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Sample records for rapid alternative methods

  1. Rapid and alternative screening methods for microbiological analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, H; Huis in't Veld, J H

    1997-01-01

    Automated analytical instruments for enumerating indicator organisms and diagnostic test kits for pathogens can be used in food microbiology to screen samples and to replace conventional cultural and confirmation steps. Such methods are now available for rapid detection or estimation of groups of (indicator) organisms, pathogenic micro-organisms, bacterial toxins and mycotoxins, and molds. These alternative methods can be classified by the principles on which they are based: modified conventional methods, instrumental measurement of bacterial metabolism, bioluminescence, immunological techniques, DNA techniques, and combinations of these techniques. To meet user expectations, test kits must be accurate, sensitive, specific, rapid (24 h or less), easy to use, and labor-saving. They must also offer the possibility of computerization, a low detection limit, and low investment and running costs. The paper compares the ability of alternative methods to meet these criteria. Variations were found, depending on the techniques used and the target organism of the analysis. Economic reasons can determine whether alternative methods can be used routinely. Adoption of these screening systems also can be hampered by lack of internationally coordinated and accepted validation protocols.

  2. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  3. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  4. Rapid and alternative fabrication method for microfluidic paper based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Malekghasemi, Soheil; Kahveci, Enver; Duman, Memed

    2016-10-01

    A major application of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) includes the field of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. It is important for POC diagnostics to possess properties such as ease-of-use and low cost. However, µPADs need multiple instruments and fabrication steps. In this study, two different chemicals (Hexamethyldisilazane and Tetra-ethylorthosilicate) were used, and three different methods (heating, plasma treatment, and microwave irradiation) were compared to develop µPADs. Additionally, an inkjet-printing technique was used for generating a hydrophilic channel and printing certain chemical agents on different regions of a modified filter paper. A rapid and effective fabrication method to develop µPADs within 10min was introduced using an inkjet-printing technique in conjunction with a microwave irradiation method. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for morphology characterization and determining the surface chemical compositions of the modified filter paper, respectively. Contact angle measurements were used to fulfill the hydrophobicity of the treated filter paper. The highest contact angle value (141°±1) was obtained using the microwave irradiation method over a period of 7min, when the filter paper was modified by TEOS. Furthermore, by using this method, the XPS results of TEOS-modified filter paper revealed Si2p (23%) and Si-O bounds (81.55%) indicating the presence of Si-O-Si bridges and Si(OEt) groups, respectively. The ESEM results revealed changes in the porous structures of the papers and decreases in the pore sizes. Washburn assay measurements tested the efficiency of the generated hydrophilic channels in which similar water penetration rates were observed in the TEOS-modified filter paper and unmodified (plain) filter paper. The validation of the developed µPADs was performed by utilizing the rapid urease test as a model test system. The detection limit of

  5. Alternative method for rapidly screening microbial isolates for their potential to degrade volatile contaminants.

    PubMed

    Strong-Gunderson, J M; Palumbo, A V

    1994-11-01

    A method is described for rapidly screening the metabolic potential of bacteria to oxidize semivolatile and volatile compounds as a sole carbon source. The method is based on an automated system that utilizes Microplates manufactured by Biolog, Inc. (Hayward, CA, USA). This system detects bacterial respiratory activity from the oxidation of a carbon source introduced in volatile form. This is in contrast to the original design, which is based on inoculating a carbon source directly into each well. The 96-well (MT) microtiter plates contain nutrients and a tetrazolium dye. When a bacterial species is capable of oxidizing a volatile carbon substrate, the dye turns purple, and a spectrophotometric plate reader quantifies the response. As a test of this method 150 isolates, including isolates known to degrade some of the test compounds and negative controls were evaluated for their potential to oxidize carbon tetrachloride, toluene, and o-xylene. Thirty-seven isolates (25%) were qualitatively identified as contaminant oxidizers, and thirteen of these (35%) showed significant degradation capabilities for both toluene and o-xylene.

  6. An alternative method for rapid preparation of 99Tcm-sestamibi.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M E; Hung, J C; Gibbons, R J

    1993-07-01

    The availability of 99Tcm-sestamibi is limited, especially in emergency cases due to the time-consuming preparation procedure that requires a 10-min boiling water bath and a 30-min radiochemical purity (RCP) analysis. These two restrictions have been surmounted by the combined use of a microwave oven heating method and a minipaper chromatography system. However, use of the microwave oven heating method presents some potential problems: (1) technical error in setting the microwave oven heating time and power setting; (2) ejection of the rubber septum if the vial is not evacuated; (3) breakage of the vial during the microwave heating process; (4) inconsistent and inhomogeneous microwave heating; (5) reevaluation process required for use of a different type of microwave oven. Although a 1-min boiling water bath time is sufficient to provide an acceptable RCP for 99Tcm-sestamibi, additional time is required to heat the water to a boiling state. An instant hot water machine was evaluated for possible replacement of the microwave heating method. Three millilitres of 5500 MBq (150 mCi) 99Tcm was added to a Cardiolite kit and then placed in a 150-ml insulated beaker filled with hot water (86.2 +/- 1.9 degrees C, n = 45) from an instant hot water machine. A minipaper chromatography system was used to determine the RCP of samples after 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 5 min incubation periods. Our results show that 2 min was the shortest incubation time that yielded an acceptable RCP of 94.7 +/- 0.4% (n = 60) over the 24 h evaluation time. The use of an instant hot water machine not only avoids those problems associated with the microwave heating method, but also provides a rapid, efficient and relatively simple option for preparation of 99Tcm-sestamibi.

  7. Rapid Nucleic Acid Sequencing Methods--Alternative Approaches to Facilitating Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Charles F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Because advanced students had difficulty in interpreting cleavage patterns obtained by gel electrophoresis related to rapid sequencing techniques for DNA and RNA, several formats were developed to aid in understanding this topic. Formats included print, print plus scrambled print, interactive computer-based instruction, and high-resolution…

  8. Rapid Nucleic Acid Sequencing Methods--Alternative Approaches to Facilitating Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Charles F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Because advanced students had difficulty in interpreting cleavage patterns obtained by gel electrophoresis related to rapid sequencing techniques for DNA and RNA, several formats were developed to aid in understanding this topic. Formats included print, print plus scrambled print, interactive computer-based instruction, and high-resolution…

  9. Rapid Statistical Methods: Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some rapid statistical methods which are intended for use by physics teachers. Part one of this article gives some of the simplest and most commonly useful rapid methods. Part two gives references to the relevant theory together with some alternative and additional methods. (HM)

  10. Application of NIRS coupled with PLS regression as a rapid, non-destructive alternative method for quantification of KBA in Boswellia sacra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Mabood, Fazal; Albroumi, Muhammaed; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Hussain, Hidayat; Csuk, René; Khan, Abdul Latif; Alam, Tanveer; Alameri, Saif

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, for the first time, NIR spectroscopy coupled with PLS regression as a rapid and alternative method was developed to quantify the amount of Keto-β-Boswellic Acid (KBA) in different plant parts of Boswellia sacra and the resin exudates of the trunk. NIR spectroscopy was used for the measurement of KBA standards and B. sacra samples in absorption mode in the wavelength range from 700-2500 nm. PLS regression model was built from the obtained spectral data using 70% of KBA standards (training set) in the range from 0.1 ppm to 100 ppm. The PLS regression model obtained was having R-square value of 98% with 0.99 corelationship value and having good prediction with RMSEP value 3.2 and correlation of 0.99. It was then used to quantify the amount of KBA in the samples of B. sacra. The results indicated that the MeOH extract of resin has the highest concentration of KBA (0.6%) followed by essential oil (0.1%). However, no KBA was found in the aqueous extract. The MeOH extract of the resin was subjected to column chromatography to get various sub-fractions at different polarity of organic solvents. The sub-fraction at 4% MeOH/CHCl3 (4.1% of KBA) was found to contain the highest percentage of KBA followed by another sub-fraction at 2% MeOH/CHCl3 (2.2% of KBA). The present results also indicated that KBA is only present in the gum-resin of the trunk and not in all parts of the plant. These results were further confirmed through HPLC analysis and therefore it is concluded that NIRS coupled with PLS regression is a rapid and alternate method for quantification of KBA in Boswellia sacra. It is non-destructive, rapid, sensitive and uses simple methods of sample preparation.

  11. An Alternative Chemical Redox Method for the Production of Bispecific Antibodies: Implication in Rapid Detection of Food Borne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Owais, Mohammad; Kazmi, Shadab; Tufail, Saba; Zubair, Swaleha

    2014-01-01

    Bi-functional antibodies with the ability to bind two unrelated epitopes have remarkable potential in diagnostic and bio-sensing applications. In the present study, bispecific antibodies that recognize human red blood cell (RBC) and the food borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) were engineered. The procedure involves initial reduction of a mixture of anti-RBC and anti-Listeria antibodies followed by gradual re-oxidation of the reduced disulphides. This facilitates association of the separated antibody chains and formation of hybrid immunoglobulins with affinity for the L. monocytogenes and human RBC. The bispecific antibodies caused the agglutination of the RBCs only in the presence of L. monocytogenes cells. The agglutination process necessitated the specific presence of L. monocytogenes and the red colored clumps formed were readily visible with naked eyes. The RBC agglutination assay described here provides a remarkably simple approach for the rapid and highly specific screening of various pathogens in their biological niches. PMID:24637674

  12. Application of NIRS coupled with PLS regression as a rapid, non-destructive alternative method for quantification of KBA in Boswellia sacra.

    PubMed

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Mabood, Fazal; Albroumi, Muhammaed; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Hussain, Hidayat; Csuk, René; Khan, Abdul Latif; Alam, Tanveer; Alameri, Saif

    2017-09-05

    In the present study, for the first time, NIR spectroscopy coupled with PLS regression as a rapid and alternative method was developed to quantify the amount of Keto-β-Boswellic Acid (KBA) in different plant parts of Boswellia sacra and the resin exudates of the trunk. NIR spectroscopy was used for the measurement of KBA standards and B. sacra samples in absorption mode in the wavelength range from 700-2500nm. PLS regression model was built from the obtained spectral data using 70% of KBA standards (training set) in the range from 0.1ppm to 100ppm. The PLS regression model obtained was having R-square value of 98% with 0.99 corelationship value and having good prediction with RMSEP value 3.2 and correlation of 0.99. It was then used to quantify the amount of KBA in the samples of B. sacra. The results indicated that the MeOH extract of resin has the highest concentration of KBA (0.6%) followed by essential oil (0.1%). However, no KBA was found in the aqueous extract. The MeOH extract of the resin was subjected to column chromatography to get various sub-fractions at different polarity of organic solvents. The sub-fraction at 4% MeOH/CHCl3 (4.1% of KBA) was found to contain the highest percentage of KBA followed by another sub-fraction at 2% MeOH/CHCl3 (2.2% of KBA). The present results also indicated that KBA is only present in the gum-resin of the trunk and not in all parts of the plant. These results were further confirmed through HPLC analysis and therefore it is concluded that NIRS coupled with PLS regression is a rapid and alternate method for quantification of KBA in Boswellia sacra. It is non-destructive, rapid, sensitive and uses simple methods of sample preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry as an alternative to cloud point extraction based methods for rapid quantification of silver ions and surface coated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak K; Linder, Sean W

    2016-01-15

    Speciation and accurate quantification of ionic silver and metallic silver nanoparticles are critical to investigate silver toxicity and to determine the shelf-life of products that contain nano silver under various storage conditions. We developed a rapid method for quantification of silver ions and silver nanoparticles using capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The addition of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (tiopronin) to the background electrolyte was used to facilitate the chromatographic separation of ionic silver and maintain the oxidation state of silver. The obtained limits of detection were 0.05 μg kg(-1) of silver nanoparticles and 0.03 μg kg(-1) of ionic silver. Nanoparticles of varied sizes (10-110 nm) with different surface coating, including citrate acid, lipoic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were successfully analyzed. Particularly good recoveries (>93%) were obtained for both ionic silver and silver nanoparticle in the presence of excess amount of BSA. The method was further tested with six commercially available dietary supplements which varied in concentration and matrix components. The summed values of silver ions and silver nanoparticles correlated well with the total silver concentration determined by ICPMS after acid digestion. This method can serve as an alternative to cloud point extraction technique when the extraction efficiency for protein coated nanoparticles is low.

  14. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction as an alternative rapid method for enumeration of colony count in live Brucella vaccines.

    PubMed

    Shell, Waleed S; Sayed, Mahmoud L; Samy, A A; Al-Sadek, Ghada Mohamed; El-Hamid, Gina Mohamed Mohamed Abd; Ali, Abdel Hakam M

    2017-06-01

    Brucellosis is a major bacterial zoonosis of global importance affecting a range of animal species and man worldwide. It has economic, public health, and bio-risk importance. Control and prevention of animal brucellosis mainly depend on accurate diagnostic tools and implementation of effective and safe animal vaccination program. There are three types of animal Brucella live vaccines - Brucella melitensis Rev-1 vaccine, Brucella abortus S19, and B. abortus RB51. Evaluation of these vaccines depends mainly on enumeration of Brucella viable count. At present, used colony count method is time consuming, costly and requires especial skills. Hence, the aim of this study is to use and standardize real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as an alternative, quantitative, sensitive, and rapid method to detect the colony count of Brucella in live Brucella vaccine. Four batches of different live Brucella vaccines were evaluated using of conventional bacterial count and RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) using BSCP31 gene specific primers and probe. Standard curve was generated from DNA template extracted from 10-fold serial dilution of living B. abortus RB51 vaccine to evaluate the sensitivity of RT-qPCR. Results revealed that three batches of living Brucella vaccines were acceptable for Brucella colony count when traditional bacterial enumeration method was used. Results of RT-qPCR were identical to that of conventional bacterial count. Results concluded that RT-qPCR was relatively sensitive compared to traditional bacterial colony count of these vaccines.

  15. A rapid and accurate method for determining protein content in dairy products based on asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qin-Qin; Li, Yong-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    An accurate and rapid method and a system to determine protein content using asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry based on reaction between coomassie brilliant blue G250 (CBBG) and protein was established. Main merit of our approach is that it can avoid interferences of other nitric-compounds in samples, such as melamine and urea. Optimized conditions are as follows: Concentrations of CBBG, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), NaCl and HCl are 150 mg/l, 30 mg/l, 0.1 mol/l and 1.0% (v/v), respectively; volumes of the sample and reagent are 150 μl and 30 μl, respectively; length of a reaction coil is 200 cm; total flow rate is 2.65 ml/min. The linear range of the method is 0.5-15 mg/l (BSA), its detection limit is 0.05 mg/l, relative standard deviation is less than 1.87% (n=11), and analytical speed is 60 samples per hour.

  16. Novel method for rapid in-situ hybridization of HER2 using non-contact alternating-current electric-field mixing

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yoshitaro; Imai, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Ryuta; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Terata, Kaori; Konno, Hayato; Akagami, Yoichi; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted agents are an effective approach to treating HER2-positive breast cancer patients. However, the lack of survival benefit in HER2-negative patients as well as the toxic effects and high cost of the drugs highlight the need for accurate and prompt assessment of HER2 status. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical utility of a novel rapid dual in-situ hybridization (RISH) method developed to facilitate hybridization. The method takes advantage of the non-contact mixing effect of an alternating current (AC) electric field. One hundred sixty-three specimens were used from patients diagnosed with primary breast cancers identified immunohistochemically as HER2 0/1(+), (2+) or (3+). The specimens were all tested using conventional dual in-situ hybridization (DISH), DISH with an automated slide stainer, and RISH. With RISH the HER2 test was completed within 6 h, as compared to 20–22 h needed for the standard protocol. Although RISH produced results more promptly using smaller amounts of labeled antibody, the staining and accuracy of HER2 status evaluation with RISH was equal to or greater than with DISH. These results suggest RISH could be used as a clinical tool to promptly determine HER2 status. PMID:27443187

  17. Rugate filters prepared by rapidly alternating deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun-Chao; Fang, Ming; Shao, Yu-Chuan; Jin, Yun-Xia; He, Hong-Bo

    2011-09-01

    A methodology for the fabrication of composite (Nb2O5)1-x(SiO2)x thin-film rugate filters by using pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering is presented. The two materials are mixed using rapidly alternating deposition technology. The optical properties of the composite films varying with the composition of the material are studied in detail. Refractive indices between 1.50 and 2.14 can be realized in our coating system. Two designed rugate filters with a reflection band at the wavelength of 532 nm are fabricated using an automatic deposition process. The microstructure of the rugate filter is investigated by using scanning electron microscopy. The calculated and the measured transmittance spectra are in good agreement with each other. The causes of the slight differences between them are also analysed.

  18. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction as an alternative rapid method for enumeration of colony count in live Brucella vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Shell, Waleed S.; Sayed, Mahmoud L.; Samy, A. A.; Al-Sadek, Ghada Mohamed; El-Hamid, Gina Mohamed Mohamed Abd; Ali, Abdel Hakam M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim:: Brucellosis is a major bacterial zoonosis of global importance affecting a range of animal species and man worldwide. It has economic, public health, and bio-risk importance. Control and prevention of animal brucellosis mainly depend on accurate diagnostic tools and implementation of effective and safe animal vaccination program. There are three types of animal Brucella live vaccines - Brucella melitensis Rev-1 vaccine, Brucella abortus S19, and B. abortus RB51. Evaluation of these vaccines depends mainly on enumeration of Brucella viable count. At present, used colony count method is time consuming, costly and requires especial skills. Hence, the aim of this study is to use and standardize real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as an alternative, quantitative, sensitive, and rapid method to detect the colony count of Brucella in live Brucella vaccine. Materials and Methods:: Four batches of different live Brucella vaccines were evaluated using of conventional bacterial count and RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) using BSCP31 gene specific primers and probe. Standard curve was generated from DNA template extracted from 10-fold serial dilution of living B. abortus RB51 vaccine to evaluate the sensitivity of RT-qPCR. Results:: Results revealed that three batches of living Brucella vaccines were acceptable for Brucella colony count when traditional bacterial enumeration method was used. Results of RT-qPCR were identical to that of conventional bacterial count. Conclusions:: Results concluded that RT-qPCR was relatively sensitive compared to traditional bacterial colony count of these vaccines. PMID:28717311

  19. Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Effects Complementary and Alternative Medicine Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Complementary and alternative are terms used ... with cancer here. What Are Complementary and Alternative Methods? How Are Complementary Methods Used to Manage Cancer? ...

  20. Interferometric spectropolarimetry: alternate experimental methods.

    PubMed

    Fymat, A L

    1972-10-01

    Three alternate methods of obtaining spectra of the intensity and state of polarization of light are proposed. The methods make use of a two-beam amplitude division interferometer using the technique of Fourier spectroscopy. They can be applied to either emerging beam, source beam, or detector beam r to both. They do not require the presence of polarizers in the arms of the instrument. In one method (Method 2) a single analyzer is used in front of the detector with three successive orientations of its transmission axis azimuth (0 degrees , 45 degrees , 90 degrees ). In another method (Method 3) a (linear) polarizer assuming the same set of orientations is placed in the incident beam. A third method (Method 4), a hybrid of the former two methods, makes use of both a polarizer and an analyzer in the locations indicated. The latter method presents itself three alternate possibilities. Method 2 permits the determination of all four Stokes parameters of polarization, whereas Methods 3 and 4 cannot yield the ellipticity parameter. All methods require the recording of three interferograms. However, two interferograms can provide the intensity and degree of polarization in any of the methods described. The theory of our earlier method (Method 1, Fymat and Abhyankar, 1970) is also established more rigorously concerning the proposed interferometric arrangements, the applicability of the method to the source beam, and the possibility of deriving the orientation of the plane of polarization and the ellipticity from a single interferogram.

  1. Validation of rapid microbiological methods.

    PubMed

    Peris-Vicente, Juan; Carda-Broch, Samuel; Esteve-Romero, Josep

    2015-06-01

    Classical microbiological methods currently have unacceptably long cycle times. Rapid microbiological methods have been available on the market for decades and have been applied by the clinical and food industries. However, their implementation in the pharmaceutical industry has been hampered by stringent regulations on validation and comparison with classical methods. To encourage the implementation of these methodologies, they must be validated to assess that the results are straightforward. A comparison with traditional methods should be also performed. In this review, information about the validation of rapid microbiological methods reported in the literature is provided as well as an explanation of the difficulty of validation of these methods. A comparison with traditional methods is also discussed. This information is useful for industries and laboratories that can potentially implement these methods. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  2. APAP and Alternative Titration Methods

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Omer; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Positive airway pressure therapy (PAP) is commonly prescribed treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Traditionally, the determination of the optimal pressure for treatment of sleep-disordered breathing was made by manual titration of the device by a sleep technician in attendance during polysomnography. However, the advent of alternative methods for determination of optimal PAP – such as auto-titrating PAP (APAP) – has seen tremendous growth over the past decade. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the currently available alternative methods for titration of PAP in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) with special emphasis on obstructive sleep apnea. Recent Findings Recent prospective-randomized studies of alternative methods of titration suggest that pressure determinations made by such devices are comparable to traditional manual titrations made in the sleep laboratory. Obstacles to the adoption of such alternative modes of titration into day-to-day practice may be attributable to issues surrounding appropriate patient selection, differences between devices, re-imbursement policies of third party payors, consensus amongst sleep experts, and individual physicians’ practice patterns and volumes. While newer generations and types of auto-titrating PAP devices are entering the sleep field constantly, providers’ knowledge and time availability remain limiting factors. Summary There is tremendous growth in the technology and scientific evidence in support of alternative modes of PAP titration for sleep-disordered breathing, but barriers to implementation remain. PMID:20806054

  3. Interferometric spectropolarimetry - Alternate experimental methods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Three alternate methods of obtaining spectra of the intensity and state of polarization of light are proposed. The methods make use of a two-beam amplitude division interferometer using the technique of Fourier spectroscopy. They do not require the presence of polarizers in the arms of the instrument. In one method a single analyzer is used in front of the detector with three successive orientations of its transmission axis azimuth. In another method, a (linear) polarizer assuming the same set of orientations is placed in the incident beam. A third method, a hybrid of the former two methods, makes use of both a polarizer and analyzer in the locations indicated. The first method permits the determination of all four Stokes parameters of polarization, whereas the other two methods cannot yield the ellipticity parameter. All methods require the recording of three interferograms. However, two interferograms can provide the intensity and degree of polarization in any of the methods described.

  4. [Alternative healing methods around us].

    PubMed

    Mornstein, Vojtěch; Beneš, Jiří; Mrozek, Zdeněk; Svačina, Štěpán

    This article gives information on selected alternative medicine methods (AMM) under conditions of the Czech health care system. They can be defined as contemporaneous diagnostic and therapeutic methods which differ in their theoretical fundaments as well as practices from the evidence based medicine. This definition is controversial because these methods are an intrinsically incompatible aggregate of modalities acting as a placebo above all. We can encounter many "therapeutic" and "examination" methods which are practiced namely by healers without formal medical education, and connected closely with esotericism. A general feature of the alternative methods is a void usage of scientific concepts and theories, e.g. the concept of energy.Motivations of patients and doctors are briefly introduced here. However, AMM is also an ethical problem because the doctor should help the patient with maximum efficiency hence excluding the methods with a questionable, small or negligible efficiency. The opinions how to find the way out from this situation are divergent. It could be a refusal or a very reserved attitude to AMM plus maximisation of the placebo effect enhancing the efficiency of a rational therapy. Furthermore, the methods most spread in the Czech Republic are subjected to elementary critics - the homoeopathy, acupuncture, the so-called "bioresonance" instrumental methods, psychic healing, and also some refused methods in cancer treatment. In our opinion medicine disposes of sufficient knowledge and experience to assess the efficiency of AMM and refuse them in causal therapy, eventually. Their use as a placebo should be carefully considered.Key words: alternative medicine, placebo, homeopathy, acupuncture.

  5. Alternative methods of pig chilling.

    PubMed

    Gigiel, A; Butler, F; Hudson, B

    1989-01-01

    Comparisons were made of the effect on cooling rate, weight loss, texture, bacterial numbers, drip and appearance of pork sides (average dead weight 75 kg) in refrigeration systems using high humidity (ice bank) or conventional chilling, both with and without a rapid pre-chill or delayed chilling, with and without a water spray. All treatments took between 15·7 and 19h post mortem to cool the deep leg of sides to 7°C. Weight loss varied between 0·95% for sides in the delay and spray treatment to 2·17% for conventional chilling. The texture of the M. longissimus dorsi of sides from the rapid pre-chill and conventional chilling treatment was significantly tougher than from the other methods, including those from the rapid pre-chill and high humidity system. Variation in texture between animals within treatments was far greater than between treatments, and could not be explained by variations in cooling and glycolytic rate. There were no significant differences (P > 0·05) in bacterial numbers, drip and appearance between treatments. The choice of chilling system can be made on the basis of weight loss and capital and running costs. The delay and spray treatment would save £37 800 on an annual throughout of 3 080 tonnes of pork compared with a conventional system. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Violence and alternative care: a rapid review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Isabelle; Pearce, Jenny

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on the mechanisms through which international policy and practice relating to the safeguarding of children and young people living in alternative care is being implemented in national policy and practice. It is based on a rapid review of the evidence regarding the violence experienced by children and young people living in different forms of alternative care internationally. The evidence base indicates that children living in alternative care are especially vulnerable to violence and abuse, prior to and during their care experience and also in the longer term. The introduction of the UN Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children has encouraged greater attention to this issue. The paper concludes that progress is variable according to a range of political, economic and social factors, and that greater attention to practice at national and community levels is required if more effective safeguarding practice is required. A more sophisticated evidence base is required to support this.

  7. Alternative Financing Methods for College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBard, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Explains how changes in government policies have caused college students to seek alternative ways to finance college. Explores strategies used by students to pay for college, and the impact work has on their success. Looks at some alternative ways to pay for college, such as employee supported educational programs, savings incentives, and the…

  8. Alternating Direction Methods on Multiprocessors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    without contention for storage or access conflicts has been investigated by Sameh et al. [18]. Various parallel implementations of the Alternate Direction...variation of an algorithm first presented by Kuck and Sameh [19, 10]. Advantages of Wang’s variant are its low arithmetic complexity with almost no...1975. [10] D. Lawrie, A.H. Sameh , The Computation and Communication Complexity of a Parallel Banded Linear System Solver, ACM-TOMS, 10/2 (1984), pp. 185

  9. Using Rapidly Alternating Multiple Schedules To Assess and Treat Aberrant Behavior in Natural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanolli, Kathleen; Daggett, Julie; Ortiz, Kristi; Mullins, Jo

    1999-01-01

    The validity of using rapidly alternating multiple schedules (RAMS) as a method for assessing and treating aggression was demonstrated by using the naturally occurring reinforcers identified in the RAMS to develop treatments that were experimentally tested. All treatments using the reinforcers identified in the RAMS were effective. Possible uses…

  10. Alternate Methods of Teaching Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Benjamin, Sheldon; Balon, Richard; Glick, Ira; Louie, Alan; Moutier, Christine; Moyer, Trenton; Santos, Cynthia; Servis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews methods used to teach psychopharmacology to psychiatry residents that utilize principles of adult learning, enlist active participation of residents, and provide faculty with skills to seek, analyze, and use new information over the course of their careers. Methods: The pros and cons of five "nonlecture" methods of…

  11. Alternate Methods of Teaching Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Benjamin, Sheldon; Balon, Richard; Glick, Ira; Louie, Alan; Moutier, Christine; Moyer, Trenton; Santos, Cynthia; Servis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews methods used to teach psychopharmacology to psychiatry residents that utilize principles of adult learning, enlist active participation of residents, and provide faculty with skills to seek, analyze, and use new information over the course of their careers. Methods: The pros and cons of five "nonlecture" methods of…

  12. Methods for Characterization of Alternative RNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Samuel E; Cheng, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of alternative splicing to detect the abundance of differentially spliced isoforms of a gene in total RNA can be accomplished via RT-PCR using both quantitative real-time and semi-quantitative PCR methods. These methods require careful PCR primer design to ensure specific detection of particular splice isoforms. We also describe analysis of alternative splicing using a splicing "minigene" in mammalian cell tissue culture to facilitate investigation of the regulation of alternative splicing of a particular exon of interest.

  13. Rapid Radiochemical Methods for Selected Radionuclides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The rapid methods documents are supplement guidance in a planned series designed to present radioanalytical laboratory personnel, Incident Commanders (and their designees), and other field response personnel.

  14. Methods of Rapid Evaluation, Assessment, and Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNall, Miles; Foster-Fishman, Pennie G.

    2007-01-01

    A central issue in the use of rapid evaluation and assessment methods (REAM) is achieving a balance between speed and trustworthiness. In this article, the authors review the key differences and common features of this family of methods and present a case example that illustrates how evaluators can use rapid evaluation techniques in their own…

  15. FNAS/Rapid Spectral Inversion Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poularikas, Alexander

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study methods and ways for rapid inversion programs involving the correlated k-method, and to study the infrared observations of Saturn from the Cassini orbiter.

  16. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  17. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  18. An Examination of Alternative Instructional Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Peggy D.

    2004-01-01

    Demographic shifts, advances in technology, and changing student perceptions and expectations have influenced the development of alternative means and methods for offering and delivering traditional college courses. This study reports student perceptions of four alternatives at one university where students were asked to rate course offerings…

  19. [Rapid prototyping: a very promising method].

    PubMed

    Haverman, T M; Karagozoglu, K H; Prins, H-J; Schulten, E A J M; Forouzanfar, T

    2013-03-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization, laminated object manufacturing, three-dimensional printing, three-dimensional plotting, polyjet inkjet technology,fused deposition modelling, vacuum casting and milling. The various methods currently being used in the biomedical sector differ in production, materials and properties of the three-dimensional model which is produced. Rapid prototyping is mainly usedforpreoperative planning, simulation, education, and research into and development of bioengineering possibilities.

  20. OVERVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  1. OVERVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  2. [Alternative methods of nicotine dependence treatment].

    PubMed

    Koszowski, Bartosz; Goniewicz, Maciej; Czogała, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The methods of tobacco dependency treatment, which are alternative to pharmacological ones, have in recent years increasingly gained popularity. The most popular include: acupuncture, laser therapy, electrostimulation, hypnosis and autohypnosis, bioresonance, as well as herbalism, aromatherapy and homeopathic methods. The above mentioned methods have been shortly characterized in this paper. Their effectiveness and usefulness of application have as well been brought up for discussion on the basis of available specialist literature. The aspects related to safety of particular methods of therapy for the patient have also been presented. The analysis showed that effectiveness of the methods is often disputable and the main advantage of those methods is a support effect to patient who wants to give up smoking. Thus, it seems that alternative methods may be applied in combination with pharmacological ones because they increase the smoker's motivation to stop smoking and at the same time increase the chance to overcome the addiction in general.

  3. A scoping review of rapid review methods.

    PubMed

    Tricco, Andrea C; Antony, Jesmin; Zarin, Wasifa; Strifler, Lisa; Ghassemi, Marco; Ivory, John; Perrier, Laure; Hutton, Brian; Moher, David; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-09-16

    Rapid reviews are a form of knowledge synthesis in which components of the systematic review process are simplified or omitted to produce information in a timely manner. Although numerous centers are conducting rapid reviews internationally, few studies have examined the methodological characteristics of rapid reviews. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated, compared, used or described rapid reviews or methods through a scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, internet websites of rapid review producers, and reference lists were searched to identify articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened literature search results and abstracted data from included studies. Descriptive analysis was conducted. We included 100 articles plus one companion report that were published between 1997 and 2013. The studies were categorized as 84 application papers, seven development papers, six impact papers, and four comparison papers (one was included in two categories). The rapid reviews were conducted between 1 and 12 months, predominantly in Europe (58 %) and North America (20 %). The included studies failed to report 6 % to 73 % of the specific systematic review steps examined. Fifty unique rapid review methods were identified; 16 methods occurred more than once. Streamlined methods that were used in the 82 rapid reviews included limiting the literature search to published literature (24 %) or one database (2 %), limiting inclusion criteria by date (68 %) or language (49 %), having one person screen and another verify or screen excluded studies (6 %), having one person abstract data and another verify (23 %), not conducting risk of bias/quality appraisal (7 %) or having only one reviewer conduct the quality appraisal (7 %), and presenting results as a narrative summary (78 %). Four case studies were identified that compared the results of rapid reviews to systematic reviews. Three studies found that the conclusions between

  4. Alternative Therapies and Methods of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    When her daughter was almost two years old, the author realized that she had never crawled. Reluctant to depend on someone else to lead her daughter's therapies and learning, she began to search for alternative developmental therapy approaches and learning methods that would allow her to become more informed and take a more active role. She found…

  5. Alternative Therapies and Methods of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    When her daughter was almost two years old, the author realized that she had never crawled. Reluctant to depend on someone else to lead her daughter's therapies and learning, she began to search for alternative developmental therapy approaches and learning methods that would allow her to become more informed and take a more active role. She found…

  6. Alternative methods of ophthalmic treatment in Russia.

    PubMed

    Vader, L

    1994-04-01

    Russian ophthalmic nurses and physicians are using alternative methods of treatment to supplement traditional eye care. As acupuncture and iridology become more popular in the United States, ophthalmic nurses need to be more knowledgeable about these treatments and the implications for patients.

  7. Rapid extraction methods for organics in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Alsop, G.M.; Conway, R.A.

    1983-03-01

    This article presents rapid methods for the extraction and subsequent analysis of organics in soils potentially contaminated from chemical wastes. A methylene chloride extraction, on both a micro scale in a syringe and a macro scale in a shaken flask, with subsequent gravimetric analysis are described. On wet soils, anhydrous sodium sulfate is added to bind the water before adding methylene chloride and mixing with a vortex touch mixer. A baseline procedure is the direct gravimetric determination of volatile organics corrected with a Karl Fischer determination of water. Estimates of time saved by using the rapid methods, as well as precision and accuracy data, are presented.

  8. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain.

  9. 77 FR 43827 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods (ICATM): the European Union Reference Laboratory for... HUMAN SERVICES International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing... for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) announces an ``International...

  10. Long alternating codes: 2. Practical search method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, Markku; NygréN, Tuomo

    1997-01-01

    This paper is the second one in a series explaining a new search method of long alternating codes for incoherent scatter radars. The first paper explains the general idea of the method in terms of a special game of dominoes. This second paper gives an alternative mathematical formalism suitable for computer search. It consists of three rules and a mathematical analysis leading to a formula which can be used in practical search. Although the rules were originally experimental, a mathematical proof of their sufficiency is also given. The method has been used to make a complete search up to a length of 1,048,576 bits. Even longer codes have been found; the longest one known at the moment contains 4,194,304 bits. For demonstration, complete tables of 8-, 16-, 32-, and 64-bit codes and examples of 128- and 256-bit codes are presented.

  11. Rapid Radiochemical Methods for Asphalt Paving Material ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief Validated rapid radiochemical methods for alpha and beta emitters in solid matrices that are commonly encountered in urban environments were previously unavailable for public use by responding laboratories. A lack of tested rapid methods would delay the quick determination of contamination levels and the assessment of acceptable site-specific exposure levels. Of special concern are matrices with rough and porous surfaces, which allow the movement of radioactive material deep into the building material making it difficult to detect. This research focuses on methods that address preparation, radiochemical separation, and analysis of asphalt paving materials and asphalt roofing shingles. These matrices, common to outdoor environments, challenge the capability and capacity of very experienced radiochemistry laboratories. Generally, routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques produce liquid samples (representative of the original sample material) that can be processed using available radiochemical methods. The asphalt materials are especially difficult because they do not readily lend themselves to these routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques. The HSRP and ORIA coordinate radiological reference laboratory priorities and activities in conjunction with HSRP’s Partner Process. As part of the collaboration, the HSRP worked with ORIA to publish rapid radioanalytical methods for selected radionuclides in building material matrice

  12. An alternative method on quadratic programming problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasril, Y.; Mohd, I. B.; Mustaffa, I.; Aminuddin, MMM.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we proposed an alternative approach to find the optimum solution of quadratic programming problems (QPP) in its original form without additional information such as slack variable, surplus variable or artificial variable as done in other favourite methods. This approached is based on the violated constraints by the unconstrained optimum. The optimal solution of QPP obtained by searching from initial point to another point alongside of feasible region.

  13. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-10-27

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  14. [Manipulation methods of slow-rapid reinforcing-reducing method].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi-Xin; Ran, Peng-Fei; Lü, Xiao-Rui; Wang, Xue-Xia

    2008-06-01

    After consulting literature, following the original meaning of the paper about slow-rapid reinforcing-reducing method in Huangdi's Internal Classic, in combination with explanation of later ages, and comprehension and clinical experience of the authors, it is put forward that the slow-rapid reinforcing-reducing method in Huangdi's Internal Classic is not single manipulation method, but it is a guiding principle for reinforcing-reducing manipulation, it includes many manipulation methods and they were listed, and all of the reinforcing-reducing methods of later ages are developed from these. In the teaching material Acupuncture and Moxibustion Sciences they are included in single reinforcing-reducing method, reducing extension and intension of this definition. The relative description in the teaching material only is slow-rapid reinforcing-reducing method of narrow sense, but the manipulations can be divided into qi-carrying manipulating needle type and three-one pushing-pulling type.

  15. Ethnographic study of alternative sports by alternative means: list mining as a method of data collection.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Gerald

    2011-06-01

    Increased usage and accessibility of the Internet has led to the rapid growth of cyber communities; typical of groups that have embraced this idea are those who participate in what have been termed alternative or lifestyle sports. Thus far, this online world has received little attention from ethnographers, but the potential for obtaining rich data in this area is huge, most notably through the practice of researching messages sent to Internet-based forums, known as list mining. The inclusion of list mining as a research method, however, is not without its problems and raises new ethical issues when conducting qualitative research. This paper examines in detail the ethical considerations concerning the use of list mining as a method of data collection within the alternative sporting subculture of Ultimate Frisbee.

  16. Rapid Adenovirus typing method for species identification.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Fabienne; Wittkop, Linda; Bader, Clément; Kassab, Somar; Tumiotto, Camille; Berciaud, Sylvie; Wodrich, Harald; Lafon, Marie-Edith

    2017-11-01

    Adenoviruses are characterized by a large variability, reflected by their classification in species A to G. Certain species, eg A and C, could be associated with increased clinical severity, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts suggesting that in some instances species identification provides clinically relevant information. Here we designed a novel "pVI rapid typing method" to obtain quick, simple and cost effective species assignment for Adenoviruses, thanks to combined fusion temperature (Tm) and amplicon size analysis. Rapid typing results were compared to Sanger sequencing in the hexon gene for 140 Adenovirus-positive clinical samples included in the Typadeno study. Species A and C could be identified with a 100% positive predictive value, thus confirming the value of this simple typing method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation of Rapid Radiochemical Method for Californium ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief In the event of a radiological/nuclear contamination event, the response community would need tools and methodologies to rapidly assess the nature and the extent of contamination. To characterize a radiologically contaminated outdoor area and to inform risk assessment, large numbers of environmental samples would be collected and analyzed over a short period of time. To address the challenge of quickly providing analytical results to the field, the U.S. EPA developed a robust analytical method. This method allows response officials to characterize contaminated areas and to assess the effectiveness of remediation efforts, both rapidly and accurately, in the intermediate and late phases of environmental cleanup. Improvement in sample processing and analysis leads to increased laboratory capacity to handle the analysis of a large number of samples following the intentional or unintentional release of a radiological/nuclear contaminant.

  18. Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity: A ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Exposure to environmental contaminants is well documented to adversely impact the development of the nervous system. However, the time, animal and resource intensive EPA and OECD testing guideline methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) are not a viable solution to characterizing potential chemical hazards for the thousands of untested chemicals currently in commerce. Thus, research efforts over the past decade have endeavored to develop cost-effective alternative DNT testing methods. These efforts have begun to generate data that can inform regulatory decisions. Yet there are major challenges to both the acceptance and use of this data. Major scientific challenges for DNT include development of new methods and models that are “fit for purpose”, development of a decision-use framework, and regulatory acceptance of the methods. It is critical to understand that use of data from these methods will be driven mainly by the regulatory problems being addressed. Some problems may be addressed with limited datasets, while others may require data for large numbers of chemicals, or require the development and use of new biological and computational models. For example mechanistic information derived from in vitro DNT assays can be used to inform weight of evidence (WoE) or integrated approaches to testing and assessment (IATA) approaches for chemical-specific assessments. Alternatively, in vitro data can be used to prioritize (for further testing) the thousands

  19. Methods of Recording Rapid Wind Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan, A

    1932-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to determine the rapid changes of air currents which impose varying stresses on the wings of airplanes. We attempted to express in figures the turbulence of the air, which perhaps plays some role in the behavior of airplanes in flight, as well as in the realization of certain methods of gliding flight. This is the reason which led us to conceive and develop the experimental equipment (hot-wire anemometer) described herein.

  20. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes: Alternative Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Files, Bradley; Scott, Carl; Gorelik, Olga; Nikolaev, Pasha; Hulse, Lou; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2000-01-01

    Traditional carbon nanotube purification process involves nitric acid refluxing and cross flow filtration using surfactant TritonX. This is believed to result in damage to nanotubes and surfactant residue on nanotube surface. Alternative purification procedures involving solvent extraction, thermal zone refining and nitric acid refiuxing are used in the current study. The effect of duration and type of solvent to dissolve impurities including fullerenes and P ACs (polyaromatic compounds) are monitored by nuclear magnetic reasonance, high performance liquid chromatography, and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal zone refining yielded sample areas rich in nanotubes as seen by scanning electric microscopy. Refluxing in boiling nitric acid seem to improve the nanotube content. Different procedural steps are needed to purify samples produced by laser process compared to arc process. These alternative methods of nanotube purification will be presented along with results from supporting analytical techniques.

  1. Alternative Test Methods for Electronic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    It is common practice within NASA to test electronic parts at the manufacturing lot level to demonstrate, statistically, that parts from the lot tested will not fail in service using generic application conditions. The test methods and the generic application conditions used have been developed over the years through cooperation between NASA, DoD, and industry in order to establish a common set of standard practices. These common practices, found in MIL-STD-883, MIL-STD-750, military part specifications, EEE-INST-002, and other guidelines are preferred because they are considered to be effective and repeatable and their results are usually straightforward to interpret. These practices can sometimes be unavailable to some NASA projects due to special application conditions that must be addressed, such as schedule constraints, cost constraints, logistical constraints, or advances in the technology that make the historical standards an inappropriate choice for establishing part performance and reliability. Alternate methods have begun to emerge and to be used by NASA programs to test parts individually or as part of a system, especially when standard lot tests cannot be applied. Four alternate screening methods will be discussed in this paper: Highly accelerated life test (HALT), forward voltage drop tests for evaluating wire-bond integrity, burn-in options during or after highly accelerated stress test (HAST), and board-level qualification.

  2. Rapid Column Extraction method for SoilRapid Column Extraction method for Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III; Culligan, Brian K.

    2005-11-07

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring as well as for emergency preparedness. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that provides total dissolution of large soil samples, high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu) neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines a rapid fusion step for total dissolution to dissolve refractory analytes and matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  3. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research: Alternative Methods To Demolition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  4. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research: Alternative Methods To Demolition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  5. Optimization methods for alternative energy system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Michael Henry

    An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal panels, layers of glazing in windows), the literature shows that the optimization methods used historically for design utilize continuous decision variables. Integer programming, used to find the optimal investment in conservation measures as a function of life cycle cost of an electric vehicle heating system, is compared to linear programming, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the discrete nature of design variables. The electric vehicle study shows that conservation methods similar to those used in building design, that reduce the overall UA of a 22 ft. electric shuttle bus from 488 to 202 (Btu/hr-F), can eliminate the need for fossil fuel heating systems when operating in the northeast United States. Fuzzy integer programming is presented as a means of accounting for imprecise design constraints such as being environmentally friendly in the optimization process. The solar thermal coffee dryer study focuses on a deep-bed design using unglazed thermal collectors (UTC). Experimental data from parchment coffee drying are gathered, including drying constants and equilibrium moisture. In this case, fuzzy linear programming is presented as a means of optimizing experimental procedures to produce the most information under imprecise constraints. Graphical optimization is used to show that for every 1 m2 deep-bed dryer, of 0.4 m depth, a UTC array consisting of 5, 1.1 m 2 panels, and a photovoltaic array consisting of 1, 0.25 m 2 panels produces the most dry coffee per dollar invested in the system. In general this study

  6. Simple rapid method for gene transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, A.F.; Meier, H.

    1990-01-30

    The object of the present invention is to provide methods for gene transfer that reduce or eliminate cellular pretreatment steps, e.g., the removal of cell wall by chemical or enzymatic methods, is rapid and can be practiced without the need of additional expensive equipment. Cells, embryos or tissues selected for genetic manipulation are suspended in an Eppendorf tube in an aliquot of the desired genetic material to be transferred to which the resulting mixture is added and is agitated by vortexing from about 30 to about 90 seconds. The cells, embryos or tissue are sedimented and the DNA supernatant removed. After sedimentation, the injected material is resuspended in or on a growth medium to assay for expression.

  7. Rapid Column Extraction Methods for Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-06-09

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

  8. Detection of urinary tract infections by rapid methods.

    PubMed Central

    Pezzlo, M

    1988-01-01

    A review of rapid urine screens for detection of bacteriuria and pyuria demonstrates a number of available alternatives to the culture method. Selection of one or more of these systems for routine use is dependent upon the laboratory and the patient population being tested. The laboratory approach to the diagnosis of urinary tract infection should consider the clinical diagnosis of the patient whenever possible. Keeping in mind that quantitative urine cultures alone cannot be used to detect infection in some patient populations unless lower colony counts are considered, a rapid screen may be a more practical approach. It has become accepted that 10(5) CFU/ml can no longer be used as the standard for all patient groups, that pyuria often is important in making the diagnosis of a urinary tract infection, and that most of the rapid screens are more sensitive than the culture method at 10(5) CFU/ml. Presently, no one approach can be recommended for all laboratories and all patient groups. However, each diagnostic laboratory should select one approach which is best for its situation. It is not practical, efficient, or cost effective to define a protocol for each possible clinical condition; however, all should be considered when developing a protocol. This protocol should be compatible with the patient population and communicated to the physicians. Use of a rapid screen should be beneficial to the patient, the physician, and the laboratory. PMID:3058296

  9. An Alternative Method to Project Wind Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadillioglu, Cagla; Kiyisuren, I. Cagatay; Collu, Kamil; Turp, M. Tufan; Kurnaz, M. Levent; Ozturk, Tugba

    2016-04-01

    Wind energy is one of the major clean and sustainable energy sources. Beside its various advantages, wind energy has a downside that its performance cannot be projected very accurately in the long-term. In this study, we offer an alternative method which can be used to determine the best location to install a wind turbine in a large area aiming maximum energy performance in the long run. For this purpose, a regional climate model (i.e. RegCM4.4) is combined with a software called Winds on Critical Streamline Surfaces (WOCSS) in order to identify wind patterns for any domains even in a changing climate. As a special case, Çanakkale region is examined due to the terrain profile having both coastal and mountainous features. WOCSS program was run twice for each month in the sample years in a double nested fashion, using the provisional RegCM4.4 wind data between years 2020 and 2040. Modified version of WOCSS provides terrain following flow surfaces and by processing those data, it makes a wind profile output for certain heights specified by the user. The computational time of WOCSS is also in reasonable range. Considering the lack of alternative methods for long-term wind performance projection, the model used in this study is a very good way for obtaining quick indications for wind performance taking the impact of the terrain effects into account. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  10. Alternative method of removing otoliths from sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths.

  11. Fetal magnetocardiography: Methods for rapid data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, John C.; Flynn, Edward R.; Quinn, A.; Weir, A.; Shahani, U.; Bain, R. J. P.; Maas, P.; Donaldson, G. B.

    1997-03-01

    Fetal magnetocardigraphy (fMCG) provides a unique method for noninvasive observations of the fetal heart. Electrical currents generated by excitable tissues within the fetal heart yield measurable external magnetic fields. Measurements are performed with superconducting quantum interference devices inductively coupled to magnetometer or gradiometer coils, and the resulting signals are converted to digital form in the data acquisition system. The measured fields are usually contaminated by fetal and maternal movements (usually respiration), other physiological fields such as skeletal muscle contraction, the maternal cardiac signal, and environmental electromagnetic fields. Sensitivity to relatively distant sources, both physiological and environmental, is substantially reduced by the use of magnetic gradiometers. Other contaminants may be removed by proper signal conditioning which may be automatically applied using "black box" algorithms that are transparent to the user and highly efficient. These procedures can rapidly reduce the complex signal plus noise waveforms to the desired fMCG with minimal operator interference.

  12. On resonance phase alternated CWFP sequences for rapid and simultaneous measurement of relaxation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaretto, Tatiana; Andrade, Fabiana Diuk; Moraes, Tiago Bueno; Souza, Andre Alves; deAzevedo, Eduardo Ribeiro; Colnago, Luiz Alberto

    2015-10-01

    T1 and T2 relaxation times have been frequently used as probes for physical-chemical properties in several time-domain NMR applications (TD-NMR) such as food, polymers and petroleum industries. T2 measurements are usually achieved using the traditional Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence because it is a fast and robust method. On the other hand, the traditional methods for determining T1, i.e., inversion and saturation recovery, are time-consuming, driving several authors to develop rapid 1D and 2D methods to obtain T1 and T2 or T1/T2 ratio. However, these methods usually require sophisticated processing and/or high signal to noise ratio (SNR). This led us to develop simple methods for rapid and simultaneous determination of T1 and T2 using Continuous Wave Free Precession (CWFP) and Carr-Purcell Continuous Wave Free Precession (CP-CWFP) pulse sequences. Nevertheless, a drawback of these sequences is that they require specific adjustment of the frequency offset or the time interval between pulses (Tp). In this paper we present an alternative form of these sequences, named CWFPx-x, CP-CWFPx-x, where a train of π/2 pulses with phases alternated by π enable performing the experiments on-resonance and independently of Tp, when Tp < T2∗ . Moreover, a CPMG type sequence with π/2 refocusing pulses shows similar results to CP-CWFP when the pulses are alternated between y and -y axis, CPMG90y-y. In these approaches, the relaxation times are determined using the magnitude of the signals after the first pulse |M0| and in the steady-state |Mss|, as well as the exponential time constant T∗ to reach the steady-state regime, as in conventional CWFP. CP-CWFPx-x shows the highest dynamic range to measure T∗ among CWFP sequences and, therefore, is the best technique to measure T1 and T2 since it is less susceptible to SNR and can be performed for any T1/T2 ratio.

  13. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  14. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great interest in developing alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) that are cost-efficient, use fewer animals and are based on current scientific knowledge of the developing nervous system. Alternative methods will require demonstration of the...

  15. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great interest in developing alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) that are cost-efficient, use fewer animals and are based on current scientific knowledge of the developing nervous system. Alternative methods will require demonstration of the...

  16. Group sparse optimization by alternating direction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei; Yin, Wotao; Zhang, Yin

    2013-09-01

    This paper proposes efficient algorithms for group sparse optimization with mixed l2,1-regularization, which arises from the reconstruction of group sparse signals in compressive sensing, and the group Lasso problem in statistics and machine learning. It is known that encoding the group information in addition to sparsity can often lead to better signal recovery/feature selection. The l2,1-regularization promotes group sparsity, but the resulting problem, due to the mixed-norm structure and possible grouping irregularity, is considered more difficult to solve than the conventional l1-regularized problem. Our approach is based on a variable splitting strategy and the classic alternating direction method (ADM). Two algorithms are presented, one derived from the primal and the other from the dual of the l2,1-regularized problem. The convergence of the proposed algorithms is guaranteed by the existing ADM theory. General group configurations such as overlapping groups and incomplete covers can be easily handled by our approach. Computational results show that on random problems the proposed ADM algorithms exhibit good efficiency, and strong stability and robustness.

  17. Rapid Execution of an Analysis of Alternatives for NATO Special Operations HQ: A Smart Defence Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    assistance from the Cargo Helicopters Project Office and Utility Helicopters Project Office. Their dedication to the mission of flying and fixing some...26 A. ALTERNATIVE NAVY SH-60F SH-60F Multi- Mission Naval Helicopters. These helicopters are being offered as EDA at no cost under Section 516 of...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Rapid Execution of An Analysis of Alternatives for NATO

  18. Fetal magnetocardiography: Methods for rapid data reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.C.; Flynn, E.R.; Quinn, A.; Weir, A.; Shahani, U.; Bain, R.J.; Maas, P.; Donaldson, G.B.

    1997-03-01

    Fetal magnetocardigraphy (fMCG) provides a unique method for noninvasive observations of the fetal heart. Electrical currents generated by excitable tissues within the fetal heart yield measurable external magnetic fields. Measurements are performed with superconducting quantum interference devices inductively coupled to magnetometer or gradiometer coils, and the resulting signals are converted to digital form in the data acquisition system. The measured fields are usually contaminated by fetal and maternal movements (usually respiration), other physiological fields such as skeletal muscle contraction, the maternal cardiac signal, and environmental electromagnetic fields. Sensitivity to relatively distant sources, both physiological and environmental, is substantially reduced by the use of magnetic gradiometers. Other contaminants may be removed by proper signal conditioning which may be automatically applied using {open_quotes}black box{close_quotes} algorithms that are transparent to the user and highly efficient. These procedures can rapidly reduce the complex signal plus noise waveforms to the desired fMCG with minimal operator interference. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Alternate methods to teach history of anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Desai, Manisha S; Desai, Sukumar P

    2014-02-01

    Residency programs in anesthesiology in the United States struggle to balance the conflicting needs of formal didactic sessions, clinical teaching, and clinical service obligations. As a consequence of the explosion in knowledge about basic and applied sciences related to our specialty, residents and fellows are expected to make substantial efforts to supplement formal lectures with self-study. There is strong evidence to suggest that members of the younger generation use nontraditional methods to acquire information. Although training programs are not required to include topics related to history of anesthesia (HOA) in the didactic curriculum, and despite the fact that such knowledge does not directly impact clinical care, many programs include such lectures and discussions. We describe and discuss our experience with 3 alternate modalities of teaching HOA.First, we provide brief descriptions of HOA-related historical narratives and novels within the domain of popular literature, rather than those that might be considered textbooks. Second, we analyze content in movies and videodiscs dealing with HOA and determine their utility as educational resources. Third, we describe HOA tours to sites in close proximity to our institutions, as well as those in locations elsewhere in the United States and abroad.We suggest that informal HOA teaching can be implemented by every residency program without much effort and without taking away from the traditional curriculum. Participating in this unique and enriching experience may be a means of academic advancement. It is our hope and expectation that graduates from programs that incorporate such exposure to HOA become advocates of history and may choose to devote a part of their academic career toward exploration of HOA.

  20. Alternative methods for the design of jet engine control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Leake, R. J.; Basso, R.; Gejji, R.; Maloney, A.; Seshadri, V.

    1976-01-01

    Various alternatives to linear quadratic design methods for jet engine control systems are discussed. The main alternatives are classified into two broad categories: nonlinear global mathematical programming methods and linear local multivariable frequency domain methods. Specific studies within these categories include model reduction, the eigenvalue locus method, the inverse Nyquist method, polynomial design, dynamic programming, and conjugate gradient approaches.

  1. Alternative methods for the design of jet engine control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Leake, R. J.; Basso, R.; Gejji, R.; Maloney, A.; Seshadri, V.

    1976-01-01

    Various alternatives to linear quadratic design methods for jet engine control systems are discussed. The main alternatives are classified into two broad categories: nonlinear global mathematical programming methods and linear local multivariable frequency domain methods. Specific studies within these categories include model reduction, the eigenvalue locus method, the inverse Nyquist method, polynomial design, dynamic programming, and conjugate gradient approaches.

  2. Rapid diagnostic tests duo as alternative to conventional serological assays for conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Egüez, Karina E; Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Terán, Carolina; Chipana, Zenobia; García, Wilson; Torrico, Faustino; Gascon, Joaquim; Lozano-Beltran, Daniel-Franz; Pinazo, María-Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects several million people, mainly in Latin America, and severe cardiac and/or digestive complications occur in ~30% of the chronically infected patients. Disease acute stage is mostly asymptomatic and infection goes undiagnosed. In the chronic phase direct parasite detection is hampered due to its concealed presence and diagnosis is achieved by serological methods, like ELISA or indirect hemagglutination assays. Agreement in at least two tests must be obtained due to parasite wide antigenic variability. These techniques require equipped labs and trained personnel and are not available in distant regions. As a result, many infected people often remain undiagnosed until it is too late, as the two available chemotherapies show diminished efficacy in the advanced chronic stage. Easy-to-use rapid diagnostic tests have been developed to be implemented in remote areas as an alternative to conventional tests. They do not need electricity, nor cold chain, they can return results within an hour and some even work with whole blood as sample, like Chagas Stat-Pak (ChemBio Inc.) and Chagas Detect Plus (InBIOS Inc.). Nonetheless, in order to qualify a rapidly diagnosed positive patient for treatment, conventional serological confirmation is obligatory, which might risk its start. In this study two rapid tests based on distinct antigen sets were used in parallel as a way to obtain a fast and conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis using whole blood samples. Chagas Stat-Pak and Chagas Detect Plus were validated by comparison with three conventional tests yielding 100% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity over 342 patients seeking Chagas disease diagnosis in a reference centre in Sucre (Bolivia). Combined used of RDTs in distant regions could substitute laborious conventional serology, allowing immediate treatment and favouring better adhesion to it.

  3. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2000-11-07

    In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

  4. ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD (AACM) AT GEBO

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the AACM research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbestos NESHAP. This abstract and pr...

  5. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Wastewater Disinfection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    sodium metabisulfite, and sodium bisulfite are used for dechlorinating chlorinated effluents, but sulfur dioxide is the favored candidate for...metabisulfite and sodium bisulfite are safe substitutes for sulfur dioxide and are used in most small facilities. These solid dechlorination materials are...induced toxicity to aquatic life? (TRC limits. ChlorinatedNO compounds) No Yes Evalue alternate disinfection , technologies: Dechlorination techniques

  6. ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD (AACM) AT GEBO

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the AACM research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbestos NESHAP. This abstract and pr...

  7. Avoiding Mathematics Trauma: Alternative Teaching Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ufuktepe, Unal; Ozel, Claire Thomas

    Children in primary education often encounter mathematics having picked up a general fear of mathematics from the society around them. This results in lack of confidence, avoidance of non-standard thought processes, weakness in problem solving strategies, and other negative consequences. This study offers an alternative approach: presenting…

  8. Selection and Evaluation of Alternative Teaching Methods in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterman, Dean N.

    College teachers are seeking alternatives to the conventional lecture as a means of teaching students. This paper presents five alternative teaching methods and their advantages and disadvantages. It describes a program for instructional method selection design and includes an evaluation matrix for the five methods. The methods examined are the…

  9. An alternative method of middle vault reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Holger G; Friedman, Oren; Sherris, David A; Kern, Eugene B

    2006-01-01

    Surgery of the nasal valves is a challenging aspect of rhinoplasty surgery. The middle nasal vault assumes an important role in certain aspects of nasal valve collapse. Techniques that address pathologies of the middle vault include the placement of spreader grafts and the butterfly graft. We present an alternative technique of middle vault reconstruction that allows simultaneous repair of nasal valve collapse and creation of a smooth dorsal profile. The surgical technique is described in detail and representative cases are discussed.

  10. Rapid Radiochemical Method for Plutonium-238 and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 in building materials Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of plutonium-238 and -239 in concrete or brick building materials. Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  11. Rapid field-screening method for PCBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Watts, Wendi; Miller, Gordon H.; Pal, A.; Eastwood, DeLyle; Lidberg, Russell L.

    1993-03-01

    The analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) generally requires selectivity and sensitivity. Even after cleanup, PCBs are usually at ultratrace levels in field samples, mixed in with other halocarbons, hydrocarbons, lipids, etc. The levels of PCBs typically found in water, soil, tissue, food, biota, and other matrices of interest are in the parts per billion (ppb) range. Most current measurement techniques for PCBs require chromatographic separations and are not practical for routine analysis. There is a strong need to have rapid and simple techniques to screen for PCBs under field conditions. The use of field screening analysis allows rapid decisions in remedial actions and reduces the need for sample preparations and time- consuming laboratory analyses. Field screening techniques also reduce the cost of clean-up operations. This paper describes a simple screening technique based on room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) and provides an overview of both this analytical procedure to detect trace levels of PCBs in environmental samples.

  12. 77 FR 32038 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429, 430, and 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating Methods AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department...

  13. Next-generation sequencing-based 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends for alternative promoters.

    PubMed

    Perera, Bambarendage P U; Kim, Joomyeong

    2016-02-01

    Mammalian genomes contain many unknown alternative first exons and promoters. Thus, we have modified the existing 5'RACE (5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends) approach into a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based new protocol that can identify these alternative promoters. This protocol has incorporated two main ideas: (i) 5'RACE starting from the known second exons of genes and (ii) NGS-based sequencing of the subsequent cDNA products. This protocol also provides a bioinformatics strategy that processes the sequence reads from NGS runs. This protocol has successfully identified several alternative promoters for an imprinted gene, PEG3. Overall, this NGS-based 5'RACE protocol is a sensitive and reliable method for detecting low-abundant transcripts and promoters.

  14. An Efficient Apparatus for Rapid Deoxygenation of Erythrocyte Concentrates for Alternative Banking Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zolla, Lello; D'Alessandro, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Erythrocyte concentrates (ECs) stored for transfusion purposes still represent a lifesaving solution in a wide series of clinically occurring circumstances, especially for traumatized and perioperative patients. However, concerns still arise and persist as to whether current criteria for collection and storage of ECs might actually represent the best case scenario or there might rather be still room for improvement. In particular, the prolonged storage of EC has been associated with the accumulation of a wide series of storage lesions, either reversible (metabolism) or irreversible (protein and morphology). Independent laboratories have contributed to propose alternative strategies, among which is the introduction of oxygen removal treatments to ECs. Convincing biochemical and preliminary clinical evidences have been produced about the benefits derived from the introduction of this practice. We, hereby, propose a rapid, efficient, and time-effective strategy for blood deoxygenation which might fit in current EC production chain. The proposed strategy resulted in the complete deoxygenation of red blood cell hemoglobin (pO2 < 0.0021 mmHg). A preliminary small-scale study about the application of the present method resulted in reduced hemolysis, decreased vesiculation, and limited alterations to the red blood cell morphology, as gleaned from flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopic analyses. Further in-depth and larger-scale investigations are encouraged. PMID:24066261

  15. Rhythmic alternating patterns of brain activity distinguish rapid eye movement sleep from other states of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Ho Ming; Horovitz, Silvina G.; Carr, Walter S.; Picchioni, Dante; Coddington, Nate; Fukunaga, Masaki; Xu, Yisheng; Balkin, Thomas J.; Duyn, Jeff H.; Braun, Allen R.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep constitutes a distinct “third state” of consciousness, during which levels of brain activity are commensurate with wakefulness, but conscious awareness is radically transformed. To characterize the temporal and spatial features of this paradoxical state, we examined functional interactions between brain regions using fMRI resting-state connectivity methods. Supporting the view that the functional integrity of the default mode network (DMN) reflects “level of consciousness,” we observed functional uncoupling of the DMN during deep sleep and recoupling during REM sleep (similar to wakefulness). However, unlike either deep sleep or wakefulness, REM was characterized by a more widespread, temporally dynamic interaction between two major brain systems: unimodal sensorimotor areas and the higher-order association cortices (including the DMN), which normally regulate their activity. During REM, these two systems become anticorrelated and fluctuate rhythmically, in reciprocally alternating multisecond epochs with a frequency ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 Hz. This unique spatiotemporal pattern suggests a model for REM sleep that may be consistent with its role in dream formation and memory consolidation. PMID:23733938

  16. Rapid immunohistochemistry based on alternating current electric field for intraoperative diagnosis of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Tanino, Mishie; Sasajima, Toshio; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Akesaka, Shiori; Kagaya, Masami; Kimura, Taichi; Ishida, Yusuke; Oda, Masaya; Takahashi, Masataka; Sugawara, Taku; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Akagami, Yoichi; Goto, Akiteru; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) can contribute to the intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. We have recently developed a new IHC method based on an alternating current electric field to facilitate the antigen-antibody reaction. To ensure the requirement of R-IHC for intraoperative diagnosis, 183 cases of CNS tumors were reviewed regarding the accuracy rate of diagnosis without R-IHC. The diagnostic accuracy was 90.7 % (166/183 cases) [corrected] in which definitive diagnoses were not provided in 17 cases because of the failure of glioma grading and differential diagnosis of lymphoma and glioma. To establish the clinicopathological application, R-IHC for frozen specimens was compared with standard IHC for permanent specimens. 33 gliomas were analyzed, and the Ki-67/MIB-1 indices of frozen specimens by R-IHC were consistent with the grade and statistically correlated with those of permanent specimens. Thus, R-IHC provided supportive information to determine the grade of glioma. For discrimination between glioma and lymphoma, R-IHC was able to provide clear results of CD20 and Ki-67/MIB-1 in four frozen specimens of CNS lymphoma as well as standard IHC. We conclude that the R-IHC for frozen specimens can provide important information for intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors.

  17. Rhythmic alternating patterns of brain activity distinguish rapid eye movement sleep from other states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Chow, Ho Ming; Horovitz, Silvina G; Carr, Walter S; Picchioni, Dante; Coddington, Nate; Fukunaga, Masaki; Xu, Yisheng; Balkin, Thomas J; Duyn, Jeff H; Braun, Allen R

    2013-06-18

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep constitutes a distinct "third state" of consciousness, during which levels of brain activity are commensurate with wakefulness, but conscious awareness is radically transformed. To characterize the temporal and spatial features of this paradoxical state, we examined functional interactions between brain regions using fMRI resting-state connectivity methods. Supporting the view that the functional integrity of the default mode network (DMN) reflects "level of consciousness," we observed functional uncoupling of the DMN during deep sleep and recoupling during REM sleep (similar to wakefulness). However, unlike either deep sleep or wakefulness, REM was characterized by a more widespread, temporally dynamic interaction between two major brain systems: unimodal sensorimotor areas and the higher-order association cortices (including the DMN), which normally regulate their activity. During REM, these two systems become anticorrelated and fluctuate rhythmically, in reciprocally alternating multisecond epochs with a frequency ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 Hz. This unique spatiotemporal pattern suggests a model for REM sleep that may be consistent with its role in dream formation and memory consolidation.

  18. Identification of alternative transcripts using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE).

    PubMed

    Yeku, Oladapo; Scotto-Lavino, Elizabeth; Frohman, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Many organisms, including humans, have many more proteins than are actually coded for by their genes. This discrepancy is partially explained by the existence of alternative transcripts produced by the same gene. Multiple isoforms of the same gene sometimes perform completely different functions, and as such, knowing the sequence of one of the transcripts is not enough. Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) provides an inexpensive and powerful tool to quickly identify alternative transcripts of a gene when the partial or complete sequence of only one transcript is known. In the following sections, we outline details for rapid amplification of 5' and 3' cDNA ends using the "New Race" technique.

  19. Alternate Conceptions of Preservice Elementary Teachers: The Itakura Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we determined the effectiveness of the inquiry-based Itakura method for mediating alternate conceptions of preservice elementary teachers (N = 38) in an integrated mathematics, science, and technology methods course. We investigated alternate conceptions in the expansion of solids due to heating. There was a significant increase in…

  20. 27 CFR 26.331 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 26.331 Section 26.331 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...; (2) The alternate method or procedure is within the purpose of, and consistent with the effect...

  1. 27 CFR 19.26 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 19.26 Section 19.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... use and the alternate method or procedure: (1) Is not contrary to law; (2) Will not have the effect of...

  2. 27 CFR 19.26 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 19.26 Section 19.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... use and the alternate method or procedure: (1) Is not contrary to law; (2) Will not have the effect of...

  3. Feasibility of Incorporating Alternative Teaching Methods into Clinical Clerkships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Judith; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction, interactive video, and videotapes as alternative methods of instruction in clinical clerkship modules on diabetes and hypertension. The 17 participants were more interested in balancing time between patient contact and alternative teaching methods and had better knowledge,…

  4. 7 CFR 3565.455 - Alternative disposition methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative disposition methods. 3565.455 Section 3565.455 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE....455 Alternative disposition methods. The Agency, in its sole discretion, may choose to obtain an...

  5. 26 CFR 403.55 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternative methods of sale. 403.55 Section 403.55 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Alternative methods of sale. When personal property forfeited administratively is to be sold, the Commissioner...

  6. Alternative Inspection Methods for Single Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Timothy J.; Alzheimer, James M.; Hurley, David E.

    2010-01-19

    This document was prepared to provide evaluations and recommendations regarding nondestructive evaluation methods that might be used to determine cracks and bowing in the ceiling of waste storage tanks on the Hanford site. The goal was to determine cracks as small as 1/16 in. wide in the ceiling, and bowing as small as 0.25 in. This report describes digital video camera methods that can be used to detect a crack in the ceiling of the dome, and methods for determining the surface topography of the ceiling in the waste storage tanks to detect localized movements in the surface. A literature search, combined with laboratory testing, comprised this study.

  7. Alternate cleaning methods for LCCAs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate DI water followed by isopropyl alcohol (IPA) cleaning and no cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs). Both environmentally safe methods were to be tested against the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) material cleaning baseline. Several experiments were run to compare production and electrical yields of LCCs cleaned by all three methods. The critical process steps most affected by cleaning were wire bonding, sealing, particle induced noise detection (PIND), moisture content, and electrical. Yields for the experimental lots cleaned by CFC, DI water plus IPA, and no cleaning were 56%, 72%, and 75%, respectively. The overall results indicated that vapor degreasing/ultrasonic cleaning in CFCs could be replaced by the aqueous method. No cleaning could also be considered if an effective dry method of particle removal could be developed.

  8. Alternative methods to determine headwater benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Y.S.; Perlack, R.D.; Sale, M.J.

    1997-11-10

    In 1992, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) began using a Flow Duration Analysis (FDA) methodology to assess headwater benefits in river basins where use of the Headwater Benefits Energy Gains (HWBEG) model may not result in significant improvements in modeling accuracy. The purpose of this study is to validate the accuracy and appropriateness of the FDA method for determining energy gains in less complex basins. This report presents the results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) validation of the FDA method. The validation is based on a comparison of energy gains using the FDA method with energy gains calculated using the MWBEG model. Comparisons of energy gains are made on a daily and monthly basis for a complex river basin (the Alabama River Basin) and a basin that is considered relatively simple hydrologically (the Stanislaus River Basin). In addition to validating the FDA method, ORNL was asked to suggest refinements and improvements to the FDA method. Refinements and improvements to the FDA method were carried out using the James River Basin as a test case.

  9. Evaluation of Alternate Surface Passivation Methods (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  10. Method for rapid isolation of sensitive mutants

    DOEpatents

    Freyer, James P.

    1997-01-01

    Sensitive mammalian cell mutants are rapidly isolated using flow cytometry. A first population of clonal spheroids is established to contain both normal and mutant cells. The population may be naturally occurring or may arise from mutagenized cells. The first population is then flow sorted by size to obtain a second population of clonal spheroids of a first uniform size. The second population is then exposed to a DNA-damaging agent that is being investigated. The exposed second population is placed in a growth medium to form a third population of clonal spheroids comprising spheroids of increased size from the mammalian cells that are resistant to the DNA-damaging agent and spheroids of substantially the first uniform size formed from the mammalian cells that are sensitive to the DNA-damaging agent. The third population is not flow sorted to differentiate the spheroids formed from resistant mammalian cells from spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells. The spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells are now treated to recover viable sensitive cells from which a sensitive cell line can be cloned.

  11. Method for rapid isolation of sensitive mutants

    DOEpatents

    Freyer, J.P.

    1997-07-29

    Sensitive mammalian cell mutants are rapidly isolated using flow cytometry. A first population of clonal spheroids is established to contain both normal and mutant cells. The population may be naturally occurring or may arise from mutagenized cells. The first population is then flow sorted by size to obtain a second population of clonal spheroids of a first uniform size. The second population is then exposed to a DNA-damaging agent that is being investigated. The exposed second population is placed in a growth medium to form a third population of clonal spheroids comprising spheroids of increased size from the mammalian cells that are resistant to the DNA-damaging agent and spheroids of substantially the first uniform size formed from the mammalian cells that are sensitive to the DNA-damaging agent. The third population is not flow sorted to differentiate the spheroids formed from resistant mammalian cells from spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells. The spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells are now treated to recover viable sensitive cells from which a sensitive cell line can be cloned. 15 figs.

  12. Feasibility Study of Alternative Fabrication Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    solution would be to continually deform the lead liner i as it goes through the sewing path to make it conform to the sew- ing path. The second method...SELECMe I $ I I ~ I~ i -( 2)MOTiWc BA5e I PC-90 FIJOUS1R#AL SOLID SrAT- coJtiRoi.5 -YO&iK PA. wWWAY(Z) o-rAL CENTRAL PROCESSORL UNIT LPC .90 IIJOU57RIAL

  13. Rapid Methods for Estimating Navigation Channel Shoaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    of the data dependence and lack of accounting for channel width. Mayor- Mora et al. (1976) developed an analytical method for infilling in a...1.2 cm/day near the end of the monitoring. The predictive expression of Mayor- Mora et al. (1976) is: /(1 ) (1 ) cosa dFh h FR in hdq q e q e...decision-support or initial planning studies that must be done quickly. Vicente and Uva (1984) present a method based on the assumption that a

  14. Rapid vegetative propagation method for carob

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many fruit species are propagated by vegetative methods such as budding, grafting, cutting, suckering, layering etc. to avoid heterozygosity. Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.) are of highly economical value and it is among the most difficult-to-propagate fruit species. In this study, air-layering p...

  15. Method and system rapid piece handling

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1996-01-01

    The advent of high-speed fabric cutters has made necessary the development of automated techniques for the collection and sorting of garment pieces into collated piles of pieces ready for assembly. The present invention enables a new method for such handling and sorting of garment parts, and to apparatus capable of carrying out this new method. The common thread is the application of computer-controlled shuttling bins, capable of picking up a desired piece of fabric and dropping it in collated order for assembly. Such apparatus with appropriate computer control relieves the bottleneck now presented by the sorting and collation procedure, thus greatly increasing the overall rate at which garments can be assembled.

  16. Alternative methods for characterization of extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Balaj, Leonora; Alian, Sara; Tigges, John; Toxavidis, Vasilis; Ericsson, Maria; Distel, Robert J; Ivanov, Alexander R; Skog, Johan; Kuo, Winston Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (ECVs) are nano-sized vesicles released by all cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Their role has been implicated mainly in cell-cell communication, but also in disease biomarkers and more recently in gene delivery. They represent a snapshot of the cell status at the moment of release and carry bioreactive macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. A major limitation in this emerging new field is the availability/awareness of techniques to isolate and properly characterize ECVs. The lack of gold standards makes comparing different studies very difficult and may potentially hinder some ECVs-specific evidence. Characterization of ECVs has also recently seen many advances with the use of Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, flow cytometry, cryo-electron microscopy instruments, and proteomic technologies. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in translational technologies involving characterization methods including the facts in their support and the challenges they face.

  17. Alternative Methods for Characterization of Extracellular Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Balaj, Leonora; Alian, Sara; Tigges, John; Toxavidis, Vasilis; Ericsson, Maria; Distel, Robert J.; Ivanov, Alexander R.; Skog, Johan; Kuo, Winston Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (ECVs) are nano-sized vesicles released by all cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Their role has been implicated mainly in cell–cell communication, but also in disease biomarkers and more recently in gene delivery. They represent a snapshot of the cell status at the moment of release and carry bioreactive macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. A major limitation in this emerging new field is the availability/awareness of techniques to isolate and properly characterize ECVs. The lack of gold standards makes comparing different studies very difficult and may potentially hinder some ECVs-specific evidence. Characterization of ECVs has also recently seen many advances with the use of Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, flow cytometry, cryo-electron microscopy instruments, and proteomic technologies. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in translational technologies involving characterization methods including the facts in their support and the challenges they face. PMID:22973237

  18. Method for large and rapid terahertz imaging

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Gwyn P.; Neil, George R.

    2013-01-29

    A method of large-scale active THz imaging using a combination of a compact high power THz source (>1 watt), an optional optical system, and a camera for the detection of reflected or transmitted THz radiation, without the need for the burdensome power source or detector cooling systems required by similar prior art such devices. With such a system, one is able to image, for example, a whole person in seconds or less, whereas at present, using low power sources and scanning techniques, it takes several minutes or even hours to image even a 1 cm.times.1 cm area of skin.

  19. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) Research - Feb 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  20. ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD (AACM) RESEARCH - BALTIMORE, MD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  1. ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD (AACM) RESEARCH - BALTIMORE, MD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  2. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) Research, 5/06/2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  3. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) Research - Feb 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  4. Satellite Seminars: An Alternative Method for Extension Educators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, N. E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Satellite seminars in grain and forage crop production and pest management were conducted for a large, geographically dispersed audience of farmers and agribusiness persons to test the feasibility of an alternative delivery method in extension. Results of a formative evaluation revealed it is feasible to create an alternative model. (LZ)

  5. Satellite Seminars: An Alternative Method for Extension Educators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, N. E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Satellite seminars in grain and forage crop production and pest management were conducted for a large, geographically dispersed audience of farmers and agribusiness persons to test the feasibility of an alternative delivery method in extension. Results of a formative evaluation revealed it is feasible to create an alternative model. (LZ)

  6. PID techniques: Alternatives to RICH Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vavra, J.; /SLAC

    2011-03-01

    In this review article we discuss the recent progress in PID techniques other than the RICH methods. In particular we mention the recent progress in the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), dE/dx cluster counting, and Time Of Flight (TOF) techniques. The TRD technique is mature and has been tried in many hadron colliders. It needs space though, about 20cm of detector radial space for every factor of 10 in the {pi}/e rejection power, and this tends to make such detectors large. Although the cluster counting technique is an old idea, it was never tried in a real physics experiment. Recently, there are efforts to revive it for the SuperB experiment using He-based gases and waveform digitizing electronics. A factor of almost 2 improvement, compared to the classical dE/dx performance, is possible in principle. However, the complexity of the data analysis will be substantial. The TOF technique is well established, but introduction of new fast MCP-PMT and G-APD detectors creates new possibilities. It seems that resolutions below 20-30ps may be possible at some point in the future with relatively small systems, and perhaps this could be pushed down to 10-15ps with very small systems, assuming that one can solve many systematic issues. However, the cost, rate limitation, aging and cross-talk in multi-anode devices at high BW are problems. There are several groups working on these issues, so progress is likely. Table 6 summarizes the author's opinion of pros and cons of various detectors presented in this paper based on their operational capabilities. We refer the reader to Ref.40 for discussion of other more general limits from the PID point of view.

  7. A rapid protection switching method in carrier ethernet ring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang; Ji, Meng

    2008-11-01

    Abstract: Ethernet is the most important Local Area Network (LAN) technology since more than 90% data traffic in access layer is carried on Ethernet. From 10M to 10G, the improving Ethernet technology can be not only used in LAN, but also a good choice for MAN even WAN. MAN are always constructed in ring topology because the ring network could provide resilient path protection by using less resource (fibre or cable) than other network topologies. In layer 2 data networks, spanning tree protocol (STP) is always used to protect transmit link and preventing the formation of logic loop in networks. However, STP cannot guarantee the efficiency of service convergence when link fault happened. In fact, convergent time of networks with STP is about several minutes. Though Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and Multi-Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) improve the STP technology, they still need a couple of seconds to achieve convergence, and can not provide sub-50ms protection switching. This paper presents a novel rapid ring protection method (RRPM) for carrier Ethernet. Unlike other link-fault detection method, it adopts distributed algorithm to detect link fault rapidly (sub-50ms). When networks restore from link fault, it can revert to the original working state. RRPM can provide single ring protection and interconnected ring protection without the formation of super loop. In normal operation, the master node blocks the secondary port for all non-RRPM Ethernet frames belonging to the given RRPM Ring, thereby avoiding a loop in the ring. When link fault happens, the node on which the failure happens moves from the "ring normal" state to the "ring fault" state. It also sends "link down" frame immediately to other nodes and blocks broken port and flushes its forwarding database. Those who receive "link down" frame will flush forwarding database and master node should unblock its secondary port. When the failure restores, the whole ring will revert to the normal state. That is

  8. An Alternative Method for Multiplication of Rhotrices. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, B.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, an alternative multiplication method for rhotrices is proposed. The method establishes some relationships between rhotrices and matrices. This article has discussed a modified multiplication method for rhotrices. The method has a direct relationship with matrix multiplication, and so rhotrices under this multiplication procedure…

  9. Advances in rapid detection methods for foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xihong; Lin, Chii-Wann; Wang, Jun; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2014-03-28

    Food safety is increasingly becoming an important public health issue, as foodborne diseases present a widespread and growing public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The rapid and precise monitoring and detection of foodborne pathogens are some of the most effective ways to control and prevent human foodborne infections. Traditional microbiological detection and identification methods for foodborne pathogens are well known to be time consuming and laborious as they are increasingly being perceived as insufficient to meet the demands of rapid food testing. Recently, various kinds of rapid detection, identification, and monitoring methods have been developed for foodborne pathogens, including nucleic-acid-based methods, immunological methods, and biosensor-based methods, etc. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, and applications of recent rapid detection methods for foodborne pathogens.

  10. Rapid Method for Sodium Hydroxide/Sodium Peroxide Fusion ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 in water and air filters Method Selected for: SAM lists this method as a pre-treatment technique supporting analysis of refractory radioisotopic forms of plutonium in drinking water and air filters using the following qualitative techniques: • Rapid methods for acid or fusion digestion • Rapid Radiochemical Method for Plutonium-238 and Plutonium 239/240 in Building Materials for Environmental Remediation Following Radiological Incidents. Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  11. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  12. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER... alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law, and will not result in...

  13. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER... alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law, and will not result in...

  14. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER... alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law, and will not result in...

  15. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER... alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law, and will not result in...

  16. In vivo osteogenesis assay: a rapid method for quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dennis, J E; Konstantakos, E K; Arm, D; Caplan, A I

    1998-08-01

    A quantitative in vivo osteogenesis assay is a useful tool for the analysis of cells and bioactive factors that affect the amount or rate of bone formation. There are currently two assays in general use for the in vivo assessment of osteogenesis by isolated cells: diffusion chambers and porous calcium phosphate ceramics. Due to the relative ease of specimen preparation and reproducibility of results, the porous ceramic assay was chosen for the development of a rapid method for quantitating in vivo bone formation. The ceramic cube implantation technique consists of combining osteogenic cells with 27-mm3 porous calcium phosphate ceramics, implanting the cell-ceramic composites subcutaneously into an immuno-tolerant host, and, after 2-6 weeks, harvesting and preparing the ceramic implants for histologic analysis. A drawback to the analysis of bone formation within these porous ceramics is that the entire cube must be examined to find small foci of bone present in some samples; a single cross-sectional area is not representative. For this reason, image analysis of serial sections from ceramics is often prohibitively time-consuming. Two alternative scoring methodologies were tested and compared to bone volume measurements obtained by image analysis. The two subjective scoring methods were: (1) Bone Scale: the amount of bone within pores of the ceramic implant is estimated on a scale of 0-4 based on the degree of bone fill (0=no bone, 1=up to 25%, 2=25 to 75%, 4=75 to 100% fill); and (2) Percentage Bone: the amount of bone is estimated by determining the percentage of ceramic pores which contain bone. Every tenth section of serially sectioned cubes was scored by each of these methods under double-blind conditions, and the Bone Scale and Percentage Bone results were directly compared to image analysis measurements from identical samples. Correlation coefficients indicate that the Percentage Bone method was more accurate than the Bone Scale scoring method. The Bone Scale

  17. A Modified Alternating Direction Method for Variational Inequality Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Han, D.

    2002-07-01

    The alternating direction method is an attractive method for solving large-scale variational inequality problems whenever the subproblems can be solved efficiently. However, the subproblems are still variational inequality problems, which are as structurally difficult to solve as the original one. To overcome this disadvantage, in this paper we propose a new alternating direction method for solving a class of nonlinear monotone variational inequality problems. In each iteration the method just makes an orthogonal projection to a simple set and some function evaluations. We report some preliminary computational results to illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  18. A recreation quality rapid assessment method for visitor capacity management

    Treesearch

    Kenneth Chilman; Stuart Schneider; Les Wadzinski

    2007-01-01

    A rapid assessment method for inexpensively obtaining representative samples of place-specific visitor numbers and perceptions of visit quality was tested on Niobrara National Scenic River (NSR). Similar tests have been done on national forest areas in Indiana and Illinois. The data are used in meetings focusing on visitor capacity management. The rapid assessment...

  19. Predictions for rapid methods and automation in food microbiology.

    PubMed

    Fung, Daniel Y C

    2002-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the present status of rapid methods and automation in microbiology. Predictions are also presented for development in the following areas: viable cell counts; real-time monitoring of hygiene; polymerase chain reaction, ribotyping, and genetic tests in food laboratories; automated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunotests; rapid dipstick technology; biosensors for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point programs; instant detection of target pathogens by computer-generated matrix; effective separation and concentration for rapid identification of target cells; microbiological alert systems in food packages; and rapid alert kits for detecting pathogens at home.

  20. [A new method of fabricating photoelastic model by rapid prototyping].

    PubMed

    Fan, Li; Huang, Qing-feng; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Xia, Yin-pei

    2011-10-01

    To explore a novel method of fabricating the photoelastic model using rapid prototyping technique. A mandible model was made by rapid prototyping with computerized three-dimensional reconstruction, then the photoelastic model with teeth was fabricated by traditional impression duplicating and mould casting. The photoelastic model of mandible with teeth, which was fabricated indirectly by rapid prototyping, was very similar to the prototype in geometry and physical parameters. The model was of high optical sensibility and met the experimental requirements. Photoelastic model of mandible with teeth indirectly fabricated by rapid prototyping meets the photoelastic experimental requirements well.

  1. Expediting systematic reviews: methods and implications of rapid reviews

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Policy makers and others often require synthesis of knowledge in an area within six months or less. Traditional systematic reviews typically take at least 12 months to conduct. Rapid reviews streamline traditional systematic review methods in order to synthesize evidence within a shortened timeframe. There is great variation in the process of conducting rapid reviews. This review sought to examine methods used for rapid reviews, as well as implications of methodological streamlining in terms of rigour, bias, and results. Methods A comprehensive search strategy--including five electronic databases, grey literature, hand searching of relevant journals, and contacting key informants--was undertaken. All titles and abstracts (n = 1,989) were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Relevance criteria included articles published between 1995 and 2009 about conducting rapid reviews or addressing comparisons of rapid reviews versus traditional reviews. Full articles were retrieved for any titles deemed relevant by either reviewer (n = 70). Data were extracted from all relevant methodological articles (n = 45) and from exemplars of rapid review methods (n = 25). Results Rapid reviews varied from three weeks to six months; various methods for speeding up the process were employed. Some limited searching by years, databases, language, and sources beyond electronic searches. Several employed one reviewer for title and abstract reviewing, full text review, methodological quality assessment, and/or data extraction phases. Within rapid review studies, accelerating the data extraction process may lead to missing some relevant information. Biases may be introduced due to shortened timeframes for literature searching, article retrieval, and appraisal. Conclusions This review examined the continuum between diverse rapid review methods and traditional systematic reviews. It also examines potential implications of streamlined review methods. More of these rapid reviews need

  2. Nucleic acid amplification: Alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Fakruddin, Md; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Mazumdar, Reaz Mohammad; Hossain, Md Nur; Islam, Sumaiya; Chowdhury, Md Alimuddin

    2013-10-01

    Nucleic acid amplification is a valuable molecular tool not only in basic research but also in application oriented fields, such as clinical medicine development, infectious diseases diagnosis, gene cloning and industrial quality control. A comperehensive review of the literature on the principles, applications, challenges and prospects of different alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. PCR was the first nucleic acid amplification method. With the advancement of research, a no of alternative nucleic acid amplification methods has been developed such as loop mediated isothermal amplification, nucleic acid sequence based amplification, strand displacement amplification, multiple displacement amplification. Most of the alternative methods are isothermal obviating the need for thermal cyclers. Though principles of most of the alternate methods are relatively complex than that of PCR, they offer better applicability and sensitivity in cases where PCR has limitations. Most of the alternate methods still have to prove themselves through extensive validation studies and are not available in commercial form; they pose the potentiality to be used as replacements of PCR. Continuous research is going on in different parts of the world to make these methods viable technically and economically.

  3. Nucleic acid amplification: Alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Fakruddin, Md; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Mazumdar, Reaz Mohammad; Hossain, Md. Nur; Islam, Sumaiya; Chowdhury, Md. Alimuddin

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification is a valuable molecular tool not only in basic research but also in application oriented fields, such as clinical medicine development, infectious diseases diagnosis, gene cloning and industrial quality control. A comperehensive review of the literature on the principles, applications, challenges and prospects of different alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. PCR was the first nucleic acid amplification method. With the advancement of research, a no of alternative nucleic acid amplification methods has been developed such as loop mediated isothermal amplification, nucleic acid sequence based amplification, strand displacement amplification, multiple displacement amplification. Most of the alternative methods are isothermal obviating the need for thermal cyclers. Though principles of most of the alternate methods are relatively complex than that of PCR, they offer better applicability and sensitivity in cases where PCR has limitations. Most of the alternate methods still have to prove themselves through extensive validation studies and are not available in commercial form; they pose the potentiality to be used as replacements of PCR. Continuous research is going on in different parts of the world to make these methods viable technically and economically. PMID:24302831

  4. REVIEW OF RAPID METHODS FOR ASSESSING WETLAND CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated over 40 wetland rapid assessment methods developed for a variety of purposes for their use in the assessment of ecological integrity or ecosystem condition. Four criteria were used to screen methods: 1) the method can be used to measure condition, 2) it is truly rap...

  5. REVIEW OF RAPID METHODS FOR ASSESSING WETLAND CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated over 40 wetland rapid assessment methods developed for a variety of purposes for their use in the assessment of ecological integrity or ecosystem condition. Four criteria were used to screen methods: 1) the method can be used to measure condition, 2) it is truly rap...

  6. [Validation and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods for toxicity evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    For regulatory acceptance of alternative methods (AMs) to animal toxicity tests, their reproducibility and relevance should be determined by intra- and inter-laboratory validation. Appropriate procedures of the validation and regulatory acceptance of AMs were recommended by OECD in 1996. According to those principles, several in vitro methods like skin corrosivity tests and phototoxicity tests were evaluated and accepted by ECVAM (European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods), ICCVAM (The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods), and OECD. Because of the difficulties in conducting inter-laboratory validation and relatively short period remained until EU's ban of animal experiments for safety evaluation of cosmetics, ECVAM and ICCVAM have recently started cooperation in validation and evaluation of AMs. It is also necessary to establish JaCVAM (Japanese Center for the Validation of AM) to contribute the issue and for the evaluation of new toxicity tests originated in Japan.

  7. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  8. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - St. Louis, MO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  9. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Wisconsin Dells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  10. 27 CFR 17.3 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 17.3 Section 17.3 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... the effect intended by, the method or procedure prescribed by this part, and affords equivalent...

  11. 27 CFR 27.221 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 27.221 Section 27.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... method or procedure is within the purpose of, and consistent with the effect intended by, the...

  12. 27 CFR 24.22 - Alternate method or procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternate method or procedure. 24.22 Section 24.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... purpose of, and consistent with the effect intended by, the specifically prescribed method or procedure...

  13. 27 CFR 18.13 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 18.13 Section 18.13 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... the purpose of, and consistent with the effect intended by the specifically prescribed method or...

  14. 27 CFR 18.13 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 18.13 Section 18.13 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... the purpose of, and consistent with the effect intended by the specifically prescribed method or...

  15. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Wisconsin Dells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  16. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - St. Louis, MO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  17. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  18. Validation of an alternative microbiological method for tissue products.

    PubMed

    Suessner, Susanne; Hennerbichler, Simone; Schreiberhuber, Stefanie; Stuebl, Doris; Gabriel, Christian

    2014-06-01

    According to the European Pharmacopoeia sterility testing of products includes an incubation time of 14 days in thioglycollate medium and soya-bean casein medium. In this case a large period of time is needed for product testing. So we designed a study to evaluate an alternative method for sterility testing. The aim of this study was to reduce the incubation time for the routinely produced products in our tissue bank (cornea and amnion grafts) by obtaining the same detection limit, accurateness and recovery rates as the reference method described in the European Pharmacopoeia. The study included two steps of validation. Primary validation compared the reference method with the alternative method. Therefore eight bacterial and two fungi test strains were tested at their preferred milieu. A geometric dilution series from 10 to 0.625 colony forming unit per 10 ml culture media was used. Subsequent to the evaluation the second part of the study started including the validation of the fertility of the culture media and the parallel testing of the two methods by investigating products. For this purpose two product batches were tested in three independent runs. Concerning the validation we could not find any aberration between the alternative and the reference method. In addition, the recovery rate of each microorganism was between 83.33 and 100 %. The alternative method showed non-inferiority regarding accuracy to the reference method. Due to this study we reduced the sterility testing for cornea and amniotic grafts to 9 days.

  19. Land management planning: a method of evaluating alternatives

    Treesearch

    Andres Weintraub; Richard Adams; Linda Yellin

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for developing and evaluating alternatives in land management planning. A structured set of 15 steps provides a framework for such an evaluation. when multiple objectives and uncertainty must be considered in the planning process. The method is consistent with other processes used in organizational evaluation, and allows for the interaction of...

  20. RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RADIOSTRONTIUM IN EMERGENCY MILK SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-07-17

    A new rapid separation method for radiostrontium in emergency milk samples was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Environmental Bioassay Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that will allow rapid separation and measurement of Sr-90 within 8 hours. The new method uses calcium phosphate precipitation, nitric acid dissolution of the precipitate to coagulate residual fat/proteins and a rapid strontium separation using Sr Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Darien, IL, USA) with vacuum-assisted flow rates. The method is much faster than previous method that use calcination or cation exchange pretreatment, has excellent chemical recovery, and effectively removes beta interferences. When a 100 ml sample aliquot is used, the method has a detection limit of 0.5 Bq/L, well below generic emergency action levels.

  1. Alternative prediction methods of protein and energy evaluation of pig feeds.

    PubMed

    Święch, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Precise knowledge of the actual nutritional value of individual feedstuffs and complete diets for pigs is important for efficient livestock production. Methods of assessment of protein and energy values in pig feeds have been briefly described. In vivo determination of protein and energy values of feeds in pigs are time-consuming, expensive and very often require the use of surgically-modified animals. There is a need for more simple, rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methods for routine feed evaluation. Protein and energy values of pig feeds can be estimated using the following alternative methods: 1) prediction equations based on chemical composition; 2) animal models as rats, cockerels and growing pigs for adult animals; 3) rapid methods, such as the mobile nylon bag technique and in vitro methods. Alternative methods developed for predicting the total tract and ileal digestibility of nutrients including amino acids in feedstuffs and diets for pigs have been reviewed. This article focuses on two in vitro methods that can be used for the routine evaluation of amino acid ileal digestibility and energy value of pig feeds and on factors affecting digestibility determined in vivo in pigs and by alternative methods. Validation of alternative methods has been carried out by comparing the results obtained using these methods with those acquired in vivo in pigs. In conclusion, energy and protein values of pig feeds may be estimated with satisfactory precision in rats and by the two- or three-step in vitro methods providing equations for the calculation of standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids and metabolizable energy content. The use of alternative methods of feed evaluation is an important way for reduction of stressful animal experiments.

  2. Alternative HIV testing methods among populations at high risk for HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Greensides, Dawn R.; Berkelman, Ruth; Lansky, Amy; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of awareness and use of alternative HIV tests (home collection kit, oral mucosal transudate collection kit, and rapid tests) among people at high risk for HIV infection. METHODS: Data were collected as part of an anonymous, cross-sectional interview study--the HIV Testing Survey (HITS)--conducted in seven states from September 2000 to February 2001. Three high-risk populations were recruited: men who have sex with men, injection drug users, and high-risk heterosexuals. Respondents were asked about their awareness and use of alternative HIV tests. RESULTS: The overall awareness and use of the alternative tests was limited: 54% of respondents were aware of the home collection kit, 42% were aware of the oral mucosal transudate collection kit test, and 13% were aware of rapid tests. Among those aware of alternative tests, self-reported use of the tests was also low. The most common reasons given for not using alternative HIV tests were: preference for the standard test; concern that the results could be less accurate; and that alternative tests were not offered. CONCLUSIONS: The low levels of awareness and use of alternative HIV tests suggest that the potential for promoting testing among individuals at high risk for HIV by encouraging use of alternative HIV tests has not been fully realized. Alternative tests should be made more broadly available and should be accompanied by education about these tests for physicians and people at risk. Educational efforts should be evaluated to determine if promoting alternative HIV tests increases the numbers of people at risk for HIV who are tested. PMID:14563910

  3. EU member state government contribution to alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy

    2014-01-01

    Article 47 of the new EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes requires national governments to contribute to the development and promotion of alternative methods. A recent survey of EU member states found that reported funding of alternative (3Rs) methods totalled € 18.7 million in 2013, provided by only seven countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the UK). There were indications that the contributions of some of these countries have increased since the implementation of the new Directive. However, funding of alternatives is between 0 and 0.036% of national science R&D expenditure and nearly half of the countries that responded reported that they do not specifically contribute. Data (and, by assumption, financial contribution) remains unavailable from half of the member states across the EU, regardless of the method of collection.

  4. Rapid methods for detection of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    March-Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto

    2017-03-01

    The most widely used antibiotic susceptibility testing methods in Clinical Microbiology are based on the phenotypic detection of antibiotic resistance by measuring bacterial growth in the presence of the antibiotic being tested. These conventional methods take typically 24hours to obtain results. Here we review the main techniques for rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility. Data obtained with different methods such as molecular techniques, microarrays, commercial methods used in work routine, immunochromatographic methods, colorimetric methods, image methods, nephelometry, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, chemiluminescence and bioluminescence, microfluids and methods based on cell disruption are analysed in detail.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of rapidly growing mycobacteria using the rapid colorimetric method.

    PubMed

    Ramis, I B; Cnockaert, M; von Groll, A; Nogueira, C L; Leão, S C; Andre, E; Simon, A; Palomino, J C; da Silva, P E A; Vandamme, P; Martin, A

    2015-07-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are recommended for guiding the antimicrobial therapy. We have evaluated the use of resazurin in Mueller-Hinton medium (MHR) for MIC determination of RGM and compared the results with those obtained with the reference standard broth microdilution in Mueller-Hinton (MH) and with the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) in 7H9 broth. The MIC of eight drugs: amikacin (AMI), cefoxitin (FOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), clarithromycin (CLA), doxycycline (DOX), linezolid (LZD), moxifloxacin (MXF) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) were evaluated against 76 RGM (18 species) using three methods (MH, MHR, and REMA) in a 96-well plate format incubated at 37 °C over 3-5 days. Results obtained in the MH plates were interpreted by the appearance of turbidity at the bottom of the well before adding the resazurin. MHR and 7H9-REMA plates were read by visual observation for a change in color from blue to pink. The majority of results were obtained at day 5 for MH and 1 day after for MHR and 7H9-REMA. However, the preliminary experiment on time to positivity results using the reference strain showed that the resazurin can be added to the MH at day 2 to produce the results at day 3, but future studies with large sets of strains are required to confirm this suggestion. A high level of agreement (kappa 1.000-0.884) was obtained between the MH and the MHR. Comparison of results obtained with 7H9-REMA, on the other hand, revealed several discrepancies and a lower level of agreement (kappa 1.000-0.111). The majority of the strains were resistant to DOX and TMP-SMX, and the most active antimicrobials for RGM were AMI and FOX. In the present study, MHR represented an excellent alternative for MIC determination of RGM. The results could be read reliably, more easily, and more quickly than with the classical MH method.

  6. Rapid Method for Sodium Hydroxide Fusion of Asphalt ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief--Addendum to Selected Analytical Methods (SAM) 2012 Rapid method developed for analysis of Americium-241 (241Am), plutonium-238 (238Pu), plutonium-239 (239Pu), radium-226 (226Ra), strontium-90 (90Sr), uranium-234 (234U), uranium-235 (235U) and uranium-238 (238U) in asphalt roofing material samples

  7. Identical ATP1A3 mutation causes alternating hemiplegia of childhood and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Cyrus; Lagman-Bartolome, Ana Marissa; MacGregor, Daune L; McCabe, Jane; Logan, Willam J; Minassian, Berge A

    2014-12-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism are two separate movement disorders with different dominant mutations in the same sodium-potassium transporter ATPase subunit gene, ATP1A3. We present a child with topiramate-responsive alternating hemiplegia of childhood who was tested for an ATP1A3 gene mutation. Gene sequencing revealed an identical ATP1A3 mutation as in three typical adult-onset rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism cases but never previously described in an alternating hemiplegia of childhood case. The discordance of these phenotypes suggests that there are other undiscovered environmental, genetic, or epigenetic factors influencing the development of alternating hemiplegia of childhood or rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Xurography as a Rapid Fabrication Alternative for Point-of-Care Devices: Assessment of Passive Micromixers

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-López, J. Israel; Mojica, Mauricio; Rodríguez, Ciro A.; Siller, Héctor R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the copious amount of research on the design and operation of micromixers, there are few works regarding manufacture technology aimed at implementation beyond academic environments. This work evaluates the viability of xurography as a rapid fabrication tool for the development of ultra-low cost microfluidic technology for extreme Point-of-Care (POC) micromixing devices. By eschewing photolithographic processes and the bulkiness of pumping and enclosure systems for rapid fabrication and passively driven operation, xurography is introduced as a manufacturing alternative for asymmetric split and recombine (ASAR) micromixers. A T-micromixer design was used as a reference to assess the effects of different cutting conditions and materials on the geometric features of the resulting microdevices. Inspection by stereographic and confocal microscopy showed that it is possible to manufacture devices with less than 8% absolute dimensional error. Implementation of the manufacturing methodology in modified circular shape- based SAR microdevices (balanced and unbalanced configurations) showed that, despite the precision limitations of the xurographic process, it is possible to implement this methodology to produce functional micromixing devices. Mixing efficiency was evaluated numerically and experimentally at the outlet of the microdevices with performances up to 40%. Overall, the assessment encourages further research of xurography for the development of POC micromixers. PMID:27196904

  9. Comparison of Incidence of hypoxia during modified rapid sequence induction and an alternative technique: a prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ji; Li, Xing-Huan; Zuo, Yun-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the effects and safety of an alternative technique for rapid sequence intubation in children predicting to have high risk of pulmonary aspiration in this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Methods: One hundred sixty-five children predicting to have high risk of pulmonary aspiration were randomly allocated to spontaneous breathing maintained induction and intubation group (Group S) and the modified rapid sequence group (Group C). The primary outcome was the incidence of hypoxemia around the intubation period, which was defined as SpO2<90% at any time during the induction and 10 min after the endotracheal intubation. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of pulmonary aspiration, gastroesophageal reflux and other major adverse events associated with the induction and intubation. Results: There were no differences in the incidence of hypoxemia around the intubation period between Group C and Group S; 25.9% vs. 14.8% (P=0.079). The incidence of severe hypoxemia appeared higher in Group C than Group S but not statistical significance, 6.2% vs. 2.5% (P=0.246). Simultaneously, gastroesophageal reflux (upper esophageal pH≤4) was detected in 4.93% children in Group C and 2.47% in group S, which was not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.552). There were no witnessed aspirations in all subjects. Conclusion: Sevoflurane based deep sedation with spontaneous respiration maintained technique is not superior to modified rapid sequence induction but can be an alternative technique for anesthesia induction for those predicting to have high risk of aspiration in children. PMID:26629138

  10. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma.

    PubMed

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-02-22

    BACKGROUND An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be <1 cm in size. The tumor is characterized by night-time pain that may be relieved by aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Osteoid osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. RESULTS Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. CONCLUSIONS The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment.

  11. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-01-01

    Background An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be <1 cm in size. The tumor is characterized by night-time pain that may be relieved by aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Osteoid osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. Material/Methods In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. Results Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. Conclusions The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment. PMID:26898923

  12. A rapid ultrasound particle agglutination method for HIV antibody detection: Comparison with conventional rapid HIV tests.

    PubMed

    Bystryak, Simon; Ossina, Natalya

    2017-08-24

    We present the results of the feasibility and preliminary studies on analytical performance of a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in human serum or plasma that is an important advance in detecting HIV infection. Current methods for rapid testing of antibodies against HIV are qualitative and exhibit poor sensitivity (limit of detection). In this paper, we describe an ultrasound particle agglutination (UPA) method that leads to a significant increase of the sensitivity of conventional latex agglutination tests for HIV antibody detection in human serum or plasma. The UPA method is based on the use of: 1) a dual mode ultrasound, wherein a first single-frequency mode is used to accelerate the latex agglutination process, and then a second swept-frequency mode of sonication is used to disintegrate non-specifically bound aggregates; and 2) a numerical assessment of results of the agglutination process. The numerical assessment is carried out by optical detection and analysis of moving patterns in the resonator cell during the swept-frequency mode. The single-step UPA method is rapid and more sensitive than the three commercial rapid HIV test kits analyzed in the study: analytical sensitivity of the new UPA method was found to be 510-, 115-, and 80-fold higher than that for Capillus™, Multispot™ and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen HIV antibody rapid test kits, respectively. The newly developed UPA method opens up additional possibilities for detection of a number of clinically significant markers in point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence.

  14. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Donald W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco R.

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  15. Alternating direction methods for latent variable gaussian graphical model selection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shiqian; Xue, Lingzhou; Zou, Hui

    2013-08-01

    Chandrasekaran, Parrilo, and Willsky (2012) proposed a convex optimization problem for graphical model selection in the presence of unobserved variables. This convex optimization problem aims to estimate an inverse covariance matrix that can be decomposed into a sparse matrix minus a low-rank matrix from sample data. Solving this convex optimization problem is very challenging, especially for large problems. In this letter, we propose two alternating direction methods for solving this problem. The first method is to apply the classic alternating direction method of multipliers to solve the problem as a consensus problem. The second method is a proximal gradient-based alternating-direction method of multipliers. Our methods take advantage of the special structure of the problem and thus can solve large problems very efficiently. A global convergence result is established for the proposed methods. Numerical results on both synthetic data and gene expression data show that our methods usually solve problems with 1 million variables in 1 to 2 minutes and are usually 5 to 35 times faster than a state-of-the-art Newton-CG proximal point algorithm.

  16. Rapid methods and computer assisted diagnosis in medical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Heizmann, W R

    1991-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis and reporting in medical microbiology is becoming more and more important. In recent years, introduction of automated instruments as well as of computer assisted diagnosis contributed to this aim. These methods, however, are very expensive. A more cost efficient and simple to perform method for rapid diagnosis is the use of specific fluorogenic substrates incorporated into culture media (solid or liquid) for identification of the most important pathogens, e.g. Escherichia coli. Investigation of Fluorocult ECD agar and Columbia agar revealed a high sensitivity (85%) and an excellent specificity (greater than 99%) of fluorescence in combination with a positive indole reaction for identification of E. coli.

  17. 27 CFR 19.665 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 19.665 Section 19.665 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... procedure: (1) Is not contrary to law; (2) Will not have the effect of merely waiving an existing regulatory...

  18. 27 CFR 53.23 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 53.23 Section 53.23 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... procedure is within the purpose of, and consistent with the effect intended by, the specifically prescribed...

  19. 27 CFR 40.385 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 40.385 Section 40.385 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  20. 27 CFR 44.72 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 44.72 Section 44.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  1. 27 CFR 40.45 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 40.45 Section 40.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  2. 27 CFR 19.665 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 19.665 Section 19.665 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... procedure: (1) Is not contrary to law; (2) Will not have the effect of merely waiving an existing regulatory...

  3. 27 CFR 40.531 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 40.531 Section 40.531 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  4. 27 CFR 41.26 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 41.26 Section 41.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  5. 27 CFR 45.21 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 45.21 Section 45.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  6. Innovative Teaching Practice: Traditional and Alternative Methods (Challenges and Implications)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurutdinova, Aida R.; Perchatkina, Veronika G.; Zinatullina, Liliya M.; Zubkova, Guzel I.; Galeeva, Farida T.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the present issue is caused be the strong need in alternative methods of learning foreign language and the need in language training and retraining for the modern professionals. The aim of the article is to identify the basic techniques and skills in using various modern techniques in the context of modern educational tasks. The…

  7. Alternative method for determining the constant offset in lidar signal

    Treesearch

    Vladimir A. Kovalev; Cyle Wold; Alexander Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2009-01-01

    We present an alternative method for determining the total offset in lidar signal created by a daytime background-illumination component and electrical or digital offset. Unlike existing techniques, here the signal square-range-correction procedure is initially performed using the total signal recorded by lidar, without subtraction of the offset component. While...

  8. An Alternative Method of Thinning Reinforcer Delivery during Differential Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roane, Henry S.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Sgro, Gina M.; Falcomata, Terry S.; Pabico, Robert R.

    2004-01-01

    Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) may result in rates of reinforcement that are impractical for caregivers to implement; therefore, recent research has examined methods for thinning reinforcer delivery during DRA. In this study, reinforcer delivery was thinned during DRA by restricting access to the participant's alternative…

  9. 27 CFR 18.13 - Alternate methods or procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures. 18.13 Section 18.13 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE...

  10. Alternative method of retesting UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, R.

    1991-12-31

    The paper describes an alternative method to perform the periodic inspection of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The hydraulic test is replaced by ultrasonic checking of wall thickness and by magnetic particle testing of all the weld seams. Information about the legal background, the air leak test and the qualification of inspectors is also given.

  11. 29 CFR 4211.23 - Approval of alternative method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of alternative method. 4211.23 Section 4211.23 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS ALLOCATING UNFUNDED VESTED BENEFITS TO WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Changes Subject to PBGC Approval § 4211.23 Approval...

  12. Alternative Asbestos Control Method and the Asbestos Releasability Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative Asbestos Control Method shows promise in speed, cost, and efficiency if equally protective. ORD conducted side by side test of AACM vs NESHAP on identical asbestos-containing buildings at Fort Chaffee. This abstract and presentation are based, at least in part, on pr...

  13. Alternative Asbestos Control Method and the Asbestos Releasability Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative Asbestos Control Method shows promise in speed, cost, and efficiency if equally protective. ORD conducted side by side test of AACM vs NESHAP on identical asbestos-containing buildings at Fort Chaffee. This abstract and presentation are based, at least in part, on pr...

  14. 49 CFR 218.79 - Alternative methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative methods of protection. 218.79 Section 218.79 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars §...

  15. Stepwise Methods Lead to Bad Interpretations: Better Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; And Others

    Problems with using stepwise analytic methods are discussed, and better alternatives are illustrated. To make the illustrations concrete, an actual data set, involving responses of 91 medical school admissions directors to 30 variables, was used. The 30 variables involved perceptions of barriers to medical school with respect to characteristics of…

  16. Alternative methods for ocular toxicology testing: validation, applications and troubleshooting.

    PubMed

    Dholakiya, Sanjay L; Barile, Frank A

    2013-06-01

    Humanitarian concern, scientific progress and legislative action have lead to the development, validation and regulatory acceptance of alternative in vitro ocular models. However, to date not a single in vitro alternative ocular toxicity test has been validated as a full replacement for the in vivo Draize rabbit eye test for all classes of chemicals across whole irritancy ranges. Since the 1990s, ocular alternative methods have been validated but few have been accepted for regulatory purposes. These assays include: organotypic models, such as the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) assay, the isolated chicken eye (ICE) test method and cell function-based in vitro assays, such as the cytosensor microphysiometer (CM) and the fluorescein leakage (FL) test methods. Some refinements to in vivo testing methods have been accepted by regulatory agencies, including humane endpoints to avoid or minimize pain and distress. The authors provide a review of the background, protocol overview, applications and their validation status of the tier-testing approach. Furthermore, the authors provide expert analysis and provide their perspective on this approach and potential future developments. In the search for a battery of methods that replaces the in vivo Draize test, it is necessary to prioritize techniques, define related mechanisms and justify statistical approaches. Overall, only when the reliability and relevance of a method is unequivocally supported will any technique be ready for regulatory acceptance.

  17. Alternative methods for evaluating the equivalence of measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2012-01-01

    Reports are common in the orthodontic and dental radiographic literature comparing measurement systems. Typically, such comparisons are made using differences in mean scores across methods, correlation coefficients, or Bland-Altman plots. These methods are subject to known limitations, including an inability to detect bias. A hypothetical dataset was created to contain a small, common random variance and two types of bias to compare three alternative measurement systems against a common standard. One comparison included only random error and no bias. Two types of bias were investigated: systemic overestimation on the part of one measurement system and the more complex case of overestimation in one part of the range and underestimation in the other. Each of the commonly used methods for comparing alternative measurement systems was inadequate for detecting one or the other type of bias. The traditional regression analysis, by contrast, provided a useful characterization of the alternative measurement systems, including quantification of the nature of bias. Regression analysis can reveal biases masked in the common comparison of means, correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman plots for evaluating alternative measurement systems and thereby improve confidence in clinical applicability of research.

  18. International Harmonization and Cooperation in the Validation of Alternative Methods.

    PubMed

    Barroso, João; Ahn, Il Young; Caldeira, Cristiane; Carmichael, Paul L; Casey, Warren; Coecke, Sandra; Curren, Rodger; Desprez, Bertrand; Eskes, Chantra; Griesinger, Claudius; Guo, Jiabin; Hill, Erin; Roi, Annett Janusch; Kojima, Hajime; Li, Jin; Lim, Chae Hyung; Moura, Wlamir; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Park, HyeKyung; Peng, Shuangqing; Presgrave, Octavio; Singer, Tim; Sohn, Soo Jung; Westmoreland, Carl; Whelan, Maurice; Yang, Xingfen; Yang, Ying; Zuang, Valérie

    The development and validation of scientific alternatives to animal testing is important not only from an ethical perspective (implementation of 3Rs), but also to improve safety assessment decision making with the use of mechanistic information of higher relevance to humans. To be effective in these efforts, it is however imperative that validation centres, industry, regulatory bodies, academia and other interested parties ensure a strong international cooperation, cross-sector collaboration and intense communication in the design, execution, and peer review of validation studies. Such an approach is critical to achieve harmonized and more transparent approaches to method validation, peer-review and recommendation, which will ultimately expedite the international acceptance of valid alternative methods or strategies by regulatory authorities and their implementation and use by stakeholders. It also allows achieving greater efficiency and effectiveness by avoiding duplication of effort and leveraging limited resources. In view of achieving these goals, the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods (ICATM) was established in 2009 by validation centres from Europe, USA, Canada and Japan. ICATM was later joined by Korea in 2011 and currently also counts with Brazil and China as observers. This chapter describes the existing differences across world regions and major efforts carried out for achieving consistent international cooperation and harmonization in the validation and adoption of alternative approaches to animal testing.

  19. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2009-11-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for samples up to 2 grams in emergency response situations. The actinides in soil method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha sources are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency soil samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinides in soil results were reported within 4-5 hours with excellent quality.

  20. Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.

    PubMed

    Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2014-07-01

    The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Alternative to the Palatini method: A new variational principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenner, Hubert

    2010-06-01

    A variational principle is suggested within Riemannian geometry, in which an auxiliary metric and the Levi Civita connection are varied independently. The auxiliary metric plays the role of a Lagrange multiplier and introduces nonminimal coupling of matter to the curvature scalar. The field equations are 2nd order PDEs and easier to handle than those following from the so-called Palatini method. Moreover, in contrast to the latter method, no gradients of the matter variables appear. In cosmological modeling, the physics resulting from the alternative variational principle will differ from the modeling using the standard Palatini method.

  2. Alternative methods to model frictional contact surfaces using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Elongated (slotted) holes have been used extensively for the integration of equipment into Spacelab racks. In the past, this type of interface has been modeled assuming that there is not slippage between contact surfaces, or that there is no load transfer in the direction of the slot. Since the contact surfaces are bolted together, the contact friction provides a load path determined by the normal applied force (bolt preload) and the coefficient of friction. Three alternate methods that utilize spring elements, externally applied couples, and stress dependent elements are examined to model the contacted surfaces. Results of these methods are compared with results obtained from methods that use GAP elements and rigid elements.

  3. Rapid-estimation method for assessing scour at highway bridges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holnbeck, Stephen R.

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for rapid estimation of scour at highway bridges using limited site data and analytical procedures to estimate pier, abutment, and contraction scour depths. The basis for the method was a procedure recommended by the Federal Highway Administration for conducting detailed scour investigations, commonly referred to as the Level 2 method. Using pier, abutment, and contraction scour results obtained from Level 2 investigations at 122 sites in 10 States, envelope curves and graphical relations were developed that enable determination of scour-depth estimates at most bridge sites in a matter of a few hours. Rather than using complex hydraulic variables, surrogate variables more easily obtained in the field were related to calculated scour-depth data from Level 2 studies. The method was tested by having several experienced individuals apply the method in the field, and results were compared among the individuals and with previous detailed analyses performed for the sites. Results indicated that the variability in predicted scour depth among individuals applying the method generally was within an acceptable range, and that conservatively greater scour depths generally were obtained by the rapid-estimation method compared to the Level 2 method. The rapid-estimation method is considered most applicable for conducting limited-detail scour assessments and as a screening tool to determine those bridge sites that may require more detailed analysis. The method is designed to be applied only by a qualified professional possessing knowledge and experience in the fields of bridge scour, hydraulics, and flood hydrology, and having specific expertise with the Level 2 method.

  4. Development of a rapid assimilable organic carbon method for water.

    PubMed

    Lechevallier, M W; Shaw, N E; Kaplan, L A; Bott, T L

    1993-05-01

    A rapid method for measurement of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is proposed. The time needed to perform the assay is reduced by increasing the incubation temperature and increasing the inoculum density. The ATP luciferin-luciferase method quickly enumerates the test organisms without the need for plate count media or dilution bottles. There was no significant difference between AOC values determined with strain P17 for the ATP and plate count procedures. For strain NOX, the plate count procedure underestimated bacterial levels in some samples. Comparison of AOC values obtained by the Belleville laboratory (by the ATP technique) and the Stroud Water Research Center (by plate counts) showed that values were significantly correlated and not significantly different. The study concludes that the rapid AOC method can quickly determine the bacterial growth potential of water within 2 to 4 days.

  5. ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF SEALING PLANAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Coyle, Christopher A.; Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Xia, Gordon

    2005-03-01

    One of the key limiting issues in designing and fabricating a high performance planar solid oxide fuel cell (pSOFC) stack is the development of the appropriate materials and techniques for hermetically sealing the metal and ceramic components. There are essentially two standard methods of sealing: (1) by forming a rigid joint or (2) by constructing a compressive “sliding” seal. While short-term success has been achieved with both techniques, it is apparent that to meet the long-term operational needs of stack designers, alternative sealing concepts will need to be conceived. Described below are two alternative pSOFC sealing methods that have been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  6. Alternative methods for Inspection for Fuel Cleanliness Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    STEGEN, G.E.

    2002-10-31

    The current fuel cleanliness inspection process and has been a bottleneck that has frequently resulted in process delays and loss of production capacity. The current inspection process is based on a rolling lot inspection process wherein individual fuel assemblies are inspected by using the manipulators to handle the assembly during the process and then loading the assembly into a fuel basket. This process is slow, depends on the operability of one of the least reliable systems of the process, and has resulted in several delays in the fuel production process. Preliminary discussions and analysis have identified alternative methods of inspection that would move the inspections away from the manipulators, resulting in improved reliability of the process. This test plan defines investigations and testing of the identified alternative inspection methods.

  7. Alternative Processing Methods for Ultra High Temperature Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gusman, Michael; Beckman, Sarah; Gasch, Matthew; Ellerby, Don; Lau, Kai-Hung; Sanjurjo, Angel; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) are being developed for possible use in a number of structural applications including hypersonic vehicles, engines, plasma arc electrodes and high temperature shielding. Alternative methods of processing Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) will be discussed. Techniques that may improve oxidation resistance, strength, and reduce the processing temperature of the UHTCs will be presented. Hot-pressed UHTCs made using either milled/uncoated powders or non-milled coated powders will be compared.

  8. Schwarz alternating methods for anisotropic problems with prolate spheroid boundaries.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhenlong; Du, Qikui; Liu, Baoqing

    2016-01-01

    The Schwarz alternating algorithm, which is based on natural boundary element method, is constructed for solving the exterior anisotropic problem in the three-dimension domain. The anisotropic problem is transformed into harmonic problem by using the coordinate transformation. Correspondingly, the algorithm is also changed. Continually, we analysis the convergence and the error estimate of the algorithm. Meanwhile, we give the contraction factor for the convergence. Finally, some numerical examples are computed to show the efficiency of this algorithm.

  9. An Alternate Method to Springback Compensation for Sheet Metal Forming

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Badrul; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the accuracy of cold stamping product by accommodating springback. This is a numerical approach to improve the accuracy of springback analysis and die compensation process combining the displacement adjustment (DA) method and the spring forward (SF) algorithm. This alternate hybrid method (HM) is conducted by firstly employing DA method followed by the SF method instead of either DA or SF method individually. The springback shape and the target part are used to optimize the die surfaces compensating springback. The hybrid method (HM) algorithm has been coded in Fortran and tested in two- and three-dimensional models. By implementing the HM, the springback error can be decreased and the dimensional deviation falls in the predefined tolerance range. PMID:25165738

  10. SLCA/IP power alternative screening method (SPASM)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.C. |; Ancrile, J.D.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the SLCA/IP Power Alternative Screening Method (SPASM), which was used to screen 784 possible combinations of electric power marketing alternatives and dam operational scenarios to provide a representative range for analysis in the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Each combination consists of one energy and capacity commitment level and one operational scenario for each of the hydroelectric facilities at Glen Canyon Dam, Flaming Gorge Dam, and the Aspinall Unit. The total annual cost to the SLCA/IP firm power customers of each of the 784 combinations is estimated and included in a relative frequency distribution. A relative frequency distribution is also generated for each marketing alternative. The number of combinations is reduced to 12 by taking the mean value and endpoint value for each of four marketing alternatives. Some minor deviations from this procedure, which are made for political purposes, are explained. 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. A quantum chemical method for rapid optimization of protein structures.

    PubMed

    Wada, Mitsuhito; Sakurai, Minoru

    2005-01-30

    A quantum chemical method for rapid optimization of protein structures is proposed. In this method, a protein structure is treated as an assembly of amino acid units, and the geometry optimization of each unit is performed with taking the effect of its surrounding environment into account. The optimized geometry of a whole protein is obtained by repeated application of such a local optimization procedure over the entire part of the protein. Here, we implemented this method in the MOPAC program and performed geometry optimization for three different sizes of proteins. Consequently, these results demonstrate that the total energies of the proteins are much efficiently minimized compared with the use of conventional optimization methods, including the MOZYME algorithm (a representative linear-scaling method) with the BFGS routine. The proposed method is superior to the conventional methods in both CPU time and memory requirements.

  12. Rapid separation method for actinides in emergency air filter samples.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Noyes, Gary W

    2010-12-01

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified (90)Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and (90)Sr in air filter results were reported in less than 4 h with excellent quality. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY AIR FILTER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Noyes, G.; Culligan, B.

    2010-02-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in air filter results were reported in {approx}4 hours with excellent quality.

  14. Methods for rotational speed reduction for alternating current electric motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, A. V.; Glukhanich, D. Y.

    2017-02-01

    The analysis of rotational speed reduction methods for alternating current electric motors are given, assigned to low-speed electric drives of various power levels. The integrated classification of electric machines of well-known types is given, the rotational speed reduction method being used as the basis. The main advantages and disadvantages, defining perspectives for the application in various low-speed electric drives, are explained. The approximate bounds of engineering expediency of the applications of the motors are given for obtaining certain assessments in selection of a type of the drive motor.

  15. Rapid qualitative method for detecting staphylococcal nuclease in foods.

    PubMed Central

    Koupal, A; Deibel, R H

    1978-01-01

    A rapid method for the detection of heat-stable staphylococcal nuclease in foods is described. The procedure consists of an acid precipitation, boiling, and centrifugation followed by enzyme detection in an agar plate containing deoxyribonucleic acid. To test the efficacy of the procedure, purified Staphylococcus aureus nuclease was added to various foods and recovery experiments were performed. Additionally, foods were inoculated and incubated with S. aureus, and the staphylococcal counts were compared with nuclease activity. The results indicate that the procedure possesses merit for a rapid method that can be incorporated into quality control programs. The procedure requires approximately 2.5 h, and it will detect nuclease levels as low as 10 ng/g of food. Images PMID:677882

  16. Turbo FISH: A Method for Rapid Single Molecule RNA FISH

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Sydney M.; Wu, Min-Tzu; Levesque, Marshall J.; Raj, Arjun

    2013-01-01

    Advances in RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (RNA FISH) have allowed practitioners to detect individual RNA molecules in single cells via fluorescence microscopy, enabling highly accurate and sensitive quantification of gene expression. However, current methods typically employ hybridization times on the order of 2–16 hours, limiting its potential in applications like rapid diagnostics. We present here a set of conditions for RNA FISH (dubbed Turbo RNA FISH) that allow us to make accurate measurements with no more than 5 minutes of hybridization time and 3 minutes of washing, and show that hybridization times can go as low as 30 seconds while still producing quantifiable images. We further show that rapid hybridization is compatible with our recently developed iceFISH and SNP FISH variants of RNA FISH that enable chromosome and single base discrimination, respectively. Our method is simple and cost effective, and has the potential to dramatically increase the throughput and realm of applicability of RNA FISH. PMID:24066168

  17. Fast ℓ1-regularized space-time adaptive processing using alternating direction method of multipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Lilong; Wu, Manqing; Wang, Xuan; Dong, Zhen

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the sparsity of filter coefficients in full-dimension space-time adaptive processing (STAP) algorithms, this paper proposes a fast ℓ1-regularized STAP algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers to accelerate the convergence and reduce the calculations. The proposed algorithm uses a splitting variable to obtain an equivalent optimization formulation, which is addressed with an augmented Lagrangian method. Using the alternating recursive algorithm, the method can rapidly result in a low minimum mean-square error without a large number of calculations. Through theoretical analysis and experimental verification, we demonstrate that the proposed algorithm provides a better output signal-to-clutter-noise ratio performance than other algorithms.

  18. A new ultrasound based method for rapid microorganism detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Shiva Kant; Segura, Luis Elvira; Sánchez, Carlos José Sierra; López, Pablo Resa

    2012-05-01

    A new method for rapid detection of catalase positive microorganisms by using an ultrasonic measuring method is proposed in this work. The developed technique is based on the detection of oxygen bubbles produced by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide induced by the enzyme catalase which is present in many microorganisms. The bubbles are trapped in a media based on agar gel which was especially developed for microbiological evaluation. It is found that microorganism concentrations of the order of 105 c.f.u./ml can be detected by using this method. The results obtained show up that the proposed method is competitive with other modern commercial methods like luminescence by ATP system. The method can also be used for characterization of enzyme activity.

  19. Radiometric Methods for Rapid Diagnosis of Viral Infection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    4, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours postinfection, infection time beginning when the 14C-labeled medium was added. Nucleic acid sT, thesis system. Stationary...coccus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter caloaceticus var. anitratus) had no effect on the DNA synthesis of HSV-1 infected or...7 UNCLASS 41 RADIOMETRIC METHODS FOR RAPID DIAGNIS F VIRA ~ /fl INFECTION (U) JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MDUNC . IFEDH N WAG ER FT AL. NOV 75

  20. Preparing Silica Aerogel Monoliths via a Rapid Supercritical Extraction Method

    PubMed Central

    Gorka, Caroline A.

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10-3 molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes. PMID:24637334

  1. Preparing silica aerogel monoliths via a rapid supercritical extraction method.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Mary K; Anderson, Ann M; Gorka, Caroline A

    2014-02-28

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10(-3) molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes.

  2. Hysterectomy—Current Methods and Alternatives for Benign Indications

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Michail S.; Tolikas, Athanasios C.; Miliaras, Dimosthenis E.

    2010-01-01

    Hysterectomy is the commonest gynecologic operation performed not only for malignant disease but also for many benign conditions such as fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia, adenomyosis, uterine prolapse, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. There are many approaches to hysterectomy for benign disease: abdominal hysterectomy, vaginal hysterectomy, laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) where a vaginal hysterectomy is assisted by laparoscopic procedures that do not include uterine artery ligation, total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) where the laparoscopic procedures include uterine artery ligation, and subtotal laparoscopic hysterectomy (STLH) where there is no vaginal component and the uterine body is removed using a morcelator. In the last decades, many new techniques, alternative to hysterectomy with conservation of the uterus have been developed. They use modern technologies and their results are promising and in many cases comparable with hysterectomy. This paper is a review of all the existing hysterectomy techniques and the alternative methods for benign indications. PMID:20798870

  3. Alternative Methods for Measuring Obesity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ashley E.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi; Smith, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) may not be the most appropriate measurement tool in determining obesity in diverse populations. We studied a convenience sample of 108 African American (AA) women to determine the best method for measuring obesity in this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to determine if percent body fat (PBF) and percent body water (PBW) could be used as alternatives to BMI in predicting obesity and risk for hypertension (HTN) among AA women. After accounting for age, BMI, and the use of anti-hypertensive medication, PBF (p = 0.0125) and PBW (p = 0.0297) were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, while BMI was not. Likewise, PBF (p = 0.0316) was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure, while PBW and BMI were not. Thus, health care practitioners should consider alternative anthropometric measurements such as PBF when assessing obesity in AA women. PMID:23483836

  4. [Evaluation of cone-beam computed tomography on upper airway changes after alternating rapid palatal expansion and constriction].

    PubMed

    Chang, D T; Zhou, Y H; Liu, W T

    2017-08-18

    To evaluate the changes of different parts of upper airway after alternating rapid palatal expansion and constriction via three dimensional measurement, compared with the protocol of rapid palatal expansion alone. In the study, 36 patients with retrognathic maxilla were selected and randomized to either group A or group B. The patients in group A were treated with rapid palatal expansion alone. The patients in group B were treated with alternating rapid palatal expansion and constriction. Three dimensional analyses were performed on all pre- and post-treatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images with the software Dolphin. Two subjects in group B were lost to follow up during the treatment. The gender distributions, ages and all measuring items before treatment had no significant difference between group A and group B (P>0.05). Nasal floor width, nasal lateral width, nasal volume, and nasopharynx volume increased significantly in each group after rapid palatal expansion alone or rapid palatal expansion and constriction (P<0.05). The variations of oropharyngeal volume and hypopharyngeal volume had no significant difference (P>0.05). No significant difference was observed in the nasal floor width and nasal lateral width increment among the anterior, median and posterior parts in each group either (P>0.05). No significant difference in all the measuring items was observed between the two groups (P>0.05). Alternating rapid palatal expansion and constriction could increase the volume of nasal and naopharynx cavities by the similar way of rapid palatal expansion alone, and had no obvious effect on oropharynx and hypopharynx cavities.

  5. Short communication: appropriate and alternative methods to determine viable bacterial counts in cow milk samples.

    PubMed

    Loss, G; Apprich, S; Kneifel, W; von Mutius, E; Genuneit, J; Braun-Fahrländer, C

    2012-06-01

    Farm milk consumption is reported to be inversely related to the development of asthma and atopy in children and it has been hypothesized that microorganisms in milk might contribute to this protective effect. The GABRIEL study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a large population of European children, calling for a rapid alternative to classical culture techniques to determine bacteriological properties of milk samples. One objective was to evaluate 2 different rapid methods to determine bacteriological properties in a large number of cow milk samples collected under field conditions. BactoScan (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark), an automated standard flow cytometric method utilized for routine testing of milk quality, and TEMPO (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), an automated most-probable-number method, were used to assess the total viable bacterial count in farm and commercial milk samples. Both methods were compared with standard plate count method and each other. Measurements based on the TEMPO method were in good agreement with the standard plate count method and showed reliable results, whereas BactoScan results did not correlate with standard plate count measurements and yielded higher bacteria counts in heat-treated milk samples compared with raw milk samples. Most likely, these discrepant results were due to inferences with staining reactions and detection of bacteria in heat-treated milk samples. We conclude that, in contrast to the routinely used BactoScan method, the TEMPO method is an inexpensive and rapid alternative to standard culture methods suitable to assess total bacterial counts in processed and raw milk samples. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Martella, L.L.; Saba, M.T.; Campbell, G.K.

    1984-02-08

    Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compared with the current plutonium peroxide precipitation method used at Rocky Flats. Plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate, plutonium(III) fluoride, and plutonium(IV) hydroxide precipitations were the most effective of the alternative conversion methods tested because of the larger particle-size formation, faster filtration rates, and the low plutonium loss to the filtrate. These were found to be as efficient as, and in some cases more efficient than, the peroxide method. 18 references, 14 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Rapid quantification method for Legionella pneumophila in surface water.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Anika; Torggler, Carmen; Elsässer, Dennis; Lück, Christian; Niessner, Reinhard; Seidel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    World-wide legionellosis outbreaks caused by evaporative cooling systems have shown that there is a need for rapid screening methods for Legionella pneumophila in water. Antibody-based methods for the quantification of L. pneumophila are rapid, non-laborious, and relatively cheap but not sensitive enough for establishment as a screening method for surface and drinking water. Therefore, preconcentration methods have to be applied in advance to reach the needed sensitivity. In a basic test, monolithic adsorption filtration (MAF) was used as primary preconcentration method that adsorbs L. pneumophila with high efficiency. Ten-liter water samples were concentrated in 10 min and further reduced to 1 mL by centrifugal ultrafiltration (CeUF). The quantification of L. pneumophila strains belonging to the monoclonal subtype Bellingham was performed via flow-based chemiluminescence sandwich microarray immunoassays (CL-SMIA) in 36 min. The whole analysis process takes 90 min. A polyclonal antibody (pAb) against L. pneumophila serogroup 1-12 and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against L. pneumophila SG 1 strain Bellingham were immobilized on a microarray chip. Without preconcentration, the detection limit was 4.0 × 10(3) and 2.8 × 10(3) CFU/mL determined by pAb and mAb 10/6, respectively. For samples processed by MAF-CeUF prior to SMIA detection, the limit of detection (LOD) could be decreased to 8.7 CFU/mL and 0.39 CFU/mL, respectively. A recovery of 99.8 ± 15.9% was achieved for concentrations between 1-1000 CFU/mL. The established combined analytical method is sensitive for rapid screening of surface and drinking water to allow fast hygiene control of L. pneumophila.

  8. Evaluation of the enhanced rapid identification method for Gardnerella vaginalis.

    PubMed Central

    Lien, E A; Hillier, S L

    1989-01-01

    The enhanced rapid identification method (RIM; Austin Biological Laboratories), a micromethod for the identification of Gardnerella vaginalis, is based on starch and raffinose fermentation and hippurate hydrolysis. We tested 105 clinical isolates of G. vaginalis with both the RIM and standard biochemical tests. The RIM agreed with the standard biochemical methods for 96 (91.4%) of the strains; nine isolates which were hippurate hydrolysis positive by standard biochemical tests were hippurate hydrolysis negative in the RIM. RIM may serve as a useful adjunct to Gram stain and colony morphology for the identification of G. vaginalis. PMID:2785533

  9. Method for rapidly producing microporous and mesoporous materials

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, P.R.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Hopper, R.W.

    1997-11-11

    An improved, rapid process is provided for making microporous and mesoporous materials, including aerogels and pre-ceramics. A gel or gel precursor is confined in a sealed vessel to prevent structural expansion of the gel during the heating process. This confinement allows the gelation and drying processes to be greatly accelerated, and significantly reduces the time required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods. Drying may be performed either by subcritical drying with a pressurized fluid to expel the liquid from the gel pores or by supercritical drying. The rates of heating and decompression are significantly higher than for conventional methods. 3 figs.

  10. Method for rapidly producing microporous and mesoporous materials

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.; Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Hopper, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    An improved, rapid process is provided for making microporous and mesoporous materials, including aerogels and pre-ceramics. A gel or gel precursor is confined in a sealed vessel to prevent structural expansion of the gel during the heating process. This confinement allows the gelation and drying processes to be greatly accelerated, and significantly reduces the time required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods. Drying may be performed either by subcritical drying with a pressurized fluid to expel the liquid from the gel pores or by supercritical drying. The rates of heating and decompression are significantly higher than for conventional methods.

  11. Rapid methods for jugular bleeding of dogs requiring one technician.

    PubMed

    Frisk, C S; Richardson, M R

    1979-06-01

    Two methods were used to collect blood from the jugular vein of dogs. In both techniques, only one technician was required. A rope with a slip knot was placed around the base of the neck to assist in restraint and act as a tourniquet for the vein. The technician used one hand to restrain the dog by the muzzle and position the head. The other hand was used for collecting the sample. One of the methods could be accomplished with the dog in its cage. The bleeding techniques were rapid, requiring approximately 1 minute per dog.

  12. Rapid method for fabricating polymeric biconvex parabolic lenslets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rongrong; Li, Yang; Li, Lei

    2014-09-15

    Microlenslets as well as microlens arrays have shown tremendous attractions and successes in miniature optical systems in recent decades. However, the fabrication methods for microlenslets and microlenslet arrays are limited. In this Letter, a rapid and low-cost method for fabricating polymeric biconvex lenslets is presented. This newly developed process is simply based on wetting behavior at interface and is able to produce high-quality biconvex lenslets with controllable size and shape. This technology will greatly simplify the production process and reduce the manufacturing costs for micro-optics.

  13. Alternate modal combination methods in response spectrum analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.K.; Bezler, P.

    1989-01-01

    In piping analyses using the response spectrum method Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS) with clustering between closely spaced modes is the combination procedure most commonly used to combine between the modal response components. This procedure is simple to apply and normally yields conservative estimates of the time history results. The purpose of this study is to investigate alternate methods to combine between the modal response components. These methods are mathematically based to properly account for the combination between rigid and flexible modal responses as well as closely spaced modes. The methods are those advanced by Gupta, Hadjian and Lindley-Yow to address rigid response modes and the Double Sum Combination (DSC) method and the Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) method to account for closely spaced modes. A direct comparison between these methods as well as the SRSS procedure is made by using them to predict the response of six piping systems. For two piping systems thirty-three earthquake records were considered to account for the impact of variations in the characteristics of the excitation. The results provided by each method are compared to the corresponding time history estimates of results as well as to each other. The degree of conservatism associated with each method is characterized. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Alternate modal combination methods in response spectrum analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bezler, P.; Curreri, J.R.; Wang, Y.K.; Gupta, A.K. )

    1990-10-01

    In piping analyses using the response spectrum method Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS) with clustering between closely spaced modes is the combination procedure most commonly used to combine between the modal response components. This procedure is simple to apply and normally yields conservative estimates of the time history results. The purpose of this study is to investigate alternate methods to combine between the modal response components. These methods are mathematically based to properly account for the combination between rigid and flexible modal responses as well as closely spaced modes. The methods are those advanced by Gupta, Hadjian and Lindely-Yow to address rigid response modes and the Double Sum Combination (DSC) method and the Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) method to account for closely spaced modes. A direct comparison between these methods as well as the SRSS procedure is made by using them to predict the response of six piping systems. The results provided by each method are compared to the corresponding time history estimates of results as well as to each other. The degree of conservatism associated with each method is characterized. 19 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Rapidly Alternating Transmission Mode Electron Transfer Dissociation and Collisional Activation for the Characterization of Polypeptide Ions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hongling; Xia, Yu; Yang, Min; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Cation transmission/electron transfer reagent anion storage mode electron transfer ion/ion reactions and beam-type collisional activation of the polypeptide ions are performed in rapid succession in the high pressure collision cell (Q2) of a quadrupole/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer (QqTOF), where the electron transfer reagent anions are accumulated. Duty cycles for both electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments are improved relative to ion trapping approaches since there are no discrete ion storage and reaction steps for ETD experiments and no discrete ion storage step and frequency tuning for CID experiments. For this technique, moderately high resolution and mass accuracy are also obtained due to mass analysis via the TOF analyzer. This relatively simple approach has been demonstrated with a triply charged tryptic peptide, a triply charged tryptic phosphopeptide, and a triply charged tryptic N-linked glycopeptide. For the tryptic peptide, the sequence is identified with more certainty than would be available from a single method alone due to the complementary information provided by these two dissociation methods. Because of the complementary information derived from both ETD and CID dissociation methods, peptide sequence and post-translational modification (PTM) sites for the phosphopeptide are identified. This combined ETD and CID approach is particularly useful for characterizing glycopeptides because ETD generates information about both peptide sequence and locations of the glycosylation sites while CID provides information about the glycan structure. PMID:18396915

  16. [Methods of rapid diagnosis in clinical microbiology: Clinical needs].

    PubMed

    Vila, Jordi; Gómez, María Dolores; Salavert, Miguel; Bosch, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    The diagnostic methods of infectious diseases should be fast, accurate, simple and affordable. The speed of diagnosis can play a crucial role in healing the patient, allowing the administration of appropriate antibiotic treatment. One aspect that increasingly determines the need for rapid diagnostic techniques is the increased rates of serious infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria, which cause a high probability of error in the empirical treatment. Some of the conventional methods such as Gram staining or antigen detection can generate results in less than 1 hour but lack sensitivity. Today we are witnessing a major change in clinical microbiology laboratories with the technological advances such as molecular diagnostics, digital microbiology and mass spectrometry. There are several studies showing that these changes in the microbiological diagnosis reduce the generation time of the test results, which has an obvious clinical impact. However, if we look into the future, other new technologies which will cover the needs required for a rapid microbiological diagnosis are on the horizon. This review provides an in depth analysis of the clinical impact that the implementation of rapid diagnostic techniques will have on unmet clinical needs.

  17. Rapid surface enhanced Raman scattering detection method for chloramphenicol residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei; Yao, Weirong

    2015-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used amide alcohol antibiotics, which has been banned from using in food producing animals in many countries. In this study, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coupled with gold colloidal nanoparticles was used for the rapid analysis of CAP. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted with Gaussian 03 at the B3LYP level using the 3-21G(d) and 6-31G(d) basis sets to analyze the assignment of vibrations. Affirmatively, the theoretical Raman spectrum of CAP was in complete agreement with the experimental spectrum. They both exhibited three strong peaks characteristic of CAP at 1104 cm-1, 1344 cm-1, 1596 cm-1, which were used for rapid qualitative analysis of CAP residues in food samples. The use of SERS as a method for the measurements of CAP was explored by comparing use of different solvents, gold colloidal nanoparticles concentration and absorption time. The method of the detection limit was determined as 0.1 μg/mL using optimum conditions. The Raman peak at 1344 cm-1 was used as the index for quantitative analysis of CAP in food samples, with a linear correlation of R2 = 0.9802. Quantitative analysis of CAP residues in foods revealed that the SERS technique with gold colloidal nanoparticles was sensitive and of a good stability and linear correlation, and suited for rapid analysis of CAP residue in a variety of food samples.

  18. SIMS: A Hybrid Method for Rapid Conformational Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Bryant; Moll, Mark; Kavraki, Lydia E.

    2013-01-01

    Proteins are at the root of many biological functions, often performing complex tasks as the result of large changes in their structure. Describing the exact details of these conformational changes, however, remains a central challenge for computational biology due the enormous computational requirements of the problem. This has engendered the development of a rich variety of useful methods designed to answer specific questions at different levels of spatial, temporal, and energetic resolution. These methods fall largely into two classes: physically accurate, but computationally demanding methods and fast, approximate methods. We introduce here a new hybrid modeling tool, the Structured Intuitive Move Selector (sims), designed to bridge the divide between these two classes, while allowing the benefits of both to be seamlessly integrated into a single framework. This is achieved by applying a modern motion planning algorithm, borrowed from the field of robotics, in tandem with a well-established protein modeling library. sims can combine precise energy calculations with approximate or specialized conformational sampling routines to produce rapid, yet accurate, analysis of the large-scale conformational variability of protein systems. Several key advancements are shown, including the abstract use of generically defined moves (conformational sampling methods) and an expansive probabilistic conformational exploration. We present three example problems that sims is applied to and demonstrate a rapid solution for each. These include the automatic determination of “active” residues for the hinge-based system Cyanovirin-N, exploring conformational changes involving long-range coordinated motion between non-sequential residues in Ribose-Binding Protein, and the rapid discovery of a transient conformational state of Maltose-Binding Protein, previously only determined by Molecular Dynamics. For all cases we provide energetic validations using well-established energy

  19. A novel method for rapid in vitro radiobioassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Evan Bogert

    Rapid and accurate analysis of internal human exposure to radionuclides is essential to the effective triage and treatment of citizens who have possibly been exposed to radioactive materials in the environment. The two most likely scenarios in which a large number of citizens would be exposed are the detonation of a radiation dispersal device (RDD, "dirty bomb") or the accidental release of an isotope from an industrial source such as a radioisotopic thermal generator (RTG). In the event of the release and dispersion of radioactive materials into the environment in a large city, the entire population of the city -- including all commuting workers and tourists -- would have to be rapidly tested, both to satisfy the psychological needs of the citizens who were exposed to the mental trauma of a possible radiation dose, and to satisfy the immediate medical needs of those who received the highest doses and greatest levels of internal contamination -- those who would best benefit from rapid, intensive medical care. In this research a prototype rapid screening method to screen urine samples for the presence of up to five isotopes, both individually and in a mixture, has been developed. The isotopes used to develop this method are Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-238, and Am-241. This method avoids time-intensive chemical separations via the preparation and counting of a single sample on multiple detectors, and analyzing the spectra for isotope-specific markers. A rapid liquid-liquid separation using an organic extractive scintillator can be used to help quantify the activity of the alpha-emitting isotopes. The method provides quantifiable results in less than five minutes for the activity of beta/gamma-emitting isotopes when present in the sample at the intervention level as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and quantifiable results for the activity levels of alpha-emitting isotopes present at their respective intervention levels in approximately 30

  20. A novel method for rapidly diagnosing the causes of diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Probert, C S J; Jones, P R H; Ratcliffe, N M

    2004-01-01

    Background: The microbiological diagnosis of infectious diarrhoea may take several days using conventional techniques. In order to determine whether flatus can be used to make a rapid diagnosis, the volatile organic compounds associated with diarrhoea were analysed. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 35 patients with infectious diarrhoea and from six healthy controls. Gaseous compounds were extracted from a headspace using solid phase microextraction and analysed using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Results: Characteristic patterns of volatile gases were found for the main causes of infectious diarrhoea in hospitals. Furan species without indoles indicated Clostridium difficile, ethyl dodecanoate indicated rotavirus, ammonia without ethyl dodecanoate suggested other enteric viruses, and the absence of hydrocarbons and terpenes indicated Campylobacter infection. Conclusion: These results could be the basis of rapid near patient diagnosis of infectious diarrhoea. PMID:14684577

  1. Mass spectrometry as a rapid and powerful alternative to antibodies for detecting LPXTG wall-associated proteins of Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchaud, Alexandre; Widmer, Eleonora; Kussmann, Martin; Moreillon, Philippe; Affolter, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Functional characterization of transformed or natively present bacterial virulence proteins can be achieved employing various model systems. A prerequisite is to verify the correct expression of the transformed protein or the presence of the native protein in the microbe. Traditionally, antibodies are raised against the protein or a peptide thereof, followed by Western blot analysis or by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Alternatively, the protein-coding gene can be fused with a downstream reporter gene, the expression of which reports the simultaneous expression of the upstream recombinant protein. Although being powerful, these methods are time consuming, especially when multiple proteins must be assessed. Here we describe a novel way to validate the expression of Gram-positive surface proteins covalently attached to the peptidoglycan. Eighteen out of the 21 known LPXTG-motif carrying cell wall-associated proteins of Staphylococcus aureus were cloned in Lactoccocus lactis either alone, in combinations or as truncated forms, and their correct expression was assessed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The method is rapid, sensitive and precise. It can identify multiple proteins in transformed constructs without the time and cost needed for raising and testing multiple sets of antibodies.

  2. New Rapid Method of DNA Isolation from Milk Somatic Cells.

    PubMed

    Pokorska, Joanna; Kułaj, Dominika; Dusza, Magdalena; Żychlińska-Buczek, Justyna; Makulska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of genomic DNA is one of the basic steps in many different molecular analyses. There are a few reports on methods of DNA isolation from milk, but many of them are time consuming and expensive, and require relatively large volumes of raw milk. In this study a rapid, sensitive, and efficient method of DNA extraction from milk somatic cells of various mammals (cattle, sheep, goats, horses) is presented. It was found that milk is a good source of genomic DNA, and to obtain a sufficient amount and quality of DNA, suitable for molecular analysis such as PCR, 10 mL of raw milk is sufficient. Thanks to this method, stress in animals can be reduced during collection of researched material. Therefore, this method could be widely used in molecular analyses.

  3. Alternate Methods to Experimentally Investigate Shock Initiation Properties of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svingala, Forrest; Lee, Richard; Sutherland, Gerrit; Samuels, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Reactive flow models are desired for many new explosives early in the formulation development stage. Traditionally, these models are parameterized by carefully-controlled 1-D shock experiments, including gas-gun testing with embedded gauges and wedge testing with explosive plane wave lenses (PWL). These experiments are easy to interpret, due to their 1-D nature, but are generally expensive to perform, and cannot be performed at all explosive test facilities. We investigate alternative methods to probe shock-initiation behavior of new explosives using widely-available pentolite gap test donors and simple time-of-arrival type diagnostics. These methods can be performed at a low cost at virtually any explosives testing facility, which allows experimental data to parameterize reactive flow models to be collected much earlier in the development of an explosive formulation. However, the fundamentally 2-D nature of these tests may increase the modeling burden in parameterizing these models, and reduce general applicability. Several variations of the so-called modified gap test were investigated and evaluated for suitability as an alternative to established 1-D gas gun and PWL techniques. At least partial agreement with 1-D test methods was observed for the explosives tested, and future work is planned to scope the applicability and limitations of these experimental techniques.

  4. Alternative methods for the replacement of eye irritation testing.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Christian; Schmid, Freia F; Rossi, Angela; Kurdyn, Szymon; Kampik, Daniel; De Wever, Bart; Walles, Heike; Groeber, Florian K

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades significant regulatory attempts were made to replace, refine and reduce animal testing to assess the risk of consumer products for the human eye. As the original in vivo Draize eye test has been criticized for limited predictivity, costs and ethical issues, several animal-free test methods have been developed to categorize substances according to the global harmonized system (GHS) for eye irritation.This review summarizes the progress of alternative test methods for the assessment of eye irritation. Based on the corneal anatomy and the current knowledge of the mechanisms causing eye irritation, different ex vivo and in vitro methods will be presented and discussed in regard of possible limitations and their status of regulatory acceptance. In addition to established in vitro models, this review will also highlight emerging, full thickness cornea models that might be applicable to predict all GHS categories.

  5. Alternative sewerage solution: Condominial method and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türker, Umut

    In this study, the fundamental of the theory of condominial sewer design is discussed through a readily available computer program and the theory is used to bring out the effect of pipe diameter and sewer gradient on design calculations through alternative solutions. It is proved that the roughness of the pipe is effective on the size, lifetime, and cost-saving property of the condominial sewer system, whereas the pipe diameter is not a vital parameter for the same criteria. Any expansion on the pipe roughness increased the gradient of flow and thus enlarged the excavation area hence; undermine the cost-saving property of the condominial method.

  6. Rapid Methods for High-Throughput Detection of Sulfoxides▿

    PubMed Central

    Shainsky, Janna; Derry, Netta-Lee; Leichtmann-Bardoogo, Yael; Wood, Thomas K.; Fishman, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Enantiopure sulfoxides are prevalent in drugs and are useful chiral auxiliaries in organic synthesis. The biocatalytic enantioselective oxidation of prochiral sulfides is a direct and economical approach for the synthesis of optically pure sulfoxides. The selection of suitable biocatalysts requires rapid and reliable high-throughput screening methods. Here we present four different methods for detecting sulfoxides produced via whole-cell biocatalysis, three of which were exploited for high-throughput screening. Fluorescence detection based on the acid activation of omeprazole was utilized for high-throughput screening of mutant libraries of toluene monooxygenases, but no active variants have been discovered yet. The second method is based on the reduction of sulfoxides to sulfides, with the coupled release and measurement of iodine. The availability of solvent-resistant microtiter plates enabled us to modify the method to a high-throughput format. The third method, selective inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, was used to rapidly screen highly active and/or enantioselective variants at position V106 of toluene ortho-monooxygenase in a saturation mutagenesis library, using methyl-p-tolyl sulfide as the substrate. A success rate of 89% (i.e., 11% false positives) was obtained, and two new mutants were selected. The fourth method is based on the colorimetric detection of adrenochrome, a back-titration procedure which measures the concentration of the periodate-sensitive sulfide. Due to low sensitivity during whole-cell screening, this method was found to be useful only for determining the presence or absence of sulfoxide in the reaction. The methods described in the present work are simple and inexpensive and do not require special equipment. PMID:19465532

  7. Fast alternating projection methods for constrained tomographic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Han, Yongxin; Jin, Mingwu

    2017-01-01

    The alternating projection algorithms are easy to implement and effective for large-scale complex optimization problems, such as constrained reconstruction of X-ray computed tomography (CT). A typical method is to use projection onto convex sets (POCS) for data fidelity, nonnegative constraints combined with total variation (TV) minimization (so called TV-POCS) for sparse-view CT reconstruction. However, this type of method relies on empirically selected parameters for satisfactory reconstruction and is generally slow and lack of convergence analysis. In this work, we use a convex feasibility set approach to address the problems associated with TV-POCS and propose a framework using full sequential alternating projections or POCS (FS-POCS) to find the solution in the intersection of convex constraints of bounded TV function, bounded data fidelity error and non-negativity. The rationale behind FS-POCS is that the mathematically optimal solution of the constrained objective function may not be the physically optimal solution. The breakdown of constrained reconstruction into an intersection of several feasible sets can lead to faster convergence and better quantification of reconstruction parameters in a physical meaningful way than that in an empirical way of trial-and-error. In addition, for large-scale optimization problems, first order methods are usually used. Not only is the condition for convergence of gradient-based methods derived, but also a primal-dual hybrid gradient (PDHG) method is used for fast convergence of bounded TV. The newly proposed FS-POCS is evaluated and compared with TV-POCS and another convex feasibility projection method (CPTV) using both digital phantom and pseudo-real CT data to show its superior performance on reconstruction speed, image quality and quantification.

  8. Effective Fluoride Mouthwash Delivery Methods as an Alternative to Rinsing.

    PubMed

    Rattanawiboon, Chayanit; Chaweewannakorn, Chayanit; Saisakphong, Tanyamai; Kasevayuth, Kasekarn; Trairatvorakul, Chutima

    2016-01-01

    Special-needs patients with high caries risk cannot benefit from the proven caries-reducing effect of fluoride mouthrinse because of poor rinsing compliance and a lack of home-use fluoride application recommendations. This study aimed to evaluate whether two modified delivery methods-spray or swab application-could raise the salivary fluoride to levels similar to that of rinsing. Five healthy men and 16 healthy women, ages 18-22 years, participated in this crossover study. The subjects performed a standardized brushing routine twice a day with 1,000-ppm fluoride dentifrice 1 week before and during the experimental period. The three fluoride mouthwash (0.05% NaF; 226-ppm fluoride) administration methods consisted of rinsing, spray, and cotton swab application. Each application was separated by at least 1 week. Unstimulated whole saliva was sampled for 2 minutes at baseline and at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after each fluoride mouthwash application. Salivary fluoride level (ppm) was measured by a blinded investigator using an ion-specific electrode (ORION EA940). The differences in salivary fluoride concentration for each application method were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA at a nominal significance level of .05. The newly designed fluoride mouthwash delivery methods yielded a similar fluoride level in whole saliva compared to that of rinsing at all time points (p > .05). The t half-life of fluoride concentration ranged from 1.62 minutes (SD = 0.53) in the spray group to 2.08 minutes (SD = 0.87) in the cotton swab group; the values were not significantly different. Our results indicate that the spray and cotton swab fluoride delivery methods were effective alternatives to conventional mouth rinsing. Caregivers of individuals with acute and chronic illness, including developmental disabilities affecting cognitive or physical abilities, may consider using these alternative fluoride delivery methods to help promote dental hygiene.

  9. Fast alternating projection methods for constrained tomographic reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Han, Yongxin

    2017-01-01

    The alternating projection algorithms are easy to implement and effective for large-scale complex optimization problems, such as constrained reconstruction of X-ray computed tomography (CT). A typical method is to use projection onto convex sets (POCS) for data fidelity, nonnegative constraints combined with total variation (TV) minimization (so called TV-POCS) for sparse-view CT reconstruction. However, this type of method relies on empirically selected parameters for satisfactory reconstruction and is generally slow and lack of convergence analysis. In this work, we use a convex feasibility set approach to address the problems associated with TV-POCS and propose a framework using full sequential alternating projections or POCS (FS-POCS) to find the solution in the intersection of convex constraints of bounded TV function, bounded data fidelity error and non-negativity. The rationale behind FS-POCS is that the mathematically optimal solution of the constrained objective function may not be the physically optimal solution. The breakdown of constrained reconstruction into an intersection of several feasible sets can lead to faster convergence and better quantification of reconstruction parameters in a physical meaningful way than that in an empirical way of trial-and-error. In addition, for large-scale optimization problems, first order methods are usually used. Not only is the condition for convergence of gradient-based methods derived, but also a primal-dual hybrid gradient (PDHG) method is used for fast convergence of bounded TV. The newly proposed FS-POCS is evaluated and compared with TV-POCS and another convex feasibility projection method (CPTV) using both digital phantom and pseudo-real CT data to show its superior performance on reconstruction speed, image quality and quantification. PMID:28253298

  10. Do we need a "Chair of alternative methods", and where?

    PubMed

    Wendel, Albrecht

    2002-01-01

    During the last two decades, the field of in vitro technology has been successfully developed and its use is continuously growing. Advanced tests avoiding animal experiments will be increasingly required for routine industrial applications e.g. for pharmacological high-throughput screening. Moreover and even more importantly, the availability of human cell based methods is essential for future quality assurance and risk assessment in the fields of health and consumer protection as well as environmental protection. Thereby, the potential of such advanced in vitro methods extends far beyond the mere replacement of regulated tests. In practice, the introduction and expansion of this technology has been achieved predominantly by offering funding and awards to the scientific community. After this initiation phase, the next consequent step to exploit this knowledge clearly consists in academic promotion of this new scientific culture in an institutionalised form. The tasks of such a chair focussed on advanced in vitro tests - most probably the first of its kind world-wide - would cover in addition to (a) research and (b) teaching, (c) the sharpening of social conscience for the topic. (a) While the validation of alternative methods was formally established by founding institutions like ZEBET in Berlin on the national and ECVAM in Ispra on the European level, the development of further new and more sophisticated in vitro methods to date emerge predominantly as a by-product of basic research. A considerable push might now be given by the structured search for new methods with a spill-over for research-based up-to-date teaching. (b) The field of alternative methods is more than a panel of advanced in vitro techniques: A culture of systematic evaluation and validation of in vitro tests has been developed, which has bearing far beyond the replacement of animal experiments. In vitro systems inherently prone to artefacts require the highest level of quality control and

  11. Alternative Confidence Interval Methods Used in the Diagnostic Accuracy Studies.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Semra; Gülhan, Orekıcı Temel

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. It is necessary to decide whether the newly improved methods are better than the standard or reference test or not. To decide whether the new diagnostics test is better than the gold standard test/imperfect standard test, the differences of estimated sensitivity/specificity are calculated with the help of information obtained from samples. However, to generalize this value to the population, it should be given with the confidence intervals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the confidence interval methods developed for the differences between the two dependent sensitivity/specificity values on a clinical application. Materials and Methods. In this study, confidence interval methods like Asymptotic Intervals, Conditional Intervals, Unconditional Interval, Score Intervals, and Nonparametric Methods Based on Relative Effects Intervals are used. Besides, as clinical application, data used in diagnostics study by Dickel et al. (2010) has been taken as a sample. Results. The results belonging to the alternative confidence interval methods for Nickel Sulfate, Potassium Dichromate, and Lanolin Alcohol are given as a table. Conclusion. While preferring the confidence interval methods, the researchers have to consider whether the case to be compared is single ratio or dependent binary ratio differences, the correlation coefficient between the rates in two dependent ratios and the sample sizes.

  12. A rapid DNA extraction method suitable for human papillomavirus detection.

    PubMed

    Brestovac, Brian; Wong, Michelle E; Costantino, Paul S; Groth, David

    2014-04-01

    Infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Testing for HPV DNA from liquid based cervical samples can be used as an adjunct to traditional cytological screening. In addition there are ongoing viral load, genotyping, and prevalence studies. Therefore, a sensitive DNA extraction method is needed to maximize the efficiency of HPV DNA detection. The XytXtract Tissue kit is a DNA extraction kit that is rapid and so could be useful for HPV testing, particularly in screening protocols. This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of this method for HPV detection. DNA extraction from HeLa and Caski cell lines containing HPV 18 and 16 respectively together with DNA from five liquid based cervical samples were used in a HPV PCR assay. DNA was also extracted using the QIAamp DNA mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) as a comparison. DNA extracts were serially diluted and assayed. HPV DNA was successfully detected in cell lines and cervical samples using the XytXtract Tissue kit. In addition, the XytXtract method was found to be more sensitive than the QIAmp method as determined by a dilution series of the extracted DNA. While the XytXtract method is a closed, the QIAamp method uses a spin column with possible loss of DNA through DNA binding competition of the matrix, which could impact on the final extraction efficiency. The XytXtract is a cheap, rapid and efficient method for extracting HPV DNA from both cell lines and liquid based cervical samples.

  13. Portfolios: An Alternative Method of Student and Program Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hannam, Susan E.

    1995-01-01

    The use of performance-based evaluation and alternative assessment techniques has become essential for curriculum programs seeking Commission of Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) accreditation. In athletic training education, few assessment models exist to assess student performance over the entire course of their educational program. This article describes a model of assessment-a student athletic training portfolio of “best works.” The portfolio can serve as a method to assess student development and to assess program effectiveness. The goals of the program include purposes specific to the five NATA performance domains. In addition, four types of portfolio evidence are described: artifacts, attestations, productions, and reproductions. Quality assignments and projects completed by students as they progress through a six-semester program are identified relative to the type of evidence and the domain(s) they represent. The portfolio assists with student development, provides feedback for curriculum planning, allows for student/faculty collaboration and “coaching” of the student, and assists with job searching. This information will serve as a useful model for those athletic training programs looking for an alternative method of assessing student and program outcomes. PMID:16558359

  14. Managing patients with local anesthetic complications using alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dominic P

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses various alternative methods of treating the patient who encounters problems with local anesthetics. Those alternative methods include: acupuncture, hypnosis, sedation, general anesthesia, and antihistamines as a substitute for local anesthetics with more of a focus in using antihistamines as an effective local anesthetic agent. Although not frequently encountered in the clinical setting, allergic reactions to local anesthetics do occur. Various surveys indicate the number of deaths attributed to local anesthesia range from 1:1,500,000 to 1:4,000,000, with oral surgery offices having higher mortality rates than general dentistry offices. This occurs despite clinicians' attention to patient medical histories, aspiration of the local anesthetic syringe during injections, and minimizing the dosage of local anesthetic solutions. Generally speaking, local anesthetics can be divided into two groups: ester of benzoic and aminobenzoic derivatives (cocaine, benzocaine, procaine, tetracaine, butacaine, etc.) or amide-derivatives of xylidine and toluidine groups (lidocaine, mepivacaine, prilocaine a.k.a. Citanest, etc.). Adverse effects include allergic or toxic reactions, as well as negative effects of any vasoconstrictors contained within the local anesthetic solution. This article will concentrate on how to successfully manage patients who have previously encountered allergic reactions.

  15. Portfolios: an alternative method of student and program assessment.

    PubMed

    Hannam, S E

    1995-10-01

    The use of performance-based evaluation and alternative assessment techniques has become essential for curriculum programs seeking Commission of Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) accreditation. In athletic training education, few assessment models exist to assess student performance over the entire course of their educational program. This article describes a model of assessment-a student athletic training portfolio of "best works." The portfolio can serve as a method to assess student development and to assess program effectiveness. The goals of the program include purposes specific to the five NATA performance domains. In addition, four types of portfolio evidence are described: artifacts, attestations, productions, and reproductions. Quality assignments and projects completed by students as they progress through a six-semester program are identified relative to the type of evidence and the domain(s) they represent. The portfolio assists with student development, provides feedback for curriculum planning, allows for student/faculty collaboration and "coaching" of the student, and assists with job searching. This information will serve as a useful model for those athletic training programs looking for an alternative method of assessing student and program outcomes.

  16. A Rapid Usability Evaluation (RUE) Method for Health Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Russ, Alissa L; Baker, Darrell A; Fahner, W Jeffrey; Milligan, Bryce S; Cox, Leeann; Hagg, Heather K; Saleem, Jason J

    2010-11-13

    Usability testing can help generate design ideas to enhance the quality and safety of health information technology. Despite these potential benefits, few healthcare organizations conduct systematic usability testing prior to software implementation. We used a Rapid Usability Evaluation (RUE) method to apply usability testing to software development at a major VA Medical Center. We describe the development of the RUE method, provide two examples of how it was successfully applied, and discuss key insights gained from this work. Clinical informaticists with limited usability training were able to apply RUE to improve software evaluation and elected to continue to use this technique. RUE methods are relatively simple, do not require advanced training or usability software, and should be easy to adopt. Other healthcare organizations may be able to implement RUE to improve software effectiveness, efficiency, and safety.

  17. A Rapid Method for the Diagnosis of Equine Virus Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Correa, W. M.

    1970-01-01

    Smears and imprints were made from the liver of 27 equine fetuses, believed to have aborted as a result of Equine Virus Abortion (EVA) infection. Several different fixatives and staining techniques were employed for the demonstration of typical intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in these preparations, and the following conclusions were reached. Methanol proved to be the best fixative and Pappenheim's panoptic method was the best staining technique, giving good contrast and definition of the inclusion bodies. Cytological methods provided a simple and rapid means of diagnosis, but histological sections provided evidence of lesions which was most useful when inclusion bodies were very difficult to find. However, cytological methods proved better than histological sections for the demonstration of EVA intranuclear inclusion bodies. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4192198

  18. Rapid method for identification of gram-negative, nonfermentative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Otto, L A; Pickett, M J

    1976-01-01

    A rapid system (OA), based on oxidative attack of substrates, was developed for identification of gram-negative, nonfermentative bacillia (NFB). One hundred and twelve strains of NFB from 25 species (representing the genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter, Bordetella, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, and Xanthomonas) were assayed by OA, buffered single substrate, and oxidative/fermentative methods. The 38 substrates consisted of salts of organic acids, nitrogen-containing compounds, alcohols, and carbohydrates. Ninety-four percent of the test strains were identified by the OA method in 24 h, and 99% were identifiable in 48 h. Reproducibility was 99%. Correlation with buffered single substrate was 98% (all substrates) and 90% with the oxidative/fermentative method (carbohydrates only). Biochemical profiles of all strains are presented, as well as tables showing the most useful tests for identification. PMID:780371

  19. Cyclic alternating ring-opening metathesis polymerization (CAROMP). Rapid access to functionalized cyclic polymers.

    PubMed

    Song, Airong; Parker, Kathlyn A; Sampson, Nicole S

    2010-09-03

    Catalysis of alternating ROMP with (H(2)IMes)Cl(2)Ru=CHPh(OiPr), the second generation Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst, provided an entirely cyclic alternating polymer. Conditions for the cyclic AROMP were used to prepare a polymer in which one of the repeat units bore a primary alkyl chloride that was used for further elaboration.

  20. Method for producing rapid pH changes

    DOEpatents

    Clark, John H.; Campillo, Anthony J.; Shapiro, Stanley L.; Winn, Kenneth R.

    1981-01-01

    A method of initiating a rapid pH change in a solution by irradiating the solution with an intense flux of electromagnetic radiation of a frequency which produces a substantial pK change to a compound in solution. To optimize the resulting pH change, the compound being irradiated in solution should have an excited state lifetime substantially longer than the time required to establish an excited state acid-base equilibrium in the solution. Desired pH changes can be accomplished in nanoseconds or less by means of picosecond pulses of laser radiation.

  1. Method for producing rapid pH changes

    DOEpatents

    Clark, J.H.; Campillo, A.J.; Shapiro, S.L.; Winn, K.R.

    A method of initiating a rapid pH change in a solution comprises irradiating the solution with an intense flux of electromagnetic radiation of a frequency which produces a substantial pK change to a compound in solution. To optimize the resulting pH change, the compound being irradiated in solution should have an excited state lifetime substantially longer than the time required to establish an excited state acid-base equilibrium in the solution. Desired pH changes can be accomplished in nanoseconds or less by means of picosecond pulses of laser radiation.

  2. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with /sup 14/C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques.

  3. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  4. Technical and economic assessment of alternative dry-storage methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liikala, R. C.; Johnson, E. R.; McBride, J. A.

    1982-04-01

    The results of an assessment of four alternative methods of dry storage of spent nuclear fuel are presented in respect to the state of technology, licensability, implementation schedule and costs when the storage is used at a location to supplement existing pool storage facilities. The methods of storage considered were storage in casks, drywells, concrete silos, and air-cooled vaults. The impact of disassembly of spent fuel and storage of consolidated fuel rods was also determined. The economic assessments were based on the current projected storage requirements of a US utility operating twin 824 MWe pressurized water reactors. Costs were estimated for a number of combinations of storage mode and packaging processes and considered storage of both intact assemblies and unconsolidated rods.

  5. Outcome modelling strategies in epidemiology: traditional methods and basic alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Greenland, Sander; Daniel, Rhian; Pearce, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Controlling for too many potential confounders can lead to or aggravate problems of data sparsity or multicollinearity, particularly when the number of covariates is large in relation to the study size. As a result, methods to reduce the number of modelled covariates are often deployed. We review several traditional modelling strategies, including stepwise regression and the ‘change-in-estimate’ (CIE) approach to deciding which potential confounders to include in an outcome-regression model for estimating effects of a targeted exposure. We discuss their shortcomings, and then provide some basic alternatives and refinements that do not require special macros or programming. Throughout, we assume the main goal is to derive the most accurate effect estimates obtainable from the data and commercial software. Allowing that most users must stay within standard software packages, this goal can be roughly approximated using basic methods to assess, and thereby minimize, mean squared error (MSE). PMID:27097747

  6. Alternative methods of reproduction. Effects on the child.

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, B Z

    1987-01-01

    Artificial donor insemination (DI), surrogate parenting, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer are alternative methods of reproduction being utilized with increasing frequency. Technological developments are being studied in detail. Because of the secrecy inherent in the families involved, there has been little written describing the emotional and psychological well-being of the participants. Significant factors, such as unlimited pregnancies per donor, lack of recordkeeping of the genetic background of each insemination, need for psychological counseling of the parents, the impact of the "family secret" of the pregnancy, and the well-being of the offspring, have not been adequately addressed. There has been little effort to make use of our experience in adoption in relation to many of these same areas. No medical guidelines or legislation exist. The inherent problems associated with these parenting methods and practices are discussed along with recommendations for improvement.

  7. Advances in EPA’s Rapid Exposure and Dosimetry Project (Interagency Alternatives Assessment Webinar)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimates of human and ecological exposures are required as critical input to risk-based prioritization and screening of chemicals. The CSS Rapid Exposure and Dosimetry project seeks to develop the data, tools, and evaluation approaches required to generate rapid and scientifical...

  8. Advances in EPA’s Rapid Exposure and Dosimetry Project (Interagency Alternatives Assessment Webinar)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimates of human and ecological exposures are required as critical input to risk-based prioritization and screening of chemicals. The CSS Rapid Exposure and Dosimetry project seeks to develop the data, tools, and evaluation approaches required to generate rapid and scientifical...

  9. Biochemical mediator demand--a novel rapid alternative for measuring biochemical oxygen demand.

    PubMed

    Pasco, N; Baronian, K; Jeffries, C; Hay, J

    2000-05-01

    The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) test (BOD5) is a crucial environmental index for monitoring organic pollutants in waste water but is limited by the 5-day requirement for completing the test. We have optimised a rapid microbial technique for measuring the BOD of a standard BOD5 substrate (150 mg glucose/l, 150 mg glutamic acid/l) by quantifying an equivalent biochemical mediator demand in the absence of oxygen. Elevated concentrations of Escherichia coli were incubated with an excess of redox mediator, potassium hexacyanoferrate(III), and a known substrate for 1 h at 37 degrees C without oxygen. The addition of substrate increased the respiratory activity of the microorganisms and the accumulation of reduced mediator; the mediator was subsequently re-oxidised at a working electrode generating a current quantifiable by a coulometric transducer. Catabolic conversion efficiencies exceeding 75% were observed for the oxidation of the standard substrate. The inclusion of a mediator allowed a higher co-substrate concentration compared to oxygen and substantially reduced the incubation time from 5 days to 1 h. The technique replicates the traditional BOD5 method, except that a mediator is substituted for oxygen, and we aim to apply the principle to measure the BOD of real waste streams in future work.

  10. An alternative method for comparing and describing methacholine response curves.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, D L; Martinez, F D; Sears, M R; Lebowitz, M D

    1993-07-01

    Tests of nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness are frequently used in the study of asthma both in the clinical settings and in epidemiologic studies. However, standard methods for characterizing individual tests and comparing results between subgroups have not been established. The most frequently used method of characterizing response curves is to report the dose that results in a 20% fall in FEV1 from the initial or baseline FEV1 value (PD20FEV1). Other investigators have suggested using the response slopes. In this study we demonstrate an alternative method of analysis that uses all of each subject's response data, makes comparisons between subgroups, and can include explanatory covariables. This approach is demonstrated using methacholine challenge data obtained in New Zealand children at 9 and 11 yr of age. The results showed significant differences between the mean dose-response curves of wheezers and nonwheezers, that responsiveness increased with the frequency of reported wheeze, and that initial pulmonary function and serum IgE are significantly related to responsiveness. These factors were not always significant using more traditional methods of analysis, indicating an increased sensitivity with this method of analysis.

  11. Characterization of 3D rapid prototyped polymeric material by ultrasonic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livings, Richard; Dayal, Vinay; Barnard, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Rapid prototyped parts are quickly becoming a viable alternative for manufacturers. Although the polymeric material is initially isotropic, the printing process introduces a level of anisotropy. This work characterizes the elastic and acoustic properties of the material, after printing, using ultrasonic methods. The elastic constants and the level of anisotropy are determined by measuring the ultrasonic wave velocities. It is shown that the material possesses less symmetry than the orthotropic material model. The dispersion and attenuation characteristics are also determined to provide a basis for ultrasonic flaw detection.

  12. 76 FR 50221 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... scientific experts from government, industry, and academia to review these methods and to define efforts... HUMAN SERVICES International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine... Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) announces an...

  13. 76 FR 23323 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM... the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological and safety testing methods that.../live ). SACATM advises the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods...

  14. A rapid method for the presurgical cleansing of hands.

    PubMed

    Decker, L A; Gross, A; Miller, F C; Read, J A; Cutright, D E; Devine, J

    1978-01-01

    A new rapid method of presurgical cleansing of the hands has been evaluated in a clinical setting. The effectiveness of a 90 second jet wash has been compared with a standard 10-minute presurgical scrub. Bacteriologic cultures were obtained from the fingertips of interns, residents, and staff of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center before and after 90-second jet washings and 10-minute conventional scrubs. The results showed that the 90-second jet wash was more effective in degerming the hands than the 10-minute standard brush scrub. Other advantages of the new method, such as the amount of time saved, the standardization of cleansing, and reduced skin irritation are discussed.

  15. A simple, rapid method for HPLC analysis of lycopene isomers.

    PubMed

    Ishida, B K; Ma, J; Chan, B

    2001-01-01

    A rapid method for the extraction, separation and quantification of the geometric isomers of lycopene and beta-carotene from tomato fruit is described. Carotenoids in tomato were separated and eluted using a reversed-phase HPLC with a C30 column and a mobile phase consisting of methyl-t-butyl ether, methanol and ethyl acetate. The system provided sharp resolution of cis- and trans-isomers of lycopene within approximately 23 min in contrast to the longer and more complex gradient procedures required by previously described methods. Experiments indicate that the stability of extracts of fresh tomato may be improved if stored at -20 degrees C, and that the presence of the antioxidant BHA has no apparent effect on stability.

  16. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY WATER AND URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-08-27

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2008 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2008. A new rapid column separation method was used for analysis of actinides and {sup 90}Sr the NRIP 2008 emergency water and urine samples. Significant method improvements were applied to reduce analytical times. As a result, much faster analysis times were achieved, less than 3 hours for determination of {sup 90}Sr and 3-4 hours for actinides. This represents a 25%-33% improvement in analysis times from NRIP 2007 and a {approx}100% improvement compared to NRIP 2006 report times. Column flow rates were increased by a factor of two, with no significant adverse impact on the method performance. Larger sample aliquots, shorter count times, faster cerium fluoride microprecipitation and streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation were also employed. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and {sup 90}Sr analyses for NRIP 2008 emergency urine samples. High levels of potential matrix interferences may be present in emergency samples and rugged methods are essential. Extremely high levels of {sup 210}Po were found to have an adverse effect on the uranium results for the NRIP-08 urine samples, while uranium results for NRIP-08 water samples were not affected. This problem, which was not observed for NRIP-06 or NRIP-07 urine samples, was resolved by using an enhanced {sup 210}Po removal step, which will be described.

  17. Brain activity during bilateral rapid alternate finger tapping measured with magnetoencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Odagaki, Masato; Hiwaki, Osamu; Kodabashi, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), brain regions involved in an alternate bimanual tapping task by index fingers triggered with spontaneous timing were investigated. The tapping mode in which both index fingers moved simultaneously was interlaced during the task. The groups of the alternate tapping (AL mode) and the simultaneous tapping (SI mode) were extracted from the successive alternating taps with a histogram of intervals between the right and left index fingers. MEG signals in each mode were averaged separately before and after the tapping initiation of the dominant index finger. The activities of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex before and after the tapping initiation in the AL mode were larger than that in the SI mode. The result indicates that the activity of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex depends on the degree of achievement in the difficult motor task such as the voluntary alternate tapping movements.

  18. Validation of Rapid Assessment Methods to Determine Streamflow Duration Classes in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Tracie-Lynn; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Wigington, Parker J.; Ebersole, Joseph L.; Fritz, Ken M.; Coulombe, Robert A.; Comeleo, Randy L.; Blocksom, Karen A.

    2015-07-01

    United States Supreme Court rulings have created uncertainty regarding U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA) authority over certain waters, and established new data and analytical requirements for determining CWA jurisdiction. Thus, rapid assessment methods are needed that can differentiate between ephemeral, intermittent, and perennial streams. We report on the validation of several methods. The first (Interim Method) was developed through best professional judgment (BPJ); an alternative (Revised Method) resulted from statistical analysis. We tested the Interim Method on 178 study reaches in Oregon, and constructed the Revised Method based on statistical analysis of the Oregon data. Next, we evaluated the regional applicability of the methods on 86 study reaches across a variety of hydrologic landscapes in Washington and Idaho. During the second phase, we also compared the Revised Method with a similar approach (Combined Method) based on combined field data from Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. We further compared field-based methods with a GIS-based approach (GIS Method) that used the National Hydrography Dataset and a synthetic stream network. Evaluations of all methods compared results with actual streamflow duration classes. The Revised Method correctly determined known streamflow duration 83.9 % of the time, versus 62.3 % accuracy of the Interim Method and 43.6 % accuracy for the GIS-based approach. The Combined Method did not significantly outperform the Revised Method. Analysis showed biological indicators most accurately discriminate streamflow duration classes. While BPJ established a testable hypothesis, this study illustrates the importance of quantitative field testing of rapid assessment methods. Results support a consistent method applicable across the Pacific Northwest.

  19. Understanding Alternative Education: A Mixed Methods Examination of Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassett Farrelly, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Alternative schools operate today as a hidden, parallel educational system, providing a separate and often unequal education to many at-risk students, with little to no accountability. The number of alternative schools, and enrollment in alternative schools, is increasing, due in part to excessive use of zero tolerance policies. Students of color,…

  20. Understanding Alternative Education: A Mixed Methods Examination of Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassett Farrelly, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Alternative schools operate today as a hidden, parallel educational system, providing a separate and often unequal education to many at-risk students, with little to no accountability. The number of alternative schools, and enrollment in alternative schools, is increasing, due in part to excessive use of zero tolerance policies. Students of color,…

  1. An alternate high yielding purification method for Clitoria ternatea lectin.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Aabgeena; Ahmad, Ejaz; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2007-10-01

    In our previous publication we had reported the purification and characterization of Clitoria ternatea agglutinin from its seeds on fetuin CL agarose affinity column, designated CTA [A. Naeem, S. Haque, R.H. Khan. Protein J., 2007]. Since CTA binds beta-d-galactosides, this lectin can be used as valuable tool for glycobiology studies in biomedical and cancer research. So an attempt was made for a high yielding alternative purification method employing the use of asialofetuin CL agarose column for the above-mentioned lectin, designated CTL. The fetuin affinity purified agglutinin was found similar to asialofetuin affinity purified lectin in SDS pattern, HPLC and N-terminal sequence. The content of lectin was found to be 30mg/30g dry weight of pulse. The yield was 2.8% as compared to 0.3% obtained on fetuin column. The number of tryptophan and tyrosine estimated was four and six per subunit.

  2. Alternative methods for C.R.A pipeline welding

    SciTech Connect

    Belloni, A.

    1996-12-01

    The application of the GTAW process for C.R.A. (Corrosion Resistant Alloy) linepipe welding is a well known practice, nevertheless the high construction costs associated to the use of this process particularly for root pass welding (low welding speed) necessitate consideration of an updated version of the GMAW process (higher welding speed) for the same application. The present paper describes the progress obtained in using alternative welding methods to GTAW Cold wire such as: GTAW hot wire and GMAW to increase the welding speed and consequently reduce the overall project cost. The authors feel that this approach is essential to increase the pipelaying productivity of a C.R.A. linepipe materials, at present still too far from that of the Carbon steel one.

  3. Report of an ISRTP workshop: progress and barriers to incorporating alternative toxicological methods in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Becker, Richard A; Borgert, Christopher J; Webb, Simon; Ansell, Jay; Amundson, Sara; Portier, Christopher J; Goldberg, Alan; Bruner, Leon H; Rowan, Andrew; Curren, Rodger D; Stott, William T

    2006-10-01

    The workshop objectives were to explore progress in implementing new, revised and alternative toxicological test methods across regulatory evaluation frameworks and decision-making programs in the United States, to identify barriers and to develop recommendations to further promote adoption of approaches that reduce, refine, or replace the use of animal methods. The workshop included sessions on: (1) current research, development, and validation of alternative methods within the U.S. federal government; (2) emerging alternative methodologies with potential applications to a broad spectrum of toxicity evaluation strategies; (3) tiered evaluation ("intelligent testing") strategies; and (4) identification of, and recommendations to address, critical barriers that affect adoption and use of new, revised alternative toxicological test methods by U.S. regulatory agencies. Through facilitated discussion, a list of barriers and recommendations were developed and grouped into categories of economic/financial, scientific/technical, and regulatory/policy. Overall, participants from all sectors collectively supported catalyzing actions to promote more meaningful and rapid progress for research to develop alternative methods focused for use in regulatory programs, accelerated lab investigations to validate such alternative methods and adoption of regulatory frameworks which embrace and incorporate these validated alternatives.

  4. An alternative method of promoter assessment by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Dipak K; Ranjan, Rajiv; Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Alok; Sahoo, Bhabani S; Raha, Sumita; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2009-10-01

    A rapid and useful method of promoter activity analysis using techniques of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is described in the present study. The activities of some pararetroviral promoters such as CaMV35S (Cauliflower mosaic virus), FMVSgt3 (Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript) and MMVFLt12 (Mirabilis mosaic virus full-length transcript) coupled to GFP (green fluorescent protein) and GUS (beta-glucuronidase) reporter genes were determined simultaneously by the CLSM technique and other available conventional methods for reporter gene assay based on relevant biochemical and molecular approaches. Consistent and comparable results obtained by CLSM as well as by other conventional assay methods confirm the effectiveness of the CLSM approach for assessment of promoter activity. Hence the CLSM method can be suggested as an alternative way for promoter analysis on the basis of high throughput.

  5. Oral rapid test: an alternative to traditional HIV screening in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Irarrazábal, Lisette Paola; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Lara, Loreto; Reed, Reiley; Levy, Judith; Pérez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the sensitivity and specificity of an Oral Rapid Test (ORT) to that of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for HIV testing in Santiago, Chile; to track the number of study participants returning for ELISA testing results; and to analyze the participants’ perceptions of the ORT compared to the ELISA. Methods A total of 497 people were recruited in Santiago, Chile: 153 had previously tested positive for HIV, and 344 were of unknown status. Participants were tested for HIV using both the ELISA and the ORT to examine and compare specificity and sensitivity. Qualitative data were collected from 22 participants to compare perceptions of the testing experience with ORT versus ELISA. Results The ELISA reported 184 (37%) of the 497 participants as being “positive” for HIV antibodies; the ORT showed 181 (36.4%) as being “reactive” for HIV. The ORT showed a sensitivity of 98.4% (95.7%–99.9%, 95% Confidence Interval) and specificity of 100%. The Kappa test produced K = 0.983 (P < 0.0001). Of the 344 participants whose HIV status was unknown at the start of the study, 55 failed to return for their ELISA results. Participants positively perceived ORT as having reduced both waiting time and anxiety over obtaining their test results. ORT oral swabbing appeared more practical and less invasive than drawing blood for the ELISA. Conclusions The ORT and ELISA were statistically equal in specificity and sensitivity. ORT provides quicker results, potentially ensuring that more people receive them, and does not require handling of or exposure to potentially hazardous blood products. PMID:23939368

  6. Aptamer Selection Express: A Novel Method for Rapid Single-Step Selection and Sensing of Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Maomian; McBurnett, Shelly Roper; Andrews, Carrie J.; Allman, Amity M.; Bruno, John G.; Kiel, Johnathan L.

    2008-01-01

    Here we describe a new DNA capture element (DCE) sensing system, based on the quenching and dequenching of a double-stranded aptamer. This system shows very good sensitivity and thermal stability. While quenching, dequenching, and separating the DCE systems made from different aptamers (all selected by SELEX), an alternative method to rapidly select aptamers was developed—the Aptamer Selection Express (ASExp). This process has been used to select aptamers against different types of targets (Bacillus anthracis spores, Bacillus thuringiensis spores, MS-2 bacteriophage, ovalbumin, and botulinum neurotoxin). The DCE systems made from botulinum neurotoxin aptamers selected by ASExp have been investigated. The results of this investigation indicate that ASExp can be used to rapidly select aptamers for the DCE sensing system. PMID:19183794

  7. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to simulate expected ranges of mercury

  8. An alternative method for centrifugal compressor loading factor modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galerkin, Y.; Drozdov, A.; Rekstin, A.; Soldatova, K.

    2017-08-01

    The loading factor at design point is calculated by one or other empirical formula in classical design methods. Performance modelling as a whole is out of consideration. Test data of compressor stages demonstrates that loading factor versus flow coefficient at the impeller exit has a linear character independent of compressibility. Known Universal Modelling Method exploits this fact. Two points define the function – loading factor at design point and at zero flow rate. The proper formulae include empirical coefficients. A good modelling result is possible if the choice of coefficients is based on experience and close analogs. Earlier Y. Galerkin and K. Soldatova had proposed to define loading factor performance by the angle of its inclination to the ordinate axis and by the loading factor at zero flow rate. Simple and definite equations with four geometry parameters were proposed for loading factor performance calculated for inviscid flow. The authors of this publication have studied the test performance of thirteen stages of different types. The equations are proposed with universal empirical coefficients. The calculation error lies in the range of plus to minus 1,5%. The alternative model of a loading factor performance modelling is included in new versions of the Universal Modelling Method.

  9. An Alternate Approach to Alternating Sums: A Method to DIE for

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Arthur T.; Quinn, Jennifer J.

    2008-01-01

    Positive sums count. Alternating sums match. Alternating sums of binomial coefficients, Fibonacci numbers, and other combinatorial quantities are analyzed using sign-reversing involutions. In particular, we describe the quantity being considered, match positive and negative terms through an Involution, and count the Exceptions to the matching rule…

  10. An Alternate Approach to Alternating Sums: A Method to DIE for

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Arthur T.; Quinn, Jennifer J.

    2008-01-01

    Positive sums count. Alternating sums match. Alternating sums of binomial coefficients, Fibonacci numbers, and other combinatorial quantities are analyzed using sign-reversing involutions. In particular, we describe the quantity being considered, match positive and negative terms through an Involution, and count the Exceptions to the matching rule…

  11. Cellufine sulfate column chromatography as a simple, rapid, and effective method to purify dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-08-01

    Conventional method to purify/concentrate dengue virus (DENV) is time-consuming with low virus recovery yield. Herein, we applied cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV based on the mimicry between heparan sulfate and DENV envelope protein. Comparative analysis demonstrated that this new method offered higher purity (as determined by less contamination of bovine serum albumin) and recovery yield (as determined by greater infectivity). Moreover, overall duration used for cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV was approximately 1/20 of that of conventional method. Therefore, cellufine sulfate column chromatography serves as a simple, rapid, and effective alternative method for DENV purification/concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid method for proline determination in grape juice and wine.

    PubMed

    Long, Danfeng; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Poole, Kate; Taylor, Dennis K; Warren, Tristan; Astorga, Alejandra M; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2012-05-02

    Proline is typically the most abundant amino acid present in grape juice and wine. The amount present is influenced by viticultural and winemaking factors and can be of diagnostic importance. A method for rapid routine quantitation of proline would therefore be of benefit for wine researchers and the industry in general. Colorimetric determination utilizing isatin as a derivatizing agent has previously been applied to plant extracts, biological fluids, and protein hydrolysates. In the current study, this method has been successfully adapted to grape juice and wine and proved to be sensitive to milligram per liter amounts of proline. At sugar concentrations above 60 g/L, interference from the isatin-proline reaction was observed, such that proline concentrations were considerably underestimated in grape juice and dessert wine. However, the method was robust for the analysis of fermentation samples and table wines. Results were within ±10% agreement with data generated from typical HPLC-based analyses. The isatin method is therefore considered suitable for the routine analysis required to support research into the utilization or release of proline by yeast during fermentation.

  13. Rapid architecture alternative modeling (RAAM): A framework for capability-based analysis of system of systems architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacobucci, Joseph V.

    The research objective for this manuscript is to develop a Rapid Architecture Alternative Modeling (RAAM) methodology to enable traceable Pre-Milestone A decision making during the conceptual phase of design of a system of systems. Rather than following current trends that place an emphasis on adding more analysis which tends to increase the complexity of the decision making problem, RAAM improves on current methods by reducing both runtime and model creation complexity. RAAM draws upon principles from computer science, system architecting, and domain specific languages to enable the automatic generation and evaluation of architecture alternatives. For example, both mission dependent and mission independent metrics are considered. Mission dependent metrics are determined by the performance of systems accomplishing a task, such as Probability of Success. In contrast, mission independent metrics, such as acquisition cost, are solely determined and influenced by the other systems in the portfolio. RAAM also leverages advances in parallel computing to significantly reduce runtime by defining executable models that are readily amendable to parallelization. This allows the use of cloud computing infrastructures such as Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud and the PASTEC cluster operated by the Georgia Institute of Technology Research Institute (GTRI). Also, the amount of data that can be generated when fully exploring the design space can quickly exceed the typical capacity of computational resources at the analyst's disposal. To counter this, specific algorithms and techniques are employed. Streaming algorithms and recursive architecture alternative evaluation algorithms are used that reduce computer memory requirements. Lastly, a domain specific language is created to provide a reduction in the computational time of executing the system of systems models. A domain specific language is a small, usually declarative language that offers expressive power focused on a particular

  14. Is alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction an effective protocol in the treatment of Class III malocclusion? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Nathalia de Lima; dos Santos, Camila Rangel Barreto; Baião, Felipe Carvalho Souza; Pinheiro, Murilo Costa Rangel; Matos, Manoel; Souza, Ianderlei Andrade; de Paula, Rafael Pereira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: the treatment of Class III malocclusion in early age is one of the greatest challenges for orthodontists, and the establishment of more effective treatment method is a constant concern for these professionals. Thus, the objective of this systematic review is to verify the effectiveness of the therapy protocol for alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion. Methods: searches were performed in the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, Medline (EBSCO and PubMed), SciELO, LILACS and Scopus. The following inclusion criteria were used: in vivo studies conducted with early intervention (patient in craniofacial development phase) with the use of the Alt-RAMEC protocol. Reviews, case reports, editorials, and studies with syndromic patients or under use of systemic drug were excluded. Duplicates were also excluded. The studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane tool for assessment of risk of bias, and classified as high or low risk of bias. Results: 53 articles were found. Duplicates exclusion was thus performed and 35 articles remained. After inclusion analysis, only 5 matched the criteria. Two articles were classified as low risk of bias and three as high risk of bias. It was observed that the Alt-RAMEC enable protraction in less time and with better results, promoting greater effectiveness in the protraction treatment of Class III malocclusion. Conclusions: Although there is positive evidence of the effectiveness of early treatment with the Alt-RAMEC protocol in patients with Class III malocclusion, further studies are needed to confirm its effectiveness using long-term methodology. PMID:28125138

  15. Statistical Methods for Rapid Aerothermal Analysis and Design Technology: Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DePriest, Douglas; Morgan, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    The cost and safety goals for NASA s next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) will require that rapid high-fidelity aerothermodynamic design tools be used early in the design cycle. To meet these requirements, it is desirable to identify adequate statistical models that quantify and improve the accuracy, extend the applicability, and enable combined analyses using existing prediction tools. The initial research work focused on establishing suitable candidate models for these purposes. The second phase is focused on assessing the performance of these models to accurately predict the heat rate for a given candidate data set. This validation work compared models and methods that may be useful in predicting the heat rate.

  16. Method for rapid, high sensitivity tritiated water extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, R.; Belovodsky, L.; Gaevoy, V.; Golubev, A.

    1997-04-20

    We have developed a thermal vacuum desorption process to rapidly extract water from environmental samples for tritium analysis. Thermal vacuum desorption allows for extraction of the moisture from the sample within a few hours in a form and quantity suitable for liquid scintillation counting and allows detection of tritium at the levels of <2 Bq/L of milk, <0.5 Bq/gm of vegetation, and < 0.5 Bq/gin of soil. We developed a prototype unit that can process batches of twenty or more samples within 24 hours. Early data shows that a high percentage of water is extracted reproducibly without enrichment or depletion of the tritium content. The quench coefficient of the extracted water is low allowing for accurate, direct liquid scintillation counting. Excellent comparison has been observed with results using freeze-dry lypholization as the water extraction method.

  17. A simple method for rapidly processing HEU from weapons returns

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    A method based on the use of a high temperature fluidized bed for rapidly oxidizing, homogenizing and down-blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) from dismantled nuclear weapons is presented. This technology directly addresses many of the most important issues that inhibit progress in international commerce in HEU; viz., transaction verification, materials accountability, transportation and environmental safety. The equipment used to carry out the oxidation and blending is simple, inexpensive and highly portable. Mobile facilities to be used for point-of-sale blending and analysis of the product material are presented along with a phased implementation plan that addresses the conversion of HEU derived from domestic weapons and related waste streams as well as material from possible foreign sources such as South Africa or the former Soviet Union.

  18. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1990-10-09

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  19. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Martin, John C.; Moyzis, Robert K.; Ratliff, Robert L.; Shera, E. Brooks; Stewart, Carleton C.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed.

  20. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1987-10-07

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  1. Development of a rapid and simple voltammetric method to determine total antioxidative capacity of edible oils.

    PubMed

    Gulaboski, Rubin; Mirčeski, Valentin; Mitrev, Saša

    2013-05-01

    In this work we report on a new, rapid and simple voltammetric method to determine the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the edible oils. The method explores the ABTS radical (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) assay as a redox probe and it relays on measuring catalytic voltammetric currents. The electrocatalysis comprises redox regeneration of the electrochemically created ABTS(+) radical either by Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethychroman-2-carboxylic acid) or by antioxidants present in studied oils. The detection limit of the method is determined to be 0.5 mg/L of Trolox equivalent, being a slightly lower than the corresponding UV-VIS spectrophotometric method. Applying the proposed voltammetric method the total antioxidant capacity of three types of commercially available cold-pressed edible oils are determined, and the results are found to be in a very good agreement with those obtained by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The reported voltammetric method is cheap, rapid and simple, and it can be used as a sustainable alternative to the UV-VIS methods for the determination of total antioxidant capacitance of oils and other liquid lipophilic nutrients. Potent antioxidant capacity of studied oils was also confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of superoxide anion produced by macrophages.

  2. Rapid column heating method for subcritical water chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fogwill, Michael O; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2007-01-19

    A novel resistive heating method is presented for subcritical water chromatography (SWC) that provides higher column heating rates than those conventionally obtained from temperature-programmed gas chromatography (GC) convection ovens. Since the polarity of water reduces dramatically with increasing temperature, SWC employs column heating to achieve gradient elution. As such, the rate at which the mobile phase is heated directly impacts the magnitude of such gradients applied in SWC. Data from the current study demonstrate that the maximum column heating rate attainable in a typical SWC apparatus (i.e. using a GC convection oven) is around 10 degrees C/min, even at instrument oven settings of over three times this value. Conversely, by wrapping the separation column with ceramic insulation and a resistively heated wire, the column heating rates are increased five-fold. As a result, elution times can be greatly decreased in SWC employing gradients. Separations of standard alcohol test mixtures demonstrate that the retention time of the latest eluting component decreases by 35 to 50% using the prototype method. Additionally, solute retention times in this mode deviate by less than 1% RSD over several trials, which compares very well to those obtained using a conventional GC convection oven. Results suggest that the developed method can be a useful alternative heating technique in SWC.

  3. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw

  4. Alternative Chemical Amplification Methods for Peroxy Radical Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Peroxy radicals (HO2, CH3O2, etc.) are commonly detected by the chemical amplification technique, in which ambient air is mixed with high concentrations of CO and NO, initiating a chain reaction that produces 30 - 200 NO2 molecules per sampled peroxy radical. The NO2 is then measured by one of several techniques. With the exception of CIMS-based techniques, the chemical amplification method has undergone only incremental improvements since it was first introduced in 1982. The disadvantages of the technique include the need to use high concentrations of CO and the greatly reduced sensitivity of the amplification chain length in the presence of water vapor. We present a new chemical amplification scheme in which either ethane or acetaldehyde is used in place of CO, with the NO2 product detected using Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift spectroscopy (CAPS). Under dry conditions, the amplification factor of the alternative amplifiers are approximately six times lower than the CO-based amplifier. The relative humidity "penalty" is not as severe, however, such that at typical ambient relative humidity (RH) values the amplification factor is within a factor of three of the CO-based amplifier. Combined with the NO2 sensitivity of CAPS and a dual-channel design, the detection limit of the ethane amplifier is less than 2 ppt (1 minute average, signal-to-noise ratio 2). The advantages of these alternative chemical amplification schemes are improved safety, a reduced RH correction, and increased sensitivity to organic peroxy radicals relative to HO2.

  5. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria: conventional and rapid diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael L

    2013-06-01

    The global control of malaria is more challenging than that of many other infectious diseases: malaria is vector borne, it is caused by 5 species of Plasmodium with different geographic distributions, infection is widespread in many regions, drug resistance is common, and the disease overlaps clinically with other infectious diseases. Therefore, malaria control programs, in addition to diagnosis and testing, must also target limiting spread of the disease through vector control. Although malaria control efforts have been successful in some regions, malaria remains one of the most important causes of death in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in women and children. To review the current literature regarding diagnostic methods available to detect clinical malaria, with an emphasis on comparing the strengths and limitations of each method. Current World Health Organization malaria control report and other information, recent meta-analyses of diagnostic tests, primary literature concerning the performance characteristics of different tests, and primary literature concerning how diagnostic tests are used in daily practice. The most commonly used method for identifying cases of malaria remains microscopic examination of peripheral blood, but there is growing use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in many regions. One of the most important findings in the recent literature is that despite the widespread use of diagnostic tests, treatment is too often based on clinical findings rather than on results of diagnostic tests.

  6. A New Rapid Method for Measuring the Vertical Head Profile.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carl

    2017-03-01

    This study describes a new technique for measuring the head profile in a geologic formation. The technique provides rapid, low cost information on the depth of water-producing zones and aquitards in heterogeneous aquifers, yielding estimates of hydraulic heads in each zone while identifying any potential for cross contamination between zones. The measurements can be performed in a typical borehole in just a few hours. The procedure uses both the continuous transmissivity profile obtained by the installation (eversion) of a flexible borehole liner into an open borehole and the subsequent removal (inversion) of the same liner from the borehole. The method is possible because of the continuous transmissivity profile (T profile described by Keller et al. 2014) obtained by measuring the rate of liner eversion under a constant driving head. The hydraulic heads of producing zones are measured using the reverse head profile (RHP) method (patent no. 9,008,971) based on a stepwise inversion of the borehole liner. As each interval of the borehole is uncovered by inversion of the liner, the head beneath the liner is allowed to equilibrate to a steady-state value. The individual hydraulic heads contributing to each measurement are calculated using the measured transmissivity for each zone. Application of the RHP method to a sedimentary bedrock borehole in New Jersey verified that it reproduced the head distribution obtained the same day in the same borehole instrumented with a multilevel sampling system.

  7. Head movement measurement: An alternative method for posturography studies.

    PubMed

    Ciria, L F; Muñoz, M A; Gea, J; Peña, N; Miranda, J G V; Montoya, P; Vila, J

    2017-02-01

    The present study evaluated the measurement of head movements as a valid method for postural emotional studies using the comparison of simultaneous recording of center of pressure (COP) sway as criterion. Thirty female students viewed a set of 12 pleasant, 12 unpleasant and 12 neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System, repeated twice, using a block presentation procedure while standing on a force platform (AMTI AccuSway). Head movements were recorded using a webcam (©KPC139E) located in the ceiling in line with the force platform and a light-emitting diode (LED) placed on the top of the head. Open source software (CvMob 3.1) was used to process the data. High indices of correlation and coherence between head and COP sway were observed. In addition, pleasant pictures, compared with unpleasant pictures, elicited greater body sway in the anterior-posterior axis, suggesting an approach response to appetitive stimuli. Thus, the measurement of head movement can be an alternative or complementary method to recording COP for studying human postural changes.

  8. Alternative method for intramuscular fat analysis using common laboratory equipment.

    PubMed

    Segura, J; Calvo, L; Óvilo, C; González-Bulnes, A; Olivares, A; Cambero, M I; López-Bote, C J

    2015-05-01

    A procedure to quantify intramuscular fat was developed using common inexpensive laboratory equipment. Three homogenization methods of lyophilized muscle samples (Ball-mill, Grinder and Mortar) and two extraction methods (Ball-mill or Vortex) were used in turkey meat and pork. Two-hundred mg of lyophilized and homogenized samples were accurately weighed and mixed with 1.5 mL of dichloromethane-methanol (8:2) and shaken either in a Mixer Mill (MM400, Retsch Technology) or in a Vortex. The final mixture was separated by centrifugation. Solvent was evaporated under a nitrogen stream and lipid content was gravimetrically determined. Besides, it was checked that the fatty acid profile was not altered by the protocol used. Moreover, the analysis of 4 replicas from the same sample showed different variation coefficients (16-29%) for the new procedures proposed over a wide range of IMF content. The combination of Grinder and Vortex methodologies can be proposed as a simple and inexpensive alternative to previous ones. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Alternating Direction Method of Multiplier for Tomography With Nonlocal Regularizers

    PubMed Central

    Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm approximates the gradient of a likelihood function using a subset of projections instead of using all projections so that fast image reconstruction is possible for emission and transmission tomography such as SPECT, PET, and CT. However, OSEM does not significantly accelerate reconstruction with computationally expensive regularizers such as patch-based nonlocal (NL) regularizers, because the regularizer gradient is evaluated for every subset. We propose to use variable splitting to separate the likelihood term and the regularizer term for penalized emission tomographic image reconstruction problem and to optimize it using the alternating direction method of multiplier (ADMM). We also propose a fast algorithm to optimize the ADMM parameter based on convergence rate analysis. This new scheme enables more sub-iterations related to the likelihood term. We evaluated our ADMM for 3-D SPECT image reconstruction with a patch-based NL regularizer that uses the Fair potential function. Our proposed ADMM improved the speed of convergence substantially compared to other existing methods such as gradient descent, EM, and OSEM using De Pierro’s approach, and the limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm. PMID:25291351

  10. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods; Announcement of Meeting; Request for Comments SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

  11. Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method.

    PubMed

    Martins, Polyana Kelly; Nakayama, Thiago Jonas; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Cunha, Bárbara Andrade Dias Brito da; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Harmon, Frank G; Kobayashi, Adilson Kenji; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa

    2015-06-01

    Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements) that make it suitable for use as a model plant. We report an alternative method of S. viridis transformation using floral dip to circumvent the necessity of tissue culture phase for transgenic plant regeneration. S. viridis spikes at boot stage were selected to be immersed in Agrobacterium suspension. T1 seeds could be identified in 1.5-2 months after floral dipping. We demonstrated through molecular analysis and RFP expression that seeds and resulting plants from dipped inflorescences were transformed. Our results suggest the feasibility of S. viridis floral dip transformation as a time-saving and cost-effective compared with traditional methods. To our knowledge, this is the first report using floral dip in S. viridis as an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method.

  12. Application of ICME Methods for the Development of Rapid Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwald-Immer, T.; Göhler, T.; Fischersworring-Bunk, A.; Körner, C.; Osmanlic, F.; Bauereiß, A.

    Rapid manufacturing technologies are lately gaining interest as alternative manufacturing method. Due to the large parameter sets applicable in these manufacturing methods and their impact on achievable material properties and quality, support of the manufacturing process development by the use of simulation is highly attractive. This is especially true for aerospace applications with their high quality demands and controlled scatter in the resulting material properties. The applicable simulation techniques to these manufacturing methods are manifold. The paper will focus on the melt pool simulation for a SLM (selective laser melting) process which was originally developed for EBM (electron beam melting). It will be discussed in the overall context of a multi-scale simulation within a virtual process chain.

  13. Phototoxicity: Its Mechanism and Animal Alternative Test Methods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeonji; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The skin exposure to solar irradiation and photoreactive xenobiotics may produce abnormal skin reaction, phototoxicity. Phototoxicity is an acute light-induced response, which occurs when photoreacive chemicals are activated by solar lights and transformed into products cytotoxic against the skin cells. Multifarious symptoms of phototoxicity are identified, skin irritation, erythema, pruritis, and edema that are similar to those of the exaggerated sunburn. Diverse organic chemicals, especially drugs, are known to induce phototoxicity, which is probably from the common possession of UV-absorbing benzene or heterocyclic rings in their molecular structures. Both UVB (290~320 nm) and UVA (320~400 nm) are responsible for the manifestation of phototoxicity. Absorption of photons and absorbed energy (hv) by photoactive chemicals results in molecular changes or generates reactive oxygen species and depending on the way how endogenous molecules are affected by phototoxicants, mechanisms of phototoxcity is categorized into two modes of action: Direct when unstable species from excited state directly react with the endogenous molecules, and indirect when endogeneous molecules react with secondary photoproducts. In order to identify phototoxic potential of a chemical, various test methods have been introduced. Focus is given to animal alternative test methods, i.e., in vitro, and in chemico assays as well as in vivo. 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, erythrocyte photohemolysis test, and phototoxicity test using human 3-dimensional (3D) epidermis model are examples of in vitro assays. In chemico methods evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species or DNA strand break activity employing plasmid for chemicals, or drugs with phototoxic potential. PMID:26191378

  14. Rapid Tooling Method for Soft Customized Removable Oral Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient’s dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance. PMID:22615719

  15. Rapid tooling method for soft customized removable oral appliances.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient's dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance.

  16. Rapid and robust detection methods for poison and microbial contamination.

    PubMed

    Hoehl, Melanie M; Lu, Peter J; Sims, Peter A; Slocum, Alexander H

    2012-06-27

    Real-time on-site monitoring of analytes is currently in high demand for food contamination, water, medicines, and ingestible household products that were never tested appropriately. Here we introduce chemical methods for the rapid quantification of a wide range of chemical and microbial contaminations using a simple instrument. Within the testing procedure, we used a multichannel, multisample, UV-vis spectrophotometer/fluorometer that employs two frequencies of light simultaneously to interrogate the sample. We present new enzyme- and dye-based methods to detect (di)ethylene glycol in consumables above 0.1 wt % without interference and alcohols above 1 ppb. Using DNA intercalating dyes, we can detect a range of pathogens ( E. coli , Salmonella , V. Cholera, and a model for Malaria) in water, foods, and blood without background signal. We achieved universal scaling independent of pathogen size above 10(4) CFU/mL by taking advantage of the simultaneous measurement at multiple wavelengths. We can detect contaminants directly, without separation, purification, concentration, or incubation. Our chemistry is stable to ± 1% for >3 weeks without refrigeration, and measurements require <5 min.

  17. Understanding Alternative Education: A Mixed Methods Examination of Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Susan Glassett; Daniels, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Alternative education plays a critical role in the opportunity gap that persists in the US public education system. However, there has been little research on alternative schools. Scaffolded by a theoretical framework constructed from critical theory, self-determination theory (SDT) and student voice, this research examined how well students in…

  18. Is alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction an effective protocol in the treatment of Class III malocclusion? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Nathalia de Lima; Santos, Camila Rangel Barreto Dos; Baião, Felipe Carvalho Souza; Pinheiro, Murilo Costa Rangel; Matos, Manoel; Souza, Ianderlei Andrade; Paula, Rafael Pereira de

    2016-01-01

    the treatment of Class III malocclusion in early age is one of the greatest challenges for orthodontists, and the establishment of more effective treatment method is a constant concern for these professionals. Thus, the objective of this systematic review is to verify the effectiveness of the therapy protocol for alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion. searches were performed in the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, Medline (EBSCO and PubMed), SciELO, LILACS and Scopus. The following inclusion criteria were used: in vivo studies conducted with early intervention (patient in craniofacial development phase) with the use of the Alt-RAMEC protocol. Reviews, case reports, editorials, and studies with syndromic patients or under use of systemic drug were excluded. Duplicates were also excluded. The studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane tool for assessment of risk of bias, and classified as high or low risk of bias. 53 articles were found. Duplicates exclusion was thus performed and 35 articles remained. After inclusion analysis, only 5 matched the criteria. Two articles were classified as low risk of bias and three as high risk of bias. It was observed that the Alt-RAMEC enable protraction in less time and with better results, promoting greater effectiveness in the protraction treatment of Class III malocclusion. Although there is positive evidence of the effectiveness of early treatment with the Alt-RAMEC protocol in patients with Class III malocclusion, further studies are needed to confirm its effectiveness using long-term methodology.

  19. 77 FR 40358 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM..., revised, and alternative safety testing methods with regulatory applicability and promotes the scientific... Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the NTP Interagency Center for the...

  20. Alternative processing methods for tungsten-base composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1995-12-31

    Tungsten composite materials contain large amounts of tungsten distributed in a continuous matrix phase. Current commercial materials include the tungsten-nickel-iron with cobalt replacing some or all of the iron, and also tungsten-copper materials. Typically, these are fabricated by liquid-phase sintering of blended powders. Liquid-phase sintering offers the advantages of low processing costs, established technology, and generally attractive mechanical properties. However, liquid-phase sintering is restricted to a very limited number of matrix alloying elements and a limited range of tungsten and alloying compositions. In the past few years, there has been interest in a wider range of matrix materials that offer the potential for superior composite properties. These must be processed by solid-state processes and at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid undesired reactions between the tungsten and the matrix phase. These processes, in order of decreasing process temperature requirements, include hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing), hot extrusion, and dynamic compaction. The HIPing and hot extrusion processes have also been used to improve mechanical properties of conventional liquid-phase-sintered materials. Results of laboratory-scale investigations of solid-state consolidation of a variety of matrix materials, including titanium, hafnium, nickel aluminide, and steels are reviewed. The potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the possible alternative consolidation processes are identified. Postconsolidation processing to control microstructure and macrostructure is discussed, including novel methods of controlling microstructure alignment.

  1. Alternative processing methods for tungsten-base composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1996-06-01

    Tungsten composite materials contain large amounts of tungsten distributed in a continuous matrix phase. Current commercial materials include the tungsten-nickel-iron with cobalt replacing some or all of the iron, and also tungsten-copper materials. Typically, these are fabricated by liquid-phase sintering of blended powders. Liquid-phase sintering offers the advantages of low processing costs, established technology, and generally attractive mechanical properties. However, liquid-phase sintering is restricted to a very limited number of matrix alloying elements and a limited range of tungsten and alloying compositions. In the past few years, there has been interest in a wider range of matrix materials that offer the potential for superior composite properties. These must be processed by solid-state processes and at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid undesired reactions between the tungsten and the matrix phase. These processes, in order of decreasing process temperature requirements, include hot isostatic pressing (HEPing), hot extrusion, and dynamic compaction. The HIPing and hot extrusion processes have also been used to improve mechanical properties of conventional liquid-phase-sintered materials. The results of laboratory-scale investigations of solid-state consolidation of a variety of matrix materials, including titanium, hafnium, nickel aluminide, and steels are reviewed. The potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the possible alternative consolidation processes are identified. Post consolidation processing to control microstructure and macrostructure is discussed, including novel methods of controlling microstructure alignment.

  2. Alternate Methods in Refining the SLS Nozzle Plug Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbank, Scott; Allen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Numerical analysis has shown that the SLS nozzle environmental barrier (nozzle plug) design is inadequate for the prelaunch condition, which consists of two dominant loads: 1) the main engines startup pressure and 2) an environmentally induced pressure. Efforts to reduce load conservatisms included a dynamic analysis which showed a 31% higher safety factor compared to the standard static analysis. The environmental load is typically approached with a deterministic method using the worst possible combinations of pressures and temperatures. An alternate probabilistic approach, utilizing the distributions of pressures and temperatures, resulted in a 54% reduction in the environmental pressure load. A Monte Carlo simulation of environmental load that used five years of historical pressure and temperature data supported the results of the probabilistic analysis, indicating the probabilistic load is reflective of a 3-sigma condition (1 in 370 probability). Utilizing the probabilistic load analysis eliminated excessive conservatisms and will prevent a future overdesign of the nozzle plug. Employing a similar probabilistic approach to other design and analysis activities can result in realistic yet adequately conservative solutions.

  3. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    PubMed

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives.

  4. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): Promoting Alternative Methods in Europe and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public–private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives. PMID:25836968

  5. Pilot plant study of alternative filter media for rapid gravity filtration.

    PubMed

    Davies, P D; Wheatley, A D

    2012-01-01

    Sand has been the main filter media used in rapid gravity filtration since its introduction. The dominance of sand has been due to its low cost and availability. Extensive experience has led to sand filters with a dependable and predictable performance. Sand remains the preferred filter medium but usually with a larger sized anthracite capping to reduce the onset of head loss. Other approved filter media are now commercially available and this paper compares sand with recycled glass, Filtralite(®) and slate at pilot scale. The results have reaffirmed the basic importance of particle size on head loss and turbidity performance rather than surface activity or specific surface area. The results did suggest, however, that particle shape and packing exerted a stronger influence on performance than previously acknowledged. These could be used to improve the design and the contribution to sustainability made by rapid gravity filters.

  6. Rapid simulation of spatial epidemics: a spectral method.

    PubMed

    Brand, Samuel P C; Tildesley, Michael J; Keeling, Matthew J

    2015-04-07

    Spatial structure and hence the spatial position of host populations plays a vital role in the spread of infection. In the majority of situations, it is only possible to predict the spatial spread of infection using simulation models, which can be computationally demanding especially for large population sizes. Here we develop an approximation method that vastly reduces this computational burden. We assume that the transmission rates between individuals or sub-populations are determined by a spatial transmission kernel. This kernel is assumed to be isotropic, such that the transmission rate is simply a function of the distance between susceptible and infectious individuals; as such this provides the ideal mechanism for modelling localised transmission in a spatial environment. We show that the spatial force of infection acting on all susceptibles can be represented as a spatial convolution between the transmission kernel and a spatially extended 'image' of the infection state. This representation allows the rapid calculation of stochastic rates of infection using fast-Fourier transform (FFT) routines, which greatly improves the computational efficiency of spatial simulations. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this fast spectral rate recalculation (FSR) method with two examples: an idealised scenario simulating an SIR-type epidemic outbreak amongst N habitats distributed across a two-dimensional plane; the spread of infection between US cattle farms, illustrating that the FSR method makes continental-scale outbreak forecasting feasible with desktop processing power. The latter model demonstrates which areas of the US are at consistently high risk for cattle-infections, although predictions of epidemic size are highly dependent on assumptions about the tail of the transmission kernel.

  7. Timing of peripheral blood stem cell yield: comparison of alternative methods with the classic method for CD34+ cell determination.

    PubMed

    Fatorova, I; Blaha, M; Lanska, M; Vokurkova, D; Rezacova, V; Zak, P

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), still represent a certain mystery in biology, have a unique property of dividing into equal cells and repopulating the hematopoietic tissue. This potential enables their use in transplantation treatments. The quality of the HSC grafts for transplantation is evaluated by flow cytometric determination of the CD34(+) cells, which enables optimal timing of the first apheresis and the acquisition of maximal yield of the peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs). To identify a more efficient method for evaluating CD34(+) cells, we compared the following alternative methods with the reference method: hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) enumeration (using the Sysmex XE-2100 analyser), detection of CD133(+) cells, and quantification of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the PBSCs. 266 aphereses (84 patients) were evaluated. In the preapheretic blood, the new methods produced data that were in agreement with the reference method. The ROC curves have shown that for the first-day apheresis target, the optimal predictive cut-off value was 0.032 cells/mL for the HPC method (sensitivity 73.4%, specificity 69.3%). HPC method exhibited a definite practical superiority as compared to other methods tested. HPC enumeration could serve as a supplementary method for the optimal timing of the first apheresis; it is simple, rapid, and cheap.

  8. A simple and rapid method for calculating identity-by-descent matrices using multiple markers.

    PubMed

    Pong-Wong, R; George, A W; Woolliams, J A; Haley, C S

    2001-01-01

    A fast, partly recursive deterministic method for calculating Identity-by-Descent (IBD) probabilities was developed with the objective of using IBD in Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping. The method combined a recursive method for a single marker locus with a method to estimate IBD between sibs using multiple markers. Simulated data was used to compare the deterministic method developed in the present paper with a stochastic method (LOKI) for precision in estimating IBD probabilities and performance in the task of QTL detection with the variance component approach. This comparison was made in a variety of situations by varying family size and degree of polymorphism among marker loci. The following were observed for the deterministic method relative to MCMC: (i) it was an order of magnitude faster; (ii) its estimates of IBD probabilities were found to agree closely, even though it does not extract information when haplotypes are not known with certainty; (iii) the shape of the profile for the QTL test statistic as a function of location was similar, although the magnitude of the test statistic was slightly smaller; and (iv) the estimates of QTL variance was similar. It was concluded that the method proposed provided a rapid means of calculating the IBD matrix with only a small loss in precision, making it an attractive alternative to the use of stochastic MCMC methods. Furthermore, developments in marker technology providing denser maps would enhance the relative advantage of this method.

  9. A simple and rapid method for calculating identity-by-descent matrices using multiple markers

    PubMed Central

    Pong-Wong, Ricardo; George, Andrew Winston; Woolliams, John Arthur; Haley, Chris Simon

    2001-01-01

    A fast, partly recursive deterministic method for calculating Identity-by-Descent (IBD) probabilities was developed with the objective of using IBD in Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping. The method combined a recursive method for a single marker locus with a method to estimate IBD between sibs using multiple markers. Simulated data was used to compare the deterministic method developed in the present paper with a stochastic method (LOKI) for precision in estimating IBD probabilities and performance in the task of QTL detection with the variance component approach. This comparison was made in a variety of situations by varying family size and degree of polymorphism among marker loci. The following were observed for the deterministic method relative to MCMC: (i) it was an order of magnitude faster; (ii) its estimates of IBD probabilities were found to agree closely, even though it does not extract information when haplotypes are not known with certainty; (iii) the shape of the profile for the QTL test statistic as a function of location was similar, although the magnitude of the test statistic was slightly smaller; and (iv) the estimates of QTL variance was similar. It was concluded that the method proposed provided a rapid means of calculating the IBD matrix with only a small loss in precision, making it an attractive alternative to the use of stochastic MCMC methods. Furthermore, developments in marker technology providing denser maps would enhance the relative advantage of this method. PMID:11712969

  10. A Microfluidic Channel Method for Rapid Drug-Susceptibility Testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshimi; Sakakihara, Shouichi; Grushnikov, Andrey; Kikuchi, Kazuma; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Akihito; Iino, Ryota; Yagi, Yasushi; Nishino, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    The recent global increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and lack of development of new therapeutic agents emphasize the importance of selecting appropriate antimicrobials for the treatment of infections. However, to date, the development of completely accelerated drug susceptibility testing methods has not been achieved despite the availability of a rapid identification method. We proposed an innovative rapid method for drug susceptibility testing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa that provides results within 3 h. The drug susceptibility testing microfluidic (DSTM) device was prepared using soft lithography. It consisted of five sets of four microfluidic channels sharing one inlet slot, and the four channels are gathered in a small area, permitting simultaneous microscopic observation. Antimicrobials were pre-introduced into each channel and dried before use. Bacterial suspensions in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth were introduced from the inlet slot and incubated for 3 h. Susceptibilities were microscopically evaluated on the basis of differences in cell numbers and shapes between drug-treated and control cells, using dedicated software. The results of 101 clinically isolated strains of P. aeruginosa obtained using the DSTM method strongly correlated with results obtained using the ordinary microbroth dilution method. Ciprofloxacin, meropenem, ceftazidime, and piperacillin caused elongation in susceptible cells, while meropenem also induced spheroplast and bulge formation. Morphological observation could alternatively be used to determine the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to these drugs, although amikacin had little effect on cell shape. The rapid determination of bacterial drug susceptibility using the DSTM method could also be applicable to other pathogenic species, and it could easily be introduced into clinical laboratories without the need for expensive instrumentation.

  11. Alternate rapid maxillary expansion-constriction and tooth-borne symphyseal distraction osteogenesis : A case report demonstrating treatment of a patient with severe crowding.

    PubMed

    Gökalp, Hatice

    2016-05-01

    Surgically assisted rapid mandibular expansion is a contemporary treatment alternative to enable genuine skeletal mandibular widening. Mandibular widening via a tooth-borne distractor is a practical and noninvasive clinical approach. Recently, to expand and protract the maxilla, the alternate rapid maxillary expansion-and-constriction procedure was suggested. In this case report, we describe a female patient (12 years 7 months old) having severe maxillary and mandibular crowding who underwent repeated alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction in combination with tooth-borne symphyseal distraction osteogenesis.

  12. The Budget Scoring Alternatives Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-30

    programs, the Department of Defense (DoD) must consider alternative forms of financing, including leases and public - private partnerships (PPPs), to...Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜW=`ob^qfkd=pvkbodv=clo=fkclojba=`e^kdb====- 4 - = = leases, share-in-savings contracts, and public private partnerships (PPPs), have...to meet the requirements. Alternative Financing Agreements: Public - private Partnerships In August 2003, the Government Accountability Office (GAO

  13. Polysaccharide films built by simultaneous or alternate spray: a rapid way to engineer biomaterial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cado, G; Kerdjoudj, H; Chassepot, A; Lefort, M; Benmlih, K; Hemmerlé, J; Voegel, J-C; Jierry, L; Schaaf, P; Frère, Y; Boulmedais, F

    2012-06-05

    We investigated polysaccharide films obtained by simultaneous and alternate spraying of a chitosan (CHI) solution as polycation and hyaluronic acid (HA), alginate (ALG), and chondroitin sulfate (CS) solutions as polyanions. For simultaneous spraying, the film thickness increases linearly with the cumulative spraying time and passes through a maximum for polyanion/CHI molar charge ratios lying between 0.6 and 1.2. The size of polyanion/CHI complexes formed in solution was compared with the simultaneously sprayed film growth rate as a function of the polyanion/CHI molar charge ratio. A good correlation was found. This suggests the importance of polyanion/polycation complexation in the simultaneous spraying process. Depending on the system, the film topography is either liquid-like or granular. Film biocompatibility was evaluated using human gingival fibroblasts. A small or no difference is observed in cell viability and adhesion between the two deposition processes. The CHI/HA system appears to be the best for cell adhesion inducing the clustering of CD44, a cell surface HA receptor, at the membrane of cells. Simultaneous or alternate spraying of CHI/HA appears thus to be a convenient and fast procedure for biomaterial surface modifications.

  14. An Alternative Method for Identifying Interplanetary Magnetic Cloud Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda-Gonzalez, A.; Mendes, O.; Calzadilla, A.; Domingues, M. O.; Prestes, A.; Klausner, V.

    2017-03-01

    Spatio-temporal entropy (STE) analysis is used as an alternative mathematical tool to identify possible magnetic cloud (MC) candidates. We analyze Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) data using a time interval of only 10 days. We select a convenient data interval of 2500 records moving forward by 200 record steps until the end of the time series. For every data segment, the STE is calculated at each step. During an MC event, the STE reaches values close to zero. This extremely low value of STE is due to MC structure features. However, not all of the magnetic components in MCs have STE values close to zero at the same time. For this reason, we create a standardization index (the so-called Interplanetary Entropy, IE, index). This index is a worthwhile effort to develop new tools to help diagnose ICME structures. The IE was calculated using a time window of one year (1999), and it has a success rate of 70% over other identifiers of MCs. The unsuccessful cases (30%) are caused by small and weak MCs. The results show that the IE methodology identified 9 of 13 MCs, and emitted nine false alarm cases. In 1999, a total of 788 windows of 2500 values existed, meaning that the percentage of false alarms was 1.14%, which can be considered a good result. In addition, four time windows, each of 10 days, are studied, where the IE method was effective in finding MC candidates. As a novel result, two new MCs are identified in these time windows.

  15. Evaluation of alternative rapid thin layer chromatography systems for quality control of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Mang'era, Kennedy; Wong, Derek; Douglas, David; Franz, Kellie; Biru, Taddese

    2014-04-01

    Whatman 3MM™ and Tec-Control™ systems were evaluated as ITLC-SG alternatives for 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals. They compare well in accuracy and reproducibility, and are faster and more convenient than ITLC-SG. Tec-Control™ radiochemical purity values for 99mTc-sestamibi were more conservative than ITLC-SG. Full solvent migration was not reproduced for 99mTc-tetrofosmin in Tec-Control™, and for this Whatman 3MM™ is preferred. Developing times were 10-15 min, 7-9 min and ~1min for ITLC-SG, Whatman 3MM™ and Tec-Control™, respectively. Overall, Tec-Control™ strips are preferred due to speed and ease of use.

  16. Rapid Methods for the Laboratory Identification of Pathogenic Microorganisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    reveree aide If neceeeary and Identify by block number) Lectins: Rapid Identification, Bacillus anthracisjCryptococcus " neoformans. Neisseria...field-type kit for the rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis. We have shown that certain lectins will selectively interact with B. anthracis...but not with other species of the Bacillus genus. This finding provides the basis for devising more sensitive assays, such as an enzyme-linked

  17. Milestones: a rapid assessment method for the Clinical Competency Committee

    PubMed Central

    Nabors, Christopher; Forman, Leanne; Peterson, Stephen J.; Gennarelli, Melissa; Aronow, Wilbert S.; DeLorenzo, Lawrence; Chandy, Dipak; Ahn, Chul; Sule, Sachin; Stallings, Gary W.; Khera, Sahil; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Frishman, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Educational milestones are now used to assess the developmental progress of all U.S. graduate medical residents during training. Twice annually, each program’s Clinical Competency Committee (CCC) makes these determinations and reports its findings to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The ideal way to conduct the CCC is not known. After finding that deliberations reliant upon the new milestones were time intensive, our internal medicine residency program tested an approach designed to produce rapid but accurate assessments. Material and methods For this study, we modified our usual CCC process to include pre-meeting faculty ratings of resident milestones progress with in-meeting reconciliation of their ratings. Data were considered largely via standard report and presented in a pre-arranged pattern. Participants were surveyed regarding their perceptions of data management strategies and use of milestones. Reliability of competence assessments was estimated by comparing pre-/post-intervention class rank lists produced by individual committee members with a master class rank list produced by the collective CCC after full deliberation. Results Use of the study CCC approach reduced committee deliberation time from 25 min to 9 min per resident (p < 0.001). Committee members believed milestones improved their ability to identify and assess expected elements of competency development (p = 0.026). Individual committee member assessments of trainee progress agreed well with collective CCC assessments. Conclusions Modification of the clinical competency process to include pre-meeting competence ratings with in-meeting reconciliation of these ratings led to shorter deliberation times, improved evaluator satisfaction and resulted in reliable milestone assessments. PMID:28144272

  18. Rapid Methods of Staining Bacterial Spores at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Lechtman, M. D.; Bartholomew, J. W.; Phillips, A.; Russo, M.

    1965-01-01

    Lechtman, M. D. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles), J. W. Bartholomew, A. Phillips, and M. Russo. Rapid methods of staining bacterial spores at room temperature. J. Bacteriol. 89:848–854. 1965.—Spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger were stained in 2 min at room temperature, after suitable pretreatment, with a dye reagent composed of 2% crystal violet in 1% phenol and 26% ethanol. Pretreatments included heat fixation to 260 C, mechanical rupture, and hydrolysis at room temperature in 44 n H3PO4 for 5 min, 33.4 n H3PO4 for 10 min, 12 n HCl for 5 sec, 6 n HCl for 2 min, 12 n HNO3 for 5 sec, and 6 n HNO3 for 60 sec. Acid hydrolysis at 60 C enabled the lowering of both acid concentration and time: 33.4 n H3PO4 for 15 sec, 25.9 n H3PO4 for 60 sec, 2 n HCl for 30 sec, 1 n HCl for 30 sec, 2 n HNO3 for 15 sec, and 1 n HNO3 for 30 sec. After acid treatment, 1 n NaOH was used as a neutralization agent. The cytological manifestations of these pretreatments, examined in an electron microscope after replication, showed definite degradation of spore coats, which probably explains the increase in dye permeability. The pretreatments were evaluated for use in a differential staining procedure for spores and vegetative cells. They were found to be too drastic in that they resulted in replacement of the primary dye by the 0.25% safranine counter stain in both vegetative cells and endospores. Less drastic pretreatments, such as 6 n HNO3 for 10 sec at room temperature, gave good differential stains, but failed to stain some free spores. The staining techniques above were evaluated with six species of Bacillus and were found to apply to all. Images PMID:14273671

  19. A rapid method for breath analysis in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Kramer, R; Sauer-Heilborn, A; Welte, T; Guzman, C A; Höfle, M G; Abraham, W-R

    2015-04-01

    For easy handling and speed of lung diseases diagnostics, approaches based on volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including those emitted by pathogenic microorganisms, are considered but currently require considerable sampling efforts. We tested whether easy-to-handle and fast detection of lung infections is possible using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of 100 ml of exhaled breath. An analytical procedure for the detection of VOCs from the headspace of epithelial lung cells infected with four human pathogens was developed. The feasibility of this method was tested in a cystic fibrosis (CF) outpatient clinic in vivo. Exhaled breath was extracted by SPME and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The compositions of VOCs released in the infection model were characteristic for all individual pathogens tested. Exhaled breath of CF patients allowed clear distinction of CF patients and controls by their VOC compositions using multivariate analyses. Interestingly, the major specific VOCs detected in the exhaled breath of infected CF patients in vivo differed from those monitored during bacterial in vitro growth. SPME extraction of VOCs from 100 ml of human breath allowed the distinction between CF patients and healthy probands. Our results highlight the importance of assessing the entire pattern of VOCs instead of selected biomarkers for diagnostic purposes, as well as the need to use clinical samples to identify reliable biomarkers. This study provides the proof-of-concept for the approach using the composition of exhaled VOCs in human breath for the rapid identification of infectious agents in patients with lower respiratory tract infections.

  20. A method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    SciTech Connect

    Timberlake, J.R.

    1993-12-31

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating currentThe center tap of the tmsformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the ftwsformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking.

  1. Method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, John R.

    1996-01-01

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current source to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating current. The center tap of the transformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the transformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking.

  2. Method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, J.R.

    1996-04-30

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current source to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating current. The center tap of the transformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the transformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking. 6 figs.

  3. A direct and rapid leaf water extraction method for isotopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Peters, L I; Yakir, D

    2008-09-01

    Isotopic measurements of leaf water have provided insights into a range of ecophysiological and biogeochemical processes, but require an extraction step which often constitutes the major analytical bottleneck in large-scale studies. Current standard procedures for leaf water analysis are based on cryogenic vacuum or azeotrophic distillation, and are laborious, require sophisticated distillation lines and the use of toxic materials. We report a rapid technique based on centrifugation/filtration of leaf samples pulverised in their original sampling tubes, using a specifically adapted, simple apparatus. The leaf water extracts produced are suitable for isotopic analysis via pyrolysis gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (PYR/GC/IRMS). The new method was validated against cryogenic vacuum distillation and showed an overall accuracy of +/-0.5 per thousand (nine grouped comparisons, n = 110) over a range of 21 per thousand. Effects due to the presence of soluble carbohydrates were near the detection limits for most samples analysed, and these effects could be corrected for (the extracted soluble organics could also be used for isotopic analysis). The extraction time for a routine eight-sample subset was reduced from 4 h (cryogenic distillation) to 45 min, limited only by the size of the centrifuge(s) used. This method provides a rapid, low-cost and reliable alternative to conventional vacuum and other distillation methods that can alleviate current restrictions on ecosystem- and global-scale studies that require high-throughput leaf water isotopic analysis. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A new rapid method for rockfall energies and distances estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomini, Anna; Ferrari, Federica; Thoeni, Klaus; Lambert, Cedric

    2016-04-01

    and distances at the base to block and slope features. The validation of the proposed approach was conducted by comparing predictions to experimental data collected in the field and gathered from the scientific literature. The method can be used for both natural and constructed slopes and easily extended to more complicated and articulated slope geometries. The study shows its great potential for a quick qualitative hazard assessment providing indication about impact energy and horizontal distance of the first impact at the base of a rock cliff. Nevertheless, its application cannot substitute a more detailed quantitative analysis required for site-specific design of mitigation measures. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP). References Dorren, L.K.A. (2003) A review of rockfall mechanics and modelling approaches, Progress in Physical Geography 27(1), 69-87. Agliardi, F., Crosta, G.B., Frattini, P. (2009) Integrating rockfall risk assessment and countermeasure design by 3D modelling techniques. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 9(4), 1059-1073. Ferrari, F., Thoeni, K., Giacomini, A., Lambert, C. (2016) A rapid approach to estimate the rockfall energies and distances at the base of rock cliffs. Georisk, DOI: 10.1080/17499518.2016.1139729.

  5. Dry rehydratable film method for rapid enumeration of coliforms in foods (3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate): collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Kinneberg, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2002-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for coliforms in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate method, was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for nondairy foods and the American Public Health Association's Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) method for dairy foods. Six food types, vanilla ice cream, cheddar cheese, fresh refrigerated uncooked pasta, wheat flour, prepared frozen macaroni and cheese, and frozen hash browns, were analyzed for coliforms by 11 collaborating laboratories. For each food product tested, the collaborators received 8 blind samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count method at 14 and 24 h were not significantly different from those of the standard methods.

  6. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Veitzer, Seth A. Kundrapu, Madhusudhan Stoltz, Peter H. Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-15

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H{sup −} source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H{sup −} ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two

  7. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H- source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H- ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD models

  8. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources.

    PubMed

    Veitzer, Seth A; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H; Beckwith, Kristian R C

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H(-) source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H(-) ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD

  9. Alternatives in Medical Education: Non-Animal Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Peggy, Ed.

    The technology explosion in medical education has led to the use of computer models, videotapes, interactive videos, and state-of-the-art simulators in medical training. This booklet describes alternatives to using animals in medical education. Although it is mainly intended to describe products applicable to medical school courses, high-quality,…

  10. APols-aided protein precipitation: a rapid method for concentrating proteins for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhibin; Hawley, Brett; Seebun, Deeptee; Figeys, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Amphipols (APols) are a newly designed and milder class of detergent. They have been used primarily in protein structure analysis for membrane protein trapping and stabilization. We have recently demonstrated that APols can be used as an alternative detergent for proteome extraction and digestion, to achieve a "One-stop" single-tube workflow for proteomics. In this workflow, APols are removed by precipitation after protein digestion without depleting the digested peptides. Here, we took further advantage of this precipitation characteristic of APols to concentrate proteins from diluted samples. In contrast with tryptic peptides, a decrease in pH leads to the unbiased co-precipitation of APols with proteins, including globular hydrophilic proteins. We demonstrated that this precipitation is a combined effect of acid precipitation and the APols' protein interactions. Also, we have been able to demonstrate that APols-aided protein precipitation works well on diluted samples, such as secretome sample, and provides a rapid method for protein concentration.

  11. RAPID ON-SITE METHODS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The analysis of potentially hazardous air, water and soil samples collected and shipped to service laboratories off-site is time consuming and expensive. This Chapter addresses the practical alternative of performing the requisite analytical services on-site. The most significant...

  12. RAPID ON-SITE METHODS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The analysis of potentially hazardous air, water and soil samples collected and shipped to service laboratories off-site is time consuming and expensive. This Chapter addresses the practical alternative of performing the requisite analytical services on-site. The most significant...

  13. [Mycrob-1000: an alternative for the rapid determination of urine culture in the primary health level].

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Rolando Contreras; Ruiz, Fernando Travieso; Tamayo, Angela Zayas; Carmona, Gloria Roura; Varela, Estrella Alvarez; Ochoa, Gilberto Tillán; Frómeta, Nardo Ramírez

    2004-01-01

    The use of equipment Mycrob-1000 in detecting urinary infections in 4 hours in a primary health care center is evaluated. Two hundred fifty eight urine samples obtained from spontaneous miction were processed; the reference method was counting of colony-forming units per urine millimeter inoculated in Petri plaque in CLED medium. The coincidence rate between both methods was 92,31, with sensitivity and specificity rates of 79,00% and 96,95% respectively. The level of sensitivity was affected by factors not directly dependent on the equipment. High values of specificity and of coincidence achieved by this equipment in relation to the reference method facilitates its use in urine culture, making possible to differentiate negative urine samples in 4 or 5 hours and to focus work and resources on positive samples.

  14. Rapid Estimation of TPH Reduction in Oil-Contaminated Soils Using the MED Method

    SciTech Connect

    Edenborn, H.M.; Zenone, V.A.

    2007-09-01

    Oil-contaminated soil and sludge generated during federal well plugging activities in northwestern Pennsylvania are currently remediated on small landfarm sites in lieu of more expensive landfill disposal. Bioremediation success at these sites in the past has been gauged by the decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations to less than 10,000 mg/kg measured using EPA Method 418.1. We tested the “molarity of ethanol droplet” (MED) water repellency test as a rapid indicator of TPH concentration in soil at one landfarm near Bradford, PA. MED was estimated by determining the minimum ethanol concentration (0 – 6 M) required to penetrate air-dried and sieved soil samples within 10 sec. TPH in soil was analyzed by rapid fluorometric analysis of methanol soil extracts, which correlated well with EPA Method 1664. Uncontaminated landfarm site soil amended with increasing concentrations of waste oil sludge showed a high correlation between MED and TPH. MED values exceeded the upper limit of 6 M as TPH estimates exceed ca. 25,000 mg/kg. MED and TPH at the land farm were sampled monthly during summer months over two years in a grid pattern that allowed spatial comparisons of site remediation effectiveness. MED and TPH decreased at a constant rate over time and remained highly correlated. Inexpensive alternatives to reagent-grade ethanol gave comparable results. The simple MED approach served as an inexpensive alternative to the routine laboratory analysis of TPH during the monitoring of oily waste bioremediation at this landfarm site.

  15. Passive acoustic methods for fine-scale tracking of harbour porpoises in tidal rapids.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, Jamie; Gordon, Jonathan; Gillespie, Douglas; Malinka, Chloë; Northridge, Simon

    2017-02-01

    The growing interest in generating electrical power from tidal currents using tidal turbine generators raises a number of environmental concerns, including the risk that marine mammals might be injured or killed through collision with rotating turbine blades. To understand this risk, information on how marine mammals use tidal rapid habitats and in particular, their underwater movements and dive behaviour is required. Porpoises, which are the most abundant small cetacean at most European tidal sites, are difficult animals to tag, and the limited size of tidal habitats means that any telemetered animal would be likely to spend only a small proportion of time within them. Here, an alternative approach is explored, whereby passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is used to obtain fine scale geo-referenced tracks of harbour porpoises in tidal rapid areas. Large aperture hydrophone arrays are required to obtain accurate locations of animals from PAM data and automated algorithms are necessary to process the large quantities of acoustic data collected on such systems during a typical survey. Methods to automate localisation, including a method to match porpoise detections on different hydrophones and separate different vocalising animals, and an assessment of the localisation accuracy of the large aperture hydrophone array are presented.

  16. A rapid method to assess the stage differentiation in Leishmania donovani by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Dayakar, Alti; Chandrasekaran, Sambamurthy; Prajapati, Vijay Kumar; Veronica, Jalaja; Sundar, Shyam; Maurya, Radheshyam

    2012-12-01

    In this study we describe a rapid and novel method to assess the morphological stage differentiation in Leishmania donovani by flow cytometry (FCM). FCM is fast, accurate, and inexpensive to study the stage differentiation of promastigote into L. donovani axenic amastigote (LdAxAm). The non-flourimetric FCM method is easy to perform; with requirement of little expertise, and provides unambiguous results. It is an advanced tool, requires minimal time, and no fluorescent dyes. The gradual increase of differentiation and reduction in size from promastigote stage to LdAxAm leads to peak shifting from right to left on histogram. Earlier reports assessed the stage differentiation of Leishmania by studying the expression of stage specific markers like surface or secretory proteins and genes. For validation, conventional methods like microscopic analysis are used. These methods are quite expensive, laborious and time consuming. Non-flourimetric morphological parameters were further validated by conventional methods like optical and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, differential expression of stage specific genes (e.g. upregulation of amastin and ATP binding cassette A3 (ABCA3) transporter gene transcripts) and differential activity of enzymes (down regulation of secretory acid phosphatase (SAcP) and 3'-nucleotidase enzyme activity) in LdAxAm suggest stage differentiation. Therefore, we believe that our method is an alternative tool for high reproducibility and reliability in assessment of stage differentiation.

  17. Evaluation of petrifilm series 2000 as a possible rapid method to count coliforms in foods.

    PubMed

    Priego, R; Medina, L M; Jordano, R

    2000-08-01

    This research note is a preliminary comparison between the Petrifilm 2000 method and a widely used traditional enumeration method (on violet red bile agar); six batches of different foods (egg, frozen green beans, fresh sausage, a bakery product, raw minced meat, and raw milk) were studied. The reliability of the presumptive counts taken at 10, 12, and 14 h of incubation using this method was also verified by comparing the counts with the total confirmed counts at 24 h. In all the batches studied, results obtained with Petrifilm 2000 presented a close correlation to those obtained using violet red bile agar (r = 0.860) and greater sensitivity (93.33% of the samples displayed higher counts on Petrifilm 2000), showing that this method is a reliable and efficient alternative. The count taken at 10-h incubation is of clear interest as an early indicator of results in microbiological food control, since it accounted for 90% of the final count in all the batches analyzed. Counts taken at 12 and 14 h bore a greater similarity to those taken at 24 h. The Petrifilm 2000 method provides results in less than 12 h of incubation, making it a possible rapid method that adapts perfectly to hazard analysis critical control point system by enabling the microbiological quality control of the processing.

  18. A rapid method to improve protein detection by indirect ELISA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) is a rapid, high-throughput, quantitative immunoassay for the selective detection of target antigens. The general principle behind an ELISA is antibody mediated capture and detection of an antigen with a measureable substrate. Numerous incarnations of th...

  19. Evaluation of growth based rapid microbiological methods for sterility testing of vaccines and other biological products.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Seema; Kaur, Simleen; David, Selwyn A Wilson; Kenney, James L; McCormick, William M; Gupta, Rajesh K

    2011-10-19

    Most biological products, including vaccines, administered by the parenteral route are required to be tested for sterility at the final container and also at various stages during manufacture. The sterility testing method described in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 610.12) and the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP, Chapter <71>) is based on the observation of turbidity in liquid culture media due to growth of potential contaminants. We evaluated rapid microbiological methods (RMM) based on detection of growth 1) by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence technology (Rapid Milliflex(®) Detection System [RMDS]), and 2) by CO(2) monitoring technologies (BacT/Alert and the BACTEC systems), as alternate sterility methods. Microorganisms representing Gram negative, Gram positive, aerobic, anaerobic, spore forming, slow growing bacteria, yeast, and fungi were prepared in aliquots of Fluid A or a biological matrix (including inactivated influenza vaccines) to contain approximately 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 colony forming units (CFU) in an inoculum of 10 ml. These preparations were inoculated to the specific media required for the various methods: 1) fluid thioglycollate medium (FTM) and tryptic soy broth (TSB) of the compendial sterility method (both membrane filtration and direct inoculation); 2) tryptic soy agar (TSA), Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and Schaedler blood agar (SBA) of the RMDS; 3) iAST and iNST media of the BacT/Alert system and 4) Standard 10 Aerobic/F and Standard Anaerobic/F media of the BACTEC system. RMDS was significantly more sensitive in detecting various microorganisms at 0.1CFU than the compendial methods (p<0.05), whereas the compendial membrane filtration method was significantly more sensitive than the BACTEC and BacT/Alert methods (p<0.05). RMDS detected all microorganisms significantly faster than the compendial method (p<0.05). BacT/Alert and BACTEC methods detected most microorganisms significantly faster than the compendial method

  20. Alternative Methods for Field Corrections in Helical Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, M. L.; Krave, S. T.; Tompkins, J. C.; Yonehara, K.; Flanagan, G.; Kahn, S. A.; Melconian, K.

    2015-05-01

    Helical cooling channels have been proposed for highly efficient 6D muon cooling. Helical solenoids produce solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical gradient field components. Previous studies explored the geometric tunability limits on these main field components. In this paper we present two alternative correction schemes, tilting the solenoids and the addition of helical lines, to reduce the required strength of the anti-solenoid and add an additional tuning knob.

  1. Rapid detection of malaria parasite by toluidine blue method: a new staining method.

    PubMed

    Annam, Vamseedhar; Mohan, Chakkirala Nalini; Mrinalini, Vazhayil Ramunny

    2013-10-01

    Malaria is a commonest mosquito-borne infectious disease worldwide. Early identification and management of malaria prevents complications and mortality. Identification of the malaria mainly relies on detection of the parasite on blood smears. The present study was conducted to compare Toluidine blue method with Leishman method for detection of malaria parasite and also to study the efficacy and advantages of using Toluidine blue method. In 540 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of malaria, peripheral smears were prepared. Smears were processed for both conventional Leishman method and Toluidine blue method simultaneously. The significance of Toluidine blue method over Leishman method was analyzed using Chi-square (χ(2)) test. Out of 540 smears, 28.3% (153/540) were positive for malaria parasite on conventional Leishman method, while the smear positivity was more by Toluidine blue method to 33.3% (180/540) [P value < 0.01]. The remaining 66.67% (360/540) were negative by both Toluidine blue method and conventional Leishman method. The Toluidine blue method is simple, rapid, inexpensive, and easily available. The implementation of Toluidine blue method clearly improves microscopic detection of malaria parasite and can be a useful contribution to routine hematology even at rural health sectors.

  2. Consensus methods: review of original methods and their main alternatives used in public health

    PubMed Central

    Bourrée, Fanny; Michel, Philippe; Salmi, Louis Rachid

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Consensus-based studies are increasingly used as decision-making methods, for they have lower production cost than other methods (observation, experimentation, modelling) and provide results more rapidly. The objective of this paper is to describe the principles and methods of the four main methods, Delphi, nominal group, consensus development conference and RAND/UCLA, their use as it appears in peer-reviewed publications and validation studies published in the healthcare literature. Methods A bibliographic search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE, Banque de Données Santé Publique (BDSP), The Cochrane Library, Pascal and Francis. Keywords, headings and qualifiers corresponding to a list of terms and expressions related to the consensus methods were searched in the thesauri, and used in the literature search. A search with the same terms and expressions was performed on Internet using the website Google Scholar. Results All methods, precisely described in the literature, are based on common basic principles such as definition of subject, selection of experts, and direct or remote interaction processes. They sometimes use quantitative assessment for ranking items. Numerous variants of these methods have been described. Few validation studies have been implemented. Not implementing these basic principles and failing to describe the methods used to reach the consensus were both frequent reasons contributing to raise suspicion regarding the validity of consensus methods. Conclusion When it is applied to a new domain with important consequences in terms of decision making, a consensus method should be first validated. PMID:19013039

  3. Rapid Radiochemical Method for Radium-226 in Building ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Radium-226 in building materials Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of radium-226 in concrete or brick building materials Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  4. Rapid Radiochemical Method for Total Radiostrontium (Sr-90) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Beta counting Method Developed for: Strontium-89 and strontium-90 in building materials Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of strontium-89 and strontium-90 in concrete or brick building materials Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  5. Rapid Radiochemical Method for Americium-241 in Building ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Americium-241 in building materials Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of americium-241 in concrete or brick building materials. Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  6. Statistical Methods for Rapid Aerothermal Analysis and Design Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Carolyn; DePriest, Douglas; Thompson, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The cost and safety goals for NASA's next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) will require that rapid high-fidelity aerothermodynamic design tools be used early in the design cycle. To meet these requirements, it is desirable to establish statistical models that quantify and improve the accuracy, extend the applicability, and enable combined analyses using existing prediction tools. The research work was focused on establishing the suitable mathematical/statistical models for these purposes. It is anticipated that the resulting models can be incorporated into a software tool to provide rapid, variable-fidelity, aerothermal environments to predict heating along an arbitrary trajectory. This work will support development of an integrated design tool to perform automated thermal protection system (TPS) sizing and material selection.

  7. Computer Image Analysis Method for Rapid Quantitation of Macrophage Phagocytosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    number of micro- spheres per cell. *Rapid Macrophage Phagocytosis Ouantitatlon 405 analysis system is a Kontron-Zeiss SEM-IPS ( Carl Zeiss, digitizing...re- croscope (Photomicroscope 1I, Carl Zeiss, Inc., Thorn- suiting image was scaled by making grey values from 0 wood, NY) equipped with phase...fidelity of the discrim- lease 4.4 ( Carl Zeiss, Inc., Thornwood, NY) was used to ination was evaluated by overlaying contour maps of the analyze the

  8. Simple and Rapid Method for Detecting Biofilm Forming Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Prakash, Jyotsana; Koul, Shikha; Ray, Subhasree

    2017-03-01

    Biofilm forming bacteria play a vital role in causing infectious diseases and for enhancing the efficiency of the bioremediation process through immobilization. Different media and conditions have been reported for detecting biofilm forming bacteria, however, they are not quite rapid. Here, we propose the use of a simple medium which can be used for detecting biofilm former, and also provide a mechanism to regulate the expression of biofilm formation process.

  9. Rapid Methods for the Laboratory Identification of Pathogenic Microorganisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Extracts Prepared in our Lab Mimosa seed 4+ 0 + 0 + Mango seed 0 0 1+ 3+ + Sunflower seed 2+ 0 0 + 0 Avocado seed 1+ 3+ 3+ 1+ NT Persimmon seed 4...M. indica extract was prepared from the dried seeds of commercially purchased mangoes. The seeds were pulverized in a CRC micromill and extracted ...panel of 14 lectins and extracts demonstrating lectin-like activity led to the development of a rapid agglu- tination slide test for the

  10. A sensitive and rapid method for identification and characterization of low abundance receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Sunahara, R.K.; Murphy, B.J.; Tuana, B.S. )

    1990-02-15

    An improved method for detection of low intensity radioligand-receptor complexes resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is described. (3H)Azidopine-labeled 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) receptor from skeletal muscle resolved by SDS-PAGE was transferred to nitrocellulose and cut into strips and individual slices were analyzed for radioincorporation by liquid scintillation counting. (3H)Azidopine-labeled DHP binding subunit migrated as a single entity with a mass of 170 kDa and was confirmed using conventional methods. Results were obtained within 4 h after resolution by SDS-PAGE compared to 3-40 days using conventional methods. In addition, detection of extremely low signals (less than 50 cpm/lane), otherwise overwhelmed by background noise using conventional methods, was possible due to removal of free ligand during electro-transfer to nitrocellulose. This technique offers a rapid sensitive, cost effective alternative to fluorography or other conventional gel slice analysis methods for detecting low intensity radiolabeled complexes resolved by SDS-PAGE.

  11. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... scientific data and evidence as may be necessary to establish the suitability of such materials or methods of... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of...

  12. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scientific data and evidence as may be necessary to establish the suitability of such materials or methods of... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of...

  13. [Principle of LAMP method--a simple and rapid gene amplification method].

    PubMed

    Ushikubo, Hiroshi

    2004-06-01

    So far nucleic acid test (NAT) has been employed in various fields, including infectious disease diagnoses. However, due to its complicated procedures and relatively high cost, it has not been widely utilized in many actual diagnostic applications. We have therefore developed a simple and rapid gene amplification technology, Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) method, which has shown prominent results of surpassing the performance of the conventional gene amplification methods. LAMP method acquires three main features: (1) all reaction can be carried out under isothermal conditions; (2) the amplification efficiency is extremely high and tremendous amount of amplification products can be obtained; and (3) the reaction is highly specific. Furthermore, developed from the standard LAMP method, a rapid LAMP method, by adding in the loop primers, can reduce the amplification time from the previous 1 hour to less than 30 minutes. Enormous amount of white precipitate of magnesium pyrophosphate is produced as a by-product of the amplification, therefore, direct visual detection is possible without using any reaction indicators and detection equipments. We believe LAMP technology, with the integration of these features, can rightly apply to clinical genetic testing, food and environmental analysis, as well as NAT in different fields.

  14. Development a rapid and accurate multiplex real time PCR method for the detection Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis.

    PubMed

    Safarkar, Roya; Mehrabadi, Jalil Fallah; Noormohammadi, Zahra; Mirnejad, Reza

    2017-02-26

    Sexually transmitted diseases easily spread among sexually active people and often have no symptoms. Rapid and accurate method for detecting these infections are necessary in early stages. The traditional detection methods of them are difficult and time-consuming. In this study, multiplex real time PCR was optimized for rapid identification of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis in a single tube and was performed with our designed primers. The sensitivity test was carried out to designed primers with diluted genomic DNA. To defined the specificity, non STD bacteria were used as DNA template. This study indicated that the developed multiplex real time PCR can be an effective alternative procedure to the conventional methods for rapid and accurate identification of C Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis. Multiplex real-time PCR Results of them were checked with melting curves. The sensitivity of our designed primer by multiplex real time PCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis were 4.78×10(10) and 8.35×10(10) , respectively, Which the primers did not amplify any product from a non-STD species. Multiplex real time PCR by our new primers and analysis of melting curves were successfully usable for rapid and accurate detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis. This assay instead of traditional culture method, has considerable potential to be rapid, accurate and highly sensitive molecular diagnostic tool for simultaneous and direct detection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Amorphous Ni-B alloy nanoparticle film on Ni foam: rapid alternately dipping deposition for efficient overall water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanhui; Sun, Xuping; Asiri, Abdullah M.; He, Yuquan

    2016-03-01

    It is highly attractive, but still remains challenging, to develop noble metal-free bifunctional electrocatalysts efficient for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media. In this letter, we describe the rapid electroless deposition of amorphous Ni-B nanoparticle film on Ni foam (Ni-B/Ni foam) by alternative dipping of Ni foam into Ni precursor and reducing solutions. This Ni-B/Ni foam acts as an efficient and durable 3D catalytic electrode for water splitting, affording 100 mA cm-2 at 360 mV overpotential for the OER and 20 mA cm-2 at 125 mV overpotential for the HER in 1.0 M KOH, and its two-electrode electrolyzer demands a cell voltage of 1.69 V to afford 15 mA cm-2 water-splitting current. Moreover, the catalyst loading can be easily tuned and this alternately dipping deposition technique works universally for other conductive substrates.

  16. Practical methods for generating alternating magnetic fields for biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Michael G.; Howe, Christina M.; Bono, David C.; Perreault, David J.; Anikeeva, Polina

    2017-08-01

    Alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) cause magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to dissipate heat while leaving surrounding tissue unharmed, a mechanism that serves as the basis for a variety of emerging biomedical technologies. Unfortunately, the challenges and costs of developing experimental setups commonly used to produce AMFs with suitable field amplitudes and frequencies present a barrier to researchers. This paper first presents a simple, cost-effective, and robust alternative for small AMF working volumes that uses soft ferromagnetic cores to focus the flux into a gap. As the experimental length scale increases to accommodate animal models (working volumes of 100s of cm3 or greater), poor thermal conductivity and volumetrically scaled core losses render that strategy ineffective. Comparatively feasible strategies for these larger volumes instead use low loss resonant tank circuits to generate circulating currents of 1 kA or greater in order to produce the comparable field amplitudes. These principles can be extended to the problem of identifying practical routes for scaling AMF setups to humans, an infrequently acknowledged challenge that influences the extent to which many applications of MNPs may ever become clinically relevant.

  17. Rapid immunocytochemistry based on alternating current electric field using squash smear preparation of central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Jun; Tanino, Mishie Ann; Takenami, Tomoko; Endoh, Tomoko; Urushido, Masana; Kato, Yasutaka; Wang, Lei; Kimura, Taichi; Tsuda, Masumi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The role of intraoperative pathological diagnosis for central nervous system (CNS) tumors is crucial for neurosurgery when determining the surgical procedure. Especially, treatment of carmustine (BCNU) wafers requires a conclusive diagnosis of high-grade glioma proven by intraoperative diagnosis. Recently, we demonstrated the usefulness of rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) that facilitates antigen-antibody reaction under alternative current (AC) electric field in the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors; however, a higher proportion of water and lipid in the brain parenchyma sometimes leads to freezing artifacts, resulting in poor quality of frozen sections. On the other hand, squash smear preparation of CNS tumors for cytology does not affect the frozen artifacts, and the importance of smear preparation is now being re-recognized as being better than that of the tissue sections. In this study, we established the rapid immunocytochemistry (R-ICC) protocol for squash smears of CNS tumors using AC electric field that takes only 22 min, and demonstrated its usefulness for semi-quantitative Ki-67/MIB-1 labeling index and CD 20 by R-ICC for intraoperative diagnosis. R-ICC by AC electric field may become a substantial tool for compensating R-IHC and will be applied for broad antibodies in the future.

  18. Dentoskeletal effects of maxillary protraction in cleft patients with repetitive weekly protocol of alternate rapid maxillary expansions and constrictions.

    PubMed

    da Luz Vieira, Gustavo; de Menezes, Luciane Macedo; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli S; Rizzatto, Susana

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the amount of maxillary protraction with face mask in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients submitted to two distinct rapid maxillary expansion (RME) protocols. The sample consisted of 20 individuals (nine boys and 11 girls; mean age of 10.4 +/- 2.62 years) with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate who had a constricted maxilla in the vertical and transverse dimensions. Ten patients underwent 1 week of RME with screw activation of one complete turn per day, followed by 23 weeks of maxillary protraction (group 1). The other 10 patients underwent 7 weeks of alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction, with one complete turn per day, followed by 17 weeks of maxillary protraction (group 2); both groups underwent a total of 6 months of treatment. Cephalometric measurements were taken at different times: pretreatment (T1), soon after RME (T2), and after 6 months of treatment (T3). Each measurement was analyzed with mixed models for repeated measures, and the covariance structure chosen was compound symmetry. The maxilla displaced slightly forward and downward with a counterclockwise rotation; the mandible rotated downward and backward, resulting in an increase in anterior facial height; the sagittal maxillomandibular relationship was improved; the maxillary molars and incisors were protruded and extruded; and the mandibular incisors were retroclined. There was no significant difference between the groups in evaluation time.

  19. Rapid Radiochemical Method for Isotopic Uranium in Building ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238 in concrete and brick samples Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238 in concrete or brick building materials. Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  20. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP) as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Quach, D.T.; Sakoulas, G.; Nizet, V.; Pogliano, J.; Pogliano, K.

    2016-01-01

    Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant (MRSA) clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71) within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS) from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS) S. aureus strains (n = 20) within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice. PMID:26981574

  1. Rapid and simple colorimetric method for the quantification of AI-2 produced from Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Wattanavanitchakorn, Siriluck; Prakitchaiwattana, Cheunjit; Thamyongkit, Patchanita

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Fe(III) ion reduction for the simple and rapid quantification of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) produced from bacteria using Salmonella Typhimurium as a model. Since the molecular structure of AI-2 is somewhat similar to ascorbic acid it was expected that AI-2 would also act as a reducing agent and reduce Fe(III) ions in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline to form the colored [(o-phen)3 Fe(II)]SO4 ferroin complex that could be quantified colorimetrically. In support of this, colony rinses and cell free supernatants from cultures of all tested AI-2 producing strains, but not the AI-2 negative Sinorhizobium meliloti, formed a colored complex with a λmax of 510nm. The OD510 values of these culture supernatants or colony rinses were in broad agreement with the % activity observed in the same samples using the standard Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence assay for AI-2 detection, and with previously reported results. This methodology could potentially be developed as an alternative method for the simple and rapid quantification of AI-2 levels produced in bacterial cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Student Perceptions of Instructional Methods towards Alternative Energy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Clayton W.; Edgar, Don W.; Johnson, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of different methods of instruction has been discussed since the early years of formal education systems. Lecture has been deemed the most common method of presenting information to students (Kindsvatter, Wilen, & Ishler, 1992; Waldron & Moore, 1991) and the demonstration method has been symbolized as the most effective…

  3. An Alternative Method to the Classical Partial Fraction Decomposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherif, Chokri

    2007-01-01

    PreCalculus students can use the Completing the Square Method to solve quadratic equations without the need to memorize the quadratic formula since this method naturally leads them to that formula. Calculus students, when studying integration, use various standard methods to compute integrals depending on the type of function to be integrated.…

  4. A stable, rapidly converging conjugate gradient method for energy minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Watowich, S.J.; Meyer, E.S.; Hagstrom, R.; Josephs, R.

    1989-01-01

    We apply Shanno's conjugate gradient algorithm to the problem of minimizing the potential energy function associated with molecular mechanical calculations. Shanno's algorithm is stable with respect to roundoff errors and inexact line searches and converges rapidly to a minimum. Equally important, this algorithm can improve the rate of convergence to a minimum by a factor of 5 relative to Fletcher-Reeves or Polak-Ribiere minimizers when used within the molecular mechanics package AMBER. Comparable improvements are found for a limited number of simulations when the Polak-Ribiere direction vector is incorporated into the Shanno algorithm. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. [Raman spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition methods for rapid identification of crude soybean oil adulteration].

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Ning; Wu, Yan-Wen; Wang, Yu; Zu, Wen-Chuan; Chen, Shun-Cong

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, a non-destructive, simple and rapid analytical method was proposed based on Raman spectroscopy (Raman) combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) as pattern recognition methods for adulteration of crude soybean oil (CSO). Based on fingerprint characteristics of Raman, the spectra of 28 CSOs, 46 refined edible oils (REOs) and 110 adulterated oil samples were analyzed and used for discrimination model establishment. The preprocessing methods include choosing spectral band of 780-1,800 cm(-1), Y-axis intensity correction, baseline correction and normalization in succession. After those series of spectral pretreatment, PCA was usually employed for extracting characteristic variables of all Raman spectral data and 7 principal components which were the highest contributions of all data were used as var- iables for SVM model. The SVM discrimination model was established by randomly picking 20 CSOs and 95 adulterated oils as calibration set, and 8 CSOs and 35 adulterated oils as validation set. There were 4 kinds of kernel function algorithm (linear, polynomial, RBF, sigmoid) respectively used for establishing SVM models and grid-search for optimization of parameters of all the SVM models. The classification results of 4 models were compared by their discrimination performances and the optimal SVM model was based on linear kernel classification algorithm with 100% accuracy rate of calibration set recognition, a zero misjudgment rate and the lowest detection limit of 2.5%. The above results showed that Raman combined PCA-SVM could discriminate CSO adulteration with refined edible oils. Since Raman spectroscopy is simple, rapid, non-destructive, environment friendly, and suitable for field testing, it will provide an alternative method for edible oil adulteration analysis.

  6. A modified radiographic method for estimating segmental colonic transit time in subjects with rapid gut transit.

    PubMed

    Pai, C G; Kurian, G

    1999-07-01

    In this study on Indian subjects, the single X-ray method was assessed for its reliability in measuring the transit of particulate matter through the colon, and if inaccurate a suitable and simple alternative was to be devised. Radio-opaque markers were serially followed in 20 normal male volunteers. This was done by three 12 hourly radiographs and by stool collection to determine the transit time through the colon and its segments. It was compared with similar parameters calculated from the same data using one radiograph and three combinations of two radiographs each. The mean +/- SD colonic transit time determined by using three X-rays was 18.0 +/- 6.6 h which agreed well with the mean mouth-to-anus transit time of 24.2 +/- 6.8 h (mean +/- SDdiff = -6.2 +/- 2.9). When two of the three X-rays were used in various combinations, the best results were obtained with the method including radiographs at 12 and 36 h. Parameters calculated from a single radiograph done 36 h after the ingestion of makers showed lesser agreement with the results of the three radiograph method. Therefore in subjects with rapid gut transit, the simplified method for estimating the colonic and segmental transit times using a single X-ray is inaccurate. Using two radiographs enhances the accuracy.

  7. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  8. TS-AMIR: a topology string alignment method for intensive rapid protein structure comparison

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In structural biology, similarity analysis of protein structure is a crucial step in studying the relationship between proteins. Despite the considerable number of techniques that have been explored within the past two decades, the development of new alternative methods is still an active research area due to the need for high performance tools. Results In this paper, we present TS-AMIR, a Topology String Alignment Method for Intensive Rapid comparison of protein structures. The proposed method works in two stages: In the first stage, the method generates a topology string based on the geometric details of secondary structure elements, and then, utilizes an n-gram modelling technique over entropy concept to capture similarities in these strings. This initial correspondence map between secondary structure elements is submitted to the second stage in order to obtain the alignment at the residue level. Applying the Kabsch method, a heuristic step-by-step algorithm is adopted in the second stage to align the residues, resulting in an optimal rotation matrix and minimized RMSD. The performance of the method was assessed in different information retrieval tests and the results were compared with those of CE and TM-align, representing two geometrical tools, and YAKUSA, 3D-BLAST and SARST as three representatives of linear encoding schemes. It is shown that the method obtains a high running speed similar to that of the linear encoding schemes. In addition, the method runs about 800 and 7200 times faster than TM-align and CE respectively, while maintaining a competitive accuracy with TM-align and CE. Conclusions The experimental results demonstrate that linear encoding techniques are capable of reaching the same high degree of accuracy as that achieved by geometrical methods, while generally running hundreds of times faster than conventional programs. PMID:22336468

  9. TS-AMIR: a topology string alignment method for intensive rapid protein structure comparison.

    PubMed

    Razmara, Jafar; Deris, Safaai; Parvizpour, Sepideh

    2012-02-15

    In structural biology, similarity analysis of protein structure is a crucial step in studying the relationship between proteins. Despite the considerable number of techniques that have been explored within the past two decades, the development of new alternative methods is still an active research area due to the need for high performance tools. In this paper, we present TS-AMIR, a Topology String Alignment Method for Intensive Rapid comparison of protein structures. The proposed method works in two stages: In the first stage, the method generates a topology string based on the geometric details of secondary structure elements, and then, utilizes an n-gram modelling technique over entropy concept to capture similarities in these strings. This initial correspondence map between secondary structure elements is submitted to the second stage in order to obtain the alignment at the residue level. Applying the Kabsch method, a heuristic step-by-step algorithm is adopted in the second stage to align the residues, resulting in an optimal rotation matrix and minimized RMSD. The performance of the method was assessed in different information retrieval tests and the results were compared with those of CE and TM-align, representing two geometrical tools, and YAKUSA, 3D-BLAST and SARST as three representatives of linear encoding schemes. It is shown that the method obtains a high running speed similar to that of the linear encoding schemes. In addition, the method runs about 800 and 7200 times faster than TM-align and CE respectively, while maintaining a competitive accuracy with TM-align and CE. The experimental results demonstrate that linear encoding techniques are capable of reaching the same high degree of accuracy as that achieved by geometrical methods, while generally running hundreds of times faster than conventional programs.

  10. A rapid method to estimate Westergren sedimentation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexy, Tamas; Pais, Eszter; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2009-09-01

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a nonspecific but simple and inexpensive test that was introduced into medical practice in 1897. Although it is commonly utilized in the diagnosis and follow-up of various clinical conditions, ESR has several limitations including the required 60 min settling time for the test. Herein we introduce a novel use for a commercially available computerized tube viscometer that allows the accurate prediction of human Westergren ESR rates in as little as 4 min. Owing to an initial pressure gradient, blood moves between two vertical tubes through a horizontal small-bore tube and the top of the red blood cell (RBC) column in each vertical tube is monitored continuously with an accuracy of 0.083 mm. Using data from the final minute of a blood viscosity measurement, a sedimentation index (SI) was calculated and correlated with results from the conventional Westergren ESR test. To date, samples from 119 human subjects have been studied and our results indicate a strong correlation between SI and ESR values (R2=0.92). In addition, we found a close association between SI and RBC aggregation indices as determined by an automated RBC aggregometer (R2=0.71). Determining SI on human blood is rapid, requires no special training and has minimal biohazard risk, thus allowing physicians to rapidly screen for individuals with elevated ESR and to monitor therapeutic responses.

  11. A rapid method for hydraulic profiling in unconsolidated formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietrich, P.; Butler, J.J.; Faiss, K.

    2008-01-01

    Information on vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) can often shed much light on how a contaminant will move in the subsurface. The direct-push injection logger has been developed to rapidly obtain such information in shallow unconsolidated settings. This small-diameter tool consists of a short screen located just behind a drive point. The tool is advanced into the subsurface while water is injected through the screen to keep it clear. Upon reaching a depth at which information about K is desired, advancement ceases and the injection rate and pressure are measured on the land surface. The rate and pressure values are used in a ratio that serves as a proxy for K. A vertical profile of this ratio can be transformed into a K profile through regressions with K estimates determined using other techniques. The viability of the approach was assessed at an extensively studied field site in eastern Germany. The assessment demonstrated that this tool can rapidly identify zones that may serve as conduits for or barriers to contaminant movement. ?? 2007 The Author(s).

  12. A rapid method for hydraulic profiling in unconsolidated formations.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Peter; Butler, James J; Faiss, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Information on vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) can often shed much light on how a contaminant will move in the subsurface. The direct-push injection logger has been developed to rapidly obtain such information in shallow unconsolidated settings. This small-diameter tool consists of a short screen located just behind a drive point. The tool is advanced into the subsurface while water is injected through the screen to keep it clear. Upon reaching a depth at which information about K is desired, advancement ceases and the injection rate and pressure are measured on the land surface. The rate and pressure values are used in a ratio that serves as a proxy for K. A vertical profile of this ratio can be transformed into a K profile through regressions with K estimates determined using other techniques. The viability of the approach was assessed at an extensively studied field site in eastern Germany. The assessment demonstrated that this tool can rapidly identify zones that may serve as conduits for or barriers to contaminant movement.

  13. Rapid Method for Sodium Hydroxide Fusion of Asphalt ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief--Addendum to Selected Analytical Methods (SAM) 2012 The method will be used for qualitative analysis of americium-241, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, strontium-90, uranium-234, uranium-235 and uranium-238 in asphalt matrices samples.

  14. Operational Evaluation of the Rapid Viability PCR Method for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Journal Article This research work has a significant impact on the use of the RV-PCR method to analyze post-decontamination environmental samples during an anthrax event. The method has shown 98% agreement with the traditional culture based method. With such a success, this method, upon validation, will significantly increase the laboratory throughput/capacity to analyze a large number of anthrax event samples in a relatively short time.

  15. Alternative Methods of the Thermospheric Atomic Oxygen Density Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett. Adam C.; Omidvar, Kazem; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Atomic oxygen density in the upper thermosphere (approximately 300 km) can be calculated using ground based incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Burnside et al. [1991] was the first to try this method, but Buonsanto et al. provided an extensive treatment of the method in 1997. This paper further examines the method using 46 nights of data collected over six years and the latest information on the oxygen collision frequency. The method is compared with the MSIS-86 atomic oxygen prediction values, which are based upon in situ rocket born and satellite measurements from the 70's to the mid-80's In general, the method supports the MSIS-86 model, but indicates several areas of discrepancy. Furthermore, no direct correlation is found between the geomagnetic conditions and the difference between the method and MSIS-86 predictions.

  16. Alternative Method for the Thermospheric Atomic Oxygen Density Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, A. C.; Omidvar, K.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atomic oxygen density in the upper thermosphere (approximately 300 km) can be calculated using ground based incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Burnside et al. was the first to try this method, but Buonsanto et al. provided an extensive treatment of the method in 1997. This paper further examines the method using 46 nights of data collected over six years and the latest information on the oxygen collision frequency. The method is compared with the MSIS (Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter)-86 atomic oxygen prediction values, which are based upon in situ rocket born and satellite measurements from the 70s to the mid-80s. In general, the method supports the MSIS-86 model, but indicates several areas of discrepancy. Furthermore, no direct correlation is found between the geomagnetic conditions and the difference between the method and MSIS-86 predictions.

  17. Method for rapid screening of pesticide mineralization in soil.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jim; Jensen, Pia Haugaard; Holm, Peter E; Jacobsen, Ole Stig

    2004-05-01

    A method has been developed for the analysis of (14)CO(2) evolution from the mineralization of (14)C-labelled organic compounds in soil samples. The new method is less space demanding and substantially cuts down laborious manual work compared to the traditional incubation bottle method used. Furthermore, the use of scintillation cocktail is largely reduced with the new method. In the new method, (14)CO(2) is trapped in filter paper held in the lid of a 20 ml glass vial by surface tension. The trapping solution used is Ca(OH)(2), which fixates CO(2) in the filter paper and the analysis of trapped (14)CO(2) is done using the Cyclone trade mark Storage Phosphor system. The lids are placed in a 32 well holder and exposed to a phosphor screen prior to scanning in a Cyclone trade mark scanner. The new filter method has been tested and compared to results obtained using the traditional method. The results show good agreement but due to a smaller capacity for CO(2) with the filter method compared to the traditional method, the interval between sampling has to be shorter using the filter method when the CO(2) development is high. The detection limits for the filter method is higher compared to the traditional method. With the filter method, the level of radioactivity has to exceed 300 dpm before detection is possible, while the same limit for the traditional method is around 30 dpm. On the other hand, the gas trapping faster and the efficiency is higher with the filter method.

  18. Prokaryotic cDNA Subtraction: A Method to Rapidly Identify Functional Gene Biomarkers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    FINAL REPORT Prokaryotic cDNA Subtraction: A Method to Rapidly Identify Functional Gene Biomarkers SERDP Project ER-1563 OCTOBER 2008... Method to Rapidly Identify Functional Gene Biomarkers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Studying Biological Treatment with MBT ...................................................................5 2.2 Methods for Obtaining Gene Sequences

  19. Multidimensional Programming Methods for Energy Facility Siting: Alternative Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, B. D.; Haynes, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of multidimensional optimization methods in solving power plant siting problems, which are characterized by several conflicting, noncommensurable objectives is addressed. After a discussion of data requirements and exclusionary site screening methods for bounding the decision space, classes of multiobjective and goal programming models are discussed in the context of finite site selection. Advantages and limitations of these approaches are highlighted and the linkage of multidimensional methods with the subjective, behavioral components of the power plant siting process is emphasized.

  20. Rapid Method for Sodium Hydroxide Fusion of Concrete and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Americium-241, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, strontium-90, uranium-234, uranium-235 and uranium-238 in concrete and brick samples Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of americium-241, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, strontium-90, uranium-234, uranium-235 and uranium-238 in concrete or brick building materials. Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  1. Rapid, simple and efficient method for detection of viral genomes on raspberries.

    PubMed

    Perrin, A; Loutreul, J; Boudaud, N; Bertrand, I; Gantzer, C

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, foodborne viruses, especially human noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), have been increasingly reported as the causes of foodborne disease outbreaks. Soft red fruits, especially raspberries, have a high incidence among the types of food concerned. Due to low infectious doses and low concentrations of enteric viruses in food samples, it is necessary to have an efficient and rapid detection method to implement prevention measures. A standard method for virus detection and quantification in food, including raspberries (XP CEN ISO/TS 15216-1 and -2, 2013) is currently available. This method proposes a consensus detection approach by RT-real time PCR (RT-qPCR) but also a virus extraction procedure based on the elution-concentration principle. In this study, an alternative method of extraction in which RNAs are directly extracted from food matrices (based on direct RNA extraction) has been optimized. First, each step was improved to make it a highly rapid, specific and simple method. Second, the standard virus concentration method was compared with the optimized direct RNA extraction one. Human enteric viral surrogates, Murine Norovirus (MNV) and F-specific RNA bacteriophage GA, were selected according to their adhesion properties and resistance to pH close to our main targets (NoV and HAV). Raspberries were artificially contaminated using two different techniques (immersion and spotting) in order to define a recovery rate and the amounts of virus recovered. Results showed that the direct RNA extraction method revealed significantly higher viral extraction efficiency (46.2%) than the elution-concentration method (20.3%), with similar proportions of inhibitors for both. In the same way with inoculation by spotting, the best recovery rate of GA phage (39.7% against 0.7%) and MNV (42.8% against 0.5%) was observed by direct RNA extraction. For the lowest concentrations of phage and virus in the immersion bath, only the direct RNA extraction method

  2. Methods in Enzymology: “Flexible backbone sampling methods to model and design protein alternative conformations”

    PubMed Central

    Ollikainen, Noah; Smith, Colin A.; Fraser, James S.; Kortemme, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Sampling alternative conformations is key to understanding how proteins work and engineering them for new functions. However, accurately characterizing and modeling protein conformational ensembles remains experimentally and computationally challenging. These challenges must be met before protein conformational heterogeneity can be exploited in protein engineering and design. Here, as a stepping stone, we describe methods to detect alternative conformations in proteins and strategies to model these near-native conformational changes based on backrub-type Monte Carlo moves in Rosetta. We illustrate how Rosetta simulations that apply backrub moves improve modeling of point mutant side chain conformations, native side chain conformational heterogeneity, functional conformational changes, tolerated sequence space, protein interaction specificity, and amino acid co-variation across protein-protein interfaces. We include relevant Rosetta command lines and RosettaScripts to encourage the application of these types of simulations to other systems. Our work highlights that critical scoring and sampling improvements will be necessary to approximate conformational landscapes. Challenges for the future development of these methods include modeling conformational changes that propagate away from designed mutation sites and modulating backbone flexibility to predictively design functionally important conformational heterogeneity. PMID:23422426

  3. Evaluation of alternative methods for estimating reference evapotranspiration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evapotranspiration is an important component in water-balance and irrigation scheduling models. While the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method has become the de facto standard for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo), it is a complex method requiring several weather parameters. Required weather ...

  4. Methods for the evaluation of alternative disaster warning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, C. E.; Anderson, R. J., Jr.; Lanen, W. N.

    1977-01-01

    For each of the methods identified, a theoretical basis is provided and an illustrative example is described. The example includes sufficient realism and detail to enable an analyst to conduct an evaluation of other systems. The methods discussed in the study include equal capability cost analysis, consumers' surplus, and statistical decision theory.

  5. Convergence Analysis and Acceleration of the Schwartz Alternating Method,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-26

    essentially the same as the block Gauss- Seidel method for a modified matrix equation which has the same solution as the original finite element or finite...then it is equivalent to applying the Gauss- Seidel method to the following modified equation: IV, F, E’ Im F, Ax. = .x (5) E’ TV F, L E n rn J kxk j I

  6. The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer

    2011-01-01

    Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...

  7. Rapid method for measuring rotenone in water at piscicidal concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Harman, P.D.; Schultz, D.P.; Allen, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure that is rapid, specific, and sensitive (limit of detection <0.005 mg/liter) was developed for monitoring application and degradation rates of rotenone. For analysis, a water sample is buffered to pH 5 and injected through a Sep Pak(R) C18 disposable cartridge. The cartridge adsorbs and retains the rotenone which then can be eluted quantitatively from the cartridge with a small volume of methanol. This step effectively concentrates the sample and provides sample cleanup. The methanol extract is analyzed directly by HPLC on an MCH 10 reverse-phase column; methanol: water (75:25, volume : volume) is the mobile phase and flow rate is 1.5 ml/minute. The rotenone is detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 295 nm.

  8. Rapid Quantitative Method for Salmonella Detection in Polluted Waters

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chu Ming; Boyle, William C.; Goepfert, J. M.

    1971-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the enumeration of salmonellae in polluted waters using several modifications of existing techniques. Confirmation of salmonellae is achieved within 48 hr. This procedure includes selective enrichment in m-Tetrathionate Broth (22 ± 1 hr), plating on Brilliant Green Sulfa Agar (20 ± 1 hr), and confirmation by flagellar (H) agglutination of the growth in a mannosecontaining medium (6 ± 1 hr). An incubation temperature of 41.5 C was used throughout this procedure. Dilution to extinction techniques (most probable number) were employed to enumerate salmonellae. Large sample volumes were concentrated through the use of membrane filters. This technique proved to be rapid and reliable for the enumeration of salmonellae in water, waste water, and waste-water sludges. PMID:4930275

  9. 76 FR 65382 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AP17 Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for... alternative test method for olefin content in gasoline. This final rule will provide flexibility to the... environmental benefits achieved from our fuels programs. ] DATES: This rule is effective November 21,...

  10. 27 CFR 28.20 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... procedures; and emergency variations from requirements. 28.20 Section 28.20 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements. (a) Alternate methods or...) It will not cause an increase in cost to the Government and will not hinder the...

  11. 27 CFR 28.20 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... procedures; and emergency variations from requirements. 28.20 Section 28.20 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements. (a) Alternate methods or..., comply with the terms of the approved application. (b) Emergency variations from...

  12. 27 CFR 22.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... procedures; and emergency variations from requirements. 22.22 Section 22.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and...; and emergency variations from requirements. (a) Alternate methods or procedures—(1) Application. A... alternate method or procedure, comply with the terms of the approved application. (b) Emergency...

  13. Effectiveness of Alternative Extension Methods through Radio Broadcasting in West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Bokar; Otoo, Miriam; Fulton, Joan; Lowenberg-DeBoer, James

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to quantify which extension methods are most effective in Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of alternative extension methods on adoption of the triple bagging cowpea storage technology in Niger and Burkina Faso. This study was designed as a quasi-experiment with two alternative extension…

  14. 27 CFR 22.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements. 22.22 Section 22.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Administrative Provisions Authorities § 22.22 Alternate methods or procedures...

  15. 27 CFR 22.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements. 22.22 Section 22.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Administrative Provisions Authorities § 22.22 Alternate methods or procedures...

  16. 27 CFR 22.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements. 22.22 Section 22.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Administrative Provisions Authorities § 22.22 Alternate methods or procedures...

  17. Effectiveness of Alternative Extension Methods through Radio Broadcasting in West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Bokar; Otoo, Miriam; Fulton, Joan; Lowenberg-DeBoer, James

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to quantify which extension methods are most effective in Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of alternative extension methods on adoption of the triple bagging cowpea storage technology in Niger and Burkina Faso. This study was designed as a quasi-experiment with two alternative extension…

  18. ECVAM's approach to intellectual property rights in the validation of alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Linge, Jens P; Hartung, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    In this article, we discuss how intellectual property rights affect the validation of alternative methods at ECVAM. We point out recent cases and summarise relevant EU and OECD documents. Finally, we discuss guidelines for dealing with intellectual property rights during the validation of alternative methods at ECVAM.

  19. Biogas production from ensiled meadow grass; effect of mechanical pretreatments and rapid determination of substrate biodegradability via physicochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, P G; Angelidaki, I

    2015-04-01

    As the biogas sector is rapidly expanding, there is an increasing need in finding new alternative feedstock to biogas plants. Meadow grass can be a suitable co-substrate and if ensiled it can be supplied to biogas plants continuously throughout the year. Nevertheless, this substrate is quite recalcitrant and therefore efficient pretreatment is needed to permit easy access of microbes to the degradable components. In this study, different mechanical pretreatment methods were applied on ensiled meadow grass to investigate their effect on biomass biodegradability. All the tested pretreatments increased the methane productivity and the increase ranged from 8% to 25%. The best mechanical pretreatment was the usage of two coarse mesh grating plates. Additionally, simple analytical methods were conducted to investigate the possibility of rapidly determining the methane yield of meadow grass. Among the methods, electrical conductivity test showed the most promising calibration statistics (R(2)=0.68). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for genomic DNA isolation from the whole blood of mammals and birds.

    PubMed

    Al-Shuhaib Mohammed Baqur, Sahib A

    2017-03-01

    There is no 'one' procedure for extracting DNA from the whole blood of both mammals and birds, since each species has a unique property that require different methods to release its own DNA. Therefore, to obtain genomic DNA, a universal, rapid, and noncostly method was developed. A very simple biological basis is followed in this procedure, in which, when the blood is placed in water, it rapidly enters the RBCs by osmosis and causes cells to burst by hemolysis. The validity of extracting genomic DNA was confirmed by several molecular biological experiments. It was found that this method provides an efficient and versatile alternative for extracting bulk amounts of highly-qualified DNA from the blood of a wide range of species. This is the first manuscript that describes use of distilled water as the only eliminator of RBCs among all other known DNA extraction techniques.

  1. Electrical impedance measurements: rapid method for detecting and monitoring microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Cady, P; Dufour, S W; Shaw, J; Kraeger, S J

    1978-01-01

    A conceptually simple and east-to-use technique is described that uses continuous impedance measurements for automated monitoring of microbial growth and metabolism. The method has been applied to a wide range of microorganisms. Optical clarity is not required. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the method are demonstrated. The mechanism whereby microbial growth alters the impedance of the medium is discussed, as well as potential applications of the method to clinical microbiology. Images PMID:348718

  2. Methods Matter: Tracking Health Disparities in Alternative High Schools.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karen E; Goyal, Mohit; Simonton, Amanda J; Richardson, Rebecca; Morris, Marian; Rew, Lynn

    2017-02-09

    Alternative high school (AHS) students are at-risk for school dropout and engage in high levels of health-risk behaviors that should be monitored over time. They are excluded from most public health surveillance efforts (e.g., Youth Risk Behavior Survey; YRBS), hindering our ability to monitor health disparities and allocate scarce resources to the areas of greatest need. Using active parental consent, we recruited 515 students from 14 AHSs in Texas to take a modified YRBS. We calculated three different participation rates, tracked participation by age of legal consent (≥18 and <18 years), and identified other considerations for obtaining quality data. Being required to use active consent resulted in a much lower cooperation rate among students <18 years (32%) versus those who were ≥18 years and could provide their own consent (57%). Because chronic truancy is prevalent in AHS students, cooperation rates may be more accurate than participation rates based off of enrollment or attendance. Requiring active consent and not having accurate participation rates may result in surveillance data that are of disparate quality. This threatens to mask the needs of AHS students and perpetuate disparities because we are likely missing the highest-risk students within a high-risk sample and cannot generalize findings.

  3. An alternative method for Ra determinations in water.

    PubMed

    Loyd, D H; Drake, E N

    1989-07-01

    Concentrations of 226Ra and 224Ra in 13 wells distributed throughout McCulloch and Mason counties in the Hickory Aquifer of the Llano Uplift Region of West-Central Texas are reported. Measurable alpha-particle activity is present in all wells, with seven wells having 226Ra radioactivity concentrations greater than 185 Bq m-3 (5 pCi L-1). An alternative methodology for measuring 226Ra, 224Ra and 228Ra is described. The EPA-approved methodology for estimating total Ra is shown to be invalid for aquifers containing significant levels of 224Ra. Alpha-particle activity measurements made in the interval of 12 to 300 h after Ra isolation lead to self-consistent solutions for radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra and 224Ra, with negligible contributions from 228Ra. Radioactivity concentrations of 228Ra can be calculated from grow-in terms for this isotope used with alpha-particle activity measurements at post-isolation times significantly longer than 800 h. Comparison of the 226Ra radioactivity concentration with that reported previously by the Texas Department of Health for a single well indicates acceptable agreement. However, the radioactivity concentration attributable to 228Ra for the same well was found to be in significant disagreement with the Texas Department of Health value.

  4. An alternative method for Ra determinations in water

    SciTech Connect

    Loyd, D.H.; Drake, E.N. 2d.

    1989-07-01

    Concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 224/Ra in 13 wells distributed throughout McCulloch and Mason counties in the Hickory Aquifer of the Llano Uplift Region of West-Central Texas are reported. Measurable alpha-particle activity is present in all wells, with seven wells having /sup 226/Ra radioactivity concentrations greater than 185 Bq m-3 (5 pCi L-1). An alternative methodology for measuring /sup 226/Ra, /sup 224/Ra and /sup 228/Ra is described. The EPA-approved methodology for estimating total Ra is shown to be invalid for aquifers containing significant levels of /sup 224/Ra. Alpha-particle activity measurements made in the interval of 12 to 300 h after Ra isolation lead to self-consistent solutions for radioactivity concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 224/Ra, with negligible contributions from /sup 228/Ra. Radioactivity concentrations of /sup 228/Ra can be calculated from grow-in terms for this isotope used with alpha-particle activity measurements at post-isolation times significantly longer than 800 h. Comparison of the /sup 226/Ra radioactivity concentration with that reported previously by the Texas Department of Health for a single well indicates acceptable agreement. However, the radioactivity concentration attributable to /sup 228/Ra for the same well was found to be in significant disagreement with the Texas Department of Health value.

  5. Comparison of Marine Spatial Planning Methods in Madagascar Demonstrates Value of Alternative Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Allnutt, Thomas F.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Andréfouët, Serge; Baker, Merrill; Lagabrielle, Erwann; McClennen, Caleb; Rakotomanjaka, Andry J. M.; Tianarisoa, Tantely F.; Watson, Reg; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value). The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the “strict protection” class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative approaches during

  6. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Allnutt, Thomas F; McClanahan, Timothy R; Andréfouët, Serge; Baker, Merrill; Lagabrielle, Erwann; McClennen, Caleb; Rakotomanjaka, Andry J M; Tianarisoa, Tantely F; Watson, Reg; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value). The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative approaches during

  7. An Accelerated Linearized Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    The idea of analyzing (1.8) in order to solve (1.1) is essentially the augmented Lagrangian method ( ALM ) by Hestenes [26] and Powell [44] (It is...originally called the method of multipliers in [26, 44]; see also the textbooks, e.g., [5, 41, 6]). The ALM is a special case of the Douglas-Rachford...splitting method [19, 16, 32], which is also an instance of the proximal point algorithm [17, 46]. The iteration complexity of an inexact version of ALM

  8. Alternative Methods to Treat Nausea and Vomiting from Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Ali; Ebadi, Ahmad; Talaeizadeh, Abdolhassan; Rahmani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is among the most intensive side effects and critical concerns for patients with cancer. Most of these patients experience nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy. Sometimes, this is so annoying that it may prevent them from continuing the therapy. With the recent advances, a variety of therapeutic methods are innovated and applied to control CINV. Among them, the main methods include medicinal therapy, relaxation, and herbal therapy. Yet, using dexamethasone together with massage therapy and ginger is identified as the most effective method. PMID:26634155

  9. The VESPA: a method for the rapid estimation of a visual evoked potential.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Edmund C; Pearlmutter, Barak A; Reilly, Richard B; McDarby, Gary; Foxe, John J

    2006-10-01

    Faster and less obtrusive means for measuring a Visual Evoked Potential would be valuable in clinical testing and basic neuroscience research. This study presents a method for accomplishing this by smoothly modulating the luminance of a visual stimulus using a stochastic process. Despite its visually unobtrusive nature, the rich statistical structure of the stimulus enables rapid estimation of the visual system's impulse response. The profile of these responses, which we call VESPAs, correlates with standard VEPs, with r=0.91, p<10(-28) for the group average. The time taken to obtain a VESPA with a given signal-to-noise ratio compares favorably to that required to obtain a VEP with a similar level of certainty. Additionally, we show that VESPA responses to two independent stimuli can be obtained simultaneously, which could drastically reduce the time required to collect responses to multiple stimuli. The new method appears to provide a useful alternative to standard VEP methods, and to have potential application both in clinical practice and to the study of sensory and perceptual functions.

  10. Rapid method for sampling metals for materials identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    Nondamaging process similar to electrochemical machining is useful in obtaining metal samples from places inaccessible to conventional sampling methods or where methods would be hazardous or contaminating to specimens. Process applies to industries where metals or metal alloys play a vital role.

  11. 27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... carrier forfeited administratively may be sold, the Director or his delegate shall cause a notice of sale... notice. At the discretion of the Director or his delegate based upon which method in his sound...

  12. Alternate cleaning methods for LCCAs. [LCC (Leadless Chip Carriers)

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate DI water followed by isopropyl alcohol (IPA) cleaning and no cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs). Both environmentally safe methods were to be tested against the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) material cleaning baseline. Several experiments were run to compare production and electrical yields of LCCs cleaned by all three methods. The critical process steps most affected by cleaning were wire bonding, sealing, particle induced noise detection (PIND), moisture content, and electrical. Yields for the experimental lots cleaned by CFC, DI water plus IPA, and no cleaning were 56%, 72%, and 75%, respectively. The overall results indicated that vapor degreasing/ultrasonic cleaning in CFCs could be replaced by the aqueous method. No cleaning could also be considered if an effective dry method of particle removal could be developed.

  13. Alternative method for reconstruction of antihydrogen annihilation vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Andresen, G. B.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The ALPHA experiment, located at CERN, aims to compare the properties of antihydrogen atoms with those of hydrogen atoms. The neutral antihydrogen atoms are trapped using an octupole magnetic trap. The trap region is surrounded by a three layered silicon detector used to reconstruct the antiproton annihilation vertices. This paper describes a method we have devised that can be used for reconstructing annihilation vertices with a good resolution and is more efficient than the standard method currently used for the same purpose.

  14. Alternative method for reconstruction of antihydrogen annihilation vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Andresen, G. B.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    The ALPHA experiment, located at CERN, aims to compare the properties of antihydrogen atoms with those of hydrogen atoms. The neutral antihydrogen atoms are trapped using an octupole magnetic trap. The trap region is surrounded by a three layered silicon detector used to reconstruct the antiproton annihilation vertices. This paper describes a method we have devised that can be used for reconstructing annihilation vertices with a good resolution and is more efficient than the standard method currently used for the same purpose.

  15. Alternative stitching method for massively parallel e-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pieter; Tranquillin, Céline; Wieland, Marco; Bayle, Sébastien; Milléquant, Matthieu; Renault, Guillaume

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a stitching method other than soft edge (SE) and smart boundary (SB) is introduced and benchmarked against SE. The method is based on locally enhanced exposure latitude without throughput cost, making use of the fact that the two beams that pass through the stitching region can deposit up to 2× the nominal dose. The method requires a complex proximity effect correction that takes a preset stitching dose profile into account. Although the principle of the presented stitching method can be multibeam (lithography) systems in general, in this study, the MAPPER FLX 1200 tool is specifically considered. For the latter tool at a metal clip at minimum half-pitch of 32 nm, the stitching method effectively mitigates beam-to-beam (B2B) position errors such that they do not induce an increase in critical dimension uniformity (CDU). In other words, the same CDU can be realized inside the stitching region as outside the stitching region. For the SE method, the CDU inside is 0.3 nm higher than outside the stitching region. A 5-nm direct overlay impact from the B2B position errors cannot be reduced by a stitching strategy.

  16. 78 FR 11174 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Gas Chromatography. ALT-097 Method 25A- Bypass flare Use GC and GC Determination exhaust back-flush of... Chromatography. Source owners or operators should review the specific broadly applicable alternative method...

  17. An alternative method of determining the neutrino mass ordering in reactor neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilenky, S. M.; Capozzi, F.; Petcov, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    We discuss a novel alternative method of determining the neutrino mass ordering in medium baseline experiments with reactor antineutrinos. Results on the potential sensitivity of the new method are also presented.

  18. 29 CFR 4206.9 - Amount of credit in plans using alternative allocation methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plan that has adopted an alternative method of allocating unfunded vested benefits pursuant to section 4211(c)(5) of ERISA and part 4211 of this chapter shall adopt, by plan amendment, a method of...

  19. An alternative method for assessing early mortality in contemporary populations.

    PubMed

    Wiley, A S; Pike, I L

    1998-11-01

    Biological anthropologists are interested in a population's early mortality rates for a variety of reasons. Early mortality (infant or juvenile) is of obvious importance to those interested in demography, but early mortality statistics are useful for life history analysis, paleodemography, and human adaptability studies, among others. In general, the form of mortality statistics is derived from demography, where chronological age is the gold standard for statistical calculation and comparison. However, there are numerous problems associated with the collection, analysis, and interpretation of early mortality statistics based on age, particularly for anthropological research, which is often conducted in small or non-calendrical-age numerate populations. The infant mortality rate (IMR), for example, is notoriously difficult to determine in populations where accurate accounting of age is not routine, and yet it is widely used in demography, public health, medicine, and social science research. Here we offer an alternative to age-based early mortality statistics that makes use of human biologists' interest in, and skill at, assessing human growth and development. Our proposal is to use developmental stages of juveniles instead of relying exclusively on age as the basis for mortality statistics. Death or survival according to a developmental stage (such as crawling or weaning) may provide more accurate data that are also more closely related to the cause of death. Developmental stages have the added advantage of putting infants and children back at the center of the discussion of early mortality by focusing on their activities in relation to their environment. A case study from the Turkana population of Kenya illustrates the use of developmental stages in describing early mortality.

  20. Feasibility and acceptability of alternate methods of postnatal data collection.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey A; Friedrich, Christa; Fahrenwald, Nancy; Specker, Bonny

    2014-05-01

    This study was done in preparation for the launch of the National Children's Study (NCS) main study. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility (completion rates and completeness of data), acceptability, staff time and cost-effectiveness of three methods of data collection for the postnatal 3- and 9-month questionnaires completed as part of NCS protocol. Eligible NCS participants who were scheduled to complete a postnatal questionnaire at three and nine months were randomly assigned to receive either: (a) telephone data collection (b) web-based data collection, or (c) self-administered (mailed) questionnaires. Event completion rates and satisfaction across the three data collection methods were compared and the influence of socio-demographic factors on completion rates and satisfaction rates was examined. Cost data were compared to data for completion and satisfaction for each of the delivery methods. Completion rates and satisfaction did not differ significantly by method, but completeness of data did, with odds of data completeness higher among web than phone (p < 0.001) or mail (p < 0.001). Costs were highest for the phone, followed by mail and web methods (p < 0.001). No significant differences in participant time (i.e. burden) across the three data collection methods were seen. Mail and phone data collection were the least complete of the three methods and were the most expensive. Mailed data collection was neither complete nor exceptionally economical. Web-based data collection was the least costly and provided the most complete data. Participants without web access could complete the questionnaire over the phone.

  1. Alternative stitching method for massively parallel e-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pieter; Tranquillin, Céline; Wieland, Marco; Bayle, Sébastien; Milléquant, Matthieu; Renault, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    In this study a novel stitching method other than Soft Edge (SE) and Smart Boundary (SB) is introduced and benchmarked against SE. The method is based on locally enhanced Exposure Latitude without cost of throughput, making use of the fact that the two beams that pass through the stitching region can deposit up to 2x the nominal dose. The method requires a complex Proximity Effect Correction that takes a preset stitching dose profile into account. On a Metal clip at minimum half-pitch of 32 nm for MAPPER FLX 1200 tool specifications, the novel stitching method effectively mitigates Beam to Beam (B2B) position errors such that they do not induce increase in CD Uniformity (CDU). In other words, the same CDU can be realized inside the stitching region as outside the stitching region. For the SE method, the CDU inside is 0.3 nm higher than outside the stitching region. 5 nm direct overlay impact from B2B position errors cannot be reduced by a stitching strategy.

  2. Alternative method for steam generation for thermal oxidation of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, Jeffrey J.

    2010-02-01

    Thermal oxidation of silicon is an important process step in MEMS device fabrication. Thicker oxide layers are often used as structural components and can take days or weeks to grow, causing high gas costs, maintenance issues, and a process bottleneck. Pyrolytic steam, which is generated from hydrogen and oxygen combustion, was the default process, but has serious drawbacks: cost, safety, particles, permitting, reduced growth rate, rapid hydrogen consumption, component breakdown and limited steam flow rates. Results from data collected over a 24 month period by a MEMS manufacturer supports replacement of pyrolytic torches with RASIRC Steamer technology to reduce process cycle time and enable expansion previously limited by local hydrogen permitting. Data was gathered to determine whether Steamers can meet or exceed pyrolytic torch performance. The RASIRC Steamer uses de-ionized water as its steam source, eliminating dependence on hydrogen and oxygen. A non-porous hydrophilic membrane selectively allows water vapor to pass. All other molecules are greatly restricted, so contaminants in water such as dissolved gases, ions, total organic compounds (TOC), particles, and metals can be removed in the steam phase. The MEMS manufacturer improved growth rate by 7% over the growth range from 1μm to 3.5μm. Over a four month period, wafer uniformity, refractive index, wafer stress, and etch rate were tracked with no significant difference found. The elimination of hydrogen generated a four-month return on investment (ROI). Mean time between failure (MTBF) was increased from 3 weeks to 32 weeks based on three Steamers operating over eight months.

  3. A rapid cloning method employing orthogonal end protection.

    PubMed

    Jakobi, Arjen J; Huizinga, Eric G

    2012-01-01

    We describe a novel in vitro cloning strategy that combines standard tools in molecular biology with a basic protecting group concept to create a versatile framework for the rapid and seamless assembly of modular DNA building blocks into functional open reading frames. Analogous to chemical synthesis strategies, our assembly design yields idempotent composite synthons amenable to iterative and recursive split-and-pool reaction cycles. As an example, we illustrate the simplicity, versatility and efficiency of the approach by constructing an open reading frame composed of tandem arrays of a human fibronectin type III (FNIII) domain and the von Willebrand Factor A2 domain (VWFA2), as well as chimeric (FNIII)(n)-VWFA2-(FNIII)(n) constructs. Although we primarily designed this strategy to accelerate assembly of repetitive constructs for single-molecule force spectroscopy, we anticipate that this approach is equally applicable to the reconstitution and modification of complex modular sequences including structural and functional analysis of multi-domain proteins, synthetic biology or the modular construction of episomal vectors.

  4. A rapid wire-based sampling method for DNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Catcheside, David E A; Stephenson, Alice; Hefford, Chris; Kirkbride, K Paul; Burgoyne, Leigh A

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a commission to develop a field deployable rapid short tandem repeat (STR)-based DNA profiling system to enable discrimination between tissues derived from a small number of individuals. Speed was achieved by truncation of sample preparation and field deployability by use of an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyser(TM). Human blood and tissues were stabbed with heated stainless steel wire and the resulting sample dehydrated with isopropanol prior to direct addition to a PCR. Choice of a polymerase tolerant of tissue residues and cycles of amplification appropriate for the amount of template expected yielded useful profiles with a custom-designed quintuplex primer set suitable for use with the Bioanalyser(TM). Samples stored on wires remained amplifiable for months, allowing their transportation unrefrigerated from remote locations to a laboratory for analysis using AmpFlSTR(®) Profiler Plus(®) without further processing. The field system meets the requirements for discrimination of samples from small sets and retains access to full STR profiling when required.

  5. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2010-07-26

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using this two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  6. Corn syrup rapid method fermentables by HPLC. [High performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Pomes, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Some breweries using corn syrup adjunct specify fermentable ranges determined by the ASBC rapid fermentation procedure. The present work was undertaken to develop a method of calculating rapid methods fermentables from syrup composition. Two equations were developed, by regression analyses of high-performance liquid chromatogrphic values for syrup composition and of laboratory data on rapid method fermentables. A third equation was derived from high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses of a series of syrup solutions before and after rapid fermentation. All equations resulted in good approximation of values obtained by laboratory fermentations.

  7. Corn syrup rapid method fermentables by HPLC. [High-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Pomes, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Some breweries using corn syrup adjunct specify fermentable ranges determined by the ASBC rapid fermentation procedure. The present work was undertaken to develop a method of calculating rapid methods fermentables from syrup composition. Two equations were developed, by regression analyses of high-performance liquid chromatographic values for syrup composition and of laboratory data on rapid method fermentables. A third equation was derived from high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses of a series of syrup solutions before and after rapid fermentation. All equations resulted in good approximation of values obtained by laboratory fermentations.

  8. Rapid Methods for the Detection of General Fecal Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    Specified that EPA should develop: appropriate and effective indicators for improving detection in a timely manner of pathogens in coastal waters appropriate, accurate, expeditious and cost-effective methods for the timely detection of pathogens in coastal waters

  9. Rapid Methods for the Detection of General Fecal Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    Specified that EPA should develop: appropriate and effective indicators for improving detection in a timely manner of pathogens in coastal waters appropriate, accurate, expeditious and cost-effective methods for the timely detection of pathogens in coastal waters

  10. Evaluation of Alternate Stainless Steel Surface Passivation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  11. Alternative methods for determining shrinkage in restorative resin composites.

    PubMed

    de Melo Monteiro, Gabriela Queiroz; Montes, Marcos Antonio Japiassú Resende; Rolim, Tiago Vieira; de Oliveira Mota, Cláudia Cristina Brainer; de Barros Correia Kyotoku, Bernardo; Gomes, Anderson Stevens Leônidas; de Freitas, Anderson Zanardi

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerization shrinkage of resin composites using a coordinate measuring machine, optical coherence tomography and a more widely known method, such as Archimedes Principle. Two null hypothesis were tested: (1) there are no differences between the materials tested; (2) there are no differences between the methods used for polymerization shrinkage measurements. Polymerization shrinkage of seven resin-based dental composites (Filtek Z250™, Filtek Z350™, Filtek P90™/3M ESPE, Esthet-X™, TPH Spectrum™/Dentsply 4 Seasons™, Tetric Ceram™/Ivoclar-Vivadent) was measured. For coordinate measuring machine measurements, composites were applied to a cylindrical Teflon mold (7 mm × 2 mm), polymerized and removed from the mold. The difference between the volume of the mold and the volume of the specimen was calculated as a percentage. Optical coherence tomography was also used for linear shrinkage evaluations. The thickness of the specimens was measured before and after photoactivation. Polymerization shrinkage was also measured using Archimedes Principle of buoyancy (n=5). Statistical analysis of the data was performed with ANOVA and the Games-Howell test. The results show that polymerization shrinkage values vary with the method used. Despite numerical differences the ranking of the resins was very similar with Filtek P90 presenting the lowest shrinkage values. Because of the variations in the results, reported values could only be used to compare materials within the same method. However, it is possible rank composites for polymerization shrinkage and to relate these data from different test methods. Independently of the method used, reduced polymerization shrinkage was found for silorane resin-based composite. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Printability beyond the limits: Alternative double printing method for inkjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parraman, Carinna; Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    For artists wishing to print onto heavy weight coated and uncoated papers, the opportunity to improve colour density and saturation is always desirable. The paper presents research into methods for mixing and printing colours using the latest multi-primary inkjet printing system. The objective is to investigate the colour printability of the system printing on a fine art paper. The cellular Yule-Nielsen modified spectral Neugebauer model is employed to characterise the printing process. And the preliminary experiment result shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. The alternative methods for disinfection of E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetim, Tuba; Görmez, Arzu; Gürkök, Sümeyra

    2016-04-01

    Recently, advanced oxidation processes have gained significant interest for bacterial inactivation. In the present study, the efficacy of sonolysis, photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis was evaluated for disinfection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain. Sonophotocatalysis proved to be the most effective disinfection methods by generating greater amount of •OHradical.

  14. FMEA, the alternative process hazard method. [Failure Mode Effects Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, R.K. )

    1993-05-01

    Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) is an old reliability/assurance tool finding its way into the HPI. Not popular yet, this hazard technique has some viable applications that can improve hazard assessment data. Notably, FMEA studies can identify possible areas for improvement that may have not been discovered using other methods. Also, FMEA is not as labor intensive and costly as other process hazard analysis (PHA) methods. PSHA 1910.119 set in place an informational structure whose main purpose is the reduction of potential accidents and minimizing risks in the event of an accident. Consequently, HPI operators must evaluate their process systems and identify potential major hazards, such as fires, explosions and accidental release of toxic/hazardous chemicals, and protect their facilities, employees, the public and the environment. But, which PHA method(s) apply to a particular plant or process still remains a difficult question. This paper describes what FMEA is; types of FMEA; how to conduct a FMEA study; comparison with HAZOP (hazard and operability study); computer software; applicability of FMEA; and examples of its use.

  15. An alternative method for neonatal cerebro-myocardial perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Luciani, Giovanni Battista; De Rita, Fabrizio; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Several techniques have already been described for selective cerebral perfusion during repair of aortic arch pathology in children. One method combining cerebral with myocardial perfusion has also been proposed. A novel technique is reported here for selective and independent cerebro-myocardial perfusion for neonatal and infant arch surgery. Technical aspects and potential advantages are discussed. PMID:22307393

  16. Evaluation of Alternative Difference-in-Differences Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Difference-in-differences (DID) strategies are particularly useful for evaluating policy effects in natural experiments in which, for example, a policy affects some schools and students but not others. However, the standard DID method may produce biased estimation of the policy effect if the confounding effect of concurrent events varies by…

  17. Bayesian Morphological Clock Methods Resurrect Placoderm Monophyly and Reveal Rapid Early Evolution in Jawed Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    King, Benedict; Qiao, Tuo; Lee, Michael S Y; Zhu, Min; Long, John A

    2017-07-01

    The phylogeny of early gnathostomes provides an important framework for understanding one of the most significant evolutionary events, the origin and diversification of jawed vertebrates. A series of recent cladistic analyses have suggested that the placoderms, an extinct group of armoured fish, form a paraphyletic group basal to all other jawed vertebrates. We revised and expanded this morphological data set, most notably by sampling autapomorphies in a similar way to parsimony-informative traits, thus ensuring this data (unlike most existing morphological data sets) satisfied an important assumption of Bayesian tip-dated morphological clock approaches. We also found problems with characters supporting placoderm paraphyly, including character correlation and incorrect codings. Analysis of this data set reveals that paraphyly and monophyly of core placoderms (excluding maxillate forms) are essentially equally parsimonious. The two alternative topologies have different root positions for the jawed vertebrates but are otherwise similar. However, analysis using tip-dated clock methods reveals strong support for placoderm monophyly, due to this analysis favoring trees with more balanced rates of evolution. Furthermore, enforcing placoderm paraphyly results in higher levels and unusual patterns of rate heterogeneity among branches, similar to that generated from simulated trees reconstructed with incorrect root positions. These simulations also show that Bayesian tip-dated clock methods outperform parsimony when the outgroup is largely uninformative (e.g., due to inapplicable characters), as might be the case here. The analysis also reveals that gnathostomes underwent a rapid burst of evolution during the Silurian period which declined during the Early Devonian. This rapid evolution during a period with few articulated fossils might partly explain the difficulty in ascertaining the root position of jawed vertebrates. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University

  18. High-Yield Methods for Accurate Two-Alternative Visual Psychophysics in Head-Fixed Mice.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Christopher P; Lak, Armin; Steinmetz, Nicholas A; Zatka-Haas, Peter; Bai Reddy, Charu; Jacobs, Elina A K; Linden, Jennifer F; Paton, Joseph J; Ranson, Adam; Schröder, Sylvia; Soares, Sofia; Wells, Miles J; Wool, Lauren E; Harris, Kenneth D; Carandini, Matteo

    2017-09-05

    Research in neuroscience increasingly relies on the mouse, a mammalian species that affords unparalleled genetic tractability and brain atlases. Here, we introduce high-yield methods for probing mouse visual decisions. Mice are head-fixed, facilitating repeatable visual stimulation, eye tracking, and brain access. They turn a steering wheel to make two alternative choices, forced or unforced. Learning is rapid thanks to intuitive coupling of stimuli to wheel position. The mouse decisions deliver high-quality psychometric curves for detection and discrimination and conform to the predictions of a simple probabilistic observer model. The task is readily paired with two-photon imaging of cortical activity. Optogenetic inactivation reveals that the task requires mice to use their visual cortex. Mice are motivated to perform the task by fluid reward or optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons. This stimulation elicits a larger number of trials and faster learning. These methods provide a platform to accurately probe mouse vision and its neural basis. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD ECBC-TR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mass Spectrometry Proteomics Method as a Rapid Screening Tool for Bacterial Contamination of Food 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...2 2.1 Preparation of Bacterial Stocks

  20. Comparison of Two Alternative Methods for Tracking Toe Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Brady, Rachel; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Warren, Liz; Feiveson, Al; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Toe trajectory during the swing phase of locomotion has been identified as a precise motor control task (Karst, et al., 1999). The standard method for tracking toe trajectory is to place a marker on the superior aspect of the distal end of the 2nd toe itself (Karst, et al., 1999; Winter, 1992). However, others have based their toe trajectory results either on a marker positioned on the lateral aspect of the 5th metatarsal head (Dingwell, et al., 1999; Osaki, et al., 2007), or on a virtual toe marker computed at the anterior tip of the second toe based on the positions of other real foot markers (Miller, et al., 2006). While these methods for tracking the toe may seem similar, their results may not be directly comparable. The purpose of this study was to compute toe trajectory parameters using a 5th metatarsal marker and a virtual toe marker, and compare their results with those of the standard toe marker.

  1. An Alternative Method Of Specifying Shock Test Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, R. C.; Clayton, J.; Alldredge, D.; Irvine, T.

    2008-01-01

    Shock testing of aerospace vehicle hardware has presented many challenges over the years due to the high magnitude and short duration of the specifications. Recently, component structural failures have occurred during testing that have not manifested themselves on over 200 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) flights (two boosters per flight). It is suspected that the method of specifying shock test criteria may be leaving important information out of the test process. The traditional test criteria specification, the shock response spectrum, can be duplicated by any number of waveforms that may not resemble the actual flight test recorded time history. One method of overcoming this limitation is described herein, which may prove useful for qualifying hardware for the upcoming Constellation Program.

  2. Alternative physician payment methods: incentives, efficiency, and National Health Insurance.

    PubMed

    Gabel, J R; Redisch, M A

    1979-01-01

    Physicians are the dominant group in our health care system. Their decisions often influence the ways by which society's resources are used to achieve and maintain health. But physicians are also social and economic beings; their behavior is, in part, determined by the way they are reimbursed. Reimbursement methods and physician preferences interact on important medical care variables: utilization of services; treatment setting; practice location and specialty choice; and the efficiency of an individual physician's practice.

  3. Rapid Dye Decolorization Method for Screening Potential Wood Preservatives

    PubMed Central

    Borokhov, Olga; Rothenburger, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    We developed a new screening method for potential wood preservatives based on decolorization of the dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R by extracellular oxidative agents produced by wood decay fungi. Oxidative biodegradation of lignin yielded decolorized zones around and under fungal cultures on a dyed agar medium. Inhibitory effects were detected by direct observation and measurement of the decolorized zones. PMID:11097927

  4. [Methods for the rapid preparation of paraffin blocks].

    PubMed

    Shmurun, R I

    1992-01-01

    Two accelerated chloroform-paraffin processings of materials with the use of ultrasound (US) and microwave (MW) irradiation in the stove "Electronica" as well as a combined method with US- and MW-irradiation are proposed to shorten drastically the duration of the prehistologic processing.

  5. Rapid method for interconversion of binary and decimal numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, R. S.

    1970-01-01

    Decoding tree consisting of 40-bit semiconductor read-only memories interconverts binary and decimal numbers 50 to 100 times faster than current methods. Decimal-to-binary conversion algorithm is based on a divided-by-2 iterative equation, binary-to-decimal conversion algorithm utilizes multiplied-by-2 iterative equation.

  6. A rapid chemiluminescent method for quantitation of human DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, P S; Varlaro, J; Reynolds, R

    1992-01-01

    A sensitive and simple method for the quantitation of human DNA is described. This method is based on probe hybridization to a human alpha satellite locus, D17Z1. The biotinylated probe is hybridized to sample DNA immobilized on nylon membrane. The subsequent binding of streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase to the bound probe allows for chemiluminescent detection using a luminol-based reagent and X-ray film. Less than 150 pg of human DNA can easily be detected with a 15 minute exposure. The entire procedure can be performed in 1.5 hours. Microgram quantities of nonhuman DNA have been tested and the results indicate very high specificity for human DNA. The data on film can be scanned into a computer and a commercially available program can be used to create a standard curve where DNA quantity is plotted against the mean density of each slot blot signal. The methods described can also be applied to the very sensitive determination of quantity and quality (size) of DNA on Southern blots. The high sensitivity of this quantitation method requires the consumption of only a fraction of sample for analysis. Determination of DNA quantity is necessary for RFLP and many PCR-based tests where optimal results are obtained only with a relatively narrow range of DNA quantities. The specificity of this quantitation method for human DNA will be useful for the analysis of samples that may also contain bacterial or other non-human DNA, for example forensic evidence samples, ancient DNA samples, or clinical samples. Images PMID:1408822

  7. A rapid chemiluminescent method for quantitation of human DNA.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P S; Varlaro, J; Reynolds, R

    1992-10-11

    A sensitive and simple method for the quantitation of human DNA is described. This method is based on probe hybridization to a human alpha satellite locus, D17Z1. The biotinylated probe is hybridized to sample DNA immobilized on nylon membrane. The subsequent binding of streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase to the bound probe allows for chemiluminescent detection using a luminol-based reagent and X-ray film. Less than 150 pg of human DNA can easily be detected with a 15 minute exposure. The entire procedure can be performed in 1.5 hours. Microgram quantities of nonhuman DNA have been tested and the results indicate very high specificity for human DNA. The data on film can be scanned into a computer and a commercially available program can be used to create a standard curve where DNA quantity is plotted against the mean density of each slot blot signal. The methods described can also be applied to the very sensitive determination of quantity and quality (size) of DNA on Southern blots. The high sensitivity of this quantitation method requires the consumption of only a fraction of sample for analysis. Determination of DNA quantity is necessary for RFLP and many PCR-based tests where optimal results are obtained only with a relatively narrow range of DNA quantities. The specificity of this quantitation method for human DNA will be useful for the analysis of samples that may also contain bacterial or other non-human DNA, for example forensic evidence samples, ancient DNA samples, or clinical samples.

  8. Novel Methods of Enhanced Retention in and Rapid, Targeted Release from Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Zasadzinski, Joseph A.; Wong, Benjamin; Forbes, Natalie; Braun, Gary; Wu, Guohui

    2011-01-01

    Liposomes are single bilayer capsules with distinct interior compartments in which hydrophilic drugs, imaging agents, diagnostics, etc. can be sequestered from the exterior environment. The polar parts of the individual lipids face the water compartments, while the hydrophobic parts of the lipid provide a barrier in which hydrophilic or charged molecules are poorly soluble. Hydrophobic molecules can be dissolved within the bilayer. The bilayers are typically from 3 – 6 nm thick and the liposome can range from about 50 nm - 50 microns in diameter. The question asked in this review is if any one bilayer, regardless of its composition, can provide the extended drug retention, long lifetime in the circulation, active targeting to specific tissues and rapid and controllable drug release at the site of interest. As an alternative, we review methods of self-assembling multicompartment lipid structures that provide enhanced drug retention in physiological environments. We also review methods of externally targeting and triggering drug release via the near infrared heating of gold nanoshells attached to or encapsulated within bilayer vesicles. PMID:21603081

  9. Rapid determination method for 2-DCB in irradiated pork by ASE-Al2O3-GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, An; Pan, Li-Gang; Zhang, Xiu-Tong; Jin, Xin-Xin; Ma, Hong-Zao

    2017-01-01

    2-Dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) is validated as a marker for irradiated foodstuffs. However, the preparation methods for the marker compound involve time-consuming and tedious procedures prior to analysis. This paper describes a rapid method for the extraction and cleanup of 2-DCB in irradiated pork. The highly automated extraction procedure is based on accelerated solvent extraction combined with a purification step by Al2O3, which is added to the extraction cell. The overall extraction time is less than 20 min, and the volume of the solvent is 1.5 times that of the extraction cell (34 mL). The recovery of 2-DCB from pork samples for this method is higher than 75%. The method allows detecting pork irradiated at low doses (0.5 kGy). The proposed method is considered an alternative to the Soxhlet extraction and Florisil chromatography method currently in use.

  10. A new rapid method of solar simulator calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.

    1976-01-01

    A quick method for checking solar simulator spectra content is presented. The method is based upon a solar cell of extended spectral sensitivity and known absolute response, and a dichroic mirror with the reflection transmission transition close to the peak wavelength of the Thekaekara AMO distribution. It compromises the need for spectral discrimination with the ability to integrate wide spectral regions of the distribution which was considered important due to the spiky nature of the high pressure xenon lamp in common use. The results are expressed in terms of a single number, the blue/red ratio, which, combined with the total (unfiltered) output, provides a simple adequate characterization. Measurements were conducted at eleven major facilities across the country and a total of eighteen simulators were measured including five pulsed units.

  11. Rapid Mapping Method Based on Free Blocks of Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xianwen; Wang, Huiqing; Wang, Jinling

    2016-06-01

    While producing large-scale larger than 1:2000 maps in cities or towns, the obstruction from buildings leads to difficult and heavy tasks of measuring mapping control points. In order to avoid measuring the mapping control points and shorten the time of fieldwork, in this paper, a quick mapping method is proposed. This method adjusts many free blocks of surveys together, and transforms the points from all free blocks of surveys into the same coordinate system. The entire surveying area is divided into many free blocks, and connection points are set on the boundaries between free blocks. An independent coordinate system of every free block is established via completely free station technology, and the coordinates of the connection points, detail points and control points in every free block in the corresponding independent coordinate systems are obtained based on poly-directional open traverses. Error equations are established based on connection points, which are determined together to obtain the transformation parameters. All points are transformed from the independent coordinate systems to a transitional coordinate system via the transformation parameters. Several control points are then measured by GPS in a geodetic coordinate system. All the points can then be transformed from the transitional coordinate system to the geodetic coordinate system. In this paper, the implementation process and mathematical formulas of the new method are presented in detail, and the formula to estimate the precision of surveys is given. An example has demonstrated that the precision of using the new method could meet large-scale mapping needs.

  12. Improved Training Method for Rapid Rehabilitation of Amputees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    ready for use. Patient centered information is also collected several questionnaires. The Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) is used to...functional outcomes , and a subject-specific questionnaire to determine if the training method is effective. Enrollment has begun. Our target is to deliver...a quantitatively derived, deployment-ready, advanced gait rehabilitation system that can improve functional outcomes and/or shorten the time

  13. Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Stuart C.; Partin, Judy K.; Grandy, Jon D.; Jeffery, Charles L.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

  14. Alternative lithographic methods for variable aspect ratio vias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepis, Anthony R.

    The foundation of semiconductor industry has historically been driven by scaling. Device size reduction is enabled by increased pattern density, enhancing functionality and effectively reducing cost per chip. Aggressive reductions in memory cell size have resulted in systems with diminishing area between parallel bit/word lines. This affords an even greater challenge in the patterning of contact level features that are inherently difficult to resolve because of their relatively small area, a product of their two domain critical dimension image. To accommodate these trends there has been a shift toward the implementation of elliptical contact features. This empowers designers to maximize the use of free space between bit/word lines and gate stacks while preserving contact area; effectively reducing the minor via axis dimension while maintaining a patternable threshold in increasingly dense circuitry. It is therefore critical to provide methods that enhance the resolving capacity of varying aspect ratio vias for implementation in electronic design systems. This work separately investigates two unique, non-traditional lithographic techniques in the integration of an optical vortex mask as well as a polymer assembly system as means to augment ellipticity while facilitating contact feature scaling. This document affords a fundamental overview of imaging theory, details previous literature as to the technological trends enabling the resolving of contact features and demonstrates simulated & empirical evidence that the described methods have great potential to extend the resolution of variable aspect ratio vias using lithographic technologies.

  15. Rapid and sensitive analytical method for monitoring of 12 organotin compounds in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Vahčič, Mitja; Milačič, Radmila; Sčančar, Janez

    2011-03-01

    A rapid analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 12 different organotin compounds (OTC): methyl-, butyl-, phenyl- and octyl-tins in natural water samples was developed. It comprises of in situ derivatisation (by using NaBEt4) of OTC in salty or fresh water sample matrix adjusted to pH 6 with Tris-citrate buffer, extraction of ethylated OTC into hexane, separation of OTC in organic phase on 15 m GC column and subsequent quantitative determination of separated OTC by ICP-MS. To optimise the pH of ethylation, phosphate, carbonate and Tris-citrate buffer were investigated alternatively to commonly applied sodium acetate - acetic acid buffer. The ethylation yields in Tris-citrate buffer were found to be better for TBT, MOcT and DOcT in comparison to commonly used acetate buffer. Iso-octane and hexane were examined as organic phase for extraction of ethylated OTC. The advantage of hexane was in its ability for quantitative determination of TMeT. GC column of 15 m in length was used for separation of studied OTC under the optimised separation conditions and its performances compared to 30 m column. The analytical method developed enables sensitive simultaneous determination of 12 different OTC and appreciably shortened analysis time in larger series of water samples. LOD's obtained for the newly developed method ranged from 0.05-0.06 ng Sn L-1 for methyl-, 0.11-0.45 ng Sn L-1 for butyl-, 0.11-0.16 ng Sn L-1 for phenyl-, and 0.07-0.10 ng Sn L-1 for octyl-tins. By applying the developed analytical method, marine water samples from the Northern Adriatic Sea containing mainly butyl- and methyl-tin species were analysed to confirm the proposed method's applicability.

  16. A taxonomy of rapid reviews links report types and methods to specific decision-making contexts.

    PubMed

    Hartling, Lisa; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Kato, Elisabeth; Anderson, Johanna; Belinson, Suzanne; Berliner, Elise; Dryden, Donna M; Featherstone, Robin; Mitchell, Matthew D; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Noorani, Hussein; Paynter, Robin; Robinson, Karen A; Schoelles, Karen; Umscheid, Craig A; Whitlock, Evelyn

    2015-12-01

    Describe characteristics of rapid reviews and examine the impact of methodological variations on their reliability and validity. We conducted a literature review and interviews with organizations that produce rapid reviews or related products to identify methods, guidance, empiric evidence, and current practices. We identified 36 rapid products from 20 organizations (production time, 5 minutes to 8 months). Methods differed from systematic reviews at all stages. As time frames increased, methods became more rigorous; however, restrictions on database searching, inclusion criteria, data extracted, and independent dual review remained. We categorized rapid products based on extent of synthesis. "Inventories" list what evidence is available. "Rapid responses" present best available evidence with no formal synthesis. "Rapid reviews" synthesize the quality of and findings from the evidence. "Automated approaches" generate meta-analyses in response to user-defined queries. Rapid products rely on a close relationship with end users and support specific decisions in an identified time frame. Limited empiric evidence exists comparing rapid and systematic reviews. Rapid products have tremendous methodological variation; categorization based on time frame or type of synthesis reveals patterns. The similarity across rapid products lies in the close relationship with the end user to meet time-sensitive decision-making needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluorescence And Alternative Methods In Urine Drug Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Naresh C.

    1988-04-01

    Drug abuse has become-one of the most compelling realities _ ot contemporary society. It has penetrated every segment ot our population: trom schools to sports and trom organized crime to board rooms . Drugs in tie w9rkplace allegedly cost government agencies and business millions ot dollars each year in increased absenteeism,. poor work performance, thefts,accidents andwastedtime. The President's Commission on Organized Crime and the federal government are in tavor ot urine drug testing. In fact many employers are now resorting to urine drug testing on current and prospective employees. This presep.tation discusses different laboratory methods used in urine drug.testing, including immunoassays, fluorescence polarization, thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  18. Alternative methods for computing the sensitivity of complex surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Hood, G M; Barry, S C; Martin, P A J

    2009-12-01

    Stochastic scenario trees are a new and popular method by which surveillance systems can be analyzed to demonstrate freedom from pests and disease. For multiple component systems-such as a combination of a serological survey and systematically collected observations-it can be difficult to represent the complete system in a tree because many branches are required to represent complex conditional relationships. Here we show that many of the branches of some scenario trees have identical outcomes and are therefore redundant. We demonstrate how to prune branches and derive compact representations of scenario trees using matrix algebra and Bayesian belief networks. The Bayesian network representation is particularly useful for calculation and exposition. It therefore provides a firm basis for arguing disease freedom in international forums.

  19. Systems and methods for rapid processing and storage of data

    DOEpatents

    Stalzer, Mark A.

    2017-01-24

    Systems and methods of building massively parallel computing systems using low power computing complexes in accordance with embodiments of the invention are disclosed. A massively parallel computing system in accordance with one embodiment of the invention includes at least one Solid State Blade configured to communicate via a high performance network fabric. In addition, each Solid State Blade includes a processor configured to communicate with a plurality of low power computing complexes interconnected by a router, and each low power computing complex includes at least one general processing core, an accelerator, an I/O interface, and cache memory and is configured to communicate with non-volatile solid state memory.

  20. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial...-type volumetric field standards and associated test procedures) widely used by weights and measures officials and service companies to test commercial measuring devices as well as proposed alternatives to...

  1. Innovative Solutions for Words with Emphasis: Alternative Methods of Braille Transcription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The author of this study proposed two alternative methods for transcribing words with emphasis into braille and compared the use of the symbols for emphasis with the current braille code. The results showed that students were faster at locating words presented in one of the alternate formats, but that there was no difference in students' accuracy…

  2. 27 CFR 479.26 - Alternate methods or procedures; emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... procedures; emergency variations from requirements. 479.26 Section 479.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... Provisions § 479.26 Alternate methods or procedures; emergency variations from requirements. (a) Alternate... an increase in cost to the Government or hinder the effective administration of this part. Where...

  3. 27 CFR 479.26 - Alternate methods or procedures; emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... procedures; emergency variations from requirements. 479.26 Section 479.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... Provisions § 479.26 Alternate methods or procedures; emergency variations from requirements. (a) Alternate... continuation of the authorization. (b) Emergency variations from requirements. The Director may approve...

  4. An Alternative Method for Computing Unit Costs and Productivity Ratios. AIR 1984 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winstead, Wayland H.; And Others

    An alternative measure for evaluating the performance of academic departments was studied. A comparison was made with the traditional manner for computing unit costs and productivity ratios: prorating the salary and effort of each faculty member to each course level based on the personal mix of course taught. The alternative method used averaging…

  5. Innovative Solutions for Words with Emphasis: Alternative Methods of Braille Transcription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The author of this study proposed two alternative methods for transcribing words with emphasis into braille and compared the use of the symbols for emphasis with the current braille code. The results showed that students were faster at locating words presented in one of the alternate formats, but that there was no difference in students' accuracy…

  6. A multiplex PCR method for rapid identification of Brachionus rotifers.

    PubMed

    Vasileiadou, Kalliopi; Papakostas, Spiros; Triantafyllidis, Alexander; Kappas, Ilias; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J

    2009-01-01

    Cryptic species are increasingly being recognized in many organisms. In Brachionus rotifers, many morphologically similar yet genetically distinct species/biotypes have been described. A number of Brachionus cryptic species have been recognized among hatchery strains. In this study, we present a simple, one-step genetic method to detect the presence of those Brachionus sp. rotifers that have been found in hatcheries. With the proposed technique, each of the B. plicatilis sensu stricto, B. ibericus, Brachionus sp. Nevada, Brachionus sp. Austria, Brachionus sp. Manjavacas, and Brachionus sp. Cayman species and/or biotypes can be identified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Based on 233 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences, we reviewed all the available cryptic Brachionus sp. genetic polymorphisms, and we designed six nested primers. With these primers, a specific amplicon of distinct size is produced for every one of the involved species/biotypes. Two highly sensitive protocols were developed for using the primers. Many of the primers can be combined in the same PCR. The proposed method has been found to be an effective and practical tool to investigate the presence of the above six cryptic species/biotypes in both individual and communal (bulk) rotifer deoxyribonucleic acid extractions from hatcheries. With this technique, hatchery managers could easily determine their rotifer composition at the level of cryptic species and monitor their cultures more efficiently.

  7. The Rapid-Heat LAMPellet Method: A Potential Diagnostic Method for Human Urogenital Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Vicente, Belén; López-Abán, Julio; Muro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium is a serious underestimated public health problem affecting 112 million people - particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Microscopic examination of urine samples to detect parasite eggs still remains as definitive diagnosis. This work was focussed on developing a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in human urine samples as a high-throughput, simple, accurate and affordable diagnostic tool to use in diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings A LAMP assay targeting a species specific sequence of S. haematobium ribosomal intergenic spacer was designed. The effectiveness of our LAMP was assessed in a number of patients´ urine samples with microscopy confirmed S. haematobium infection. For potentially large-scale application in field conditions, different DNA extraction methods, including a commercial kit, a modified NaOH extraction method and a rapid heating method were tested using small volumes of urine fractions (whole urine, supernatants and pellets). The heating of pellets from clinical samples was the most efficient method to obtain good-quality DNA detectable by LAMP. The detection limit of our LAMP was 1 fg/µL of S. haematobium DNA in urine samples. When testing all patients´ urine samples included in our study, diagnostic parameters for sensitivity and specificity were calculated for LAMP assay, 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 81.32%-100%) and 86.67% specificity (95% CI: 75.40%-94.05%), and also for microscopy detection of eggs in urine samples, 69.23% sensitivity (95% CI: 48.21% -85.63%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 93.08%-100%). Conclusions/Significance We have developed and evaluated, for the first time, a LAMP assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in heated pellets from patients´ urine samples using no complicated requirement procedure for DNA extraction. The procedure has been named the Rapid

  8. Opportunities and methods for studying alternative splicing in cancer with RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huijuan; Qin, Zhiyi; Zhang, Xuegong

    2013-11-01

    The biogenesis, development and metastases of cancer are associated with many variations in the transcriptome. Alternative splicing of genes is a major post-transcriptional regulation mechanism that is involved in many types of cancer. The next-generation sequencing applied on RNAs (RNA-Seq) provides a new technology for studying transcriptomes. It provides an unprecedented opportunity for quantitatively studying alternative splicing in a systematic way. This mini-review summarizes the current RNA-Seq studies on cancer transcriptomes especially studies on cancer-related alternative splicing, and discusses the strategy for quantitative study of alternative splicing in cancers with RNA-Seq, the bioinformatics methods available and existing questions.

  9. Comparing Alternative Methods of Measuring Skin Color and Damage

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Lauren C.; Heckman, Carolyn J.; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Manne, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the reliability and validity of several skin color and damage measurement strategies and explored their applicability among participants of different races, skin types, and sexes. Methods: One hundred college-aged participants completed an online survey about their perceived skin damage and skin protection. They also attended an in-person session in which an observer rated their skin color; additionally, UV photos and spectrophotometry readings were taken. Results: Trained research assistants rated the damage depicted in the UV photos reliably. Moderate to high correlations emerged between skin color self-report and spectrophotometry readings. Observer rating correlated with spectrophotometry rating of current but not natural skin color. Lighter-skinned individuals reported more cumulative skin damage, which was supported by UV photography. Although women's current skin color was lighter and their UV photos showed similar damage to men's, women reported significantly more damaged skin than men did. Conclusions: These findings suggest that self-report continues to be a valuable measurement strategy when skin reflectance measurement is not feasible or appropriate and that UV photos and observer ratings may be useful but need to be tested further. The results also suggest that young women and men may benefit from different types of skin cancer prevention interventions. PMID:18931926

  10. A rapid cycleave PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus A19 in China.

    PubMed

    Nan, Wenlong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Xu, Zouliang; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Immunization with attenuated vaccines has proved to be an effective method of prevention; however, it may also interfere with diagnosis. Brucella abortus strain A19, which is homologous to B. abortus strain S19, is widely used for the prevention of bovine brucellosis in China. For effective monitoring of the control of brucellosis, it is essential to distinguish A19 from field strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based assays offer a new approach to such discrimination studies. In the current study, we developed a cycleave PCR assay that successfully distinguished attenuated vaccine strains A19 and S19 from 22 strains of B. abortus and 57 strains of 5 other Brucella species. The assay gave a negative reaction with 4 non-Brucella species. The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 7.6 fg for the A19 strain and 220 fg for the single non-A19/non-S19 Brucella strain tested (B. abortus 104M). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and interassay coefficients of variation: 0.003-0.01 and 0.004-0.025, respectively). The cycleave assay gave an A19/S19-specific reaction in 3 out of 125 field serum samples, with the same 3 samples being positive in an alternative A19/S19-specific molecular assay. The cycleave assay gave a total of 102 Brucella-specific reactions (3 being the A19/S19-specific reactions), whereas an alternative Brucella-specific assay gave 92 positive reactions (all also positive in the cycleave assay). Therefore, this assay represents a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific tool for use in brucellosis control.

  11. Rapid new methods for paint collection and lead extraction.

    PubMed

    Gutknecht, William F; Harper, Sharon L; Winstead, Wayne; Sorrell, Kristen; Binstock, David A; Salmons, Cynthia A; Haas, Curtis; McCombs, Michelle; Studabaker, William; Wall, Constance V; Moore, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    Chronic exposure of children to lead can result in permanent physiological impairment. In adults, it can cause irritability, poor muscle coordination, and nerve damage to the sense organs and nerves controlling the body. Surfaces coated with lead-containing paints are potential sources of exposure to lead. In April 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized new requirements that would reduce exposure to lead hazards created by renovation, repair, and painting activities, which disturb lead-based paint. On-site, inexpensive identification of lead-based paint is required. Two steps have been taken to meet this challenge. First, this paper presents a new, highly efficient method for paint collection that is based on the use of a modified wood drill bit. Second, this paper presents a novel, one-step approach for quantitatively grinding and extracting lead from paint samples for subsequent lead determination. This latter method is based on the use of a high-revolutions per minute rotor with stator to break up the paint into approximately 50 micron-size particles. Nitric acid (25%, v/v) is used to extract the lead in <3 minutes. Recoveries are consistently >95% for real-world paints, National Institute of Standards and Technology's standard reference materials, and audit samples from the American Industrial Hygiene Association's Environmental Lead Proficiency Analytical Testing Program. This quantitative extraction procedure, when paired with quantitative paint sample collection and lead determination, may enable the development of a lead paint test kit that will meet the specifications of the final EPA rule.

  12. A comparison of alternative methods for measuring cigarette prices.

    PubMed

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Tauras, John A; Strasser, Julia H; Willis, Gordon; Gibson, James T; Hartman, Anne M

    2015-05-01

    Government agencies, public health organisations and tobacco control researchers rely on accurate estimates of cigarette prices for a variety of purposes. Since the 1950s, the Tax Burden on Tobacco (TBOT) has served as the most widely used source of this price data despite its limitations. This paper compares the prices and collection methods of the TBOT retail-based data and the 2003 and 2006/2007 waves of the population-based Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). From the TUS-CPS, we constructed multiple state-level measures of cigarette prices, including weighted average prices per pack (based on average prices for single-pack purchases and average prices for carton purchases) and compared these with the weighted average price data reported in the TBOT. We also constructed several measures of tax avoidance from the TUS-CPS self-reported data. For the 2003 wave, the average TUS-CPS price was 71 cents per pack less than the average TBOT price; for the 2006/2007 wave, the difference was 47 cents. TUS-CPS and TBOT prices were also significantly different at the state level. However, these differences varied widely by state due to tax avoidance opportunities, such as cross-border purchasing. The TUS-CPS can be used to construct valid measures of cigarette prices. Unlike the TBOT, the TUS-CPS captures the effect of price-reducing marketing strategies, as well as tax avoidance practices and non-traditional types of purchasing. Thus, self-reported data like TUS-CPS appear to have advantages over TBOT in estimating the 'real' price that smokers face. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Rapid and simple method of qPCR primer design.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Brenda; Basu, Chhandak

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a powerful tool for analysis and quantification of gene expression. It is advantageous compared to traditional gel-based method of PCR, as gene expression can be visualized "real-time" using a computer. In qPCR, a reporter dye system is used which intercalates with DNA's region of interest and detects DNA amplification. Some of the popular reporter systems used in qPCR are the following: Molecular Beacon(®), SYBR Green(®), and Taqman(®). However, success of qPCR depends on the optimal primers used. Some of the considerations for primer design are the following: GC content, primer self-dimer, or secondary structure formation. Freely available software could be used for ideal qPCR primer design. Here we have shown how to use some freely available web-based software programs (such as Primerquest(®), Unafold(®), and Beacon designer(®)) to design qPCR primers.

  14. Rapid microbiochemical method for presumptive identification of gastroenteritis-associated members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Yong, D C; Thompson, J S; Prytula, A

    1985-06-01

    A method for rapid screening of isolates of pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is described. Flow charts are used in conjunction with triple sugar iron agar, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside-phenylalanine-motility sulfate screening media, oxidase test, and six rapid biochemical tests, namely, lysine decarboxylase, urease, indole, esculin hydrolysis, malonate, and xylose. This scheme is used to provide an inexpensive but rapid presumptive identification of Salmonella, Shigella, Edwardsiella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, Vibrio, and Yersinia isolates from stool cultures.

  15. Relationship between DAPI-fluorescence fading and nuclear DNA content: An alternative method to DNA quantification?

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Alvarez-Borrego, Josué; Von Brand, Elisabeth; Dupré, Enrique; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel Angel

    2007-01-01

    In observations by confocal or conventional fluorescence microscopy, important factors should be considered in order to obtain accurate images. One of them, such as the fluorescence bleaching from highest intensity to lowest signal of fluorescence is a common problem with several DNA fluorochromes and especially for DAPI stain. The fluorescence of DAPI fades rapidly when it is exposed to UV light, under optimal conditions of observation. Although the fading process can be retarded using a mounting medium with antifading reagents, the photochemical process underlying the fluorescence decay has not yet been fully explained. In addition, no relationship between fluorescence fading and nuclear DNA content has been tested. In order to test this relationship, we measured by means of image analysis the DAPI-fluorescence intensity in several cellular types (spermatozoa, erythrocytes and haemocytes) during their fluorescence bleaching. An algorithm specifically built in MATLAB software was used for this approach. The correlation coefficient between nuclear DNA content and DAPI-fluorescence fading was found equal to 99%. This study demonstrates the feasibility to measure nuclear DNA content by fluorescence fading quantification, as an alternative method concurrently with image analysis procedures.

  16. High throughput microfluidic rapid and low cost prototyping packaging methods.

    PubMed

    Miled, Amine; Sawan, Mohamad

    2013-12-23

    In this work, 3 different packaging and assembly techniques are presented. They can be classified into two categories: one-time use and reusable packaging techniques. The one-time use packaging technique employs UV-based and temperature curing epoxies to connect microtubes to access holes, wire-bonding for integrated circuit connections, and silver epoxy for electrical connections. This method is based on a robust assembly technique that can support relatively high pressure close to 1 psi and does not need any support to strengthen the microfluidic architecture. Reusable packaging techniques consist of PDMS-based microtube interconnectors and anisotropic adhesive films for electrical connections. These devices are more sensitive and fragile. Consequently, Plexiglas support is added to the microfluidic structure to improve the electrical contact when anisotropic adhesive films are used, and also to strengthen the microfluidic architecture. In addition, a micromanipulator is needed to maintain tubes while using a thin PDMS layer to connect them to the access holes. Different PDMS layer thicknesses, ranging from 0.45-3 mm, are tested to compare the best adherence versus injection rates. Applied injection rates are varied from 50-300 μl/hr for 0.45-3 mm PDMS layers, respectively. These techniques are mainly applicable for low-pressure applications. However, they can be extended for high-pressure ones through plasma-oxygen process to permanently seal the PDMS to glass substrates. The main advantage of this technique, besides the fact that it is reusable, consists of keeping the device observable when the microchannel length is very short (in the range of 3 mm or lower).

  17. Notification: Notification Memo for Evaluation of Management Controls for Alternative Asbestos Control Method Experiments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY12-0011, February 27, 2012. This memorandum is to notify you that the Office of Inspector General (OIG) is initiating an evaluation on the Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) experiments.

  18. 20170824 - Enhancing the Application of Alternative Methods Through Global Cooperation (WC10)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Progress towards the development and translation of alternative testing methods to safety-related decision making is a common goal that crosses organizational, stakeholder, and international boundaries. The challenge is that different organizations have different missions, differ...

  19. Approval of Alternative Test Method for Puerto Nuevo Wastewater Treatment Plant, San Juan, Puerto Rico Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This December 2008 memorandum is from Conniesue Oldham of the Measurement Technology Group to Marcus E. Kantz in EPA Region 2. This memorandum is regarding a request to use an alternative test method at the Puerto Neuvo wastewater treatment plant

  20. 27 CFR 46.261 - Purpose of an alternate method or procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Alternate Methods Or Procedures § 46.261...