors are downstream target genes of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, which has been shown to be required for BBB development. These findings define a role for death receptors DR6 and TROY in CNS-specific vascular development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An overview of rapamycin: from discovery to future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Young Ji; Kim, Hanseong; Park, Sung Ryeol; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2017-05-01

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive metabolite produced from several actinomycete species. Besides its immunosuppressive activity, rapamycin and its analogs have additional therapeutic potentials, including antifungal, antitumor, neuroprotective/neuroregenerative, and lifespan extension activities. The core structure of rapamycin is derived from (4R,5R)-4,5-dihydrocyclohex-1-ene-carboxylic acid that is extended by polyketide synthase. The resulting linear polyketide chain is cyclized by incorporating pipecolate and further decorated by post-PKS modification enzymes. Herein, we review the discovery and biological activities of rapamycin as well as its mechanism of action, mechanistic target, biosynthesis, and regulation. In addition, we introduce the many efforts directed at enhancing the production of rapamycin and generating diverse analogs and also explore future perspectives in rapamycin research. This review will also emphasize the remarkable pilot studies on the biosynthesis and production improvement of rapamycin by Dr. Demain, one of the world's distinguished scientists in industrial microbiology and biotechnology.

  8. Convergence of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1- and glycogen synthase kinase 3-β-signaling pathways regulates the innate inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huizhi; Brown, Jonathan; Gu, Zhen; Garcia, Carlos A; Liang, Ruqiang; Alard, Pascale; Beurel, Eléonore; Jope, Richard S; Greenway, Terrance; Martin, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The PI3K pathway and its regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) play pivotal roles in controlling inflammation. In this article, we show that mTORC1 and GSK3-β converge and that the capacity of mTORC1 to affect the inflammatory response is due to the inactivation of GSK3-β. Inhibition of mTORC1 attenuated GSK3 phosphorylation and increased its kinase activity. Immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase assays demonstrated that GSK3-β associated with a downstream target of mTORC1, p85S6K, and phosphorylated GSK3-β. Inhibition of S6K1 abrogated the phosphorylation of GSK3-β while increasing and decreasing the levels of IL-12 and IL-10, respectively, in LPS-stimulated monocytes. In contrast, the direct inhibition of GSK3 attenuated the capacity of S6K1 inhibition to influence the levels of IL-10 and IL-12 produced by LPS-stimulated cells. At the transcriptional level, mTORC1 inhibition reduced the DNA binding of CREB and this effect was reversed by GSK3 inhibition. As a result, mTORC1 inhibition increased the levels of NF-κB p65 associated with CREB-binding protein. Inhibition of NF-κB p65 attenuated rapamycin's ability to influence the levels of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine production in monocytes stimulated with LPS. These studies identify the molecular mechanism by which mTORC1 affects GSK3 and show that mTORC1 inhibition regulates pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production via its capacity to inactivate GSK3.

  9. The physiology and pathophysiology of rapamycin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Joan M; Sanders, Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    Rapamycin is an inhibitor of the mammalian Target of Rapamycin, mTOR, a nutrient-sensing signaling kinase and a key regulator of cell growth and proliferation. While rapamycin and related compounds have anti-tumor activity, a prevalent characteristic of cancer cells is resistance to their anti-proliferative effects. Our studies on nutrient regulation of fetal development showed that hepatocyte proliferation in the late gestation fetal rat is resistant to rapamycin. Extension of these studies to other tissues in the fetal and neonatal rat indicated that rapamycin resistance is a characteristic of normal cell proliferation in the growing organism. In hepatic cells, ribosomal biogenesis and cap-dependent protein translation were found to be relatively insensitive to the drug even though mTOR signaling was highly sensitive. Cell cycle progression was also resistant at the level of cyclin E-dependent kinase activity. Studies on the effect of rapamycin on gene expression in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that mTOR-mediated regulation of gene expression is independent of effects on cell proliferation and cannot be accounted for by functional regulation of identifiable transcription factors. Genes involved in cell metabolism were overrepresented among rapamycin-sensitive genes. We conclude that normal cellular proliferation in the context of a developing organism can be independent of mTOR signaling, that cyclin E-containing complexes are a critical locus for rapamycin sensitivity, and that mTOR functions as a modulator of metabolic gene expression in cells that are resistant to the anti-proliferative effects of the drug. PMID:21389767

  10. Mechanosensitive β-catenin signaling regulates lymphatic vascular development

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Boksik; Srinivasan, R. Sathish

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays a pivotal role in embryonic development and adult homeostasis. However, we have limited information about the involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the lymphatic vascular system that regulates fluid homeostasis by absorbing interstitial fluid and returning it to blood circulation. In this recent publication we report that canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is highly active and critical for the formation of lymphovenus valves (LVVs) and lymphatic valves (LVs). β-catenin directly associates with the regulatory elements of the lymphedema-associated transcription factor, FOXC2 and activates its expression in an oscillatory shear stress (OSS)-dependent manner. The phenotype of β-catenin null embryos was rescued by FOXC2 overexpression. These results suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a mechanotransducer that links fluid force with lymphatic vascular development. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(8): 403-404] PMID:27418286

  11. Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell function in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Kahles, Florian K; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2013-04-01

    Epigenetics involve heritable and acquired changes in gene transcription that occur independently of the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a hierarchic upper-level of transcriptional control through complex modifications of chromosomal components and nuclear structures. These modifications include, for example, DNA methylation or post-translational modifications of core histones; they are mediated by various chromatin-modifying enzymes; and ultimately they define the accessibility of a transcriptional complex to its target DNA. Integrating epigenetic mechanisms into the pathophysiologic concept of complex and multifactorial diseases such as atherosclerosis may significantly enhance our understanding of related mechanisms and provide promising therapeutic approaches. Although still in its infancy, intriguing scientific progress has begun to elucidate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in vascular biology, particularly in the control of smooth muscle cell phenotypes. In this review, we will summarize epigenetic pathways in smooth muscle cells, focusing on mechanisms involved in the regulation of vascular remodeling.

  12. Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell function in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Kahles, Florian K; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2013-05-01

    Epigenetics involve heritable and acquired changes in gene transcription that occur independently of the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a hierarchic upper-level of transcriptional control through complex modifications of chromosomal components and nuclear structures. These modifications include, for example, DNA methylation or post-translational modifications of core histones; they are mediated by various chromatin-modifying enzymes; and ultimately they define the accessibility of a transcriptional complex to its target DNA. Integrating epigenetic mechanisms into the pathophysiologic concept of complex and multifactorial diseases such as atherosclerosis may significantly enhance our understanding of related mechanisms and provide promising therapeutic approaches. Although still in its infancy, intriguing scientific progress has begun to elucidate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in vascular biology, particularly in the control of smooth muscle cell phenotypes. In this review, we will summarize epigenetic pathways in smooth muscle cells, focusing on mechanisms involved in the regulation of vascular remodeling.

  13. Calcium dynamics and signaling in vascular regulation: computational models

    PubMed Central

    Tsoukias, Nikolaos Michael

    2013-01-01

    Calcium is a universal signaling molecule with a central role in a number of vascular functions including in the regulation of tone and blood flow. Experimentation has provided insights into signaling pathways that lead to or affected by Ca2+ mobilization in the vasculature. Mathematical modeling offers a systematic approach to the analysis of these mechanisms and can serve as a tool for data interpretation and for guiding new experimental studies. Comprehensive models of calcium dynamics are well advanced for some systems such as the heart. This review summarizes the progress that has been made in modeling Ca2+ dynamics and signaling in vascular cells. Model simulations show how Ca2+ signaling emerges as a result of complex, nonlinear interactions that cannot be properly analyzed using only a reductionist's approach. A strategy of integrative modeling in the vasculature is outlined that will allow linking macroscale pathophysiological responses to the underlying cellular mechanisms. PMID:21061306

  14. Regulation of ROS Production and Vascular Function by Carbon Monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Kyung; Por, Elaine D.; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). CO interacts with reduced iron of heme-containing proteins, leading to its involvement in various cellular events via its production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). CO-mediated ROS production initiates intracellular signal events, which regulate the expression of adaptive genes implicated in oxidative stress and functions as signaling molecule for promoting vascular functions, including angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, CO generated either by exogenous delivery or by HO activity can be fundamentally involved in regulating mitochondria-mediated redox cascades for adaptive gene expression and improving blood circulation (i.e., O2 delivery) via neovascularization, leading to the regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. This paper will highlight the biological effects of CO on ROS generation and cellular redox changes involved in mitochondrial metabolism and angiogenesis. Moreover, cellular mechanisms by which CO is exploited for disease prevention and therapeutic applications will also be discussed. PMID:22928087

  15. Extracellular regulation of VEGF: isoforms, proteolysis, and vascular patterning

    PubMed Central

    Vempati, Prakash; Popel, Aleksander S.; Mac Gabhann, Feilim

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) is critical to neovascularization in numerous tissues under physiological and pathological conditions. VEGF has multiple isoforms, created by alternative splicing or proteolytic cleavage, and characterized by different receptor-binding and matrix-binding properties. These isoforms are known to give rise to a spectrum of angiogenesis patterns marked by differences in branching, which has functional implications for tissues. In this review, we detail the extensive extracellular regulation of VEGF and the ability of VEGF to dictate the vascular phenotype. We explore the role of VEGF-releasing proteases and soluble carrier molecules on VEGF activity. While proteases such as MMP9 can ‘release’ matrix-bound VEGF and promote angiogenesis, for example as a key step in carcinogenesis, proteases can also suppress VEGF’s angiogenic effects. We explore what dictates pro- or anti-angiogenic behavior. We also seek to understand the phenomenon of VEGF gradient formation. Strong VEGF gradients are thought to be due to decreased rates of diffusion from reversible matrix binding, however theoretical studies show that this scenario cannot give rise to lasting VEGF gradients in vivo. We propose that gradients are formed through degradation of sequestered VEGF. Finally, we review how different aspects of the VEGF signal, such as its concentration, gradient, matrix-binding, and NRP1-binding can differentially affect angiogenesis. We explore how this allows VEGF to regulate the formation of vascular networks across a spectrum of high to low branching densities, and from normal to pathological angiogenesis. A better understanding of the control of angiogenesis is necessary to improve upon limitations of current angiogenic therapies. PMID:24332926

  16. BDNF regulates the translation of a select group of mRNAs by a mammalian target of rapamycin-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway during neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Schratt, Gerhard M; Nigh, Elizabeth A; Chen, Wen G; Hu, Linda; Greenberg, Michael E

    2004-08-18

    Local regulation of mRNA translation plays an important role in axon guidance, synaptic development, and neuronal plasticity. Little is known, however, regarding the mechanisms that control translation in neurons, and only a few mRNAs have been identified that are locally translated within axon and dendrites. Using Affymetrix gene arrays to identify mRNAs that are newly associated with polysomes after exposure to BDNF, we identified subsets of mRNAs for which translation is enhanced in neurons at different developmental stages. In mature neurons, many of these mRNAs encode proteins that are known to function at synapses, including CamKIIalpha, NMDA receptor subunits, and the postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffolding protein Homer2. BDNF regulates the translation of Homer2 locally in the synaptodendritic compartment by activating translational initiation via a mammalian target of rapamycin-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway. These findings suggest that BDNF likely regulates synaptic function by inducing the local synthesis of numerous synaptic proteins. The local translation of the cytoskeleton-associated protein Homer2 in particular might have important implications for growth cone dynamics and dendritic spine development.

  17. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin following eccentric contractions

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, T K; Duffy, L R; Frey, J W; Hornberger, T A

    2009-01-01

    Resistance exercise induces a hypertrophic response in skeletal muscle and recent studies have begun to shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. For example, several studies indicate that signalling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is necessary for a hypertrophic response. Furthermore, resistance exercise has been proposed to activate mTOR signalling through an upstream pathway involving the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB); however, this hypothesis has not been thoroughly tested. To test this hypothesis, we first evaluated the temporal pattern of signalling through PI3K–PKB and mTOR following a bout of resistance exercise with eccentric contractions (EC). Our results indicated that the activation of signalling through PI3K–PKB is a transient event (<15 min), while the activation of mTOR is sustained for a long duration (>12 h). Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K–PKB activity did not prevent the activation of mTOR signalling by ECs, indicating that PI3K–PKB is not part of the upstream regulatory pathway. These observations led us to investigate an alternative pathway for the activation of mTOR signalling involving the synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA) by phospholipase D (PLD). Our results demonstrate that ECs induce a sustained elevation in [PA] and inhibiting the synthesis of PA by PLD prevented the activation of mTOR. Furthermore, we determined that similar to ECs, PA activates mTOR signalling through a PI3K–PKB-independent mechanism. Combined, the results of this study indicate that the activation of mTOR following eccentric contractions occurs through a PI3K–PKB-independent mechanism that requires PLD and PA. PMID:19470781

  18. Rapamycin and Glucose-Target of Rapamycin (TOR) Protein Signaling in Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yan; Sheen, Jen

    2012-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator that integrates energy, nutrients, growth factors, and stress signals to promote survival and growth in all eukaryotes. The reported land plant resistance to rapamycin and the embryo lethality of the Arabidopsis tor mutants have hindered functional dissection of TOR signaling in plants. We developed sensitive cellular and seedling assays to monitor endogenous Arabidopsis TOR activity based on its conserved S6 kinase (S6K) phosphorylation. Surprisingly, rapamycin effectively inhibits Arabidopsis TOR-S6K1 signaling and retards glucose-mediated root and leaf growth, mimicking estradiol-inducible tor mutants. Rapamycin inhibition is relieved in transgenic plants deficient in Arabidopsis FK506-binding protein 12 (FKP12), whereas FKP12 overexpression dramatically enhances rapamycin sensitivity. The role of Arabidopsis FKP12 is highly specific as overexpression of seven closely related FKP proteins fails to increase rapamycin sensitivity. Rapamycin exerts TOR inhibition by inducing direct interaction between the TOR-FRB (FKP-rapamycin binding) domain and FKP12 in plant cells. We suggest that variable endogenous FKP12 protein levels may underlie the molecular explanation for longstanding enigmatic observations on inconsistent rapamycin resistance in plants and in various mammalian cell lines or diverse animal cell types. Integrative analyses with rapamycin and conditional tor and fkp12 mutants also reveal a central role of glucose-TOR signaling in root hair formation. Our studies demonstrate the power of chemical genetic approaches in the discovery of previously unknown and pivotal functions of glucose-TOR signaling in governing the growth of cotyledons, true leaves, petioles, and primary and secondary roots and root hairs. PMID:22134914

  19. Transforming Growth Factor β1-induced Apoptosis in Podocytes via the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase-Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1-NADPH Oxidase 4 Axis.

    PubMed

    Das, Ranjan; Xu, Shanhua; Nguyen, Tuyet Thi; Quan, Xianglan; Choi, Seong-Kyung; Kim, Soo-Jin; Lee, Eun Young; Cha, Seung-Kuy; Park, Kyu-Sang

    2015-12-25

    TGF-β is a pleiotropic cytokine that accumulates during kidney injuries, resulting in various renal diseases. We have reported previously that TGF-β1 induces the selective up-regulation of mitochondrial Nox4, playing critical roles in podocyte apoptosis. Here we investigated the regulatory mechanism of Nox4 up-regulation by mTORC1 activation on TGF-β1-induced apoptosis in immortalized podocytes. TGF-β1 treatment markedly increased the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream targets p70S6K and 4EBP1. Blocking TGF-β receptor I with SB431542 completely blunted the phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6K, and 4EBP1. Transient adenoviral overexpression of mTOR-WT and constitutively active mTORΔ augmented TGF-β1-treated Nox4 expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptosis, whereas mTOR kinase-dead suppressed the above changes. In addition, knockdown of mTOR mimicked the effect of mTOR-KD. Inhibition of mTORC1 by low-dose rapamycin or knockdown of p70S6K protected podocytes through attenuation of Nox4 expression and subsequent oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by TGF-β1. Pharmacological inhibition of the MEK-ERK cascade, but not the PI3K-Akt-TSC2 pathway, abolished TGF-β1-induced mTOR activation. Inhibition of either ERK1/2 or mTORC1 did not reduce the TGF-β1-stimulated increase in Nox4 mRNA level but significantly inhibited total Nox4 expression, ROS generation, and apoptosis induced by TGF-β1. Moreover, double knockdown of Smad2 and 3 or only Smad4 completely suppressed TGF-β1-induced ERK1/2-mTORactivation. Our data suggest that TGF-β1 increases translation of Nox4 through the Smad-ERK1/2-mTORC1 axis, which is independent of transcriptional regulation. Activation of this pathway plays a crucial role in ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to podocyte apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of the ERK1/2-mTORC1 pathway could be a potential therapeutic and preventive target in proteinuric and chronic

  20. Rapamycin reduces renal hypoxia, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-feng; Liu, Hing; Fang, Yi; Jiang, Su-hua; Zhu, Jia-ming; Ding, Xiao-qiang

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore effects of rapamycin on renal hypoxia, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Flk-1 and Flt-1 in a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=36) were randomly divided into three groups (n=12 per group): sham surgery, UUO and UUO plus rapamycin (0.2 mg/kg/d). Serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol and 24-h urine protein levels were measured. The extent of interstitial fibrosis was determined by Masson's trichrome staining. ED-1 positive macrophages, type III collagen, hypoxia, TGF-1, VEGF, Flk-1, and Flt-1 mRNA and protein expressions were detected using immunohistochemical staining, real-time PCR and Western blot. UUO induced an elevation in Scr, renal hypoxia, inflammation, interstitial fibrosis, TGF-β1, VEGF, Flk-1, and Flt-1 mRNA and protein expression levels (P < 0.05). Rapamycin alleviated the UUO-induced renal hypoxia, infiltration of inflammatory cells and tubulointerstitial fibrosis (at days 3 and 7). Rapamycin also down-regulated the UUO-induced elevated expression levels of TGF-β1 and Flt-1 mRNA and protein (P < 0.05). Rapamycin decreased VEGF mRNA and protein expression at day 3, and increased Flk-1 mRNA and protein expression at day 7, compared with the UUO group (P < 0.05). Rapamycin shows beneficial effects by reducing UUO-induced renal hypoxia, inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

  1. Transforming Growth Factor-β Is an Upstream Regulator of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 2–Dependent Bladder Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sounak; Hau, Andrew M.; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A.; Harwalkar, Jyoti; Shoskes, Aaron C.; Elson, Paul; Beach, Jordan R.; Hussey, George S.; Schiemann, William P.; Egelhoff, Thomas T.; Howe, Philip H.; Hansel, Donna E.

    2017-01-01

    Our prior work identified the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) as a key regulator of bladder cancer cell migration and invasion, although upstream growth factor mediators of this pathway in bladder cancer have not been well delineated. We tested whether transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, which can function as a promotility factor in bladder cancer cells, could regulate mTORC2-dependent bladder cancer cell motility and invasion. In human bladder cancers, the highest levels of phosphorylated SMAD2, a TGF-β signaling intermediate, were present in high-grade invasive bladder cancers and associated with more frequent recurrence and decreased disease-specific survival. Increased expression of TGF-β isoforms, receptors, and signaling components was detected in invasive high-grade bladder cancer cells that expressed Vimentin and lacked E-cadherin. Application of TGF-β induced phosphorylation of the Ser473 residue of AKT, a selective target of mTORC2, in a SMAD2- and SMAD4-independent manner and increased bladder cancer cell migration in a modified scratch wound assay and invasion through Matrigel. Inhibition of TGF-β receptor I using SB431542 ablated TGF-β–induced migration and invasion. A similar effect was seen when Rictor, a key mTORC2 component, was selectively silenced. Our results suggest that TGF-β can induce bladder cancer cell invasion via mTORC2 signaling, which may be applicable in most bladder cancers. PMID:26988652

  2. Effects of inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and downstream pathways of receptor tyrosine kinases involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin or mitogen-activated protein kinase in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm with no current effective treatment. Previous studies showed that receptor tyrosine kinases and molecules within their downstream pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were overexpressed in canine, human, and murine tumors, including HSA. The present study investigated the effects of inhibitors of these pathways in canine splenic and hepatic HSA cell lines using assays of cell viability and apoptosis. Inhibitors of the MAPK pathway did not affect canine HSA cell viability. However, cell viability was significantly reduced by exposure to inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR pathway; these inhibitors also induced apoptosis in these cell lines. These results suggest that these inhibitors reduce the proliferation of canine HSA cells by inducing apoptosis. Further study of these inhibitors, using xenograft mouse models of canine HSA, are warranted to explore their potential for clinical application.

  3. Effects of inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and downstream pathways of receptor tyrosine kinases involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin or mitogen-activated protein kinase in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm with no current effective treatment. Previous studies showed that receptor tyrosine kinases and molecules within their downstream pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were overexpressed in canine, human, and murine tumors, including HSA. The present study investigated the effects of inhibitors of these pathways in canine splenic and hepatic HSA cell lines using assays of cell viability and apoptosis. Inhibitors of the MAPK pathway did not affect canine HSA cell viability. However, cell viability was significantly reduced by exposure to inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR pathway; these inhibitors also induced apoptosis in these cell lines. These results suggest that these inhibitors reduce the proliferation of canine HSA cells by inducing apoptosis. Further study of these inhibitors, using xenograft mouse models of canine HSA, are warranted to explore their potential for clinical application. PMID:27408334

  4. Prevention of age-related macular degeneration-like retinopathy by rapamycin in rats.

    PubMed

    Kolosova, Nataliya G; Muraleva, Natalia A; Zhdankina, Anna A; Stefanova, Natalia A; Fursova, Anzhela Z; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2012-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration, a neurodegenerative and vascular retinal disease, is the most common cause of blindness in the Western countries. Evidence accumulates that target of rapamycin is involved in aging and age-related diseases, including neurodegeneration. The target of rapamycin inhibitor, rapamycin, suppresses the senescent cell phenotype and extends life span in diverse species, including mice. Rapamycin decreases senescence-associated phenotypes in retinal pigment epithelial cells in culture. Herein, we investigated the effect of rapamycin on spontaneous retinopathy in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats, an animal model of age-related macular degeneration. Rats were treated with either 0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg rapamycin, which was given orally as a food mixture. In a dose-dependent manner, rapamycin decreased the incidence and severity of retinopathy. Rapamycin improved some (but not all) histological abnormalities associated with retinopathy. Thus, in retinal pigment epithelial cell layers, rapamycin decreased nuclei heterogeneity and normalized intervals between nuclei. In photoreceptor cells, associated neurons, and radial glial cells, rapamycin prevented nuclear and cellular pyknosis. More important, rapamycin prevented destruction of ganglionar neurons in the retina. Rapamycin did not exert any adverse effects on the retina in control disease-free Wistar rats. Taken together, our data suggest the therapeutic potential of rapamycin for treatment and prevention of retinopathy. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Drosophila insulin and target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways regulate GSK3 beta activity to control Myc stability and determine Myc expression in vivo.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Federica; Riccardo, Sara; Daniel, Margaret; Saqcena, Mahesh; Kundu, Nandini; Pession, Annalisa; Grifoni, Daniela; Stocker, Hugo; Tabak, Esteban; Bellosta, Paola

    2011-09-27

    Genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster reveal an important role for Myc in controlling growth. Similar studies have also shown how components of the insulin and target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways are key regulators of growth. Despite a few suggestions that Myc transcriptional activity lies downstream of these pathways, a molecular mechanism linking these signaling pathways to Myc has not been clearly described. Using biochemical and genetic approaches we tried to identify novel mechanisms that control Myc activity upon activation of insulin and TOR signaling pathways. Our biochemical studies show that insulin induces Myc protein accumulation in Drosophila S2 cells, which correlates with a decrease in the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3β ) a kinase that is responsible for Myc protein degradation. Induction of Myc by insulin is inhibited by the presence of the TOR inhibitor rapamycin, suggesting that insulin-induced Myc protein accumulation depends on the activation of TOR complex 1. Treatment with amino acids that directly activate the TOR pathway results in Myc protein accumulation, which also depends on the ability of S6K kinase to inhibit GSK3β activity. Myc upregulation by insulin and TOR pathways is a mechanism conserved in cells from the wing imaginal disc, where expression of Dp110 and Rheb also induces Myc protein accumulation, while inhibition of insulin and TOR pathways result in the opposite effect. Our functional analysis, aimed at quantifying the relative contribution of Myc to ommatidial growth downstream of insulin and TOR pathways, revealed that Myc activity is necessary to sustain the proliferation of cells from the ommatidia upon Dp110 expression, while its contribution downstream of TOR is significant to control the size of the ommatidia. Our study presents novel evidence that Myc activity acts downstream of insulin and TOR pathways to control growth in Drosophila. At the biochemical level we found that both these pathways

  6. The amino acid transporter SLC36A4 regulates the amino acid pool in retinal pigmented epithelial cells and mediates the mechanistic target of rapamycin, complex 1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Shang, Peng; Valapala, Mallika; Grebe, Rhonda; Hose, Stacey; Ghosh, Sayan; Bhutto, Imran A; Handa, James T; Lutty, Gerard A; Lu, Lixia; Wan, Jun; Qian, Jiang; Sergeev, Yuri; Puertollano, Rosa; Zigler, J Samuel; Xu, Guo-Tong; Sinha, Debasish

    2017-04-01

    The dry (nonneovascular) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the elderly, has few, if any, treatment options at present. It is characterized by early accumulation of cellular waste products in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE); rejuvenating impaired lysosome function in RPE is a well-justified target for treatment. It is now clear that amino acids and vacuolar-type H + -ATPase (V-ATPase) regulate the mechanistic target of rapamycin, complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in lysosomes. Here, we provide evidence for the first time that the amino acid transporter SLC36A4/proton-dependent amino acid transporter (PAT4) regulates the amino acid pool in the lysosomes of RPE. In Cryba1 (gene encoding βA3/A1-crystallin) KO (knockout) mice, where PAT4 and amino acid levels are increased in the RPE, the transcription factors EB (TFEB) and E3 (TFE3) are retained in the cytoplasm, even after 24 h of fasting. Consequently, genes in the coordinated lysosomal expression and regulation (CLEAR) network are not activated, and lysosomal function remains low. As these mice age, expression of RPE65 and lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), two vital visual cycle proteins, decreases in the RPE. A defective visual cycle would possibly slow down the regeneration of new photoreceptor outer segments (POS). Further, photoreceptor degeneration also becomes obvious during aging, reminiscent of human dry AMD disease. Electron microscopy shows basal laminar deposits in Bruch's membrane, a hallmark of development of AMD. For dry AMD patients, targeting PAT4/V-ATPase in the lysosomes of RPE cells may be an effective means of preventing or delaying disease progression. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Regulator of calcineurin 1 mediates pathological vascular wall remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Vanesa; Méndez-Barbero, Nerea; Jesús Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis; Roqué, Mercè; Novensá, Laura; Belén García-Redondo, Ana; Salaices, Mercedes; Vila, Luis; Arbonés, María L.

    2011-01-01

    Artery wall remodeling, a major feature of diseases such as hypertension, restenosis, atherosclerosis, and aneurysm, involves changes in the tunica media mass that reduce or increase the vessel lumen. The identification of molecules involved in vessel remodeling could aid the development of improved treatments for these pathologies. Angiotensin II (AngII) is a key effector of aortic wall remodeling that contributes to aneurysm formation and restenosis through incompletely defined signaling pathways. We show that AngII induces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and vessel remodeling in mouse models of restenosis and aneurysm. These effects were prevented by pharmacological inhibition of calcineurin (CN) or lentiviral delivery of CN-inhibitory peptides. Whole-genome analysis revealed >1,500 AngII-regulated genes in VSMCs, with just 11 of them requiring CN activation. Of these, the most sensitive to CN activation was regulator of CN 1 (Rcan1). Rcan1 was strongly activated by AngII in vitro and in vivo and was required for AngII-induced VSMC migration. Remarkably, Rcan1−/− mice were resistant to AngII-induced aneurysm and restenosis. Our results indicate that aneurysm formation and restenosis share mechanistic elements and identify Rcan1 as a potential therapeutic target for prevention of aneurysm and restenosis progression. PMID:21930771

  8. Transforming Growth Factor-β Is an Upstream Regulator of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 2-Dependent Bladder Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sounak; Hau, Andrew M; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A; Harwalkar, Jyoti; Shoskes, Aaron C; Elson, Paul; Beach, Jordan R; Hussey, George S; Schiemann, William P; Egelhoff, Thomas T; Howe, Philip H; Hansel, Donna E

    2016-05-01

    Our prior work identified the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) as a key regulator of bladder cancer cell migration and invasion, although upstream growth factor mediators of this pathway in bladder cancer have not been well delineated. We tested whether transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, which can function as a promotility factor in bladder cancer cells, could regulate mTORC2-dependent bladder cancer cell motility and invasion. In human bladder cancers, the highest levels of phosphorylated SMAD2, a TGF-β signaling intermediate, were present in high-grade invasive bladder cancers and associated with more frequent recurrence and decreased disease-specific survival. Increased expression of TGF-β isoforms, receptors, and signaling components was detected in invasive high-grade bladder cancer cells that expressed Vimentin and lacked E-cadherin. Application of TGF-β induced phosphorylation of the Ser473 residue of AKT, a selective target of mTORC2, in a SMAD2- and SMAD4-independent manner and increased bladder cancer cell migration in a modified scratch wound assay and invasion through Matrigel. Inhibition of TGF-β receptor I using SB431542 ablated TGF-β-induced migration and invasion. A similar effect was seen when Rictor, a key mTORC2 component, was selectively silenced. Our results suggest that TGF-β can induce bladder cancer cell invasion via mTORC2 signaling, which may be applicable in most bladder cancers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Convergence of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1- and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3-β–Signaling Pathways Regulates the Innate Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huizhi; Brown, Jonathan; Gu, Zhen; Garcia, Carlos A.; Liang, Ruqiang; Alard, Pascale; Beurel, Eléonore; Jope, Richard S.; Greenway, Terrance; Martin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The PI3K pathway and its regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) play pivotal roles in controlling inflammation. In this article, we show that mTORC1 and GSK3-β converge and that the capacity of mTORC1 to affect the inflammatory response is due to the inactivation of GSK3-β. Inhibition of mTORC1 attenuated GSK3 phosphorylation and increased its kinase activity. Immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase assays demonstrated that GSK3-β associated with a downstream target of mTORC1, p85S6K, and phosphorylated GSK3-β. Inhibition of S6K1 abrogated the phosphorylation of GSK3-β while increasing and decreasing the levels of IL-12 and IL-10, respectively, in LPS-stimulated monocytes. In contrast, the direct inhibition of GSK3 attenuated the capacity of S6K1 inhibition to influence the levels of IL-10 and IL-12 produced by LPS-stimulated cells. At the transcriptional level, mTORC1 inhibition reduced the DNA binding of CREB and this effect was reversed by GSK3 inhibition. As a result, mTORC1 inhibition increased the levels of NF-κB p65 associated with CREB-binding protein. Inhibition of NF-κB p65 attenuated rapamycin’s ability to influence the levels of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine production in monocytes stimulated with LPS. These studies identify the molecular mechanism by which mTORC1 affects GSK3 and show that mTORC1 inhibition regulates pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production via its capacity to inactivate GSK3. PMID:21422248

  10. Cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating vascular tone. Part 1: basic mechanisms controlling cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and the Ca2+-dependent regulation of vascular tone.

    PubMed

    Akata, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    General anesthetics cause hemodynamic instability and alter blood flow to various organs. There is mounting evidence that most general anesthetics, at clinical concentrations, influence a wide variety of cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the contractile state of vascular smooth muscle cells (i.e., vascular tone). In addition, in current anesthetic practice, various types of vasoactive agents are often used to control vascular reactivity and to sustain tissue blood flow in high-risk surgical patients with impaired vital organ function and/or hemodynamic instability. Understanding the physiological mechanisms involved in the regulation of vascular tone thus would be beneficial for anesthesiologists. This review, in two parts, provides an overview of current knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating vascular tone-i.e., targets for general anesthetics, as well as for vasoactive drugs that are used in intraoperative circulatory management. This first part of the two-part review focuses on basic mechanisms regulating cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and the Ca2+-dependent regulation of vascular tone.

  11. Nrf2/Keap1 system regulates vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis for vascular homeostasis: role in neointimal formation after vascular injury

    PubMed Central

    Ashino, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal increases in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the intimal region after a vascular injury is a key event in developing neointimal hyperplasia. To maintain vascular function, proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs is tightly controlled during vascular remodeling. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) system, a key component of the oxidative stress response that acts in maintaining homeostasis, plays an important role in neointimal hyperplasia after a vascular injury; however, the role of Nrf2/Keap1 in VSMC apoptosis has not been clarified. Here we report that 14 days after arterial injury in mice, TUNEL-positive VSMCs are detected in both the neointimal and medial layers. These layers contain cells expressing high levels of Nrf2 but low Keap1 expression. In VSMCs, Keap1 depletion induces features of apoptosis, such as positive TUNEL staining and annexin V binding. These changes are associated with an increased expression of nuclear Nrf2. Simultaneous Nrf2 depletion inhibits Keap1 depletion-induced apoptosis. At 14 days after the vascular injury, Nrf2-deficient mice demonstrated fewer TUNEL-positive cells and increased neointimal formation in the neointimal and medial areas. The results suggest that the Nrf2/Keap1 system regulates VSMC apoptosis during neointimal formation, thereby inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia after a vascular injury. PMID:27198574

  12. Neural guidance molecules regulate vascular remodeling and vessel navigation.

    PubMed

    Eichmann, Anne; Makinen, Taija; Alitalo, Kari

    2005-05-01

    The development of the embryonic blood vascular and lymphatic systems requires the coordinated action of several transcription factors and growth factors that target endothelial and periendothelial cells. However, according to recent studies, the precise "wiring" of the vascular system does not occur without an ordered series of guidance decisions involving several molecules initially discovered for axons in the nervous system, including ephrins, netrins, slits, and semaphorins. Here, we summarize the new advances in our understanding of the roles of these axonal pathfinding molecules in vascular remodeling and vessel guidance, indicating that neuronal axons and vessel sprouts use common molecular mechanisms for navigation in the body.

  13. Rac regulates vascular endothelial growth factor stimulated motility.

    PubMed

    Soga, N; Connolly, J O; Chellaiah, M; Kawamura, J; Hruska, K A

    2001-01-01

    During angiogenesis endothelial cells migrate towards a chemotactic stimulus. Understanding the mechanism of endothelial cell migration is critical to the therapeutic manipulation of angiogenesis and ultimately cancer prevention. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent chemotactic stimulus of endothelial cells during angiogenesis. The endothelial cell signal transduction pathway of VEGF represents a potential target for cancer therapy, but the mechanisms of post-receptor signal transduction including the roles of rho family GTPases in regulating the cytoskeletal effects of VEGF in endothelial cells are not understood. Here we analyze the mechanisms of cell migration in the mouse brain endothelial cell line (bEND3). Stable transfectants containing a tetracycline repressible expression vector were used to induce expression of Rac mutants. Endothelial cell haptotaxis was stimulated by constitutively active V12Rac on collagen and vitronectin coated supports, and chemotaxis was further stimulated by VEGF. Osteopontin coated supports were the most stimulatory to bEND3 haptotaxis, but VEGF was not effective in further increasing migration on osteopontin coated supports. Haptotaxis on support coated with collagen, vitronectin, and to a lesser degree osteopontin was inhibited by N17 Rac. N17 Rac expression blocked stimulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis by VEGF. As part of the chemotactic stimulation, VEGF caused a loss of actin organization at areas of cell-cell contact and increased stress fiber expression in endothelial cells which were directed towards pores in the transwell membrane. N17 Rac prevented the stimulation of cell-cell contact disruption and the stress fiber stimulation by VEGF. These data demonstrate two pathways of regulating endothelial cell motility, one in which Rac is activated by matrix/integrin stimulation and is a crucial modulator of endothelial cell haptotaxis. The other pathway, in the presence of osteopontin, is Rac independent

  14. Transforming growth factor β family members in regulation of vascular function: in the light of vascular conditional knockouts.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Lars; van Meeteren, Laurens A

    2013-05-15

    Blood vessels are composed of endothelial cells, mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) and their shared basement membrane. During embryonic development a multitude of signaling components orchestrate the formation of new vessels. The process is highly dependent on correct dosage, spacing and timing of these signaling molecules. As vessels mature some cascades remain active, albeit at very low levels, and may be reactivated upon demand. Members of the Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) protein family are strongly engaged in developmental angiogenesis but are also regulators of vascular integrity in the adult. In humans various genetic alterations within this protein family cause vascular disorders, involving disintegration of vascular integrity. Here we summarize and discuss recent data gathered from conditional and endothelial cell specific genetic loss-of-function of members of the TGF-β family in the mouse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Topical rapamycin combined with pulsed dye laser in the treatment of capillary vascular malformations in Sturge-Weber syndrome: phase II, randomized, double-blind, intraindividual placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Marqués, Laura; Núñez-Córdoba, Jorge M; Aguado, Leyre; Pretel, Maider; Boixeda, Pablo; Nagore, Eduardo; Baselga, Eulalia; Redondo, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is characterized by port-wine stains (PWS) affecting the face, eyes, and central nervous system. Pulsed dye laser (PDL) is the standard treatment for PWS. Unfortunately, recurrence is frequent because of reformation and reperfusion of blood vessels. We sought to assess the clinical efficacy of topical rapamycin combined with PDL in PWS of patients with SWS. We conducted a phase II, randomized, double-blind, intraindividual placebo-controlled, clinical trial. We recruited 23 patients with SWS and facial PWS (12 women; median age 33 years, age range 17-65 years) from the University Clinic of Navarra, Spain. Four interventions were evaluated: placebo, PDL + placebo, rapamycin, and PDL + rapamycin. Clinical and histologic responses were evaluated using a chromatographic computerized system, spectrometry, and histologic analyses at 6, 12, and 18 weeks after the intervention. PDL + rapamycin yielded the lowest digital photographic image score and the lowest percentage of vessels in histologic analysis, and showed a statistically significant improvement compared with the other interventions. The treatment was generally well tolerated. PDL was only applied to the lateral parts of the PWS area. Topical rapamycin associated with PDL seems to be an effective treatment for PWS in patients with SWS. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a model describing regulation of casein synthesis by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in response to insulin, amino acids, and acetate.

    PubMed

    Castro, J J; Arriola Apelo, S I; Appuhamy, J A D R N; Hanigan, M D

    2016-08-01

    To improve dietary protein use efficiency in lactating cows, mammary protein synthesis responses to AA, energy substrates, and hormones must be better understood. These entities exert their effects through stimulation of mRNA translation via control of initiation and elongation rates at the cellular level. A central protein kinase of this phenomenon is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which transfers the nutritional and hormonal stimuli onto a series of proteins downstream through a cascade of phosphorylation reactions that ultimately affect protein synthesis. The objective of this work was to further develop an existing mechanistic model of mTOR phosphorylation responses to insulin and total essential AA to include the effects of specific essential AA and acetate mediated by signaling proteins including protein kinase B (Akt), adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mTOR and to add a representation of milk protein synthesis. Data from 6 experiments in MAC-T cells and mammary tissue slices previously conducted in our laboratory were assembled and used to parameterize the dynamic system of differential equations representing Akt, AMPK, and mTOR in their phosphorylated and dephosphorylated states and the resulting regulation of milk protein synthesis. The model predicted phosphorylated Akt, mTOR, AMPK, and casein synthesis rates with root mean square prediction errors of 16.8, 28.4, 33.0, and 54.9%, respectively. All other dependent variables were free of mean and slope bias, indicating an adequate representation of the data. Whereas mTOR was not very sensitive to changes in insulin or acetate levels, it was highly sensitive to leucine and isoleucine, and this signal appeared to be effectively transduced to casein synthesis. Although prior work had observed a relationship with additional essential AA, and data supporting those conclusions were present in the data set, we were unable to derive significant relationships with any essential

  17. Regulation and function of endothelial glycocalyx layer in vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Sieve, Irina; Münster-Kühnel, Anja K; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise

    2018-01-01

    In the vascular system, the endothelial surface layer (ESL) as the inner surface of blood vessels affects mechanotransduction, vascular permeability, rheology, thrombogenesis, and leukocyte adhesion. It creates barriers between endothelial cells and blood and neighbouring cells. The glycocalyx, composed of glycoconjugates and proteoglycans, is an integral component of the ESL and a key element in inter- and intracellular communication and tissue homeostasis. In pathophysiological conditions (atherosclerosis, infection, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes, trauma and acute lung injury) glycocalyx-degrading factors, i.e. reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, matrix metalloproteinases, heparanase and sialidases, damage the ESL, thereby impairing endothelial functions. This leads to increased capillary permeability, leucocyte-endothelium interactions, thrombosis and vascular inflammation, the latter further driving glycocalyx destruction. The present review highlights current knowledge on the vasculoprotective role of the ESL, with specific emphasis on its remodelling in inflammatory vascular diseases and discusses its potential as a novel therapeutic target to treat vascular pathologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. CD98 regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Baumer, Yvonne; McCurdy, Sara; Alcala, Martin; Mehta, Nehal; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Ginsberg, Mark H; Boisvert, William A

    2017-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) migrate and proliferate to form a stabilizing fibrous cap that encapsulates atherosclerotic plaques. CD98 is a transmembrane protein made of two subunits, CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) and one of six light chains, and is known to be involved in cell proliferation and survival. Because the influence of CD98hc on atherosclerosis development is unknown, our aim was to determine if CD98hc expressed on VSMC plays a role in shaping the morphology of atherosclerotic plaques by regulating VSMC function. In addition to determining the role of CD98hc in VSMC proliferation and apoptosis, we utilized mice with SMC-specific deletion of CD98hc (CD98hc fl/fl SM22αCre + ) to determine the effects of CD98hc deficiency on VSMC function in atherosclerotic plaque. After culturing for 5 days in vitro, CD98hc -/- VSMC displayed dramatically reduced cell counts, reduced proliferation, as well as reduced migration compared to control VSMC. Analysis of aortic VSCM after 8 weeks of HFD showed a reduction in CD98hc -/- VSMC proliferation as well as increased apoptosis compared to controls. A long-term atherosclerosis study using SMC-CD98hc -/- /ldlr -/- mice was performed. Although total plaque area was unchanged, CD98hc -/- mice showed reduced presence of VSMC within the plaque (2.1 ± 0.4% vs. 4.3 ± 0.4% SM22α-positive area per plaque area, p < 0.05), decreased collagen content, as well as increased necrotic core area (25.8 ± 1.9% vs. 10.9 ± 1.6%, p < 0.05) compared to control ldlr -/- mice. We conclude that CD98hc is required for VSMC proliferation, and that its deficiency leads to significantly reduced presence of VSMC in the neointima. Thus, CD98hc expression in VSMC contributes to the formation of plaques that are morphologically more stable, and thereby protects against atherothrombosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced expression of glucose transporter-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells via the Akt/tuberous sclerosis complex subunit 2 (TSC2)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K) pathway in experimental renal failure.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Yuan; Hsu, Shih-Che; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Lin, Shih-Hua; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Huang, Shih-Ming; Shih, Chun-Che; Hsu, Yu-Juei

    2013-02-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, and medial vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy, proliferation, and calcification play a pivotal role in uremic vasculopathy. Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) facilitates the transport of glucose into VSMCs, and GLUT1 overexpression associated with high glucose influx leads to a stimulation of VSMC proliferation. However, the role of GLUT1 in uremic vasculopathy remains unclear. This study aimed to identify changes in the expression of GLUT1 in VSMCs in the setting of experimental uremia and investigate whether Akt/tuberous sclerosis complex subunit 2 (TSC2)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K) signaling, which plays a crucial role in VSMC proliferation and glucose metabolism, is involved in the regulation of GLUT1 expression. In vivo experimental CRF was induced in Wistar rats by 5/6 nephrectomy, and the GLUT1 expression in aortic tissue was determined by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical staining. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a uremic retention solute proven with pro-proliferative effect on rat VSMCs, and we further studied the expression of GLUT1 in rat A7r5 rat embryonic aortic cells stimulated by IS in the presence or absence of phloretin, a GLUT1 inhibitor, to explore the pathogenic role of GLUT1 in uremic vasculopathy. The contribution of Akt/TSC2/mTOR/S6K signaling in modifying the GLUT1 expression was also assessed. Eight weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy, aortic tissue obtained from CRF rats exhibited increased wall thickness and VSMC hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and degeneration. Compared with the sham-operated control group, the messenger (m)RNA and protein abundance of GLUT1 were both markedly increased in CRF rats. In vitro, IS induced a significant increase in expression of GLUT1 protein as well as pro-proliferative cyclin D1 and p21 mRNA and a modest increase in expression of

  20. Smooth Muscle Ion Channels and Regulation of Vascular Tone in Resistance Arteries and Arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Tykocki, Nathan R.; Boerman, Erika M.; Jackson, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Vascular tone of resistance arteries and arterioles determines peripheral vascular resistance, contributing to the regulation of blood pressure and blood flow to, and within the body’s tissues and organs. Ion channels in the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in these blood vessels importantly contribute to the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the primary determinant of SMC contractile activity and vascular tone. Ion channels provide the main source of activator Ca2+ that determines vascular tone, and strongly contribute to setting and regulating membrane potential, which, in turn, regulates the open-state-probability of voltage gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs), the primary source of Ca2+ in resistance artery and arteriolar SMCs. Ion channel function is also modulated by vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, contributing to all aspects of the regulation of vascular tone. This review will focus on the physiology of VGCCs, voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels, strong-inward-rectifier K+ (KIR) channels, ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, ryanodine receptors (RyRs), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), and a variety of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that contribute to pressure-induced myogenic tone in resistance arteries and arterioles, the modulation of the function of these ion channels by vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, their role in the functional regulation of tissue blood flow and their dysfunction in diseases such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. PMID:28333380

  1. HPV-16 E7 expression up-regulates phospholipase D activity and promotes rapamycin resistance in a pRB-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Rabachini, Tatiana; Boccardo, Enrique; Andrade, Rubiana; Perez, Katia Regina; Nonogaki, Suely; Cuccovia, Iolanda Midea; Villa, Luisa Lina

    2018-04-27

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for the development and progression of cervical cancer. HPV-16 E6 and E7 expression is essential for induction and maintenance of the transformed phenotype. These oncoproteins interfere with the function of several intracellular proteins, including those controlling the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in which Phospolipase D (PLD) and Phosphatidic acid (PA) play a critical role. PLD activity was measured in primary human keratinocytes transduced with retroviruses expressing HPV-16 E6, E7 or E7 mutants. The cytostatic effect of rapamycin, a well-known mTOR inhibitor with potential clinical applications, was evaluated in monolayer and organotypic cultures. HPV-16 E7 expression in primary human keratinocytes leads to an increase in PLD expression and activity. Moreover, this activation is dependent on the ability of HPV-16 E7 to induce retinoblastoma protein (pRb) degradation. We also show that cells expressing HPV-16 E7 or silenced for pRb acquire resistance to the antiproliferative effect of rapamycin. This is the first indication that HPV oncoproteins can affect PLD activity. Since PA can interfere with the ability of rapamycin to bind mTOR, the use of combined strategies to target mTOR and PLD activity might be considered to treat HPV-related malignancies.

  2. Activating transcription factor 4 regulates stearate-induced vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Masashi; Ting, Tabitha C; Levi, Moshe; Saunders, Sommer J; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Miyazaki, Makoto

    2012-08-01

    Previously, we reported that stearate, a saturated fatty acid, promotes osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which stearate promotes vascular calcification. ATF4 is a pivotal transcription factor in osteoblastogenesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Increased stearate by either supplementation of exogenous stearic acid or inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) by CAY10566 induced ATF4 mRNA, phosphorylated ATF4 protein, and total ATF4 protein. Induction occurred through activation of the PERK-eIF2α pathway, along with increased osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of VSMCs. Either stearate or the SCD inhibitor but not oleate or other fatty acid treatments also increased ER stress as determined by the expression of p-eIF2α, CHOP, and the spliced form of XBP-1, which were directly correlated with ER stearate levels. ATF4 knockdown by lentiviral ATF4 shRNA blocked osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization induced by stearate and SCD inhibition. Conversely, treatment of VSMCs with an adenovirus containing ATF4 induced vascular calcification. Our results demonstrated that activation of ATF4 mediates vascular calcification induced by stearate.

  3. Activating transcription factor 4 regulates stearate-induced vascular calcification

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Masashi; Ting, Tabitha C.; Levi, Moshe; Saunders, Sommer J.; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Miyazaki, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we reported that stearate, a saturated fatty acid, promotes osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which stearate promotes vascular calcification. ATF4 is a pivotal transcription factor in osteoblastogenesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Increased stearate by either supplementation of exogenous stearic acid or inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) by CAY10566 induced ATF4 mRNA, phosphorylated ATF4 protein, and total ATF4 protein. Induction occurred through activation of the PERK-eIF2α pathway, along with increased osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of VSMCs. Either stearate or the SCD inhibitor but not oleate or other fatty acid treatments also increased ER stress as determined by the expression of p-eIF2α, CHOP, and the spliced form of XBP-1, which were directly correlated with ER stearate levels. ATF4 knockdown by lentiviral ATF4 shRNA blocked osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization induced by stearate and SCD inhibition. Conversely, treatment of VSMCs with an adenovirus containing ATF4 induced vascular calcification. Our results demonstrated that activation of ATF4 mediates vascular calcification induced by stearate. PMID:22628618

  4. Enzymatic regulation of functional vascular networks using gelatin hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Chia-Hui; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Tien, Han-Wen; Chu, Ya-Chun; Li, Yen-Cheng; Melero-Martin, Juan M.; Chen, Ying-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    To manufacture tissue engineering-based functional tissues, scaffold materials that can be sufficiently vascularized to mimic the functionality and complexity of native tissues are needed. Currently, vascular network bioengineering is largely carried out using natural hydrogels as embedding scaffolds, but most natural hydrogels have poor mechanical stability and durability, factors that critically limit their widespread use. In this study, we examined the suitability of gelatin-phenolic hydroxyl (gelatin-Ph) hydrogels that can be enzymatically crosslinked, allowing tuning of the storage modulus and the proteolytic degradation rate, for use as injectable hydrogels to support the human progenitor cell-based formation of a stable and mature vascular network. Porcine gelatin-Ph hydrogels were found to be cytocompatible with human blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells and white adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, resulting in >87% viability, and cell proliferation and spreading could be modulated by using hydrogels with different proteolytic degradability and stiffness. In addition, gelatin was extracted from mouse dermis and murine gelatin-Ph hydrogels were prepared. Importantly, implantation of human cell-laden porcine or murine gelatin-Ph hydrogels into immunodeficient mice resulted in the rapid formation of functional anastomoses between the bioengineered human vascular network and the mouse vasculature. Furthermore, the degree of enzymatic crosslinking of the gelatin-Ph hydrogels could be used to modulate cell behavior and the extent of vascular network formation in vivo. Our report details a technique for the synthesis of gelatin-Ph hydrogels from allogeneic or xenogeneic dermal skin and suggests that these hydrogels can be used for biomedical applications that require the formation of microvascular networks, including the development of complex engineered tissues. PMID:25749296

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells: A Novel Regulator of Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Furmanik, Malgorzata; Shanahan, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The idea that the arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) plays a key role in regulating many vascular pathologies has been gaining importance, as has the realisation that not enough is known about the pathological cellular mechanisms regulating ASMC function in vascular remodelling. In the past decade endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been recognised as a stress response underlying many physiological and pathological processes in various vascular cell types. Here we summarise what is known about how ER stress signalling regulates phenotypic switching, trans/dedifferentiation and apoptosis of ASMCs and contributes to atherosclerosis, hypertension, aneurysms and vascular calcification.

  6. Hydrogen peroxide prevents vascular calcification induced ROS production by regulating Nrf-2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wensong; Li, Yi; Ding, Hanlu; Du, Yaqin; Wang, Li

    2016-08-01

    Although vascular calcification in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) represents a ubiquitous human health problem, effective therapies with limited side effects are still lacking, and the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. The Nrf-2/ARE pathway is a pivotal to regulate anti-oxidative responses in vascular calcification upon ESRD. Although Nrf-2 plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and brain ischemia, the effect of Nrf-2 and oxidative stress on vascular calcification in ESRD patients is still unclear. The aim of this research was to study the protective role of hydrogen peroxide in vascular calcification and the mechanism of Nrf-2 and oxidative stress on vascular calcification. Here we used the rat vascular smooth muscle cell model of β-glycerophosphate-induced calcification resembling vascular calcification in ESRD to investigate the therapeutic effect of 0.01 mM hydrogen peroxide on vascular calcification and further explores the possible underlying mechanisms. Our current report shows the in vitro role of 0.01 mM hydrogen peroxide in protecting against intracellular ROS accumulation upon vascular calcification. Both hydrogen peroxide and sulforaphane pretreatment reduced ROS production, increased the expression of Nrf-2, and decreased the expression of Runx2 following calcification. Our study demonstrates that 0.01 mM hydrogen peroxide can effectively protect rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells against oxidative stress by preventing vascular calcification induced ROS production through Nrf-2 pathway. These data might define an antioxidant role of hydrogen peroxide in vascular calcification upon ESRD.

  7. Platelets regulate lymphatic vascular development through CLEC-2-SLP-76 signaling.

    PubMed

    Bertozzi, Cara C; Schmaier, Alec A; Mericko, Patricia; Hess, Paul R; Zou, Zhiying; Chen, Mei; Chen, Chiu-Yu; Xu, Bin; Lu, Min-min; Zhou, Diane; Sebzda, Eric; Santore, Matthew T; Merianos, Demetri J; Stadtfeld, Matthias; Flake, Alan W; Graf, Thomas; Skoda, Radek; Maltzman, Jonathan S; Koretzky, Gary A; Kahn, Mark L

    2010-07-29

    Although platelets appear by embryonic day 10.5 in the developing mouse, an embryonic role for these cells has not been identified. The SYK-SLP-76 signaling pathway is required in blood cells to regulate embryonic blood-lymphatic vascular separation, but the cell type and molecular mechanism underlying this regulatory pathway are not known. In the present study we demonstrate that platelets regulate lymphatic vascular development by directly interacting with lymphatic endothelial cells through C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) receptors. PODOPLANIN (PDPN), a transmembrane protein expressed on the surface of lymphatic endothelial cells, is required in nonhematopoietic cells for blood-lymphatic separation. Genetic loss of the PDPN receptor CLEC-2 ablates PDPN binding by platelets and confers embryonic lymphatic vascular defects like those seen in animals lacking PDPN or SLP-76. Platelet factor 4-Cre-mediated deletion of Slp-76 is sufficient to confer lymphatic vascular defects, identifying platelets as the cell type in which SLP-76 signaling is required to regulate lymphatic vascular development. Consistent with these genetic findings, we observe SLP-76-dependent platelet aggregate formation on the surface of lymphatic endothelial cells in vivo and ex vivo. These studies identify a nonhemostatic pathway in which platelet CLEC-2 receptors bind lymphatic endothelial PDPN and activate SLP-76 signaling to regulate embryonic vascular development.

  8. Nitric oxide regulates retinal vascular tone in humans.

    PubMed

    Dorner, Guido T; Garhofer, Gerhard; Kiss, Barbara; Polska, Elzbieta; Polak, Kaija; Riva, Charles E; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of basal nitric oxide (NO) on retinal vascular tone in humans. In addition, we set out to elucidate the role of NO in flicker-induced retinal vasodilation in humans. Twelve healthy young subjects were studied in a three-way crossover design. Subjects received an intravenous infusion of either placebo or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 3 or 6 mg/kg over 5 min), an inhibitor of NO synthase. Thereafter, diffuse luminance flicker was consecutively performed for 16, 32, and 64 s at a frequency of 8 Hz. The effect of L-NMMA on retinal arterial and venous diameter was assessed under resting conditions and during the hyperemic flicker response. Retinal vessel diameter was measured with a Zeiss retinal vessel analyzer. L-NMMA significantly reduced arterial diameter (3 mg/kg: -2%; 6 mg/kg: -4%, P < 0.001) and venous diameter (3 mg/kg: -5%; 6 mg/kg: -8%, P < 0.001). After placebo infusion, flicker induced a significant increase in retinal vessel diameter (P < 0.001). At a flicker duration of 64 s, arterial diameter increased by 4% and venous diameter increased by 3%. L-NMMA did not abolish these hyperemic responses but blunted venous vasodilation (P = 0.017) and arterial vasodilation (P = 0.02) in response to flicker stimulation. Our data indicate that NO contributes to basal retinal vascular tone in humans. In addition, NO appears to play a role in flicker-induced vasodilation of the human retinal vasculature.

  9. Long Noncoding RNA-GAS5: A Novel Regulator of Hypertension-Induced Vascular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang-Ning-Zhi; Shan, Kun; Yao, Mu-Di; Yao, Jin; Wang, Jia-Jian; Li, Xiang; Liu, Ban; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Ji, Yong; Jiang, Qin; Yan, Biao

    2016-09-01

    Vascular remodeling is an important pathological feature of hypertension, leading to increased vascular resistance and reduced compliance. Endothelial cell (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction is involved in vascular remodeling. Long noncoding RNAs are potential regulators of EC and VSMC function. Herein, we determined whether long noncoding RNA-growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) is involved in hypertension-related vascular remodeling. We revealed that GAS5 knockdown aggravated hypertension-induced microvascular dysfunction as shown by increased retinal neovascularization and capillary leakage. GAS5 regulated the remodeling of arteries, including caudal arteries, carotid arteries, renal arteries, and thoracic arteries. GAS5 was mainly expressed in ECs and VSMCs, and its expression was significantly downregulated in hypertension. GAS5 knockdown affected endothelial activation, endothelial proliferation, VSMC phenotypic conversion, and EC-VSMC communication in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, GAS5 regulated EC and VSMC function through β-catenin signaling. This study identified GAS5 as a critical regulator in hypertension and demonstrated the potential of gene therapy and drug development for treating hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Nitrogen-responsive Regulation of GATA Protein Family Activators Gln3 and Gat1 Occurs by Two Distinct Pathways, One Inhibited by Rapamycin and the Other by Methionine Sulfoximine*

    PubMed Central

    Georis, Isabelle; Tate, Jennifer J.; Cooper, Terrance G.; Dubois, Evelyne

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen availability regulates the transcription of genes required to degrade non-preferentially utilized nitrogen sources by governing the localization and function of transcription activators, Gln3 and Gat1. TorC1 inhibitor, rapamycin (Rap), and glutamine synthetase inhibitor, methionine sulfoximine (Msx), elicit responses grossly similar to those of limiting nitrogen, implicating both glutamine synthesis and TorC1 in the regulation of Gln3 and Gat1. To better understand this regulation, we compared Msx- versus Rap-elicited Gln3 and Gat1 localization, their DNA binding, nitrogen catabolite repression-sensitive gene expression, and the TorC1 pathway phosphatase requirements for these responses. Using this information we queried whether Rap and Msx inhibit sequential steps in a single, linear cascade connecting glutamine availability to Gln3 and Gat1 control as currently accepted or alternatively inhibit steps in two distinct parallel pathways. We find that Rap most strongly elicits nuclear Gat1 localization and expression of genes whose transcription is most Gat1-dependent. Msx, on the other hand, elicits nuclear Gln3 but not Gat1 localization and expression of genes that are most Gln3-dependent. Importantly, Rap-elicited nuclear Gln3 localization is absolutely Sit4-dependent, but that elicited by Msx is not. PP2A, although not always required for nuclear GATA factor localization, is highly required for GATA factor binding to nitrogen-responsive promoters and subsequent transcription irrespective of the gene GATA factor specificities. Collectively, our data support the existence of two different nitrogen-responsive regulatory pathways, one inhibited by Msx and the other by rapamycin. PMID:22039046

  11. Nitrogen-responsive regulation of GATA protein family activators Gln3 and Gat1 occurs by two distinct pathways, one inhibited by rapamycin and the other by methionine sulfoximine.

    PubMed

    Georis, Isabelle; Tate, Jennifer J; Cooper, Terrance G; Dubois, Evelyne

    2011-12-30

    Nitrogen availability regulates the transcription of genes required to degrade non-preferentially utilized nitrogen sources by governing the localization and function of transcription activators, Gln3 and Gat1. TorC1 inhibitor, rapamycin (Rap), and glutamine synthetase inhibitor, methionine sulfoximine (Msx), elicit responses grossly similar to those of limiting nitrogen, implicating both glutamine synthesis and TorC1 in the regulation of Gln3 and Gat1. To better understand this regulation, we compared Msx- versus Rap-elicited Gln3 and Gat1 localization, their DNA binding, nitrogen catabolite repression-sensitive gene expression, and the TorC1 pathway phosphatase requirements for these responses. Using this information we queried whether Rap and Msx inhibit sequential steps in a single, linear cascade connecting glutamine availability to Gln3 and Gat1 control as currently accepted or alternatively inhibit steps in two distinct parallel pathways. We find that Rap most strongly elicits nuclear Gat1 localization and expression of genes whose transcription is most Gat1-dependent. Msx, on the other hand, elicits nuclear Gln3 but not Gat1 localization and expression of genes that are most Gln3-dependent. Importantly, Rap-elicited nuclear Gln3 localization is absolutely Sit4-dependent, but that elicited by Msx is not. PP2A, although not always required for nuclear GATA factor localization, is highly required for GATA factor binding to nitrogen-responsive promoters and subsequent transcription irrespective of the gene GATA factor specificities. Collectively, our data support the existence of two different nitrogen-responsive regulatory pathways, one inhibited by Msx and the other by rapamycin.

  12. WOX4 and WOX14 act downstream of the PXY receptor kinase to regulate plant vascular proliferation independently of any role in vascular organisation.

    PubMed

    Etchells, J Peter; Provost, Claire M; Mishra, Laxmi; Turner, Simon R

    2013-05-01

    In plants, the cambium and procambium are meristems from which vascular tissue is derived. In contrast to most plant cells, stem cells within these tissues are thin and extremely long. They are particularly unusual as they divide down their long axis in a highly ordered manner, parallel to the tangential axis of the stem. CLAVATA3-LIKE/ESR-RELATED 41 (CLE41) and PHLOEM INTERCALATED WITH XYLEM (PXY) are a multifunctional ligand-receptor pair that regulate vascular cell division, vascular organisation and xylem differentiation in vascular tissue. A transcription factor gene, WUSCHEL HOMEOBOX RELATED 4 (WOX4) has been shown to act downstream of PXY. Here we show that WOX4 acts redundantly with WOX14 in the regulation of vascular cell division, but that these genes have no function in regulating vascular organisation. Furthermore, we identify an interaction between PXY and the receptor kinase ERECTA (ER) that affects the organisation of the vascular tissue but not the rate of cell division, suggesting that cell division and vascular organisation are genetically separable. Our observations also support a model whereby tissue organisation and cell division are integrated via PXY and ER signalling, which together coordinate development of different cell types that are essential for normal stem formation.

  13. Combination of Rapamycin and Resveratrol for Treatment of Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Alayev, Anya; Salamon, Rachel S; Schwartz, Naomi S; Berman, Adi Y; Wiener, Sara L; Holz, Marina K

    2017-02-01

    Loss of TSC1 function, a crucial negative regulator of mTOR signaling, is a common alteration in bladder cancer. Mutations in other members of the PI3K pathway, leading to mTOR activation, are also found in bladder cancer. This provides rationale for targeting mTOR for treatment of bladder cancer characterized by TSC1 mutations and/or mTOR activation. In this study, we asked whether combination treatment with rapamycin and resveratrol could be effective in concurrently inhibiting mTOR and PI3K signaling and inducing cell death in bladder cancer cells. In combination with rapamycin, resveratrol was able to block rapamycin-induced Akt activation, while maintaining mTOR pathway inhibition. In addition, combination treatment with rapamycin and resveratrol induced cell death specifically in TSC1 -/- MEF cells, and not in wild-type MEFs. Similarly, resveratrol alone or in combination with rapamycin induced cell death in human bladder cancer cell lines. These data indicate that administration of resveratrol together with rapamycin may be a promising therapeutic option for treatment of bladder cancer. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 436-446, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Biphasic rapamycin effects in lymphoma and carcinoma treatment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Dao, Vinh; Padrón, Álvaro; Drerup, Justin M.; Lao, Shunhua; Liu, Aijie; Hurez, Vincent; Curiel, Tyler J.

    2017-01-01

    mTOR drives tumor growth but also supports T cell function, rendering the applications of mTOR inhibitors complex especially in T cell malignancies. Here we studied the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin in mouse EL4 T cell lymphoma. Typical pharmacologic rapamycin (1–8 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor burden via direct suppression of tumor cell proliferation and improved survival in EL4 challenge independent of anti-tumor immunity. Denileukin diftitox (DD)-mediated depletion of regulatory T cells significantly slowed EL4 growth in vivo in a T cell-dependent fashion. However, typical rapamycin inhibited T cell activation and tumor infiltration in vivo and failed to boost DD treatment effects. Low dose rapamycin (LD, 75 μg/kg) increased potentially beneficial CD44hiCD62L+ CD8+ central memory T cells in EL4 challenge, but without clinical benefit. LD rapamycin significantly enhanced DD treatment efficacy, but DD plus LD rapamycin treatment effects were independent of anti-tumor immunity. Instead, rapamycin up-regulated EL4 IL-2 receptor in vitro and in vivo, facilitating direct DD tumor cell killing. LD rapamycin augmented DD efficacy against B16 melanoma and a human B cell lymphoma, but not against human Jurkat T cell lymphoma or ID8agg ovarian cancer cells. Treatment effects correlated with IL-2R expression, but mechanisms in some tumors were not fully defined. Overall, our data define a distinct, biphasic mechanisms of action of mTOR inhibition at doses that are clinically exploitable, including in T cell lymphomas. PMID:27737881

  15. Rapamycin causes growth arrest and inhibition of invasion in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Wang, Xiaobo; Zhu, Jiaxue; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a highly malignant tumor that is characterized by a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis and notable for its lack of response to conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Rapamycin, the inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is a valuable drug with diverse clinical applications and regulates many cellular processes. However, the effects of rapamycin on cell growth and invasion of human chondrosarcoma cells are not well known. We determined the effect of rapamycin on cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest and invasion by using MTS, flow cytometry and invasion assays in two human chondrosarcoma cell lines, SW1353 and JJ012. Cell cycle regulatory and invasion-related genes' expression analysis was performed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). We also evaluated the effect of rapamycin on tumor growth by using mice xenograph models. Rapamycin significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest and decreased the invasion ability of human chondrosarcoma cells. Meanwhile, rapamycin modulated the cell cycle regulatory and invasion-related genes' expression. Furthermore, the tumor growth of mice xenograph models with human chondrosarcoma cells was significantly inhibited by rapamycin. These results provided further insight into the role of rapamycin in chondrosarcoma. Therefore, rapamycin targeted therapy may be a potential treatment strategy for chondrosarcoma.

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling regulates the segregation of artery and vein via ERK activity during vascular development

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Se-Hee; Schmitt, Christopher E.; Woolls, Melissa J.

    Highlights: ► VEGF-A signaling regulates the segregation of axial vessels. ► VEGF-A signaling is mediated by PKC and ERK in this process. ► Ectopic activation of ERK is sufficient to rescue defects in vessel segregation. -- Abstract: Segregation of two axial vessels, the dorsal aorta and caudal vein, is one of the earliest patterning events occur during development of vasculature. Despite the importance of this process and recent advances in our understanding on vascular patterning during development, molecular mechanisms that coordinate the segregation of axial vessels remain largely elusive. In this report, we find that vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A)more » signaling regulates the segregation of dorsal aorta and axial vein during development. Inhibition of Vegf-A pathway components including ligand Vegf-A and its cognate receptor Kdrl, caused failure in segregation of axial vessels in zebrafish embryos. Similarly, chemical inhibition of Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Map2k1)/Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (Erk) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3 K), which are downstream effectors of Vegf-A signaling pathway, led to the fusion of two axial vessels. Moreover, we find that restoring Erk activity by over-expression of constitutively active MEK in embryos with a reduced level of Vegf-A signaling can rescue the defects in axial vessel segregation. Taken together, our data show that segregation of axial vessels requires the function of Vegf-A signaling, and Erk may function as the major downstream effector in this process.« less

  17. Protein kinase FgSch9 serves as a mediator of the target of rapamycin and high osmolarity glycerol pathways and regulates multiple stress responses and secondary metabolism in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qin; Zhang, Chengqi; Yu, Fangwei; Yin, Yanni; Shim, Won-Bo; Ma, Zhonghua

    2015-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein kinase Sch9 is one of the downstream effectors of the target of rapamycin (TOR) complex 1 and plays multiple roles in stress resistance, longevity and nutrient sensing. However, the functions of Sch9 orthologs in filamentous fungi, particularly in pathogenic species, have not been characterized to date. Here, we investigated biological and genetic functions of FgSch9 in Fusarium graminearum. The FgSCH9 deletion mutant (ΔFgSch9) was defective in aerial hyphal growth, hyphal branching and conidial germination. The mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, cell wall-damaging agents, and to rapamycin, while showing increased thermal tolerance. We identified FgMaf1 as one of the FgSch9-interacting proteins that plays an important role in regulating mycotoxin biosynthesis and virulence of F. graminearum. Co-immunoprecipitation and affinity capture-mass spectrometry assays showed that FgSch9 also interacts with FgTor and FgHog1. More importantly, both ΔFgSch9 and FgHog1 null mutant (ΔFgHog1) exhibited increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses. This defect was more severe in the FgSch9/FgHog1 double mutant. Taken together, we propose that FgSch9 serves as a mediator of the TOR and high osmolarity glycerol pathways, and regulates vegetative differentiation, multiple stress responses and secondary metabolism in F. graminearum. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Endothelial Barrier and Metabolism: New Kids on the Block Regulating Bone Marrow Vascular Niches.

    PubMed

    Harjes, Ulrike; Verfaillie, Catherine; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-05-09

    The vasculature of the bone marrow remains poorly characterized, yet crucial to maintain hematopoiesis and retain stem cells in a quiescent state. A recent study by Itkin et al. (2016) in Nature reports how vascular barrier integrity and endothelial cell metabolism regulate hematopoietic stem cell quiescence and leukocyte trafficking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Fractal-based Analysis of the Regulation of Vascular Remodeling in the Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Genee S.

    2004-01-01

    Critical to the advancement of space exploration is the safety and well being of astronauts while in space. This study focuses on the second highest of NASA-defined risk categories for human space exploration, cardiovascular alterations. Current research of this problem is being tackled by investigating angiogenesis through vascular remodeling. Angiogenesis is the growth and formation of new blood vessels. Angiogenesis is an important part of maintaining normal development and bodily functions. The loss of control of this process, either insufficient or excessive vascular growth, is considered a common denominator in many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Objectives are presently being met by observing the effects of various regulators, like thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) and a novel vessel tortuosity factor (TF), through the use of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of Japanese quail embryos, which enables the direct optical imaging of 2-dimensional vascular branching trees. Research within the CAM is being performed to deduce numerous methods of regulating vessel growth. This project centers on the ability of a novel vessel regulator to affect angiogenesis. For example, it is hypothesized that the TSP-1 will inhibit the growth of CAM vasculature. Fractal/VESGEN-based techniques and PTV analysis are the methodologies used to investigate vascular differentiation. This tactic is used to quantify results and measure the growth patterns and morphology of blood vessels. The regulatory mechanisms posed by this vessel regulator can be deduced by alterations found within the vasculature patterns of quail embryos.

  20. Vascular Repair After Menstruation Involves Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Receptor Phosphorylation by sFLT-1

    PubMed Central

    Graubert, Michael D.; Asuncion Ortega, Maria; Kessel, Bruce; Mortola, Joseph F.; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Regeneration of the endometrium after menstruation requires a rapid and highly organized vascular response. Potential regulators of this process include members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of proteins and their receptors. Although VEGF expression has been detected in the endometrium, the relationship between VEGF production, receptor activation, and endothelial cell proliferation during the endometrial cycle is poorly understood. To better ascertain the relevance of VEGF family members during postmenstrual repair, we have evaluated ligands, receptors, and activity by receptor phosphorylation in human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle. We found that VEGF is significantly increased at the onset of menstruation, a result of the additive effects of hypoxia, transforming growth factor-α, and interleukin-1β. Both VEGF receptors, FLT-1 and KDR, followed a similar pattern. However, functional activity of KDR, as determined by phosphorylation studies, revealed activation in the late menstrual and early proliferative phases. The degree of KDR phosphorylation was inversely correlated with the presence of sFLT-1. Endothelial cell proliferation analysis in endometrium showed a peak during the late menstrual and early proliferative phases in concert with the presence of VEGF, VEGF receptor phosphorylation, and decrease of sFLT-1. Together, these results suggest that VEGF receptor activation and the subsequent modulation of sFLT-1 in the late menstrual phase likely contributes to the onset of angiogenesis and endothelial repair in the human endometrium. PMID:11290558

  1. Peptide-modified PELCL electrospun membranes for regulation of vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fang; Jia, Xiaoling; Yang, Yang; Yang, Qingmao; Gao, Chao; Zhao, Yunhui; Fan, Yubo; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of biomaterials used in small vascular repair depends greatly on their ability to interact with vascular endothelial cells (VECs). Rapid endothelialization of the vascular grafts is a promising way to prevent thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia. In this work, modification of electrospun membranes of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PELCL) by three different peptides for regulation of VECs were studied in order to obtain ideal bioactive biomaterials as small diameter vascular grafts. QK (a mimetic peptide to vascular endothelial growth factor), Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV, a specific adhesive peptide to VECs) and Val-Ala-Pro-Gly (VAPG, a specific adhesive peptide to vascular smooth muscle cells) were investigated. Surface properties of the modified membranes and the response of VECs were verified. It was found that protein adsorption and platelet adhesion were effectively suppressed with the introduction of QK, REDV or VAPG peptides on the PELCL electrospun membranes. Both QK- and REDV-modified electrospun membranes could accelerate the proliferation of VECs in the first 9days, and the QK-modified electrospun membrane promoted cell proliferation more significantly than the REDV-modified one. The REDV-modified PELCL membrane was the most favorable for VECs adhesion than QK- and VAPG-modified membranes. It was suggested that QK- or REDV-modified PELCL electrospun membranes may have great potential applications in cardiovascular biomaterials for rapid endothelialization in situ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular Regulation of Endothelial Cells by NF-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    cancer progression. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine threonine kinase, that exists in two distinct signaling complexes: mTORC1 and...abnormalities such as diabetes , with known vascular complications. Thus mTOR may be a significant regulator of endothelial cell functions

  3. Delayed reendothelialization with rapamycin is rescued by the addition of nicorandil in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying Qian; Tian, Feng; Chen, Jin Song; Chen, Yun Dai; Zhou, Ying; Li, Bo; Ma, Qiang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-11-15

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive agent that is added to drug eluting stents. It prevents restenosis, but it also impairs reendothelialization. Nicorandil is a hybrid agent with adenosine triphosphated (ATP)-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel opener and nitrate properties. It prevents oxidative stress and cell apoptosis induced by rapamycin in endothelial cells in vitro. However, whether nicorandil promotes reendothelialization after angioplasty delayed by rapamycin remains to be determined. Balloon injury model was established in SD rats. Nicorandil increased reendothelialization impaired by rapamycin, and it decreased xanthine oxidase (XO)-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by rapamycin. In addition, eNOS expression inhibited by rapamycin was increased by nicorandil in vivo. In vitro, rapamycin-impeded cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) migration, proliferation and rapamycin-induced ROS production were reversed by nicorandil. Knockdown of XO partially inhibited rapamycin-induced ROS production and cell apoptosis in CMECs, and it promoted CMECs migration and proliferation suppressed by rapamycin. Knockdown of Akt partially prevents eNOS upregulation promoted by nicorandil. The beneficial effect of nicorandil is exhibited by inhibiting XO and up-regulating Akt pathway. Nicorandil combined with rapamycin in effect rescue the deficiencies of rapamycin alone in arterial healing after angioplasty.

  4. Delayed reendothelialization with rapamycin is rescued by the addition of nicorandil in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying Qian; Tian, Feng; Chen, Jin Song; Chen, Yun Dai; Zhou, Ying; Li, Bo; Ma, Qiang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive agent that is added to drug eluting stents. It prevents restenosis, but it also impairs reendothelialization. Nicorandil is a hybrid agent with adenosine triphosphated (ATP)-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel opener and nitrate properties. It prevents oxidative stress and cell apoptosis induced by rapamycin in endothelial cells in vitro. However, whether nicorandil promotes reendothelialization after angioplasty delayed by rapamycin remains to be determined. Balloon injury model was established in SD rats. Nicorandil increased reendothelialization impaired by rapamycin, and it decreased xanthine oxidase (XO)-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by rapamycin. In addition, eNOS expression inhibited by rapamycin was increased by nicorandil in vivo. In vitro, rapamycin-impeded cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) migration, proliferation and rapamycin-induced ROS production were reversed by nicorandil. Knockdown of XO partially inhibited rapamycin-induced ROS production and cell apoptosis in CMECs, and it promoted CMECs migration and proliferation suppressed by rapamycin. Knockdown of Akt partially prevents eNOS upregulation promoted by nicorandil. The beneficial effect of nicorandil is exhibited by inhibiting XO and up-regulating Akt pathway. Nicorandil combined with rapamycin in effect rescue the deficiencies of rapamycin alone in arterial healing after angioplasty. PMID:27713157

  5. Soluble VEGF isoforms are essential for establishing epiphyseal vascularization and regulating chondrocyte development and survival.

    PubMed

    Maes, Christa; Stockmans, Ingrid; Moermans, Karen; Van Looveren, Riet; Smets, Nico; Carmeliet, Peter; Bouillon, Roger; Carmeliet, Geert

    2004-01-01

    VEGF is crucial for metaphyseal bone vascularization. In contrast, the angiogenic factors required for vascularization of epiphyseal cartilage are unknown, although this represents a developmentally and clinically important aspect of bone growth. The VEGF gene is alternatively transcribed into VEGF(120), VEGF(164), and VEGF(188) isoforms that differ in matrix association and receptor binding. Their role in bone development was studied in mice expressing single isoforms. Here we report that expression of only VEGF(164) or only VEGF(188) (in VEGF(188/188) mice) was sufficient for metaphyseal development. VEGF(188/188) mice, however, showed dwarfism, disrupted development of growth plates and secondary ossification centers, and knee joint dysplasia. This phenotype was at least partly due to impaired vascularization surrounding the epiphysis, resulting in ectopically increased hypoxia and massive chondrocyte apoptosis in the interior of the epiphyseal cartilage. In addition to the vascular defect, we provide in vitro evidence that the VEGF(188) isoform alone is also insufficient to regulate chondrocyte proliferation and survival responses to hypoxia. Consistent herewith, chondrocytes in or close to the hypoxic zone in VEGF(188/188) mice showed increased proliferation and decreased differentiation. These findings indicate that the insoluble VEGF(188) isoform is insufficient for establishing epiphyseal vascularization and regulating cartilage development during endochondral bone formation.

  6. Vascular pattern of the dentate gyrus is regulated by neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Pombero, Ana; Garcia-Lopez, Raquel; Estirado, Alicia; Martinez, Salvador

    2018-05-01

    Neurogenesis is a vital process that begins during early embryonic development and continues until adulthood, though in the latter case, it is restricted to the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG). In particular, the DG's neurogenic properties are structurally and functionally unique, which may be related to its singular vascular pattern. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis share molecular signals and act synergistically, supporting the concept of a neurogenic niche as a functional unit between neural precursors cells and their environment, in which the blood vessels play an important role. Whereas it is well known that vascular development controls neural proliferation in the embryonary and in the adult brain, by releasing neurotrophic factors; the potential influence of neural cells on vascular components during angiogenesis is largely unknown. We have demonstrated that the reduction of neural progenitors leads to a significant impairment of vascular development. Since VEGF is a potential regulator in the neurogenesis-angiogenesis crosstalk, we were interested in assessing the possible role of this molecule in the hippocampal neurovascular development. Our results showed that VEGF is the molecule involved in the regulation of vascular development by neural progenitor cells in the DG.

  7. Soluble VEGF isoforms are essential for establishingepiphyseal vascularization and regulating chondrocyte development and survival

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Christa; Stockmans, Ingrid; Moermans, Karen; Van Looveren, Riet; Smets, Nico; Carmeliet, Peter; Bouillon, Roger; Carmeliet, Geert

    2004-01-01

    VEGF is crucial for metaphyseal bone vascularization. In contrast, the angiogenic factors required for vascularization of epiphyseal cartilage are unknown, although this represents a developmentally and clinically important aspect of bone growth. The VEGF gene is alternatively transcribed into VEGF120, VEGF164, and VEGF188 isoforms that differ in matrix association and receptor binding. Their role in bone development was studied in mice expressing single isoforms. Here we report that expression of only VEGF164 or only VEGF188 (in VEGF188/188 mice) was sufficient for metaphyseal development. VEGF188/188 mice, however, showed dwarfism, disrupted development of growth plates and secondary ossification centers, and knee joint dysplasia. This phenotype was at least partly due to impaired vascularization surrounding the epiphysis, resulting in ectopically increased hypoxia and massive chondrocyte apoptosis in the interior of the epiphyseal cartilage. In addition to the vascular defect, we provide in vitro evidence that the VEGF188 isoform alone is also insufficient to regulate chondrocyte proliferation and survival responses to hypoxia. Consistent herewith, chondrocytes in or close to the hypoxic zone in VEGF188/188 mice showed increased proliferation and decreased differentiation. These findings indicate that the insoluble VEGF188 isoform is insufficient for establishing epiphyseal vascularization and regulating cartilage development during endochondral bone formation. PMID:14722611

  8. Synergistic antitumor activity of the combination of salubrinal and rapamycin against human cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaofang; Zhang, Chunyan; Zhou, Hong; Xiao, Bin; Cheng, Ying; Wang, Jinju; Yao, Fuli; Duan, Chunyan; Chen, Run; Liu, Youping; Feng, Chunhong; Li, Hong; Li, Jing; Dai, Rongyang

    2016-12-20

    Less is known about the roles of eukaryotic initiation factor alpha (eIF2α) in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Here, we report that eIF2α inhibitor salubrinal inhibits the proliferation of human CCA cells. Clinical application of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors only has moderate antitumor efficacy. Therefore, combination approaches may be required for effective clinical use of mTOR inhibitors. Here, we investigated the efficacy of the combination of salubrinal and rapamycin in the treatment of CCA. Our data demonstrate a synergistic antitumor effect of the combination of salubrinal and rapamycin against CCA cells. Rapamycin significantly inhibits the proliferation of CCA cells. However, rapamycin initiates a negative feedback activation of Akt. Inhibition of Akt by salubrinal potentiates the efficacy of rapamycin both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, rapamycin treatment results in the up-regulation of Bcl-xL in a xenograft mouse model. It is notable that salubrinal inhibits rapamycin-induced Bcl-xL up-regulation in vivo. Taken together, our data suggest that salubrinal and rapamycin combination might be a new and effective strategy for the treatment of CCA.

  9. CXCR6 induces prostate cancer progression by the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhua; Lu, Yi; Wang, Jingchen; Koch, Alisa E; Zhang, Jian; Taichman, Russell S

    2008-12-15

    Previous studies show that the chemokine CXCL16 and its receptor CXCR6 are likely to contribute to prostate cancer (PCa). In this investigation, the role of the CXCR6 receptor in PCa was further explored. CXCR6 protein expression was examined using high-density tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry. Expression of CXCR6 showed strong epithelial staining that correlated with Gleason score. In vitro and in vivo studies in PCa cell lines suggested that alterations in CXCR6 expression were associated with invasive activities and tumor growth. In addition, CXCR6 expression was able to regulate expression of the proangiogenic factors interleukin (IL)-8 or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are likely to participate in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis. Finally, we found that CXCL16 signaling induced the activation of Akt, p70S6K, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 included in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways, which are located downstream of Akt. Furthermore, rapamycin not only drastically inhibited CXCL16-induced PCa cell invasion and growth but reduced secretion of IL-8 or VEGF levels and inhibited expression of other CXCR6 targets including CD44 and matrix metalloproteinase 3 in PCa cells. Together, our data shows for the first time that the CXCR6/AKT/mTOR pathway plays a central role in the development of PCa. Blocking the CXCR6/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway may prove beneficial to prevent metastasis and provide a more effective therapeutic strategy for PCa.

  10. Blood-brain barrier leakage after status epilepticus in rapamycin-treated rats II: Potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Erwin A; Otte, Willem M; Wadman, Wytse J; Aronica, Eleonora; Kooij, Gijs; de Vries, Helga E; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Gorter, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage may play a pro-epileptogenic role after status epilepticus. In the accompanying contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) study we showed that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin reduced BBB leakage and seizure activity during the chronic epileptic phase. Given rapamycin's role in growth and immune response, the potential therapeutic effects of rapamycin after status epilepticus with emphasis on brain inflammation and brain vasculature were investigated. Seven weeks after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus, rats were perfusion fixed and (immuno)histochemistry was performed using several glial and vascular markers. In addition, an in vitro model for the human BBB was used to determine the effects of rapamycin on transendothelial electrical resistance as a measure for BBB integrity. (Immuno)histochemistry showed that local blood vessel density, activated microglia, and astrogliosis were reduced in rapamycin-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated rats. In vitro studies showed that rapamycin could attenuate TNFα-induced endothelial barrier breakdown. These data suggest that rapamycin improves BBB function during the chronic epileptic phase by a reduction of local brain inflammation and blood vessel density that can contribute to a milder form of epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. The Wnt signaling regulator R-spondin 3 promotes angioblast and vascular development.

    PubMed

    Kazanskaya, Olga; Ohkawara, Bisei; Heroult, Melanie; Wu, Wei; Maltry, Nicole; Augustin, Hellmut G; Niehrs, Christof

    2008-11-01

    The vertebrate embryonic vasculature develops from angioblasts, which are specified from mesodermal precursors and develop in close association with blood cells. The signals that regulate embryonic vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are incompletely understood. Here, we show that R-spondin 3 (Rspo3), a member of a novel family of secreted proteins in vertebrates that activate Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, plays a key role in these processes. In Xenopus embryos, morpholino antisense knockdown of Rspo3 induces vascular defects because Rspo3 is essential for regulating the balance between angioblast and blood cell specification. In mice, targeted disruption of Rspo3 leads to embryonic lethality caused by vascular defects. Specifically in the placenta, remodeling of the vascular plexus is impaired. In human endothelial cells, R-spondin signaling promotes proliferation and sprouting angiogenesis in vitro, indicating that Rspo3 can regulate endothelial cells directly. We show that vascular endothelial growth factor is an immediate early response gene and a mediator of R-spondin signaling. The results identify Rspo3 as a novel, evolutionarily conserved angiogenic factor in embryogenesis.

  12. Nitric oxide (NO) in normal and hypoxic vascular regulation of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Kai E; Eveland, Randy L; Gladwin, Mark T; Swenson, Erik R

    2005-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator in terrestrial vertebrates, but whether vascular endothelial-derived NO plays a role in vascular regulation in fish remains controversial. To explore this issue, a study was made of spiny dogfish sharks (Squalus acanthias) in normoxia and acute hypoxia (60 min exposure to seawater equilibrated with 3% oxygen) with various agents known to alter NO metabolism or availability. In normoxia, nitroprusside (a NO donor) reduced blood pressure by 20%, establishing that vascular smooth muscle responds to NO. L-arginine, the substrate for NO synthase, had no hemodynamic effect. Acetylcholine, which stimulates endothelial NO and prostaglandin production in mammals, reduced blood pressure, but also caused marked bradycardia. L-NAME, an inhibitor of all NO synthases, caused a small 10% rise in blood pressure, but cell-free hemoglobin (a potent NO scavenger and hypertensive agent in mammals) had no effect. Acute hypoxia caused a 15% fall in blood pressure, which was blocked by L-NAME and cell-free hemoglobin. Serum nitrite, a marker of NO production, rose with hypoxia, but not with L-NAME. Results suggest that NO is not an endothelial-derived vasodilator in the normoxic elasmobranch. The hypertensive effect of L-NAME may represent inhibition of NO production in the CNS and nerves regulating blood pressure. In acute hypoxia, there is a rapid up-regulation of vascular NO production that appears to be responsible for hypoxic vasodilation.

  13. The Role of PGC-1α in Vascular Regulation: Implications for Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kadlec, Andrew O.; Chabowski, Dawid S.; Ait-Aissa, Karima; Gutterman, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction results in high levels of oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, leading to disruption of endothelial homeostasis. Recent discoveries have clarified several pathways whereby mitochondrial dysregulation contributes to endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease burden. One such pathway centers around PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator linked to mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant defense, among other functions. Although primarily investigated for its therapeutic potential in obesity and skeletal muscle differentiation, the ability of PGC-1α to alter a multitude of cellular functions has sparked interest in its role in the vasculature. Within this context, recent studies demonstrate that PGC-1α plays a key role in endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell regulation through effects on oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and cell proliferation. The ability of PGC-1α to impact these parameters is relevant to vascular disease progression, particularly in relation to atherosclerosis. Upregulation of PGC-1α can prevent the development of, and even encourage regression of, atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, PGC-1α is poised to serve as a promising target in vascular disease. This review details recent findings related to PGC-1α in vascular regulation, regulation of PGC-1α itself, the role of PGC-1α in atherosclerosis, and therapies that target this key protein. PMID:27312223

  14. Autophagy and cardiovascular aging: lesson learned from rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sreejayan; Ren, Jun

    2012-06-01

    The biological aging process is commonly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Several theories have been put forward for aging-associated deterioration in ventricular function, including attenuation of growth hormone (insulin-like growth factors and insulin) signaling, loss of DNA replication and repair, histone acetylation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Recent evidence has depicted a rather unique role of autophagy as another important pathway in the regulation of longevity and senescence. Autophagy is a predominant cytoprotective (rather than self-destructive) process. It carries a prominent role in determination of lifespan. Reduced autophagy has been associated with aging, leading to accumulation of dysfunctional or damaged proteins and organelles. To the contrary, measures such as caloric restriction and exercise may promote autophagy to delay aging and associated comorbidities. Stimulation of autophagy using rapamycin may represent a novel strategy to prolong lifespan and combat aging-associated diseases. Rapamycin regulates autophagy through inhibition of the nutrient-sensing molecule mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Inhibition of mTOR through rapamycin and caloric restriction promotes longevity. The purpose of this review is to recapitulate some of the recent advances in an effort to better understand the interplay between rapamycin-induced autophagy and decelerating cardiovascular aging.

  15. Gap Junction Regulation of Vascular Tone: Implications of Modulatory Intercellular Communication During Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Ampey, Bryan C.; Morschauser, Timothy J.; Lampe, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    In the vasculature, gap junctions (GJ) play a multifaceted role by serving as direct conduits for cell–cell intercellular communication via the facilitated diffusion of signaling molecules. GJs are essential for the control of gene expression and coordinated vascular development in addition to vascular function. The coupling of endothelial cells to each other, as well as with vascular smooth muscle cells via GJs, plays a relevant role in the control of vasomotor tone, tissue perfusion and arterial blood pressure. The regulation of cell-signaling is paramount to cardiovascular adaptations of pregnancy. Pregnancy requires highly developed cell-to-cell coupling, which is affected partly through the formation of intercellular GJs by Cx43, a gap junction protein, within adjacent cell membranes to help facilitate the increase of uterine blood flow (UBF) in order to ensure adequate perfusion for nutrient and oxygen delivery to the placenta and thus the fetus. One mode of communication that plays a critical role in regulating Cx43 is the release of endothelial-derived vasodilators such as prostacyclin (PGI2) and nitric oxide (NO) and their respective signaling mechanisms involving second messengers (cAMP and cGMP, respectively) that are likely to be important in maintaining UBF. Therefore, the assertion we present in this review is that GJs play an integral if not a central role in maintaining UBF by controlling rises in vasodilators (PGI2 and NO) via cyclic nucleotides. In this review, we discuss: (1) GJ structure and regulation; (2) second messenger regulation of GJ phosphorylation and formation; (3) pregnancy-induced changes in cell-signaling; and (4) the role of uterine arterial endothelial GJs during gestation. These topics integrate the current knowledge of this scientific field with interpretations and hypotheses regarding the vascular effects that are mediated by GJs and their relationship with vasodilatory vascular adaptations required for modulating the

  16. Acute systemic rapamycin induces neurobehavioral alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Hadamitzky, Martin; Herring, Arne; Keyvani, Kathy; Doenlen, Raphael; Krügel, Ute; Bösche, Katharina; Orlowski, Kathrin; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2014-10-15

    Rapamycin is a drug with antiproliferative and immunosuppressive properties, widely used for prevention of acute graft rejection and cancer therapy. It specifically inhibits the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a protein kinase known to play an important role in cell growth, proliferation and antibody production. Clinical observations show that patients undergoing therapy with immunosuppressive drugs frequently suffer from affective disorders such as anxiety or depression. However, whether these symptoms are attributed to the action of the distinct compounds remains rather elusive. The present study investigated in rats neurobehavioral consequences of acute rapamycin treatment. Systemic administration of a single low dose rapamycin (3mg/kg) led to enhanced neuronal activity in the amygdala analyzed by intracerebral electroencephalography and FOS protein expression 90min after drug injection. Moreover, behavioral investigations revealed a rapamycin-induced increase in anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze and in the open-field. The behavioral alterations correlated to enhanced amygdaloid expression of KLK8 and FKBP51, proteins that have been implicated in the development of anxiety and depression. Together, these results demonstrate that acute blockade of mTOR signaling by acute rapamycin administration not only causes changes in neuronal activity, but also leads to elevated protein expression in protein kinase pathways others than mTOR, contributing to the development of anxiety-like behavior. Given the pivotal role of the amygdala in mood regulation, associative learning, and modulation of cognitive functions, our findings raise the question whether therapy with rapamycin may induce alterations in patients neuropsychological functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapamycin causes down-regulation of CCR5 and accumulation of anti-HIV β-chemokines: An approach to suppress R5 strains of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, A.; Amoroso, A.; Davis, C.; Le, N.; Reardon, E.; Dominique, J. K.; Klingebiel, E.; Gallo, R. C.; Redfield, R. R.

    2003-01-01

    Propagation of R5 strains of HIV-1 on CD4 lymphocytes and macrophages requires expression of the CCR5 coreceptor on the cell surface. Individuals lacking CCR5 (CCR5Δ32 homozygous genotype) are phenotypically normal and resistant to infection with HIV-1. CCR5 expression on lymphocytes depends on signaling through the IL-2 receptor. By FACS analysis we demonstrate that rapamycin (RAPA), a drug that disrupts IL-2 receptor signaling, reduces CCR5 surface expression on T cells at concentrations as low as 1 nM. In addition, lower concentrations of RAPA (0.01 nM) were sufficient to reduce CCR5 surface expression on maturing monocytes. PCR analysis on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) showed that RAPA interfered with CCR5 expression at the transcriptional level. Reduced expression of CCR5 on PBMCs cultured in the presence of RAPA was associated with increased extracellular levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β. In infectivity assays, RAPA suppressed the replication of R5 strains of HIV-1 both in PBMC and macrophage cultures. In total PBMC cultures, RAPA-mediated inhibition of CCR5-using strains of HIV-1 occurred at 0.01 nM, a concentration of drug that is ∼103 times lower than therapeutic through levels of drug in renal transplant recipients. In addition, RAPA enhanced the antiviral activity of the CCR5 antagonist TAK-779. These results suggest that low concentrations of RAPA may have a role in both the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection. PMID:12915736

  18. mTORC1 inhibitors rapamycin and metformin affect cardiovascular markers differentially in ZDF rats.

    PubMed

    Nistala, Ravi; Raja, Ahmad; Pulakat, Lakshmi

    2017-03-01

    Mammalian target for rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a common target for the action of immunosuppressant macrolide rapamycin and glucose-lowering metformin. Inhibition of mTORC1 can exert both beneficial and detrimental effects in different pathologies. Here, we investigated the differential effects of rapamycin (1.2 mg/kg per day delivered subcutaneously for 6 weeks) and metformin (300 mg/kg per day delivered orally for 11 weeks) treatments on male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats that mimic the cardiorenal pathology of type 2 diabetic patients and progress to insulin insufficiency. Rapamycin and metformin improved proteinuria, and rapamycin also reduced urinary gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) indicating improvement of tubular health. Metformin reduced food and water intake, and urinary sodium and potassium, whereas rapamycin increased urinary sodium. Metformin reduced plasma alkaline phosphatase, but induced transaminitis as evidenced by significant increases in plasma AST and ALT. Metformin also induced hyperinsulinemia, but did not suppress fasting plasma glucose after ZDF rats reached 17 weeks of age, and worsened lipid profile. Rapamycin also induced mild transaminitis. Additionally, both rapamycin and metformin increased plasma uric acid and creatinine, biomarkers for cardiovascular and renal disease. These observations define how rapamycin and metformin differentially modulate metabolic profiles that regulate cardiorenal pathology in conditions of severe type 2 diabetes.

  19. Select Rab GTPases Regulate the Pulmonary Endothelium via Endosomal Trafficking of Vascular Endothelial-Cadherin.

    PubMed

    Chichger, Havovi; Braza, Julie; Duong, Huetran; Boni, Geraldine; Harrington, Elizabeth O

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary edema occurs in settings of acute lung injury, in diseases, such as pneumonia, and in acute respiratory distress syndrome. The lung interendothelial junctions are maintained in part by vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, an adherens junction protein, and its surface expression is regulated by endocytic trafficking. The Rab family of small GTPases are regulators of endocytic trafficking. The key trafficking pathways are regulated by Rab4, -7, and -9. Rab4 regulates the recycling of endosomes to the cell surface through a rapid-shuttle process, whereas Rab7 and -9 regulate trafficking to the late endosome/lysosome for degradation or from the trans-Golgi network to the late endosome, respectively. We recently demonstrated a role for the endosomal adaptor protein, p18, in regulation of the pulmonary endothelium through enhanced recycling of VE-cadherin to adherens junction. Thus, we hypothesized that Rab4, -7, and -9 regulate pulmonary endothelial barrier function through modulating trafficking of VE-cadherin-positive endosomes. We used Rab mutants with varying activities and associations to the endosome to study endothelial barrier function in vitro and in vivo. Our study demonstrates a key role for Rab4 activation and Rab9 inhibition in regulation of vascular permeability through enhanced VE-cadherin expression at the interendothelial junction. We further showed that endothelial barrier function mediated through Rab4 is dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and activity. Thus, we demonstrate that Rab4 and -9 regulate VE-cadherin levels at the cell surface to modulate the pulmonary endothelium through extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent and -independent pathways, respectively. We propose that regulating select Rab GTPases represents novel therapeutic strategies for patients suffering with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  20. Potassium Channels in Regulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Potassium channels importantly contribute to the regulation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contraction and growth. They are the dominant ion conductance of the VSM cell membrane and importantly determine and regulate membrane potential. Membrane potential, in turn, regulates the open-state probability of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC), Ca2+ influx through VGCC, intracellular Ca2+ and VSM contraction. Membrane potential also affects release of Ca2+ from internal stores and the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile machinery such that K+ channels participate in all aspects of regulation of VSM contraction. Potassium channels also regulate proliferation of VSM cells through membrane potential-dependent and membrane potential-independent mechanisms. Vascular smooth muscle cells express multiple isoforms of at least five classes of K+ channels contribute to the regulation of contraction and cell proliferation (growth). This review will examine the structure, expression and function of large-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels, intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa3.1) channels, multiple isoforms of voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, and inward-rectifier K+ (KIR) channels in both contractile and proliferating VSM cells. PMID:28212804

  1. Yes-associated protein 1 and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif activate the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway by regulating amino acid transporters in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun-Yong; Sohn, Bo Hwa; Johnson, Randy L; Kang, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Sang Bae; Shim, Jae-Jun; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yoo, Jeong Eun; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Pradeep, Sunila; Hwang, Jun Eul; Jang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Jeong, Woojin; Park, Inn Sun; Park, Young Nyun; Sood, Anil K; Mills, Gordon B; Lee, Ju-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic activation is a common feature of many cancer cells and is frequently associated with the clinical outcomes of various cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, aberrantly activated metabolic pathways in cancer cells are attractive targets for cancer therapy. Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are oncogenic downstream effectors of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, which is frequently inactivated in many cancers. Our study revealed that YAP1/TAZ regulates amino acid metabolism by up-regulating expression of the amino acid transporters solute carrier family 38 member 1 (SLC38A1) and solute carrier family 7 member 5 (SLC7A5). Subsequently, increased uptake of amino acids by the transporters (SLC38A1 and SLC7A5) activates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a master regulator of cell growth, and stimulates cell proliferation. We also show that high expression of SLC38A1 and SLC7A5 is significantly associated with shorter survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Furthermore, inhibition of the transporters and mTORC1 significantly blocks YAP1/TAZ-mediated tumorigenesis in the liver. These findings elucidate regulatory networks connecting the Hippo pathway to mTORC1 through amino acid metabolism and the mechanism's potential clinical implications for treating hepatocellular carcinoma. YAP1 and TAZ regulate cancer metabolism and mTORC1 through regulation of amino acid transportation, and two amino acid transporters, SLC38A1 and SLC7A5, might be important therapeutic targets. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. MiR-144 regulates hematopoiesis and vascular development by targeting meis1 during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhenhong; Si, Wenxia; Li, Lei; Zhou, Bisheng; Li, Xiuchun; Xu, Yan; Xu, Chengqi; Jia, Haibo; Wang, Qing K

    2014-04-01

    Hematopoiesis is a dynamic process by which peripheral blood lineages are developed. It is a process tightly regulated by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including transcriptional factors and signaling molecules. However, the epigenetic regulation of hematopoiesis, for example, regulation via microRNAs (miRNAs), remains incompletely understood. Here we show that miR-144 regulates hematopoiesis and vascular development in zebrafish. Overexpression of miR-144 inhibited primitive hematopoiesis as demonstrated by a reduced number of circulating blood cells, reduced o-dianisidine staining of hemoglobin, and reduced expression of hbαe1, hbβe1, gata1 and pu.1. Overexpression of miR-144 also inhibited definitive hematopoiesis as shown by reduced expression of runx1 and c-myb. Mechanistically, miR-144 regulates hematopoiesis by repressing expression of meis1 involved in hematopoiesis. Both real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that overexpression of miR-144 repressed expression of meis1. Bioinformatic analysis predicts a target binding sequence for miR-144 at the 3'-UTR of meis1. Deletion of the miR-144 target sequence eliminated the repression of meis1 expression mediated by miR-144. The miR-144-mediated abnormal phenotypes were partially rescued by co-injection of meis1 mRNA and could be almost completely rescued by injection of both meis1 and gata1 mRNA. Finally, because meis1 is involved in vascular development, we tested the effect of miR-144 on vascular development. Overexpression of miR-144 resulted in abnormal vascular development of intersegmental vessels in transgenic zebrafish with Flk1p-EGFP, and the defect was rescued by co-injection of meis1 mRNA. These findings establish miR-144 as a novel miRNA that regulates hematopoiesis and vascular development by repressing expression of meis1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antiangiogenic potential of the Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor temsirolimus.

    PubMed

    Del Bufalo, Donatella; Ciuffreda, Ludovica; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Desideri, Marianna; Cognetti, Francesco; Zupi, Gabriella; Milella, Michele

    2006-06-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is increasingly recognized as a master regulator of fundamental cellular functions, whose deregulation may underlie neoplastic transformation and progression. Hence, mTOR has recently emerged as a promising target for therapeutic anticancer interventions in several human tumors, including breast cancer. Here, we investigated the antiangiogenic potential of temsirolimus (also known as CCI-779), a novel mTOR inhibitor currently in clinical development for the treatment of breast cancer and other solid tumors. Consistent with previous reports, sensitivity to temsirolimus-mediated growth inhibition varied widely among different breast cancer cell lines and was primarily due to inhibition of proliferation with little, if any, effect on apoptosis induction. In the HER-2 gene-amplified breast cancer cell line BT474, temsirolimus inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in vitro under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions through inhibition of hypoxia-stimulated hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha expression and transcriptional activation. Interestingly, these effects were also observed in the MDA-MB-231 cell line, independent of its inherent sensitivity to the growth-inhibitory effects of temsirolimus. A central role for mTOR (and the critical regulator of cap-dependent protein translation, eIF4E) in the regulation of VEGF production by BT474 cells was further confirmed using a small interfering RNA approach to silence mTOR and eIF4E protein expression. In addition to its effect on HIF-1alpha-mediated VEGF production, temsirolimus also directly inhibited serum- and/or VEGF-driven endothelial cell proliferation and morphogenesis in vitro and vessel formation in a Matrigel assay in vivo. Overall, these results suggest that antiangiogenic effects may substantially contribute to the antitumor activity observed with temsirolimus in breast cancer.

  4. Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima formation by histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Gizard, Florence; Zhao, Yue; Qing, Hua; Heywood, Elizabeth B; Jones, Karrie L; Cohn, Dianne; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2011-04-01

    Proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to vascular injury is central to neointimal vascular remodeling. There is accumulating evidence that histone acetylation constitutes a major epigenetic modification for the transcriptional control of proliferative gene expression; however, the physiological role of histone acetylation for proliferative vascular disease remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in SMC proliferation and neointimal remodeling. We demonstrate that mitogens induce transcription of HDAC 1, 2, and 3 in SMC. Short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of either HDAC 1, 2, or 3 and pharmacological inhibition of HDAC prevented mitogen-induced SMC proliferation. The mechanisms underlying this reduction of SMC proliferation by HDAC inhibition involve a growth arrest in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle that is due to an inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. HDAC inhibition resulted in a transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip). Furthermore, HDAC inhibition repressed mitogen-induced cyclin D1 mRNA expression and cyclin D1 promoter activity. As a result of this differential cell cycle-regulatory gene expression by HDAC inhibition, the retinoblastoma protein retains a transcriptional repression of its downstream target genes required for S phase entry. Finally, we provide evidence that these observations are applicable in vivo by demonstrating that HDAC inhibition decreased neointima formation and expression of cyclin D1 in a murine model of vascular injury. These findings identify HDAC as a critical component of a transcriptional cascade regulating SMC proliferation and suggest that HDAC might play a pivotal role in the development of proliferative vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and in-stent restenosis.

  5. Epigenetic Regulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Neointima Formation by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Findeisen, Hannes M.; Gizard, Florence; Zhao, Yue; Qing, Hua; Heywood, Elizabeth B.; Jones, Karrie L.; Cohn, Dianne; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Objective Proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to vascular injury is central to neointimal vascular remodeling. There is accumulating evidence that histone acetylation constitutes a major epigenetic modification for the transcriptional control of proliferative gene expression; however, the physiological role of histone acetylation for proliferative vascular disease remains elusive. Methods and Results In the present study, we investigated the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in SMC proliferation and neointimal remodeling. We demonstrate that mitogens induce transcription of HDAC 1, 2 and 3 in SMC. siRNA-mediated knock-down of either HDAC 1, 2 or 3 and pharmacologic inhibition of HDAC prevented mitogen-induced SMC proliferation. The mechanisms underlying this reduction of SMC proliferation by HDAC inhibition involve a growth arrest in the G1-phase of the cell cycle due to an inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. HDAC inhibition resulted in a transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip. Furthermore, HDAC inhibition repressed mitogen-induced cyclin D1 mRNA expression and cyclin D1 promoter activity. As a result of this differential cell cycle-regulatory gene expression by HDAC inhibition, the retinoblastoma protein retains a transcriptional repression of its downstream target genes required for S phase entry. Finally, we provide evidence that these observations are applicable in vivo by demonstrating that HDAC inhibition decreased neointima formation and expression of cyclin D1 in a murine model of vascular injury. Conclusion These findings identify HDAC as a critical component of a transcriptional cascade regulating SMC proliferation and suggest that HDAC might play a pivotal role in the development of proliferative vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and in-stent restenosis. PMID:21233448

  6. Vascular ATP-sensitive potassium channels are over-expressed and partially regulated by nitric oxide in experimental septic shock.

    PubMed

    Collin, Solène; Sennoun, Nacira; Dron, Anne-Gaëlle; de la Bourdonnaye, Mathilde; Montemont, Chantal; Asfar, Pierre; Lacolley, Patrick; Meziani, Ferhat; Levy, Bruno

    2011-05-01

    To study the activation and expression of vascular (aorta and small mesenteric arteries) potassium channels during septic shock with or without modulation of the NO pathway. Septic shock was induced in rats by peritonitis. Selective inhibitors of vascular K(ATP) (PNU-37883A) or BK(Ca) [iberiotoxin (IbTX)] channels were used to demonstrate their involvement in vascular hyporeactivity. Vascular response to phenylephrine was measured on aorta and small mesenteric arteries mounted on a wire myograph. Vascular expression of potassium channels was studied by PCR and Western blot, in the presence or absence of 1400W, an inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitor. Aortic activation of the transcriptional factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Arterial pressure as well as in vivo and ex vivo vascular reactivity were reduced by sepsis and improved by PNU-37883A but not by IbTX. Sepsis was associated with an up-regulation of mRNA and protein expression of vascular K(ATP) channels, while expression of vascular BK(Ca) channels remained unchanged. Selective iNOS inhibition blunted the sepsis-induced increase in aortic NO, decreased NF-κB activation, and down-regulated vascular K(ATP) channel expression. Vascular K(ATP) but not BK(Ca) channels are activated, over-expressed, and partially regulated by NO via NF-κB activation during septic shock. Their selective inhibition restores arterial pressure and vascular reactivity and decreases lactate concentration. The present data suggest that selective vascular K(ATP) channel inhibitors offer potential therapeutic perspectives for septic shock.

  7. Rapamycin treatment is associated with an increased apoptosis rate in experimental vein grafts.

    PubMed

    Schachner, Thomas; Oberhuber, Alexander; Zou, Yping; Tzankov, Alexandar; Ott, Harald; Laufer, Günther; Bonatti, Johannes

    2005-02-01

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive agent with marked antiproliferative properties and is effective in reducing in stent restenosis and vein graft neointimal hyperplasia. Apoptosis is one mechanism counterbalancing cellular proliferation. We therefore investigated the role of apoptosis in rapamycin treated vein grafts in a mouse model. C57BL6J mice underwent interposition of the inferior vena cava from isogenic donor mice into the common carotid artery using a cuff technique. In the treatment group 200 microg of rapamycin were applied locally in pluronic gel. The control group did not receive local treatment. Vein grafts were harvested at 4 weeks postoperatively and underwent morphometric analysis as well as immunohistochemical analysis for apoptosis (TUNEL). In grafted veins without treatment (controls) neointimal thickness was 50 (12-58) microm at 4 weeks postoperatively. In 200 microg rapamycin treated grafts the neointimal thickness was 17 (5-55) microm. Rapamycin treated vein grafts showed a significantly increased rate of apoptosis in the adventitia as compared with controls (P=0.032). In the neointima the apoptosis rate was lower in both groups with no significant difference between rapamycin treated grafts and controls. We conclude that treatment of experimental vein grafts with rapamycin is associated with an increased apoptosis rate in the vascular wall and a trend towards reduction of neointimal hyperplasia. These results suggest that apoptosis may be a beneficial antiproliferative component for the treatment of vein graft disease.

  8. The Role of Adenosine A2A Receptor, CYP450s, and PPARs in the Regulation of Vascular Tone

    PubMed Central

    Khayat, Maan T.

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous mediator involved in a myriad of physiologic functions, including vascular tone regulation. It is also implicated in some pathologic conditions. Four distinct receptor subtypes mediate the effects of adenosine, such as its role in the regulation of the vascular tone. Vascular tone regulation is a complex and continuous process which involves many mechanisms and mediators that are not fully disclosed. The vascular endothelium plays a pivotal role in regulating blood flow to and from all body organs. Also, the vascular endothelium is not merely a physical barrier; it is a complex tissue with numerous functions. Among adenosine receptors, A2A receptor subtype (A2AAR) stands out as the primary receptor responsible for the vasodilatory effects of adenosine. This review focuses on important effectors of the vascular endothelium, including adenosine, adenosine receptors, EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids), HETEs (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids), PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors), and KATP channels. Given the impact of vascular tone regulation in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology, better understanding of the mechanisms affecting it could have a significant potential for developing therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28884118

  9. Induction of melanogenesis by rapamycin in human MNT-1 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hah, Young-Sool; Cho, Hee Young; Lim, Tae-Yeon; Park, Dong Hwa; Kim, Hwa Mi; Yoon, Jimi; Kim, Jin Gu; Kim, Chi Yeon; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2012-05-01

    Melanogenesis is one of the characteristic parameters of differentiation in melanocytes and melanoma cells. Specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), such as wortmannin and LY294002, stimulate melanin production in mouse and in human melanoma cells, suggesting that PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) might be involved in the regulation of melanogenesis. The involvement of the mTOR pathway in regulating melanogenesis was examined using human MNT-1 melanoma cells, and the effects of the potent inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin, in the presence or absence of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) were evaluated. In cells treated with rapamycin, cell viability, melanin content, and tyrosinase (TYR) activity were measured and compared with untreated controls. Protein levels of TYR, tyrosinase-related protein (TYRP)-1, TYRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were also analyzed by Western blot. In rapamycin-treated cells, the melanin content increased concomitantly with an elevation in TYR activity, which plays a major role in melanogenesis. There was also an up-regulation of TYR, TYRP-1, and MITF proteins. Combined treatment with rapamycin or wortmannin and α-MSH increased melanogenesis more strongly than α-MSH alone. Rapamycin-induced melanin formation may be mediated through the up-regulation of TYR protein and activity. Furthermore, rapamycin and wortmannin, inhibitors of mTOR and PI3K, respectively, have co-stimulatory effects with α-MSH in enhancing melanogenesis in melanocyte cells.

  10. Endothelial Snail Regulates Capillary Branching Morphogenesis via Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 3 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Ae; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2015-01-01

    Vascular branching morphogenesis is activated and maintained by several signaling pathways. Among them, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling is largely presented in arteries, and VEGFR3 signaling is in veins and capillaries. Recent reports have documented that Snail, a well-known epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition protein, is expressed in endothelial cells, where it regulates sprouting angiogenesis and embryonic vascular development. Here, we identified Snail as a regulator of VEGFR3 expression during capillary branching morphogenesis. Snail was dramatically upregulated in sprouting vessels in the developing retinal vasculature, including the leading-edged vessels and vertical sprouting vessels for capillary extension toward the deep retina. Results from in vitro functional studies demonstrate that Snail expression colocalized with VEGFR3 and upregulated VEGFR3 mRNA by directly binding to the VEGFR3 promoter via cooperating with early growth response protein-1. Snail knockdown in postnatal mice attenuated the formation of the deep capillary plexus, not only by impairing vertical sprouting vessels but also by downregulating VEGFR3 expression. Collectively, these data suggest that the Snail-VEGFR3 axis controls capillary extension, especially in vessels expressing VEGFR2 at low levels. PMID:26147525

  11. Evolution of plant conducting cells: perspectives from key regulators of vascular cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Misato; Akiyoshi, Nobuhiro; Takenaka, Yuto; Sano, Ryosuke; Demura, Taku

    2017-01-01

    One crucial problem that plants faced during their evolution, particularly during the transition to growth on land, was how to transport water, nutrients, metabolites, and small signaling molecules within a large, multicellular body. As a solution to this problem, land plants developed specific tissues for conducting molecules, called water-conducting cells (WCCs) and food-conducting cells (FCCs). The well-developed WCCs and FCCs in extant plants are the tracheary elements and sieve elements, respectively, which are found in vascular plants. Recent molecular genetic studies revealed that transcriptional networks regulate the differentiation of tracheary and sieve elements, and that the networks governing WCC differentiation are largely conserved among land plant species. In this review, we discuss the molecular evolution of plant conducting cells. By focusing on the evolution of the key transcription factors that regulate vascular cell differentiation, the NAC transcription factor VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN for WCCs and the MYB-coiled-coil (CC)-type transcription factor ALTERED PHLOEM DEVELOPMENT for sieve elements, we describe how land plants evolved molecular systems to produce the specialized cells that function as WCCs and FCCs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Regulation of Vascular Growth in the Chorioallantoic Membrane of Japanese Quail Eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montague, Idoreyin P.

    2004-01-01

    The Microgravity Research Program is part of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR). The mission of the Microgravity Fluid Physics research program is to facilitate and conduct the best possible fluid physics research using the space environment and make this knowledge available to the scientific community and the public at large. During the summer of 2004, I worked in this division with Dr. Patricia Parsons-Wingerter. Dr. Parsons was working on several projects that used the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of Japanese quail eggs. The CAM develops in the eggs of birds and reptiles and is a very vascular fetal membrane composed of the fused chorion and adjacent wall of the allantois. The CAM is formed on day 4 of incubation and its primary job is to mediate gas exchanges with the extra embryonic environment. The CAM of our Japanese quail eggs is easily identifiable to us because it is transparent and it sits on top of the yolk with the embryo in the center. The CAM is of interest because of its many applications in the field of medicine as it relates to vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is simply the growth or formation of new blood vessels and anti-angiogenesis is the inhibition of said vessels. Angiogenesis occurs naturally in a healthy body for healing wounds and for restoring blood flow to tissues after injury and in females during the monthly reproductive cycle. In many serious diseases, like several types of cancer and those that affect the heart and cardiovascular system, the body loses control over angiogenesis. These diseases, which are dependent on angiogenesis, result when new blood vessels either grow excessively or insufficiently. The chorioallantoic membrane of our Japanese quail eggs gives a good model of angiogenesis. We used angiogenic regulators to inhibit or stimulate vascular growth in the CAM in a healthy manner and they induced distinct vascular patterns in vivo. Certain dominant regulators can be recognized by

  13. WNT5A-JNK regulation of vascular insulin resistance in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Farb, Melissa G; Karki, Shakun; Park, Song-Young; Saggese, Samantha M; Carmine, Brian; Hess, Donald T; Apovian, Caroline; Fetterman, Jessica L; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Hamburg, Naomi M; Fuster, José J; Zuriaga, María A; Walsh, Kenneth; Gokce, Noyan

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is associated with the development of vascular insulin resistance; however, pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. We sought to investigate the role of WNT5A-JNK in the regulation of insulin-mediated vasodilator responses in human adipose tissue arterioles prone to endothelial dysfunction. In 43 severely obese (BMI 44±11 kg/m 2 ) and five metabolically normal non-obese (BMI 26±2 kg/m 2 ) subjects, we isolated arterioles from subcutaneous and visceral fat during planned surgeries. Using videomicroscopy, we examined insulin-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses and characterized adipose tissue gene and protein expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Immunofluorescence was used to quantify endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation. Insulin-mediated vasodilation was markedly impaired in visceral compared to subcutaneous vessels from obese subjects (p<0.001), but preserved in non-obese individuals. Visceral adiposity was associated with increased JNK activation and elevated expression of WNT5A and its non-canonical receptors, which correlated negatively with insulin signaling. Pharmacological JNK antagonism with SP600125 markedly improved insulin-mediated vasodilation by sixfold (p<0.001), while endothelial cells exposed to recombinant WNT5A developed insulin resistance and impaired eNOS phosphorylation (p<0.05). We observed profound vascular insulin resistance in the visceral adipose tissue arterioles of obese subjects that was associated with up-regulated WNT5A-JNK signaling and impaired endothelial eNOS activation. Pharmacological JNK antagonism markedly improved vascular endothelial function, and may represent a potential therapeutic target in obesity-related vascular disease. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Temporal and Embryonic Lineage-Dependent Regulation of Human Vascular SMC Development by NOTCH3

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Alessandra; Bernard, William G.; Zhao, Ning; Mccafferty, John; Lilly, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which arise from multiple embryonic progenitors, have unique lineage-specific properties and this diversity may contribute to spatial patterns of vascular diseases. We developed in vitro methods to generate distinct vascular SMC subtypes from human pluripotent stem cells, allowing us to explore their intrinsic differences and the mechanisms involved in SMC development. Since Notch signaling is thought to be one of the several key regulators of SMC differentiation and function, we profiled the expression of Notch receptors, ligands, and downstream elements during the development of origin-specific SMC subtypes. NOTCH3 expression in our in vitro model varied in a lineage- and developmental stage-specific manner so that the highest expression in mature SMCs was in those derived from paraxial mesoderm (PM). This pattern was consistent with the high expression level of NOTCH3 observed in the 8–9 week human fetal descending aorta, which is populated by SMCs of PM origin. Silencing NOTCH3 in mature SMCs in vitro reduced SMC markers in cells of PM origin preferentially. Conversely, during early development, NOTCH3 was highly expressed in vitro in SMCs of neuroectoderm (NE) origin. Inhibition of NOTCH3 in early development resulted in a significant downregulation of specific SMC markers exclusively in the NE lineage. Corresponding to this prediction, the Notch3-null mouse showed reduced expression of Acta2 in the neural crest-derived SMCs of the aortic arch. Thus, Notch3 signaling emerges as one of the key regulators of vascular SMC differentiation and maturation in vitro and in vivo in a lineage- and temporal-dependent manner. PMID:25539150

  15. WNT5A-JNK regulation of vascular insulin resistance in human obesity

    PubMed Central

    Farb, Melissa G; Karki, Shakun; Park, Song-Young; Saggese, Samantha M; Carmine, Brian; Hess, Donald T; Apovian, Caroline; Fetterman, Jessica L; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Hamburg, Naomi M; Fuster, José J; Zuriaga, María A; Walsh, Kenneth; Gokce, Noyan

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with the development of vascular insulin resistance; however, pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. We sought to investigate the role of WNT5A-JNK in the regulation of insulin-mediated vasodilator responses in human adipose tissue arterioles prone to endothelial dysfunction. In 43 severely obese (BMI 44±11 kg/m2) and five metabolically normal non-obese (BMI 26±2 kg/m2) subjects, we isolated arterioles from subcutaneous and visceral fat during planned surgeries. Using videomicroscopy, we examined insulin-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses and characterized adipose tissue gene and protein expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Immunofluorescence was used to quantify endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation. Insulin-mediated vasodilation was markedly impaired in visceral compared to subcutaneous vessels from obese subjects (p<0.001), but preserved in non-obese individuals. Visceral adiposity was associated with increased JNK activation and elevated expression of WNT5A and its non-canonical receptors, which correlated negatively with insulin signaling. Pharmacological JNK antagonism with SP600125 markedly improved insulin-mediated vasodilation by sixfold (p<0.001), while endothelial cells exposed to recombinant WNT5A developed insulin resistance and impaired eNOS phosphorylation (p<0.05). We observed profound vascular insulin resistance in the visceral adipose tissue arterioles of obese subjects that was associated with up-regulated WNT5A-JNK signaling and impaired endothelial eNOS activation. Pharmacological JNK antagonism markedly improved vascular endothelial function, and may represent a potential therapeutic target in obesity-related vascular disease. PMID:27688298

  16. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating the Vascular Prostacyclin Pathways and Their Adaptation during Pregnancy and in the Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Majed, Batoule H.

    2012-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) is a member of the prostanoid group of eicosanoids that regulate homeostasis, hemostasis, smooth muscle function and inflammation. Prostanoids are derived from arachidonic acid by the sequential actions of phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase (COX), and specific prostaglandin (PG) synthases. There are two major COX enzymes, COX1 and COX2, that differ in structure, tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and function. COX1 is largely constitutively expressed, whereas COX2 is induced at sites of inflammation and vascular injury. PGI2 is produced by endothelial cells and influences many cardiovascular processes. PGI2 acts mainly on the prostacyclin (IP) receptor, but because of receptor homology, PGI2 analogs such as iloprost may act on other prostanoid receptors with variable affinities. PGI2/IP interaction stimulates G protein-coupled increase in cAMP and protein kinase A, resulting in decreased [Ca2+]i, and could also cause inhibition of Rho kinase, leading to vascular smooth muscle relaxation. In addition, PGI2 intracrine signaling may target nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and regulate gene transcription. PGI2 counteracts the vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregation effects of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and both prostanoids create an important balance in cardiovascular homeostasis. The PGI2/TXA2 balance is particularly critical in the regulation of maternal and fetal vascular function during pregnancy and in the newborn. A decrease in PGI2/TXA2 ratio in the maternal, fetal, and neonatal circulation may contribute to preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), respectively. On the other hand, increased PGI2 activity may contribute to patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and intraventricular hemorrhage in premature newborns. These observations have raised interest in the use of COX inhibitors and PGI2 analogs in the management of pregnancy-associated and neonatal

  17. Molecular mechanisms regulating the vascular prostacyclin pathways and their adaptation during pregnancy and in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Majed, Batoule H; Khalil, Raouf A

    2012-07-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI(2)) is a member of the prostanoid group of eicosanoids that regulate homeostasis, hemostasis, smooth muscle function and inflammation. Prostanoids are derived from arachidonic acid by the sequential actions of phospholipase A(2), cyclooxygenase (COX), and specific prostaglandin (PG) synthases. There are two major COX enzymes, COX1 and COX2, that differ in structure, tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and function. COX1 is largely constitutively expressed, whereas COX2 is induced at sites of inflammation and vascular injury. PGI(2) is produced by endothelial cells and influences many cardiovascular processes. PGI(2) acts mainly on the prostacyclin (IP) receptor, but because of receptor homology, PGI(2) analogs such as iloprost may act on other prostanoid receptors with variable affinities. PGI(2)/IP interaction stimulates G protein-coupled increase in cAMP and protein kinase A, resulting in decreased [Ca(2+)](i), and could also cause inhibition of Rho kinase, leading to vascular smooth muscle relaxation. In addition, PGI(2) intracrine signaling may target nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and regulate gene transcription. PGI(2) counteracts the vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregation effects of thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)), and both prostanoids create an important balance in cardiovascular homeostasis. The PGI(2)/TXA(2) balance is particularly critical in the regulation of maternal and fetal vascular function during pregnancy and in the newborn. A decrease in PGI(2)/TXA(2) ratio in the maternal, fetal, and neonatal circulation may contribute to preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), respectively. On the other hand, increased PGI(2) activity may contribute to patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and intraventricular hemorrhage in premature newborns. These observations have raised interest in the use of COX inhibitors and PGI(2) analogs in the management of

  18. Revealing the role of phospholipase Cβ3 in the regulation of VEGF-induced vascular permeability

    PubMed Central

    Hoeppner, Luke H.; Phoenix, Kathryn N.; Clark, Karl J.; Bhattacharya, Resham; Gong, Xun; Sciuto, Tracey E.; Vohra, Pawan; Suresh, Sandip; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Dvorak, Ann M.; Ekker, Stephen C.; Dvorak, Harold F.; Claffey, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01

    VEGF induces vascular permeability (VP) in ischemic diseases and cancer, leading to many pathophysiological consequences. The molecular mechanisms by which VEGF acts to induce hyperpermeability are poorly understood and in vivo models that easily facilitate real-time, genetic studies of VP do not exist. In the present study, we report a heat-inducible VEGF transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model through which VP can be monitored in real time. Using this approach with morpholino-mediated gene knock-down and knockout mice, we describe a novel role of phospholipase Cβ3 as a negative regulator of VEGF-mediated VP by regulating intracellular Ca2+ release. Our results suggest an important effect of PLCβ3 on VP and provide a new model with which to identify genetic regulators of VP crucial to several disease processes. PMID:22674805

  19. KCl cotransport regulation and protein kinase G in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Adragna, N C; Zhang, J; Di Fulvio, M; Lincoln, T M; Lauf, P K

    2002-05-15

    K-Cl cotransport is activated by vasodilators in erythrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells and its regulation involves putative kinase/phosphatase cascades. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) activates the system presumably by inhibiting a protein kinase. Nitrovasodilators relax smooth muscle via cGMP-dependent activation of protein kinase G (PKG), a regulator of membrane channels and transporters. We investigated whether PKG regulates K-Cl cotransport activity or mRNA expression in normal, PKG-deficient-vector-only-transfected (PKG-) and PKG-catalytic-domain-transfected (PKG+) rat aortic smooth muscle cells. K-Cl cotransport was calculated as the Cl-dependent Rb influx, and mRNA was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Baseline K-Cl cotransport was higher in PKG+ than in PKG- cells (p <0.01). At 0.5 mM, NEM stimulated K-Cl cotransport by 5-fold in PKG- but not in PKG+ cells. However, NEM was more potent although less effective to activate K-Cl cotransport in normal (passage 1-3) and PKG+ than in PKG- cells. In PKG- cells, [(dihydroindenyl) oxy] alkanoic acid (300 mM) but not furosemide (1 mM) inhibited K-Cl cotransport. Furthermore, no difference in K-Cl cotransport mRNA expression was observed between these cells. In conclusion, this study shows that manipulation of PKG expression in vascular smooth muscle cells affects K-Cl cotransport activity and its activation by NEM.

  20. Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor in rat pancreas: genetic expression and testosterone regulation.

    PubMed

    Morales, Angélica; Morimoto, Sumiko; Díaz, Lorenza; Robles, Guillermo; Díaz-Sánchez, Vicente

    2008-05-01

    Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is an endothelial cell mitogen, expressed essentially in steroidogenic cells. Recently, the expression of EG-VEGF in normal human pancreas and pancreatic adenocarcinoma has been demonstrated. Epidemiologically, pancreatic carcinogenesis is more frequent in males than females, and given that androgen receptors and testosterone biotransformation have been described in pancreas, we hypothesized that testosterone could participate in the regulation of EG-VEGF expression. In this study, we investigated the regulation of EG-VEGF gene expression by testosterone in normal rat pancreatic tissue and rat insulinoma cells (RINm5F). Total RNA was extracted from rat pancreas and cultured cells. Gene expression was studied by real-time PCR and protein detection by immunohistochemistry. Serum testosterone was quantified by RIA. Results showed that EG-VEGF is expressed predominantly in pancreatic islets and vascular endothelium, as well as in RINm5F cells. EG-VEGF gene expression was lower in the pancreas of rats with higher testosterone serum levels. A similar effect that was reverted by flutamide was observed in testosterone-treated RINm5F cells. In summary, testosterone down-regulated EG-VEGF gene expression in rat pancreatic tissue and RINm5F cells. This effect could be mediated by the androgen receptor. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a direct effect of testosterone on EG-VEGF gene expression in rat pancreas and RINm5F cells is demonstrated.

  1. Vascular remodeling: A redox-modulated mechanism of vessel caliber regulation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Leonardo Y; Laurindo, Francisco R M

    2017-08-01

    Vascular remodeling, i.e. whole-vessel structural reshaping, determines lumen caliber in (patho)physiology. Here we review mechanisms underlying vessel remodeling, with emphasis in redox regulation. First, we discuss confusing terminology and focus on strictu sensu remodeling. Second, we propose a mechanobiological remodeling paradigm based on the concept of tensional homeostasis as a setpoint regulator. We first focus on shear-mediated models as prototypes of remodeling closely dominated by highly redox-sensitive endothelial function. More detailed discussions focus on mechanosensors, integrins, extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton and inflammatory pathways as potential of mechanisms potentially coupling tensional homeostasis to redox regulation. Further discussion of remodeling associated with atherosclerosis and injury repair highlights important aspects of redox vascular responses. While neointima formation has not shown consistent responsiveness to antioxidants, vessel remodeling has been more clearly responsive, indicating that despite the multilevel redox signaling pathways, there is a coordinated response of the whole vessel. Among mechanisms that may orchestrate redox pathways, we discuss roles of superoxide dismutase activity and extracellular protein disulfide isomerase. We then discuss redox modulation of aneurysms, a special case of expansive remodeling. We propose that the redox modulation of vascular remodeling may reflect (1) remodeling pathophysiology is dominated by a particularly redox-sensitive cell type, e.g., endothelial cells (2) redox pathways are temporospatially coordinated at an organ level across distinct cellular and acellular structures or (3) the tensional homeostasis setpoint is closely connected to redox signaling. The mechanobiological/redox model discussed here can be a basis for improved understanding of remodeling and helps clarifying mechanisms underlying prevalent hard-to-treat diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  2. Heme Oxygenase in the Regulation of Vascular Biology: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Myeong; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Park, Jeong Euy; Lee, Yong Chul; Woo, Je Moon; Kim, Nam-Ho; Choi, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Bok-Soo; Kim, So Ri

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Heme oxygenases (HOs) are the rate-limiting enzymes in the catabolism of heme into biliverdin, free iron, and carbon monoxide. Two genetically distinct isoforms of HO have been characterized: an inducible form, HO-1, and a constitutively expressed form, HO-2. HO-1 is a kind of stress protein, and thus regarded as a sensitive and reliable indicator of cellular oxidative stress. The HO system acts as potent antioxidants, protects endothelial cells from apoptosis, is involved in regulating vascular tone, attenuates inflammatory response in the vessel wall, and participates in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Endothelial integrity and activity are thought to occupy the central position in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular disease risk conditions converge in the contribution to oxidative stress. The oxidative stress leads to endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction with increases in vessel tone, cell growth, and gene expression that create a pro-thrombotic/pro-inflammatory environment. Subsequent formation, progression, and obstruction of atherosclerotic plaque may result in myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. This background provides the rationale for exploring the potential therapeutic role for HO system in the amelioration of vascular inflammation and prevention of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 137–167. PMID:20624029

  3. Glutathione -S-Transferase μ 1 Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanqiang; Parsons, Kelly K.; Chi, Liqun; Malakauskas, Sandra M.; Le, Thu H.

    2009-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase μ-1, GSTM1, belongs to a superfamily of glutathione-S-transferases that metabolize a broad range of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and xenobiotics. Across species, genetic variants that result in decreased expression of the Gstm1 gene are associated with increased susceptibility for vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis in humans. We previously identified Gstm1 as a positional candidate in our gene mapping study for susceptibility to renal vascular injury characterized by medial hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the renal vessels. To determine the role of Gstm1 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we isolated VSMCs from mouse aortas. We demonstrate that VSMCs from the susceptible C57BL/6 mice have reduced expression of Gstm1 mRNA and its protein product compared to that of the resistant 129 mice. After serum stimulation, C57BL/6 VSMCs proliferate and migrate at a much faster rate than 129 VSMCs. Furthermore, C57BL/6 VSMCs have higher levels of ROS, and exhibit exaggerated p38 MAPK phosphorylation after exposure to H2O2. To establish causality, we show that knockdown of Gstm1 by siRNA results in increased proliferation of VSMCs in a dose dependent manner, as well as in increased ROS levels and VSM cell migration. Moreover, Gstm1 siRNA causes increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and attenuates the anti-proliferative effect of TEMPOL. Our data suggest that Gstm1 is a novel regulator of VSMC proliferation and migration through its role in handling ROS. Genetic variants that cause a decremental change in expression of Gstm1 may permit an environment of exaggerated oxidative stress, leading to susceptibility to vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis. PMID:19822795

  4. Rapamycin has paradoxical effects on S6 phosphorylation in rats with and without seizures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linglin; Hu, Lin; Dong, Jing-Yin; Ye, Qing; Hua, Nan; Wong, Michael; Zeng, Ling-Hui

    2012-11-01

    reversed by pretreatment of perifosine, an Akt inhibitor.   These data indicate the complexity of S6 regulation and its effect on epilepsy. Paradoxical effects of rapamycin need to be considered in clinical applications, such as for potential treatment for epilepsy and other neurologic disorders. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  5. Rapamycin has Paradoxical Effects on S6 Phosphorylation in Rats With and Without Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Linglin; Hu, Lin; Dong, Jing-Yin; Ye, Qing; Hua, Nan; Wong, Michael; Zeng, Ling-Hui

    2012-01-01

    TOR signaling and was reversed by pre-treatment of perifosine, an Akt inhibitor. Significance These data indicate the complexity of S6 regulation and its effect on epilepsy. Paradoxical effects of rapamycin need to be considered in clinical applications, such as for potential treatment for epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:23145776

  6. Rapamycin Effectively Impedes Melamine-Induced Impairments of Cognition and Synaptic Plasticity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jingxuan; Wang, Hui; Gao, Jing; Yu, Mei; Wang, Rubin; Yang, Zhuo; Zhang, Tao

    2017-03-01

    Our previous investigation demonstrated that autophagy significantly reduced melamine-induced cell death in PC12 cells via inhibiting the excessive generation of ROS. In the present study, we further examine if rapamycin, used as an autophagy activator, can play a significant role in protecting neurons and alleviating the impairment of spatial cognition and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in melamine-treated rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, melamine-treated, and melamine-treated + rapamycin. The animal model was established by administering melamine at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Rapamycin was intraperitoneally given at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. The Morris water maze test showed that spatial learning and reversal learning in melamine-treated rats were considerably damaged, whereas rapamycin significantly impeded the cognitive function impairment. Rapamycin efficiently alleviated the melamine-induced impairments of both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation, which were damaged in melamine rats. Rapamycin further increased the expression level of autophagy markers, which were significantly enhanced in melamine rats. Moreover, rapamycin noticeably decreased the reactive oxygen species level, while the superoxide dismutase activity was remarkably increased by rapamycin in melamine rats. Malondialdehyde assay exhibited that rapamycin prominently reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) level of hippocampal neurons in melamine-treated rats. In addition, rapamycin significantly decreased the caspase-3 activity, which was elevated by melamine. Consequently, our results suggest that regulating autophagy may become a new targeted therapy to relieve the damage induced by melamine.

  7. Bim Regulates Alloimmune-Mediated Vascular Injury Through Effects on T Cell Activation and Death

    PubMed Central

    von Rossum, Anna; Enns, Winnie; Shi, Yu P.; MacEwan, Grace E.; Malekesmaeli, Mehrnoush; Brinkman, Ryan; Choy, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Bim is a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein known to down-regulate immune responses and to also be required for antigen-induced T cell activation. However, it is not known how the effect of Bim on these offsetting processes determines the outcome of allogeneic immune responses. We have defined the role of Bim in regulating alloantigen-driven T cell responses in a model of vascular rejection. Approach and Results Bim was required for proliferation of CD4 and CD8 T cells, and for IL-2 production, in T cells stimulated with alloantigen in vitro. Moreover, a partial reduction in Bim expression was sufficient to attenuate T cell activation whereas a complete elimination of Bim was required to prevent CD4 T cell death in response to cytokine withdrawl. When alloimmune-mediated vascular rejection was examined using an aortic interposition model, there was significantly less intimal thickening in Bim+/−, but not Bim−/−, graft recipients. T cell proliferation in response to allograft arteries was significantly reduced in both Bim+/− and Bim−/− mice, but cell death was attenuated only in Bim−/− animals. Conclusions Bim controls both T cell activation and death in response to alloantigen stimulation. These processes act cooperatively to determine the outcome of immune responses in allograft arteries. PMID:24700126

  8. The Effects of Protein Regulators on the Vascular Remodeling of Japanese Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Arati

    2004-01-01

    Contributing to NASA s mission, the Microgravity Fluid Physics research program conducts experiments to promote space exploration and improvement of processes and products on Earth. One of the projects through this program deals with the affect of regulators on vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. This project is being led by Dr. Patricia Parsons-Wingerter. To perform the experiments, protein regulators are tested on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the Japanese quail embryos. The different types of regulators used can be broken down into two major groups of stimulators, and inhibitors. Stimulators increase the rate of blood vessel growth and inhibitors decrease of blood vessel growth. The specified regulator proteins include thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) and a novel vessel tortuosity factor (TF), these are just the ones used in this specific experiment; other various protein regulators can also be used. The novel vessel tortuosity factor (TF) is a special kind of stimulator because it stimulates vessel tortuosity and curvature, rather than actual blood vessel growth. These regulators are being tested on Japanese quail embryos. The Japanese quail embryos naturally form a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) from which blood flow, vascular remodeling, and angiogenesis can be observed. Chorioallantoic membranes are also easier to use because they are two dimensional when mounted onto a slide for examination. The analysis of the affect of the regulators on the CAM can be studied through PIVPROC; the program is used to analyze the altered blood flow in response to application of TF. Regulators are being thoroughly studied because cardiovascular alterations are the second highest, NASA-defined, risk categories in human space exploration. This research done on the quail is extending to even more projects that will be done on lab animals such as mice and also in human clinical studies like the diabetic retina. Not only will this research be beneficial to further space

  9. Proteolytic degradation of regulator of G protein signaling 2 facilitates temporal regulation of Gq/11 signaling and vascular contraction.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Stanley M; Edwards, Alethia J; Rurik, Joel G; Osei-Owusu, Patrick; Blumer, Kendall J

    2017-11-24

    Regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) controls signaling by receptors coupled to the G q/11 class heterotrimeric G proteins. RGS2 deficiency causes several phenotypes in mice and occurs in several diseases, including hypertension in which a proteolytically unstable RGS2 mutant has been reported. However, the mechanisms and functions of RGS2 proteolysis remain poorly understood. Here we addressed these questions by identifying degradation signals in RGS2, and studying dynamic regulation of G q/11 -evoked Ca 2+ signaling and vascular contraction. We identified a novel bipartite degradation signal in the N-terminal domain of RGS2. Mutations disrupting this signal blunted proteolytic degradation downstream of E3 ubiquitin ligase binding to RGS2. Analysis of RGS2 mutants proteolyzed at various rates and the effects of proteasome inhibition indicated that proteolytic degradation controls agonist efficacy by setting RGS2 protein expression levels, and affecting the rate at which cells regain agonist responsiveness as synthesis of RGS2 stops. Analyzing contraction of mesenteric resistance arteries supported the biological relevance of this mechanism. Because RGS2 mRNA expression often is strikingly and transiently up-regulated and then down-regulated upon cell stimulation, our findings indicate that proteolytic degradation tightly couples RGS2 transcription, protein levels, and function. Together these mechanisms provide tight temporal control of G q/11 -coupled receptor signaling in the cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Do androgens play a beneficial role in the regulation of vascular tone? Nongenomic vascular effects of testosterone metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Perusquía, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    The marked sexual dimorphism that exists in human cardiovascular diseases has led to the dogmatic concept that testosterone (Tes) has deleterious effects and exacerbates the development of cardiovascular disease in males. While some animal studies suggest that Tes does exert deleterious effects by enhancing vascular tone through acute or chronic mechanisms, accumulating evidence suggests that Tes and other androgens exert beneficial effects by inducing rapid vasorelaxation of vascular smooth muscle through nongenomic mechanisms. While this effect frequently has been observed in large arteries at micromolar concentrations, more recent studies have reported vasorelaxation of smaller resistance arteries at nanomolar (physiological) concentrations. The key mechanism underlying Tes-induced vasorelaxation appears to be the modulation of vascular smooth muscle ion channel function, particularly the inactivation of L-type voltage-operated Ca2+ channels and/or the activation of voltage-operated and Ca2+-activated K+ channels. Studies employing Tes analogs and metabolites reveal that androgen-induced vasodilation is a structurally specific nongenomic effect that is fundamentally different than the genomic effects on reproductive targets. For example, 5α-dihydrotestosterone exhibits potent genomic-androgenic effects but only moderate vasorelaxing activity, whereas its isomer 5β-dihydrotestosterone is devoid of androgenic effects but is a highly efficacious vasodilator. These findings suggest that the dihydro-metabolites of Tes or other androgen analogs devoid of androgenic or estrogenic effects could have useful therapeutic roles in hypertension, erectile dysfunction, prostatic ischemia, or other vascular dysfunctions. PMID:20228257

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor c/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 signaling regulates chemokine gradients and lymphocyte migration from tissues to lymphatics.

    PubMed

    Iwami, Daiki; Brinkman, C Colin; Bromberg, Jonathan S

    2015-04-01

    Circulation of leukocytes via blood, tissue and lymph is integral to adaptive immunity. Afferent lymphatics form CCL21 gradients to guide dendritic cells and T cells to lymphatics and then to draining lymph nodes (dLN). Vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) are the major lymphatic growth factor and receptor. We hypothesized these molecules also regulate chemokine gradients and lymphatic migration. CD4 T cells were injected into the foot pad or ear pinnae, and migration to afferent lymphatics and dLN quantified by flow cytometry or whole mount immunohistochemistry. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 or its signaling or downstream actions were modified with blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or other reagents. Anti-VEGFR-3 prevented migration of CD4 T cells into lymphatic lumen and significantly decreased the number that migrated to dLN. Anti-VEGFR-3 abolished CCL21 gradients around lymphatics, although CCL21 production was not inhibited. Heparan sulfate (HS), critical to establish CCL21 gradients, was down-regulated around lymphatics by anti-VEGFR-3 and this was dependent on heparanase-mediated degradation. Moreover, a Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)α inhibitor disrupted HS and CCL21 gradients, whereas a PI3K activator prevented the effects of anti-VEGFR-3. During contact hypersensitivity, VEGFR-3, CCL21, and HS expression were all attenuated, and anti-heparanase or PI3K activator reversed these effects. Vascular endothelial growth factor C/VEGFR-3 signaling through PI3Kα regulates the activity of heparanase, which modifies HS and CCL21 gradients around lymphatics. The functional and physical linkages of these molecules regulate lymphatic migration from tissues to dLN. These represent new therapeutic targets to influence immunity and inflammation.

  12. Alternative rapamycin treatment regimens mitigate the impact of rapamycin on glucose homeostasis and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Arriola Apelo, Sebastian I; Neuman, Joshua C; Baar, Emma L; Syed, Faizan A; Cummings, Nicole E; Brar, Harpreet K; Pumper, Cassidy P; Kimple, Michelle E; Lamming, Dudley W

    2016-02-01

    Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway by the FDA-approved drug rapamycin has been shown to promote lifespan and delay age-related diseases in model organisms including mice. Unfortunately, rapamycin has potentially serious side effects in humans, including glucose intolerance and immunosuppression, which may preclude the long-term prophylactic use of rapamycin as a therapy for age-related diseases. While the beneficial effects of rapamycin are largely mediated by the inhibition of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), which is acutely sensitive to rapamycin, many of the negative side effects are mediated by the inhibition of a second mTOR-containing complex, mTORC2, which is much less sensitive to rapamycin. We hypothesized that different rapamycin dosing schedules or the use of FDA-approved rapamycin analogs with different pharmacokinetics might expand the therapeutic window of rapamycin by more specifically targeting mTORC1. Here, we identified an intermittent rapamycin dosing schedule with minimal effects on glucose tolerance, and we find that this schedule has a reduced impact on pyruvate tolerance, fasting glucose and insulin levels, beta cell function, and the immune system compared to daily rapamycin treatment. Further, we find that the FDA-approved rapamycin analogs everolimus and temsirolimus efficiently inhibit mTORC1 while having a reduced impact on glucose and pyruvate tolerance. Our results suggest that many of the negative side effects of rapamycin treatment can be mitigated through intermittent dosing or the use of rapamycin analogs. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Harnessing Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Signaling and Nanotopographical Cues To Regulate Skeletal Muscle Maturation and Vascularization.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Jonathan H; Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Yama, David M P; Yang, Hee Seok; Chavanachat, Rakchanok; Hays, Aislinn L; Lee, Haeshin; Reyes, Morayma; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2017-12-26

    Despite possessing substantial regenerative capacity, skeletal muscle can suffer from loss of function due to catastrophic traumatic injury or degenerative disease. In such cases, engineered tissue grafts hold the potential to restore function and improve patient quality of life. Requirements for successful integration of engineered tissue grafts with the host musculature include cell alignment that mimics host tissue architecture and directional functionality, as well as vascularization to ensure tissue survival. Here, we have developed biomimetic nanopatterned poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) substrates conjugated with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a potent angiogenic and myogenic factor, to enhance myoblast and endothelial maturation. Primary muscle cells cultured on these functionalized S1P nanopatterned substrates developed a highly aligned and elongated morphology and exhibited higher expression levels of myosin heavy chain, in addition to genes characteristic of mature skeletal muscle. We also found that S1P enhanced angiogenic potential in these cultures, as evidenced by elevated expression of endothelial-related genes. Computational analyses of live-cell videos showed a significantly improved functionality of tissues cultured on S1P-functionalized nanopatterns as indicated by greater myotube contraction displacements and velocities. In summary, our study demonstrates that biomimetic nanotopography and S1P can be combined to synergistically regulate the maturation and vascularization of engineered skeletal muscles.

  14. Bim regulates alloimmune-mediated vascular injury through effects on T-cell activation and death.

    PubMed

    von Rossum, Anna; Enns, Winnie; Shi, Yu P; MacEwan, Grace E; Malekesmaeli, Mehrnoush; Brinkman, Ryan; Choy, Jonathan C

    2014-06-01

    Bim is a proapoptotic Bcl-2 protein known to downregulate immune responses and to also be required for antigen-induced T-cell activation. However, it is not known how the effect of Bim on these offsetting processes determines the outcome of allogeneic immune responses. We have defined the role of Bim in regulating alloantigen-driven T-cell responses in a model of vascular rejection. Bim was required for proliferation of CD4 and CD8 T cells, and for interleukin-2 production, in T cells stimulated with alloantigen in vitro. Moreover, a partial reduction in Bim expression was sufficient to attenuate T-cell activation, whereas a complete elimination of Bim was required to prevent CD4 T-cell death in response to cytokine withdrawl. When alloimmune-mediated vascular rejection was examined using an aortic interposition model, there was significantly less intimal thickening in Bim(+/-), but not Bim(-/-), graft recipients. T-cell proliferation in response to allograft arteries was significantly reduced in both Bim(+/-) and Bim(-/-) mice, but cell death was attenuated only in Bim(-/-) animals. Bim controls both T-cell activation and death in response to alloantigen stimulation. These processes act cooperatively to determine the outcome of immune responses in allograft arteries. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Regulation of the Arabidopsis root vascular initial population by LONESOME HIGHWAY

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko; Bergmann, Dominique C.

    2011-01-01

    Complex organisms consist of a multitude of cell types arranged in precise spatial relation to each other. Arabidopsis roots generally exhibit radial tissue organization; however, within a tissue layer, cells are not identical. Specific vascular cell types are arranged in diametrically opposed longitudinal files that maximize the distance between them and create a bilaterally symmetric (diarch) root. Mutations in the LONESOME HIGHWAY (LHW) gene eliminate bilateral symmetry and reduce the number of cells in the center of the root, resulting in roots with only single and xylem and phloem poles. LHW does not appear to be required for the creation of any specific cell type, but coordinately controls the number of all vascular cell types by regulating the size of the pool of cells from which they arise. We cloned LHW and found that it encodes a protein with weak sequence similarity to basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain proteins. LHW is a transcriptional activator in vitro. In plants, LHW is nuclear localized and is expressed in the root meristems where we hypothesize it acts independently of other known root patterning genes to promote the production of stele cells, but may also indirectly feed into established regulatory networks for the maintenance of the root meristem. PMID:17626058

  16. Role of Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide in Regulating Vascular Structural Remodeling in Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Selena; Tang, Chaoshu

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), an emerging gasotransmitter, was discovered to be endogenously generated in the cardiovascular system. Recently, the physiological effects of endogenous SO2 were confirmed. Vascular structural remodeling (VSR), an important pathological change in many cardiovascular diseases, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Here, the authors reviewed the research progress of endogenous SO2 in regulating VSR by searching the relevant data from PubMed and Medline. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and pulmonary hypertensive rats, SO2/aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) pathway was significantly altered. SO2 inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, promoted apoptosis, inhibited the synthesis of extracellular collagen but promoted its degradation, and enhanced antioxidative capacity, thereby playing a significant role in attenuating VSR. However, the detailed mechanisms needed to be further explored. Further studies in this field would be important for the better understanding of the pathogenesis of systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension. Also, clinical trials are needed to demonstrate if SO2 would be a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27721913

  17. Rapamycin protects against paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis: Activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiheng; Tai, Wenlin; Qu, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Wenjuan; Li, ZhenKun; Deng, Shuhao; Vongphouttha, Chanthasone; Dong, Zhaoxing

    2017-08-19

    Paraquat (PQ) is a widely used herbicide indeveloping countries worldwide, and pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most typical features of PQ poisoning. The molecular mechanism of PQ toxicity especially how to treat PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis is still largely unknown. In animal model of pulmonary fibrosis, we used HE staining, western blotting assay and Real-time PCR assay to analyze the effects of rapamycin on the PQ-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). We found that PQ induced the pulmonary fibrosis using HE staining and Masson's staining, and up-regulated the activity of HYP and the mRNA expressions of Collagen I and III (COL-1and COL-3) in pulmonary tissues. We also found that rapamycin down-regulated the mesenchymal cell marker Vimentin and up-regulated the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin both in mRNA and protein levels compared with PQ group. And the EMT associated transcription factor Snail was decreased by rapamycin treatment compared with PQ group. And PQ decreased the Nrf2 expression both in mRNA and protein levels, and rapamycin inhibited these effects of PQ. SFN, a activator of Nrf2, could inhibit the EMT and the expression of Snail. And knockdowon of Nrf2 could abolish the inhibitory effects of rapamycin of PQ-induced EMT. In conclusion, rapamycin protects against paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Endothelium-derived fibronectin regulates neonatal vascular morphogenesis in an autocrine fashion.

    PubMed

    Turner, Christopher J; Badu-Nkansah, Kwabena; Hynes, Richard O

    2017-11-01

    Fibronectin containing alternatively spliced EIIIA and EIIIB domains is largely absent from mature quiescent vessels in adults, but is highly expressed around blood vessels during developmental and pathological angiogenesis. The precise functions of fibronectin and its splice variants during developmental angiogenesis however remain unclear due to the presence of cardiac, somitic, mesodermal and neural defects in existing global fibronectin KO mouse models. Using a rare family of surviving EIIIA EIIIB double KO mice, as well as inducible endothelial-specific fibronectin-deficient mutant mice, we show that vascular development in the neonatal retina is regulated in an autocrine manner by endothelium-derived fibronectin, and requires both EIIIA and EIIIB domains and the RGD-binding α5 and αv integrins for its function. Exogenous sources of fibronectin do not fully substitute for the autocrine function of endothelial fibronectin, demonstrating that fibronectins from different sources contribute differentially to specific aspects of angiogenesis.

  19. Activation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK Pathway through a PDGFRβ-Dependent Feedback Loop Is Involved in Rapamycin Resistance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Li-Qing; Tan, Chang-Jun; Huang, Xiao-Yong; Ke, Ai-Wu; Dai, Zhi; Fan, Jia; Zhou, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapamycin is an attractive approach for the treatment and prevention of HCC recurrence after liver transplantation. However, the objective response rates of rapamycin achieved with single-agent therapy were modest, supporting that rapamycin resistance is a frequently observed characteristic of many cancers. Some studies have been devoted to understanding the mechanisms of rapamycin resistance, however, the mechanisms are cell-type-dependent and studies on rapamycin resistance in HCC are extremely limited. Methodology/Principal Findings The anti-tumor sensitivity of rapamycin was modest in vitro and in vivo. In both human and rat HCC cells, rapamycin up-regulated the expression and phosphorylation of PDGFRβ in a time and dose-dependent manner as assessed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Using siRNA mediated knockdown of PDGFRβ, we confirmed that subsequent activation of AKT and ERK was PDGFRβ-dependent and compromised the anti-tumor activity of rapamycin. Then, blockade of this PDGFRβ-dependent feedback loop by sorafenib enhanced the anti-tumor sensitivity of rapamycin in vitro and in an immunocompetent orthotopic rat model of HCC. Conclusions Activation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathway through a PDGFRβ-dependent feedback loop compromises the anti-tumor activity of rapamycin in HCC, and blockade of this feedback loop by sorafenib is an attractive approach to improve the anti-tumor effect of rapamycin, particularly in preventing or treating HCC recurrence after liver transplantation. PMID:22428038

  20. Vascular smooth muscle cell calcification is mediated by regulated exosome secretion.

    PubMed

    Kapustin, Alexander N; Chatrou, Martijn L L; Drozdov, Ignat; Zheng, Ying; Davidson, Sean M; Soong, Daniel; Furmanik, Malgorzata; Sanchis, Pilar; De Rosales, Rafael Torres Martin; Alvarez-Hernandez, Daniel; Shroff, Rukshana; Yin, Xiaoke; Muller, Karin; Skepper, Jeremy N; Mayr, Manuel; Reutelingsperger, Chris P; Chester, Adrian; Bertazzo, Sergio; Schurgers, Leon J; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2015-04-10

    Matrix vesicles (MVs), secreted by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), form the first nidus for mineralization and fetuin-A, a potent circulating inhibitor of calcification, is specifically loaded into MVs. However, the processes of fetuin-A intracellular trafficking and MV biogenesis are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the regulation, and role, of MV biogenesis in VSMC calcification. Alexa488-labeled fetuin-A was internalized by human VSMCs, trafficked via the endosomal system, and exocytosed from multivesicular bodies via exosome release. VSMC-derived exosomes were enriched with the tetraspanins CD9, CD63, and CD81, and their release was regulated by sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3. Comparative proteomics showed that VSMC-derived exosomes were compositionally similar to exosomes from other cell sources but also shared components with osteoblast-derived MVs including calcium-binding and extracellular matrix proteins. Elevated extracellular calcium was found to induce sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 expression and the secretion of calcifying exosomes from VSMCs in vitro, and chemical inhibition of sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 prevented VSMC calcification. In vivo, multivesicular bodies containing exosomes were observed in vessels from chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis, and CD63 was found to colocalize with calcification. Importantly, factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α and platelet derived growth factor-BB were also found to increase exosome production, leading to increased calcification of VSMCs in response to calcifying conditions. This study identifies MVs as exosomes and shows that factors that can increase exosome release can promote vascular calcification in response to environmental calcium stress. Modulation of the exosome release pathway may be as a novel therapeutic target for prevention. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Regulation of vascular prostaglandin synthesis by metabolites of arachidonic acid in perfused rabbit aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Kent, R S; Diedrich, S L; Whorton, A R

    1983-01-01

    To address the hypothesis that metabolites of arachidonic acid are important regulators of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in intact vascular tissue, we studied arachidonate metabolism in rabbit aortas in response to a continuous infusion of arachidonic acid, 10 micrograms/ml. Prostacyclin (PGI2; measured as 6-keto-PGF1 alpha) production rate accelerated during the first 2 min, reached peak velocity at 2 min, and then progressively decelerated. The velocity profile of PGI2 production was similar to that previously reported for cyclooxygenase holoenzyme assayed in vitro, and was consistent with progressive inactivation of the enzymes leading to PGI2 synthesis. We determined the specific inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostacyclin synthetase by measuring PGI2 and PGE2 production rates and by infusing cyclic endoperoxides. Our results indicate preferential inactivation of cyclooxygenase during arachidonate metabolism, most likely due to cyclooxygenase-derived oxidative intermediates. This was a dose-dependent response and resulted in a progressive decrease in the 6-keto-PGF1 alpha/PGE2 ratio. Exogenously added 15-hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid, on the other hand, actually stimulated cyclooxygenase activity at low doses, while markedly inhibiting prostacyclin synthetase. This finding, along with the accelerating nature of arachidonate metabolism, is consistent with the concept of "peroxide tone" as a mediator of cyclooxygenase activity in this system. These results demonstrate that arachidonate metabolites regulate PG synthesis in intact blood vessels. The progressive enzymatic inhibition intrinsic to arachidonate metabolism may be a model for similar changes occurring in states of enhanced lipid peroxidation. These metabolic alterations might greatly influence the numerous vascular functions known to involve arachidonic acid metabolism. PMID:6409932

  2. Fluid shear stress as a regulator of gene expression in vascular cells: possible correlations with diabetic abnormalities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Eskin, S. G.; Ruef, J.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    1999-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased frequency, severity and more rapid progression of cardiovascular diseases. Metabolic perturbations from hyperglycemia result in disturbed endothelium-dependent relaxation, activation of coagulation pathways, depressed fibrinolysis, and other abnormalities in vascular homeostasis. Atherosclerosis is localized mainly at areas of geometric irregularity at which blood vessels branch, curve and change diameter, and where blood is subjected to sudden changes in velocity and/or direction of flow. Shear stress resulting from blood flow is a well known modulator of vascular cell function. This paper presents what is currently known regarding the molecular mechanisms responsible for signal transduction and gene regulation in vascular cells exposed to shear stress. Considering the importance of the hemodynamic environment of vascular cells might be vital to increasing our understanding of diabetes.

  3. Yap1 Protein Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Switch by Interaction with Myocardin*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Changqing; Guo, Yanhong; Zhu, Tianqing; Zhang, Jifeng; Ma, Peter X.; Chen, Y. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The Hippo-Yap (Yes-associated protein) signaling pathway has emerged as one of the critical pathways regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in response to environmental and developmental cues. However, Yap1 roles in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) biology have not been investigated. VSMCs undergo phenotypic switch, a process characterized by decreased gene expression of VSMC contractile markers and increased proliferation, migration, and matrix synthesis. The goals of the present studies were to investigate the relationship between Yap1 and VSMC phenotypic switch and to determine the molecular mechanisms by which Yap1 affects this essential process in VSMC biology. Results demonstrated that the expression of Yap1 was rapidly up-regulated by stimulation with PDGF-BB (a known inducer of phenotypic switch in VSMCs) and in the injured vessel wall. Knockdown of Yap1 impaired VSMC proliferation in vitro and enhanced the expression of VSMC contractile genes as well by increasing serum response factor binding to CArG-containing regions of VSMC-specific contractile genes within intact chromatin. Conversely, the interaction between serum response factor and its co-activator myocardin was reduced by overexpression of Yap1 in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicate that down-regulation of Yap1 promotes VSMC contractile phenotype by both up-regulating myocardin expression and promoting the association of the serum response factor-myocardin complex with VSMC contractile gene promoters and suggest that the Yap1 signaling pathway is a central regulator of phenotypic switch of VSMCs. PMID:22411986

  4. [Regulative effects of hydrogen-rich medium on monocytic adhesion and vascular endothelial permeability].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-na; Xie, Ke-liang; Chen, Hong-guang; Han, Huan-zhi; Wang, Guo-lin; Yu, Yong-hao

    2013-11-19

    To explore the regulative effects of hydrogen-rich medium on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced monocytes adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and vascular endothelial permeability in vitro. Endothelial cells were seeded in 6-well plates and randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 42 each):control (A), hydrogen-rich medium (B), LPS (C) and LPS+hydrogen-rich medium (D). Cells were cultured in plain culture medium in groups A and C or in hydrogen-saturated culture medium in groups B and D.LPS 1 µg/ml was added into groups C and D.When forming a monolayer, monocytes were added into each group after 6, 12 and 24 h respectively. After a 90-minute co-culturing, adhesion status was detected by Wright-Giemsa stain.Supernatants were collected to detect the concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of VE-cadherin was measured by Western blot. Cells were stained with immunofluorescence to show the distribution of VE-cadherin after a 24-hour incubation. Compared with group A, the adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells increased (P < 0.05) in group C, the levels of E-selectin and VCAM-1 became elevated (P < 0.05) while the expression of VE-cadherin decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with group C, adhesion decreased in group D (P < 0.05), the levels of E-selectin and VCAM-1 decreased (P < 0.05) while there was an increased expression of VE-cadherin (P < 0.05). Three timepoints showed the same tendency. The results of 24 h fluorescence indicated that, compared with group A, VE-cadherin was incomplete in cell-cell connections in group C.However it was complete and well-distributed in group D versus group C. Hydrogen-rich medium may reduce the LPS-induced release of adhesion molecules, lessen monocytic adhesion to HUVEC and regulate the expression of VE-cadherin to protect vascular permeability.

  5. Effect of Chronic Administration of Low Dose Rapamycin on Development and Immunity in Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenya; Liu, Furong; Chen, Linglin; Zhang, Huadan; Ding, Yuemin; Liu, Jianxiang; Wong, Michael; Zeng, Ling-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth, cell differentiation and protein synthesis. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, has been widely used as an immunosuppressant and anti-cancer drug. Recently, mTOR inhibitors have also been reported to be a potential anti-epileptic drug, which may be effective when used in young patients with genetic epilepsy. Thus, a suitable dose of rapamycin which can maintain the normal function of mTOR and has fewer side effects ideally should be identified. In the present study, we first detected changes in marker proteins of mTOR signaling pathway during development. Then we determined the dose of rapamycin by treating rats of 2 weeks of age with different doses of rapamycin for 3 days and detected its effect on mTOR pathway. Young rats were then treated with a suitable dose of rapamycin for 4 weeks and the effect of rapamycin on mTOR, development and immunity were investigated. We found that the expression of the marker proteins of mTOR pathway was changed during development in brain hippocampus and neocortex. After 3 days of treanent, 0.03 mg/kg rapamycin had no effect on phospho-S6, whereas 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin inhibited phospho-S6 in a dose-dependent manner. However, only 1.0 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin inhibited phospho-S6 after 4 weeks treatment of rapamycin. Parallel to this result, rats treated with 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg rapamycin had no obvious adverse effects, whereas rats treated with 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin showed significant decreases in body, spleen and thymus weight. Additionally, rats treated with 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin exhibited cognitive impairment and anxiety as evident by maze and open field experiments. Furthermore, the content of IL-1β, IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α in serum and cerebral cortex were significantly decreased in 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin-treated rats. The expression of DCX was also significantly decreased in 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin-treated rats. However, rats

  6. Effect of Chronic Administration of Low Dose Rapamycin on Development and Immunity in Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhenya; Liu, Furong; Chen, Linglin; Zhang, Huadan; Ding, Yuemin; Liu, Jianxiang; Wong, Michael; Zeng, Ling-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth, cell differentiation and protein synthesis. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, has been widely used as an immunosuppressant and anti-cancer drug. Recently, mTOR inhibitors have also been reported to be a potential anti-epileptic drug, which may be effective when used in young patients with genetic epilepsy. Thus, a suitable dose of rapamycin which can maintain the normal function of mTOR and has fewer side effects ideally should be identified. In the present study, we first detected changes in marker proteins of mTOR signaling pathway during development. Then we determined the dose of rapamycin by treating rats of 2 weeks of age with different doses of rapamycin for 3 days and detected its effect on mTOR pathway. Young rats were then treated with a suitable dose of rapamycin for 4 weeks and the effect of rapamycin on mTOR, development and immunity were investigated. We found that the expression of the marker proteins of mTOR pathway was changed during development in brain hippocampus and neocortex. After 3 days of treanent, 0.03 mg/kg rapamycin had no effect on phospho-S6, whereas 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin inhibited phospho-S6 in a dose-dependent manner. However, only 1.0 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin inhibited phospho-S6 after 4 weeks treatment of rapamycin. Parallel to this result, rats treated with 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg rapamycin had no obvious adverse effects, whereas rats treated with 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin showed significant decreases in body, spleen and thymus weight. Additionally, rats treated with 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin exhibited cognitive impairment and anxiety as evident by maze and open field experiments. Furthermore, the content of IL-1β, IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α in serum and cerebral cortex were significantly decreased in 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin-treated rats. The expression of DCX was also significantly decreased in 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rapamycin-treated rats. However, rats

  7. Rapamycin reduces fibroblast proliferation without causing quiescence and induces STAT5A/B-mediated cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Zoe E; MacKay, Kimberly; Sander, Michelle; Trost, Brett; Dawicki, Wojciech; Wickramarathna, Aruna; Gordon, John; Eramian, Mark; Kill, Ian R; Bridger, Joanna M; Kusalik, Anthony; Mitchell, Jennifer A; Eskiw, Christopher H

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin is a well-known inhibitor of the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling cascade; however, the impact of this drug on global genome function and organization in normal primary cells is poorly understood. To explore this impact, we treated primary human foreskin fibroblasts with rapamycin and observed a decrease in cell proliferation without causing cell death. Upon rapamycin treatment chromosomes 18 and 10 were repositioned to a location similar to that of fibroblasts induced into quiescence by serum reduction. Although similar changes in positioning occurred, comparative transcriptome analyses demonstrated significant divergence in gene expression patterns between rapamycin-treated and quiescence-induced fibroblasts. Rapamycin treatment induced the upregulation of cytokine genes, including those from the Interleukin (IL)-6 signaling network, such as IL-8 and the Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF), while quiescent fibroblasts demonstrated up-regulation of genes involved in the complement and coagulation cascade. In addition, genes significantly up-regulated by rapamycin treatment demonstrated increased promoter occupancy of the transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5A/B (STAT5A/B). In summary, we demonstrated that the treatment of fibroblasts with rapamycin decreased proliferation, caused chromosome territory repositioning and induced STAT5A/B-mediated changes in gene expression enriched for cytokines. PMID:26652669

  8. Regulation of Cellular Redox Signaling by Matricellular Proteins in Vascular Biology, Immunology, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sukhbir

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Significance: In contrast to structural elements of the extracellular matrix, matricellular proteins appear transiently during development and injury responses, but their sustained expression can contribute to chronic disease. Through interactions with other matrix components and specific cell surface receptors, matricellular proteins regulate multiple signaling pathways, including those mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and H2S. Dysregulation of matricellular proteins contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases and cancer. Defining the molecular mechanisms and receptors involved is revealing new therapeutic opportunities. Recent Advances: Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) regulates NO, H2S, and superoxide production and signaling in several cell types. The TSP1 receptor CD47 plays a central role in inhibition of NO signaling, but other TSP1 receptors also modulate redox signaling. The matricellular protein CCN1 engages some of the same receptors to regulate redox signaling, and ADAMTS1 regulates NO signaling in Marfan syndrome. In addition to mediating matricellular protein signaling, redox signaling is emerging as an important pathway that controls the expression of several matricellular proteins. Critical Issues: Redox signaling remains unexplored for many matricellular proteins. Their interactions with multiple cellular receptors remains an obstacle to defining signaling mechanisms, but improved transgenic models could overcome this barrier. Future Directions: Therapeutics targeting the TSP1 receptor CD47 may have beneficial effects for treating cardiovascular disease and cancer and have recently entered clinical trials. Biomarkers are needed to assess their effects on redox signaling in patients and to evaluate how these contribute to their therapeutic efficacy and potential side effects. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 874–911. PMID:28712304

  9. Regulation of Cellular Redox Signaling by Matricellular Proteins in Vascular Biology, Immunology, and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David D; Kaur, Sukhbir; Isenberg, Jeffrey S

    2017-10-20

    In contrast to structural elements of the extracellular matrix, matricellular proteins appear transiently during development and injury responses, but their sustained expression can contribute to chronic disease. Through interactions with other matrix components and specific cell surface receptors, matricellular proteins regulate multiple signaling pathways, including those mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and H 2 S. Dysregulation of matricellular proteins contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases and cancer. Defining the molecular mechanisms and receptors involved is revealing new therapeutic opportunities. Recent Advances: Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) regulates NO, H 2 S, and superoxide production and signaling in several cell types. The TSP1 receptor CD47 plays a central role in inhibition of NO signaling, but other TSP1 receptors also modulate redox signaling. The matricellular protein CCN1 engages some of the same receptors to regulate redox signaling, and ADAMTS1 regulates NO signaling in Marfan syndrome. In addition to mediating matricellular protein signaling, redox signaling is emerging as an important pathway that controls the expression of several matricellular proteins. Redox signaling remains unexplored for many matricellular proteins. Their interactions with multiple cellular receptors remains an obstacle to defining signaling mechanisms, but improved transgenic models could overcome this barrier. Therapeutics targeting the TSP1 receptor CD47 may have beneficial effects for treating cardiovascular disease and cancer and have recently entered clinical trials. Biomarkers are needed to assess their effects on redox signaling in patients and to evaluate how these contribute to their therapeutic efficacy and potential side effects. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 874-911.

  10. Rapamycin enhances the anti-angiogenesis and anti-proliferation ability of YM155 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Kong-Liang; Wang, Yu-Fan; Qin, Jia-Ruo; Wang, Feng; Yang, Yong-Tao; Zheng, Li-Wu; Li, Ming-Hua; Kong, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Hong-Yu

    2017-06-01

    YM155, a small molecule inhibitor of survivin, has been studied in many tumors. It has been shown that YM155 inhibited oral squamous cell carcinoma through promoting apoptosis and autophagy and inhibiting proliferation. It was found that YM155 also inhibited the oral squamous cell carcinoma-mediated angiogenesis through the inactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, played an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. In our study, cell proliferation assay, transwell assay, tube formation assay, and western blot assay were used to investigate the synergistic effect of rapamycin on YM155 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Either in vitro or in vivo, rapamycin and YM155 exerted a synergistic effect on the inhibition of survivin and vascular endothelial growth factor through mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Overall, our results revealed that low-dose rapamycin strongly promoted the sensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines to YM155.

  11. Rab5a‑mediated autophagy regulates the phenotype and behavior of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jin-Yun; Jia, Luo-Qi; Shi, Wei-Hao; He, Qing; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Bo

    2016-11-01

    Rab5a, a key member of the Rab family of GTPases, was determined to be a regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. However, the exact regulatory mechanism remains unclear. As Rab5a has been shown to be associated with autophagy, which is essential for the conversion of VSMCs from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype in order to prevent cell death due to oxidative stress. The present study hypothesized that autophagy may be responsible for the proliferation and migration of VSMCs via the Rab5a protein. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Rab5a on autophagy in VSMCs. The human aorta vascular smooth muscle cell line, T/G HA‑VSMCs, was treated with small interfering (si)RNA against Rab5a and/or platelet‑derived growth factor (PDGF). Following treatment, the phenotype transition of the VSMCs was evaluated by detecting the mRNA and protien expression levels of VSMC molecular markers using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. In addition, autophagy in VSMCs was evaluated by western blotting for autophagy‑associated proteins, flow cytometry of acidic vesicular organelles, punctate fluorescence of microtubule associated protein light chain 3 and transmission electron microscopy of typical scattered double‑membrane vacuolar structures. Additionally, the proliferation, migration, cell cycle and apoptotic response of VSMCs were detected by sulforhodamine B assay, transwell assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The results revealed that transfection with siRNA against Rab5a led to a significant decrease in Rab5a protein expression, while the reduced expression trend of Rab5a was rescued by intervention with PDGF. Furthermore, cells transfected with siRNA against Rab5a inhibited the autophagy of VSMCs. Downregulated Rab5a inhibited the phenotype transition of VSMCs. Additionally, downregulated Rab5a led to slowed cell growth, decreased numbers of

  12. The adapter protein, Grb10, is a positive regulator of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Giorgetti-Peraldi, S; Murdaca, J; Mas, J C; Van Obberghen, E

    2001-07-05

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Activation of VEGF receptors leads to the recruitment of SH2 containing proteins which link the receptors to the activation of signaling pathways. Here we report that Grb10, an adapter protein of which the biological role remains unknown, is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to VEGF in endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in 293 cells expressing the VEGF receptor KDR. An intact SH2 domain is required for Grb10 tyrosine phosphorylation in response to VEGF, and this phosphorylation is mediated in part through the activation of Src. In HUVEC, VEGF increases Grb10 mRNA level. Expression of Grb10 in HUVEC or in KDR expressing 293 cells results in an increase in the amount and in the tyrosine phosphorylation of KDR. In 293 cells, this is correlated with the activation of signaling molecules, such as MAP kinase. By expressing mutants of Grb10, we found that the positive action of Grb10 is independent of its SH2 domain. Moreover, these Grb10 effects on KDR seem to be specific since Grb10 has no effect on the insulin receptor, and Grb2, another adapter protein, does not mimic the effect of Grb10 on KDR. In conclusion, we propose that VEGF up-regulates Grb10 level, which in turn increases KDR molecules, suggesting that Grb10 could be involved in a positive feedback loop in VEGF signaling.

  13. NONOates regulate KCl cotransporter-1 and -3 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Di Fulvio, Mauricio; Lauf, Peter K; Shah, Shalin; Adragna, Norma C

    2003-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) donors regulate KCl cotransport (KCC) activity and cotransporter-1 and -3 (KCC1 and KCC3) mRNA expression in sheep erythrocytes and in primary cultures of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), respectively. In this study, we used NONOates as rapid and slow NO releasers to provide direct evidence implicating NO as a regulator of KCC3 gene expression at the mRNA level. In addition, we used the expression of KCC3 mRNA to further investigate the mechanism of action of these NO donors at the cellular level. Treatment of VSMCs with rapid NO releasers, like NOC-5 and NOC-9, as well as with the direct NO-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) stimulator YC-1, acutely increased KCC3 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The slow NO releaser NOC-18 had no effect on KCC3 gene expression. A specific NO scavenger completely prevented the NONOate-induced KCC3 mRNA expression. Inhibition of sGC with LY-83583 blocked the NONOate- and YC-1-induced KCC3 mRNA expression. This study shows that in primary cultures of rat VSMCs, the fast NO releasers NOC-9 and NOC-5, but not the slow NO releaser NOC-18, acutely upregulate KCC3 mRNA expression in a NO/sGC-dependent manner.

  14. Human haemodynamic frequency harmonics regulate the inflammatory phenotype of vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Feaver, Ryan E; Gelfand, Bradley D; Blackman, Brett R

    2013-01-01

    Haemodynamic variations are inherent to blood vessel geometries (such as bifurcations) and correlate with regional development of inflammation and atherosclerosis. However, the complex frequency spectrum characteristics from these haemodynamics have never been exploited to test whether frequency variations are critical determinants of endothelial inflammatory phenotype. Here we utilize an experimental Fourier transform analysis to systematically manipulate individual frequency harmonics from human carotid shear stress waveforms applied in vitro to human endothelial cells. The frequency spectrum, specifically the 0 th and 1st harmonics, is a significant regulator of inflammation, including NF-κB activity and downstream inflammatory phenotype. Further, a harmonic-based regression-model predicts eccentric NF-κB activity observed in the human internal carotid artery. Finally, short interfering RNA-knockdown of the mechanosensor PECAM-1 reverses frequency-dependent regulation of NF-κB activity. Thus, PECAM-1 may have a critical role in the endothelium's exquisite sensitivity to complex shear stress frequency harmonics and provide a mechanism for the focal development of vascular inflammation.

  15. Granulocytes and Vascularization Regulate Uterine Bleeding and Tissue Remodeling in a Mouse Menstruation Model

    PubMed Central

    Menning, Astrid; Walter, Alexander; Rudolph, Marion; Gashaw, Isabella; Fritzemeier, Karl-Heinrich; Roese, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Menstruation-associated disorders negatively interfere with the quality of life of many women. However, mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of menstrual disorders remain poorly investigated up to date. Among others, this is based on a lack of appropriate pre-clinical animal models. We here employ a mouse menstruation model induced by priming mice with gonadal hormones and application of a physical stimulus into the uterus followed by progesterone removal. As in women, these events are accompanied by menstrual-like bleeding and tissue remodeling processes, i.e. disintegration of decidualized endometrium, as well as subsequent repair. We demonstrate that the onset of bleeding coincides with strong upregulation of inflammatory mediators and massive granulocyte influx into the uterus. Uterine granulocytes play a central role in regulating local tissue remodeling since depletion of these cells results in dysregulated expression of matrix modifying enzymes. As described here for the first time, uterine blood loss can be quantified by help of tampon-like cotton pads. Using this novel technique, we reveal that blood loss is strongly reduced upon inhibition of endometrial vascularization and thus, is a key regulator of menstrual bleeding. Taken together, we here identify angiogenesis and infiltrating granulocytes as critical determinants of uterine bleeding and tissue remodeling in a mouse menstruation model. Importantly, our study provides a technical and scientific basis allowing quantification of uterine blood loss in mice and thus, assessment of therapeutic intervention, proving great potential for future use in basic research and drug discovery. PMID:22879894

  16. Phospholipase A2 activation regulates cytotoxicity of methylmercury in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mazerik, Jessica N; Hagele, Thomas; Sherwani, Shariq; Ciapala, Valorie; Butler, Susan; Kuppusamy, M Lakshmi; Hunter, Melissa; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Marsh, Clay B; Parinandi, Narasimham L

    2007-01-01

    Mercury has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease among humans. Through diet, mainly fish consumption, humans are exposed to methylmercury, the biomethylated organic form of environmental mercury. As the endothelium is an important player in homeostasis of the cardiovascular system, here, the authors tested their hypothesis that methylmercury activates the lipid signaling enzyme phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) in vascular endothelial cells (ECs), causing upstream regulation of cytotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, the authors used bovine pulmonary artery ECs (BPAECs) cultured in monolayers, following labeling of their membrane phospholipids with [(3)H]arachidonic acid (AA). The cells were exposed to methylmercury chloride (MMC) and then the release of free AA (index of PLA(2) activity) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; index of cytotoxicity) were determined by liquid scintillation counting and spectrophotometry, respectively. MMC significantly activated PLA(2) in a dose-dependent (5 to 15 microM) and time-dependent (0 to 60 min) fashion. Sulfhydryl (thiol-protective) agents, calcium chelators, antioxidants, and PLA(2)-specific inhibitors attenuated the MMC-induced PLA(2) activation, suggesting the role of thiols, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and calcium in the activation of PLA(2) in BPAECs. MMC also induced the loss of thiols and increase of lipid peroxidation in BPAECs. MMC induced cytotoxicity in BPAECs as observed by the altered cell morphology and LDH leak, which was significantly attenuated by PLA(2) inhibitors. This study established that PLA(2) activation through thiols, calcium, and oxidative stress was associated with the cytotoxicity of MMC in BPAECs, drawing attention to the involvement of PLA(2) signaling in the methylmercury-induced vascular endothelial dysfunctions.

  17. PPARδ regulation of miR-15a in ischemia-induced cerebral vascular endothelial injury

    PubMed Central

    Yin, K.J.; Deng, Z.; Hamblin, M.; Xiang, Y.; Huang, H.R.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, X. D.; Wang, Y.; Chen, Y. E.

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral endothelial cell (CEC) degeneration significantly contributes to blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and neuronal loss after cerebral ischemia. Recently, emerging data suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) activation has a potential neuroprotective role in ischemic stroke. Here we report for the first time that PPARδ is significantly reduced in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced mouse CEC death. Interestingly, PPARδ overexpression can suppress OGD-induced caspase-3 activity, Golgi fragmentation, and CEC death through an increase of bcl-2 protein levels without change of bcl-2 mRNA levels. To explore the molecular mechanisms, we have identified that upregulation of PPARδ can alleviate ODG-activated microRNA-15a (miR-15a) expression in CECs. Moreover, we have demonstrated that bcl-2 is a translationally-repressed target of miR-15a. Intriguingly, gain- or loss-of-miR-15a function can significantly reduce or increase OGD-induced CEC death, respectively. Furthermore, we have identified that miR-15a is a transcriptional target of PPARδ. Consistent with the in vitro findings, we found that intracerebroventricular infusion of a specific PPARδ agonist, GW 501516, significantly reduced ischemia-induced miR-15a expression, increased bcl-2 protein levels, and attenuated caspase-3 activity and subsequent DNA fragmentation in isolated cerebral microvessels, leading to decreased BBB disruption and reduced cerebral infarction in mice after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Taken together, these results suggest that PPARδ plays a vascular-protective role in ischemia-like insults via transcriptional repression of miR-15a, resulting in subsequent release of its posttranscriptional inhibition of bcl-2. Thus, regulation of PPARδ-mediated miR-15a inhibition of bcl-2 could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of stroke-related vascular dysfunction. PMID:20445066

  18. Platelet-derived growth factor regulates K-Cl cotransport in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Lauf, Peter K; Adragna, Norma C

    2003-03-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a potent serum mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), plays an important role in membrane transport regulation and in atherosclerosis. K-Cl cotransport (K-Cl COT/KCC), the coupled-movement of K and Cl, is involved in ion homeostasis. VSMCs possess K-Cl COT activity and the KCC1 and KCC3 isoforms. Here, we report on the effect of PDGF on K-Cl COT activity and mRNA expression in primary cultures of rat VSMCs. K-Cl COT was determined as the Cl-dependent Rb influx and mRNA expression by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Twenty four-hour serum deprivation inhibited basal K-Cl COT activity. Addition of PDGF increased total protein content and K-Cl COT activity in a time-dependent manner. PDGF activated K-Cl COT in a dose-dependent manner, both acutely (10 min) and chronically (12 h). AG-1296, a selective inhibitor of the PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase, abolished these effects. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide had no effect on the acute PDGF activation of K-Cl COT, suggesting posttranslational regulation by the drug. Furthermore, PDGF increased KCC1 and decreased KCC3 mRNA expression in a time-dependent manner. These results indicate that chronic activation of K-Cl COT activity by PDGF may involve regulation of the two KCC mRNA isoforms, with KCC1 playing a dominant role in the mechanism of PDGF-mediated activation.

  19. Induction of Melanogenesis by Rapamycin in Human MNT-1 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hah, Young-Sool; Cho, Hee Young; Lim, Tae-Yeon; Park, Dong Hwa; Kim, Hwa Mi; Yoon, Jimi; Kim, Jin Gu; Kim, Chi Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Background Melanogenesis is one of the characteristic parameters of differentiation in melanocytes and melanoma cells. Specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), such as wortmannin and LY294002, stimulate melanin production in mouse and in human melanoma cells, suggesting that PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) might be involved in the regulation of melanogenesis. Objective The involvement of the mTOR pathway in regulating melanogenesis was examined using human MNT-1 melanoma cells, and the effects of the potent inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin, in the presence or absence of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) were evaluated. Methods In cells treated with rapamycin, cell viability, melanin content, and tyrosinase (TYR) activity were measured and compared with untreated controls. Protein levels of TYR, tyrosinase-related protein (TYRP)-1, TYRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were also analyzed by Western blot. Results In rapamycin-treated cells, the melanin content increased concomitantly with an elevation in TYR activity, which plays a major role in melanogenesis. There was also an up-regulation of TYR, TYRP-1, and MITF proteins. Combined treatment with rapamycin or wortmannin and α-MSH increased melanogenesis more strongly than α-MSH alone. Conclusion Rapamycin-induced melanin formation may be mediated through the up-regulation of TYR protein and activity. Furthermore, rapamycin and wortmannin, inhibitors of mTOR and PI3K, respectively, have co-stimulatory effects with α-MSH in enhancing melanogenesis in melanocyte cells. PMID:22577264

  20. Rapamycin ameliorates IgA nephropathy via cell cycle-dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jihua; Wang, Yanhong; Liu, Xinyan; Zhou, Xiaoshuang

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most frequent type of glomerulonephritis worldwide. The role of cell cycle regulation in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy has been studied. The present study was designed to explore whether rapamycin ameliorates IgA nephropathy via cell cycle-dependent mechanisms. After establishing an IgA nephropathy model, rats were randomly divided into four groups. Coomassie Brilliant Blue was used to measure the 24-h urinary protein levels. Renal function was determined using an autoanalyzer. Proliferation was assayed via Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry. Rat mesangial cells were cultured and divided into the six groups. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry were used to detect cell proliferation and the cell cycle phase. Western blotting was performed to determine cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, p27Kip1, p70S6K/p-p70S6K, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2/p- extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 protein expression. A low dose of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin prevented an additional increase in proteinuria, protected kidney function, and reduced IgA deposition in a model of IgA nephropathy. Rapamycin inhibited mesangial cell proliferation and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase. Rapamycin did not affect the expression of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. However, rapamycin upregulated p27Kip1 at least in part via AKT (also known as protein kinase B)/mTOR. In conclusion, rapamycin can affect cell cycle regulation to inhibit mesangial cell proliferation, thereby reduce IgA deposition, and slow the progression of IgAN. PMID:25349217

  1. Rapamycin ameliorates IgA nephropathy via cell cycle-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jihua; Wang, Yanhong; Liu, Xinyan; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Li, Rongshan

    2015-07-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most frequent type of glomerulonephritis worldwide. The role of cell cycle regulation in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy has been studied. The present study was designed to explore whether rapamycin ameliorates IgA nephropathy via cell cycle-dependent mechanisms. After establishing an IgA nephropathy model, rats were randomly divided into four groups. Coomassie Brilliant Blue was used to measure the 24-h urinary protein levels. Renal function was determined using an autoanalyzer. Proliferation was assayed via Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry. Rat mesangial cells were cultured and divided into the six groups. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry were used to detect cell proliferation and the cell cycle phase. Western blotting was performed to determine cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, p27(Kip1), p70S6K/p-p70S6K, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2/p- extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 protein expression. A low dose of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin prevented an additional increase in proteinuria, protected kidney function, and reduced IgA deposition in a model of IgA nephropathy. Rapamycin inhibited mesangial cell proliferation and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase. Rapamycin did not affect the expression of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. However, rapamycin upregulated p27(Kip1) at least in part via AKT (also known as protein kinase B)/mTOR. In conclusion, rapamycin can affect cell cycle regulation to inhibit mesangial cell proliferation, thereby reduce IgA deposition, and slow the progression of IgAN. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  2. Rapamycin reversal of VEGF-C–driven lymphatic anomalies in the respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Li-Chin; Flores, Julio C.; Choi, Dongwon; Hong, Young-Kwon; McDonald, Donald M.

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatic malformations are serious but poorly understood conditions that present therapeutic challenges. The goal of this study was to compare strategies for inducing regression of abnormal lymphatics and explore underlying mechanisms. CCSP-rtTA/tetO-VEGF-C mice, in which doxycycline regulates VEGF-C expression in the airway epithelium, were used as a model of pulmonary lymphangiectasia. After doxycycline was stopped, VEGF-C expression returned to normal, but lymphangiectasia persisted for at least 9 months. Inhibition of VEGFR-2/VEGFR-3 signaling, Notch, β-adrenergic receptors, or autophagy and antiinflammatory steroids had no noticeable effect on the amount or severity of lymphangiectasia. However, rapamycin inhibition of mTOR reduced lymphangiectasia by 76% within 7 days without affecting normal lymphatics. Efficacy of rapamycin was not increased by coadministration with the other agents. In prevention trials, rapamycin suppressed VEGF-C–driven mTOR phosphorylation and lymphatic endothelial cell sprouting and proliferation. However, in reversal trials, no lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation was present to block in established lymphangiectasia, and rapamycin did not increase caspase-dependent apoptosis. However, rapamycin potently suppressed Prox1 and VEGFR-3. These experiments revealed that lymphangiectasia is remarkably resistant to regression but is responsive to rapamycin, which rapidly reduces and normalizes the abnormal lymphatics without affecting normal lymphatics. PMID:28814666

  3. Rapamycin Prolongs Cardiac Allograft Survival in a Mouse Model by Inducing Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Nakao, T; Yoshimura, N; Ashihara, E

    2015-09-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are the main immunosuppressive drugs for organ transplant recipients. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which mTOR inhibitors induce immunosuppression is not fully understood. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) maintain host immunity; however, the relationship between mTOR inhibitors and MDSCs is unclear. Here, the results from a murine cardiac transplantation model revealed that rapamycin treatment (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally on postoperative days 0, 2, 4, and 6) led to the recruitment of MDSCs and increased their expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that rapamycin induced the migration of iNOS-expressing MDSCs into the subintimal space within the allograft vessels, resulting in a significant prolongation of graft survival compared with that in the untreated group (67 days vs. 7 days, respectively). These effects were counterbalanced by the administration of an anti-Gr-1, which reduced allograft survival to 21 days. Moreover, adoptive transcoronary arterial transfer of MDSCs from rapamycin-treated recipients prolonged allograft survival; this increase was reversed by the anti-Gr-1 antibody. Finally, co-administration of rapamycin and a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor trametinib reversed rapamycin-mediated MDSC recruitment. Thus, the mTOR and Raf/MEK/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways appear to play an important role in MDSC expansion. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. Phosphorylation of GATA-6 is required for vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation after mTORC1 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yi; Jin, Yu; Merenick, Bethany L.; Ding, Min; Fetalvero, Kristina M.; Wagner, Robert J.; Mai, Alice; Gleim, Scott; Tucker, David; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Luciano, Amelia K.; Sessa, William C.; Rzucidlo, Eva M.; Powell, Richard J.; Hou, Lin; Zhao, Hongyu; Hwa, John; Yu, Jun; Martin, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo transcriptionally regulated reversible differentiation in growing and injured blood vessels. This de-differentiation also contributes to VSMC hyperplasia following vascular injury, including that caused by angioplasty and stenting. Stents provide mechanical support and can contain and release rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Rapamycin suppresses VSMC hyperplasia and promotes VSMC differentiation. We report that rapamycin-induced differentiation of VSMCs required the transcription factor GATA-6. Inhibition of mTORC1 stabilized GATA-6 and promoted the nuclear accumulation of GATA-6, its binding to DNA, and its transactivation of promoters encoding contractile proteins and inhibitors of proliferation. These effects were mediated by phosphorylation of GATA-6 at Ser290, potentially by Akt2, a kinase that is activated in VSMCs when mTORC1 is inhibited. Rapamycin induced phosphorylation of GATA-6 in wild-type mice, but not in Akt2−/− mice. Intimal hyperplasia after arterial injury was greater in Akt2−/− mice than in wild-type mice, and the exacerbated response in Akt2−/− mice was rescued to a greater extent by local overexpression of the wild-type or phosphomimetic (S290D) mutant GATA-6 than by that of the phosphorylation-deficient (S290A) mutant. Our data indicated that GATA-6 and Akt2 are involved in the mTORC1-mediated regulation of VSMC proliferation and differentiation. Identifying the downstream transcriptional targets of mTORC1 may provide cell type-specific drug targets to combat cardiovascular diseases associated with excessive proliferation of VSMCs. PMID:25969542

  5. Brain Injury-Induced Synaptic Reorganization in Hilar Inhibitory Neurons Is Differentially Suppressed by Rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), treatment with rapamycin suppresses mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity and specific components of hippocampal synaptic reorganization associated with altered cortical excitability and seizure susceptibility. Reemergence of seizures after cessation of rapamycin treatment suggests, however, an incomplete suppression of epileptogenesis. Hilar inhibitory interneurons regulate dentate granule cell (DGC) activity, and de novo synaptic input from both DGCs and CA3 pyramidal cells after TBI increases their excitability but effects of rapamycin treatment on the injury-induced plasticity of interneurons is only partially described. Using transgenic mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) is expressed in the somatostatinergic subset of hilar inhibitory interneurons, we tested the effect of daily systemic rapamycin treatment (3 mg/kg) on the excitability of hilar inhibitory interneurons after controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced focal brain injury. Rapamycin treatment reduced, but did not normalize, the injury-induced increase in excitability of surviving eGFP+ hilar interneurons. The injury-induced increase in response to selective glutamate photostimulation of DGCs was reduced to normal levels after mTOR inhibition, but the postinjury increase in synaptic excitation arising from CA3 pyramidal cell activity was unaffected by rapamycin treatment. The incomplete suppression of synaptic reorganization in inhibitory circuits after brain injury could contribute to hippocampal hyperexcitability and the eventual reemergence of the epileptogenic process upon cessation of mTOR inhibition. Further, the cell-selective effect of mTOR inhibition on synaptic reorganization after CCI suggests possible mechanisms by which rapamycin treatment modifies epileptogenesis in some models but not others. PMID:29085896

  6. Rapamycin inhibits the secretory phenotype of senescent cells by a Nrf2-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Yu, Zhen; Sunchu, Bharath; Shoaf, James; Dang, Ivana; Zhao, Stephanie; Caples, Kelsey; Bradley, Lynda; Beaver, Laura M; Ho, Emily; Löhr, Christiane V; Perez, Viviana I

    2017-06-01

    Senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology and loss of function, and their selective removal improves physiological function and extends longevity. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, inhibits cell senescence in vitro and increases longevity in several species. Nrf2 levels have been shown to decrease with aging and silencing Nrf2 gene induces premature senescence. Therefore, we explored whether Nrf2 is involved in the mechanism by which rapamycin delays cell senescence. In wild-type (WT) mouse fibroblasts, rapamycin increased the levels of Nrf2, and this correlates with the activation of autophagy and a reduction in the induction of cell senescence, as measured by SA-β-galactosidase (β-gal) staining, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and p16 and p21 molecular markers. In Nrf2KO fibroblasts, however, rapamycin still decreased β-gal staining and the SASP, but rapamycin did not activate the autophagy pathway or decrease p16 and p21 levels. These observations were further confirmed in vivo using Nrf2KO mice, where rapamycin treatment led to a decrease in β-gal staining and pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and fat tissue; however, p16 levels were not significantly decreased in fat tissue. Consistent with literature demonstrating that the Stat3 pathway is linked to the production of SASP, we found that rapamycin decreased activation of the Stat3 pathway in cells or tissue samples from both WT and Nrf2KO mice. Our data thus suggest that cell senescence is a complex process that involves at least two arms, and rapamycin uses Nrf2 to regulate cell cycle arrest, but not the production of SASP. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Brain Injury-Induced Synaptic Reorganization in Hilar Inhibitory Neurons Is Differentially Suppressed by Rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Butler, Corwin R; Boychuk, Jeffery A; Smith, Bret N

    2017-01-01

    Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), treatment with rapamycin suppresses mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity and specific components of hippocampal synaptic reorganization associated with altered cortical excitability and seizure susceptibility. Reemergence of seizures after cessation of rapamycin treatment suggests, however, an incomplete suppression of epileptogenesis. Hilar inhibitory interneurons regulate dentate granule cell (DGC) activity, and de novo synaptic input from both DGCs and CA3 pyramidal cells after TBI increases their excitability but effects of rapamycin treatment on the injury-induced plasticity of interneurons is only partially described. Using transgenic mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) is expressed in the somatostatinergic subset of hilar inhibitory interneurons, we tested the effect of daily systemic rapamycin treatment (3 mg/kg) on the excitability of hilar inhibitory interneurons after controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced focal brain injury. Rapamycin treatment reduced, but did not normalize, the injury-induced increase in excitability of surviving eGFP+ hilar interneurons. The injury-induced increase in response to selective glutamate photostimulation of DGCs was reduced to normal levels after mTOR inhibition, but the postinjury increase in synaptic excitation arising from CA3 pyramidal cell activity was unaffected by rapamycin treatment. The incomplete suppression of synaptic reorganization in inhibitory circuits after brain injury could contribute to hippocampal hyperexcitability and the eventual reemergence of the epileptogenic process upon cessation of mTOR inhibition. Further, the cell-selective effect of mTOR inhibition on synaptic reorganization after CCI suggests possible mechanisms by which rapamycin treatment modifies epileptogenesis in some models but not others.

  8. Rapamycin treatment augments both protein ubiquitination and Akt activation in pressure-overloaded rat myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Harston, Rebecca K.; McKillop, John C.; Moschella, Phillip C.; Van Laer, An; Quinones, Lakeya S.; Baicu, Catalin F.; Balasubramanian, Sundaravadivel; Zile, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is necessary for both increased ventricular mass and survival signaling for compensated hypertrophy in pressure-overloaded (PO) myocardium. Another molecular keystone involved in the hypertrophic growth process is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which forms two distinct functional complexes: mTORC1 that activates p70S6 kinase-1 to enhance protein synthesis and mTORC2 that activates Akt to promote cell survival. Independent studies in animal models show that rapamycin treatment that alters mTOR complexes also reduces hypertrophic growth and increases lifespan by an unknown mechanism. We tested whether the ubiquitin-mediated regulation of growth and survival in hypertrophic myocardium is linked to the mTOR pathway. For in vivo studies, right ventricle PO in rats was conducted by pulmonary artery banding; the normally loaded left ventricle served as an internal control. Rapamycin (0.75 mg/kg per day) or vehicle alone was administered intraperitoneally for 3 days or 2 wk. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence imaging showed that the level of ubiquitylated proteins in cardiomyocytes that increased following 48 h of PO was enhanced by rapamycin. Rapamycin pretreatment also significantly increased PO-induced Akt phosphorylation at S473, a finding confirmed in cardiomyocytes in vitro to be downstream of mTORC2. Analysis of prosurvival signaling in vivo showed that rapamycin increased PO-induced degradation of phosphorylated inhibitor of κB, enhanced expression of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1, and decreased active caspase-3. Long-term rapamycin treatment in 2-wk PO myocardium blunted hypertrophy, improved contractile function, and reduced caspase-3 and calpain activation. These data indicate potential cardioprotective benefits of rapamycin in PO hypertrophy. PMID:21357504

  9. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor I receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells by growth factors and phorbol esters.

    PubMed

    Ververis, J J; Ku, L; Delafontaine, P

    1993-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) is an important mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells. To characterize regulation of vascular IGF I receptors, we performed radioligand displacement experiments using rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMs). Serum deprivation for 48 hours caused a 40% decrease in IGF I receptor number. Exposure of quiescent RASMs to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), or angiotensin II (Ang II) caused a 1.5-2.0-fold increase in IGF I receptors per cell. After FGF exposure, there was a marked increase in the mitogenic response to IGF I. IGF I downregulated its receptors in the presence of platelet-poor plasma. Stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) by exposure of quiescent RASMs to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate caused a biphasic response in IGF I binding; there was a 42% decrease in receptor number at 45 minutes and a 238% increase at 24 hours. To determine the role of PKC in growth factor-induced regulation of IGF I receptors, we downregulated PKC by exposing RASMs to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) for 48 hours. PDGF- and FGF- but not Ang II-mediated upregulation of IGF I receptors was completely inhibited in PDBu-treated cells. Thus, acute PKC activation by phorbol esters inhibits IGF I binding, whereas chronic PKC activation increases IGF I binding. PDGF and FGF but not Ang II regulate vascular IGF I receptors through a PKC-dependent pathway. These data provide new insights into the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell IGF I receptors in vitro and are of potential importance in characterizing vascular proliferative responses in vivo.

  10. Towards natural mimetics of metformin and rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Aliper, Alexander; Jellen, Leslie; Cortese, Franco; Artemov, Artem; Karpinsky-Semper, Darla; Moskalev, Alexey; Swick, Andrew G; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2017-11-15

    Aging is now at the forefront of major challenges faced globally, creating an immediate need for safe, widescale interventions to reduce the burden of chronic disease and extend human healthspan. Metformin and rapamycin are two FDA-approved mTOR inhibitors proposed for this purpose, exhibiting significant anti-cancer and anti-aging properties beyond their current clinical applications. However, each faces issues with approval for off-label, prophylactic use due to adverse effects. Here, we initiate an effort to identify nutraceuticals-safer, naturally-occurring compounds-that mimic the anti-aging effects of metformin and rapamycin without adverse effects. We applied several bioinformatic approaches and deep learning methods to the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) dataset to map the gene- and pathway-level signatures of metformin and rapamycin and screen for matches among over 800 natural compounds. We then predicted the safety of each compound with an ensemble of deep neural network classifiers. The analysis revealed many novel candidate metformin and rapamycin mimetics, including allantoin and ginsenoside (metformin), epigallocatechin gallate and isoliquiritigenin (rapamycin), and withaferin A (both). Four relatively unexplored compounds also scored well with rapamycin. This work revealed promising candidates for future experimental validation while demonstrating the applications of powerful screening methods for this and similar endeavors.

  11. Laminin promotes vascular network formation in 3D in vitro collagen scaffolds by regulating VEGF uptake.

    PubMed

    Stamati, Katerina; Priestley, John V; Mudera, Vivek; Cheema, Umber

    2014-09-10

    Angiogenesis is an essential neovascularisation process, which if recapitulated in 3D in vitro, will provide better understanding of endothelial cell (EC) behaviour. Various cell types and growth factors are involved, with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 key components. We were able to control the aggregation pattern of ECs in 3D collagen hydrogels, by varying the matrix composition and/or having a source of cells signalling angiogenic proteins. These aggregation patterns reflect the different developmental pathways that ECs take to form different sized tubular structures. Cultures with added laminin and thus increased expression of α6 integrin showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in VEGFR2 positive ECs and increased VEGF uptake. This resulted in the end-to-end network aggregation of ECs. In cultures without laminin and therefore low α6 integrin expression, VEGFR2 levels and VEGF uptake were significantly lower (p<0.05). These ECs formed contiguous sheets, analogous to the 'wrapping' pathway in development. We have identified a key linkage between integrin expression on ECs and their uptake of VEGF, regulated by VEGFR2, resulting in different aggregation patterns in 3D. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation by basic fibroblast growth factor of glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis in cultured vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kaji, T; Hiraga, S; Ohkawara, S; Inada, M; Yamamoto, C; Kozuka, H; Koizumi, F

    1995-05-01

    The alteration of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells after exposure to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was investigated. It was found that the incorporation of [3H]glucosamine into GAGs was markedly increased by bFGF in both the cell layer and the conditioned medium; however, that of [35S]sulfate was not changed by the growth factor. These results indicated that bFGF enhanced the sugar-chain formation but did not affect their sulfation in endothelial GAG production. Similar changes were observed in either bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells and human fibroblastic IMR-90 cells to greater and lesser degrees, respectively. Characterization of GAGs in the endothelial cell layer and the conditioned medium revealed that bFGF enhanced both heparan sulfate and the other GAGs to a similar degree. The present data suggest that bFGF may be involved in the regulation of the blood coagulation system via altering GAGs of the vascular tissue when the endothelium was damaged.

  13. Reactive oxygen species are involved in regulating alpha1-adrenoceptor-activated vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Ho; Jiang, Meei Jyh

    2010-08-23

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to mediate aberrant contractility in hypertension, yet the physiological roles of ROS in vascular smooth muscle contraction have remained elusive. This study aimed to examine whether ROS regulate alpha1-adrenoceptor-activated contraction by altering myosin phosphatase activities. Using endothelium-denuded rat tail artery (RTA) strips, effects of anti-oxidants on isometric force, ROS production, phosphorylation of the 20-kDa myosin light chain (MLC20), and myosin phosphatase stimulated by alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine were examined. An antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and two NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and VAS2870, dose-dependently inhibited contraction activated by phenylephrine. Phenylephrine stimulated superoxide anion production that was diminished by the pretreatment of apocynin, VAS2870, superoxide scavenger tiron or mitochondria inhibitor rotenone, but not by xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol or cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Concurrently, NADPH oxidase activity in RTA homogenates increased within 1 min upon phenylephrine stimulation, sustained for 10 min, and was abolished by the co-treatment with apocynin, but not allopurinol or rotenone. Phenylephrine-induced MLC20 phosphorylation was dose-dependently decreased by apocynin. Furthermore, apocynin inhibited phenylephrine-stimulated RhoA translocation to plasma membrane and phosphorylation of both myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit MYPT1Thr855 and myosin phosphatase inhibitor CPI-17Thr38. ROS, probably derived from NADPH oxidase and mitochondria, partially regulate alpha1-adrenoceptor-activated smooth muscle contraction by altering myosin phosphatase-mediated MLC20 phosphorylation through both RhoA/Rho kinase- and CPI-17-dependent pathways.

  14. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract alleviates ouabain-induced vascular remodeling through regulation of endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangju; Qiu, Jie; Zhao, Shaohua; You, Beian; Ji, Xiang; Wang, Yan; Cui, Xiaopei; Wang, Qian; Gao, Haiqing

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that chronic ouabain treatment leads to hypertension and hypertensive vascular remodeling. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to be effective in treating arteriosclerosis, while little is known about its effect on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling. In this study, the effects of GSPE on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling were analyzed by treating ouabain-induced hypertensive rats with GSPE (250 mg/kg·d). The expression of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in thoracic aorta was examined by ELISA; the mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β1 were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The results showed that the systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased following treatment with GSPE, with blocked vascular remodeling. The ET-1 content was reduced while NO production was increased in the GSPE group, which showed improved vascular endothelial function. Moreover, GSPE also reduced TGF-β1 expression in the thoracic aorta, which is a determinant in vascular remodeling. In conclusion, GSPE antagonized ouabain-induced hypertension and vascular remodeling and is recommended as a potential anti-hypertensive agent for patients with hypertensive vascular diseases.

  15. SHORT-ROOT regulates vascular patterning, but not apical meristematic activity in the Arabidopsis root through cytokinin homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yueling; Cui, Hongchang

    2012-01-01

    SHORT-ROOT (SHR) is a key regulator of radial patterning and stem-cell renewal in the Arabidopsis root. Although SHR is expressed in the stele, its function in the vascular tissue was not recognized until recently. In shr, the protoxylem is missing due to the loss of expression of microRNA165A (miR165A) and microRNA166B (miR165B). shr is also defective in lateral root formation, but the mechanism remains unclear. To dissect the SHR developmental pathway, we recently have identified its direct targets at the genome scale by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by microarray analysis (ChIP-chip). In further studies, we have shown that SHR regulates cytokinin homeostasis through cytokinin oxidase 3 and that this role of SHR is critical to vascular patterning in the root. In this communication we report that SHR also regulates miR165A and miR166B indirectly through its effect on cytokinin homeostasis. Although cytokinin is inhibitory to root growth, the root-apical-meristem defect in shr was not alleviated by reduction of endogenous cytokinin. These results together suggest that SHR regulates vascular patterning, but not root apical meristematic activity, through cytokinin homeostasis. PMID:22476466

  16. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is a novel negative regulator of endothelin-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qing; Chen, Ming; Yi, Bing; You, Xiaohua; Yang, Ping; Sun, Jianxin

    2014-12-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) produced by vascular endothelial cells plays essential roles in the regulation of vascular tone and development of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study is to identify novel regulators implicated in the regulation of ET-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). By using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we show that either ectopic expression of orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 or pharmacological activation of Nur77 by 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) substantially inhibits ET-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), under both basal and thrombin-stimulated conditions. Furthermore, thrombin-stimulated ET expression is significantly augmented in both Nur77 knockdown ECs and aort from Nur77 knockout mice, suggesting that Nur77 is a negative regulator of ET-1 expression. Inhibition of ET-1 expression by Nur77 occurs at gene transcriptional levels, since Nur77 potently inhibits ET-1 promoter activity, without affecting ET-1 mRNA stability. As shown in electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), Nur77 overexpression markedly inhibits both basal and thrombin-stimulated transcriptional activity of AP-1. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that Nur77 specially interacts with c-Jun and inhibits AP-1 dependent c-Jun promoter activity, which leads to a decreased expression of c-Jun, a critical component involved in both AP-1 transcriptional activity and ET-1 expression in ECs. These findings demonstrate that Nur77 is a novel negative regulator of ET-1 expression in vascular ECs through an inhibitory interaction with the c-Jun/AP-1 pathway. Activation of Nur77 may represent a useful therapeutic strategy for preventing certain cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and pulmonary artery hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Smooth muscle cells differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells are regulated by microRNAs and suitable for vascular tissue grafts.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenduo; Hong, Xuechong; Le Bras, Alexandra; Nowak, Witold N; Issa Bhaloo, Shirin; Deng, Jiacheng; Xie, Yao; Hu, Yanhua; Ruan, Xiong Z; Xu, Qingbo

    2018-05-25

    Tissue-engineered vascular grafts with long-term patency are greatly needed in the clinical settings, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are a critical graft component. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used for generating SMCs, and understanding the underlying regulatory mechanisms of the MSC-to-SMC differentiation process could improve SMC generation in the clinic. Here, we found that in response to stimulation of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), human umbilical cord-derived MSCs abundantly express the SMC markers α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), smooth muscle protein 22 (SM22), calponin, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) at both gene and protein levels. Functionally, MSC-derived SMCs displayed contracting capacity in vitro and supported vascular structure formation in the Matrigel plug assay in vivo More importantly, SMCs differentiated from human MSCs could migrate into decellularized mouse aorta and give rise to the smooth muscle layer of vascular grafts, indicating the potential of utilizing human MSC-derived SMCs to generate vascular grafts. Of note, microRNA (miR) array analysis and TaqMan microRNA assays identified miR-503 and miR-222-5p as potential regulators of MSC differentiation into SMCs at early time points. Mechanistically, miR-503 promoted SMC differentiation by directly targeting SMAD7, a suppressor of SMAD-related, TGFβ1-mediated signaling pathways. Moreover, miR-503 expression was SMAD4-dependent. SMAD4 was enriched at the miR-503 promoter. Furthermore, miR-222-5p inhibited SMC differentiation by targeting and down-regulating ROCK2 and αSMA. In conclusion, MSC differentiation into SMCs is regulated by miR-503 and miR-222-5p and yields functional SMCs for use in vascular grafts. © 2018 Gu et al.

  18. Vascular development of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescence rachis in response to flower number, plant growth regulators and defoliation.

    PubMed

    Gourieroux, Aude M; Holzapfel, Bruno P; McCully, Margaret E; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2017-09-01

    The grapevine inflorescence is a determinate panicle and as buds emerge, shoot, flower and rachis development occur simultaneously. The growth and architecture of the rachis is determined by genetic and environmental factors but here we examined the role of flower and leaf number as well as hormones on its elongation and vascular development. The consequences of rachis morphology and vascular area on berry size and composition were also assessed. One week prior to anthesis, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon field vines were exposed to manual flower removal, exogenous plant growth regulators or pre-bloom leaf removal. Manual removal of half the flowers along the vertical axis of the inflorescence resulted in a shorter rachis in both cultivars. Conversely, inflorescences treated with gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) and the synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) resulted in a longer rachis while pre-bloom removal of all leaves on the inflorescence-bearing shoot did not alter rachis length relative to untreated inflorescences. Across the treatments, the cross-sectional areas of the conducting xylem and phloem in the rachis were positively correlated to rachis girth, flower number at anthesis, bunch berry number, bunch berry fresh mass and bunch sugar content at harvest. Conversely, average berry size and sugar content were not linked to rachis vascular area. These data indicate that the morphological and vascular development of the rachis was more responsive to flower number and plant growth regulators than to leaf removal.

  19. Rapamycin promotes podocyte autophagy and ameliorates renal injury in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Tangli; Guan, Xu; Nie, Ling; Wang, Song; Sun, Lei; He, Ting; Huang, Yunjian; Zhang, Jingbo; Yang, Ke; Wang, Junping; Zhao, Jinghong

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the effects of rapamycin on autophagy and injury of podocytes in streptozocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice, and its role in delaying progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, male Balb/c mice were divided into three groups: control (n = 12), STZ-induced diabetic (n = 12), and rapamycin-treated diabetic (DM + Rapa) (n = 12), which received intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin (2 mg/kg/48 h) after induction of DM. Levels of urinary albumin (UA), blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and kidney weight/body weight were measured at week 12. Renal pathologic changes, number of podocytes autophagy, and organelles injury were investigated by PAS staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Western blot was performed to determine the expression of LC3 (a podocyte autophagy marker), phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, p-p70S6K, bax, and caspase-3 protein. Podocytes count was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining and Wilms tumor 1 immunohistochemistry, and Western blot of nephrin and podocin. The results indicated that rapamycin could reduce the kidney weight/body weight and UA secretion. It could alleviate podocyte foot process fusion, glomerular basement membrane thickening, and matrix accumulation, and increase the number of autophagosomes, and LC3-expressing podocytes. Down-regulation of bax and caspase-3 protein, and up-regulation of nephrin and podocin protein were observed in the glomeruli of diabetic mice after administration of rapamycin. In conclusion, rapamycin can ameliorate renal injury in diabetic mice by increasing the autophagy activity and inhibition of apoptosis of podocytes.

  20. MicroRNA-24 regulates vascular remodeling via inhibiting PDGF-BB pathway in diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Zeng, Ping; Yang, Jun; Liu, Xiaowen; Ding, Jiawang; Wang, Huibo; Chen, Lihua

    2018-06-15

    Hyperglycemia is the high risk factor of vascular remodeling induced by angioplasty, and neointimal hyperplasia is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling caused by carotid artery balloon injury. Studies have shown that MicroRNA 24 (miR-24) plays an important role in angiocardiopathy, However, the role of miR-24 is far from thorough research. In this study, we investigate whether up-regulation of miR-24 by using miR-24 recombinant adenovirus (Ad-miR-24-GFP) can inhibit PDGF-BB signaling pathway and attenuate vascular remodeling in the diabetic rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60) were randomly divided into 5 groups and fed with high sugar and high fat diet (Sham, Saline, Scramble, Ad-miR-24 groups), or ordinary diet (Control group). The front four groups were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) four weeks later and the blood glucose level was closely monitored. After the successful establishment of diabetic rats, the external carotid artery was injured by pressuring balloon 1.5 after internal carotid artery ligation, then the blood vessels were harvested 14 days later and indexes were detected including the following: HE staining for the level of vascular intima thickness, immunohistochemical detection for PCNA and P27 to test the proliferative degree of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), qRT-PCR for the level of miR-24, RAS,PDGF-R, western blot for the protein levels of JNK1/2, p- JNK1/2, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, RAS, PDGF-R, AP-1,P27 and PCNA. Serological detection was conducted for TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8. The delivery of Ad-miR-24 into balloon injury site has significantly increased the level of miR-24. Up-regulation of miR-24 could regulate vascular remodeling effectively, lower the level of inflammatory factors, inhibit the expression of mRNA and protein levels of JNK1/2, ERK1/2, RAS, PDGF-R, AP-1, P27, PCNA. miR-24 can inhibit the expression of AP-1 via the inhibition of PDGF-BB signaling pathway, thus inhibit VSMCs proliferation

  1. Developmental regulation of vascular endothelial growth/permeability factor messenger ribonucleic acid levels in and vascularization of the villous placenta during baboon pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, V A; Babischkin, J S; Koos, R D; Pepe, G J; Albrecht, E D

    2001-05-01

    Vascular endothelial growth/permeability factor (VEG/PF) has an important role in angiogenesis; however, very little is known about the developmental regulation of VEG/PF and the vascular system within the placenta during human pregnancy. In the present study, therefore, a developmental approach was used in the baboon to determine the placental source of VEG/PF and its fms-like tyrosine kinase (flt-1) and kinase-insert domain containing (KDR/flk-1) receptors, and whether the rise in estrogen with advancing pregnancy was associated with a corresponding increase in placental VEG/PF expression and vascularization. VEG/PF messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were determined by competitive RT-PCR in villous cell fractions isolated by Percoll gradient centrifugation from placentas obtained on days 45 and 54 (very early), 60 (early), 100 (mid), and 165-170 (late) of baboon pregnancy (term = 184 days). Maternal peripheral serum estradiol increased from very low concentrations early in gestation (0.15-0.20 ng/ml) to an early surge of over 2.5 ng/ml on days 60-85, and peak levels of 4-6 ng/ml late in baboon pregnancy. VEG/PF mRNA was expressed in low level in the syncytiotrophoblast (<2,000 attomol/microgram total RNA), and values in this fraction did not change significantly with advancing gestation. VEG/PF mRNA expression was slightly greater in the inner villous core cell fraction; however, levels decreased (P < 0.05) between early and late gestation. Cytotrophoblasts were a major source of VEG/PF mRNA and levels increased (P < 0.01) from 3,631 +/- 844 attomol/microgram total RNA on day 45 to 25,807 +/- 5,873 attomol/microgram total RNA on day 170. VEG/PF protein expression determined by immunocytochemistry was abundant in cytotrophoblasts and lower in the syncytiotrophoblast and inner villous core cells. The flt-1 and KDR/flk-1 receptors were expressed in the vascular endothelial cells of the baboon villous placenta. The percentage of villous placenta occupied by blood vessels

  2. Rictor/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 promotes macrophage activation and kidney fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiafa; Li, Jianzhong; Feng, Ye; Shu, Bingyan; Gui, Yuan; Wei, Wei; He, Weichun; Yang, Junwei; Dai, Chunsun

    2017-08-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling controls many essential cellular functions. However, the role of Rictor/mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) in regulating macrophage activation and kidney fibrosis remains largely unknown. We report here that Rictor/mTORC2 was activated in macrophages from the fibrotic kidneys of mice. Ablation of Rictor in macrophages reduced kidney fibrosis, inflammatory cell accumulation, macrophage proliferation and polarization after unilateral ureter obstruction or ischaemia/reperfusion injury. In bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), deletion of Rictor or blockade of protein kinase Cα inhibited cell migration. Additionally, deletion of Rictor or blockade of Akt abolished interleukin-4-stimulated or transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated macrophage M2 polarization. Furthermore, deletion of Rictor downregulated TGF-β1-stimulated upregulation of multiple profibrotic cytokines, including platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and connective tissue growth factor, in BMMs. Conditioned medium from TGF-β1-pretreated Rictor -/- macrophages stimulated fibroblast activation less efficiently than that from TGF-β1-pretreated Rictor +/+ macrophages. These results demonstrate that Rictor/mTORC2 signalling can promote macrophage activation and kidney fibrosis. Targeting this signalling pathway in macrophages may shine light on ways to protect against kidney fibrosis in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Rapamycin prevents, but does not reverse, aberrant migration in Pten knockout neurons.

    PubMed

    Getz, Stephanie A; DeSpenza, Tyrone; Li, Meijie; Luikart, Bryan W

    2016-09-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a major negative regulator of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway. Mutations in PTEN have been found in a subset of individuals with autism and macrocephaly. Further, focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) has been observed in patients with PTEN mutations prompting us to examine the role of Pten in neuronal migration. The dentate gyrus of Pten(Flox/Flox) mice was injected with Cre- and non-Cre-expressing retroviral particles, which integrate into the dividing genome to birthdate cells. Control and Pten knockout (KO) cell position in the granule cell layer was quantified over time to reveal that Pten KO neurons exhibit an aberrant migratory phenotype beginning at 7.5days-post retroviral injection (DPI). We then assessed whether rapamycin, a mTor inhibitor, could prevent or reverse aberrant migration of granule cells. The preventative group received daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of rapamycin from 3 to 14 DPI, before discrepancies in cell position have been established, while the reversal group received rapamycin afterward, from 14 to 24 DPI. We found that rapamycin prevented and reversed somal hypertrophy. However, rapamycin prevented, but did not reverse aberrant migration in Pten KO cells. We also find that altered migration occurs through mTorC1 and not mTorC2 activity. Together, these findings suggest a temporal window by which rapamycin can treat aberrant migration, and may have implications for the use of rapamycin to treat PTEN-mutation associated disorders. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) have been linked to a subset of individuals with autism and macrocephaly, as well as Cowden Syndrome and focal cortical dysplasia. Pten loss leads to neuronal hypertrophy, but the role of Pten in neuronal migration is unclear. Here we have shown that loss of Pten leads to aberrant migration, which can be prevented but not reversed by treatment with rapamycin, a mTor inhibitor. These results are

  4. A20 Regulates Atherogenic Interferon (IFN)-γ Signaling in Vascular Cells by Modulating Basal IFNβ Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Herwig P.; Lee, Andy; Minussi, Darlan C.; da Silva, Cleide G.; Csizmadia, Eva; Bhasin, Manoj; Ferran, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    IFNγ signaling in endothelial (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) is a key culprit of pathologic vascular remodeling. The impact of NF-κB inhibitory protein A20 on IFNγ signaling in vascular cells remains unknown. In gain- and loss-of-function studies, A20 inversely regulated expression of IFNγ-induced atherogenic genes in human EC and SMC by modulating STAT1 transcription. In vivo, inadequate A20 expression in A20 heterozygote mice aggravated intimal hyperplasia following partial carotid artery ligation. This outcome uniquely associated with increased levels of Stat1 and super-induction of Ifnγ-dependent genes. Transcriptome analysis of the aortic media from A20 heterozygote versus wild-type mice revealed increased basal Ifnβ signaling as the likely cause for higher Stat1 transcription. We confirmed higher basal IFNβ levels in A20-silenced human SMC and showed that neutralization or knockdown of IFNβ abrogates heightened STAT1 levels in these cells. Upstream of IFNβ, A20-silenced EC and SMC demonstrated higher levels of phosphorylated/activated TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1), a regulator of IFNβ transcription. This suggested that A20 knockdown increased STAT1 transcription by enhancing TBK1 activation and subsequently basal IFNβ levels. Altogether, these results uncover A20 as a key physiologic regulator of atherogenic IFNγ/STAT1 signaling. This novel function of A20 added to its ability to inhibit nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation solidifies its promise as an ideal therapeutic candidate for treatment and prevention of vascular diseases. In light of recently discovered A20/TNFAIP3 (TNFα-induced protein 3) single nucleotide polymorphisms that impart lower A20 expression or function, these results also qualify A20 as a reliable clinical biomarker for vascular risk assessment. PMID:25217635

  5. Rapamycin has suppressive and stimulatory effects on human plasmacytoid dendritic cell functions

    PubMed Central

    Boor, P P C; Metselaar, H J; Mancham, S; van der Laan, L J W; Kwekkeboom, J

    2013-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) are involved in innate immunity by interferon (IFN)-α production, and in adaptive immunity by stimulating T cells and inducing generation of regulatory T cells (Treg). In this study we studied the effects of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition by rapamycin, a commonly used immunosuppressive and anti-cancer drug, on innate and adaptive immune functions of human PDC. A clinically relevant concentration of rapamycin inhibited Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7-induced IFN-α secretion potently (−64%) but TLR-9-induced IFN-α secretion only slightly (−20%), while the same concentration suppressed proinflammatory cytokine production by TLR-7-activated and TLR-9-activated PDC with similar efficacy. Rapamycin inhibited the ability of both TLR-7-activated and TLR-9-activated PDC to stimulate production of IFN-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 by allogeneic T cells. Surprisingly, mTOR-inhibition enhanced the capacity of TLR-7-activated PDC to stimulate naive and memory T helper cell proliferation, which was caused by rapamycin-induced up-regulation of CD80 expression on PDC. Finally, rapamycin treatment of TLR-7-activated PDC enhanced their capacity to induce CD4+forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)+ regulatory T cells, but did not affect the generation of suppressive CD8+CD38+lymphocyte activation gene (LAG)-3+ Treg. In general, rapamycin inhibits innate and adaptive immune functions of TLR-stimulated human PDC, but enhances the ability of TLR-7-stimulated PDC to stimulate CD4+ T cell proliferation and induce CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cell generation. PMID:23968562

  6. LRP1 regulates architecture of the vascular wall by controlling PDGFRbeta-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Takayama, Yoshiharu; Boucher, Philippe; Tallquist, Michelle D; Herz, Joachim

    2009-09-09

    Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) protects against atherosclerosis by regulating the activation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Activated PDGFRbeta undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequently interacts with various signaling molecules, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), which binds to the phosphorylated tyrosine 739/750 residues in mice, and thus regulates actin polymerization and cell movement. In this study, we found disorganized actin in the form of membrane ruffling and enhanced cell migration in LRP1-deficient (LRP1-/-) SMCs. Marfan syndrome-like phenotypes such as tortuous aortas, disrupted elastic layers and abnormally activated transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling are present in smooth muscle-specific LRP1 knockout (smLRP1-/-) mice. To investigate the role of LRP1-regulated PI3K activation by PDGFRbeta in atherogenesis, we generated a strain of smLRP1-/- mice in which tyrosine 739/750 of the PDGFRbeta had been mutated to phenylalanines (PDGFRbeta F2/F2). Spontaneous atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in the absence of hypercholesterolemia in these mice compared to smLRP1-/- animals that express wild type PDGFR. Normal actin organization was restored and spontaneous SMC migration as well as PDGF-BB-induced chemotaxis was dramatically reduced, despite continued overactivation of TGFbeta signaling, as indicated by high levels of nuclear phospho-Smad2. Our data suggest that LRP1 regulates actin organization and cell migration by controlling PDGFRbeta-dependent activation of PI3K. TGFbeta activation alone is not sufficient for the expression of the Marfan-like vascular phenotype. Thus, regulation of PI3 Kinase by PDGFRbeta is essential for maintaining vascular integrity, and for the prevention of atherosclerosis as well as Marfan syndrome.

  7. The regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced microvascular permeability requires Rac and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Monaghan-Benson, Elizabeth; Burridge, Keith

    2009-09-18

    Vascular permeability is a complex process involving the coordinated regulation of multiple signaling pathways in the endothelial cell. It has long been documented that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) greatly enhances microvascular permeability; however, the molecular mechanisms controlling VEGF-induced permeability remain unknown. Treatment of microvascular endothelial cells with VEGF led to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. ROS are required for VEGF-induced permeability as treatment with the free radical scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, inhibited this effect. Additionally, treatment with VEGF caused ROS-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of both vascular-endothelial (VE)-cadherin and beta-catenin. Rac1 was required for the VEGF-induced increase in permeability and adherens junction protein phosphorylation. Knockdown of Rac1 inhibited VEGF-induced ROS production consistent with Rac lying upstream of ROS in this pathway. Collectively, these data suggest that VEGF leads to a Rac-mediated generation of ROS, which, in turn, elevates the tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and beta-catenin, ultimately regulating adherens junction integrity.

  8. Evolution of the VEGF-regulated vascular network from a neural guidance system.

    PubMed

    Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Alberghina, Mario

    2011-06-01

    The vascular network is closely linked to the neural system, and an interdependence is displayed in healthy and in pathophysiological responses. How has close apposition of two such functionally different systems occurred? Here, we present a hypothesis for the evolution of the vascular network from an ancestral neural guidance system. Biological cornerstones of this hypothesis are the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein family and cognate receptors. The primary sequences of such proteins are conserved from invertebrates, such as worms and flies that lack discernible vascular systems compared to mammals, but all these systems have sophisticated neuronal wiring involving such molecules. Ancestral VEGFs and receptors (VEGFRs) could have been used to develop and maintain the nervous system in primitive eukaryotes. During evolution, the demands of increased morphological complexity required systems for transporting molecules and cells, i.e., biological conductive tubes. We propose that the VEGF-VEGFR axis was subverted by evolution to mediate the formation of biological tubes necessary for transport of fluids, e.g., blood. Increasingly, there is evidence that aberrant VEGF-mediated responses are also linked to neuronal dysfunctions ranging from motor neuron disease, stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, ischemic brain disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and neuronal repair after injury, as well as common vascular diseases (e.g., retinal disease). Manipulation and correction of the VEGF response in different neural tissues could be an effective strategy to treat different neurological diseases.

  9. How longevity research can lead to therapies for Alzheimer's disease: The rapamycin story.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Arlan; Galvan, Veronica; Lin, Ai-Ling; Oddo, Salvatore

    2015-08-01

    The discovery that rapamycin increases lifespan in mice and restores/delays many aging phenotypes has led to the speculation that rapamycin has 'anti-aging' properties. The major question discussed in this review is whether a manipulation that has anti-aging properties can alter the onset and/or progression of Alzheimer's disease, a disease in which age is the major risk factor. Rapamycin has been shown to prevent (and possibly restore in some cases) the deficit in memory observed in the mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD-Tg) as well as reduce Aβ and tau aggregation, restore cerebral blood flow and vascularization, and reduce microglia activation. All of these parameters are widely recognized as symptoms central to the development of AD. Furthermore, rapamycin has also been shown to improve memory and reduce anxiety and depression in several other mouse models that show cognitive deficits as well as in 'normal' mice. The current research shows the feasibility of using pharmacological agents that increase lifespan, such as those identified by the National Institute on Aging Intervention Testing Program, to treat Alzheimer's disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Protective effects of hydrogen-rich medium on lipopolysaccharide-induced monocytic adhesion and vascular endothelial permeability through regulation of vascular endothelial cadherin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Wang, W N; Han, H Z; Xie, K L; Wang, G L; Yu, Y H

    2015-06-11

    We observed the effect of hydrogen-rich medium on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), hyaline leukocyte conglutination, and permeability of the endothelium. Endotheliocytes were inoculated on 6-well plates and randomly divided into 4 groups: control, H2, LPS, LPS+H2, H2, and LPS+H2 in saturated hydrogen-rich medium. We applied Wright's stain-ing to observe conglutination of hyaline leukocytes and HUVECs, flow cytometry to determine the content of vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure the E-selectin concentration in the cell liquor, the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) to test the permeability of endothelial cells, and Western blot and immunofluorescence to test the expression and distribution of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin. Compared with control cells, there was an increase in endothelium-hyaline leukocyte conglutination, a reduction in VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin, and the TEER value increased obviously. Compared with LPS, there was an obvious reduction in the conglutination of LPS+H2 cells, a reduction in VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin levels, and a reduction in the TEER-resistance value, while the expression of VE-cadherin increased. Fluorescence results showed that, compared with control cells, the VE-cadherin in LPS cells was in-complete at the cell joints. Compared with LPS cells, the VE-cadherin in LPS+H2 cells was even and complete at the cell joints. Liquid rich in hydrogen could reduce LPS-induced production of adhesion molecules and endothelium-hyaline leukocyte conglutination, and influence the expression and distribution of VE-cadherin to regulate the permeability of the endothelium.

  11. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) gene transcription and expression are regulated through an antioxidant-sensitive mechanism in human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Marui, N; Offermann, M K; Swerlick, R; Kunsch, C; Rosen, C A; Ahmad, M; Alexander, R W; Medford, R M

    1993-01-01

    Oxidative stress and expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on vascular endothelial cells are early features in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. Regulation of VCAM-1 gene expression may be coupled to oxidative stress through specific reduction-oxidation (redox) sensitive transcriptional or posttranscriptional regulatory factors. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells, the cytokine interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) activated VCAM-1 gene expression through a mechanism that was repressed approximately 90% by the antioxidants pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Furthermore, PDTC selectively inhibited the induction of VCAM-1, but not intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), mRNA and protein accumulation by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) as well as the noncytokines bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA, poly(I:C) (PIC). PDTC also markedly attenuated TNF alpha induction of VCAM-1-mediated cellular adhesion. In a distinct pattern, PDTC partially inhibited E-selectin gene expression in response to TNF alpha but not to LPS, IL-1 beta, or PIC. TNF alpha and LPS-mediated transcriptional activation of the human VCAM-1 promoter through NF-kappa B-like DNA enhancer elements and associated NF-kappa B-like DNA binding proteins was inhibited by PDTC. These studies suggest a molecular linkage between an antioxidant sensitive transcriptional regulatory mechanism and VCAM-1 gene expression that expands on the notion of oxidative stress as an important regulatory signal in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Images PMID:7691889

  12. Rapamycin protects against neuronal death and improves neurological function with modulation of microglia after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Liu, F; Yang, T; Jin, T; Zhang, H; Luo, X; Wang, M

    2016-09-30

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) results in a devastating brain disorder with high mortality and poor prognosis and effective therapeutic intervention for the disease remains a challenge at present. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of rapamycin on ICH-induced brain damage and the possible involvement of activated microglia. ICH was induced in rats by injection of type IV collagenase into striatum. Different dose of rapamycin was systemically administrated by intraperitoneal injection beginning at 1 h after ICH induction. Western blot analysis showed that ICH led to a long-lasting increase of phosphorylated mTOR and this hyperactivation of mTOR was reduced by systemic administration of rapamycin. Rapamycin treatment significantly improved the sensorimotor deficits induced by ICH, and attenuated ICH-induced brain edema formation as well as lesion volume. Nissl and Fluoro-Jade C staining demonstrated that administration with rapamycin remarkably decreased neuronal death surrounding the hematoma at 7 d after ICH insult. ELISA and real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that rapamycin inhibited ICH-induced excessive expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in ipsilateral hemisphere. Furthermore, activation of microglia induced by ICH was significantly suppressed by rapamycin administration. These data indicated that treatment of rapamycin following ICH decreased the brain injuries and neuronal death at the peri-hematoma striatum, and increased neurological function, which associated with reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and activated microglia. The results provide novel insight into the neuroprotective therapeutic strategy of rapamycin for ICH insult, which possibly involving the regulation of microglial activation.

  13. Target of rapamycin (TOR) plays a critical role in triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Sone, Toshiyuki; Era, Atsuko; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2015-10-01

    Most microalgae produce triacylglycerol (TAG) under stress conditions such as nitrogen depletion, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the role of target of rapamycin (TOR) in TAG accumulation. TOR is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly conserved and plays pivotal roles in nitrogen and other signaling pathways in eukaryotes. We previously constructed a rapamycin-susceptible Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a unicellular red alga, by expressing yeast FKBP12 protein to evaluate the results of TOR inhibition (Imamura et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 439:264-269, 2013). By using this strain, we here report that rapamycin-induced TOR inhibition results in accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets containing TAG. Transcripts for TAG synthesis-related genes, such as glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), were increased by rapamycin treatment. We also found that fatty acid synthase-dependent de novo fatty acid synthesis was required for the accumulation of lipid droplets. Induction of TAG and up-regulation of DGAT gene expression by rapamycin were similarly observed in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These results suggest the general involvement of TOR signaling in TAG accumulation in divergent microalgae.

  14. [Effect of rapamycin on proliferation of rat heart valve interstitial cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Tan, Yan; Wang, Ji-Ye; Yi, Ren-Liang; Qiu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of rapamycin on the proliferation of rat valvular interstitial cells in primary culture. The interstitial cells isolated from rat aortic valves were cultured and treated with rapamycin, and the cell growth and cell cycle changes were analyzed using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression levels of S6 and P70S6K in cells, and the protein expressions level of S6, P70S6K, P-S6, and P-P70S6K were detected using Western blotting. Rat aortic valvular interstitial cells was isolated successfully. The rapamycin-treated cells showed a suppressed proliferative activity (P<0.05), but the cell cycle distribution remained unaffected. Rapamycin treatment resulted in significantly decreased S6 and P70S6K protein phosphorylation level in the cells (P<0.05). The mechanism by which rapamycin inhibits the proliferation of valvular interstitial cells probably involves suppression of mTOR to lower S6 and P70S6K phosphorylation level but not direct regulation of the cell cycle.

  15. Mechanisms underlying caloric restriction and life span regulation: implications for vascular aging

    PubMed Central

    Ungvari, Zoltan; Parrado-Fernandez, Cristina; Csiszar, Anna; de Cabo, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on the emerging evidence that attenuation of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of inflammatory pathways play a central role in the anti-aging cardiovascular effects of caloric restriction (CR). Particular emphasis is placed on the potential role of the plasma membrane redox system in CR-induced pathways responsible for sensing oxidative stress and increasing cellular oxidative stress resistance. We propose that CR increases bioavailability of NO, decreases vascular ROS generation, activates the Nrf2/ARE pathway inducing ROS detoxification systems, exerts anti-inflammatory effects and, thereby, suppresses initiation/progression of vascular disease that accompany aging. PMID:18340017

  16. Glutathione regulation of redox-sensitive signals in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, T.-C.; Yeh, S.C.; Tsai, F.-Y.

    2007-06-01

    We investigated the regulatory role of glutathione in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha})-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction as evaluated by using vascular endothelial adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Since TNF-{alpha} induces various biological effects on vascular cells, TNF-{alpha} dosage could be a determinant factor directing vascular cells into different biological fates. Based on the adhesion molecule expression patterns responding to different TNF-{alpha} concentrations, we adopted the lower TNF-{alpha} (0.2 ng/ml) to rule out the possible involvement of other TNF-{alpha}-induced biological effects. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) resulted in down-regulations of the TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayermore » binding. BSO attenuated the TNF-{alpha}-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) activation, however, with no detectable effect on AP-1 and its related mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Deletion of an AP-1 binding site in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) promoter totally abolished its constitutive promoter activity and its responsiveness to TNF-{alpha}. Inhibition of ERK, JNK, or NF-{kappa}B attenuates TNF-{alpha}-induced ICAM-1 promoter activation and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Our study indicates that TNF-{alpha} induces adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding mainly via activation of NF-{kappa}B in a glutathione-sensitive manner. We also demonstrated that intracellular glutathione does not modulate the activation of MAPKs and/or their downstream AP-1 induced by lower TNF-{alpha}. Although AP-1 activation by the lower TNF-{alpha} was not detected in our systems, we could not rule out the possible involvement of transiently activated MAPKs/AP-1 in the regulation of TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion molecule expression.« less

  17. Regulation of plant vascular stem cells by endodermis-derived EPFL-family peptide hormones and phloem-expressed ERECTA-family receptor kinases.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoyuki; Tasaka, Masao

    2013-12-01

    Plant vasculatures are complex tissues consisting of (pro)cambium, phloem, and xylem. The (pro)cambium serves as vascular stem cells that produce all vascular cells. The Arabidopsis ERECTA (ER) receptor kinase is known to regulate the architecture of inflorescence stems. It was recently reported that the er mutation enhances a vascular phenotype induced by a mutation of TDR/PXY, which plays a significant role in procambial proliferation, suggesting that ER participates in vascular development. However, detailed molecular mechanisms of the ER-dependent vascular regulation are largely unknown. Here, this work found that ER and its paralogue, ER-LIKE1, were redundantly involved in procambial development of inflorescence stems. Interestingly, their activity in the phloem was sufficient for vascular regulation. Furthermore, two endodermis-derived peptide hormones, EPFL4 and EPFL6, were redundantly involved in such regulation. It has been previously reported that EPFL4 and EPFL6 act as ligands of phloem-expressed ER for stem elongation. Therefore, these findings indicate that cell-cell communication between the endodermis and the phloem plays an important role in procambial development as well as stem elongation. Interestingly, similar EPFL-ER modules control two distinct developmental events by slightly changing their components: the EPFL4/6-ER module for stem elongation and the EPFL4/6-ER/ERL1 module for vascular development.

  18. The Inhibitory Effect of Shikonin on the Agonist-Induced Regulation of Vascular Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Je, Hyun Dong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong; La, Hyen-Oh

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin, a natural flavonoid found in the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been shown to possess many biological functions. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of shikonin on vascular smooth muscle contractility and to determine the mechanism involved. Denuded aortic rings from male rats were used and isometric contractions were recorded and combined with molecular experiments. Shikonin significantly relaxed fluoride-, thromboxane A2- or phorbol ester-induced vascular contraction suggesting as a possible anti-hypertensive on the agonist-induced vascular contraction regardless of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. Furthermore, shikonin significantly inhibited fluoride-induced increases in pMYPT1 levels and phorbol ester-induced increases in pERK1/2 levels suggesting the mechanism involving the inhibition of Rho-kinase activity and the subsequent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and the inhibition of MEK activity and the subsequent phosphorylation of ERK1/2. This study provides evidence regarding the mechanism underlying the relaxation effect of shikonin on agonist-induced vascular contraction regardless of endothelial function. PMID:25995821

  19. Endothelium-Independent Effect of Fisetin on the Agonist-Induced Regulation of Vascular Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Je, Hyun Dong; Sohn, Uy Dong; La, Hyen-Oh

    2016-01-01

    Fisetin, a natural flavonoid found in a variety of vegetables and fruits, has been shown to possess many biological functions. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of fisetin on vascular smooth muscle contractility and to determine the mechanism involved. Denuded aortic rings from male rats were used and isometric contractions were recorded and combined with molecular experiments. Fisetin significantly relaxed fluoride-, thromboxane A2- or phorbol ester-induced vascular contraction suggesting as a possible anti-hypertensive on the agonist-induced vascular contraction regardless of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. Furthermore, fisetin significantly inhibited fluoride-induced increases in pMYPT1 levels and phorbol ester-induced increases in pERK1/2 levels suggesting the mechanism involving the inhibition of Rho-kinase activity and the subsequent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MEK activity and the subsequent phosphorylation of ERK1/2. This study provides evidence regarding the mechanism underlying the relaxation effect of fisetin on agonist-induced vascular contraction regardless of endothelial function. PMID:26759702

  20. Stromal vascular cells and adipogenesis: Cells within adipose depots regulate adipogenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A collection of investigations indicate the importance of adipose tissue stromal/stem cells to vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during adipogenesis. Early in development the stromal-vascular (S-V) elements control and dictate the extent of adipogenesis in a depot dependent manner. For instance, the...

  1. Light-triggered in vivo activation of adhesive peptides regulates cell adhesion, inflammation and vascularization of biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ted T; García, José R; Paez, Julieta I; Singh, Ankur; Phelps, Edward A; Weis, Simone; Shafiq, Zahid; Shekaran, Asha; Del Campo, Aránzazu; García, Andrés J

    2015-03-01

    Materials engineered to elicit targeted cellular responses in regenerative medicine must display bioligands with precise spatial and temporal control. Although materials with temporally regulated presentation of bioadhesive ligands using external triggers, such as light and electric fields, have recently been realized for cells in culture, the impact of in vivo temporal ligand presentation on cell-material responses is unknown. Here, we present a general strategy to temporally and spatially control the in vivo presentation of bioligands using cell-adhesive peptides with a protecting group that can be easily removed via transdermal light exposure to render the peptide fully active. We demonstrate that non-invasive, transdermal time-regulated activation of cell-adhesive RGD peptide on implanted biomaterials regulates in vivo cell adhesion, inflammation, fibrous encapsulation, and vascularization of the material. This work shows that triggered in vivo presentation of bioligands can be harnessed to direct tissue reparative responses associated with implanted biomaterials.

  2. Light-triggered in vivo activation of adhesive peptides regulates cell adhesion, inflammation and vascularization of biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ted T.; García, José R.; Paez, Julieta I.; Singh, Ankur; Phelps, Edward A.; Weis, Simone; Shafiq, Zahid; Shekaran, Asha; Del Campo, Aránzazu; García, Andrés J.

    2015-03-01

    Materials engineered to elicit targeted cellular responses in regenerative medicine must display bioligands with precise spatial and temporal control. Although materials with temporally regulated presentation of bioadhesive ligands using external triggers, such as light and electric fields, have recently been realized for cells in culture, the impact of in vivo temporal ligand presentation on cell-material responses is unknown. Here, we present a general strategy to temporally and spatially control the in vivo presentation of bioligands using cell-adhesive peptides with a protecting group that can be easily removed via transdermal light exposure to render the peptide fully active. We demonstrate that non-invasive, transdermal time-regulated activation of cell-adhesive RGD peptide on implanted biomaterials regulates in vivo cell adhesion, inflammation, fibrous encapsulation, and vascularization of the material. This work shows that triggered in vivo presentation of bioligands can be harnessed to direct tissue reparative responses associated with implanted biomaterials.

  3. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway regulates heme oxygenase-1 gene expression by hypoxia in vascular cells.

    PubMed

    Ryter, Stefan W; Xi, Sichuan; Hartsfield, Cynthia L; Choi, Augustine M K

    2002-08-01

    Hypoxia induces the stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which participates in cellular adaptation. The molecular pathways that regulate ho-1 gene expression under hypoxia may involve mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and reactive oxygen. Hypoxia (8 h) increased HO-1 mRNA in rat pulmonary aortic endothelial cells (PAEC), and also activated both extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1)/ERK2 and p38 MAPK pathways. The role of these kinases in hypoxia-induced ho-1 gene expression was examined using chemical inhibitors of these pathways. Surprisingly, SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, and PD98059, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1), strongly enhanced hypoxia-induced HO-1 mRNA expression in PAEC. UO126, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, enhanced HO-1 expression in PAEC under normoxia, but not hypoxia. Diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, also induced the expression of HO-1 in PAEC under both normoxia and hypoxia. Similar results were observed in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, hypoxia induced activator protein (AP-1) DNA-binding activity in PAEC. Pretreatment with SB203580 and PD98059 enhanced AP-1 binding activity under hypoxia in PAEC; UO126 stimulated AP-1 binding under normoxia, whereas diphenylene iodonium stimulated AP-1 binding under normoxia and hypoxia. These results suggest a relationship between MAPK and hypoxic regulation of ho-1 in vascular cells, involving AP-1.

  4. Regulation of endothelial Fas expression as a mechanism of promotion of vascular integrity by mural cells in tumors.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi Y; Kawano, Takao; Morii, Chiharu; Tanaka, Sayaka; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Iwata, Caname; Kano, Mitsunobu R

    2017-05-01

    Angiogenesis is a multi-step process that culminates in vascular maturation whereby nascent vessels stabilize to become functional, and mural cells play an essential role in this process. Recent studies have shown that mural cells in tumors also promote and maintain vascular integrity, with wide-reaching clinical implications including the regulation of tumor growth, metastases, and drug delivery. Various regulatory signaling pathways have been hitherto implicated, but whether regulation of Fas-dependent apoptotic mechanisms is involved has not yet been fully investigated. We first compared endothelial FAS staining in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and colon carcinomas and show that the latter, characterized by lower mural cell coverage of tumor vasculature, demonstrated higher expression of FAS than the former. Next, in an in vitro coculture system of MS-1 and 10T1/2 cells as endothelial and mural cells respectively, we show that mural cells decreased endothelial Fas expression. Then, in an in vivo model in which C26 colon carcinoma cells were inoculated together with MS-1 cells alone or with the further addition of 10T1/2 cells, we demonstrate that mural cells prevented hemorrhage. Finally, knockdown of endothelial Fas sufficiently recapitulated the protection against hemorrhage seen with the addition of mural cells. These results together suggest that regulation of endothelial Fas signaling is involved in the promotion of vascular integrity by mural cells in tumors. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  5. A single rapamycin dose protects against late-stage experimental cerebral malaria via modulation of host immunity, endothelial activation and parasite sequestration.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Pedro; Treviño-Villarreal, J Humberto; Reynolds, Justin S; De Niz, Mariana; Thompson, Andrew; Marti, Matthias; Mitchell, James R

    2017-11-09

    Maladaptive immune responses during cerebral malaria (CM) result in high mortality despite opportune anti-malarial chemotherapy. Rapamycin, an FDA-approved immunomodulator, protects against experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in mice through effects on the host. However, the potential for reduced adaptive immunity with chronic use, combined with an incomplete understanding of mechanisms underlying protection, limit translational potential as an adjunctive therapy in CM. The results presented herein demonstrate that a single dose of rapamycin, provided as late as day 4 or 5 post-infection, protected mice from ECM neuropathology and death through modulation of distinct host responses to infection. Rapamycin prevented parasite cytoadherence in peripheral organs, including white adipose tissue, via reduction of CD36 expression. Rapamycin also altered the splenic immune response by reducing the number of activated T cells with migratory phenotype, while increasing local cytotoxic T cell activation. Finally, rapamycin reduced brain endothelial ICAM-1 expression concomitant with reduced brain pathology. Together, these changes potentially contributed to increased parasite elimination while reducing CD8 T cell migration to the brain. Rapamycin exerts pleotropic effects on host immunity, vascular activation and parasite sequestration that rescue mice from ECM, and thus support the potential clinical use of rapamycin as an adjunctive therapy in CM.

  6. Fibroblast growth factor regulates insulin-like growth factor-binding protein production by vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ververis, J; Ku, L; Delafontaine, P

    1994-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I is an important mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells, and its effects are regulated by several binding proteins. Western ligand blotting of conditioned medium from rat aortic smooth muscle cells detected a 24 kDa binding protein and a 28 kDa glycosylated variant of this protein, consistent with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 by size. Low amounts of a glycosylated 38 to 42 kDa doublet (consistent with binding protein-3) and a 31 kDa non-glycosylated protein also were present. Basic fibroblast growth factor markedly increased secretion of the 24 kDa binding protein and its 28 kDa glycosylated variant. This effect was dose- and time-dependent and was inhibited by co-incubation with cycloheximide. Crosslinking of [125I]-insulin-like growth factor I to cell monolayers revealed no surface-associated binding proteins, either basally or after agonist treatment. Induction of binding protein production by fibroblast growth factor at sites of vascular injury may be important in vascular proliferative responses in vivo.

  7. H2S Regulates Hypobaric Hypoxia-Induced Early Glio-Vascular Dysfunction and Neuro-Pathophysiological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gaurav; Chhabra, Aastha; Mishra, Shalini; Kalam, Haroon; Kumar, Dhiraj; Meena, Ramniwas; Ahmad, Yasmin; Bhargava, Kalpana; Prasad, Dipti N.; Sharma, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Hypobaric Hypoxia (HH) is an established risk factor for various neuro-physiological perturbations including cognitive impairment. The origin and mechanistic basis of such responses however remain elusive. We here combined systems level analysis with classical neuro-physiological approaches, in a rat model system, to understand pathological responses of brain to HH. Unbiased ‘statistical co-expression networks’ generated utilizing temporal, differential transcriptome signatures of hippocampus—centrally involved in regulating cognition—implicated perturbation of Glio-Vascular homeostasis during early responses to HH, with concurrent modulation of vasomodulatory, hemostatic and proteolytic processes. Further, multiple lines of experimental evidence from ultra-structural, immuno-histological, substrate-zymography and barrier function studies unambiguously supported this proposition. Interestingly, we show a significant lowering of H2S levels in the brain, under chronic HH conditions. This phenomenon functionally impacted hypoxia-induced modulation of cerebral blood flow (hypoxic autoregulation) besides perturbing the strength of functional hyperemia responses. The augmentation of H2S levels, during HH conditions, remarkably preserved Glio-Vascular homeostasis and key neuro-physiological functions (cerebral blood flow, functional hyperemia and spatial memory) besides curtailing HH-induced neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus. Our data thus revealed causal role of H2S during HH-induced early Glio-Vascular dysfunction and consequent cognitive impairment. PMID:27211559

  8. Importance of the splanchnic vascular bed in human blood pressure regulation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, L. B.; Detry, J.-M. R.; Blackmon, J. R.; Wyss, C.

    1972-01-01

    Three-part experiment in which five subjects were exposed to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) at -50 mm Hg below the iliac crests. Duration of LBNP to earliest vagal symptoms was 7 to 21 min; all data are expressed as changes from control period to the last measurements before these symptoms. In part I, forearm blood flow (by Whitney gauge) fell 45% during LBNP. In part II, splanchnic blood flow (from arterial clearance hepatic extraction of indocyanine green) fell 32% and splanchnic vascular resistance rose 30%. In part III, cardiac output fell 28%, stroke volume 51%, and central blood volume 21%. Total peripheral resistance and heart rate rose 19% and 52%. Of the reduction in total vascular conductance, decreased splanchnic conductance accounted for approximately 33%; skin plus muscle conductance decreased similarly.

  9. Di-peptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin protects vascular function in metabolic syndrome: possible role of epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Figen Amber; Amber, Cicek Figen; Tokcaer-Keskin, Zeynep; Zeynep, Tokcaer-Keskin; Ozcinar, Evren; Evren, Ozcinar; Bozkus, Yosuf; Yusuf, Bozkus; Akcali, Kamil Can; Can, Akcali Kamil; Turan, Belma; Belma, Turan

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex medical disorder characterized by insulin resistance, hypertension, and high risk of coronary disease and stroke. Microvascular rarefaction and endothelial dysfunction have also been linked with MetS, and recent evidence from clinical studies supports the efficacy of incretin-based antidiabetic therapies for vascular protection in diabetes. Previous studies pointed out the importance of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition in endothelial cells due to getting protection against metabolic pathologies. We therefore aimed to investigate the acute effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, on vascular function in rats with high-sucrose diet-induced MetS. In order to elucidate the mechanisms implicated in the effects of DPP-4 inhibition, we tested the involvement of NO pathway and epigenetic regulation in the MetS. Acute use of sitagliptin protects the vascular function in the rats with MetS in part due to NO pathway via restoring the depressed aortic relaxation responses mediated by receptors. Application of sitagliptin enhanced the depressed phosphorylation levels of both the endothelial NO synthase and the apoptotic status of protein kinase B, known as Akt, in endothelium-intact thoracic aorta from rats with MetS. One-hour application of sitagliptin on aortic rings from rats with MetS also induced remarkable histon posttranslational modifications such as increased expression of H3K27Me3, but not of H3K27Me2, resulting in an accumulation of the H3K27Me3. Our findings suggest that, in addition to its well-known hypoglycemic action, sitagliptin may also have beneficial effects on hyperglycemia-induced vascular changes in an endotheium-dependent manner. These present results with sitagliptin aside from the glycaemic control, may demonstrate its important role in the treatment of patients with MetS.

  10. Reduced contribution of endothelin to the regulation of systemic and pulmonary vascular tone in severe familial hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Shawn B; de Beer, Vincent J; Tharp, Darla L; van Deel, Elza D; Bowles, Douglas K; Duncker, Dirk J; Laughlin, M Harold; Merkus, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    Vascular dysfunction has been associated with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), a severe form of hyperlipidaemia. We recently demonstrated that swine with FH exhibit reduced exercise-induced systemic, but not pulmonary, vasodilatation involving reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Since NO normally limits endothelin (ET) action, we examined the hypothesis that reduced systemic vasodilatation during exercise in FH swine results from increased ET-mediated vasoconstriction. Systemic and pulmonary vascular responses to exercise were examined in chronically instrumented normal and FH swine in the absence and presence of the ETA/B receptor antagonist tezosentan. Intrinsic reactivity to ET was further assessed in skeletal muscle arterioles. FH swine exhibited ∼9-fold elevation in total plasma cholesterol versus normal swine. Similar to our recent findings, systemic, not pulmonary, vasodilatation during exercise was reduced in FH swine. Blockade of ET receptors caused marked systemic vasodilatation at rest and during exercise in normal swine that was significantly reduced in FH swine. The reduced role of ET in FH swine in vivo was not the result of decreased arteriolar ET responsiveness, as responsiveness was increased in isolated arterioles. Smooth muscle ET receptor protein content was unaltered by FH. However, circulating plasma ET levels were reduced in FH swine. ET receptor antagonism caused pulmonary vasodilatation at rest and during exercise in normal, but not FH, swine. Therefore, contrary to our hypothesis, FH swine exhibit a generalised reduction in the role of ET in regulating vascular tone in vivo probably resulting from reduced ET production. This may represent a unique vascular consequence of severe familial hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:24421352

  11. TRAF3 Epigenetic Regulation Is Associated With Vascular Recurrence in Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Fabrega, Cristina; Carrera, Caty; Reny, Jean-Luc; Fontana, Pierre; Slowik, Agnieszka; Pera, Joanna; Pezzini, Alessandro; Serrano-Heras, Gemma; Segura, Tomás; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Muiño, Elena; Cullell, Natalia; Montaner, Joan; Krupinski, Jerzy; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel

    2016-05-01

    Clopidogrel is one of the most used antiplatelet drugs in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, 16% to 50% of patients have a high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity and an increased risk of ischemic events. The pathogenesis of high on-treatment platelet reactivity in patients with stroke is only partially explained by genetic variations. This study aims to find differentially methylated sites across the genome associated with vascular recurrence in ischemic stroke patients treated with clopidogrel. From a cohort of 1900 patients with ischemic stroke, we selected 42 patients treated with clopidogrel, including 21 with a recurrent vascular event and 21 without vascular recurrence during the first year of follow-up. Over 480 000 DNA methylation sites were analyzed across the genome. Differentially methylated CpG sites were identified by nonparametric testing using R. Replication analysis was performed in a new cohort of 191 subjects and results were correlated with platelet reactivity in a subset of 90 subjects using light transmission aggregometry. A total of 73 differentially methylated CpG sites (P<1×10(-05)) were identified; 3 of them were selected for further replication: cg03548645 (P=1.42×10(-05), TRAF3), cg09533145 (P=7.81×10(-06), ADAMTS2), and cg15107336 (P=1.89×10(-05), XRCC1). The cg03548645 CpG remained significant in the replication study (P=0.034), a deep analysis of this region revealed another methylation site associated with vascular recurrence, P=0.037. Lower cg03548645 (TRAF3) DNA methylation levels were correlated with an increased platelet aggregation (ρ=-0.29, P=0.0075). This study suggests for the first time that epigenetics may significantly contribute to the variability of clopidogrel response and recurrence of ischemic events in patients with stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Beta2-adrenergic activity modulates vascular tone regulation in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Manzini, S; Pinna, C; Busnelli, M; Cinquanta, P; Rigamonti, E; Ganzetti, G S; Dellera, F; Sala, A; Calabresi, L; Franceschini, G; Parolini, C; Chiesa, G

    2015-11-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, generally a predisposing factor for premature coronary heart disease. The evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient subjects is however controversial. In this study, the effect of LCAT deficiency on vascular tone and endothelial function was investigated in LCAT knockout mice, which reproduce the human lipoprotein phenotype. Aortas from wild-type (Lcat(wt)) and LCAT knockout (Lcat(KO)) mice exposed to noradrenaline showed reduced contractility in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.005), whereas acetylcholine exposure showed a lower NO-dependent relaxation in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.05). Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested an adequate eNOS expression in Lcat(KO) mouse aortas. Real-time PCR analysis indicated increased expression of β2-adrenergic receptors vs wild-type mice. Aorta stimulation with noradrenaline in the presence of propranolol, to abolish the β-mediated relaxation, showed the same contractile response in the two mouse lines. Furthermore, propranolol pretreatment of mouse aortas exposed to L-NAME prevented the difference in responses between Lcat(wt) and Lcat(KO) mice. The results indicate that LCAT deficiency leads to increased β2-adrenergic relaxation and to a consequently decreased NO-mediated vasodilation that can be reversed to guarantee a correct vascular tone. The present study suggests that LCAT deficiency is not associated with an impaired vascular reactivity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Beta2-adrenergic activity modulates vascular tone regulation in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Manzini, S.; Pinna, C.; Busnelli, M.; Cinquanta, P.; Rigamonti, E.; Ganzetti, G.S.; Dellera, F.; Sala, A.; Calabresi, L.; Franceschini, G.; Parolini, C.; Chiesa, G.

    2015-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, generally a predisposing factor for premature coronary heart disease. The evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient subjects is however controversial. In this study, the effect of LCAT deficiency on vascular tone and endothelial function was investigated in LCAT knockout mice, which reproduce the human lipoprotein phenotype. Aortas from wild-type (Lcatwt) and LCAT knockout (LcatKO) mice exposed to noradrenaline showed reduced contractility in LcatKO mice (P < 0.005), whereas acetylcholine exposure showed a lower NO-dependent relaxation in LcatKO mice (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested an adequate eNOS expression in LcatKO mouse aortas. Real-time PCR analysis indicated increased expression of β2-adrenergic receptors vs wild-type mice. Aorta stimulation with noradrenaline in the presence of propranolol, to abolish the β-mediated relaxation, showed the same contractile response in the two mouse lines. Furthermore, propranolol pretreatment of mouse aortas exposed to L-NAME prevented the difference in responses between Lcatwt and LcatKO mice. The results indicate that LCAT deficiency leads to increased β2-adrenergic relaxation and to a consequently decreased NO-mediated vasodilation that can be reversed to guarantee a correct vascular tone. The present study suggests that LCAT deficiency is not associated with an impaired vascular reactivity. PMID:26254103

  14. Oxido-reductive regulation of vascular remodeling by receptor tyrosine kinase ROS1

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ziad A.; de Jesus Perez, Vinicio; Yuan, Ke; Orcholski, Mark; Pan, Stephen; Qi, Wei; Chopra, Gaurav; Adams, Christopher; Kojima, Yoko; Leeper, Nicholas J.; Qu, Xiumei; Zaleta-Rivera, Kathia; Kato, Kimihiko; Yamada, Yoshiji; Oguri, Mitsutoshi; Kuchinsky, Allan; Hazen, Stanley L.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Nabel, Elizabeth G.; Channon, Keith; Leon, Martin B.; Charest, Alain; Quertermous, Thomas; Ashley, Euan A.

    2014-01-01

    Angioplasty and stenting is the primary treatment for flow-limiting atherosclerosis; however, this strategy is limited by pathological vascular remodeling. Using a systems approach, we identified a role for the network hub gene glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) in pathological remodeling following human blood vessel stenting. Constitutive deletion of Gpx1 in atherosclerotic mice recapitulated this phenotype of increased vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and plaque formation. In an independent patient cohort, gene variant pair analysis identified an interaction of GPX1 with the orphan protooncogene receptor tyrosine kinase ROS1. A meta-analysis of the only genome-wide association studies of human neointima-induced in-stent stenosis confirmed the association of the ROS1 variant with pathological remodeling. Decreased GPX1 expression in atherosclerotic mice led to reductive stress via a time-dependent increase in glutathione, corresponding to phosphorylation of the ROS1 kinase activation site Y2274. Loss of GPX1 function was associated with both oxidative and reductive stress, the latter driving ROS1 activity via s-glutathiolation of critical residues of the ROS1 tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. ROS1 inhibition with crizotinib and deglutathiolation of SHP-2 abolished GPX1-mediated increases in VSMC proliferation while leaving endothelialization intact. Our results indicate that GPX1-dependent alterations in oxido-reductive stress promote ROS1 activation and mediate vascular remodeling. PMID:25401476

  15. Endothelial Cell Autonomous Role of Akt1: Regulation of Vascular Tone and Ischemia-Induced Arteriogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Monica Y; Gamez-Mendez, Ana; Zhang, Jiasheng; Zhuang, Zhenwu; Vinyard, David J; Kraehling, Jan; Velazquez, Heino; Brudvig, Gary W; Kyriakides, Themis R; Simons, Michael; Sessa, William C

    2018-04-01

    The importance of PI3K/Akt signaling in the vasculature has been demonstrated in several models, as global loss of Akt1 results in impaired postnatal ischemia- and VEGF-induced angiogenesis. The ubiquitous expression of Akt1, however, raises the possibility of cell-type-dependent Akt1-driven actions, thereby necessitating tissue-specific characterization. Herein, we used an inducible, endothelial-specific Akt1-deleted adult mouse model (Akt1iECKO) to characterize the endothelial cell autonomous functions of Akt1 in the vascular system. Endothelial-targeted ablation of Akt1 reduces eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) phosphorylation and promotes both increased vascular contractility in isolated vessels and elevated diastolic blood pressures throughout the diurnal cycle in vivo. Furthermore, Akt1iECKO mice subject to the hindlimb ischemia model display impaired blood flow and decreased arteriogenesis. Endothelial Akt1 signaling is necessary for ischemic resolution post-injury and likely reflects the consequence of NO insufficiency critical for vascular repair. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Vascular Type 1A Angiotensin II Receptors Control BP by Regulating Renal Blood Flow and Urinary Sodium Excretion.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Matthew A; Stegbauer, Johannes; Chen, Daian; Gomez, Jose A; Griffiths, Robert C; Azad, Hooman A; Herrera, Marcela; Gurley, Susan B; Coffman, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    Inappropriate activation of the type 1A angiotensin (AT1A) receptor contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and its associated complications. To define the role for actions of vascular AT1A receptors in BP regulation and hypertension pathogenesis, we generated mice with cell-specific deletion of AT1A receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMKO mice) using Loxp technology and Cre transgenes with robust expression in both conductance and resistance arteries. We found that elimination of AT1A receptors from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) caused a modest (approximately 7 mmHg) yet significant reduction in baseline BP and exaggerated sodium sensitivity in mice. Additionally, the severity of angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension was dramatically attenuated in SMKO mice, and this protection against hypertension was associated with enhanced urinary excretion of sodium. Despite the lower BP, acute vasoconstrictor responses to Ang II in the systemic vasculature were largely preserved (approximately 80% of control levels) in SMKO mice because of exaggerated activity of the sympathetic nervous system rather than residual actions of AT1B receptors. In contrast, Ang II-dependent responses in the renal circulation were almost completely eliminated in SMKO mice (approximately 5%-10% of control levels). These findings suggest that direct actions of AT1A receptors in VSMCs are essential for regulation of renal blood flow by Ang II and highlight the capacity of Ang II-dependent vascular responses in the kidney to effect natriuresis and BP control. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein regulates carotid intimal hyperplasia through controlling apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yongqiang; Ma, Ke; Li, Zhen; Wang, Zhonggao

    2018-01-08

    Intimal hyperplasia is the main cause of restenosis after carotid artery injury, and the underlying mechanism involves the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-Associated Protein (ATRAP) has been reported to withstand intimal hyperplasia by inhibiting VSMCs proliferation and migration; however, whether the beneficial effect of ATRAP associates with VSMCs apoptosis remains unclarified. We demonstrated that the adenoviral-mediated overexpression of ATRAP induced VSMC apoptosis, alleviating the balloon injury-induced neointima formation in rats. Under the condition of Angiotensin-II stimulation, ATRAP overexpression induced the apoptosis of rat VSMCs by depressing the PI3K-Akt signaling; whereas up-regulation of Akt by PTEN inhibitor abolished the apoptotic death. Thus, ATRAP regulates carotid intimal hyperplasia through controlling the PI3K-Akt signal-mediated VSMCs apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (m TORC1) Inhibition by Rapamycin Treatment of Pregnant Mice Causes Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Alters Postnatal Cardiac Growth, Morphology, and Function.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Maria; Fiedler, Saskia; Jux, Christian; Thierfelder, Ludwig; Drenckhahn, Jörg-Detlef

    2017-08-04

    Fetal growth impacts cardiovascular health throughout postnatal life in humans. Various animal models of intrauterine growth restriction exhibit reduced heart size at birth, which negatively influences cardiac function in adulthood. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates nutrient and growth factor availability with cell growth, thereby regulating organ size. This study aimed at elucidating a possible involvement of mTORC1 in intrauterine growth restriction and prenatal heart growth. We inhibited mTORC1 in fetal mice by rapamycin treatment of pregnant dams in late gestation. Prenatal rapamycin treatment reduces mTORC1 activity in various organs at birth, which is fully restored by postnatal day 3. Rapamycin-treated neonates exhibit a 16% reduction in body weight compared with vehicle-treated controls. Heart weight decreases by 35%, resulting in a significantly reduced heart weight/body weight ratio, smaller left ventricular dimensions, and reduced cardiac output in rapamycin- versus vehicle-treated mice at birth. Although proliferation rates in neonatal rapamycin-treated hearts are unaffected, cardiomyocyte size is reduced, and apoptosis increased compared with vehicle-treated neonates. Rapamycin-treated mice exhibit postnatal catch-up growth, but body weight and left ventricular mass remain reduced in adulthood. Prenatal mTORC1 inhibition causes a reduction in cardiomyocyte number in adult hearts compared with controls, which is partially compensated for by an increased cardiomyocyte volume, resulting in normal cardiac function without maladaptive left ventricular remodeling. Prenatal rapamycin treatment of pregnant dams represents a new mouse model of intrauterine growth restriction and identifies an important role of mTORC1 in perinatal cardiac growth. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  19. Circular RNA hsa_circ_0003575 regulates oxLDL induced vascular endothelial cells proliferation and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-Ye; Ma, Lan; Yu, Bo

    2017-11-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of RNAs generated from back-splicing and characterized by covalently closed continuous loops. Recently, circRNAs have recently shown large regulation on cardiovascular system, including atherosclerosis. The present study aims to investigate the circRNA expression profile and identify their roles on vascular endothelial cells induced by oxLDL. Human circRNA microarray analysis revealed that total 943 differently expressed circRNAs were screened with 2 fold change. Hsa_circ_0003575 was validated to be significantly up-regulated in oxLDL induced HUVECs. Loss-of-function experiments indicated that hsa_circ_0003575 silencing promoted the proliferation and angiogenesis ability of HUVECs. Bioinformatics online programs predicted the potential circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network for hsa_circ_0003575. In summary, circRNA microarray analysis reveals the expression profiles of HUVECs and verifies the role of hsa_circ_0003575 on HUVECs, providing a therapeutic strategy for vascular endothelial cell injury of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. MicroRNA857 Is Involved in the Regulation of Secondary Growth of Vascular Tissues in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Lin, Sen; Qiu, Zongbo; Cao, Dechang; Wen, Jialong; Deng, Xin; Wang, Xiaohua; Lin, Jinxing; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that repress target gene expression posttranscriptionally, and are critically involved in various developmental processes and responses to environmental stresses in eukaryotes. MiRNA857 is not widely distributed in plants and is encoded by a single gene, AtMIR857, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The functions of miR857 and its mechanisms in regulating plant growth and development are still unclear. Here, by means of genetic analysis coupled with cytological studies, we investigated the expression pattern and regulation mechanism of miR857 and its biological functions in Arabidopsis development. We found that miR857 regulates its target gene, Arabidopsis LACCASE7, at the transcriptional level, thereby reducing laccase activity. Using stimulated Raman scattering and x-ray microtomography three-dimensional analyses, we showed that miR857 was involved in the regulation of lignin content and consequently morphogenesis of the secondary xylem. In addition, miR857 was activated by SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE7 in response to low copper conditions. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the role of miR857 in the regulation of secondary growth of vascular tissues in Arabidopsis and reveal a unique control mechanism for secondary growth based on the miR857 expression in response to copper deficiency. PMID:26511915

  1. Impaired Production and Diurnal Regulation of Vascular RvDn-3 DPA Increase Systemic Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Colas, Romain A; Souza, Patricia R; Walker, Mary E; Burton, Maudrian; Zasłona, Zbigniew; Curtis, Annie M; Marques, Raquel M; Dalli, Jesmond

    2018-03-16

    Diurnal mechanisms are central to regulating host responses. Recent studies uncovered a novel family of mediators termed as specialized proresolving mediators that terminate inflammation without interfering with the immune response. Herein, we investigated the diurnal regulation of specialized proresolving mediators in humans and their role in controlling peripheral blood leukocyte and platelet activation. Using lipid mediator profiling and healthy volunteers, we found that plasma concentrations of n-3 docosapentaenoic acid-derived D-series resolvins (RvD n-3 DPA ) were regulated in a diurnal manner. The production and regulation of these mediators was markedly altered in patients at risk of myocardial infarct. These changes were associated with decreased 5-lipoxygenase expression and activity, as well as increased systemic adenosine concentrations. We also found a significant negative correlation between plasma RvD n-3 DPA and markers of platelet, monocyte, and neutrophil activation, including CD63 and CD11b. Incubation of RvD n-3 DPA with peripheral blood from healthy volunteers and patients with cardiovascular disease significantly and dose-dependently decreased platelet and leukocyte activation. Furthermore, administration of RvD5 n-3 DPA to ApoE -/- (apolipoprotein E deficient) mice significantly reduced platelet-leukocyte aggregates, vascular thromboxane B 2 concentrations, and aortic lesions. These results demonstrate that peripheral blood RvD n-3 DPA are diurnally regulated in humans, and dysregulation in the production of these mediators may lead to cardiovascular disease. © 2018 The Authors.

  2. Differential Regulation of NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 Contribute to Their Unique Functions in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, Jeremy T.; Lilly, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling is a key regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypes, including differentiation, proliferation, and cell survival. However, the exact contribution of the individual Notch receptors has not been thoroughly delineated. In this study, we identify unique roles for NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 in regulating proliferation and cell survival in cultured VSMCs. Our results indicate that NOTCH2 inhibits PDGF-B-dependent proliferation and its expression is decreased by PDGF-B. In contrast, NOTCH3 promotes proliferation and receptor expression is increased by PDGF-B. Additionally, data show that NOTCH3, but not NOTCH2 protects VSMCs from apoptosis and apoptosis mediators degrade NOTCH3 protein. We identified three pro-survival genes specifically regulated by NOTCH3 in cultured VSMCs and in mouse aortas. This regulation is mediated through MAP kinase signaling, which we demonstrate can be activated by NOTCH3, but not NOTCH2. Overall, this study highlights discrete roles for NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 in VSMCs and connects these roles to specific upstream regulators that control their expression. PMID:25957400

  3. Differential Regulation of NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 Contribute to Their Unique Functions in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Jeremy T; Lilly, Brenda

    2015-06-26

    Notch signaling is a key regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypes, including differentiation, proliferation, and cell survival. However, the exact contribution of the individual Notch receptors has not been thoroughly delineated. In this study, we identify unique roles for NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 in regulating proliferation and cell survival in cultured VSMCs. Our results indicate that NOTCH2 inhibits PDGF-B-dependent proliferation and its expression is decreased by PDGF-B. In contrast, NOTCH3 promotes proliferation and receptor expression is increased by PDGF-B. Additionally, data show that NOTCH3, but not NOTCH2 protects VSMCs from apoptosis and apoptosis mediators degrade NOTCH3 protein. We identified three pro-survival genes specifically regulated by NOTCH3 in cultured VSMCs and in mouse aortas. This regulation is mediated through MAP kinase signaling, which we demonstrate can be activated by NOTCH3, but not NOTCH2. Overall, this study highlights discrete roles for NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 in VSMCs and connects these roles to specific upstream regulators that control their expression. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Central role of endogenous Toll-like receptor-2 activation in regulating inflammation, reactive oxygen species production, and subsequent neointimal formation after vascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Shishido, Tetsuro; Nozaki, Naoki; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2006-07-14

    Background: It is now evident that inflammation after vascular injury has significant impact on the restenosis after revascularization procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, and bypass grafting. However, the mechanisms that regulate inflammation and repair after vascular injury are incompletely understood. Here, we report that vascular injury-mediated cytokine expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as subsequent neointimal formation requires Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) mediated signaling pathway in vivo. Methods and results: Vascular injury was induced by cuff-placement around the femoral artery in non-transgenic littermates (NLC) and TLR-2 knockout (TLR-2KO) mice. After cuff-placement in NLC mice, expression of TLR-2 was significantlymore » increased in both smooth muscle medial layer and adventitia. Interestingly, we found that inflammatory genes expression such as tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were markedly decreased in TLR-2KO mice compared with NLC mice. In addition, ROS production after vascular injury was attenuated in TLR-2KO mice compared with NLC mice. Since we observed the significant role of endogenous TLR-2 activation in regulating inflammatory responses and ROS production after vascular injury, we determined whether inhibition of endogenous TLR-2 activation can inhibit neointimal proliferation after vascular injury. Neointimal hyperplasia was markedly suppressed in TLR-2KO mice compared with WT mice at both 2 and 4 weeks after vascular injury. Conclusions: These findings suggested that endogenous TLR-2 activation might play a central role in the regulation of vascular inflammation as well as subsequent neointimal formation in injured vessels.« less

  5. miR-181b regulates vascular stiffness age dependently in part by regulating TGF-β signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Daijiro; Dunkerly-Eyring, Brittany; Nomura, Yohei; Biswas, Debjit; Steppan, Jochen; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Adachi, Hideo; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Steenbergen, Charles; Flavell, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening play major roles in cardiovascular diseases. The critical role for the miR-181 family in vascular inflammation has been documented. Here we tested whether the miR-181 family can influence the pathogenesis of hypertension and vascular stiffening. Methods and results qPCR data showed a significant decrease in miR-181b expression in the aorta of the older mice. Eight miR-181a1/b1-/- mice and wild types (C57BL6J:WT) were followed weekly for pulse wave velocity (PWV) and blood pressure measurements. After 20 weeks, the mice were tested for endothelial function and aortic modulus. There was a progressive increase in PWV and higher systolic blood pressure in miR-181a1/b1-/- mice compared with WTs. At 21 weeks, aortic modulus was significantly greater in the miR-181a1/b1-/- group, and serum TGF-β was found to be elevated at this time. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed miR-181b targets TGF-βi (TGF-β induced) in the aortic VSMCs. In contrast, wire myography revealed unaltered endothelial function along with higher nitric oxide production in the miR-181a1/b1-/- group. Cultured VECs and VSMCs from the mouse aorta showed more secreted TGF-β in VSMCs of the miR-181a1/b1-/- group; whereas, no change was observed from VECs. Circulating levels of angiotensin II were similar in both groups. Treatment with losartan (0.6 g/L) prevented the increase in PWV, blood pressure, and vascular stiffness in miR-181a1/b1-/- mice. Immunohistochemistry and western blot for p-SMAD2/3 validated the inhibitory effect of losartan on TGF-β signaling in miR-181a1/b1-/- mice. Conclusions Decreased miR-181b with aging plays a critical role in ECM remodeling by removing the brake on the TGF-β, pSMAD2/3 pathway. PMID:28323879

  6. miR-181b regulates vascular stiffness age dependently in part by regulating TGF-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Hori, Daijiro; Dunkerly-Eyring, Brittany; Nomura, Yohei; Biswas, Debjit; Steppan, Jochen; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Adachi, Hideo; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Berkowitz, Dan E; Steenbergen, Charles; Flavell, Richard A; Das, Samarjit

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening play major roles in cardiovascular diseases. The critical role for the miR-181 family in vascular inflammation has been documented. Here we tested whether the miR-181 family can influence the pathogenesis of hypertension and vascular stiffening. qPCR data showed a significant decrease in miR-181b expression in the aorta of the older mice. Eight miR-181a1/b1-/- mice and wild types (C57BL6J:WT) were followed weekly for pulse wave velocity (PWV) and blood pressure measurements. After 20 weeks, the mice were tested for endothelial function and aortic modulus. There was a progressive increase in PWV and higher systolic blood pressure in miR-181a1/b1-/- mice compared with WTs. At 21 weeks, aortic modulus was significantly greater in the miR-181a1/b1-/- group, and serum TGF-β was found to be elevated at this time. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed miR-181b targets TGF-βi (TGF-β induced) in the aortic VSMCs. In contrast, wire myography revealed unaltered endothelial function along with higher nitric oxide production in the miR-181a1/b1-/- group. Cultured VECs and VSMCs from the mouse aorta showed more secreted TGF-β in VSMCs of the miR-181a1/b1-/- group; whereas, no change was observed from VECs. Circulating levels of angiotensin II were similar in both groups. Treatment with losartan (0.6 g/L) prevented the increase in PWV, blood pressure, and vascular stiffness in miR-181a1/b1-/- mice. Immunohistochemistry and western blot for p-SMAD2/3 validated the inhibitory effect of losartan on TGF-β signaling in miR-181a1/b1-/- mice. Decreased miR-181b with aging plays a critical role in ECM remodeling by removing the brake on the TGF-β, pSMAD2/3 pathway.

  7. Rapamycin prevents N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced retinal damage through an ERK-dependent mechanism in rats.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Atsuko; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Kurauchi, Yuki; Mori, Asami; Sakamoto, Kenji; Ishii, Kunio

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protects against neuronal injury, but the mechanisms underlying this protection are not fully understood. The present study investigates whether rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway, protects against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced retinal neurotoxicity and whether the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway contributes to this protective effect in rats. Significant cell loss in the ganglion cell layer and a reduction in thickness of the inner plexiform layer were observed 7 days after a single intravitreal injection of NMDA (200 nmol/eye). These NMDA-induced morphological changes were significantly reduced by rapamycin (20 nmol/eye). The number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive apoptotic cells had increased 6 hr after NMDA injection, an effect that was significantly attenuated by rapamycin. The ERK inhibitor U0126 (1 nmol/eye) almost completely abolished rapamycin's inhibition of NMDA-induced apoptosis. Immunohistochemical studies showed that NMDA caused a time-dependent increase in levels of the phosphorylated form of the ribosomal protein S6 (pS6), a downstream indicator of mTOR activity. The increased pS6 levels were markedly decreased by rapamycin. Both NMDA and rapamycin increased the level of phosphorylated ERK (pERK) in Müller cells, and coinjection of both agents further increased pERK levels. These results suggest that rapamycin has a neuroprotective effect against NMDA-induced retinal neurotoxicity and that this effect could be patially mediated by activation of the ERK pathway in retinal Müller cells. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. RhoA/ROCK signaling regulates smooth muscle phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling via the JNK pathway and vimentin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lian; Dai, Fan; Liu, Yan; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Chao; Wang, Yuqin; Yao, Wenjuan

    2018-05-20

    The RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway regulates cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, and migration. In this study, we investigated the regulatory role of RhoA/ROCK signaling on PDGF-BB-mediated smooth muscle phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling and clarified the molecular mechanisms behind these effects. PDGF-BB treatment induced the activation of RhoA, ROCK, PDGF-Rβ, and the expression of PDGF-Rβ in HA-VSMCs (human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells). PDGF-Rβ inhibition and RhoA suppression blocked PDGF-BB-induced RhoA activation and ROCK induction. In addition, PDGF-BB-mediated cell proliferation and migration were suppressed by PDGF-Rβ inhibition, RhoA suppression, and ROCK inhibition, suggesting that PDGF-BB promotes phenotypic modulation of HA-VSMCs by activating the RhoA/ROCK pathway via the PDGF receptor. Moreover, suppressing both ROCK1 and ROCK2 blocked cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase by decreasing the transcription and protein expression of cyclin D1, CDK2, and CDK4 via JNK/c-Jun pathway, thus reducing cell proliferation in PDGF-BB-treated HA-VSMCs. ROCK1 deletion, rather than ROCK2 suppression, significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced migration by reducing the expression of vimentin and preventing the remodeling of vimentin and phospho-vimentin. Furthermore, ROCK1 deletion suppressed vimentin by inhibiting the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and the nuclear translocation of Smad4. These findings suggested that ROCK1 and ROCK2 might play different roles in PDGF-BB-mediated cell proliferation and migration in HA-VSMCs. In addition, PDGF-BB and its receptor participated in neointima formation and vascular remodeling by promoting cell cycle protein expression via the JNK pathway and enhancing vimentin expression in a rat balloon injury model; effects that were inhibited by treatment with fasudil. Together, the results of this study reveal a novel mechanism through which RhoA/ROCK signaling regulates smooth muscle phenotypic modulation and

  9. Gas6 - Axl receptor signaling is regulated by glucose in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Cavet, Megan E.; Smolock, Elaine M.; Ozturk, Oktay H.; World, Cameron; Pang, Jinjiang; Konishi, Atsushi; Berk, Bradford C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl and its ligand Gas6 are involved in the development of renal diabetic disease. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) Axl is activated by reactive oxygen species and stimulates migration and cell survival, suggesting a role for Axl in the vascular complications of diabetes. Methods and Results We investigated the effect of varying glucose concentration on Axl signaling in VSMC. Glucose exerted powerful effects on Gas6-Axl signaling with greater activation of Akt and mTOR in low glucose, and greater activation of ERK1/2 in high glucose. Plasma membrane distribution and tyrosine phosphorylation of Axl were not affected by glucose. However, co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that glucose changed the interaction of Axl with its binding partners. Specifically, binding of Axl to the p85 subunit of PI3-kinase was increased in low glucose, whereas binding to SHP-2 was increased in high glucose. Furthermore, Gas6-Axl induced migration was increased in high glucose, while Gas6-Axl mediated inhibition of apoptosis was greater in low glucose. Conclusion This study demonstrates a role for glucose in altering Axl signaling through coupling to binding partners, and suggests a mechanism by which Axl contributes to VSMC dysfunction in diabetes. PMID:18292389

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation through mitochondrial dynamics regulation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gloria; Morales, Pablo E; García-Miguel, Marina; Norambuena-Soto, Ignacio; Cartes-Saavedra, Benjamín; Vidal-Peña, Gonzalo; Moncada-Ruff, David; Sanhueza-Olivares, Fernanda; San Martín, Alejandra; Chiong, Mario

    2016-03-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a neuroendocrine hormone produced by gastrointestinal tract in response to food ingestion. GLP-1 plays a very important role in the glucose homeostasis by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibiting glucagon secretion, inhibiting gastric emptying, reducing appetite and food intake. Because of these actions, the GLP-1 peptide-mimetic exenatide is one of the most promising new medicines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In vivo treatments with GLP-1 or exenatide prevent neo-intima layer formation in response to endothelial damage and atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic tissue. Whether GLP-1 modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation by controlling mitochondrial dynamics is unknown. In this report, we showed that GLP-1 increased mitochondrial fusion and activity in a PKA-dependent manner in the VSMC cell line A7r5. GLP-1 induced a Ser-637 phosphorylation in the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, and decreased Drp1 mitochondrial localization. GLP-1 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC migration and proliferation, actions inhibited by overexpressing wild type Drp1 and mimicked by the Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 and by overexpressing dominant negative Drp1. These results show that GLP-1 stimulates mitochondrial fusion, increases mitochondrial activity and decreases PDGF-BB-induced VSMC dedifferentiation by a PKA/Drp1 signaling pathway. Our data suggest that GLP-1 inhibits vascular remodeling through a mitochondrial dynamics-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. YAP and TAZ regulate adherens junction dynamics and endothelial cell distribution during vascular development

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Filipa; Klaus-Bergmann, Alexandra; Ong, Yu Ting; Alt, Silvanus; Vion, Anne-Clémence; Szymborska, Anna; Carvalho, Joana R; Hollfinger, Irene; Bartels-Klein, Eireen; Franco, Claudio A

    2018-01-01

    Formation of blood vessel networks by sprouting angiogenesis is critical for tissue growth, homeostasis and regeneration. How endothelial cells arise in adequate numbers and arrange suitably to shape functional vascular networks is poorly understood. Here we show that YAP/TAZ promote stretch-induced proliferation and rearrangements of endothelial cells whilst preventing bleeding in developing vessels. Mechanistically, YAP/TAZ increase the turnover of VE-Cadherin and the formation of junction associated intermediate lamellipodia, promoting both cell migration and barrier function maintenance. This is achieved in part by lowering BMP signalling. Consequently, the loss of YAP/TAZ in the mouse leads to stunted sprouting with local aggregation as well as scarcity of endothelial cells, branching irregularities and junction defects. Forced nuclear activity of TAZ instead drives hypersprouting and vascular hyperplasia. We propose a new model in which YAP/TAZ integrate mechanical signals with BMP signaling to maintain junctional compliance and integrity whilst balancing endothelial cell rearrangements in angiogenic vessels. PMID:29400648

  12. Nitric oxide signaling pathway regulates potassium chloride cotransporter-1 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Di Fulvio, M; Lauf, P K; Adragna, N C

    2001-11-30

    Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) express at least two mRNAs for K-Cl cotransporters (KCC): KCC1 and KCC3. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I regulates KCC3 mRNA expression in these cells. Here, we show evidence implicating the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling pathway in the expression of KCC1 mRNA, considered to be the major cell volume regulator. VSMCs, expressing soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and PKG-I isoforms showed a time- and concentration-dependent increase in KCC1 mRNA levels after treatment with sodium nitroprusside as demonstrated by semiquantitative RT-PCR. sGC-dependent regulation of KCC1 mRNA expression was confirmed using YC-1, a NO-independent sGC stimulator. The sGC inhibitor LY83583 blocked the effects of sodium nitroprusside and YC-1. Moreover, 8-Br-cGMP increased KCC1 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. The 8-Br-cGMP effect was partially blocked by KT5823 but not by actinomycin D. However, actinomycin D and cycloheximide increased basal KCC1 mRNA in an additive manner, suggesting different mechanisms of action for both drugs. These findings suggest that in VSMCs, the NO/cGMP-signaling pathway participates in KCC1 mRNA regulation at the post-transcriptional level.

  13. Resveratrol attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor B.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Qiong; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yanjiao; Zhang, Jincai; Li, Jing; Yang, Liang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Fei; Yang, Yinan; Kang, Licheng; Shen, Yanna; Qi, Zhi

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to examine the protective effect of resveratrol (RSV) on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and whether the mechanism was related to vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) signaling pathway. Rat hearts were isolated for Langendorff perfusion test and H9c2 cells were used for in vitro assessments. RSV treatment significantly improved left ventricular function, inhibited CK-MB release, and reduced infarct size in comparison with IR group ex vivo. RSV treatment markedly decreased cell death and apoptosis of H9c2 cells during IR. We found that RSV was responsible for the up-regulation of VEGF-B mRNA and protein level, which caused the activation of Akt and the inhibition of GSK3β. Additionally, RSV prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by up-regulating the expression of MnSOD either in vitro or ex vivo. We also found that the inhibition of VEGF-B abolished the cardioprotective effect of RSV, increased apoptosis, and led to the down-regulation of phosphorylated Akt, GSK3β, and MnSOD in H9c2 cells. These results demonstrated that RSV was able to attenuate myocardial IR injury via promotion of VEGF-B/antioxidant signaling pathway. Therefore, the up-regulation of VEGF-B can be a promising modality for clinical myocardial IR injury therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles enhance vascular regulation of neural stem cell survival and differentiation after ischaemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, R.; Fonseca, M. C.; Santos, T.; Sargento-Freitas, J.; Tjeng, R.; Paiva, F.; Castelo-Branco, M.; Ferreira, L. S.; Bernardino, L.

    2016-04-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. However, current therapies only reach a small percentage of patients and may cause serious side effects. We propose the therapeutic use of retinoic acid-loaded nanoparticles (RA-NP) to safely and efficiently repair the ischaemic brain by creating a favourable pro-angiogenic environment that enhances neurogenesis and neuronal restitution. Our data showed that RA-NP enhanced endothelial cell proliferation and tubule network formation and protected against ischaemia-induced death. To evaluate the effect of RA-NP on vascular regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) survival and differentiation, endothelial cell-conditioned media (EC-CM) were collected. EC-CM from healthy RA-NP-treated cells reduced NSC death and promoted proliferation while EC-CM from ischaemic RA-NP-treated cells decreased cell death, increased proliferation and neuronal differentiation. In parallel, human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC), which are part of the endogenous repair response to vascular injury, were collected from ischaemic stroke patients. hEPC treated with RA-NP had significantly higher proliferation, which further highlights the therapeutic potential of this formulation. To conclude, RA-NP protected endothelial cells from ischaemic death and stimulated the release of pro-survival, proliferation-stimulating factors and differentiation cues for NSC. RA-NP were shown to be up to 83-fold more efficient than free RA and to enhance hEPC proliferation. These data serve as a stepping stone to use RA-NP as vasculotrophic and neurogenic agents for vascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases with compromised vasculature.

  15. Apigenin and naringenin regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, and ameliorate vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Bei; Qin, Weiwei; Wu, Feihua; Wang, Shanshan; Pan, Cheng; Wang, Liying; Zeng, Biao; Ma, Shiping; Liang, Jingyu

    2016-02-15

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction is regarded as the initial step of vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the amelioration of apigenin and naringenin in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin and explored the underlying mechanism. Apigenin or naringenin was intragastrically administered at 50 or 100mg/kg once a day for 6 weeks. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, glycated serum protein, serum lipid, insulin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured. Vascular reactivity in isolated thoracic aortic rings was examined. Pathological features of the thoracic aorta were further observed through optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Lastly, we evaluated their effects on insulin resistance of palmitic acid (PA)-induced endothelial cells. Compared with diabetic control group, apigenin and naringenin significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, serum lipid, malonaldehyde, ICAM-1 and insulin resistance index, increased SOD activity and improved impaired glucose tolerance. Apigenin and naringenin restored phenylephrine-mediated contractions and acetylcholine or insulin-induced relaxations in aortic tissues. Furthermore, pathological damage in the thoracic aorta of apigenin and naringenin groups was more remissive than diabetic control group. In vitro, apigenin and naringenin inhibited NF-κB activation and ICAM-1 mRNA expression in PA-treated endothelial cells and improved nitric oxide production in the presence of insulin. In conclusion, both apigenin and naringenin can ameliorate glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as endothelial dysfunction in T2D rats at least in part by down-regulating oxidative stress and inflammation. In general, apigenin showed greater potency than naringenin equivalent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Toll like receptor 4 contributes to blood pressure regulation and vascular contraction in spontaneously hypertensive rat

    PubMed Central

    Bomfim, Gisele F.; Dos Santos, Rosangela A.; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; Giachini, Fernanda R.; Akamine, Eliana H.; Tostes, Rita C.; Fortes, Zuleica B.; Webb, R. Clinton; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLR) induces gene expression of proteins involved in the immune system response. TLR4 has been implicated in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Innate and adaptive immunity contribute to hypertension-associated end-organ damage, although the mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. In the present study we hypothesize that inhibition of TLR4 decreases blood pressure and improves vascular contractility in resistance arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). TLR4 protein expression in mesenteric resistance arteries was higher in 15 weeks-old SHR than in same age Wistar controls or in 5 weeks-old SHR. In order to decrease activation of TLR4, 15 weeks-old SHR and Wistar rats were treated with anti-TLR4 antibody or non-specific IgG control antibody for 15 days (1µg per day, i.p.). Treatment with anti-TLR4 decreased mean arterial pressure as well as TLR4 protein expression in mesenteric resistance arteries and interleukin-6 (IL-6) serum levels from SHR when compared to SHR treated with IgG. No changes in these parameters were found in Wistar treated rats. Mesenteric resistance arteries from anti-TLR4-treated SHR exhibited decreased maximal contractile response to noradrenaline compared to IgG-treated-SHR. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox) and Cox-2, enzymes related to inflammatory pathways, decreased noradrenaline responses only in mesenteric resistance arteries of SHR treated with IgG. Cox-2 expression and thromboxane A2 release were decreased in SHR treated with anti-TLR4 compared with IgG-treated-SHR. Our results suggest that TLR4 activation contributes to increased blood pressure, low grade inflammation and plays a role in the augmented vascular contractility displayed by SHR. PMID:22233532

  17. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Signaling During Disease: Regulation by Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Marchese, Michelle E.; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The endothelium is immunoregulatory in that inhibiting the function of vascular adhesion molecules blocks leukocyte recruitment and thus tissue inflammation. The function of endothelial cells during leukocyte recruitment is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants. In inflammatory sites and lymph nodes, the endothelium is stimulated to express adhesion molecules that mediate leukocyte binding. Upon leukocyte binding, these adhesion molecules activate endothelial cell signal transduction that then alters endothelial cell shape for the opening of passageways through which leukocytes can migrate. If the stimulation of this opening is blocked, inflammation is blocked. In this review, we focus on the endothelial cell adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Expression of VCAM-1 is induced on endothelial cells during inflammatory diseases by several mediators, including ROS. Then, VCAM-1 on the endothelium functions as both a scaffold for leukocyte migration and a trigger of endothelial signaling through NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. These ROS induce signals for the opening of intercellular passageways through which leukocytes migrate. In several inflammatory diseases, inflammation is blocked by inhibition of leukocyte binding to VCAM-1 or by inhibition of VCAM-1 signal transduction. VCAM-1 signal transduction and VCAM-1-dependent inflammation are blocked by antioxidants. Thus, VCAM-1 signaling is a target for intervention by pharmacological agents and by antioxidants during inflammatory diseases. This review discusses ROS and antioxidant functions during activation of VCAM-1 expression and VCAM-1 signaling in inflammatory diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1607–1638. PMID:21050132

  18. Rapamycin efficiently promotes cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qin; Liu, Yinan; Wang, Yang; Wang, Weiping; Yang, Zhe; Li, Tao; Tian, Yuyao; Chen, Ping; Ma, Kangtao; Jia, Zhuqing; Zhou, Chunyan

    2017-06-30

    To investigate the effects of rapamycin on cardiac differentiation, murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were induced into cardiomyocytes by 10 -4 M ascorbic acid (AA), 20 nM rapamycin alone or 0.01% solvent DMSO. We found that rapamycin alone was insufficient to initiate cardiomyogenesis. Then, the ESCs were treated with AA and rapamycin (20 nM) or AA and DMSO (0.01%) as a control. Compared with control, mouse ESCs (mESCs) treated with rapamycin (20 nM) and AA yielded a significantly higher percentage of cardiomyocytes, as confirmed by the percentage of beating embryonic bodies (EBs), the immunofluorescence and FACS analysis. Rapamycin significantly increased the expression of a panel of cardiac markers including Gata 4, α- Mhc , β- Mhc , and Tnnt 2. Additionally, rapamycin enhanced the expression of mesodermal and cardiac transcription factors such as Mesp 1, Brachyury T, Eomes, Isl 1 , Gata 4 , Nkx 2.5 , Tbx 5, and Mef2c. Mechanistic studies showed that rapamycin inhibits Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling but promotes the expression of fibroblast growth factor ( Fgf 8), Fgf 10, and Nodal at early stage, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 ( Bmp 2) at later stages. Sequential treatment of rapamycin showed that rapamycin promotes cardiac differentiation at the early and later stages. Interestingly, another mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor Ku0063794 (1 µM) had similar effects on cardiomyogenesis. In conclusion, our results highlight a practical approach to generate cardiomyocytes from mESCs by rapamycin. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Chronic rapamycin treatment causes diabetes in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Christine E.; Partap, Uttara; Patchen, Bonnie K.

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin both increases longevity and, seemingly contradictorily, impairs glucose homeostasis. Most studies exploring the dimensions of this paradox have been based on rapamycin treatment in mice for up to 20 wk. We sought to better understand the metabolic effects of oral rapamycin over a substantially longer period of time in HET3 mice. We observed that treatment with rapamycin for 52 wk induced diabetes in male mice, characterized by hyperglycemia, significant urine glucose levels, and severe glucose and pyruvate intolerance. Glucose intolerance occurred in male mice by 4 wk on rapamycin and could be only partially reversed with cessation of rapamycin treatment. Female mice developed moderate glucose intolerance over 1 yr of rapamycin treatment, but not diabetes. The role of sex hormones in the differential development of diabetic symptoms in male and female mice was further explored. HET3 mice treated with rapamycin for 52 wk were gonadectomized and monitored over 10 wk. Castrated male mice remained glucose intolerant, while ovariectomized females developed significant glucose intolerance over the same time period. Subsequent replacement of 17β-estradiol (E2) in ovariectomized females promoted a recovery of glucose tolerance over a 4-wk period, suggesting the protective role of E2 against rapamycin-induced diabetes. These results indicate that 1) oral rapamycin treatment causes diabetes in male mice, 2) the diabetes is partially reversible with cessation of treatment, and 3) E2 plays a protective role against the development of rapamycin-induced diabetes. PMID:24965794

  20. ITE and TCDD differentially regulate the vascular remodeling of rat placenta via the activation of AhR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanming; Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Qian; He, Qizhi; Kang, Jiuhong; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Kai; Duan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Vascular remodeling in the placenta is essential for normal fetal development. The previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, an environmental toxicant) induces the intrauterine fetal death in many species via the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In the current study, we compared the effects of 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) and TCDD on the vascular remodeling of rat placentas. Pregnant rats on gestational day (GD) 15 were randomly assigned into 5 groups, and were exposed to a single dose of 1.6 and 8.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) ITE, 1.6 and 8.0 µg/kg bw TCDD, or an equivalent volume of the vehicle, respectively. The dams were sacrificed on GD20 and the placental tissues were gathered. The intrauterine fetal death was observed only in 8.0 µg/kg bw TCDD-exposed group and no significant difference was seen in either the placental weight or the fetal weight among all these groups. The immunohistochemical and histological analyses revealed that as compared with the vehicle-control, TCDD, but not ITE, suppressed the placental vascular remodeling, including reduced the ratio of the placental labyrinth zone to the basal zone thickness (at least 0.71 fold of control), inhibited the maternal sinusoids dilation and thickened the trophoblastic septa. However, no marked difference was observed in the density of fetal capillaries in the labyrinth zone among these groups, although significant differences were detected in the expression of angiogenic growth factors between ITE and TCDD-exposed groups, especially Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), Endoglin, Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and placenta growth factor (PIGF). These results suggest ITE and TCDD differentially regulate the vascular remodeling of rat placentas, as well as the expression of angiogenic factors and their receptors, which in turn may alter the blood flow in the late gestation and partially resulted in

  1. ITE and TCDD Differentially Regulate the Vascular Remodeling of Rat Placenta via the Activation of AhR

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qian; He, Qizhi; Kang, Jiuhong; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Kai; Duan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Vascular remodeling in the placenta is essential for normal fetal development. The previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, an environmental toxicant) induces the intrauterine fetal death in many species via the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In the current study, we compared the effects of 2-(1′H-indole-3′-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) and TCDD on the vascular remodeling of rat placentas. Pregnant rats on gestational day (GD) 15 were randomly assigned into 5 groups, and were exposed to a single dose of 1.6 and 8.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) ITE, 1.6 and 8.0 µg/kg bw TCDD, or an equivalent volume of the vehicle, respectively. The dams were sacrificed on GD20 and the placental tissues were gathered. The intrauterine fetal death was observed only in 8.0 µg/kg bw TCDD-exposed group and no significant difference was seen in either the placental weight or the fetal weight among all these groups. The immunohistochemical and histological analyses revealed that as compared with the vehicle-control, TCDD, but not ITE, suppressed the placental vascular remodeling, including reduced the ratio of the placental labyrinth zone to the basal zone thickness (at least 0.71 fold of control), inhibited the maternal sinusoids dilation and thickened the trophoblastic septa. However, no marked difference was observed in the density of fetal capillaries in the labyrinth zone among these groups, although significant differences were detected in the expression of angiogenic growth factors between ITE and TCDD-exposed groups, especially Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), Endoglin, Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and placenta growth factor (PIGF). These results suggest ITE and TCDD differentially regulate the vascular remodeling of rat placentas, as well as the expression of angiogenic factors and their receptors, which in turn may alter the blood flow in the late gestation and partially resulted in

  2. Fluid shear stress regulates vascular remodeling via VEGFR-3 activation, although independently of its ligand, VEGF-C, in the uterus during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yang-Gyu; Choi, Jawun; Jung, Hye-Kang; Song, In Kyu; Shin, Yongwhan; Park, Sang-Youel; Seol, Jae-Won

    2017-01-01

    Early pregnancy is characterized by an increase in the blood volume of the uterus for embryonic development, thereby exerting fluid shear stress (FSS) on the vascular walls. The uterus experiences vascular remodeling to accommodate the increased blood flow. The blood flow-induced FSS elevates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors, and regulates vascular remodeling through the activation of VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3). However, the mechanisms responsible for FSS-induced VEGFR-3 expression in the uterus during pregnancy are unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that vascular remodeling in the uterus during pregnancy is regulated by FSS-induced VEGFR-3 expression. We examined the association between VEGFR-3 and FSS through in vivo and in vitro experiments. In vivo experiments revealed VEGFR-3 expression in the CD31-positive region of the uterus of pregnant mice; VEGF-C (ligand for VEGFR-3) was undetected in the uterus. These results confirmed that VEGFR-3 expression in the endometrium is independent of its ligand. In vitro studies experiments revealed that FSS induced morphological changes and increased VEGFR-3 expression in human uterine microvascular endothelial cells. Thus, VEGFR-3 activation by FSS is associated with vascular remodeling to allow increased blood flow in the uterus during pregnancy. PMID:28849193

  3. Fluid shear stress regulates vascular remodeling via VEGFR-3 activation, although independently of its ligand, VEGF-C, in the uterus during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Yang-Gyu; Choi, Jawun; Jung, Hye-Kang; Song, In Kyu; Shin, Yongwhan; Park, Sang-Youel; Seol, Jae-Won

    2017-10-01

    Early pregnancy is characterized by an increase in the blood volume of the uterus for embryonic development, thereby exerting fluid shear stress (FSS) on the vascular walls. The uterus experiences vascular remodeling to accommodate the increased blood flow. The blood flow‑induced FSS elevates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors, and regulates vascular remodeling through the activation of VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3). However, the mechanisms responsible for FSS-induced VEGFR-3 expression in the uterus during pregnancy are unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that vascular remodeling in the uterus during pregnancy is regulated by FSS-induced VEGFR-3 expression. We examined the association between VEGFR-3 and FSS through in vivo and in vitro experiments. In vivo experiments revealed VEGFR-3 expression in the CD31-positive region of the uterus of pregnant mice; VEGF-C (ligand for VEGFR‑3) was undetected in the uterus. These results confirmed that VEGFR-3 expression in the endometrium is independent of its ligand. In vitro studies experiments revealed that FSS induced morphological changes and increased VEGFR-3 expression in human uterine microvascular endothelial cells. Thus, VEGFR-3 activation by FSS is associated with vascular remodeling to allow increased blood flow in the uterus during pregnancy.

  4. KV7 channels contribute to paracrine, but not metabolic or ischemic, regulation of coronary vascular reactivity in swine

    PubMed Central

    Goodwill, Adam G.; Fu, Lijuan; Noblet, Jillian N.; Casalini, Eli D.; Berwick, Zachary C.; Kassab, Ghassan S.; Tune, Johnathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and voltage-dependent K+ (KV) channels play key roles in regulating coronary blood flow in response to metabolic, ischemic, and paracrine stimuli. The KV channels responsible have not been identified, but KV7 channels are possible candidates. Existing data regarding KV7 channel function in the coronary circulation (limited to ex vivo assessments) are mixed. Thus we examined the hypothesis that KV7 channels are present in cells of the coronary vascular wall and regulate vasodilation in swine. We performed a variety of molecular, biochemical, and functional (in vivo and ex vivo) studies. Coronary arteries expressed KCNQ genes (quantitative PCR) and KV7.4 protein (Western blot). Immunostaining demonstrated KV7.4 expression in conduit and resistance vessels, perhaps most prominently in the endothelial and adventitial layers. Flupirtine, a KV7 opener, relaxed coronary artery rings, and this was attenuated by linopirdine, a KV7 blocker. Endothelial denudation inhibited the flupirtine-induced and linopirdine-sensitive relaxation of coronary artery rings. Moreover, linopirdine diminished bradykinin-induced endothelial-dependent relaxation of coronary artery rings. There was no effect of intracoronary flupirtine or linopirdine on coronary blood flow at the resting heart rate in vivo. Linopirdine had no effect on coronary vasodilation in vivo elicited by ischemia, H2O2, or tachycardia. However, bradykinin increased coronary blood flow in vivo, and this was attenuated by linopirdine. These data indicate that KV7 channels are expressed in some coronary cell type(s) and influence endothelial function. Other physiological functions of coronary vascular KV7 channels remain unclear, but they do appear to contribute to endothelium-dependent responses to paracrine stimuli. PMID:26825518

  5. KV7 channels contribute to paracrine, but not metabolic or ischemic, regulation of coronary vascular reactivity in swine.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Adam G; Fu, Lijuan; Noblet, Jillian N; Casalini, Eli D; Sassoon, Daniel; Berwick, Zachary C; Kassab, Ghassan S; Tune, Johnathan D; Dick, Gregory M

    2016-03-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and voltage-dependent K(+) (KV) channels play key roles in regulating coronary blood flow in response to metabolic, ischemic, and paracrine stimuli. The KV channels responsible have not been identified, but KV7 channels are possible candidates. Existing data regarding KV7 channel function in the coronary circulation (limited to ex vivo assessments) are mixed. Thus we examined the hypothesis that KV7 channels are present in cells of the coronary vascular wall and regulate vasodilation in swine. We performed a variety of molecular, biochemical, and functional (in vivo and ex vivo) studies. Coronary arteries expressed KCNQ genes (quantitative PCR) and KV7.4 protein (Western blot). Immunostaining demonstrated KV7.4 expression in conduit and resistance vessels, perhaps most prominently in the endothelial and adventitial layers. Flupirtine, a KV7 opener, relaxed coronary artery rings, and this was attenuated by linopirdine, a KV7 blocker. Endothelial denudation inhibited the flupirtine-induced and linopirdine-sensitive relaxation of coronary artery rings. Moreover, linopirdine diminished bradykinin-induced endothelial-dependent relaxation of coronary artery rings. There was no effect of intracoronary flupirtine or linopirdine on coronary blood flow at the resting heart rate in vivo. Linopirdine had no effect on coronary vasodilation in vivo elicited by ischemia, H2O2, or tachycardia. However, bradykinin increased coronary blood flow in vivo, and this was attenuated by linopirdine. These data indicate that KV7 channels are expressed in some coronary cell type(s) and influence endothelial function. Other physiological functions of coronary vascular KV7 channels remain unclear, but they do appear to contribute to endothelium-dependent responses to paracrine stimuli. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. New perspectives on mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin, rapalogs and TORKinibs) in transplantation.

    PubMed

    Waldner, Matthias; Fantus, Daniel; Solari, Mario; Thomson, Angus W

    2016-11-01

    The macrolide rapamycin and its analogues (rapalogs) constitute the first generation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. Since the introduction of rapamycin as an immunosuppressant, there has been extensive progress in understanding its complex mechanisms of action. New insights into the function of mTOR in different immune cell types, vascular endothelial cells and neoplastic cells have opened new opportunities and challenges regarding mTOR as a pharmacological target. Currently, the two known mTOR complexes, mTOR complex (mTORC) 1 and mTORC2, are the subject of intense investigation, and the introduction of second-generation dual mTORC kinase inhibitors (TORKinibs) and gene knockout mice is helping to uncover the distinct roles of these complexes in different cell types. While the pharmacological profiling of rapalogs is advanced, much less is known about the properties of TORKinibs. A potential benefit of mTOR inhibition in transplantation is improved protection against transplant-associated viral infections compared with standard calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression. Preclinical and clinical data also underscore the potentially favourable antitumour effects of mTOR inhibitors in regard to transplant-associated malignancies and as a novel treatment option for various other cancers. Many aspects of the mechanisms of action of mTOR inhibitors and their clinical implications remain unknown. In this brief review we discuss new findings and perspectives of mTOR inhibitors in transplantation. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Regulation of vascular endothelial function by procyanidin-rich foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Caton, Paul W; Pothecary, Mark R; Lees, Delphine M; Khan, Noorafza Q; Wood, Elizabeth G; Shoji, Toshihiko; Kanda, Tomomasa; Rull, Gurvinder; Corder, Roger

    2010-04-14

    Flavonoid-rich diets are associated with a lower mortality from cardiovascular disease. This has been linked to improvements in endothelial function. However, the specific flavonoids, or biologically active metabolites, conferring these beneficial effects have yet to be fully defined. In this experimental study of the effect of flavonoids on endothelial function cultured endothelial cells have been used as a bioassay with endothelin-1 (ET-1) synthesis being measured an index of the response. Evaluation of the relative effects of extracts of cranberry juice compared to apple, cocoa, red wine, and green tea showed inhibition of ET-1 synthesis was dependent primarily on their oligomeric procyanidin content. Procyanidin-rich extracts of cranberry juice triggered morphological changes in endothelial cells with reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and increased immunostaining for phosphotyrosine residues. These actions were independent of antioxidant activity. Comparison of the effects of apple procyanidin monomers through heptamer showed a clear structure-activity relationship. Although monomer, dimer, and trimer had little effect on ET-1 synthesis, procyanidin tetramer, pentamer, hexamer, and heptamer produced concentration-dependent decreases with IC(50) values of 5.4, 1.6, 0.9, and 0.7 microM, respectively. Levels of ET-1 mRNA showed a similar pattern of decreases, which were inversely correlated with increased expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), a key endothelial transcription factor with a broad range of antiatherosclerotic actions including suppression of ET-1 synthesis. Future investigations of procyanidin-rich products should assess the role KLF2 induction plays in the beneficial vascular effects of high flavonoid consumption.

  8. Flowers regulate the growth and vascular development of the inflorescence rachis in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Gourieroux, Aude M; McCully, Margaret E; Holzapfel, Bruno P; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2016-11-01

    The rachis, the structural framework of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescence (and subsequent bunch), consists of a main axis and one or more orders of lateral branches with the flower-bearing pedicels at their fine tips. The rachis is crucial both for support, and transport from the shoot. Earlier suggestions that the flowers per se affect normal rachis development are investigated further in this study. Different percentages (0, 25, 50, 75 or 100) of flowers were removed manually one week before anthesis on field-grown vines. Treatment effects on subsequent rachis development (curvature, vitality, anatomy, starch deposit) were assessed. Sections, both fixed and embedded, and fresh hand-cut were observed by fluorescence and bright-field optics after appropriate staining. Emphasis was on measurement of changes in cross-sectional area of secondary xylem and phloem, and on maturation of fibres and periderm. Specific defects in rachis development were dependent on the percent and location of flower removal one week prior to anthesis. The rachises curved inwards where most of the flowers were removed. When fully de-flowered, they became progressively necrotic from the laterals back to the primary axes and from the distal to the proximal end of those axes, with a concurrent disorganisation of their anatomy. A few remaining groups of flowers prevented desiccation and abscission of the rachis axes proximal to the group, but not distally. Flower removal (50%) reduced rachis elongation, while 75% removal reduced xylem and phloem area and delayed phloem fibre and periderm development. 75% flower removal did not affect starch present in the rachis during berry development. Developing flowers affect the growth and vitality of the rachis and the development of its vascular and support structures. The extent of these effects depends on the cultivar and the number and position of flowers remaining after some are removed one week before anthesis. Copyright © 2016

  9. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Angiogenesis in the Regulation of Cutaneous Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kelly E.; Wilgus, Traci A.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from existing vessels, is an important aspect of the repair process. Restoration of blood flow to damaged tissues provides oxygen and nutrients required to support the growth and function of reparative cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most potent proangiogenic growth factors in the skin, and the amount of VEGF present in a wound can significantly impact healing. Recent Advances: The activity of VEGF was once considered to be specific for endothelial cells lining the inside of blood vessels, partly because VEGF receptor (VEGFR) expression was believed to be restricted to endothelial cells. It is now known, however, that VEGFRs can be expressed by a variety of other cell types involved in wound repair. For example, keratinocytes and macrophages, which both carry out important functions during wound healing, express VEGFRs and are capable of responding directly to VEGF. Critical Issues: The mechanisms by which VEGF promotes angiogenesis are well established. Recent studies, however, indicate that VEGF can directly affect the activity of several nonendothelial cell types present in the skin. The implications of these extra-angiogenic effects of VEGF on wound repair are not yet known, but they suggest that this growth factor may play a more complex role during wound healing than previously believed. Future Directions: Despite the large number of studies focusing on VEGF and wound healing, it is clear that the current knowledge of how VEGF contributes to the repair of skin wounds is incomplete. Further research is needed to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of VEGF activities during the wound healing process. PMID:25302139

  10. Gender differences in myogenic regulation along the vascular tree of the gerbil cochlea.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Katrin; Krishnamoorthy, Gayathri; Wier, Withrow Gil; Wangemann, Philine

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of cochlear blood flow is critical for hearing due to its exquisite sensitivity to ischemia and oxidative stress. Many forms of hearing loss such as sensorineural hearing loss and presbyacusis may involve or be aggravated by blood flow disorders. Animal experiments and clinical outcomes further suggest that there is a gender preference in hearing loss, with males being more susceptible. Autoregulation of cochlear blood flow has been demonstrated in some animal models in vivo, suggesting that similar to the brain, blood vessels supplying the cochlea have the ability to control flow within normal limits, despite variations in systemic blood pressure. Here, we investigated myogenic regulation in the cochlear blood supply of the Mongolian gerbil, a widely used animal model in hearing research. The cochlear blood supply originates at the basilar artery, followed by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, and inside the inner ear, by the spiral modiolar artery and the radiating arterioles that supply the capillary beds of the spiral ligament and stria vascularis. Arteries from male and female gerbils were isolated and pressurized using a concentric pipette system. Diameter changes in response to increasing luminal pressures were recorded by laser scanning microscopy. Our results show that cochlear vessels from male and female gerbils exhibit myogenic regulation but with important differences. Whereas in male gerbils, both spiral modiolar arteries and radiating arterioles exhibited pressure-dependent tone, in females, only radiating arterioles had this property. Male spiral modiolar arteries responded more to L-NNA than female spiral modiolar arteries, suggesting that NO-dependent mechanisms play a bigger role in the myogenic regulation of male than female gerbil cochlear vessels.

  11. Rapamycin Reverses Status Epilepticus-Induced Memory Deficits and Dendritic Damage

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Amy L.; Lugo, Joaquin N.; Patil, Vinit V.; Lee, Wai L.; Qian, Yan; Vanegas, Fabiola; Anderson, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are prominent sequelae of prolonged continuous seizures (status epilepticus; SE) in humans and animal models. While often associated with dendritic injury, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is hyperactivated following SE. This pathway modulates learning and memory and is associated with regulation of neuronal, dendritic, and glial properties. Thus, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that SE-induced mTORC1 hyperactivation is a candidate mechanism underlying cognitive deficits and dendritic pathology seen following SE. We examined the effects of rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, on the early hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory deficits associated with an episode of pilocarpine-induced SE. Rapamycin-treated SE rats performed significantly better than the vehicle-treated rats in two spatial memory tasks, the Morris water maze and the novel object recognition test. At the molecular level, we found that the SE-induced increase in mTORC1 signaling was localized in neurons and microglia. Rapamycin decreased the SE-induced mTOR activation and attenuated microgliosis which was mostly localized within the CA1 area. These findings paralleled a reversal of the SE-induced decreases in dendritic Map2 and ion channels levels as well as improved dendritic branching and spine density in area CA1 following rapamycin treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that mTORC1 hyperactivity contributes to early hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory deficits and dendritic dysregulation associated with SE. PMID:23536771

  12. Rapamycin Promotes the Survival and Adipogenesis of Ischemia-Challenged Adipose Derived Stem Cells by Improving Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Li, Chichi; Ye, Lechi; Yang, Li; Yu, Xiaofang; He, Yucang; Chen, Zhuojie; Li, Liqun; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia is one of the main causes of the high rate of absorption of transplanted autologous fat. Autophagy allows cells to survive by providing energy under starvation. Rapamycin has been found to play a role in promoting autophagy. In this study, we investigated whether rapamycin participates in the survival and adipogenesis of ischemia-challenged adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) by regulating autophagy. Before the cells were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), a simulated ischemic microenvironment, the level of autophagy was reduced or increased by lentiviral transfection with short hairpin RNA targeting microtubule-associated protein 1-light chain 3 gene (shRNA-LC3) or treatment with rapamycin, respectively. The level of autophagy was assessed by western blotting, transmission electron microscopythen the apoptosis ratio was determined through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and flow cytometry. Adipogenesis was further evaluated by oil red O staining and the expressions level of some specific proteins for adipocytes. shRNA-LC3 and rapamycin treatment effectively decreased and improved the level of autophagy in cells with or without OGD challenge, respectively. In addition, autophagy inhibition increased the apoptosis rate and activated caspase-3 expression level in response to OGD, and these were markedly inhibited by rapamycin preconditioning. During adipogenesis, autophagy inhibition decreased not only oil droplet accumulation but also lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression in cells with or without OGD challenge. However, autophagy promotion by rapamycin increased oil droplet accumulation and LPL and PPARγ expression. Rapamycin may promote the survival and adipogenesis of ischemia-challenged ADSCs by upregulating autophagy. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Hepatic signaling by the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2)

    PubMed Central

    Lamming, Dudley W.; Demirkan, Gokhan; Boylan, Joan M.; Mihaylova, Maria M.; Peng, Tao; Ferreira, Jonathan; Neretti, Nicola; Salomon, Arthur; Sabatini, David M.; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) exists in two complexes that regulate diverse cellular processes. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), the canonical target of rapamycin, has been well studied, whereas the physiological role of mTORC2 remains relatively uncharacterized. In mice in which the mTORC2 component Rictor is deleted in liver [Rictor-knockout (RKO) mice], we used genomic and phosphoproteomic analyses to characterize the role of hepatic mTORC2 in vivo. Overnight food withdrawal followed by refeeding was used to activate mTOR signaling. Rapamycin was administered before refeeding to specify mTORC2-mediated events. Hepatic mTORC2 regulated a complex gene expression and post-translational network that affects intermediary metabolism, ribosomal biogenesis, and proteasomal biogenesis. Nearly all changes in genes related to intermediary metabolic regulation were replicated in cultured fetal hepatocytes, indicating a cell-autonomous effect of mTORC2 signaling. Phosphoproteomic profiling identified mTORC2-related signaling to 144 proteins, among which were metabolic enzymes and regulators. A reduction of p38 MAPK signaling in the RKO mice represents a link between our phosphoproteomic and gene expression results. We conclude that hepatic mTORC2 exerts a broad spectrum of biological effects under physiological conditions. Our findings provide a context for the development of targeted therapies to modulate mTORC2 signaling.—Lamming, D. W., Demirkan, G., Boylan, J. M., Mihaylova, M. M., Peng, T., Ferreira, J., Neretti, N., Salomon, A., Sabatini, D. M., Gruppuso, P. A. Hepatic signaling by the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2). PMID:24072782

  14. Malignant Pleural Effusion and ascites Induce Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem-like Cell Properties via the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Akt/Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Tao; Wang, Guoping; He, Sisi; Shen, Guobo; Su, Chao; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Xiawei; Ye, Tinghong; Li, Ling; Yang, Shengyong; Li, Dan; Guo, Fuchun; Mo, Zeming; Wan, Yang; Ai, Ping; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Liu, Yantong; Wang, Yongsheng; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (PE) and ascites, common clinical manifestations in advanced cancer patients, are associated with a poor prognosis. However, the biological characteristics of malignant PE and ascites are not clarified. Here we report that malignant PE and ascites can induce a frequent epithelial-mesenchymal transition program and endow tumor cells with stem cell properties with high efficiency, which promotes tumor growth, chemoresistance, and immune evasion. We determine that this epithelial-mesenchymal transition process is mainly dependent on VEGF, one initiator of the PI3K/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. From the clinical observation, we define a therapeutic option with VEGF antibody for malignant PE and ascites. Taken together, our findings clarify a novel biological characteristic of malignant PE and ascites in cancer progression and provide a promising and available strategy for cancer patients with recurrent/refractory malignant PE and ascites. PMID:27756837

  15. Estrogen and testosterone in concert with EFNB3 regulate vascular smooth muscle cell contractility and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujia; Wu, Zenghui; Thorin, Eric; Tremblay, Johanne; Lavoie, Julie L; Luo, Hongyu; Peng, Junzheng; Qi, Shijie; Wu, Tao; Chen, Fei; Shen, Jianzhong; Hu, Shenjiang; Wu, Jiangping

    2016-04-01

    EPH kinases and their ligands, ephrins (EFNs), have vital and diverse biological functions, although their function in blood pressure (BP) control has not been studied in detail. In the present study, we report that Efnb3 gene knockout (KO) led to increased BP in female but not male mice. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were target cells for EFNB3 function in BP regulation. The deletion of EFNB3 augmented contractility of VSMCs from female but not male KO mice, compared with their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Estrogen augmented VSMC contractility while testosterone reduced it in the absence of EFNB3, although these sex hormones had no effect on the contractility of VSMCs from WT mice. The effect of estrogen on KO VSMC contractility was via a nongenomic pathway involving GPER, while that of testosterone was likely via a genomic pathway, according to VSMC contractility assays and GPER knockdown assays. The sex hormone-dependent contraction phenotypes in KO VSMCs were reflected in BP in vivo. Ovariectomy rendered female KO mice normotensive. At the molecular level, EFNB3 KO in VSMCs resulted in reduced myosin light chain kinase phosphorylation, an event enhancing sensitivity to Ca(2+)flux in VSMCs. Our investigation has revealed previously unknown EFNB3 functions in BP regulation and show that EFNB3 might be a hypertension risk gene in certain individuals. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Preventive and therapeutic effects of rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, on food allergy in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, K; Yoshino, S

    2012-10-01

    Because few curative treatments are available for food allergy, we investigated the therapeutic potential of rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, on mouse food allergy. The preventive and therapeutic effects of oral rapamycin on anaphylactic symptoms induced by oral ovalbumin (OVA) challenge in food allergy mice were investigated. Mast cell functions in response to rapamycin were also measured in the passive systemic anaphylaxis model and bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Daily rapamycin from the first challenge (preventive protocol) attenuated food allergy symptoms including diarrhea, anaphylactic reactions, and hypothermia in mice. The treatment decreased the challenge-induced increases in mouse mast cell protease-1 in serum and mast cell numbers in the intestine. Notably, the mice that already showed food allergy symptoms by previous challenges recovered from the disease with daily administration of rapamycin (therapeutic protocol). Anti-OVA IgG1 and IgE levels in serum, as well as IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13, IL-9, IL-10, and IL-17 secretion from splenocytes, were decreased by the treatments. In contrast, a single dose of rapamycin failed to affect passive systemic anaphylaxis. Spontaneous and IL-9-dependent survival and IgE-induced IL-13 secretion, but not degranulation, of BMMCs were reduced by rapamycin. Our data show that mouse food allergy was attenuated by rapamycin through an immunosuppressive effect and inhibition of intestinal mast cell hyperplasia. Inhibition of the IL-9 production-mast cell survival axis is one of the mechanisms of the therapeutic effect of rapamycin. Rapamycin and other mTOR inhibitors might be good candidates for therapeutic drugs for food allergy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibition With Rapamycin Mitigates Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eun Joo; Sowers, Anastasia; Thetford, Angela; McKay-Corkum, Grace; Chung, Su I; Mitchell, James B; Citrin, Deborah E

    2016-11-15

    Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIPF) is a late toxicity of therapeutic radiation. Signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin drives several processes implicated in RIPF, including inflammatory cytokine production, fibroblast proliferation, and epithelial senescence. We sought to determine if mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition with rapamycin would mitigate RIPF. C57BL/6NCr mice received a diet formulated with rapamycin (14 mg/kg food) or a control diet 2 days before and continuing for 16 weeks after exposure to 5 daily fractions of 6 Gy of thoracic irradiation. Fibrosis was assessed with Masson trichrome staining and hydroxyproline assay. Cytokine expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Senescence was assessed by staining for β-galactosidase activity. Administration of rapamycin extended the median survival of irradiated mice compared with the control diet from 116 days to 156 days (P=.006, log-rank test). Treatment with rapamycin reduced hydroxyproline content compared with the control diet (irradiation plus vehicle, 45.9 ± 11.8 μg per lung; irradiation plus rapamycin, 21.4 ± 6.0 μg per lung; P=.001) and reduced visible fibrotic foci. Rapamycin treatment attenuated interleukin 1β and transforming growth factor β induction in irradiated lungs compared with the control diet. Type II pneumocyte senescence after irradiation was reduced with rapamycin treatment at 16 weeks (3-fold reduction at 16 weeks, P<.001). Rapamycin protected against RIPF in a murine model. Rapamycin treatment reduced inflammatory cytokine expression, extracellular matrix production, and senescence in type II pneumocytes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The rapamycin-binding domain of the protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin is a destabilizing domain.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sarah R; Wandless, Thomas J

    2007-05-04

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug that binds simultaneously to the 12-kDa FK506- and rapamycin-binding protein (FKBP12, or FKBP) and the FKBP-rapamycin binding (FRB) domain of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase. The resulting ternary complex has been used to conditionally perturb protein function, and one such method involves perturbation of a protein of interest through its mislocalization. We synthesized two rapamycin derivatives that possess large substituents at the C-16 position within the FRB-binding interface, and these derivatives were screened against a library of FRB mutants using a three-hybrid assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several FRB mutants responded to one of the rapamycin derivatives, and twenty of these mutants were further characterized in mammalian cells. The mutants most responsive to the ligand were fused to yellow fluorescent protein, and fluorescence levels in the presence and absence of the ligand were measured to determine stability of the fusion proteins. Wild-type and mutant FRB domains were expressed at low levels in the absence of the rapamycin derivative, and expression levels rose up to 10-fold upon treatment with ligand. The synthetic rapamycin derivatives were further analyzed using quantitative mass spectrometry, and one of the compounds was found to contain contaminating rapamycin. Furthermore, uncontaminated analogs retained the ability to inhibit mTOR, although with diminished potency relative to rapamycin. The ligand-dependent stability displayed by wild-type FRB and FRB mutants as well as the inhibitory potential and purity of the rapamycin derivatives should be considered as potentially confounding experimental variables when using these systems.

  19. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibition With Rapamycin Mitigates Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in a Murine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eun Joo; Sowers, Anastasia; Thetford, Angela

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIPF) is a late toxicity of therapeutic radiation. Signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin drives several processes implicated in RIPF, including inflammatory cytokine production, fibroblast proliferation, and epithelial senescence. We sought to determine if mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition with rapamycin would mitigate RIPF. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6NCr mice received a diet formulated with rapamycin (14 mg/kg food) or a control diet 2 days before and continuing for 16 weeks after exposure to 5 daily fractions of 6 Gy of thoracic irradiation. Fibrosis was assessed with Masson trichrome staining and hydroxyproline assay. Cytokine expression was evaluated by quantitative real-timemore » polymerase chain reaction. Senescence was assessed by staining for β-galactosidase activity. Results: Administration of rapamycin extended the median survival of irradiated mice compared with the control diet from 116 days to 156 days (P=.006, log-rank test). Treatment with rapamycin reduced hydroxyproline content compared with the control diet (irradiation plus vehicle, 45.9 ± 11.8 μg per lung; irradiation plus rapamycin, 21.4 ± 6.0 μg per lung; P=.001) and reduced visible fibrotic foci. Rapamycin treatment attenuated interleukin 1β and transforming growth factor β induction in irradiated lungs compared with the control diet. Type II pneumocyte senescence after irradiation was reduced with rapamycin treatment at 16 weeks (3-fold reduction at 16 weeks, P<.001). Conclusions: Rapamycin protected against RIPF in a murine model. Rapamycin treatment reduced inflammatory cytokine expression, extracellular matrix production, and senescence in type II pneumocytes.« less

  20. Aging impairs transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in human microvascular endothelial cells: implications for angiogenesis and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, A; Jones, M K; Szabo, S; Tarnawski, A S

    2014-04-01

    In some tissues, aging impairs angiogenesis and reduces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF), a fundamental regulator of angiogenesis. We previously examined angiogenesis in aging and young gastric mucosa in vivo and in vitro and showed that an imbalance between expressions of VEGF (pro-angiogenic factor) and endostatin (anti-angiogenic protein) results in an aging-related impairment of angiogenesis in rats. However, the human relevance of these findings, and whether these mechanisms apply to endothelial cells derived from other tissues, is not clear. Since P-STAT3 and P-CREB are transcription factors that, in association with HIF-1α, can activate VEGF gene expression in some cells (e.g., liver cancer cells, vascular smooth muscle cells), we examined the expression of these two proteins in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) derived from aging and neonatal individuals. We examined and quantified in vitro angiogenesis, expression of VEGF, P-STAT3, P-CREB and importin-α in HMVECs isolated from neonates (neonatal) and a 66 year old subject (aging). We also examined the effects of treatment with exogenous VEGF and endostatin on in vitro angiogenesis in these cells. Endothelial cells isolated from aging individuals had impaired angiogenesis (vs. neonatal endothelial cells) and reduced expression of VEGF mRNA and protein. Aged HMVECs also had reduced importin-α expression, and reduced expression and nuclear translocation of P-STAT3 and P-CREB. Reduced VEGF gene expression in aged HMVECs strongly correlated with the decreased levels of P-STAT3, P-CREB and importin-α in these cells. Our study clearly demonstrates that endothelial cells from aging individuals have impaired angiogenesis and reduced expression of VEGF likely due to impaired nuclear transport of P-STAT3 and P-CREB transcription factors in these cells.

  1. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; P<0.05) at all examined time points (2 to 24 hours). mRNA half-life studies showed that this response was not due to increased mRNA instability. tPA mRNA expression was decreased (to 10% of stationary control; P<0.05) by low shear stress after 12 hours of exposure and was increased (to 250% of stationary control; P<0.05) after 24 hours at high shear stress. The same trends in PAR-1 mRNA levels were observed in rat smooth muscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  2. Rapamycin and rapalogs for tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Sasongko, Teguh H; Ismail, Nur Farrah Dila; Zabidi-Hussin, Zamh

    2016-07-13

    Previous studies have shown potential benefits of rapamycin or rapalogs for treating people with tuberous sclerosis complex. Although everolimus (a rapalog) is currently approved by the FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) and the EMA (European Medicines Agency) for tuberous sclerosis complex-associated renal angiomyolipoma and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, applications for other manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex have not yet been established. A systematic review is necessary to establish the clinical value of rapamycin or rapalogs for various manifestations in tuberous sclerosis complex. To determine the effectiveness of rapamycin or rapalogs in people with tuberous sclerosis complex for decreasing tumour size and other manifestations and to assess the safety of rapamycin or rapalogs in relation to their adverse effects. Relevant studies were identified by authors from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, and clinicaltrials.gov. Relevant resources were also searched by the authors, such as conference proceedings and abstract books of conferences, from e.g. the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex International Research Conferences, other tuberous sclerosis complex-related conferences and the Human Genome Meeting. We did not restrict the searches by language as long as English translations were available for non-English reports.Date of the last searches: 14 March 2016. Randomized or quasi-randomized studies of rapamycin or rapalogs in people with tuberous sclerosis complex. Data were independently extracted by two authors using standard acquisition forms. The data collection was verified by one author. The risk of bias of each study was independently assessed by two authors and verified by one author. Three placebo-controlled studies with a total of 263 participants (age range 0.8 to 61 years old, 122 males and 141 females, with variable lengths of study duration) were included in the review. We found high

  3. Negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome by SIRT1 in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxiang; Yang, Xiaofeng; He, Yanhao; Wang, Weirong; Zhang, Jiye; Zhang, Wei; Jing, Ting; Wang, Bo; Lin, Rong

    2017-03-01

    NLRP3 inflammasome not only functions as a critical effector in innate immunity, but also triggers the production of proinflammatory cytokines involved in inflammation-associated diseases. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) plays an important role in the regulation of cellular inflammation. However, whether the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is regulated by SIRT1 remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effect of SIRT1 on NLRP3 inflammasome and the underlying mechanisms. We found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Activation of SIRT1 inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and subsequent caspase-1 cleavage as well as interleukin (IL)-1β secretion, whereas SIRT1 knockdown obviously enhanced the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in HUVECs. Importantly, gene silencing of SIRT1 abrogated the inhibitory effect of SIRT1 activator on NLRP3 inflammasome formation and IL-1β production in HUVECs stimulated with LPS plus ATP. Further study indicated that cluster of differentiation 40 (CD40) may be involved in the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome by SIRT1. In vivo studies indicated that implantation of the periarterial carotid collar increased the arterial expression levels of CD40 and CD40 Ligand (CD40L), but inhibited arterial SIRT1 expression in the rabbits. Moreover, treatment with SIRT1 activator decreased CD40 and CD40L levels in collared arteries. Meanwhile, serum IL-1β level, the marker of inflammasome activation, was also inhibited by SIRT1 activation. Taken together, these findings revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome by SIRT1, which may be related to suppression of CD40. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Rasip1 regulates vertebrate vascular endothelial junction stability through Epac1-Rap1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Christopher W.; Parker, Leon H.; Hall, Christopher J.; Smyczek, Tanya; Mak, Judy; Crow, Ailey; Posthuma, George; De Mazière, Ann; Sagolla, Meredith; Chalouni, Cecile; Vitorino, Philip; Roose-Girma, Merone; Warming, Søren; Klumperman, Judith; Crosier, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Establishment and stabilization of endothelial tubes with patent lumens is vital during vertebrate development. Ras-interacting protein 1 (RASIP1) has been described as an essential regulator of de novo lumenogenesis through modulation of endothelial cell (EC) adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here, we show that in mouse and zebrafish embryos, Rasip1-deficient vessels transition from an angioblast cord to a hollow tube, permit circulation of primitive erythrocytes, but ultimately collapse, leading to hemorrhage and embryonic lethality. Knockdown of RASIP1 does not alter EC-ECM adhesion, but causes cell-cell detachment and increases permeability of EC monolayers in vitro. We also found that endogenous RASIP1 in ECs binds Ras-related protein 1 (RAP1), but not Ras homolog gene family member A or cell division control protein 42 homolog. Using an exchange protein directly activated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate 1 (EPAC1)-RAP1–dependent model of nascent junction formation, we demonstrate that a fraction of the RASIP1 protein pool localizes to cell-cell contacts. Loss of RASIP1 phenocopies loss of RAP1 or EPAC1 in ECs by altering junctional actin organization, localization of the actin-bundling protein nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIB, and junction remodeling. Our data show that RASIP1 regulates the integrity of newly formed blood vessels as an effector of EPAC1-RAP1 signaling. PMID:23886837

  5. The urokinase plasminogen activator system components are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor D in bovine oviduct.

    PubMed

    García, Daniela C; Russo-Maenza, Agostina; Miceli, Dora C; Valdecantos, Pablo A; Roldán-Olarte, Mariela

    2018-06-08

    SummaryThe mammalian oviduct plays a pivotal role in the success of early reproductive events. The urokinase plasminogen activator system (uPAS) is present in the bovine oviduct and is involved in extracellular matrix remodelling through plasmin generation. This system can be regulated by several members of the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and their receptors. In this study, the VEGF-D effect on the regulation of uPAS was evaluated. First, RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were used to evidence the expression of VEGF-D and its receptors in oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC). VEGF-D, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 transcripts were found in ex vivo and in vitro BOEC, while only VEGFR2 mRNA was present after in vitro conditions. VEGF-D showed a regulatory effect on uPAS gene expression in a dose-dependent manner, inducing an increase in the expression of both uPA and its receptor (uPAR) at 24 h post-induction and decreases in the expression of its inhibitor (PAI-1). In addition, the regulation of cell migration induced by VEGF-D and uPA in BOEC monolayer cultures was analyzed. The wound areas of monolayer cultures incubated with VEGF-D 10 ng/ml or uPA 10 nM were modified and significant differences were found at 24 h for both stimulations. These results indicated that uPAS and VEGF-D systems can modify the arrangement of the bovine oviductal epithelium and contribute to the correct maintenance of the oviductal microenvironment.

  6. Microparticulate Caspase-1 Regulates Gasdermin-D and Pulmonary Vascular Endothelial Cell Injury.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Srabani; Exline, Matthew; Habyarimana, Fabien; Gavrilin, Mikhail; Baker, Paul; Masters, Seth L; Wewers, Mark D; Sarkar, Anasuya

    2018-01-24

    Lung endothelial cell apoptosis and injury occurs throughout all stages of acute lung injury (ALI/ARDS) and impacts disease progression. Caspases 1, 4 and 5 are essential for completion of the apoptotic program known as pyroptosis that also involves pro-inflammatory cytokines. Because GSDM-D mediates pyroptotic death and is essential for pore formation, we hypothesized that it may direct caspase-1 encapsulated microparticle (MP) release and mediate endothelial cell death. Our current work provides evidence that GSDM-D is released by LPS stimulated THP1 monocytic cells where it is packaged into microparticles along with active caspase-1. Furthermore, only MP released from stimulated monocytic cells that contain both cleaved GSDM-D and active caspase-1 induce endothelial cell apoptosis. MPs pretreated with caspase-1 inhibitor, YVAD, or pan-caspase inhibitor, ZVAD, do not contain cleaved GSDM-D. MPs from caspase-1KO cells are also deficient in p30 active GSDM-D, further confirming that caspase-1 regulates GSDM-D function. Although control MPs contained cleaved GSDM-D without caspase-1, these fractions were unable to induce cell death, suggesting that encapsulation of both caspase-1 and GSDM-D is essential for cell death induction. Release of microparticulate active caspase-1 was abrogated in GSDM-KO cells, although cytosolic caspase-1 activation was not impaired. Lastly, higher levels of microparticulate GSDM-D was detected in septic ARDS patient plasma when compared to healthy donors. Taken together, these findings suggest that GSDM-D regulates the release of microparticulate active caspase-1 from monocytes essential for induction of cell death and thereby may play a critical role in sepsis-induced endothelial cell injury.

  7. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 negatively regulates interleukin-1α-induced stromal-derived factor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Li, Wei; Zheng, Qichang

    Stromal-derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to vascular repair and remodeling in various vascular diseases. In this study, the mechanism underlying regulation of SDF-1 expression by interleukin-1α (IL-1α) was investigated in primary rat VSMCs. We found IL-1α promotes SDF-1 expression by up-regulating CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in an IκB kinase β (IKKβ) signaling-dependent manner. Moreover, IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 was significantly potentiated by knockdown of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream activator of IKKβ signaling. In addition, we also demonstrated that TAK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling exerted negativemore » effect on IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 through counteracting ROS-dependent up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In conclusion, TAK1 acts as an important regulator of IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression in VSMCs, and modulating activity of TAK1 may serve as a potential strategy for modulating vascular repair and remodeling. - Highlights: • IL-1α induces IKKβ signaling-dependent SDF-1 expression by up-regulating C/EBPβ. • Activation of TAK1 by IL-1α negatively regulates C/EBPβ-dependent SDF-1 expression. • IL-1α-induced TAK1/p38 MAPK signaling counteracts ROS-dependent SDF-1 expression. • TAK1 counteracts IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression by attenuating NRF2 up-regulation.« less

  8. Activation of mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Perl, Andras

    2016-03-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR, also known as mammalian target of rapamycin) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase that regulates cell growth, proliferation and survival. These effects are cell-type-specific, and are elicited in response to stimulation by growth factors, hormones and cytokines, as well as to internal and external metabolic cues. Rapamycin was initially developed as an inhibitor of T-cell proliferation and allograft rejection in the organ transplant setting. Subsequently, its molecular target (mTOR) was identified as a component of two interacting complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, that regulate T-cell lineage specification and macrophage differentiation. mTORC1 drives the proinflammatory expansion of T helper (TH) type 1, TH17, and CD4(-)CD8(-) (double-negative, DN) T cells. Both mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibit the development of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory (TREG) cells and, indirectly, mTORC2 favours the expansion of T follicular helper (TFH) cells which, similarly to DN T cells, promote B-cell activation and autoantibody production. In contrast to this proinflammatory effect of mTORC2, mTORC1 favours, to some extent, an anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization that is protective against infections and tissue inflammation. Outside the immune system, mTORC1 controls fibroblast proliferation and chondrocyte survival, with implications for tissue fibrosis and osteoarthritis, respectively. Rapamycin (which primarily inhibits mTORC1), ATP-competitive, dual mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitors and upstream regulators of the mTOR pathway are being developed to treat autoimmune, hyperproliferative and degenerative diseases. In this regard, mTOR blockade promises to increase life expectancy through treatment and prevention of rheumatic diseases.

  9. A biphasic endothelial stress-survival mechanism regulates the cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor A

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, Antony M.; Odell, Adam F.; Mughal, Nadeem A.

    2012-11-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is an essential cytokine that regulates endothelial function and angiogenesis. VEGF-A binding to endothelial receptor tyrosine kinases such as VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 triggers cellular responses including survival, proliferation and new blood vessel sprouting. Increased levels of a soluble VEGFR1 splice variant (sFlt-1) correlate with endothelial dysfunction in pathologies such as pre-eclampsia; however the cellular mechanism(s) underlying the regulation and function of sFlt-1 are unclear. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a biphasic stress response in endothelial cells, using serum deprivation as a model of endothelial dysfunction. The early phase is characterized by a highmore » VEGFR2:sFlt-1 ratio, which is reversed in the late phase. A functional consequence is a short-term increase in VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling. In the late phase, sFlt-1 is secreted and deposited at the extracellular matrix. We hypothesized that under stress, increased endothelial sFlt-1 levels reduce VEGF-A bioavailability: VEGF-A treatment induces sFlt-1 expression at the cell surface and VEGF-A silencing inhibits sFlt-1 anchorage to the extracellular matrix. Treatment with recombinant sFlt-1 inhibits VEGF-A-stimulated in vitro angiogenesis and sFlt-1 silencing enhances this process. In this response, increased VEGFR2 levels are regulated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and PKB/Akt signaling pathways and increased sFlt-1 levels by the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. We conclude that during serum withdrawal, cellular sensing of environmental stress modulates sFlt-1 and VEGFR2 levels, regulating VEGF-A bioavailability and ensuring cell survival takes precedence over cell proliferation and migration. These findings may underpin an important mechanism contributing to endothelial dysfunction in pathological states. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cells mount a stress response under conditions of low serum. Black

  10. Angiotensin-(1-7) regulates Angiotensin II-induced VCAM-1 expression on vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London; Ren, Jingyi

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We for the first time found that Ang-(1-7) inhibits Ang II-induced VCAM-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7) on VCAM-1 is mediated by MAS receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Ang-(1-7) is due to the suppression of NF-kappaB translocation. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) are key effector peptides in the renin-angiotensin system. Increased circulatory Ang II level is associated with the development of hypertension and atherosclerosis, whereas Ang-(1-7) is a counter-regulatory mediator of Ang II which appears to be protective against cardiovascular disease. However, whether Ang-(1-7) regulates the action of Ang II on vascularmore » endothelial cells (EC) remains unclear. We investigated the effects of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) in the context of atherogenesis, specifically endothelial cell VCAM-1 expression that is implicated in early plaque formation. The results show that Ang II increased VCAM-1 mRNA expression and protein displayed on EC surface, while Ang-(1-7) alone exerted no effects. However, Ang-(1-7) significantly suppressed Ang II-induced VCAM-1 expression. Ang-(1-7) also inhibited the Ang II-induced VCAM-1 promoter activity driven by transcription factor NF-KappaB. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assay and ELISA showed that Ang II facilitated the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in ECs, and this was attenuated by the presence of Ang-(1-7). The inhibitory effects of Ang-(1-7) on Ang II-induced VCAM-1 promoter activity and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were all reversed by the competitive antagonist of Ang-(1-7) at the Mas receptor. Our results suggest that Ang-(1-7) mediates its affects on ECs through the Mas receptor, and negatively regulates Ang II-induced VCAM-1 expression by attenuating nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB.« less

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is a regulator of vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Gupte, Rakhee S; Ata, Hirotaka; Rawat, Dhawjbahadur; Abe, Madoka; Taylor, Mark S; Ochi, Rikuo; Gupte, Sachin A

    2011-02-15

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway and a major source of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH), which regulates numerous enzymatic (including glutathione reductase and NADPH oxidase that, respectively, generates reduced glutathione and reactive oxygen species) reactions involved in various cellular actions, yet its physiological function is seldom investigated. We, however, recently showed that inhibiting G6PD causes precontracted coronary artery (CA) to relax in an endothelium-derived relaxing factor- and second messenger-independent manner. Here we assessed the role of G6PD in regulating CA contractility. Treating bovine CAs for 20 min with potassium chloride (KCl; 30 mM), amphotericin B (50 μM), or U46619 (100 nM) significantly (p < 0.05) increased both G6PD activity and glucose flux through the pentose phosphate pathway. The effect was Ca(2+) independent, and there was a corresponding increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Activation of G6PD by KCl was blocked by the PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin (10 μM) or by knocking down PKCδ expression using siRNA. Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (10 μM), a PKC activator, significantly increased G6PD phosphorylation and activity, whereas single (S210A, T266A) and double (S210A/T266A) mutations at sites flanking the G6PD active site significantly inhibited phosphorylation, shifted the isoelectric point, and reduced enzyme activity. Knocking down G6PD decreased NADPH and reactive oxygen species generation, and reduced KCl-evoked increases in [Ca(2+)](i) and myosin light chain phosphorylation, thereby reducing CA contractility. Similarly, aortas from G6PD-deficient mice developed less KCl/phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate-evoked force than those from their wild-type littermates. Conversely, overexpression of G6PD augmented KCl-evoked increases in [Ca(2+)](i), thereby augmenting CA contraction. Our findings demonstrate that G6PD activity and NADPH

  12. Rapamycin targeting mTOR and hedgehog signaling pathways blocks human rhabdomyosarcoma growth in xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Kaylani, Samer Z.; Xu, Jianmin; Srivastava, Ritesh K.

    Graphical abstract: Intervention of poorly differentiated RMS by rapamycin: In poorly differentiated RMS, rapamycin blocks mTOR and Hh signaling pathways concomitantly. This leads to dampening in cell cycle regulation and induction of apoptosis. This study provides a rationale for the therapeutic intervention of poorly differentiated RMS by treating patients with rapamycin alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. -- Highlights: •Rapamycin abrogates RMS tumor growth by modulating proliferation and apoptosis. •Co-targeting mTOR/Hh pathways underlie the molecular basis of effectiveness. •Reduction in mTOR/Hh pathways diminish EMT leading to reduced invasiveness. -- Abstract: Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) represent the most common childhood soft-tissuemore » sarcoma. Over the past few decades outcomes for low and intermediate risk RMS patients have slowly improved while patients with metastatic or relapsed RMS still face a grim prognosis. New chemotherapeutic agents or combinations of chemotherapies have largely failed to improve the outcome. Based on the identification of novel molecular targets, potential therapeutic approaches in RMS may offer a decreased reliance on conventional chemotherapy. Thus, identification of effective therapeutic agents that specifically target relevant pathways may be particularly beneficial for patients with metastatic and refractory RMS. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway has been found to be a potentially attractive target in RMS therapy. In this study, we provide evidence that rapamycin (sirolimus) abrogates growth of RMS development in a RMS xenograft mouse model. As compared to a vehicle-treated control group, more than 95% inhibition in tumor growth was observed in mice receiving parenteral administration of rapamycin. The residual tumors in rapamycin-treated group showed significant reduction in the expression of biomarkers indicative of proliferation and tumor invasiveness. These tumors also showed enhanced apoptosis

  13. mTOR and vascular remodeling in lung diseases: current challenges and therapeutic prospects.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Elena A

    2013-05-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major regulator of cellular metabolism, proliferation, and survival that is implicated in various proliferative and metabolic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, hamartoma syndromes, and cancer. Emerging evidence suggests a potential critical role of mTOR signaling in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Remodeling of small pulmonary arteries due to increased proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and altered metabolism of cells forming the pulmonary vascular wall is a key currently irreversible pathological feature of pulmonary hypertension, a progressive pulmonary vascular disorder with high morbidity and mortality. In addition to rare familial and idiopathic forms, pulmonary hypertension is also a life-threatening complication of several lung diseases associated with hypoxia. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge and recent advances in understanding the role of the mTOR pathway in pulmonary vascular remodeling, with a specific focus on the hypoxia component, a confirmed shared trigger of pulmonary hypertension in lung diseases. We also discuss the emerging role of mTOR as a promising therapeutic target and mTOR inhibitors as potential pharmacological approaches to treat pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension.

  14. Selective Expression of an Endogenous Inhibitor of FAK Regulates Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Joan M.; Mack, Christopher P.; Nolan, Kate; Regan, Christopher P.; Owens, Gary K.; Parsons, J. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Extracellular matrix signaling via integrin receptors is important for smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation during vasculogenesis and for phenotypic modulation of SMCs during atherosclerosis. We previously reported that the noncatalytic carboxyl-terminal protein binding domain of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is expressed as a separate protein termed FAK-related nonkinase (FRNK) and that ectopic expression of FRNK can attenuate FAK activity and integrin-dependent signaling (A. Richardson and J. T. Parsons, Nature 380:538–540, 1996). Herein we report that in contrast to FAK, which is expressed ubiquitously, FRNK is expressed selectively in SMCs, with particularly high levels observed in conduit blood vessels. FRNK expression was low during embryonic development, was significantly upregulated in the postnatal period, and returned to low but detectable levels in adult tissues. FRNK expression was also dramatically upregulated following balloon-induced carotid artery injury. In cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells, overexpression of FRNK attenuated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced migration and also dramatically inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation upon stimulation with PDGF-BB or 10% serum. These effects were concomitant with a reduction in SMC proliferation. Taken together, these data indicate that FRNK acts as an endogenous inhibitor of FAK signaling in SMCs. Furthermore, increased FRNK expression following vascular injury or during development may alter the SMC phenotype by negatively regulating proliferative and migratory signals. PMID:11238893

  15. Cleaved high molecular weight kininogen, a novel factor in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Vosgerau, Uwe; Lauer, Diljara; Unger, Thomas; Kaschina, Elena

    2010-01-15

    We previously reported that Brown Norway Katholiek rats, which feature a deficiency of plasma kininogens, develop severe abdominal aortic aneurysm. Increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the aortic wall, leading to degradation of extracellular matrix components, is considered to play a crucial role in aneurysm formation. Using an in vitro model of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), cultured from the rat aorta, we investigated whether the cleaved form of high molecular weight kininogen, designated HKa, affects the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-2 and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Treatment of VSMCs with HKa reduced in a concentration-dependent manner IL-1alpha-induced release of MMP-9 and MMP-2, associated with decreased MMP enzymatic activity levels in conditioned media, as demonstrated by gelatin zymography and fluorescein-labeled gelatin substrate assay, respectively. Real-time PCR revealed that HKa reduced corresponding MMP-9 mRNA levels. Further investigations showed that this effect did not result from a modified rate of MMP-9 mRNA degradation. TIMP-1 mRNA levels, already increased as a result of cytokine-stimulation, were significantly enhanced by HKa. Furthermore, we found elevated basal mRNA expression levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in VSMCs derived from kininogen-deficient Brown Norway Katholiek rats. These results demonstrate for the first time that HKa affects the regulation of MMPs in VSMCs.

  16. A novel mechanism of angiotensin II-regulated placental vascular tone in the development of hypertension in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qinqin; Tang, Jiaqi; Li, Na; Zhou, Xiuwen; Li, Yongmei; Liu, Yanping; Wu, Jue; Yang, Yuxian; Shi, Ruixiu; He, Axin; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yingying; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Lubo; Sun, Miao; Xu, Zhice

    2017-05-09

    The present study tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II plays a role in the regulation of placental vascular tone, which contributes to hypertension in preeclampsia. Functional and molecular assays were performed in large and micro placental and non-placental vessels from humans and animals. In human placental vessels, angiotensin II induced vasoconstrictions in 78.7% vessels in 155 tests, as referenced to KCl-induced contractions. In contrast, phenylephrine only produced contractions in 3.0% of 133 tests. In non-placental vessels, phenylephrine induced contractions in 76.0% of 67 tests, whereas angiotensin II failed to produce contractions in 75 tests. Similar results were obtained in animal placental and non-placental vessels. Compared with non-placental vessels, angiotensin II receptors and β-adrenoceptors were significantly increased in placental vessels. Compared to the vessels from normal pregnancy, angiotensin II-induced vasoconstrictions were significantly reduced in preeclamptic placentas, which was associated with a decrease in angiotensin II receptors. In addition, angiotensin II and angiotensin converting enzyme in the maternal-placenta circulation in preeclampsia were increased, whereas angiotensin I and angiotensin1-7 concentrations were unchanged. The study demonstrates a selective effect of angiotensin II in maintaining placental vessel tension, which may play an important role in development of hypertension in preeclampsia.

  17. Rapamycin Inhibition of mTOR Reduces Levels of the Na+/H+ Exchanger 3 in Intestines of Mice and Humans, Leading to Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Patel, Archana; Potru, Rachana; Azizi-Ghannad, Sadra; Dolinger, Michael; Cao, James; Bartholomew, Catherine; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph; Conti, David; Jones, David; Huang, Yunfei; Zhu, Xinjun Cindy

    2015-07-01

    . This process appears to require the autophagic activity mediated by ATG7. Loss of mTOR regulation of NHE3 could mediate the development of diarrhea in patients undergoing rapamycin therapy. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential regulations of fibronectin and laminin in Smad2 activation in vascular endothelial cells in response to disturbed flow.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tung-Lin; Lee, Pei-Ling; Lee, Ding-Yu; Wang, Wei-Li; Wei, Shu-Yi; Lee, Chih-I; Chiu, Jeng-Jiann

    2018-01-02

    Atherosclerosis occurs in arterial curvatures and branches, where the flow is disturbed with low and oscillatory shear stress (OSS). The remodeling and alterations of extracellular matrices (ECMs) and their composition is the critical step in atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of different ECM proteins on the regulation of mechanotransduction in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in response to OSS. Through the experiments ranging from in vitro cell culture studies on effects of OSS on molecular signaling to in vivo examinations on clinical specimens from patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), we elucidated the roles of integrins and different ECMs, i.e., fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LM), in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β receptor (TβR)-mediated Smad2 activation and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in ECs in response to OSS and hence atherogenesis. OSS at 0.5±12 dynes/cm 2 induces sustained increases in the association of types I and II TβRs with β1 and β3 integrins in ECs grown on FN, but it only transient increases in ECs grown on LM. OSS induces a sustained activation of Smad2 in ECs on FN, but only a transient activation of Smad2 in ECs on LM. OSS-activation of Smad2 in ECs on FN regulates downstream NF-κB signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression through the activation of β1 integrin and its association with TβRs. In contrast, OSS induces transient activations of β1 and β3 integrins in ECs on LM, which associate with type I TβR to regulate Smad2 phosphorylation, resulting in transient induction of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory gene expression. In vivo investigations on diseased human coronary arteries from CAD patients revealed that Smad2 is highly activated in ECs of atherosclerotic lesions, which is accompanied by the concomitant increase of FN rather than LM in the EC layer and neointimal region of atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of how OSS regulates Smad2

  19. The Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor by Hypoxia and Prostaglandin F2α during Human Endometrial Repair

    PubMed Central

    Maybin, Jacqueline A.; Hirani, Nikhil; Brown, Pamela; Jabbour, Henry N.

    2011-01-01

    Context: The human endometrium has an exceptional capacity for repeated repair after menses, but its regulation remains undefined. Premenstrually, progesterone levels fall and prostaglandin (PG) F2α synthesis increases, causing spiral arteriole constriction. We hypothesized that progesterone withdrawal, PGF2α, and hypoxia increase vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an endometrial repair factor. Design and Results: Endometrial biopsies were collected (n = 47) with ethical approval and consent. VEGF mRNA, quantified by quantitative RT-PCR, was increased during menstruation (P < 0.01).VEGF protein was maximally secreted from proliferative endometrial explants. Treatment of an endometrial epithelial cell line and primary human endometrial stromal cells with 100 nm PGF2α or hypoxia (0.5% O2) resulted in significant increases in VEGF mRNA and protein. VEGF was maximal when cells were cotreated with PGF2α and hypoxia simultaneously (P < 0.05–0.001). Secretory-phase endometrial explants also showed an increase in VEGF with cotreatment (P < 0.05). However, proliferative-phase explants showed no increase in VEGF on treatment with PGF2α and/or hypoxia. Proliferative tissue was induced to increase VEGF mRNA expression when exposed to progesterone and its withdrawal in vitro but only in the presence of hypoxia and PG. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) silencing with RNA interference suppressed hypoxia-induced VEGF expression in endometrial cells but did not alter PGF2α-induced VEGF expression. Conclusions: Endometrial VEGF is increased at the time of endometrial repair. Progesterone withdrawal, PGF2α, and hypoxia are necessary for this perimenstrual VEGF expression. Hypoxia acts via HIF-1α to increase VEGF, whereas PGF2α acts in a HIF-1α-independent manner. Hence, two pathways regulate the expression of VEGF during endometrial repair. PMID:21677035

  20. Rapamycin is neuroprotective in a rat chronic hypertensive glaucoma model.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenru; Li, Zuohong; Jia, Yu; Zhuo, Yehong

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Injury of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) accounts for visual impairment of glaucoma. Here, we report rapamycin protects RGCs from death in experimental glaucoma model and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that treatment with rapamycin dramatically promote RGCs survival in a rat chronic ocular hypertension model. This protective action appears to be attributable to inhibition of neurotoxic mediators release and/or direct suppression of RGC apoptosis. In support of this mechanism, in vitro, rapamycin significantly inhibits the production of NO, TNF-α in BV2 microglials by modulating NF-κB signaling. In experimental animals, treatment with rapamycin also dramatically inhibited the activation of microglials. In primary RGCs, rapamycin was capable of direct suppression the apoptosis of primary RGCs induced by glutamate. Mechanistically, rapamycin-mediated suppression of RGCs apoptosis is by sparing phosphorylation of Akt at a site critical for maintenance of its survival-promoting activity in cell and animal model. These results demonstrate that rapamycin is neuroprotective in experimental glaucoma, possibly via decreasing neurotoxic releasing and suppressing directly apoptosis of RGCs.

  1. Mutual antagonism of target of rapamycin and calcineurin signaling.

    PubMed

    Mulet, Jose M; Martin, Dietmar E; Loewith, Robbie; Hall, Michael N

    2006-11-03

    Growth and stress are generally incompatible states. Stressed cells adapt to an insult by restraining growth, and conversely, growing cells keep stress responses at bay. This is evident in many physiological settings, including for example, the effect of stress on the immune or nervous system, but the underlying signaling mechanisms mediating such mutual antagonism are poorly understood. In eukaryotes, a central activator of cell growth is the protein kinase target of rapamycin (TOR) and its namesake signaling network. Calcineurin is a conserved, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase and target of the immunosuppressant FK506 (tacrolimus) that is activated in yeast during stress to promote cell survival. Here we show yeast mutants defective for TOR complex 2 (TORC2) or the essential homologous TORC2 effectors, SLM1 and SLM2, exhibited constitutive activation of calcineurin-dependent transcription and actin depolarization. Conversely, cells defective in calcineurin exhibited SLM1 hyperphosphorylation and enhanced interaction between TORC2 and SLM1. Furthermore, a mutant SLM1 protein (SLM1(DeltaC14)) lacking a sequence related to the consensus calcineurin docking site (PxIxIT) was insensitive to calcineurin, and SLM1(Delta)(C14) slm2 mutant cells were hypersensitive to oxidative stress. Thus, TORC2-SLM signaling negatively regulates calcineurin, and calcineurin negatively regulates TORC2-SLM. These findings provide a molecular basis for the mutual antagonism of growth and stress.

  2. Rapamycin suppresses brain aging in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats.

    PubMed

    Kolosova, Nataliya G; Vitovtov, Anton O; Muraleva, Natalia A; Akulov, Andrey E; Stefanova, Natalia A; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-06-01

    Cellular and organismal aging are driven in part by the MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway and rapamycin extends life span inC elegans, Drosophila and mice. Herein, we investigated effects of rapamycin on brain aging in OXYS rats. Previously we found, in OXYS rats, an early development of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to several geriatric disorders in humans, including cerebral dysfunctions. Behavioral alterations as well as learning and memory deficits develop by 3 months. Here we show that rapamycin treatment (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg as a food mixture daily from the age of 1.5 to 3.5 months) decreased anxiety and improved locomotor and exploratory behavior in OXYS rats. In untreated OXYS rats, MRI revealed an increase of the area of hippocampus, substantial hydrocephalus and 2-fold increased area of the lateral ventricles. Rapamycin treatment prevented these abnormalities, erasing the difference between OXYS and Wister rats (used as control). All untreated OXYS rats showed signs of neurodegeneration, manifested by loci of demyelination. Rapamycin decreased the percentage of animals with demyelination and the number of loci. Levels of Tau and phospho-Tau (T181) were increased in OXYS rats (compared with Wistar). Rapamycin significantly decreased Tau and inhibited its phosphorylation in the hippocampus of OXYS and Wistar rats. Importantly, rapamycin treatment caused a compensatory increase in levels of S6 and correspondingly levels of phospo-S6 in the frontal cortex, indicating that some downstream events were compensatory preserved, explaining the lack of toxicity. We conclude that rapamycin in low chronic doses can suppress brain aging.

  3. Rapamycin suppresses brain aging in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats

    PubMed Central

    Kolosova, Nataliya G.; Vitovtov, Anton O.; Muraleva, Natalia A; Akulov, Andrey E.; Stefanova, Natalia A.; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular and organismal aging are driven in part by the MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway and rapamycin extends life span in C elegans, Drosophila and mice. Herein, we investigated effects of rapamycin on brain aging in OXYS rats. Previously we found, in OXYS rats, an early development of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to several geriatric disorders in humans, including cerebral dysfunctions. Behavioral alterations as well as learning and memory deficits develop by 3 months. Here we show that rapamycin treatment (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg as a food mixture daily from the age of 1.5 to 3.5 months) decreased anxiety and improved locomotor and exploratory behavior in OXYS rats. In untreated OXYS rats, MRI revealed an increase of the area of hippocampus, substantial hydrocephalus and 2-fold increased area of the lateral ventricles. Rapamycin treatment prevented these abnormalities, erasing the difference between OXYS and Wistar rats (used as control). All untreated OXYS rats showed signs of neurodegeneration, manifested by loci of demyelination. Rapamycin decreased the percentage of animals with demyelination and the number of loci. Levels of Tau and phospho-Tau (T181) were increased in OXYS rats (compared with Wistar). Rapamycin significantly decreased Tau and inhibited its phosphorylation in the hippocampus of OXYS and Wistar rats. Importantly, rapamycin treatment caused a compensatory increase in levels of S6 and correspondingly levels of phospo-S6 in the frontal cortex, indicating that some downstream events were compensatory preserved, explaining the lack of toxicity. We conclude that rapamycin in low chronic doses can suppress brain aging. PMID:23817674

  4. mTOR drives cerebral blood flow and memory deficits in LDLR-/- mice modeling atherosclerosis and vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Jahrling, Jordan B; Lin, Ai-Ling; DeRosa, Nicholas; Hussong, Stacy A; Van Skike, Candice E; Girotti, Milena; Javors, Martin; Zhao, Qingwei; Maslin, Leigh Ann; Asmis, Reto; Galvan, Veronica

    2018-01-01

    We recently showed that mTOR attenuation blocks progression and abrogates established cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. These outcomes were associated with the restoration of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain vascular density (BVD) resulting from relief of mTOR inhibition of NO release. Recent reports suggested a role of mTOR in atherosclerosis. Because mTOR drives aging and vascular dysfunction is a universal feature of aging, we hypothesized that mTOR may contribute to brain vascular and cognitive dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis. We measured CBF, BVD, cognitive function, markers of inflammation, and parameters of cardiovascular disease in LDLR -/- mice fed maintenance or high-fat diet ± rapamycin. Cardiovascular pathologies were proportional to severity of brain vascular dysfunction. Aortic atheromas were reduced, CBF and BVD were restored, and cognitive dysfunction was attenuated potentially through reduction in systemic and brain inflammation following chronic mTOR attenuation. Our studies suggest that mTOR regulates vascular integrity and function and that mTOR attenuation may restore neurovascular function and cardiovascular health. Together with our previous studies in AD models, our data suggest mTOR-driven vascular damage may be a mechanism shared by age-associated neurological diseases. Therefore, mTOR attenuation may have promise for treatment of cognitive impairment in atherosclerosis.

  5. Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via suppressing ERK activation

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Li, Jinqing; Dong, Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) appear to be critical regulators of a multitude of processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and inflammation. We have recently demonstrated that a DUB of ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) inhibits vascular lesion formation via suppressing inflammatory responses in vasculature. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains to be defined. Herein, we report that a posttranscriptional up-regulation of UCH-L1 provides a negative feedback to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF{alpha})-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In rat adult VSMCs, adenoviral over-expression of UCH-L1 inhibited TNF{alpha}-induced activation of ERK andmore » DNA synthesis. In contrast, over-expression of UCH-L1 did not affect platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC proliferation and activation of growth stimulating cascades including ERK. TNF{alpha} hardly altered UCH-L1 mRNA expression and stability; however, up-regulated UCH-L1 protein expression via increasing UCH-L1 translation. These results uncover a novel mechanism by which UCH-L1 suppresses vascular inflammation.« less

  6. [The balance of markers of regulation vascular tone and fibrinogen in the prognosis of hemorrhagic transformation and fatal outcome in the acute period of ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Liang, O V; Kochetov, A G; Arkhipkin, A A; Novozhenova, Iu V; Shamalov, N A; Ramazanov, G R; Chuĭko, M R; Ogurtsov, P P; Skvortsova, V I

    2012-01-01

    The markers of regulation vascular tone, such as rennin, endothelin-1, and C-type natriuretic peptide, are of great value for prognosis of hemorrhagic transformation and fatal outcome of ischemic stroke. A change in the vascular tone in case of hemorrhagic transformation at the affected site precedes activation of the coagulation component of hemostasis as a mechanism preventing blood loss and increasing fibrinogen level. This work was aimed to study the balance of the above markers and fibrinogen in the prognosis of hemorrhagic transformation and fatal outcome in the acute period of ischemic stroke. It included 62 patients receiving no thrombolytic therapy. It was shown that symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation was associated with elevated rennin levels without a marked fall in the level of C-type natriuretic peptide and asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformation with elevated endothelin-1 levels and decreased concentration of natriuretic peptide. Fibrinogen level on day 4 of the observation proved to be a reliable predictor of negative prognosis. Asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformation without fatal outcome was associated with systemic and local vasoconstriction and inhibition of local vasodilation. Symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation with the fatal outcome was accompanied by dysregulation of vascular tone in the form of activation of systemic and local vasoconstriction, insufficient inhibition of local vasodilation and compensatory reaction in the form of activation of hemostatic mechanisms manifest as elevated fibrinogen levels on day 4. The lethal outcome without hemorrhagic transformation was associated with systemic vasoconstriction, activation of local vasodilation and vasoconstriction leading to local "biochemical paralysis" of vascular tone regulation.

  7. Increased expression of (immuno)proteasome subunits during epileptogenesis is attenuated by inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway.

    PubMed

    Broekaart, Diede W M; van Scheppingen, Jackelien; Geijtenbeek, Karlijne W; Zuidberg, Mark R J; Anink, Jasper J; Baayen, Johannes C; Mühlebner, Angelika; Aronica, Eleonora; Gorter, Jan A; van Vliet, Erwin A

    2017-08-01

    Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway reduces epileptogenesis in various epilepsy models, possibly by inhibition of inflammatory processes, which may include the proteasome system. To study the role of mTOR inhibition in the regulation of the proteasome system, we investigated (immuno)proteasome expression during epileptogenesis, as well as the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. The expression of constitutive (β1, β5) and immunoproteasome (β1i, β5i) subunits was investigated during epileptogenesis using immunohistochemistry in the electrical post-status epilepticus (SE) rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The effect of rapamycin was studied on (immuno)proteasome subunit expression in post-SE rats that were treated for 6 weeks. (Immuno)proteasome expression was validated in the brain tissue of patients who had SE or drug-resistant TLE and the effect of rapamycin was studied in primary human astrocyte cultures. In post-SE rats, increased (immuno)proteasome expression was detected throughout epileptogenesis in neurons and astrocytes within the hippocampus and piriform cortex and was most evident in rats that developed a progressive form of epilepsy. Rapamycin-treated post-SE rats had reduced (immuno)proteasome protein expression and a lower number of spontaneous seizures compared to vehicle-treated rats. (Immuno)proteasome expression was also increased in neurons and astrocytes within the human hippocampus after SE and in patients with drug-resistant TLE. In vitro studies using cultured human astrocytes showed that interleukin (IL)-1β-induced (immuno)proteasome gene expression could be attenuated by rapamycin. Because dysregulation of the (immuno)proteasome system is observed before the occurrence of spontaneous seizures in rats, is associated with progression of epilepsy, and can be modulated via the mTOR pathway, it may represent an interesting novel target for drug treatment in epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017

  8. [Algal oligosaccharides ameliorate osteoporosis via up-regulation of parathyroid hormone 1-84 and vascular endothelial growth factor].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wang, Haiya; Fang, Ningyuan

    2016-06-01

    To determine whether algal oligosac- charide~ affects the levels of parathyroid hormone 1-84 (PTH1-84) and vascular endothelial growth fac- tor (VEGF). An osteoporosis rat model was estab- lished via bilateral ovariectomy. The model rats were fed algal oligosaccharides (molecular weights: 600-1, 200 Da) for 4 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) was then measured. MG-63 human osteo- blastic cells were treated with algal oligosaccha- rides. The expression of PTH1-84 and VEGF was then examined. Oligosaccharide-treated cells were transfected with PTH1-84 short hairpin RNA (shR- NA), VEGF shRNA, and PTH1-84-VEGF small interfer- ing RNA (siRNA). The growth rates were then com- pared between transfected and non-transfected Algal oligosaccharides increased the BMD of the osteoporosis rat model compared with untreated controls (P < 0.05). When MG-63 cells were treated with algal oligosaccharides, the growth rate increased by 25% compared with the control group at day 3 (P < 0.05). In addition, the ex- pression of P.TH84 and VEGF was. enhanced. Con- versey w hen tecells were tranfected with PTH84 shRNA, VEGF shRNA, or PTH1-84-VEGF siR- NA, the growth rate was decreased by 17%, 35% and 70%, respectively, compared with controls at day 3 (P < 0.05). Algal oligosaccharides ameliorate osteoporosis via up-regulation of PTH1-84 and VEGF. Algal oligosaccharides should be developed as a potential drug for osteoporosis treatment.

  9. Homocysteine up-regulates vascular transmembrane chemokine CXCL16 and induces CXCR6+ lymphocyte recruitment in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Postea, O; Koenen, R R; Hristov, M; Weber, C; Ludwig, A

    2008-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia induces endothelial dysfunction and promotes atherosclerotic vascular disease. Infiltrates of activated macrophages and lymphocytes are observed in human and experimental atherosclerotic lesions, their emigration being guided by endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules and chemoattractants. The CXC-chemokine CXCL16 functions as an adhesion molecule by interacting with its receptor (CXCR6) and also as a scavenger for oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL). We investigated the modulation of CXCL16 on cultured endothelial cells (EC) and the recruitment of CXCR6(+) lymphocytes in response to homocysteine (Hcy), in vitro and in vivo. Hcy-stimulated EC show a significant increase in CXCL16 mRNA and protein expression. Incubation of EC with d,l-Hcy and l-Hcy significantly increased CXCR6(+) lymphocyte adhesion to EC while l-Cysteine (l-Cys) had no effect. Furthermore, EC stimulation with Hcy increased uptake of DiI-oxLDL. An anti-CXCL16 monoclonal antibody, antioxidants (Tiron) and PPAR-gamma agonists (Pioglitazone) considerably reduced CXCR6(+) lymphocyte adhesion and uptake of DiI-oxLDL. Upon injection in the peritoneal cavities of mice, l-Hcy and not l-Cys, increased the number of CXCR6(+) lymphocytes, which was reduced by coinjection with Pioglitazone or anti-human CXCL16 antibody. Hyperhomocysteinemia up-regulates CXCL16 leading to increased recruitment of CXCR6(+) lymphocytes and scavenging of modified lipids via a potential involvement of a PPAR-gamma-dependent mechanism. CXCL16 may therefore contribute to the formation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions under conditions of hyperhomocysteinemia.

  10. Homocysteine up-regulates vascular transmembrane chemokine CXCL16 and induces CXCR6+ lymphocyte recruitment in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Postea, O; Koenen, R R; Hristov, M; Weber, C; Ludwig, A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Hyperhomocysteinemia induces endothelial dysfunction and promotes atherosclerotic vascular disease. Infiltrates of activated macrophages and lymphocytes are observed in human and experimental atherosclerotic lesions, their emigration being guided by endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules and chemoattractants. The CXC-chemokine CXCL16 functions as an adhesion molecule by interacting with its receptor (CXCR6) and also as a scavenger for oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL). We investigated the modulation of CXCL16 on cultured endothelial cells (EC) and the recruitment of CXCR6+ lymphocytes in response to homocysteine (Hcy), in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Results: Hcy-stimulated EC show a significant increase in CXCL16 mRNA and protein expression. Incubation of EC with d,l-Hcy and l-Hcy significantly increased CXCR6+ lymphocyte adhesion to EC while l-Cysteine (l-Cys) had no effect. Furthermore, EC stimulation with Hcy increased uptake of DiI-oxLDL. An anti-CXCL16 monoclonal antibody, antioxidants (Tiron) and PPAR-γ agonists (Pioglitazone) considerably reduced CXCR6+ lymphocyte adhesion and uptake of DiI-oxLDL. Upon injection in the peritoneal cavities of mice, l-Hcy and not l-Cys, increased the number of CXCR6+ lymphocytes, which was reduced by coinjection with Pioglitazone or anti-human CXCL16 antibody. Conclusions: Hyperhomocysteinemia up-regulates CXCL16 leading to increased recruitment of CXCR6+ lymphocytes and scavenging of modified lipids via a potential involvement of a PPAR-γ-dependent mechanism. CXCL16 may therefore contribute to the formation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions under conditions of hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:18194461

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor C promotes cervical cancer cell invasiveness via regulation of microRNA-326/cortactin expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yang; Jiang, Shuyi; Yuan, Jin; Liu, Junxiu; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2018-04-16

    Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) accelerates cervical cancer metastasis, while the detailed mechanism remains largely unknown. Recent evidence indicates that microRNA play a crucial role in controlling cancer cell invasiveness. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-326 in VEGF-C-induced cervical cancer cell invasion. VEGF-C expression was higher and miR-326 was much lower in primary cervical cancer specimens than that in non-cancerous specimens, and a negative correlation between VEGF-C and miR-326 was found. On cervical carcinoma cell line SiHa cells, treatment with VEGF-C downregulated miR-326 level and increased cortactin protein expression. Transfection with miR-326 mimic reversed cortactin expression induced by VEGF-C, suggesting that VEGF-C increased cortactin via downregulation of miR-326. VEGF-C activated c-Src and c-Src inhibitor PP2 abolished VEGF-C effect on miR-326 and cortactin expression, implying that VEGF-C regulated miR-326/cortactin via c-Src signaling. VEGF-C promoted SiHa cell invasion index, which was largely inhibited by transfection with miR-326 antagonist or by siRNA against cortactin. In conclusion, our findings implied that VEGF-C reduced miR-326 expression and increased cortactin expression through c-Src signaling, leading to enhanced cervical cancer invasiveness. This may shed light on potential therapeutic strategies for cervical cancer therapy.

  12. Effect of electroacupuncture on the expression of mTOR and eIF4E in hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanzhen; Zeng, Yanjun; Wang, Xuan; Ye, Xiaobao

    2013-07-01

    Clinically, electroacupuncture is proved to be an effective therapy for vascular dementia; however, their mechanisms remain uncertain. The aim of the current study was to investigate the mechanism of electroacupuncture therapy for vascular dementia. One month after a vascular dementia animal model was established by bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries, electroacupuncture treatment was given at "Baihui" (DU20), "Dazhui" (DU14), and "Shenshu" (BL23). Morris water maze was used to assess the learning and memory ability of rats. Western blot assay was performed to detect the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in hippocampus of rats. Morris water maze test showed that electroacupuncture improved the learning ability of vascular dementia rats. Western blot assay revealed that the expression level of mTOR and eIF4E in the electroacupuncture group and sham-operated group was higher than that in the vascular dementia group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the decreasing expression of mTOR and eIF4E plays important roles in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia. Electroacupuncture improves learning and memory ability by up-regulating expression of mTOR and eIF4E in the hippocampus of vascular dementia rats.

  13. The progesterone-induced enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation involves activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways in the dorsal hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Patrick T.; Rubin, Amanda J.; Fan, Lu; Kent, Brianne A.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Although much recent work has elucidated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the modulation of memory by 17β-estradiol, little is known about the signaling events through which progesterone (P) regulates memory. We recently demonstrated that immediate post-training infusion of P into the dorsal hippocampus enhances object recognition memory consolidation in young ovariectomized female mice (Orr et al., 2009). The goal of the present study was to identify the biochemical alterations that might underlie this mnemonic enhancement. We hypothesized that the P-induced enhancement of object recognition would be dependent on activation of the ERK and mTOR pathways. In young ovariectomized mice, we found that bilateral dorsal hippocampal infusion of P significantly increased levels of phospho-p42 ERK and the mTOR substrate S6K in the dorsal hippocampus 5 minutes after infusion. Phospho-p42 ERK levels were downregulated 15 minutes after infusion and returned to baseline 30 minutes after infusion, suggesting a biphasic effect of P on ERK activation. Dorsal hippocampal ERK and mTOR activation were necessary for P to facilitate memory consolidation, as suggested by the fact that inhibitors of both pathways infused into the dorsal hippocampus immediately after training blocked the P-induced enhancement of object recognition. Collectively, these data provide the first demonstration that the ability of P to enhance memory consolidation depends on the rapid activation of cell signaling and protein synthesis pathways in the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:22265866

  14. Biphasic Rapamycin Effects in Lymphoma and Carcinoma Treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Dao, Vinh; Padrón, Álvaro; Drerup, Justin M; Lao, Shunhua; Liu, Aijie; Hurez, Vincent; Curiel, Tyler J

    2017-01-15

    mTOR drives tumor growth but also supports T-cell function, rendering the applications of mTOR inhibitors complex especially in T-cell malignancies. Here, we studied the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin in mouse EL4 T-cell lymphoma. Typical pharmacologic rapamycin (1-8 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor burden via direct suppression of tumor cell proliferation and improved survival in EL4 challenge independent of antitumor immunity. Denileukin diftitox (DD)-mediated depletion of regulatory T cells significantly slowed EL4 growth in vivo in a T-cell-dependent fashion. However, typical rapamycin inhibited T-cell activation and tumor infiltration in vivo and failed to boost DD treatment effects. Low-dose (LD) rapamycin (75 μg/kg) increased potentially beneficial CD44hiCD62L + CD8 + central memory T cells in EL4 challenge, but without clinical benefit. LD rapamycin significantly enhanced DD treatment efficacy, but DD plus LD rapamycin treatment effects were independent of antitumor immunity. Instead, rapamycin upregulated EL4 IL2 receptor in vitro and in vivo, facilitating direct DD tumor cell killing. LD rapamycin augmented DD efficacy against B16 melanoma and a human B-cell lymphoma, but not against human Jurkat T-cell lymphoma or ID8agg ovarian cancer cells. Treatment effects correlated with IL2R expression, but mechanisms in some tumors were not fully defined. Overall, our data define a distinct, biphasic mechanisms of action of mTOR inhibition at doses that are clinically exploitable, including in T-cell lymphomas. Cancer Res; 77(2); 520-31. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. The regulation of Jmjd3 upon the expression of NF-κB downstream inflammatory genes in LPS activated vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shaoqing; Graduate School of Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang; Chen, Xia

    Inflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules have been implicated in a variety of diseases including atherosclerosis. As both the mediator-releasing and targeted cells, vascular endothelial cells play key role in pathological processes. NF-κB signaling regulates a cluster of inflammatory factors in LPS-activated vascular endothelial cells but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the epigenetic regulation of LPS upon the expression of inflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules. We found that LPS treatment promoted jmjd3 expression, enhanced Jmjd3 nuclear accumulation in human vascular endothelial cells. In addition, LPS enhanced the demethylation of H3K27me3, a specific substrate of Jmjd3. LPS treatmentmore » recruited Jmjd3 and NF-κB to the promoter region of target genes, suggesting Jmjd3 synergizes with NF-κB to activate the expression of target genes. We further found that Jmjd3 attenuated the methylation status in promoter region of target genes, culminating in target gene expression. Our findings unveil epigenetic regulations of LPS upon NF-κB pathway and identify Jmjd3 as a critical modulator of NF-κB pathway and potential therapeutic target for NF-κB related diseases including atherosclerosis.« less

  16. The targeting expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene in endothelial cells regulated by HRE.ppET-1.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiangrong; Zhang, Shangshang; Yang, Yujia; Wang, Xia; Zhong, Le; Yu, Xiaohe

    2008-11-01

    The success of gene therapy depends largely on the efficacy of gene delivery vector systems that can deliver genes to target organs or cells selectively and efficiently with minimal toxicity. Here, we show that by using the HRE.ppET-1 regulatory element, we were able to restrict expression of the transgene of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to endothelial cells exclusively in hypoxic conditions. Eukaryotic expression vectors such as pEGFP-HRE.ppET-1, pcDNA3.1-VEGF+Pa, pcDNA3.1-ppET-1+ EGF+Pa, and pcDNA3.1-HRE.ppET-1+VEGF+Pa were constructed by using a series of nuclear molecule handling methods like PCR, enzyme digestion. The recombinant vectors were transfected into HUVEC cells and HL7702 cells by the lipofectin method. GFP expression was observed with a fluorescence microscope to validate the specificity of expression in endothelial cells under the regulation of HRE.ppET-1 element. Cobalt chloride (final concentration 100 mumol/L) was added to the medium to mimic hypoxia in vitro. After transfection of vectors, the expression of VEGF mRNA was detected by RT-PCR, and the expression of VEGF was detected by Western blotting and ELISA methods under normoxia and hypoxia, respectively. The cell proliferation rate was detected by the MTT test. The expression of GFP revealed that the exterior gene was transcripted effectively in endothelial cells regulated by the HRE.ppET-1 element, while the expression of GFP was very weak in nonendothelial cells. The results of RT-PCR, Western blotting and ELISA showed that VEGF gene expression in the pcDNA3.1-HRE.ppET-1+VEGF+Pa group and in the pcDNA3.1-ppET-1+VEGF+Pa group was higher in hypoxia than it was in normoxia (P<0.05). The MTT test showed that the proliferation rate of HUVEC transfected with HPVA under hypoxia exceeded that of the control group. We conclude that the HRE.ppET-1 element was expressed specifically in endothelial cells, and can increase the expression of VEGF in hypoxia and stimulate proliferation of

  17. Rapamycin inhibits anal carcinogenesis in two preclinical animal models.

    PubMed

    Stelzer, Marie K; Pitot, Henry C; Liem, Amy; Lee, Denis; Kennedy, Gregory D; Lambert, Paul F

    2010-12-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing especially among HIV-infected persons in the HAART era. Treatment of this cancer is based upon traditional chemoradiotherapeutic approaches, which are associated with high morbidity and of limited effectiveness for patients with high-grade disease. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been implicated in several human cancers, and is being investigated as a potential therapeutic target. In archival human anal cancers, we observed mTOR pathway activation. To assess response of anal cancer to mTOR inhibition, we utilized two newly developed mouse models, one in which anal cancers are induced to arise in HPV16 transgenic mice and the second a human anal cancer xenograft model. Using the transgenic mouse model, we assessed the preventative effect of rapamycin on neoplastic disease. We saw significant changes in the overall incidence of tumors, and tumor growth rate was also reduced. Using both the transgenic mouse and human anal xenograft mouse models, we studied the therapeutic effect of rapamycin on preexisting anal cancer. Rapamycin was found to significantly slow, if not stop, the growth of both mouse and human anal cancers. As has been seen in other cancers, rapamycin treatment led to an activation of the MAPK pathway. These results provide us cause to pursue further the evaluation of rapamycin as a therapeutic agent in the control of anal cancer. ©2010 AACR.

  18. Solution structure of the Legionella pneumophila Mip-rapamycin complex.

    PubMed

    Ceymann, Andreas; Horstmann, Martin; Ehses, Philipp; Schweimer, Kristian; Paschke, Anne-Katrin; Steinert, Michael; Faber, Cornelius

    2008-03-17

    Legionella pneumphila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. A major virulence factor of the pathogen is the homodimeric surface protein Mip. It shows peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activty and is a receptor of FK506 and rapamycin, which both inhibit its enzymatic function. Insight into the binding process may be used for the design of novel Mip inhibitors as potential drugs against Legionnaires' disease. We have solved the solution structure of free Mip77-213 and the Mip77-213-rapamycin complex by NMR spectroscopy. Mip77-213 showed the typical FKBP-fold and only minor rearrangements upon binding of rapamycin. Apart from the configuration of a flexible hairpin loop, which is partly stabilized upon binding, the solution structure confirms the crystal structure. Comparisons to the structures of free FKBP12 and the FKBP12-rapamycin complex suggested an identical binding mode for both proteins. The structural similarity of the Mip-rapamycin and FKBP12-rapamycin complexes suggests that FKBP12 ligands may be promising starting points for the design of novel Mip inhibitors. The search for a novel drug against Legionnaires' disease may therefore benefit from the large variety of known FKBP12 inhibitors.

  19. Solution structure of the Legionella pneumophila Mip-rapamycin complex

    PubMed Central

    Ceymann, Andreas; Horstmann, Martin; Ehses, Philipp; Schweimer, Kristian; Paschke, Anne-Katrin; Steinert, Michael; Faber, Cornelius

    2008-01-01

    Background Legionella pneumphila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. A major virulence factor of the pathogen is the homodimeric surface protein Mip. It shows peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activty and is a receptor of FK506 and rapamycin, which both inhibit its enzymatic function. Insight into the binding process may be used for the design of novel Mip inhibitors as potential drugs against Legionnaires' disease. Results We have solved the solution structure of free Mip77–213 and the Mip77–213-rapamycin complex by NMR spectroscopy. Mip77–213 showed the typical FKBP-fold and only minor rearrangements upon binding of rapamycin. Apart from the configuration of a flexible hairpin loop, which is partly stabilized upon binding, the solution structure confirms the crystal structure. Comparisons to the structures of free FKBP12 and the FKBP12-rapamycin complex suggested an identical binding mode for both proteins. Conclusion The structural similarity of the Mip-rapamycin and FKBP12-rapamycin complexes suggests that FKBP12 ligands may be promising starting points for the design of novel Mip inhibitors. The search for a novel drug against Legionnaires' disease may therefore benefit from the large variety of known FKBP12 inhibitors. PMID:18366641

  20. Rapamycin Inhibition of mTOR Reduces Levels of the Na+/H+ Exchanger 3 in Intestines of Mice and Humans, Leading to Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Patel, Archana; Potru, Rachana; Azizi-Ghannad, Sadra; Dolinger, Michael; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph; Conti, David; Jones, David; Huang, Yunfei; Zhu, Xinjun

    2016-01-01

    process appears to require the autophagic activity mediated by ATG7. Loss of mTOR regulation of NHE3 could mediate the development of diarrhea in patients undergoing rapamycin therapy. PMID:25836987

  1. The perspective of the vascular surgery trainee on new ACGME regulations, fatigue, resident training, and patient safety.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Randall R; Brewster, L P; Kokkosis, A A; Glass, C; Boros, M; Kreishman, P; Kauvar, D A; Farber, A

    2011-11-01

    To assess the opinions of vascular surgery trainees on the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) guidelines. A questionnaire was developed and electronically distributed to trainee members of the Society for Vascular Surgery. Of 238 eligible vascular trainees, 38 (16%) participated. Respondents were predominantly 30 to 35 years of age (47%), male (69%), in 2-year fellowship (73%), and at large academic centers (61%). Trainees report occasionally working while fatigued (63%). Fellows were more likely to report for duty while fatigued (P = .012) than integrated vascular residents. Respondents thought further work-hour restrictions would not improve patient care or training (P < .05) and may not lead to more sleep or improved quality of life. Respondents reported that duty hours should vary by specialty (81%) and allow flexibility in the last years of training (P < .05). Vascular surgery trainees are concerned about further duty-hour restrictions on patient care, education, and training and fatigue mitigation has to be balanced against the need to adequately train vascular surgeons.

  2. MicroRNA regulation of endothelial homeostasis and commitment-implications for vascular regeneration strategies using stem cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Scott, Elizabeth; Loya, Komal; Mountford, Joanne; Milligan, Graeme; Baker, Andrew H

    2013-09-01

    Human embryonic (hESC) and induced pluripotent (hiPSC) stem cells have broad therapeutic potential in the treatment of a range of diseases, including those of the vascular system. Both hESCs and hiPSCs have the capacity for indefinite self-renewal, in addition to their ability to differentiate into any adult cell type. These cells could provide a potentially unlimited source of cells for transplantation and, therefore, provide novel treatments, e.g. in the production of endothelial cells for vascular regeneration. MicroRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that act posttranscriptionally to control gene expression and thereby exert influence over a wide range of cellular processes, including maintenance of pluripotency and differentiation. Expression patterns of these small RNAs are tissue specific, and changes in microRNA levels have often been associated with disease states in humans, including vascular pathologies. Here, we review the roles of microRNAs in endothelial cell function and vascular disease, as well as their role in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to the vascular endothelial lineage. Furthermore, we discuss the therapeutic potential of stem cells and how knowledge and manipulation of microRNAs in stem cells may enhance their capacity for vascular regeneration. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nestin in the epididymis is expressed in vascular wall cells and is regulated during postnatal development and in case of testosterone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Reckmann, Ansgar N; Tomczyk, Claudia U M; Davidoff, Michail S; Michurina, Tatyana V; Arnhold, Stefan; Müller, Dieter; Mietens, Andrea; Middendorff, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), distinguished by the expression of the neuronal stem cell marker nestin, may represent stem cell-like progenitor cells in various organs including the testis. We investigated epididymal tissues of adult nestin-GFP mice, rats after Leydig cell depletion via ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS), rats and mice during postnatal development and human tissues. By use of Clarity, a histochemical method to illustrate a three-dimensional picture, we could demonstrate nestin-GFP positive cells within the vascular network. We localized nestin in the epididymis in proliferating vascular SMCs by colocalization with both smooth muscle actin and PCNA, and it was distinct from CD31-positive endothelial cells. The same nestin localization was found in the human epididymis. However, nestin was not found in SMCs of the epididymal duct. Nestin expression is high during postnatal development of mouse and rat and down-regulated towards adulthood when testosterone levels increase. Nestin increases dramatically in rats after Leydig cell ablation with EDS and subsequently low testosterone levels. Interestingly, during this period, the expression of androgen receptor in the epididymis is low and increases until nestin reaches normal levels of adulthood. Here we show that nestin, a common marker for neuronal stem cells, is also expressed in the vasculature of the epididymis. Our results give new insights into the yet underestimated role of proliferating nestin-expressing vascular SMCs during postnatal development and repair of the epididymis.

  4. Rapamycin reduces severity of senile osteoporosis by activating osteocyte autophagy.

    PubMed

    Luo, D; Ren, H; Li, T; Lian, K; Lin, D

    2016-03-01

    Osteocyte is the orchestrator of bone remolding and decline in osteocyte autophagy is involved in senile osteoporosis. Our results suggested that rapamycin, at least in part by activating osteocyte autophagy, reduced the severity of age-related bone changes in trabecular bone of old male rats. Previous literatures have showed that osteocyte is the orchestrator of bone remolding and age-related decline in osteocyte number is associated with senile osteoporosis. Autophagy is an important cellular protective mechanism which can preserve osteocyte viability and failure of autophagy in osteocyte with age has been linked to senile osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to explore whether rapamycin, one activator of autophagy, has protective effects on senile osteoporosis through inducing osteocyte autophagy. Fifty-two 24-month-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups. Rapamycin (1 mg/kg weight/day) or DMSO vehicle control was administered intraperitoneally for 12 weeks. BMD and bone microstructure were determined by Micro-CT. Fluorochrome labeling of the bones was performed to measure the mineral apposition rate (MAR). TRAP staining was performed to evaluate osteoclast number. The plasma levels of bone turnover markers were also analyzed. The effects of rapamycin on osteocyte autophagy were determined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and q-PCR. TUNEL was used to determine the prevalence of osteocyte apoptosis. Micro-CT evaluation demonstrated that rapamycin had a protective effect on age-related bone loss in trabecular bone. Besides, rapamycin resulted in an obvious increase of MAR and a decrease of osteoclast number in contrast to the control group. Furthermore, rapamycin also induced autophagy in osteocyte demonstrated by increased LC3-positive osteocyte and increased LC3 turnover. In addition, rats treated with rapamycin exhibited decreased apoptosis of osteocyte determined by TUNEL. These results suggested that rapamycin, at

  5. Amphetamine and environmentally induced hyperthermia differentially alter the expression of genes regulating vascular tone and angiogenesis in the meninges and associated vasculature.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Monzy; George, Nysia I; Patterson, Tucker A; Bowyer, John F

    2009-10-01

    An amphetamine (AMPH) regimen that does not produce a prominent blood-brain barrier breakdown was shown to significantly alter the expression of genes regulating vascular tone, immune function, and angiogenesis in vasculature associated with arachnoid and pia membranes of the forebrain. Adult-male Sprague-Dawley rats were given either saline injections during environmentally-induced hyperthermia (EIH) or four doses of AMPH with 2 h between each dose (5, 7.5, 10, and 10 mg/kg d-AMPH, s.c.) that produced hyperthermia. Rats were sacrificed either 3 h or 1 day after dosing, and total RNA and protein was isolated from the meninges, arachnoid and pia membranes, and associated vasculature (MAV) that surround the forebrain. Vip, eNos, Drd1a, and Edn1 (genes regulating vascular tone) were increased by either EIH or AMPH to varying degrees in MAV, indicating that EIH and AMPH produce differential responses to enhance vasodilatation. AMPH, and EIH to a lesser extent, elicited a significant inflammatory response at 3 h as indicated by an increased MAV expression of cytokines Il1b, Il6, Ccl-2, Cxcl1, and Cxcl2. Also, genes related to heat shock/stress and disruption of vascular homeostasis such as Icam1 and Hsp72 were also observed. The increased expression of Ctgf and Timp1 and the decreased expression of Akt1, Anpep, and Mmp2 and Tek (genes involved in stimulating angiogenesis) from AMPH exposure suggest that angiogenesis was arrested or disrupted in MAV to a greater extent by AMPH compared to EIH. Alterations in vascular-related gene expression in the parietal cortex and striatum after AMPH were less in magnitude than in MAV, indicating less of a disruption of vascular homeostasis in these two regions. Changes in the levels of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins Igfbp1, 2, and 5 in MAV, compared to those in striatum and parietal cortex, imply an interaction between these regions to regulate the levels of insulin-like growth factor after AMPH damage. Thus, the

  6. odd skipped related1 reveals a novel role for endoderm in regulating kidney vs. vascular cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Mudumana, Sudha P.; Hentschel, Dirk; Liu, Yan; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Drummond, Iain A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The kidney and vasculature are intimately linked functionally and during development, where nephric and blood/vascular progenitor cells occupy adjacent bands of mesoderm in zebrafish and frog embryos. Developmental mechanisms underlying the differentiation of kidney vs. blood/vascular lineages remain unknown. The odd skipped related1 (osr1) gene encodes a zinc finger transcription factor that is expressed in the germ ring mesendoderm and subsequently in the endoderm and intermediate mesoderm, prior to the expression of definitive kidney or blood/vascular markers. Knockdown of osr1 in zebrafish embryos resulted in a complete, segment-specific loss of anterior kidney progenitors and a compensatory increase in the number of angioblast cells in the same trunk region. Histology revealed a subsequent absence of kidney tubules, enlarged cardinal vein, and expansion of the posterior venous plexus. Altered kidney vs. vascular development correlated with expanded endoderm development in osr1 knockdowns. Combined osr1 loss of function and blockade of endoderm development by knockdown of sox32/casanova rescued anterior kidney development. The results indicate that osr1 activity is required to limit endoderm differentiation from mesendoderm and, in the absence of osr1, excess endoderm alters mesoderm differentiation, shifting the balance from kidney toward vascular development. PMID:18787069

  7. Rapamycin slows IgA nephropathy progression in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jihua; Wang, Yanhong; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Li, Yanjiao; Wang, Chen; Li, Jiaming; Li, Rongshan

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most frequent glomerulonephritis worldwide. Different therapeutic approaches have been tested against IgAN. The present study was designed to explore the renoprotective potential of low-dose mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin in an IgAN rat model and the possible mechanism of action. After establishing an IgAN model, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, control with rapamycin treatment, IgAN model, and IgAN model with rapamycin treatment. Coomassie Brilliant Blue was utilized to measure 24-hour urinary protein levels. Hepatic and renal function was determined with an autoanalyzer. Proliferation was assayed via 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were utilized to detect the expression of α-SMA, collagen I, collagen III, TGF-β1 and platelet-derived growth factor. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine p-S6 protein levels. Low-dose mTOR inhibitor rapamycin prevented an additional increase in proteinuria and protected kidney function in a model of IgAN. Rapamycin directly or indirectly interfered with multiple key pathways in the progression of IgAN to end-stage renal disease: (1) reduced the deposition of IgA and inhibited cell proliferation; (2) decreased the expression of fibrosis markers α-SMA and type III collagen, and (3) downregulated the expression of the profibrotic growth factors platelet-derived growth factor and TGF-β1. The expression of p-S6 was significantly elevated in IgAN rats. The mTOR pathway was activated in IgAN rats and the early application of low-dose mTOR inhibitor rapamycin may slow the renal injury of IgAN in rats.

  8. Rapamycin treatment causes developmental delay, pigmentation defects, and gastrointestinal malformation on Xenopus embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Yuki; Ohata, Yoshihisa; Mori, Shoko; Matsukawa, Shinya; Michiue, Tatsuo; Asashima, Makoto; Kuroda, Hiroki

    2011-01-28

    Rapamycin is a drug working as an inhibitor of the TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway and influences various life phenomena such as cell growth, proliferation, and life span extension in eukaryote. However, the extent to which rapamycin controls early developmental events of amphibians remains to be understood. Here we report an examination of rapamycin effects during Xenopus early development, followed by a confirmation of suppression of TOR downstream kinase S6K by rapamycin treatment. First, we found that developmental speed was declined in dose-dependent manner of rapamycin. Second, black pigment spots located at dorsal and lateral skin in tadpoles were reduced by rapamycin treatment. Moreover, in tadpole stages severe gastrointestinal malformations were observed in rapamycin-treated embryos. Taken together with these results, we conclude that treatment of the drug rapamycin causes enormous influences on early developmental period. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of vascular smooth muscle PPARγ in regulating AT1 receptor signaling and angiotensin II-dependent hypertension.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Sepulveda, Maria Alicia; Keen, Henry L; Davis, Deborah R; Grobe, Justin L; Sigmund, Curt D

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been reported to play a protective role in the vasculature; however, the underlying mechanisms involved are not entirely known. We previously showed that vascular smooth muscle-specific overexpression of a dominant negative human PPARγ mutation in mice (S-P467L) leads to enhanced myogenic tone and increased angiotensin-II-dependent vasoconstriction. S-P467L mice also exhibit increased arterial blood pressure. Here we tested the hypotheses that a) mesenteric smooth muscle cells isolated from S-P467L mice exhibit enhanced angiotensin-II AT1 receptor signaling, and b) the increased arterial pressure of S-P467L mice is angiotensin-II AT1 receptor dependent. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) was robustly increased in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cell cultures from S-P467L in response to angiotensin-II. The increase in ERK1/2 activation by angiotensin-II was blocked by losartan, a blocker of AT1 receptors. Angiotensin-II-induced ERK1/2 activation was also blocked by Tempol, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, and correlated with increased Nox4 protein expression. To investigate whether endogenous renin-angiotensin system activity contributes to the elevated arterial pressure in S-P467L, non-transgenic and S-P467L mice were treated with the AT1 receptor blocker, losartan (30 mg/kg per day), for 14-days and arterial pressure was assessed by radiotelemetry. At baseline S-P467L mice showed a significant increase of systolic arterial pressure (142.0 ± 10.2 vs 129.1 ± 3.0 mmHg, p<0.05). Treatment with losartan lowered systolic arterial pressure in S-P467L (132.2 ± 6.9 mmHg) to a level similar to untreated non-transgenic mice. Losartan also lowered arterial pressure in non-transgenic (113.0 ± 3.9 mmHg) mice, such that there was no difference in the losartan-induced depressor response between groups (-13.53 ± 1.39 in S-P467L vs -16.16 ± 3.14 mmHg in

  10. Puerarin Up-regulates Methyl-CpG Binding Protein 2 Phosphorylation in Hippocampus of Vascular Dementia Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hu-Qing; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Jia-Xin; Wu, Hai-Qin; Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Gui-Lian; Zhang, Ru

    2018-05-01

    To observe the effect of puerarin on methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) phosphorylation (pMeCP2) in the hippocampus of a rat model of vascular dementia (VD). Thirty-six healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the sham-operated group, dementia group and puerarintreated group using a random number table (n=12 per group). The modifified permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion method was used to establish the VD model. The sham-operated and dementia groups were given 2 mL/d of saline, while the puerarin-treated group was given 100 mg/(kg•d) of puerarin for 17 days. The learning and memory abilities were evaluated by the Morris water maze test. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and Western blot analysis were carried out to observe changes in neuron morphology and in level of pMeCP2 in the hippocampus, respectively. The morphologies of rat hippocampal neurons in the puerarintreated group were markedly improved compared with the dementia group. The escape latency of the dementia group was significantly longer than the sham-operated group (P<0.05), while the puerarin-treated group was obviously shorter than the dementia group (P<0.05). Cross-platform times of the dementia group were signifificantly decreased compared with the sham-operated group (P<0.05), while the puerarin-treated group was obviously increased compared with the dementia group (P<0.05). IHC staining showed no significant difference in the number of MeCP2 positive cells among 3 groups (P>0.05). The number of pMeCP2 positive cells in the CA1 region of hippocampus in the dementia group was signifificantly increased compared with the sham-operated group, and the puerarin-treated group was signifificantly increased compared with the dementia group (both P<0.05). Western blot analysis showed no signifificant difference of MeCP2 expression among 3 groups (P>0.05). The expression of pMeCP2 in the dementia group was signifificantly increased compared with

  11. Labor Inhibits Placental Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    LAGER, Susanne; AYE, Irving L.M.H.; GACCIOLI, Francesca; RAMIREZ, Vanessa I.; JANSSON, Thomas; POWELL, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Labor induces a myriad of changes in placental gene expression. These changes may represent a physiological adaptation inhibiting placental cellular processes associated with a high demand for oxygen and energy (e.g., protein synthesis and active transport) thereby promoting oxygen and glucose transfer to the fetus. We hypothesized that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, a positive regulator of trophoblast protein synthesis and amino acid transport, is inhibited by labor. Methods Placental tissue was collected from healthy, term pregnancies (n=15 no-labor; n=12 labor). Activation of Caspase-1, IRS1/Akt, STAT, mTOR, and inflammatory signaling pathways was determined by Western blot. NFκB p65 and PPARγ DNA binding activity was measured in isolated nuclei. Results Labor increased Caspase-1 activation and mTOR complex 2 signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of Akt (S473). However, mTORC1 signaling was inhibited in response to labor as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of mTOR (S2448) and 4EBP1 (T37/46 and T70). Labor also decreased NFκB and PPARγ DNA binding activity, while having no effect on IRS1 or STAT signaling pathway. Discussion and conclusion Several placental signaling pathways are affected by labor, which has implications for experimental design in studies of placental signaling. Inhibition of placental mTORC1 signaling in response to labor may serve to down-regulate protein synthesis and amino acid transport, processes that account for a large share of placental oxygen and glucose consumption. We speculate that this response preserves glucose and oxygen for transfer to the fetus during the stressful events of labor. PMID:25454472

  12. Arabidopsis VASCULAR-RELATED UNKNOWN PROTEIN1 Regulates Xylem Development and Growth by a Conserved Mechanism That Modulates Hormone Signaling1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Grienenberger, Etienne; Douglas, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strict conservation of the vascular tissues in vascular plants (tracheophytes), our understanding of the genetic basis underlying the differentiation of secondary cell wall-containing cells in the xylem of tracheophytes is still far from complete. Using coexpression analysis and phylogenetic conservation across sequenced tracheophyte genomes, we identified a number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes of unknown function whose expression is correlated with secondary cell wall deposition. Among these, the Arabidopsis VASCULAR-RELATED UNKNOWN PROTEIN1 (VUP1) gene encodes a predicted protein of 24 kD with no annotated functional domains but containing domains that are highly conserved in tracheophytes. Here, we show that the VUP1 expression pattern, determined by promoter-β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression, is associated with vascular tissues, while vup1 loss-of-function mutants exhibit collapsed morphology of xylem vessel cells. Constitutive overexpression of VUP1 caused dramatic and pleiotropic developmental defects, including severe dwarfism, dark green leaves, reduced apical dominance, and altered photomorphogenesis, resembling brassinosteroid-deficient mutants. Constitutive overexpression of VUP homologs from multiple tracheophyte species induced similar defects. Whole-genome transcriptome analysis revealed that overexpression of VUP1 represses the expression of many brassinosteroid- and auxin-responsive genes. Additionally, deletion constructs and site-directed mutagenesis were used to identify critical domains and amino acids required for VUP1 function. Altogether, our data suggest a conserved role for VUP1 in regulating secondary wall formation during vascular development by tissue- or cell-specific modulation of hormone signaling pathways. PMID:24567189

  13. Rapamycin ameliorates neuropathic pain by activating autophagy and inhibiting interleukin-1β in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Yin, Qin; Weng, Ze-lin; Zhang, Jian-cheng; Wang, Kun-feng; Yuan, Shi-ying; Cheng, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Autophagy acts as an important homoeostatic mechanism by degradation of cytosolic constituents and plays roles in many physiological processes. Recent studies demonstrated that autophagy can also regulate the production and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. In the present study, the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were significantly decreased after spinal nerve ligation (SNL), and the changes were accompanied by inhibited autophagy in the spinal microglia and increased mRNA and protein levels of IL-1β in the ipsilateral spinal cord. We then investigated the antinociceptive effect of rapamycin, a widely used autopahgy inducer, on SNL-induced neuropathic pain in rats and found that treatment with intrathecal rapamycin significantly attenuated the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Moreover, rapamycin significantly enhanced autophagy in the spinal microglia, whereas it reduced the mRNA and protein levels of IL-1β in the ipsilateral spinal cord. Our results showed that rapamycin could ameliorate neuropathic pain by activating autophagy and inhibiting IL-1β in the spinal cord.

  14. Rapamycin impairs HPD-induced beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Geng-Ruei; Chiu, Yi-Shin; Wu, Ying-Ying; Lin, Yu-Chi; Hou, Po-Hsun; Mao, Frank Chiahung

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Rapamycin, which is used clinically to treat graft rejection, has also been proposed to have an effect on metabolic syndrome; however, very little information is available on its effects in lean animals/humans. The purpose of this study was to characterize further the effects of the continuous use of rapamycin on glucose homeostasis in lean C57BL6/J mice. Experimental Approach Mice were fed a high-protein diet (HPD) for 12 weeks to develop a lean model and then were treated daily with rapamycin for 5 weeks while remaining on a HPD. Metabolic parameters, endocrine profiles, glucose tolerance tests, insulin sensitivity index, the expression of the glucose transporter GLUT4 and chromium distribution were measured in vivo. Key Results Lower body weight gain as well as a decreased caloric intake, fat pads, fatty liver scores, adipocyte size and glucose tolerance test values were observed in HPD-fed mice compared with mice fed a high-fat or standard diet. Despite these beneficial effects, rapamycin-treated lean mice showed greater glucose intolerance, reduced insulin sensitivity, lower muscle GLUT4 expression and changes in chromium levels in tissues even with high insulin levels. Conclusion and Implications Our findings demonstrate that continuous rapamycin administration may lead to the development of diabetes syndrome, as it was found to induce hyperglycaemia and glucose intolerance in a lean animal model. PMID:25884889

  15. Rapamycin enhances survival in a Drosophila model of mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Adrienne; Mouser, Jacob; Pitt, Jason; Promislow, Daniel; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2016-12-06

    Pediatric mitochondrial disorders are a devastating category of diseases caused by deficiencies in mitochondrial function. Leigh Syndrome (LS) is the most common of these diseases with symptoms typically appearing within the first year of birth and progressing rapidly until death, usually by 6-7 years of age. Our lab has recently shown that genetic inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (TOR) rescues the short lifespan of yeast mutants with defective mitochondrial function, and that pharmacological inhibition of TOR by administration of rapamycin significantly rescues the shortened lifespan, neurological symptoms, and neurodegeneration in a mouse model of LS. However, the mechanism by which TOR inhibition exerts these effects, and the extent to which these effects can extend to other models of mitochondrial deficiency, are unknown. Here, we probe the effects of TOR inhibition in a Drosophila model of complex I deficiency. Treatment with rapamycin robustly suppresses the lifespan defect in this model of LS, without affecting behavioral phenotypes. Interestingly, this increased lifespan in response to TOR inhibition occurs in an autophagy-independent manner. Further, we identify a fat storage defect in the ND2 mutant flies that is rescued by rapamycin, supporting a model that rapamycin exerts its effects on mitochondrial disease in these animals by altering metabolism.

  16. Down-regulation of vascular PPAR-γ contributes to endothelial dysfunction in high-fat diet-induced obese mice exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanan; Zhang, Chunlian; Li, Haiou; Hou, Jingdong

    2017-10-14

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is associated with endothelial dysfunction. The prevalence of OSA is linked to an epidemic of obesity. CIH has recently been reported to cause endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese animals by exaggerating oxidative stress and inflammation, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. PPAR-γ, a ligand-inducible transcription factor that exerts anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, is down-regulated in the peripheral tissues in diet-induce obesity. We tested the hypothesis that down-regulation of vascular PPAR-γ in diet-induced obesity enhances inflammation and oxidative stress in response to CIH, resulting in endothelial dysfunction. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) and simultaneously exposed to CIH or intermittent air for 6 weeks. An additional HFD group received a combination of CIH and PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone for 6 weeks. Endothelial-dependent vasodilation was impaired only in HFD group exposed to CIH, compared with other groups, but was restored by concomitant pioglitazone treatment. Molecular studies revealed that vascular PPAR-γ expression and activity were reduced in HFD groups, compared with LFD groups, but were reversed by pioglitazone treatment. In addition, CIH elevated vascular expression of NADPH oxidase 4 and dihydroethidium fluorescence, and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in both LFD and HFD groups, but these increases was significantly greater in HFD group, along with decreased vascular eNOS activity. Pioglitazone treatment of HFD group prevented CIH-induced changes in above molecular markers. The results suggest that HFD-induced obesity down-regulates vascular PPAR-γ, which results in exaggerated oxidative stress and inflammation in response to CIH, contributing to endothelial dysfunction. This finding may provide new insights into the mechanisms by which OSA

  17. Dual effects of fructose on ChREBP and FoxO1/3α are responsible for AldoB up-regulation and vascular remodelling.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Chang, Tuanjie; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Rui; Wu, Lingyun

    2017-02-01

    Increased production of methylglyoxal (MG) in vascular tissues is one of the causative factors for vascular remodelling in different subtypes of metabolic syndrome, including hypertension and insulin resistance. Fructose-induced up-regulation of aldolase B (AldoB) contributes to increased vascular MG production but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Serum levels of MG and fructose were determined in diabetic patients with hypertension. MG level had significant positive correlations with blood pressure and fructose level respectively. C57BL/6 mice were fed with control or fructose-enriched diet for 3 months and ultrasonographic and histologic analyses were performed to evaluate arterial structural changes. Fructose-fed mice exhibited hypertension and high levels of serum MG with normal glucose level. Fructose intake increased blood vessel wall thickness and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Western blotting and real-time PCR analysis revealed that AldoB level was significantly increased in both the aorta of fructose-fed mice and the fructose-treated VSMCs, whereas aldolase A (AldoA) expression was not changed. The knockdown of AldoB expression prevented fructose-induced MG overproduction and VSMC proliferation. Moreover, fructose significantly increased carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), phosphorylated FoxO1/3α and Akt1 levels. Fructose induced translocation of ChREBP from the cytosol to nucleus and activated AldoB gene expression, which was inhibited by the knockdown of ChREBP. Meanwhile, fructose caused FoxO1/3α shuttling from the nucleus to cytosol and inhibited its binding to AldoB promoter region. Fructose-induced AldoB up-regulation was suppressed by Akt1 inhibitor but enhanced by FoxO1/3α siRNA. Collectively, fructose activates ChREBP and inactivates FoxO1/3α pathways to up-regulate AldoB expression and MG production, leading to vascular remodelling. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on

  18. Rapamycin inhibits spermatogenesis by changing the autophagy status through suppressing mechanistic target of rapamycin-p70S6 kinase in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shangjing; Huang, Longxian; Geng, Yanqing; He, Junlin; Chen, Xuemei; Xu, Hao; Li, Rong; Wang, Yingxiong; Ding, Yubin; Liu, Xueqing

    2017-01-01

    Rapamycin (sirolimus) is an antiproliferative drug that has been widely used in the clinic as an immunosuppressant and a potential anticancer agent. Certain reports have indicated that rapamycin may induce male infertility through impairing sperm quality. The present study investigated the mechanism of male infertility caused by rapamycin and examined whether withdrawal of rapamycin could recover the number of sperm in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=100) were divided randomly into 5 groups: 3 rapamycin-treated groups (2, 4 and 6 mg/kg) and 2 control groups [Blank and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)]. Organ coefficients of the testes, number of sperm and hematoxylin-eosin staining analyses demonstrated that rapamycin treatment markedly damaged the structure of the seminiferous tubule and reduced the number of sperm. Immunohistochemistry of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Ki67 in testes tissue, and western blotting of phosphorylated-p70S6K and p70S6K, supported the hypothesis that rapamycin causes sperm reduction through inhibiting proliferation of spermatogonia. Unfortunately, 24 weeks after cessation of rapamycin treatment, only the number of sperm in 2 mg/kg group was restored back to the normal level. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to demonstrate that low doses rapamycin leads to activation of autophagy in rat testes. This may be a self-protective mechanism of the cell in response to external stress. Thus, spermatogenesis can be recovered in the testes from rats in the low dose group. High doses of rapamycin resulted in excessive consumption of autophagy proteins, and the damage could not be compensated. In addition, it was revealed that cell apoptosis increased after treatment with rapamycin. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that rapamycin inhibits spermatogenesis through suppressing phosphorylation of p70S6K and changing the autophagy status, ultimately reducing the number of sperm. These findings

  19. HCdc14A is involved in cell cycle regulation of human brain vascular endothelial cells following injury induced by high glucose, free fatty acids and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Su, Jingjing; Zhou, Houguang; Tao, Yinghong; Guo, Zhuangli; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Yanyan; Tang, Yuping; Hu, Renming; Dong, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle processes play a vital role in vascular endothelial proliferation and dysfunction. Cell division cycle protein 14 (Cdc14) is an important cell cycle regulatory phosphatase. Previous studies in budding yeast demonstrated that Cdc14 could trigger the inactivation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), which are required for mitotic exit and cytokinesis. However, the exact function of human Cdc14 (hCdc14) in cell cycle regulation during vascular diseases is yet to be elucidated. There are two HCdc14 homologs: hCdc14A and hCdc14B. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of hCdc14A in high glucose-, free fatty acids (FFAs)-, and hypoxia-induced injury in cultured human brain vascular endothelial cells (HBVECs). Data revealed that high glucose, FFA, and hypoxia down-regulated hCdc14A expression remarkably, and also affected the expression of other cell cycle-related proteins such as cyclin B, cyclin D, cyclin E, and p53. Furthermore, the combined addition of the three stimuli largely blocked cell cycle progression, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis. We also determined that hCdc14A was localized mainly to centrosomes during interphase and spindles during mitosis using confocal microscopy, and that it could affect the expression of other cycle-related proteins. More importantly, the overexpression of hCdc14A accelerated cell cycle progression, enhanced cell proliferation, and promoted neoplastic transformation, whereas the knockdown of hCdc14A using small interfering RNA produced the opposite effects. Therefore, these findings provide novel evidence that hCdc14A might be involved in cell cycle regulation in cultured HBVECs during high glucose-, FFA-, and hypoxia-induced injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antitumor Synergism and Enhanced Survival with a Tumor Vasculature-Targeted Enzyme Prodrug System, Rapamycin, and Cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Krais, John J; Virani, Needa; McKernan, Patrick H; Nguyen, Quang; Fung, Kar-Ming; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I; Kurkjian, Carla; Harrison, Roger G

    2017-09-01

    Mutant cystathionine gamma-lyase was targeted to phosphatidylserine exposed on tumor vasculature through fusion with Annexin A1 or Annexin A5. Cystathionine gamma-lyase E58N, R118L, and E338N mutations impart nonnative methionine gamma-lyase activity, resulting in tumor-localized generation of highly toxic methylselenol upon systemic administration of nontoxic selenomethionine. The described therapeutic system circumvents systemic toxicity issues using a novel drug delivery/generation approach and avoids the administration of nonnative proteins and/or DNA required with other enzyme prodrug systems. The enzyme fusion exhibits strong and stable in vitro binding with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range for both human and mouse breast cancer cells and in a cell model of tumor vascular endothelium. Daily administration of the therapy suppressed growth of highly aggressive triple-negative murine 4T1 mammary tumors in immunocompetent BALB/cJ mice and MDA-MB-231 tumors in SCID mice. Treatment did not result in the occurrence of negative side effects or the elicitation of neutralizing antibodies. On the basis of the vasculature-targeted nature of the therapy, combinations with rapamycin and cyclophosphamide were evaluated. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, reduces the prosurvival signaling of cells in a hypoxic environment potentially exacerbated by a vasculature-targeted therapy. IHC revealed, unsurprisingly, a significant hypoxic response (increase in hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α subunit, HIF1A) in the enzyme prodrug-treated tumors and a dramatic reduction of HIF1A upon rapamycin treatment. Cyclophosphamide, an immunomodulator at low doses, was combined with the enzyme prodrug therapy and rapamycin; this combination synergistically reduced tumor volumes, inhibited metastatic progression, and enhanced survival. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(9); 1855-65. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Rapamycin improves sociability in the BTBR T(+)Itpr3(tf)/J mouse model of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Burket, Jessica A; Benson, Andrew D; Tang, Amy H; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2014-01-01

    Overactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of syndromic forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), such as tuberous sclerosis complex, neurofibromatosis 1, and fragile X syndrome. Administration of mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1) inhibitors (e.g. rapamycin) in syndromic mouse models of ASDs improved behavior, cognition, and neuropathology. However, since only a minority of ASDs are due to the effects of single genes (∼10%), there is a need to explore inhibition of mTOR activity in mouse models that may be more relevant to the majority of nonsyndromic presentations, such as the genetically inbred BTBR T(+)Itpr3(tf)/J (BTBR) mouse model of ASDs. BTBR mice have social impairment and exhibit increased stereotypic behavior. In prior work, d-cycloserine, a partial glycineB site agonist that targets the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, was shown to improve sociability in both Balb/c and BTBR mouse models of ASDs. Importantly, NMDA receptor activation regulates mTOR signaling activity. The current study investigated the ability of rapamycin (10mg/kg, i.p.×four days), an mTORC1 inhibitor, to improve sociability and stereotypic behavior in BTBR mice. Using a standard paradigm to assess mouse social behavior, rapamycin improved several measures of sociability in the BTBR mouse, suggesting that mTOR overactivation represents a therapeutic target that mediates or contributes to impaired sociability in the BTBR mouse model of ASDs. Interestingly, there was no effect of rapamycin on stereotypic behaviors in this mouse model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Target of Rapamycin (TOR) in Nutrient Signaling and Growth Control

    PubMed Central

    Loewith, Robbie; Hall, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    TOR (Target Of Rapamycin) is a highly conserved protein kinase that is important in both fundamental and clinical biology. In fundamental biology, TOR is a nutrient-sensitive, central controller of cell growth and aging. In clinical biology, TOR is implicated in many diseases and is the target of the drug rapamycin used in three different therapeutic areas. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has played a prominent role in both the discovery of TOR and the elucidation of its function. Here we review the TOR signaling network in S. cerevisiae. PMID:22174183

  3. Rapamycin does not prevent increases in myofibrillar or mitochondrial protein synthesis following endurance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Philp, Andrew; Schenk, Simon; Perez-Schindler, Joaquin; Hamilton, D Lee; Breen, Leigh; Laverone, Erin; Jeromson, Stewart; Phillips, Stuart M; Baar, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the role of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in the regulation of myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthesis following endurance exercise. Forty-two female C57BL/6 mice performed 1 h of treadmill running (18 m min−1; 5° grade), 1 h after i.p. administration of rapamycin (1.5 mg · kg−1) or vehicle. To quantify skeletal muscle protein fractional synthesis rates, a flooding dose (50 mg · kg−1) of l-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine was administered via i.p. injection. Blood and gastrocnemius muscle were collected in non-exercised control mice, as well as at 0.5, 3 and 6 h after completing exercise (n = 4 per time point). Skeletal muscle MyoPS and MitoPS were determined by measuring isotope incorporation in their respective protein pools. Activation of the mTORC1-signalling cascade was measured via direct kinase activity assay and immunoblotting, whereas genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis were measured via a quantitative RT-PCR. MyoPS increased rapidly in the vehicle group post-exercise and remained elevated for 6 h, whereas this response was transiently blunted (30 min post-exercise) by rapamycin. By contrast, MitoPS was unaffected by rapamycin, and was increased over the entire post-exercise recovery period in both groups (P < 0.05). Despite rapid increases in both MyoPS and MitoPS, mTORC1 activation was suppressed in both groups post-exercise for the entire 6 h recovery period. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 and mitochondrial transcription factor A mRNA increased post-exercise (P < 0.05) and this response was augmented by rapamycin (P < 0.05). Collectively, these data suggest that endurance exercise stimulates MyoPS and MitoPS in skeletal muscle independently of mTORC1 activation. Key points Previous studies have shown that endurance exercise increases myofibrillar (MyoPS) and

  4. The adaptor Lnk (SH2B3): an emerging regulator in vascular cells and a link between immune and inflammatory signaling.

    PubMed

    Devallière, Julie; Charreau, Béatrice

    2011-11-15

    A better knowledge of the process by which inflammatory extracellular signals are relayed from the plasma membrane to specific intracellular sites is a key step to understand how inflammation develops and how it is regulated. This review focuses on Lnk (SH2B3) a member, with SH2B1 and SH2B2, of the SH2B family of adaptor proteins that influences a variety of signaling pathways mediated by Janus kinase and receptor tyrosine kinases. SH2B adaptor proteins contain conserved dimerization, pleckstrin homology, and SH2 domains. Initially described as a regulator of hematopoiesis and lymphocyte differentiation, Lnk now emerges as a key regulator in hematopoeitic and non hematopoeitic cells such as endothelial cells (EC) moderating growth factor and cytokine receptor-mediated signaling. In EC, Lnk is a negative regulator of TNF signaling that reduce proinflammatory phenotype and prevent EC from apoptosis. Lnk is a modulator in integrin signaling and actin cytoskeleton organization in both platelets and EC with an impact on cell adhesion, migration and thrombosis. In this review, we discuss some recent insights proposing Lnk as a key regulator of bone marrow-endothelial progenitor cell kinetics, including the ability to cell growth, endothelial commitment, mobilization, and recruitment for vascular regeneration. Finally, novel findings also provided evidences that mutations in Lnk gene are strongly linked to myeloproliferative disorders but also autoimmune and inflammatory syndromes where both immune and vascular cells display a role. Overall, these studies emphasize the importance of the Lnk adaptor molecule not only as prognostic marker but also as potential therapeutic target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Circular RNA hsa_circ_0010729 regulates vascular endothelial cell proliferation and apoptosis by targeting the miR-186/HIF-1α axis.

    PubMed

    Dang, Rui-Ying; Liu, Feng-Li; Li, Yan

    2017-08-19

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a group of non-protein-coding RNAs generated from back splicing. Emerging evidence has demonstrated its vital regulation on angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism responsible for circRNAs effects on vascular endothelial cells is still unclear. In the present study, we screened the expression profiles and investigated the physiological role of circRNAs in hypoxia-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Using circRNA microarray analysis, we identified 36 circRNAs that were significantly dysregulated including 14 down-regulated circRNAs and 22 up-regulated with 2-fold change (P < 0.05). From the over-expressed circRNAs, hsa_circ_0010729 was selected as candidate circRNA and which was validated to be significantly up-regulated using RT-PCR. In loss-of-function experiments of HUVECs, hsa_circ_0010729 knockdown suppressed the proliferation and migration ability and enhanced apoptosis. Bioinformatic prediction and luciferase assay revealed that hsa_circ_0010729 and hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) were targeted by miR-186. Validation experiments verified that hsa_circ_0010729 was co-expressed with HIF-1α, being negatively correlated with miR-186. Moreover, rescue experiments demonstrated that miR-186 inhibitor could reverse the role of hsa_circ_0010729 knockdown on HUVECs progression. Overall, the present study identifies the crucial regulation of hsa_circ_0010729 on vascular endothelial cell proliferation and apoptosis via targeting miR-186/HIF-1α axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term treatment of bile duct-ligated rats with rapamycin (sirolimus) significantly attenuates liver fibrosis: analysis of the underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Biecker, Erwin; De Gottardi, Andrea; Neef, Markus; Unternährer, Matthias; Schneider, Vreni; Ledermann, Monika; Sägesser, Hans; Shaw, Sidney; Reichen, Jürg

    2005-06-01

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressant with antiproliferative properties. We investigated whether rapamycin treatment of bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats is capable of inhibiting liver fibrosis and thereby affecting hemodynamics. Following BDL, rats were treated for 28 days with rapamycin (BDL SIR). BDL animals without drug treatment (BDL CTR) and sham-operated animals served as controls. After 28 days, hemodynamics were measured, and livers were harvested for histology/immunohistochemistry. Liver mRNA levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-beta, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip) (p27), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) (p21) were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Liver protein levels of p27, p21, p70 S6 kinase (p70(s6k)), phosphorylated p70(s6k) (p-p70(s6k)), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP1), p-4E-BP1 (Thr37/46), and p-4E-BP1 (Ser65/Thr70) were determined by Western blotting. Portal vein pressure was lower in BDL SIR than in BDL CTR animals. Volume fractions of connective tissue, bile duct epithelial, and desmin- and actin-positive cells were lower in BDL SIR than in BDL CTR rats. On the mRNA level, TGF-beta1, CTGF, and PDGF were decreased by rapamycin. p27 and p21 mRNA did not differ. On the protein level, rapamycin increased p27 and decreased p21 levels. Levels of nonphosphorylated p70(s6k) and 4E-BP1 did not vary between groups, but levels of p-p70(s6k) were decreased by rapamycin. Rapamycin had no effect on p-4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) and p-4E-BP1 (Ser65/Thr70) levels. In BDL rats, rapamycin inhibits liver fibrosis and ameliorates portal hypertension. This is paralleled by decreased levels of TGF-beta1, CTGF, and PDGF. Rapamycin influences the cell cycle by up-regulation of p27, down-regulation of p21, and inhibition of p70(s6k) phosphorylation.

  7. Possible role of mechanical force in regulating regeneration of the vascularized fat flap inside a tissue engineering chamber.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuan; Yuan, Yi; Lu, Feng; Gao, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    In plastic and reconstructive surgery, adipose tissue is widely used as effective filler for tissue defects. Strategies for treating soft tissue deficiency, which include free adipose tissue grafts, use of hyaluronic acid, collagen injections, and implantation of synthetic materials, have several clinical limitations. With the aim of overcoming these limitations, researchers have recently utilized tissue engineering chambers to produce large volumes of engineered vascularized fat tissue. However, the process of growing fat tissue in a chamber is still relatively limited, and can result in unpredictable or dissatisfactory final tissue volumes. Therefore, detailed understanding of the process is both necessary and urgent. Many studies have shown that mechanical force can change the function of cells via mechanotransduction. Here, we hypothesized that, besides the inflammatory response, one of the key factors to control the regeneration of vascularized fat flap inside a tissue engineering chamber might be the balance of mechanical forces. To test our hypothesis, we intend to change the balance of forces by means of measures in order to make the equilibrium point in favor of the direction of regeneration. If those measures proved to be feasible, they could be applied in clinical practice to engineer vascularized adipose tissue of predictable size and shape, which would in turn help in the advancement of tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapamycin inhibits spermatogenesis by changing the autophagy status through suppressing mechanistic target of rapamycin-p70S6 kinase in male rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shangjing; Huang, Longxian; Geng, Yanqing; He, Junlin; Chen, Xuemei; Xu, Hao; Li, Rong; Wang, Yingxiong; Ding, Yubin; Liu, Xueqing

    2017-10-01

    Rapamycin (sirolimus) is an antiproliferative drug that has been widely used in the clinic as an immunosuppressant and a potential anticancer agent. Certain reports have indicated that rapamycin may induce male infertility through impairing sperm quality. The present study investigated the mechanism of male infertility caused by rapamycin and examined whether withdrawal of rapamycin could recover the number of sperm in rats. Male Sprague‑Dawley rats (n=100) were divided randomly into 5 groups: 3 rapamycin‑treated groups (2, 4 and 6 mg/kg) and 2 control groups [Blank and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)]. Organ coefficients of the testes, number of sperm and hematoxylin‑eosin staining analyses demonstrated that rapamycin treatment markedly damaged the structure of the seminiferous tubule and reduced the number of sperm. Immunohistochemistry of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Ki67 in testes tissue, and western blotting of phosphorylated‑p70S6K and p70S6K, supported the hypothesis that rapamycin causes sperm reduction through inhibiting proliferation of spermatogonia. Unfortunately, 24 weeks after cessation of rapamycin treatment, only the number of sperm in 2 mg/kg group was restored back to the normal level. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to demonstrate that low doses rapamycin leads to activation of autophagy in rat testes. This may be a self‑protective mechanism of the cell in response to external stress. Thus, spermatogenesis can be recovered in the testes from rats in the low dose group. High doses of rapamycin resulted in excessive consumption of autophagy proteins, and the damage could not be compensated. In addition, it was revealed that cell apoptosis increased after treatment with rapamycin. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that rapamycin inhibits spermatogenesis through suppressing phosphorylation of p70S6K and changing the autophagy status, ultimately reducing the number of sperm

  9. Growth of Streptomyces Hygroscopicus in Rotating-Wall Bioreactor Under Simulated Microgravity Inhibits Rapamycin Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, A.; Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Demain, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Growth of Streptomyces hygroscopicus under conditions of simulated microgravity in a rotating-wall bioreactor resulted in a pellet form of growth, lowered dry cell weight, and inhibition of rapamycin production. With the addition of Teflon beads to the bioreactor, growth became much less pelleted, dry cell weight increased but rapamycin production was still markedly inhibited. Growth under simulated microgravity favored extracellular production of rapamycin in contrast to a greater percentage of cell-bound rapamycin observed under normal gravity conditions.

  10. Growth of Steptomyces hygroscopicus in rotating-wall bioreactor under simulated microgravity inhibits rapamycin production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, A.; Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Demain, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Growth of Streptomyces hygroscopicus under conditions of simulated microgravity in a rotating-wall bioreactor resulted in a pellet form of growth, lowered dry cell weight, and inhibition of rapamycin production. With the addition of Teflon beads to the bioreactor, growth became much less pelleted, dry cell weight increased but rapamycin production was still markedly inhibited. Growth under simulated microgravity favored extracellular production of rapamycin, in contrast to a greater percentage of cell-bound rapamycin observed under normal gravity conditions.

  11. Vascular ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... with aberrant subclavian and left ligamentum ateriosus; Congenital heart defect - vascular ring; Birth defect heart - vascular ring ... accounts for less than 1% of all congenital heart problems. The condition occurs as often in males ...

  12. Modulation of CaV1.2 calcium channel by neuropeptide W regulates vascular myogenic tone via G protein-coupled receptor 7.

    PubMed

    Ji, Li; Zhu, Huayuan; Chen, Hong; Fan, Wenyong; Chen, Junjie; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Guoqing; Wang, Juejin

    2015-12-01

    Neuropeptide W (NPW), an endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor 7 (GPR7), was first found to make important roles in central nerve system. In periphery, NPW was also present and regulated intracellular calcium homeostasis by L-type calcium channels. This study was designed to discover the effects of NPW-GPR7 on the function of CaV1.2 calcium channels in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and vasotone of arterial vessels. By whole-cell patch clamp, we studied the effects of NPW-23, the active form of NPW, on the CaV1.2 channels in the heterologously transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells and VSMCs isolated from rat. Living system was used to explore the physiological function of NPW-23 in arterial myogenic tone. To investigate the pathological relevance, NPW mRNA level of mesenteric arteries was measured in the hypertensive and normotensive rats. NPW's receptor GPR7 was coexpressed with CaV1.2 channels in arterial smooth muscle. NPW-23 increased the ICa,L in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells and VSMCs via GPR7, which could be abrogated by phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, not protein kinase A or protein kinase G inhibitor. After NPW-23 application, the expression of pan phospho-PKC was increased; moreover, intracellular diacylglycerol level, the second messenger catalyzed by PLC, was increased 1.5-2-fold. Application with NPW-23 increased pressure-induced vasotone of the rat mesenteric arteries. Importantly, the expression of NPW was decreased in the hypertensive rats. NPW-23 regulates ICa,L via GPR7, which is mediated by PLC/PKC signaling, and such a mechanism plays a role in modulating vascular myogenic tone, which may involve in the development of vascular hypertension.

  13. The Role of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in Insulin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mee-Sup

    2017-10-27

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that controls a wide spectrum of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. mTOR forms two distinct multiprotein complexes known as mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), which are characterized by the presence of raptor and rictor, respectively. mTOR controls insulin signaling by regulating several downstream components such as growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (Grb10), insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1), F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 8 (Fbw8), and insulin like growth factor 1 receptor/insulin receptor (IGF-IR/IR). In addition, mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate each other through a feedback loop to control cell growth. This review outlines the current understanding of mTOR regulation in insulin signaling in the context of whole body metabolism.

  14. Rapamycin treatment causes developmental delay, pigmentation defects, and gastrointestinal malformation on Xenopus embryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, Yuki; Ohata, Yoshihisa; Mori, Shoko

    Research highlights: {yields} Does famous anti-aging drug rapamycin work from the beginning of life? The answer is yes. {yields} This study shows that developmental speed of frog embryo was dose-dependently decreased by rapamycin treatment. {yields} In additions, morphogenetic effects such as less pigmentations and gut malformation are occurred by rapamycin. -- Abstract: Rapamycin is a drug working as an inhibitor of the TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway and influences various life phenomena such as cell growth, proliferation, and life span extension in eukaryote. However, the extent to which rapamycin controls early developmental events of amphibians remains to be understood.more » Here we report an examination of rapamycin effects during Xenopus early development, followed by a confirmation of suppression of TOR downstream kinase S6K by rapamycin treatment. First, we found that developmental speed was declined in dose-dependent manner of rapamycin. Second, black pigment spots located at dorsal and lateral skin in tadpoles were reduced by rapamycin treatment. Moreover, in tadpole stages severe gastrointestinal malformations were observed in rapamycin-treated embryos. Taken together with these results, we conclude that treatment of the drug rapamycin causes enormous influences on early developmental period.« less

  15. Inhibition of hemangioma growth using polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles for delivery of rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Teng, Yunfei; Sun, Jin; Liu, Jianyong

    2017-11-01

    Although infantile hemangiomas is benign, its rapid growth may induce serious complications. However, only one drug Hemangeol™ has been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat infantile hemangiomas. Thus it is necessary to develop novel alternative drugs to treat infantile hemangiomas. Rapamycin is a well-know potent antiangiogenic agent, whereas the daily oral administration of rapamycin exerts undesired metabolic effects due to its inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) which is critical in cell metabolism. We hereby developed rapamycin-loaded polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (Rapamycin-PLNPs) as a local controlled release system to realize local and sustained release of rapamycin, aiming to reduce the side effects and frequency of administration of rapamycin. Rapamycin-PLNPs are of a small size (129.1nm), desired drug encapsulation efficiency (63.7%), and sustained drug release for 5 days. Rapamycin-PLNPs were shown to be able to effectively bind to hemangioma endothelia cells (HemECs), induce significant proliferation inhibition and reduce expression of angiogenesis factors in HemECs. The therapeutic effect of Rapamycin-PLNPs against infantile hemangioma in vivo was superior to rapamycin, as reflected by reduced hemangioma volume, weight and microvessel density. Taken together, Rapamycin-PLNPs represent a very promising local approach in the treatment of infantile hemangiomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapamycin: An InhibiTOR of Aging Emerges From the Soil of Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Arriola Apelo, Sebastian I; Lamming, Dudley W

    2016-07-01

    Rapamycin (sirolimus) is a macrolide immunosuppressant that inhibits the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein kinase and extends lifespan in model organisms including mice. Although rapamycin is an FDA-approved drug for select indications, a diverse set of negative side effects may preclude its wide-scale deployment as an antiaging therapy. mTOR forms two different protein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2; the former is acutely sensitive to rapamycin whereas the latter is only chronically sensitive to rapamycin in vivo. Over the past decade, it has become clear that although genetic and pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 extends lifespan and delays aging, inhibition of mTORC2 has negative effects on mammalian health and longevity and is responsible for many of the negative side effects of rapamycin. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the molecular and physiological effects of rapamycin treatment, and we discuss how the use of alternative rapamycin treatment regimens or rapamycin analogs has the potential to mitigate the deleterious side effects of rapamycin treatment by more specifically targeting mTORC1. Although the side effects of rapamycin are still of significant concern, rapid progress is being made in realizing the revolutionary potential of rapamycin-based therapies for the treatment of diseases of aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Rapamycin: An InhibiTOR of Aging Emerges From the Soil of Easter Island

    PubMed Central

    Arriola Apelo, Sebastian I.

    2016-01-01

    Rapamycin (sirolimus) is a macrolide immunosuppressant that inhibits the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein kinase and extends lifespan in model organisms including mice. Although rapamycin is an FDA-approved drug for select indications, a diverse set of negative side effects may preclude its wide-scale deployment as an antiaging therapy. mTOR forms two different protein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2; the former is acutely sensitive to rapamycin whereas the latter is only chronically sensitive to rapamycin in vivo. Over the past decade, it has become clear that although genetic and pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 extends lifespan and delays aging, inhibition of mTORC2 has negative effects on mammalian health and longevity and is responsible for many of the negative side effects of rapamycin. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the molecular and physiological effects of rapamycin treatment, and we discuss how the use of alternative rapamycin treatment regimens or rapamycin analogs has the potential to mitigate the deleterious side effects of rapamycin treatment by more specifically targeting mTORC1. Although the side effects of rapamycin are still of significant concern, rapid progress is being made in realizing the revolutionary potential of rapamycin-based therapies for the treatment of diseases of aging. PMID:27208895

  18. Differing Effects of Systemically Administered Rapamycin on Consolidation and Reconsolidation of Context vs. Cued Fear Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Ebony M.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Davis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, has attracted interest as a possible prophylactic for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-associated fear memories. We report here that although rapamycin (40 mg/kg, i.p.) disrupted the consolidation and reconsolidation of fear-potentiated startle paradigm to a…

  19. Glycolaldehyde-derived advanced glycation end products (glycol-AGEs)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction is regulated by the AGES-receptor (RAGE) axis in endothelium.

    PubMed

    Nam, Mi-Hyun; Son, Won-Rak; Lee, Young Sik; Lee, Kwang-Won

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are involved in the development of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction and the progression of atherosclerosis. However, AGEs may indirectly affect VSMCs via AGEs-induced signal transduction between monocytes and human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs), rather than having a direct influence. This study was designed to elucidate the signaling pathway underlying AGEs-RAGE axis influence on VSMC dysfunction using a co-culture system with monocytes, HUVECs and VSMCs. AGEs stimulated production of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β via extracellular-signal-regulated kinases phosphorylation and nuclear factor-κB activation in HUVECs. It was observed that AGEs-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines increase VSMC proliferation, inflammation and vascular remodeling in the co-culture system. This result implies that RAGE plays a role in AGEs-induced VSMC dysfunction. We suggest that the regulation of signal transduction via the AGEs-RAGE axis in the endothelium can be a therapeutic target for preventing atherosclerosis.

  20. ULK1, mammalian target of rapamycin, and mitochondria: linking nutrient availability and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Mondira

    2011-05-15

    A fundamental function of autophagy conserved from yeast to mammals is mobilization of macromolecules during times of limited nutrient availability, permitting organisms to survive under starvation conditions. In yeast, autophagy is initiated following nitrogen or carbon deprivation, and autophagy mutants die rapidly under these conditions. Similarly, in mammals, autophagy is upregulated in most organs following initiation of starvation, and is critical for survival in the perinatal period following abrupt termination of the placental nutrient supply. The nutrient-sensing kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, coordinates cellular proliferation and growth with nutrient availability, at least in part by regulating protein synthesis and autophagy-mediated degradation. This review focusses on the regulation of autophagy by Tor, a mammalian target of rapamycin, and Ulk1, a mammalian homolog of Atg1, in response to changes in nutrient availability. Given the importance of mitochondria in maintaining bioenergetic homestasis, and potentially as a source of membrane for autophagosomes during starvation, possible roles for mitochondria in this process are also discussed.

  1. ULK1, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin, and Mitochondria: Linking Nutrient Availability and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A fundamental function of autophagy conserved from yeast to mammals is mobilization of macromolecules during times of limited nutrient availability, permitting organisms to survive under starvation conditions. In yeast, autophagy is initiated following nitrogen or carbon deprivation, and autophagy mutants die rapidly under these conditions. Similarly, in mammals, autophagy is upregulated in most organs following initiation of starvation, and is critical for survival in the perinatal period following abrupt termination of the placental nutrient supply. The nutrient-sensing kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, coordinates cellular proliferation and growth with nutrient availability, at least in part by regulating protein synthesis and autophagy-mediated degradation. This review focusses on the regulation of autophagy by Tor, a mammalian target of rapamycin, and Ulk1, a mammalian homolog of Atg1, in response to changes in nutrient availability. Given the importance of mitochondria in maintaining bioenergetic homestasis, and potentially as a source of membrane for autophagosomes during starvation, possible roles for mitochondria in this process are also discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1953–1958. PMID:21235397

  2. Rapamycin-based inducible translocation systems for studying phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bohdanowicz, Michal; Fairn, Gregory D

    2011-01-01

    Phagocytosis is an immune receptor-mediated process whereby cells engulf large particles. The process is dynamic and requires several localized factors acting in concert with and sequentially after the engagement of immune receptors to envelope the particle. Once the particle is internalized, the nascent -phagosome undergoes a series of events leading to its maturation to the microbicidal phagolysosome. Investigating these dynamic and temporally controlled series of events in live cells requires noninvasive methods. The ability to rapidly recruit the proteins of interest to the sites of phagocytosis or to nascent phagosomes would help dissect the regulatory mechanisms involved during phagocytosis. Here, we describe a general approach to express in RAW264.7 murine macrophages, a genetically encoded rapamycin--induced heterodimerization system. In the presence of rapamycin, tight association between FK506-binding protein (FKBP) and FKBP rapamycin-binding protein (FRB) is observed. Based on this principle, a synthetic system consisting of a targeting domain attached to FKBP can recruit a protein of interest fused to FRB upon the addition of rapamycin. Previously, this technique has been used to target lipid-modifying enzymes and small GTPases to the phagosome or plasma membrane. The recruitment of the FRB module can be monitored by fluorescent microscopy if a fluorescent protein is fused to the FRB sequence. While the focus of this chapter is on phagocytic events, this method can be employed to study any organelle of interest when the appropriate targeting sequence is used.

  3. Rapamycin alleviates oxidative stress-induced damage in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Singh, Sandeep; Garg, Geetika; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-10-01

    An imbalanced cellular redox system promotes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may lead to oxidative stress-mediated cell death. Erythrocytes are the best-studied model of antioxidant defense mechanism. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the immunosuppressant drug rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy, on redox balance of erythrocytes and blood plasma of oxidatively challenged rats. Male Wistar rats were oxidatively challenged with HgCl 2 (5 mg/kg body mass (b.m.)). A significant (p < 0.05) induction in ROS production, plasma membrane redox system (PMRS), intracellular Ca 2+ influx, lipid peroxidation (LPO), osmotic fragility, plasma protein carbonyl (PCO) content, and plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and simultaneously significant reduction in glutathione (GSH) level and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were observed in rats exposed to HgCl 2 . Furthermore, rapamycin (0.5 mg/kg b.m.) provided significant protection against HgCl 2 -induced alterations in rat erythrocytes and plasma by reducing ROS production, PMRS activity, intracellular Ca 2+ influx, LPO, osmotic fragility, PCO content, and AOPP and also restored the level of antioxidant GSH and FRAP. Our observations provide evidence that rapamycin improves redox status and attenuates oxidative stress in oxidatively challenged rats. Our data also demonstrate that rapamycin is a comparatively safe immunosuppressant drug.

  4. Intrathecal administration of rapamycin inhibits the phosphorylation of DRG Nav1.8 and attenuates STZ-induced painful diabetic neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Wan-You; Zhang, Bin; Xiong, Qing-Ming; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Zhao, Wei-Cheng; He, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Han-Bing

    2016-04-21

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of mRNA translation and protein synthesis, and it is specifically inhibited by rapamycin. In chronic pain conditions, mTOR-mediated local protein synthesis is crucial for neuronal hyperexcitability and synaptic plasticity. The tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channel Nav1.8 plays a major role in action potential initiation and propagation and cellular excitability in DRG (dorsal root ganglion) neurons. In this study, we investigated if mTOR modulates the phosphorylation of Nav1.8 that is associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and behavioral hypersensitivity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin (STZ) at 60mg/kg. After the onset of PDN, the rats received daily intrathecal administrations of rapamycin (1μg, 3μg, or 10μg/day) for 7 days; other diabetic rats received the same volumes of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Herein, we demonstrate a marked increase in protein expression of total mTOR and phospho-mTOR (p-mTOR) together with the up-regulation of phosphor-Nav1.8 (p-Nav1.8) prior to the mechanical withdrawal threshold reaching a significant reduction in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Furthermore, the intrathecal administration of rapamycin, inhibiting the activity of mTOR, suppressed the phosphorylation of DRG Nav1.8, reduced the TTX-R current density, heightened the voltage threshold for activation and lowered the voltage threshold for inactivation and relieved mechanical hypersensitivity in diabetic rats. An intrathecal injection (i.t.) of rapamycin inhibited the phosphorylation and enhanced the functional availability of DRG Nav1.8 attenuated STZ-induced hyperalgesia. These results suggest that rapamycin is a potential therapeutic intervention for clinical PDN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapamycin suppresses microglial activation and reduces the development of neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Satoshi; Kanno, Haruo; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Akira; Yahata, Kenichiro; Yamaya, Seiji; Itoi, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    Rapamycin is an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, plays an important role in multiple cellular functions. Our previous study showed rapamycin treatment in acute phase reduced the neural tissue damage and locomotor impairment after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, there has been no study to investigate the therapeutic effect of rapamycin on neuropathic pain after SCI. In this study, we examined whether rapamycin reduces neuropathic pain following SCI in mice. We used a mouse model of thoracic spinal cord contusion injury, and divided the mice into the rapamycin-treated and the vehicle-treated groups. The rapamycin-treated mice were intraperitoneally injected with rapamycin (1 mg/kg) 4 h after SCI. The rapamycin treatment suppressed phosphorylated-p70S6K in the injured spinal cord that indicated inhibition of mTOR. The rapamycin treatment significantly improved not only locomotor function, but also mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in the hindpaws after SCI. In an immunohistochemical analysis, Iba-1-stained microglia in the lumbar spinal cord was significantly decreased in the rapamycin-treated mice. In addition, the activity of p38 MAPK in the lumbar spinal cord was significantly attenuated by rapamycin treatment. Furthermore, phosphorylated-p38 MAPK-positive microglia was relatively decreased in the rapamycin-treated mice. These results indicated rapamycin administration in acute phase to reduce secondary neural tissue damage can contribute to the suppression of the microglial activation in the lumbar spinal cord and attenuate the development of neuropathic pain after SCI. The present study first demonstrated that rapamycin has significant therapeutic potential to reduce the development of neuropathic pain following SCI. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:93-103, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity is Associated with Divergent Regulation of Calponin-1 in Conductance and Resistance Arteries in Hypertension-induced Early Vascular Dysfunction and Remodelling.

    PubMed

    Parente, Juliana M; Pereira, Camila A; Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Tanus-Santos, José E; Tostes, Rita C; Castro, Michele M

    2017-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 participates in hypertension-induced maladaptive vascular remodelling by degrading extra- and intracellular proteins. The consequent extracellular matrix rearrangement and phenotype switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) lead to increased cellular migration and proliferation. As calponin-1 degradation by MMP-2 may lead to VSMC proliferation during hypertension, the hypothesis of this study is that increased MMP-2 activity contributes to early hypertension-induced maladaptive remodelling in conductance and resistance arteries via regulation of calponin-1. The main objective was to analyse whether MMP-2 exerts similar effects on the structure and function of the resistance and conductance arteries during early hypertension. Two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) hypertensive male rats and corresponding controls were treated with doxycycline (30 mg/kg/day) or water until reaching one week of hypertension. Systolic blood pressure was increased in 2K-1C rats, and doxycycline did not reduce it. Aortas and mesenteric arteries were analysed. MMP-2 activity and expression were increased in both arteries, and doxycycline reduced it. Significant hypertrophic remodelling and VSMC proliferation were observed in aortas but not in mesenteric arteries of 2K-1C rats. The contractility of mesenteric arteries to phenylephrine was increased in 2K-1C rats, and doxycycline prevented this alteration. The potency of phenylephrine to contract aortas of 2K-1C rats was increased, and doxycycline decreased it. Whereas calponin-1 expression was increased in 2K-1C mesenteric arteries, calponin-1 was reduced in aortas. Doxycycline treatment reverted changes in calponin-1 expression. MMP-2 contributes to hypertrophic remodelling in aortas by decreasing calponin-1 levels, which may result in VSMC proliferation. On the other hand, MMP-2-dependent increased calponin-1 in mesenteric arteries may contribute to vascular hypercontractility in 2K-1C rats. Divergent

  7. The mTOR kinase inhibitor rapamycin decreases iNOS mRNA stability in astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reactive astrocytes are capable of producing a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators and potentially neurotoxic compounds, including nitric oxide (NO). High amounts of NO are synthesized following up-regulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). The expression of iNOS is tightly regulated by complex molecular mechanisms, involving both transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase modulates the activity of some proteins directly involved in post-transcriptional processes of mRNA degradation. mTOR is a serine-threonine kinase that plays an evolutionarily conserved role in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, survival, and metabolism. It is also a key regulator of intracellular processes in glial cells. However, with respect to iNOS expression, both stimulatory and inhibitory actions involving the mTOR pathway have been described. In this study the effects of mTOR inhibition on iNOS regulation were evaluated in astrocytes. Methods Primary cultures of rat cortical astrocytes were activated with different proinflammatory stimuli, namely a mixture of cytokines (TNFα, IFNγ, and IL-1β) or by LPS plus IFNγ. Rapamycin was used at nM concentrations to block mTOR activity and under these conditions we measured its effects on the iNOS promoter, mRNA and protein levels. Functional experiments to evaluate iNOS activity were also included. Results In this experimental paradigm mTOR activation did not significantly affect astrocyte iNOS activity, but mTOR pathway was involved in the regulation of iNOS expression. Rapamycin did not display any significant effects under basal conditions, on either iNOS activity or its expression. However, the drug significantly increased iNOS mRNA levels after 4 h incubation in presence of pro-inflammatory stimuli. This stimulatory effect was transient, since no differences in either iNOS mRNA or protein levels were detected after 24 h. Interestingly, reduced levels of i

  8. Antioxidants modulate the antiproliferative effects of nitric oxide on vascular smooth muscle cells and adventitial fibroblasts by regulating oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Elaine K; Vavra, Ashley K; Moreira, Edward S; Havelka, George E; Jiang, Qun; Lee, Vanessa R; Van Lith, Robert; Ameer, Guillermo A; Kibbe, Melina R

    2011-11-01

    S-nitrosothiols (SNO) release nitric oxide (NO) through interaction with ascorbic acid (AA). However, little is known about their combined effect in the vasculature. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of AA on SNO-mediated NO release, proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell death, and oxidative stress in vascular cells. Vascular smooth muscle cells and adventitial fibroblasts harvested from the aortae of Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with AA, ± S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), or ± diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA/NO). NO release, proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell death, and oxidative stress were determined by the Griess reaction, [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, flow cytometry, trypan blue exclusion, and 5-(and-6)chloromethyl-2',7'dichlorodihydrofluorescein staining, respectively. AA increased NO release from GSNO 3-fold (P < .001). GSNO and DETA/NO significantly decreased proliferation, but AA abrogated this effect (P < .05). Mirroring the proliferation data, changes in cell cycle progression induced by GSNO and DETA/NO were reversed by the addition of AA. GSNO- and DETA/NO-mediated increases in oxidative stress were significantly decreased by the addition of AA (P < .001). Despite causing increased NO release from GSNO, AA reduced the antiproliferative and cell cycle effects of GSNO and DETA/NO through the modulation of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Phytochrome-Interacting VASCULAR PLANT ONE–ZINC FINGER1 and VOZ2 Redundantly Regulate Flowering in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Yukiko; Mukougawa, Keiko; Uemoto, Mitsuhiro; Yokofuji, Akira; Suzuri, Ryota; Nishitani, Aiko; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    The timing of the transition to flowering in plants is regulated by various environmental factors, including daylength and light quality. Although the red/far-red photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB) represses flowering by indirectly regulating the expression of a key flowering regulator, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), the mechanism of phyB signaling for flowering is largely unknown. Here, we identified two Arabidopsis thaliana genes, VASCULAR PLANT ONE–ZINC FINGER1 (VOZ1) and VOZ2, which are highly conserved throughout land plant evolution, as phyB-interacting factors. voz1 voz2 double mutants, but neither single mutant, showed a late-flowering phenotype under long-day conditions, which indicated that VOZ1 and VOZ2 redundantly promote flowering. voz1 voz2 mutations suppressed the early-flowering phenotype of the phyB mutant, and FT expression was repressed in the voz1 voz2 mutant. Green fluorescent protein–VOZ2 signal was observed in the cytoplasm, and interaction of VOZ proteins with phyB was indicated to occur in the cytoplasm under far-red light. However, VOZ2 protein modified to localize constitutively in the nucleus promoted flowering. In addition, the stability of VOZ2 proteins in the nucleus was modulated by light quality in a phytochrome-dependent manner. We propose that partial translocation of VOZ proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus mediates the initial step of the phyB signal transduction pathway that regulates flowering. PMID:22904146

  10. Advances in the therapeutic use of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Alexander L; Hill, Sharleen; Teng, Joyce M C

    2015-05-01

    Significant developments in the use of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors (mTORIs) as immunosuppressant and antiproliferative agents have been made. Recent advances in the understanding of the mTOR signaling pathway and its downstream effects on tumorigenesis and vascular proliferation have broadened the clinical applications of mTORIs in many challenging disorders such as tuberous sclerosis complex, pachyonychia congenita, complex vascular anomalies, and inflammatory dermatoses. Systemic mTORI therapy has shown benefits in these areas, but is associated with significant side effects that sometimes necessitate drug holidays. To mitigate the side effects of systemic mTORIs for dermatologic applications, preliminary work to assess the potential of percutaneous therapy has been performed, and the evidence suggests that percutaneous delivery of mTORIs may allow for effective long-term therapy while avoiding systemic toxicities. Additional large placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized studies are needed to assess the efficacy, safety, duration, and tolerability of topical treatments. The objective of this review is to provide updated information on the novel use of mTORIs in the management of many cutaneous disorders. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapamycin nanoparticles localize in diseased lung vasculature and prevent pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Segura-Ibarra, Victor; Amione-Guerra, Javier; Cruz-Solbes, Ana S; Cara, Francisca E; Iruegas-Nunez, David A; Wu, Suhong; Youker, Keith A; Bhimaraj, Arvind; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; Ferrari, Mauro; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Guha, Ashrith; Blanco, Elvin

    2017-05-30

    Vascular remodeling resulting from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) leads to endothelial fenestrations. This feature can be exploited by nanoparticles (NP), allowing them to extravasate from circulation and accumulate in remodeled pulmonary vessels. Hyperactivation of the mTOR pathway in PAH drives pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation. We hypothesized that rapamycin (RAP)-loaded NPs, an mTOR inhibitor, would accumulate in diseased lungs, selectively targeting vascular mTOR and preventing PAH progression. RAP poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-PCL) NPs were fabricated. NP accumulation and efficacy were examined in a rat monocrotaline model of PAH. Following intravenous (IV) administration, NP accumulation in diseased lungs was verified via LC/MS analysis and confocal imaging. Pulmonary arteriole thickness, right ventricular systolic pressures, and ventricular remodeling were determined to assess the therapeutic potential of RAP NPs. Monocrotaline-exposed rats showed increased NP accumulation within lungs compared to healthy controls, with NPs present to a high extent within pulmonary perivascular regions. RAP, in both free and NP form, attenuated PAH development, with histological analysis revealing minimal changes in pulmonary arteriole thickness and no ventricular remodeling. Importantly, NP-treated rats showed reduced systemic side effects compared to free RAP. This study demonstrates the potential for nanoparticles to significantly impact PAH through site-specific delivery of therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sulforaphane inhibits PDGF-induced proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell by up-regulation of p53 leading to G1/S cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Su-Hyang; Lim, Yong; Kim, Seung-Jung; Yoo, Kyu-Dong; Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hong, Jin-Tae; Lee, Mi-Yea; Yun, Yeo-Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis artery angioplasty are associated with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and intimal thickening arterial walls. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate produced in cruciferous vegetables, on VSMC proliferation and neointimal formation in a rat carotid artery injury model. Sulforaphane at the concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μM significantly inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced VSMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, determined by cell count. The IC50 value of sulforaphane-inhibited VSMC proliferation was 0.8 μM. Sulforaphane increased the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and p53 levels, while it decreased CDK2 and cyclin E expression. The effects of sulforaphane on vascular thickening were determined 14 days after the injury to the rat carotid artery. The angiographic mean luminary diameters of the group treated with 2 and 4 μM sulforaphane were 0.25±0.1 and 0.09±0.1 mm², respectively, while the value of the control groups was 0.40±0.1 mm², indicating that sulforaphane may inhibit neointimal formation. The expression of PCNA, maker for cell cycle arrest, was decreased, while that of p53 and p21 was increased, which showed the same pattern as one in in-vitro study. These results suggest that sulforaphane-inhibited VSMC proliferation may occur through the G1/S cell cycle arrest by up-regulation of p53 signaling pathway, and then lead to the decreased neointimal hyperplasia thickening. Thus, sulforaphane may be a promising candidate for the therapy of atherosclerosis and post-angiography restenosis. © 2013.

  13. Corynoxeine isolated from the hook of Uncaria rhynchophylla inhibits rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through the blocking of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tack-Joong; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Jin; Yu, Ji-Yeon; Hwang, Bang-Yeon; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Shujuan, Li; Gao, Li; Pyo, Myoung-Yun; Yun, Yeo-Pyo

    2008-11-01

    The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by injury to the intima of arteries is an important etiologic factor in vascular proliferative disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Uncaria rhynchophylla is traditional Chinese herb that has been applied to the treatment of convulsive disorders, such as epilepsy, in China. In the present study, we examined whether corynoxeine exerts inhibitory effects on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced rat aortic VSMC proliferation and the possible mechanism of such effects. Pre-treatment of VSMCs with corynoxeine (5-50 microM) for 24 h resulted in significant decreases in cell number without any cytotoxicity; the inhibition percentages were 25.0+/-12.5, 63.0+/-27.5 and 88.0+/-12.5% at 5, 20 and 50 microM, respectively. Also, corynoxeine significantly inhibited the 50 ng/ml PDGF-BB-induced DNA synthesis of VSMCs in a concentration-dependent manner without any cytotoxicity; the inhibitions were 32.8+/-11.0, 51.8+/-8.0 and 76.9+/-7.4% at concentrations of 5, 20 and 50 microM, respectively. Pre-incubation of VSMCs with corynoxeine significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation, whereas corynoxeine had no effects on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK)-activating kinase 1 and 2 (MEK1/2), Akt, or phospholipase C (PLC)gamma1 activation or on PDGF receptor beta (PDGF-Rbeta) phosphorylation. These results suggest that corynoxeine is a potent ERK1/2 inhibitor of key PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and may be useful in the prevention and treatment of vascular diseases and restenosis after angioplasty.

  14. The Role of Target of Rapamycin Signaling Networks in Plant Growth and Metabolism1

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Jen

    2014-01-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase, a master regulator that is evolutionarily conserved among yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), plants, animals, and humans, integrates nutrient and energy signaling to promote cell proliferation and growth. Recent breakthroughs made possible by integrating chemical, genetic, and genomic analyses have greatly increased our understanding of the molecular functions and dynamic regulation of the TOR kinase in photosynthetic plants. TOR signaling plays fundamental roles in embryogenesis, meristem activation, root and leaf growth, flowering, senescence, and life span determination. The molecular mechanisms underlying TOR-mediated ribosomal biogenesis, translation promotion, readjustment of metabolism, and autophagy inhibition are now being uncovered. Moreover, monitoring photosynthesis-derived Glc and bioenergetics relays has revealed that TOR orchestrates unprecedented transcriptional networks that wire central metabolism and biosynthesis for energy and biomass production. In addition, these networks integrate localized stem/progenitor cell proliferation through interorgan nutrient coordination to control developmental transitions and growth. PMID:24385567

  15. Temporal and Spatial Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Zebrafish Tie1 mRNA by Long Noncoding RNA During Brain Vascular Assembly.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Tamjid A; Koceja, Chris; Eisa-Beygi, Shahram; Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Kumar, Suresh N; Lin, Chien-Wei; Li, Keguo; Prabhudesai, Shubhangi; Joung, J Keith; Ramchandran, Ramani

    2018-05-03

    Tie1 (tyrosine kinase containing immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology 1), an endothelial and hematopoietic cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinase, is an important regulator of angiogenesis and critical for maintaining vascular integrity. The post-transcriptional regulation of tie1 mRNA expression is not understood, but it might partly explain Tie1's differential expression pattern in endothelium. Following up on our previous work that identified natural antisense transcripts from the tie1 locus- tie1 antisense ( tie1AS ), which regulates tie1 mRNA levels in zebrafish-we attempted to identify the mechanism of this regulation. Through in vitro and in vivo ribonucleoprotein binding studies, we demonstrated that tie1AS long noncoding RNA interacts with an RNA binding protein-embryonic lethal and abnormal vision Drosophila-like 1 (Elavl1)-that regulates tie1 mRNA levels. When we disrupted the interaction between tie1AS and Elavl1 by using constitutively active antisense morpholino oligonucleotides or photoactivatable morpholino oligonucleotides, tie1 mRNA levels increased between 26 and 31 hours post-fertilization, particularly in the head. This increase correlated with dilation of primordial midbrain channels, smaller eyes, and reduced ventricular space. We also observed these phenotypes when we used CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-mediated CRISPRi (CRISPR-mediated interference) to knock down tie1AS . Treatment of the morpholino oligonucleotide-injected embryos with a small molecule that decreased tie1 mRNA levels rescued all 3 abnormal phenotypes. We identified a novel mode of temporal and spatial post-transcriptional regulation of tie1 mRNA. It involves long noncoding RNA, tie1AS, and Elavl1 (an interactor of tie1AS ). © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Sites and Regulation of Polyamine Catabolism in the Tobacco Plant. Correlations with Cell Division/Expansion, Cell Cycle Progression, and Vascular Development1

    PubMed Central

    Paschalidis, Konstantinos A.; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A.

    2005-01-01

    We previously gave a picture of the homeostatic characteristics of polyamine (PA) biosynthesis and conjugation in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plant organs during development. In this work, we present the sites and regulation of PA catabolism related to cell division/expansion, cell cycle progression, and vascular development in the tobacco plant. Diamine oxidase (DAO), PA oxidase (PAO), peroxidases (POXs), and putrescine N-methyltransferase expressions follow temporally and spatially discrete patterns in shoot apical cells, leaves (apical, peripheral, and central regions), acropetal and basipetal petiole regions, internodes, and young and old roots in developing plants. DAO and PAO produce hydrogen peroxide, a plant signal molecule and substrate for POXs. Gene expression and immunohistochemistry analyses reveal that amine oxidases in developing tobacco tissues precede and overlap with nascent nuclear DNA and also with POXs and lignification. In mature and old tissues, flow cytometry indicates that amine oxidase and POX activities, as well as pao gene and PAO protein levels, coincide with G2 nuclear phase and endoreduplication. In young versus the older roots, amine oxidases and POX expression decrease with parallel inhibition of G2 advance and endoreduplication, whereas putrescine N-methyltransferase dramatically increases. In both hypergeous and hypogeous tissues, DAO and PAO expression occurs in cells destined to undergo lignification, suggesting a different in situ localization. DNA synthesis early in development and the advance in cell cycle/endocycle are temporally and spatially related to PA catabolism and vascular development. PMID:16040649

  17. Vascular Proteomics Reveal Novel Proteins Involved in SMC Phenotypic Change: OLR1 as a SMC Receptor Regulating Proliferation and Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong Hoon; Choi, Mina; Chang, Soyoung; Lee, Min Young; Lee, Doo Jae; Choi, Kyungsun; Park, Junseong; Han, Eun Chun; Hwang, Daehee; Kwon, Kihwan; Jo, Hanjoong; Choi, Chulhee; Kang, Sang Won

    2015-01-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) plays a critical role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and in-stent restenosis, but the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. We performed a proteomics study to identify novel signaling molecules organizing the VSMC hyperplasia. The differential proteomics analysis in a balloon-induced injury model of rat carotid artery revealed that the expressions of 44 proteins are changed within 3 days post injury. The combination of cellular function assays and a protein network analysis further demonstrated that 27 out of 44 proteins constitute key signaling networks orchestrating the phenotypic change of VSMC from contractile to epithelial-like synthetic. Among the list of proteins, the in vivo validation specifically revealed that six proteins (Rab15, ITR, OLR1, PDHβ, PTPε) are positive regulators for VSMC hyperplasia. In particular, the OLR1 played dual roles in the VSMC hyperplasia by directly mediating oxidized LDL-induced monocyte adhesion via NF-κB activation and by assisting the PDGF-induced proliferation/migration. Importantly, OLR1 and PDGFRβ were associated in close proximity in the plasma membrane. Thus, this study elicits the protein network organizing the phenotypic change of VSMC in the vascular injury diseases such as atherosclerosis and discovers OLR1 as a novel molecular link between the proliferative and inflammatory responses of VSMCs. PMID:26305474

  18. Up-regulation of proproliferative genes and the ligand/receptor pair placental growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 in hepatitis C cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao X; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Shackel, Nicholas A; Gorrell, Mark D

    2007-09-01

    Cirrhosis can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Non-diseased liver and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated cirrhosis with or without HCC were compared. Proliferation pathway genes, immune response genes and oncogenes were analysed by a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunostaining. Real-time RT-PCR showed up-regulation of genes in HCV cirrhosis including the proliferation-associated genes bone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP3), placental growth factor 3 (PGF3), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and soluble VEGFR1, the oncogene FYN, and the immune response-associated genes toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and natural killer cell transcript 4 (NK4). Expressions of TLR2 and the oncogenes B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9 (BCL9) and PIM2 were decreased in HCV cirrhosis. In addition, PIM2 and TLR2 were increased in HCV cirrhosis with HCC compared with HCV cirrhosis. The ligand/receptor pair PGF and VEGFR1 was intensely expressed by the portal tract vascular endothelium. VEGFR1 was expressed in reactive biliary epithelial structures in fibrotic septum and in some stellate cells and macrophages. PGF and VEGFR1 may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the neovascular response in cirrhosis.

  19. Dietary protein decreases exercise endurance through rapamycin-sensitive suppression of muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Mitsuishi, Masanori; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Muraki, Ayako; Tamaki, Masanori; Tanaka, Kumiko; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Loss of physical performance is linked not only to decreased activity in daily life but also to increased onset of cardiovascular diseases and mortality. A high-protein diet is recommended for aged individuals in order to preserve muscle mass; however, the regulation of muscle mitochondria by dietary protein has not been clarified. We investigated the long-term effects of a high-protein diet on muscle properties, focusing especially on muscle mitochondria. Mice were fed a high-protein diet from the age of 8 wk and examined for mitochondrial properties and exercise endurance at the ages of 20 and 50 wk. Compared with normal chow, a high-protein diet significantly decreased the amount of muscle mitochondria, mitochondrial activity, and running distance at 50 wk, although it increased muscle mass and grip power. Inhibition of TORC1-dependent signal pathways by rapamycin from 8 wk suppressed the decline in mitochondria and exercise endurance observed when mice were fed the high-protein diet in association with preserved AMPK activity. Collectively, these findings suggest a role for dietary protein as a suppressor of muscle mitochondria and indicate that the age-associated decline in exercise endurance might be accelerated by excessive dietary protein through rapamycin-sensitive suppression of muscle mitochondria.

  20. Target of rapamycin signaling orchestrates growth-defense trade-offs in plants.

    PubMed

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Filipe, Osvaldo; Hoffman, Gena; Seifi, Hamed Soren; Haeck, Ashley; Canlas, Patrick; Van Bockhaven, Jonas; De Waele, Evelien; Demeestere, Kristof; Ronald, Pamela; Hofte, Monica

    2018-01-01

    Plant defense to microbial pathogens is often accompanied by significant growth inhibition. How plants merge immune system function with normal growth and development is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of target of rapamycin (TOR), an evolutionary conserved serine/threonine kinase, in the plant defense response. We used rice as a model system and applied a combination of chemical, genetic, genomic and cell-based analyses. We demonstrate that ectopic expression of TOR and Raptor (regulatory-associated protein of mTOR), a protein previously demonstrated to interact with TOR in Arabidopsis, positively regulates growth and development in rice. Transcriptome analysis of rice cells treated with the TOR-specific inhibitor rapamycin revealed that TOR not only dictates transcriptional reprogramming of extensive gene sets involved in central and secondary metabolism, cell cycle and transcription, but also suppresses many defense-related genes. TOR overexpression lines displayed increased susceptibility to both bacterial and fungal pathogens, whereas plants with reduced TOR signaling displayed enhanced resistance. Finally, we found that TOR antagonizes the action of the classic defense hormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Together, these results indicate that TOR acts as a molecular switch for the activation of cell proliferation and plant growth at the expense of cellular immunity. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Blocking mammalian target of rapamycin alleviates bladder hyperactivity and pain in rats with cystitis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Simin; Li, Jie; Gou, Xin; Chen, Daihui

    2016-01-01

    Bladder disorders associated with interstitial cystitis are frequently characterized by increased contractility and pain. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the effects of blocking mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) on the exaggerated bladder activity and pain evoked by cystitis and (2) the underlying mechanisms responsible for the role of mTOR in regulating cystic sensory activity. The expression of p-mTOR, mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (p-S6K1), 4 E-binding protein 4 (p-4 E-BP1), as well as phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (p-PI3K) pathway were amplified in cyclophosphamide rats as compared with control rats. Blocking mTOR by intrathecal infusion of rapamycin attenuated bladder hyperactivity and pain. In addition, blocking PI3K signal pathway attenuated activities of mTOR, which was accompanied with decreasing bladder hyperactivity and pain. Inhibition of either mTOR or PI3K blunted the enhanced spinal substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in cyclophosphamide rats. The data for the first time revealed specific signaling pathways leading to cyclophosphamide-induced bladder hyperactivity and pain, including the activation of mTOR and PI3K. Inhibition of these pathways alleviates cystic pain. Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present new opportunities for treatment and management of overactive bladder and pain often observed in cystitis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Plum polyphenols inhibit colorectal aberrant crypt foci formation in rats: potential role of the miR-143/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin axis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Nivedita; Kim, Hyemee; Talcott, Stephen T; Turner, Nancy D; Byrne, David H; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2016-10-01

    The nutritional prevention of aberrant crypt foci by polyphenols may be a crucial step to dietary cancer prevention. The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic properties of plum (Prunus salicina L.) polyphenols, including chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid, in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats. The hypothesis was that plum polyphenolics suppress AOM-induced aberrant crypt foci formation through alterations in the protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and relative micro-RNA expressions. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10/group) received plum beverage (1346mg gallic acid equivalents/L) or a control beverage ad libitum for 10 weeks with subcutaneous injections of AOM (15mg/kg) at weeks 2 and 3. Results show that the consumption of the plum beverage decreased the number of dysplastic aberrant crypt foci by 48% (P<.05) and lowered proliferation of mucosal cells by 24% (P<.05). The plum beverage decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in mucosal scrapings, as well as the superoxide dismutase activity in serum. The results were accompanied by a down-regulation of proinflammatory enzymes nuclear factor κB, nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 messenger RNA. Plum inhibited the expression of AKT and mTOR messenger RNA, phosphorylated AKT, mTOR, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α protein levels, and the ratio of the phosphorylated/total protein expression of mTOR. Also, the plum beverage increased the expression of miR-143, which is involved in the regulation of AKT. These results suggest that plum polyphenols may exhibit a chemopreventive potential against colon carcinogenesis by impacting the AKT/mTOR pathway and miR-143. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear envelope proteins Nesprin2 and LaminA regulate proliferation and apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells in response to shear stress.

    PubMed

    Han, Yue; Wang, Lu; Yao, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Bo; Wang, Guo-Liang; Shen, Bao-Rong; Cheng, Binbin; Wang, Yingxiao; Jiang, Zong-Lai; Qi, Ying-Xin

    2015-05-01

    The dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) influenced by flow shear stress is crucial for vascular remodeling. However, the roles of nuclear envelope (NE) proteins in shear stress-induced EC dysfunction are still unknown. Our results indicated that, compared with normal shear stress (NSS), low shear stress (LowSS) suppressed the expression of two types of NE proteins, Nesprin2 and LaminA, and increased the proliferation and apoptosis of ECs. Targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gene overexpression plasmid transfection revealed that Nesprin2 and LaminA participate in the regulation of EC proliferation and apoptosis. A protein/DNA array was further used to detect the activation of transcription factors in ECs following transfection with target siRNAs and overexpression plasmids. The regulation of AP-2 and TFIID mediated by Nesprin2 and the activation of Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6 by LaminA were verified under shear stress. Furthermore, using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and real-time RT-PCR, the effects of Nesprin2 or LaminA on the downstream target genes of AP-2, TFIID, and Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6, respectively, were investigated under LowSS. Our study has revealed that NE proteins are novel mechano-sensitive molecules in ECs. LowSS suppresses the expression of Nesprin2 and LaminA, which may subsequently modulate the activation of important transcription factors and eventually lead to EC dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute Response of Circulating Vascular Regulating MicroRNAs during and after High-Intensity and High-Volume Cycling in Children.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Yvonne; Wehmeier, Udo F; Wahl, Patrick; Mester, Joachim; Hilberg, Thomas; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the response of vascular circulating microRNAs (miRNAs; miR-16, miR-21, miR-126) and the VEGF mRNA following an acute bout of HIIT and HVT in children. Twelve healthy competitive young male cyclists (14.4 ± 0.8 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1) peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of high intensity 4 × 4 min intervals (HIIT) at 90-95% peak power output (PPO), each interval separated by 3 min of active recovery, and one high volume session (HVT) consisting of a constant load exercise for 90 min at 60% PPO. Capillary blood from the earlobe was collected under resting conditions, during exercise (d1 = 20 min, d2 = 30 min, d3 = 60 min), and 0, 30, 60, 180 min after the exercise to determine miR-16, -21, -126, and VEGF mRNA. HVT significantly increased miR-16 and miR-126 during and after the exercise compared to pre-values, whereas HIIT showed no significant influence on the miRNAs compared to pre-values. VEGF mRNA significantly increased during and after HIIT (d1, 30', 60', 180') and HVT (d3, 0', 60'). RESULTS of the present investigation suggest a volume dependent exercise regulation of vascular regulating miRNAs (miR-16, miR-21, miR-126) in children. In line with previous data, our data show that acute exercise can alter circulating miRNAs profiles that might be used as novel biomarkers to monitor acute and chronic changes due to exercise in various tissues.

  5. PPARdelta inhibits IL-1beta-stimulated proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via up-regulation of IL-1Ra.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Kim, M Y; Hwang, J S; Kim, H J; Lee, J H; Chang, K C; Kim, J-H; Han, C W; Kim, J-H; Seo, H G

    2010-06-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta by GW501516, a specific PPARdelta ligand, significantly inhibited interleukin (IL)-1beta-induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This effect of GW501516 was dependent on transforming growth factor-beta, and was mediated through the up-regulation of IL-1 receptor antagonist. The inhibitory effect of GW501516 on VSMC proliferation was associated with cell cycle arrest at the G1 to S phase transition, which was accompanied by the induction of p21 and p53 along with decreased cyclin-dependent kinase 4 expression. Inhibition of cell migration by GW501516 was associated with the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in IL-1beta-treated VSMCs. Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase significantly reduced the GW501516-mediated inhibition of IL-1beta-stimulated VSMC proliferation. These results suggest that PPARdelta plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diseases associated with the proliferation and migration of VSMCs.

  6. CD147 induces up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in U937-derived foam cells through PI3K/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Zong, JiaXin; Li, YunTian; Du, DaYong; Liu, Yang; Yin, YongJun

    2016-11-01

    Intraplaque angiogenesis has been recognized as an important risk factor for the rupture of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in recent years. CD147, also called Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer, has been found the ability to promote angiogenesis in many pathological conditions such as cancer diseases and rheumatoid arthritis via the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a critical mediator of angiogenesis. We investigated whether CD147 would also induce the up-regulation of VEGF in the foam cells formation process and explored the probable signaling pathway. The results showed the expression of CD147 and VEGF was significantly higher in U937-derived foam cells. After CD147 stealth siRNA transfection treatment, the production of VEGF was reduced depended on the inhibition efficiency of CD147 siRNAs.The special signaling pathway inhibitors LY294002, SP600125, SB203580 and U0126 were added to cultures respectively and the results showed LY294002 dose-dependently inhibited the expression of VEGF. The reduction of phospho-Akt was observed in both LY294002 and siRNA groups, suggested that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway may be the probable signaling pathway underlying CD147 induced up-regulation of VEGF in U937-derived foam cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prostaglandin E₂ regulates cellular migration via induction of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 in HCA-7 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Hiromichi; Toyomura, Kaori; Chen, Xiao-bo; Regan, John W; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2011-02-01

    An important event in the development of tumors is angiogenesis, or the formation of new blood vessels. Angiogenesis is also known to be involved in tumor cell metastasis and is dependent upon the activity of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway. Studies of mice in which the EP3 prostanoid receptors have been genetically deleted have shown a role for these receptors in cancer growth and angiogenesis. In the present study, human colon cancer HCA-7 cells were used as a model system to understand the potential role of EP3 receptors in tumor cell migration. We now show that stimulation of HCA-7 cells with PGE₂ enhanced the up-regulation of VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) expression by a mechanism involving EP3 receptor-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases. Moreover, the PGE₂ stimulated increase in VEGFR-1 expression was accompanied by an increase in the cellular migration of HCA-7 cells. Given the known involvement of VEGFR-1 in cellular migration, our results suggest that EP3 receptors may contribute to tumor cell metastasis by increasing cellular migration through the up-regulation of VEGFR-1 signaling. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Circular RNA WDR77 target FGF-2 to regulate vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration by sponging miR-124.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junjiang; Cui, Lianqun; Yuan, Jingliang; Zhang, Yuqing; Sang, Hongjun

    2017-12-09

    Increasing evidences have revealed the important role of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in cardiovascular system disease. Whereas, the expression profiles and in-depth regulation of circRNAs on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is still undetermined. In present study, our research team performed circRNAs microarray analysis to present the circRNAs expression profiles in high glucose induced VSMCs in vitro. Results showed that total of 983 circRNAs were discovered to be differentially expressed, and of these, 458 were upregulated and 525 were downregulated. Moreover, 31 circRNAs were up-regulated and 22 circRNAs were down-regulated with 2 fold change (P < 0.05). One of an up-regulated circRNA, circWDR77, was identified. In vitro cell assay, circWDR77 silencing significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration. Bioinformatics methods discovered that miR-124 and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) were downstream targets of circWDR77. The RNA sequence complementary binding was validated by RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and/or luciferase reporter assay. Further function validation experiments revealed that circWDR77 regulated VSMCs proliferation and migration via targeting miR-124/FGF2. Taken together, present study firstly reveals the circRNAs expression profiles in high glucose induced VSMCs and identifies the role of circWDR77-miR-124-FGF2 regulatory pathway in VSMCs proliferation and migration, which might provide a new theoretical basis for diabetes mellitus correlated vasculopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression via human papillomavirus oncogene E7 in HPV-18-positive cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Cui, Jinquan

    2015-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection induces chronic and precancerous lesions and results in invasive cervical cancer. Human telomerase as well as inflammatory and angiogenic factors such as telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could play a role in regulating HPV-induced cervical cancer. This study investigated underlying molecular events in HPV-induced HPV-positive cervical cancer through hTERT and VEGF in vitro. Expressions of hTERT, a rate-limiting subunit of telomerase, and VEGF mRNA and proteins were, respectively, assessed by qRT-PCR, ELISA, and TRAP-ELISA in HPV-positive tissue samples and cervical cancer cell lines. To assess hTERT and VEGF secretion, hTERT overexpression and knockdown were conducted in HPV-18-positive Hela cells by hTERT cDNA and shRNA transfection, respectively. Then, the effect of HPV E6 and E7 on VEGF expressions was assessed in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data have shown that VEGF expression levels are associated with hTERT expressions and telomerase activity in HPV-positive cervical cancer tissues and cells. Knockdown of hTERT expression down-regulated VEGF expressions, whereas overexpression of hTERT up-regulated VEGF expressions in HPV-18-positive Hela cells. Furthermore, HPV E7 oncoprotein was necessary for hTERT to up-regulate VEGF expressions in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data from this current study indicate that HPV oncoproteins up-regulated hTERT and telomerase activity and in turn promoted VEGF expressions, which could be a key mechanism for HPV-induced cervical cancer development and progression.

  10. Rapamycin promotes differentiation increasing βIII-tubulin, NeuN, and NeuroD while suppressing nestin expression in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lenzi, Paola; Gambardella, Stefano; Ferese, Rosangela; Calierno, Maria Teresa; Falleni, Alessandra; Grimaldi, Alfonso; Frati, Alessandro; Esposito, Vincenzo; Limatola, Cristina; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma cells feature mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) up-regulation which relates to a variety of effects such as: lower survival, higher infiltration, high stemness and radio- and chemo-resistance. Recently, it was demonstrated that mTOR may produce a gene shift leading to altered protein expression. Therefore, in the present study we administered different doses of the mTOR inhibitor <