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Sample records for rapid colorimetric quantification

  1. Rapid quantification of microalgal lipids in aqueous medium by a simple colorimetric method.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sanjiv K; Suh, William I; Farooq, Wasif; Moon, Myounghoon; Shrivastav, Anupama; Park, Min S; Yang, Ji-Won

    2014-03-01

    Identification of novel microalgal strains with high lipid productivity is one of the most important research topics in renewable biofuel research. However, the major bottleneck in the strain screening process is that currently known methods for the estimation of microalgal lipid are laborious and time-consuming. The present study successfully employed sulpho-phospho-vanillin (SPV) colorimetric method for direct quantitative measurement of lipids within liquid microalgal culture. The SPV reacts with lipids to produce a distinct pink color, and its intensity can be quantified using spectrophotometric methods by measuring absorbance at 530nm. This method was employed for a rapid quantification of intracellular lipid contents within Chlorella sp., Monoraphidium sp., Ettlia sp. and Nannochloropsis sp., all of which were found to have lipid contents ranging in between 10% and 30%. Subsequent analysis of the biomass using gas chromatography confirmed that our protocol is highly accurate (R(2)=0.99).

  2. Rapid and simple colorimetric method for the quantification of AI-2 produced from Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Wattanavanitchakorn, Siriluck; Prakitchaiwattana, Cheunjit; Thamyongkit, Patchanita

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Fe(III) ion reduction for the simple and rapid quantification of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) produced from bacteria using Salmonella Typhimurium as a model. Since the molecular structure of AI-2 is somewhat similar to ascorbic acid it was expected that AI-2 would also act as a reducing agent and reduce Fe(III) ions in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline to form the colored [(o-phen)3 Fe(II)]SO4 ferroin complex that could be quantified colorimetrically. In support of this, colony rinses and cell free supernatants from cultures of all tested AI-2 producing strains, but not the AI-2 negative Sinorhizobium meliloti, formed a colored complex with a λmax of 510nm. The OD510 values of these culture supernatants or colony rinses were in broad agreement with the % activity observed in the same samples using the standard Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence assay for AI-2 detection, and with previously reported results. This methodology could potentially be developed as an alternative method for the simple and rapid quantification of AI-2 levels produced in bacterial cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A quick colorimetric method for total lipid quantification in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Byreddy, Avinesh R; Gupta, Adarsha; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2016-06-01

    Discovering microalgae with high lipid productivity are among the key milestones for achieving sustainable biodiesel production. Current methods of lipid quantification are time intensive and costly. A rapid colorimetric method based on sulfo-phospho-vanillin (SPV) reaction was developed for the quantification of microbial lipids to facilitate screening for lipid producing microalgae. This method was successfully tested on marine thraustochytrid strains and vegetable oils. The colorimetric method results correlated well with gravimetric method estimates. The new method was less time consuming than gravimetric analysis and is quantitative for lipid determination, even in the presence of carbohydrates, proteins and glycerol.

  4. Rapid and portable electrochemical quantification of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Banks, Craig E

    2015-04-21

    Phosphorus is one of the key indicators of eutrophication levels in natural waters where it exists mainly as dissolved phosphorus. Various analytical protocols exist to provide an offsite analysis, and a point of site analysis is required. The current standard method recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the detection of total phosphorus is colorimetric and based upon the color of a phosphomolybdate complex formed as a result of the reaction between orthophosphates and molybdates ions where ascorbic acid and antimony potassium tartrate are added and serve as reducing agents. Prior to the measurements, all forms of phosphorus are converted into orthophosphates via sample digestion (heating and acidifying). The work presented here details an electrochemical adaptation of this EPA recommended colorimetric approach for the measurement of dissolved phosphorus in water samples using screen-printed graphite macroelectrodes for the first time. This novel indirect electrochemical sensing protocol allows the determination of orthophosphates over the range from 0.5 to 20 μg L(-1) in ideal pH 1 solutions utilizing cyclic voltammetry with a limit of detection (3σ) found to correspond to 0.3 μg L(-1) of phosphorus. The reaction time and influence of foreign ions (potential interferents) upon this electroanalytical protocol was also investigated, where it was found that a reaction time of 5 min, which is essential in the standard colorimetric approach, is not required in the new proposed electrochemically adapted protocol. The proposed electrochemical method was independently validated through the quantification of orthophosphates and total dissolved phosphorus in polluted water samples (canal water samples) with ion chromatography and ICP-OES, respectively. This novel electrochemical protocol exhibits advantages over the established EPA recommended colorimetric determination for total phosphorus with lower detection limits and shorter experimental times

  5. Colorimetric quantification of galactose using a nanostructured multi-catalyst system entrapping galactose oxidase and magnetic nanoparticles as peroxidase mimetics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon Il; Shim, Jongmin; Li, Taihua; Woo, Min-Ah; Cho, Daeyeon; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2012-03-07

    A colorimetric method for quantification of galactose, which utilizes a nanostructured multi-catalyst system consisting of Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and galactose oxidase (Gal Ox) simultaneously entrapped in large pore sized mesocellular silica, is described. Gal Ox, immobilized in a silica matrix, promotes reaction of galactose to generate H(2)O(2) that subsequently activates MNPs in silica mesopores to convert a colorimetric substrate into a colored product. By using this colorimetric method, galactose can be specifically detected. Along with excellent reusability via application of simple magnetic capturing, enhanced operational stability was achieved by employing a cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA) method for Gal Ox immobilization. This protocol leads to effective prevention of enzyme leaching from the pores of mesocellular silica. The analytical utility of the new colorimetric biosensor was demonstrated by its use in diagnosing galactosemia, a genetic metabolic disorder characterized by the inability to utilize galactose, through analysis of clinical dried blood spot specimens. A microscale well-plate format was employed that possesses a multiplexing capability. The multi-catalyst system entrapping Gal Ox and MNPs represents a new approach for rapid, convenient, and cost-effective quantification of galactose in human blood and it holds promise as an alternative method for galactosemia diagnosis, replacing the laborious procedures that are currently in use.

  6. Solid-phase colorimetric method for the quantification of fucoidan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Min; Shin, Z-U; Mavlonov, Gafurjon T; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2012-11-01

    We described the simple, selective, and rapid method for determination of fucoidans using methylene blue staining of sulfated polysaccharides, immobilized into filter paper and consequent optic density (at A (663) nm) measurement of the eluted dye from filter paper. This solid-phase method allows selective determination of 1-20 μg fucoidan in presence of potentially interfering compounds (alginic acid, DNA, salts, proteins, and detergents). Further, we demonstrated the alternative way of using image processing software for fucoidan quantification without extraction of methylene blue dye from stained spots of fucoidan-dye complex.

  7. Protein, enzyme and carbohydrate quantification using smartphone through colorimetric digitization technique.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sibasish; Saikia, Gunjan Prasad; Sarma, Dhruva Jyoti; Gupta, Kuldeep; Das, Priyanka; Nath, Pabitra

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the utilization of smartphone as a detection platform for colorimetric quantification of biological macromolecules has been demonstrated. Using V-channel of HSV color space, the quantification of BSA protein, catalase enzyme and carbohydrate (using D-glucose) have been successfully investigated. A custom designed android application has been developed for estimating the total concentration of biological macromolecules. The results have been compared with that of a standard spectrophotometer which is generally used for colorimetric quantification in laboratory settings by measuring its absorbance at a specific wavelength. The results obtained with the designed sensor is found to be similar when compared with the spectrophotometer data. The designed sensor is low cost, robust and we envision that it could promote diverse fields of bio-analytical investigations. Schematic illustration of the smartphone sensing mechanism for colorimetric analysis of biomolecular samples. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Colorimetric Integrated PCR Protocol for Rapid Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kewen; Pan, Daodong; Teng, Jun; Yao, Li; Ye, Yingwang; Xue, Feng; Xia, Fan; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection of pathogens is of great significance for food safety and disease diagnosis. A new colorimetric method for rapid and easy detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus or Vp) has been developed in this research. A specific sequence was designed and integrated with the forward primer for molecular detection of Vp. This specific sequence was tested and treated as the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme and could be amplified during the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. The products of PCR including the sequence of HRP-mimicking DNAzyme could produce the distinguished color in the presence of catalysis substrates. The optical signal of the catalysis reaction, which is in a linear relationship with the initial template of Vp, could be determined with the naked eye or measured with Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) for qualitative and quantitative detections, respectively. Based on the optical signal intensity, rapid and easy detection of Vp was successfully achieved with satisfied sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the detection of tdh, trh, tlh and toxR virulence genes of two Vp species (Vp 33847 and Vp 17802) were all performed successfully with this developed colorimetric integrated PCR protocol, which demonstrated potential applicability for the rapid detection of other bacteria. PMID:27690041

  9. Quantification of detergent using colorimetric methods in membrane protein crystallography.

    PubMed

    Prince, Chelsy; Jia, Zongchao

    2015-01-01

    Membrane protein crystallography has the potential to greatly aid our understanding of membrane protein biology. Yet, membrane protein crystals remain challenging to produce. Although robust methods for the expression and purification of membrane proteins continue to be developed, the detergent component of membrane protein samples is equally important to crystallization efforts. This chapter describes the development of three colorimetric assays for the quantitation of detergent in membrane protein samples and provides detailed protocols. All of these techniques use small sample volumes and have potential applications in crystallography. The application of these techniques in crystallization prescreening, detergent concentration modification, and detergent exchange experiments is demonstrated. It has been observed that the concentration of detergent in a membrane protein sample can be just as important as the protein concentration when attempting to reproduce crystallization lead conditions. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Colorimetric Quantification and in Situ Detection of Collagen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteban, Francisco J.; del Moral, Maria L.; Sanchez-Lopez, Ana M.; Blanco, Santos; Jimenez, Ana; Hernandez, Raquel; Pedrosa, Juan A.; Peinado, Maria A.

    2005-01-01

    A simple multidisciplinary and inexpensive laboratory exercise is proposed, in which the undergraduate student may correlate biochemical and anatomical findings. The entire practical session can be completed in one 2.5-3 hour laboratory period, and consists of the quantification of collagen and total protein content from tissue sections--without…

  11. Quantification of Wheat Grain Arabinoxylans Using a Phloroglucinol Colorimetric Assay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arabinoxylans (AX) play a critical role in end-use quality and nutrition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). An efficient, accurate method of AX quantification is desirable as AX plays an important role in processing, end use quality and human health. The objective of this work was to evaluate a stand...

  12. Colorimetric Quantification and in Situ Detection of Collagen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteban, Francisco J.; del Moral, Maria L.; Sanchez-Lopez, Ana M.; Blanco, Santos; Jimenez, Ana; Hernandez, Raquel; Pedrosa, Juan A.; Peinado, Maria A.

    2005-01-01

    A simple multidisciplinary and inexpensive laboratory exercise is proposed, in which the undergraduate student may correlate biochemical and anatomical findings. The entire practical session can be completed in one 2.5-3 hour laboratory period, and consists of the quantification of collagen and total protein content from tissue sections--without…

  13. Convenient, inexpensive quantification of elemental sulfur by simultaneous in situ reduction and colorimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Kwasniewski, Misha T; Allison, Rachel B; Wilcox, Wayne F; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-03

    Rapid, inexpensive, and convenient methods for quantifying elemental sulfur (S(0)) with low or sub-μgg(-1) limits of detection would be useful for a range of applications where S(0) can act as a precursor for noxious off-aromas, e.g., S(0) in pesticide residues on winegrapes or as a contaminant in drywall. However, existing quantification methods rely on toxic reagents, expensive and cumbersome equipment, or demonstrate poor selectivity. We have developed and optimized an inexpensive, rapid method (∼15 min per sample) for quantifying S(0) in complex matrices. Following dispersion of the sample in PEG-400 and buffering, S(0) is quantitatively reduced to H(2)S in situ by dithiothreitol and simultaneously quantified by commercially available colorimetric H(2)S detection tubes. By employing multiple tubes, the method demonstrated linearity from 0.03 to 100 μg S(0) g(-1) for a 5 g sample (R(2)=0.994, mean CV=6.4%), and the methodological detection limit was 0.01 μg S(0) g(-1). Interferences from sulfite or sulfate were not observed. Mean recovery of an S(0) containing sulfur fungicide in grape macerate was 84.7% with a mean CV of 10.4%. Mean recovery of S(0) in a colloidal sulfur preparation from a drywall matrix was 106.6% with a mean CV of 6.9%. Comparable methodological detection limits, sensitivity, and recoveries were achieved in grape juice, grape macerate and with 1g drywall samples, indicating that the methodology should be robust across a range of complex matrices.

  14. Comparison of colorimetric assays with quantitative amino acid analysis for protein quantification of Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Omar; Maggiore, Luana; Necchi, Francesca; Koeberling, Oliver; MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Genetically induced outer membrane particles from Gram-negative bacteria, called Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA), are being investigated as vaccines. Rapid methods are required for estimating the protein content for in-process assays during production. Since GMMA are complex biological structures containing lipid and polysaccharide as well as protein, protein determinations are not necessarily straightforward. We compared protein quantification by Bradford, Lowry, and Non-Interfering assays using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as standard with quantitative amino acid (AA) analysis, the most accurate currently available method for protein quantification. The Lowry assay has the lowest inter- and intra-assay variation and gives the best linearity between protein amount and absorbance. In all three assays, the color yield (optical density per mass of protein) of GMMA was markedly different from that of BSA with a ratio of approximately 4 for the Bradford assay, and highly variable between different GMMA; and approximately 0.7 for the Lowry and Non-Interfering assays, highlighting the need for calibrating the standard used in the colorimetric assay against GMMA quantified by AA analysis. In terms of a combination of ease, reproducibility, and proportionality of protein measurement, and comparability between samples, the Lowry assay was superior to Bradford and Non-Interfering assays for GMMA quantification.

  15. Variation of phlorotannins among three populations of Fucus vesiculosus as revealed by HPLC and colorimetric quantification.

    PubMed

    Koivikko, R; Eränen, J K; Loponen, J; Jormalainen, V

    2008-01-01

    In ecological studies, phlorotannins have conventionally been quantified as a group with similar functionality. Since this group consists of oligo- and polymers, the quantification of their pooled contents alone may not sufficiently describe the variation of these metabolites. Genetic variation, plastic responses to environment, and the ecological functions of separate phlorotannin oligo- and polymers may differ. Two analyses, i.e., the colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu assay and a normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method were used to study genetic and environmental variation in phlorotannins of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus (L.). The colorimetric method provides the total phlorotannin content, the latter a profile of 14 separate traces from the phenolic extract that represent an individual or groups of phlorotannins. We reared the algae that originated from three separate populations in a common garden for 3 months under ambient and enriched-nutrient availability and found that they differed in both their total phlorotannin content and in phlorotannin profiles. Some individual traces of the profiles separated the populations more clearly than the colorimetric assay. Although nutrient enrichment decreased total phlorotannin content, it did not show a significant influence on the phlorotannin profile. This implies that plastic responses of compounds other than phlorotannins may interfere with the determination of total phlorotannins. However, the phlorotannin profile and the total content showed genetic variation among local populations of F. vesiculosus; therefore, phlorotannins may respond to natural selection and evolve both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  16. Direct Quantification of Carotenoids in Low Fat Baby Foods Via Laser Photoacoustics and Colorimetric Index *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dóka, O.; Ajtony, Zs.; Bicanic, D.; Valinger, D.; Végvári, Gy.

    2014-12-01

    Carotenoids are important antioxidants found in various foods including those for nutrition of infants. In this investigation, the total carotenoid content (TCC) of nine different commercially available baby foods was quantified using colorimetric index * obtained via reflectance colorimetry (RC) and by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) at 473 nm. The latter requires a minimum of sample preparation and only a one time calibration step which enables practically direct quantification of TCC. Results were verified versus UV-Vis spectrophotometry (SP) as the reference technique. It was shown that RC and LPAS (at 473 nm) provide satisfactory results for *, = 0.9925 and = 0.9972, respectively. Other color indices do not show a correlation with TCC. When determining the TCC in baby foods containing tomatoes, it is necessary to select a different analytical wavelength to compensate for the effect of lycopene's presence in the test samples.

  17. A rapid colorimetric assay for mold spore germination using XTT tetrazolium salt

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2011-01-01

    Current laboratory test methods to measure efficacy of new mold inhibitors are time consuming, some require specialized test equipment and ratings are subjective. Rapid, simple quantitative assays to measure the efficacy of mold inhibitors are needed. A quantitative, colorimetric microassay was developed using XTT tetrazolium salt to metabolically assess mold spore...

  18. Reagent-Free Quantification of Aqueous Free Chlorine via Electrical Readout of Colorimetrically Functionalized Pencil Lines.

    PubMed

    Mohtasebi, Amirmasoud; Broomfield, Andrew D; Chowdhury, Tanzina; Selvaganapathy, P Ravi; Kruse, Peter

    2017-06-21

    Colorimetric methods are commonly used to quantify free chlorine in drinking water. However, these methods are not suitable for reagent-free, continuous, and autonomous applications. Here, we demonstrate how functionalization of a pencil-drawn film with phenyl-capped aniline tetramer (PCAT) can be used for quantitative electric readout of free chlorine concentrations. The functionalized film can be implemented in a simple fluidic device for continuous sensing of aqueous free chlorine concentrations. The sensor is selective to free chlorine and can undergo a reagent-free reset for further measurements. Our sensor is superior to electrochemical methods in that it does not require a reference electrode. It is capable of quantification of free chlorine in the range of 0.1-12 ppm with higher precision than colorimetric (absorptivity) methods. The interactions of PCAT with the pencil-drawn film upon exposure to hypochlorite were characterized spectroscopically. A previously reported detection mechanism relied on the measurement of a baseline shift to quantify free chlorine concentrations. The new method demonstrated here measures initial spike size upon exposure to free chlorine. It relies on a fast charge built up on the sensor film due to intermittent PCAT salt formation. It has the advantage of being significantly faster than the measurement of baseline shift, but it cannot be used to detect gradual changes in free chlorine concentration without the use of frequent reset pulses. The stability of PCAT was examined in the presence of free chlorine as a function of pH. While most ions commonly present in drinking water do not interfere with the free chlorine detection, other oxidants may contribute to the signal. Our sensor is easy to fabricate and robust, operates reagent-free, and has very low power requirements and is thus suitable for remote deployment.

  19. Rapid colorimetric sensing of tetracycline antibiotics with in situ growth of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Chen, Jing; Li, Na; He, Pingli; Li, Zhen

    2014-08-11

    A colorimetric assay utilizing the formation of gold nanoparticles was developed to detect tetracycline antibiotics in fluidic samples. Tetracycline antibiotics showed the capability of directly reducing aurate salts into atomic gold which form gold nanoparticles spontaneously under proper conditions. The resulted gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plasmon absorbance at 526 nm, which can be visualized by naked eyes or with a spectrophotometer. UV-vis absorbance of the resulted gold nanoparticles is correlated directly with the concentrations of tetracycline antibiotics in the solution, allowing for quantitative colorimetric detection of tetracycline antibiotics. Reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, and ionic strength were optimized. Sensitivity of the colorimetric assay can be enhanced by the addition of gold nanoparticle seeds, a LOD as low as 20 ng mL(-1) can be achieved with the help of seed particles. The colorimetric assay showed minimum interference from ethanol, methanol, urea, glucose, and other antibiotics such as sulfonamides, amino glycosides etc. Validity of the method was also evaluated on urine samples spiked with tetracycline antibiotics. The method provides a broad spectrum detection method for rapid and sensitive detection of reductive substances such as tetracycline antibiotics in liquid and biological samples.

  20. A fully automated colorimetric sensing device using smartphone for biomolecular quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Sibasish; Nath, Pabitra

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, the use of smartphone for colorimetric quantification of biomolecules has been demonstrated. As a proof-of-concept, BSA protein and carbohydrate have been used as biomolecular sample. BSA protein and carbohydrate at different concentrations have been treated with Lowry's reagent and Anthrone's reagent respectively . The change in color of the reagent-treated samples at different concentrations have been recorded with the camera of a smartphone in combination with a custom designed optomechanical hardware attachment. This change in color of the reagent-treated samples has been correlated with color channels of two different color models namely RGB (Red Green Blue) and HSV (Hue Saturation and Value) model. In addition to that, the change in color intensity has also been correlated with the grayscale value for each of the imaged sample. A custom designed android app has been developed to quantify the bimolecular concentration and display the result in the phone itself. The obtained results have been compared with that of standard spectrophotometer usually considered for the purpose and highly reliable data have been obtained with the designed sensor. The device is robust, portable and low cost as compared to its commercially available counterparts. The data obtained from the sensor can be transmitted to anywhere in the world through the existing cellular network. It is envisioned that the designed sensing device would find wide range of applications in the field of analytical and bioanalytical sensing research.

  1. A gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric probe for rapid detection of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaqi; Du, Chunyan; Li, Yunchao; Fan, Louzhen; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-07-07

    Direct and rapid detection of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is of great importance owing to its high carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and toxicity. In this study, a simple colorimetric assay for rapid determination of 1-OHP is reported, which is based on non-crosslinking aggregation of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) induced by 1-OHP in the presence of formic acid (FA). Initially, Au NPs were synthesized with citrate as the capping agent and exhibited red color. Subsequently, the addition of FA did not cause aggregation of Au NPs, but a proton transfer process occurred from FA to carboxylic anions on the surface of Au NPs with a decreased zeta potential. The subsequent addition of 1-OHP resulted in a further decreased zeta potential and an intensely hydrophobic environment, which led to a strong and rapid non-crosslinking aggregation of Au NPs within 5 min with the color changing from red to violet blue. Based on this principle, sensitive and selective detection of 1-OHP was achieved. The detection limit was 3.3 nM. Finally, the colorimetric assay was successfully applied to detect 1-OHP in a urine sample. This strategy provides new insights into developing colorimetric methods for on-site and real-time detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  2. Antibody-based surfaces: rapid characterization using two complementary colorimetric assays.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Thomas; Faye, Clément; Baqué, Mickael; Desvignes, Isabelle; Coussot, Gaëlle; Pascal, Robert; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, Odile

    2011-11-14

    Finding a general solution for optimizing the grafting of antibody on solid surfaces is difficult due to the variety of material, grafting principles and chemistries or surface formats available (beads, microplates, fibers, etc.). Pre-screening methods able to assess grafting efficiency (GE) and specific activity (SA) are required. In this context, we present here two colorimetric assays that can be used on a wide variety of surface format, chemistry, etc. The first one, ADECA (Amino Density Estimation by Colorimetric Assay) allows a rapid estimation of grafted antibodies and allows calculating the GE. The second one, A(2)HRP (Antibody Anti-HorseRadish Peroxidase) provides a measure of the amount of active antibody, which, combined to ADECA, is used to determine the SA of grafted antibody. Analytical parameters (limit of detection, repeatability, linearity, etc.) of these two colorimetric assays are presented. Using two commercially available microplates, we demonstrated that, when used in parallel, these rapid and sensitive methods are well adapted to pre-screening of antibody grafting performances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Rapid Colorimetric Method Reveals Fraudulent Substitutions in Sea Urchin Roe Marketed in Sardinia (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Domenico; Spina, Antonio; Satta, Gianluca; Chessa, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, besides the consumption of fresh sea urchin specimens, the demand of minimally-processed roe has grown considerably. This product has made frequent consumption in restaurants possible and frauds are becoming widespread with the partial replacement of sea urchin roe with surrogates that are similar in colour. One of the main factors that determines the quality of the roe is its colour and small differences in colour scale cannot be easily discerned by the consumers. In this study we have applied a rapid colorimetric method for reveal the fraudulent partial substitution of semi-solid sea urchin roe with liquid egg yolk. Objective assessment of whiteness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue (h*), and chroma (C*) was carried out with a digital spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* colour measurement system. The colorimetric method highlighted statistically significant differences among sea urchin roe and liquid egg yolk that could be easily discerned quantitatively. PMID:28231142

  4. A Rapid Colorimetric Method Reveals Fraudulent Substitutions in Sea Urchin Roe Marketed in Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Meloni, Domenico; Spina, Antonio; Satta, Gianluca; Chessa, Vittorio

    2016-06-25

    In recent years, besides the consumption of fresh sea urchin specimens, the demand of minimally-processed roe has grown considerably. This product has made frequent consumption in restaurants possible and frauds are becoming widespread with the partial replacement of sea urchin roe with surrogates that are similar in colour. One of the main factors that determines the quality of the roe is its colour and small differences in colour scale cannot be easily discerned by the consumers. In this study we have applied a rapid colorimetric method for reveal the fraudulent partial substitution of semi-solid sea urchin roe with liquid egg yolk. Objective assessment of whiteness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue (h*), and chroma (C*) was carried out with a digital spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* colour measurement system. The colorimetric method highlighted statistically significant differences among sea urchin roe and liquid egg yolk that could be easily discerned quantitatively.

  5. A Rapid Colorimetric Sensor of Clenbuterol Based on Cysteamine-Modified Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jingyan; Zhang, Yujie; Li, Xing; Miao, Lijing; Wu, Aiguo

    2016-01-13

    Demonstrated was a simple visual and rapid colorimetric sensor for detection of clenbuterol (CLB) based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified with cysteamine (CA) and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-vis. The solution color from red to blue gray with increasing clenbuterol concentration resulted from the aggregation of AuNPs. The detection limit of clenbuterol is 50 nM by naked eyes. The selectivity of CA-AuNPs detection system for clenbuterol is excellent compared with other interferents in food. This sensor has been successfully applied to detect clenbuterol in real blood sample.

  6. A Simple Paper-Based Colorimetric Device for Rapid Mercury(II) Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiwei; Fang, Xueen; Li, Hua; Cao, Hongmei; Kong, Jilie

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of the environment by mercury(II) ions (Hg2+) poses a serious threat to human health and ecosystems. Up to now, many reported Hg2+ sensors require complex procedures, long measurement times and sophisticated instrumentation. We have developed a simple, rapid, low cost and naked-eye quantitative method for Hg2+ environmental analysis using a paper-based colorimetric device (PCD). The sample solution to which platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) have been added is dispensed to the detection zone on the PCD, where the 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate has been pre-loaded. The PtNPs effect a rapid oxidization of TMB, inducing blue colorization on the PCD. However, Hg2+ in the solution rapidly interact with the PtNPs, suppressing the oxidation capacity and hence causing a decrease in blue intensity, which can be observed directly by the naked eye. Moreover, Hg2+ at concentrations as low as 0.01 uM, can be successfully monitored using a fiber optic device, which gives a digital readout proportional to the intensity of the blue color change. This paper-based colorimetric device (PCD) shows great potential for field measurement of Hg2+. PMID:27554633

  7. A Rapid In Situ Colorimetric Assay for Cobalt Detection by the Naked Eye.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung-Min; Jang, Sung-Chan; Kim, Gi Yong; Lee, Chang-Soo; Huh, Yun Suk; Roh, Changhyun

    2016-05-02

    A simple, rapid, and convenient colorimetric chemosensor of a specific target toward the end user is still required for on-site detection and real-time monitoring applications. In this study, we developed a rapid in situ colorimetric assay for cobalt detection using the naked eye. Interestingly, a yellow to light orange visual color transition was observed within 3 s when a Chrysoidine G (CG) chemosensor was exposed to cobalt. Surprisingly, the CG chemosensor had great selectivity toward cobalt without any interference of other metal ions. Under optimized conditions, a lower detection limit of 0.1 ppm via a spectrophotometer and a visual detection limit of 2 ppm with a linear range from 0.4 to 1 ppm (R² = 0.97) were determined. Moreover, the CG chemosensor is reversible and maintains its functionality after treatment with chelating agents. In conclusion, we show the superior capabilities of the CG chemosensor, which has the potential to provide extremely facile handling, high sensitivity, and a fast response time for applications of on-site detection to real-time cobalt monitoring for the general public.

  8. A Rapid In Situ Colorimetric Assay for Cobalt Detection by the Naked Eye

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung-Min; Jang, Sung-Chan; Kim, Gi Yong; Lee, Chang-Soo; Huh, Yun Suk; Roh, Changhyun

    2016-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and convenient colorimetric chemosensor of a specific target toward the end user is still required for on-site detection and real-time monitoring applications. In this study, we developed a rapid in situ colorimetric assay for cobalt detection using the naked eye. Interestingly, a yellow to light orange visual color transition was observed within 3 s when a Chrysoidine G (CG) chemosensor was exposed to cobalt. Surprisingly, the CG chemosensor had great selectivity toward cobalt without any interference of other metal ions. Under optimized conditions, a lower detection limit of 0.1 ppm via a spectrophotometer and a visual detection limit of 2 ppm with a linear range from 0.4 to 1 ppm (R2 = 0.97) were determined. Moreover, the CG chemosensor is reversible and maintains its functionality after treatment with chelating agents. In conclusion, we show the superior capabilities of the CG chemosensor, which has the potential to provide extremely facile handling, high sensitivity, and a fast response time for applications of on-site detection to real-time cobalt monitoring for the general public. PMID:27144568

  9. Copper chromogenic reaction based colorimetric immunoassay for rapid and sensitive detection of a tumor biomarker.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Lai, Guosong; Zhang, Haili; Hu, Shengli; Yu, Aimin

    2017-04-22

    A new colorimetric immunoassay method was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of a tumor biomarker of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by combination of a magnetic bead (MB)-based sandwich immunoassay and a copper chromogenic reaction. The magnetic immunoassay platform was constructed through the covalent immobilization of the capture antibody on the surface of carboxylated magnetic beads. After immuno-recognition of CEA, signal antibody-functionalized copper oxide nanoparticle (CuO NP) probes were applied for sandwich immunoreaction to form an immunocomplex. The CuO NP labels quantitatively captured onto the immunocomplex were then dissolved in acid solution to release high-content copper ions. Based on the coordination of these ions with the newly synthesized chromogenic agent of 1,2-diphenyl-2-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)hydrazono)ethanone, a red complex was produced for the colorimetric signal readout, resulting in the successful construction of a sensitive immunoassay method for CEA detection. Under the optimum conditions, this method showed a wide linear range over three orders of magnitude and a low detection limit of 26 pg/mL. Besides, this method showed excellent performance with low cost, rapid and convenient operation as well as satisfactory reproducibility, stability and accuracy, thus providing great potentials for practical applications.

  10. A new colorimetric assay for studying and rapid screening of membrane penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Evrard, D; Touitou, E; Kolusheva, S; Fishov, Y; Jelinek, R

    2001-07-01

    This work aims to demonstrate a novel chemical assay for rapid screening and analysis of the mode of action of membrane interaction by penetration enhancers. The new bio-mimetic membrane assembly, consisting of supramolecular aggregates of lipids and conjugated polydiacetylene, undergoes visible and quantifiable blue-red color transitions upon interaction with penetration enhancers. The new colorimetric model has been employed to examine various classes of penetration enhancers, including 1-dodecylhexahydro-2H-azepin-2-one (Azone), oleic acid, propylene-glycol, menthol, ethoxyglycol-diethyleneglycol-monoethyl-ether (Transcutol), polysorbate-polyethylenesorbitan-monolaurate (Tween-20), and the drug 7-chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one (Diazepam). The assay enables to evaluate the validity of various observations and hypotheses proposed in previous studies regarding permeation enhancement activities. Our results suggest, for example. that propylene glycol (PG) by itself does not interfere with membranes, but rather exhibits synergistic effect in combination with other penetration enhancers. Similarly, our data demonstrate that Transcutol does not independently interact with membranes. The colorimetric system also indicates that interaction of penetration enhancers with membranes depend upon the lipid phase, as well as the self-assembly properties of the enhancer molecules. The new biomimetic model membrane system can be applied for rapid screening of the activities of penetration enhancers, and provides insight into the mechanisms of permeability of membrane-active compounds.

  11. A rapid, simple method for determining formaldehyde in drinking water using colorimetric-solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Hill, April A; Lipert, Robert J; Fritz, James S; Porter, Marc D

    2009-02-15

    Formaldehyde has been detected in drinking water supplies across the globe and on board NASA spacecraft. A rapid, simple, microgravity-compatible technique for measuring this contaminant in water supplies using colorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE) is described. This method involves collecting a water sample into a syringe by passage through a cartridge that contains sodium hydroxide, to adjust pH, and Purpald, which is a well-established colorimetric reagent for aldehydes. After completing the reaction in the syringe by agitating for 2 min on a shaker at 400 rpm, the 1.0-mL alkaline sample is passed through an extraction disk that retains the purple product. The amount of concentrated product is then measured on-disk using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and compared to a calibration plot generated from Kubelka-Munk transformations of the reflectance data at 700 nm to determine the formaldehyde concentration. This method is capable of determining formaldehyde concentrations from 0.08 to 20 ppm with a total work-up time of less than 3 min using only 1-mL samples.

  12. Multilayer paper-based device for colorimetric and electrochemical quantification of metals.

    PubMed

    Rattanarat, Poomrat; Dungchai, Wijitar; Cate, David; Volckens, John; Chailapakul, Orawon; Henry, Charles S

    2014-04-01

    The release of metals and metal-containing compounds into the environment is a growing concern in developed and developing countries, as human exposure to metals is associated with adverse health effects in virtually every organ system. Unfortunately, quantifying metals in the environment is expensive; analysis costs using certified laboratories typically exceed $100/sample, making the routine analysis of toxic metals cost-prohibitive for applications such as occupational exposure or environmental protection. Here, we report on a simple, inexpensive technology with the potential to render toxic metals detection accessible for both the developing and developed world that combines colorimetric and electrochemical microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (mPAD) in a three-dimensional configuration. Unlike previous mPADs designed for measuring metals, the device reported here separates colorimetric detection on one layer from electrochemical detection on a different layer. Separate detection layers allows different chemistries to be applied to a single sample on the same device. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, colorimetric detection is shown for Ni, Fe, Cu, and Cr and electrochemical detection for Pb and Cd. Detection limits as low as 0.12 μg (Cr) were achieved on the colorimetric layer while detection limits as low as 0.25 ng (Cd and Pb) were achieved on the electrochemical layer. Selectivity for the target analytes was demonstrated for common interferences. As an example of the device utility, particulate metals collected on air sampling filters were analyzed. Levels measured with the mPAD matched known values for the certified reference samples of collected particulate matter.

  13. Molecularly imprinted photonic hydrogels as colorimetric sensors for rapid and label-free detection of vanillin.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hailong; Wang, Shenqi; Zhang, Zhong; Xiong, Hua; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin; Li, Yanbin

    2012-02-29

    A novel colorimetric sensor for the rapid and label-free detection of vanillin, based on the combination of photonic crystal and molecular imprinting technique, was developed. The sensing platform of molecularly imprinted photonic hydrogel (MIPH) was prepared by a noncovalent and self-assembly approach using vanillin as a template molecule. Morphology characterization by scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the MIPH possessed a highly ordered three-dimensional (3D) macroporous structure with nanocavities. The vanillin recognition events of the created nonocavities could be directly transferred into readable optical signals through a change in Bragg diffraction of the ordered macropores array of MIPH. The Bragg diffraction peak shifted from 451 to 486 nm when the concentration of the vanillin was increased from 10⁻¹² to 10⁻³ mol L⁻¹ within 60 s, whereas there were no obvious peak shifts for methyl and ethyl vanillin, indicating that the MIPH had high selectivity and rapid response for vanillin. The adsorption results showed that the hierarchical porous structure and homogeneous layers were formed in the MIPH with higher adsorption capacity. The application of such a label-free sensor with high selectivity, high sensitivity, high stability, and easy operation might offer a potential method for rapid real-time detection of trace vanillin.

  14. Rapid colorimetric sensing platform for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes foodborne pathogen.

    PubMed

    Alhogail, Sahar; Suaifan, Ghadeer A R Y; Zourob, Mohammed

    2016-12-15

    Listeria monocytogenes is a serious cause of human foodborne infections worldwide, which needs spending billions of dollars for inspection of bacterial contamination in food every year. Therefore, there is an urgent need for rapid, in-field and cost effective detection techniques. In this study, rapid, low-cost and simple colorimetric assay was developed using magnetic nanoparticles for the detection of listeria bacteria. The protease from the listeria bacteria was detected using D-amino acid substrate. D-amino acid substrate was linked to the carboxylic acid on the magnetic nanoparticles using EDC/NHS chemistry. The cysteine residue at the C-terminal of the substrate was used for the self-assembled monolayer formation on the gold sensor surface, which in turn the black magnetic nanobeads will mask the golden color. The color will change from black to golden color upon the cleavage of the specific peptide sequence by the Listeria protease. The sensor was tested with serial dilutions of Listeria bacteria. It was found that the appearance of the gold surface area is proportional to the bacterial concentrations in CFU/ml. The lowest detection limit of the developed sensor for Listeria was found to be 2.17×10(2) colony forming unit/ml (CFU/ml). The specificity of the biosensor was tested against four different foodborne associated bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella flexnerii and Staphylococcus aureus). Finally, the sensor was tested with artificially spiked whole milk and ground meat spiked with listeria.

  15. [Rapid Detection of Trace Dimethoate Pesticide Residues Based on Colorimetric Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Sun, Ming; Li, Min-zan; Sun, Hong

    2015-07-01

    In order to detect dimethoate pesticide residues rapidly and safely, a feasible method based on colorimetric spectroscopy was developed. Because dimethoate is one of organophosphorus pesticides containing sulfur, its sulfenyl can react with Pd2+ to produce a yellow complex named palladium sulfide. PdCl2 was used as the color agent, which was dissolved in acetic acid instead of the common concentrated hydrochloric acid. The dimethoate solution was prepared by dissolving the commercial pesticides into distilled water at different concentrations. The pesticide samples were reacted with the same amount of PdC2 solution respectively. The absorbance spectra of the samples after coloring reaction were measured in the region of 300-900 nm by a spectrophotometer. The result showed that the effect of using acetic acid instead of concentrated hydrochloric acid was not only safe but also preferable, and 0.5 mg x kg(-1) was the minimum concentration of the pesticide that could be distinguished in the spectra. The result met the pesticide residue detecting requirements of part fruits and vegetables in the national standard GB2763-2012 regulations. Further studies on random 40 dimethoate samples from 0.5 to 88 mg x kg(-1) were carried out. Thirty samples were randomly selected to establish the training model and remaining 10 samples were used to test the model. The preprocessing methods were carried on the spectrum data such as normalization and smoothing to get a better effect through comparison their prediction results with the correlation coefficient (r) and the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEP). The principal component analysis (PCA) method and partial least squares (PLS) method were used to establish prediction models respectively in the different wave ranges. By calculating the correlation coefficient of dimethoate samples in 350-900 nm the maximum of 0.9572 was obtained at wavelength 458 nm, so 453-463 and 400-600 nm were selected as feather regions

  16. Field-deployable colorimetric biosensor system for the rapid detection of pathogenic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duy, Janice

    The rapid identification of pathogenic organisms is necessary for recognizing and managing human and environmental health risks. Numerous detection schemes are available, but most are difficult to employ in non-laboratory settings due to their need for bulky, specialized equipment, multiple reagents, or highly trained personnel. To address this problem, a rapid, field-compatible biosensor system based on the colorimetric detection of nucleic acid hybrids was developed. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes were used to capture ribosomal RNA sequences from environmental samples. Non-target nucleic acids, including single-base mismatches flanked by adenines and uracils, were removed with a micrococcal nuclease digestion step. Matched PNA-RNA hybrids remained intact and were indicated by the cyanine dye DiSC2(5). PNA-containing duplexes function as templates for the aggregation of DiSC2(5), visualized as a change in solution color from blue to purple. This transition can be measured as an increase in the solution absorbance at 540 nm (dye aggregate) at the expense of the dye monomer peak at 650 nm. These concomitant spectral changes were used to calculate a "hybridization signal" using the ratio A aggregate/Amonomer ≈ A540/A650. Testing with pathogenic environmental samples was accomplished using two model organisms: the harmful algal bloom-causing dinoflagellate Alexandrium species, and the potato wart disease-causing fungus Synchytrium endobioticum. In both cases, the colorimetric approach was able to distinguish the targets with sensitivities rivaling those of established techniques, but with the advantages of decreased hands-on time and cost. Assay fieldability was tested with a portable colorimeter designed to quantify the dye-indicated hybridization signal and assembled from commercially available components. Side-by-side testing revealed no difference in the sensing performance of the colorimeter compared to a laboratory spectrophotometer (Pearson's r=0

  17. A rapid colorimetric method for predicting the storage stability of middle distillate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Marshman, S.J.

    1995-05-01

    Present methods used to predict the storage stability of distillate fuels such as ASTM D2274, ASTM D4625, DEF STAN 05-50 Method 40 and in-house methods are very time consuming, taking a minimum of 16 hours. In addition, some of these methods under- or over-predict the storage stability of the test fuel. A rapid colorimetric test for identifying cracked, straight run or hydrofined fuels was reported at the previous Conference. Further work has shown that while a visual appraisal is acceptable for refinery-fresh fuels, colour development may be masked by other coloured compounds in older fuels. Use of a spectrometric finish to the method has extended the scope of the method to include older fuels. The test can be correlated with total sediment from ASTM D4625 (13 weeks at 43{degrees}C) over a sediment range of 0-60mg/L. A correlation of 0.94 was obtained for 40 fuels.

  18. Novel low-cost fiber optic colorimetric instrument to rapidly screen premalignant esophageal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattamajumdar, Anupam K.; Myers, John A.; Proctor, Andrew H.; Levine, Douglas S.; Blount, Patricia L.; Reid, Brian J.; Martin, Roy W.

    1998-05-01

    A cost-efficient screening device is needed to detect patients who have Barrett's esophagus, a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma -- the most rapidly increasing cancer in the US. We have developed a prototype instrument based on colorimetric assessment of esophageal lumen. The system consists of a small diameter fiber-optic probe, interfacing electronics, a probe-head position sensor and a computer for display and analysis. The probe has a central plastic optical fiber through which white light is incident on the collapsed esophageal lumen via c conical mirror in the probe-head. A parabolic mirror in the probe-head focuses the reflected light is applied to a linear 520 X 3 RGB photo-diode array to generate proportional electrical signals. A position sensor tracks probe-head location as it is retracted, allowing generation of a 2D colormap of esophageal lumen. A color change from white to red indicates Barrett's esophagus. The system performed accurately in tests using models of esophageal lumen which simulate patterns observed in Barrett's esophagus.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of rapidly growing mycobacteria using the rapid colorimetric method.

    PubMed

    Ramis, I B; Cnockaert, M; von Groll, A; Nogueira, C L; Leão, S C; Andre, E; Simon, A; Palomino, J C; da Silva, P E A; Vandamme, P; Martin, A

    2015-07-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are recommended for guiding the antimicrobial therapy. We have evaluated the use of resazurin in Mueller-Hinton medium (MHR) for MIC determination of RGM and compared the results with those obtained with the reference standard broth microdilution in Mueller-Hinton (MH) and with the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) in 7H9 broth. The MIC of eight drugs: amikacin (AMI), cefoxitin (FOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), clarithromycin (CLA), doxycycline (DOX), linezolid (LZD), moxifloxacin (MXF) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) were evaluated against 76 RGM (18 species) using three methods (MH, MHR, and REMA) in a 96-well plate format incubated at 37 °C over 3-5 days. Results obtained in the MH plates were interpreted by the appearance of turbidity at the bottom of the well before adding the resazurin. MHR and 7H9-REMA plates were read by visual observation for a change in color from blue to pink. The majority of results were obtained at day 5 for MH and 1 day after for MHR and 7H9-REMA. However, the preliminary experiment on time to positivity results using the reference strain showed that the resazurin can be added to the MH at day 2 to produce the results at day 3, but future studies with large sets of strains are required to confirm this suggestion. A high level of agreement (kappa 1.000-0.884) was obtained between the MH and the MHR. Comparison of results obtained with 7H9-REMA, on the other hand, revealed several discrepancies and a lower level of agreement (kappa 1.000-0.111). The majority of the strains were resistant to DOX and TMP-SMX, and the most active antimicrobials for RGM were AMI and FOX. In the present study, MHR represented an excellent alternative for MIC determination of RGM. The results could be read reliably, more easily, and more quickly than with the classical MH method.

  20. Development of simple and sensitive hydrogel based colorimetric sensor array for the real-time quantification of gaseous ammonia.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Sanduru Thamarai; Son, Kuk Hui; Kim, Namhyoung; Viswanath, Buddolla; Kim, Sanghyo; An, Jeong Ho

    2017-03-01

    A real-time colorimetric sensor array (CSA) offers the advantages of diversity and accuracy for the quantification of multiple analytes; however, traditional sensors require a complex fabrication process. Therefore, to take full advantage of this sensing platform, we have developed a simple CSA system composed of a polymer, a reducing agent, and different pH indicators. Distinctive color response patterns were classified by extracting the hidden information, (i.e., red, green, and blue (RGB) values) from the indicators. This triple-channel sensing platform is further applied for statistical analysis, to quantify different concentrations of ammonia and other analytes. The sensor array showed a limit of detection of 0.3ppm, which is well below the diagnostic criteria for ammonia concentration in the breath of healthy individuals and of patients with end-stage renal disease. As this sensor would be able to quantify gaseous ammonia in the breath, it is relevant to the point-of-care diagnosis of patients with renal diseases.

  1. A novel colorimetric assay for rapid detection of cysteine and Hg²⁺ based on gold clusters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Wei; Tang, Shurong; Yang, Huang-Hao; Song, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition and recovery of the catalytic activity of bovine serum albumin-capped gold nanoclusters (BSA-AuNCs) is observed for the first time by introduction of cysteine and Hg(2+). The prepared BSA-AuNCs possess highly intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. It can catalyze the oxidation of 3, 3, 5, 5-tetramethylbenzidine by H2O2 to produce a blue colored product. Based on this phenomenon, a new colorimetric assay for rapid, selective and sensitive detection of cysteine and Hg(2+) in aqueous solution has been demonstrated. The interaction process between target molecule and BSA-AuNCs is very fast, so that the whole test can be completed within ten minutes. Moreover, the fabricated colorimetric sensor is simple and cost-effective, without the need of nucleic acid based recognition element and complicated washing, separation and labeling process, thus holds great promise for routine analysis of cysteine and Hg(2+) in real samples.

  2. Rapid and Sensitive Colorimetric ELISA using Silver Nanoparticles, Microwaves and Split Ring Resonator Structures

    PubMed Central

    Addae, Sarah A.; Pinard, Melissa A.; Caglayan, Humeyra; Cakmakyapan, Semih; Caliskan, Deniz; Ozbay, Ekmel; Aslan, Kadir

    2010-01-01

    We report a new approach to colorimetric Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) that reduces the total assay time to < 2 min and the lower-detection-limit by 100-fold based on absorbance readout. The new approach combines the use of silver nanoparticles, microwaves and split ring resonators (SRR). The SRR structure is comprised of a square frame of copper thin film (30 µm thick, 1 mm wide, overall length of ~9.4 mm on each side) with a single split on one side, which was deposited onto a circuit board (2×2 cm2). A single micro-cuvette (10 µl volume capacity) was placed in the split of the SRR structures. Theoretical simulations predict that electric fields are focused in and above the micro-cuvette without the accumulation of electrical charge that breaks down the copper film. Subsequently, the walls and the bottom of the micro-cuvette were coated with silver nanoparticles using a modified Tollen’s reaction scheme. The silver nanoparticles served as a mediator for the creation of thermal gradient between the bioassay medium and the silver surface, where the bioassay is constructed. Upon exposure to low power microwave heating, the bioassay medium in the micro-cuvette was rapidly and uniformly heated by the focused electric fields. In addition, the creation of thermal gradient resulted in the rapid assembly of the proteins on the surface of silver nanoparticles without denaturing the proteins. The proof-of-principle of the new approach to ELISA was demonstrated for the detection of a model protein (biotinylated-bovine serum albumin, b-BSA). In this regard, the detection of b-BSA with bulk concentrations (1 µM to 1 pM) was carried out on commercially available 96-well high throughput screening (HTS) plates and silver nanoparticle-deposited SRR structures at room temperature and with microwave heating, respectively. While the room temperature bioassay (without microwave heating) took 70 min to complete, the identical bioassay took < 2 min to complete using

  3. Rapid Quantification and Validation of Lipid Concentrations within Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Roces, Carla B.; Kastner, Elisabeth; Stone, Peter; Lowry, Deborah; Perrie, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of the lipid content in liposomal adjuvants for subunit vaccine formulation is of extreme importance, since this concentration impacts both efficacy and stability. In this paper, we outline a high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) method that allows for the rapid and simultaneous quantification of lipid concentrations within liposomal systems prepared by three liposomal manufacturing techniques (lipid film hydration, high shear mixing, and microfluidics). The ELSD system was used to quantify four lipids: 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), cholesterol, dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide, and d-(+)-trehalose 6,6′-dibehenate (TDB). The developed method offers rapidity, high sensitivity, direct linearity, and a good consistency on the responses (R2 > 0.993 for the four lipids tested). The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.11 and 0.36 mg/mL (DMPC), 0.02 and 0.80 mg/mL (cholesterol), 0.06 and 0.20 mg/mL (DDA), and 0.05 and 0.16 mg/mL (TDB), respectively. HPLC-ELSD was shown to be a rapid and effective method for the quantification of lipids within liposome formulations without the need for lipid extraction processes. PMID:27649231

  4. Evaluation of Direct Colorimetric MTT Assay for Rapid Detection of Rifampicin and Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hundie, Gadissa Bedada; Woldemeskel, Dawit; Gessesse, Amare

    2016-01-01

    With the spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains there is an increasing need for new accurate and cost-effective methods for a rapid diagnostic and drug susceptibility testing (DST), particularly in low-income countries where tuberculosis is hyperendemic. A colorimetric assay using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) has been suggested as a promising method for DST, especially to rifampicin. In this study, we standardized and evaluated the MTT assay for a rapid direct detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from sputum specimens using Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture medium as a gold standard. The MTT assay sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for rifampicin were 100%, 86%, 100%, 99%, respectively. For isoniazid, the MTT assay had a 100% sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Interestingly, the MTT assay gave interpretable results within two weeks for 94% of the samples compared to 7-14 weeks for LJ media. Overall, an excellent agreement was observed between MTT assay and LJ proportion method (Kappa, 0.91 for rifampicin and 1.00 for isoniazid). In conclusion, the direct colorimetric MTT assay simultaneously detects susceptible and resistant strains of M. tuberculosis within three weeks. It significantly shortens the time required to obtain a DST result and could be a reliable alternative method for rapid detection of drug-resistant TB strains in high-TB-burden resource-limited settings.

  5. Evaluation of Direct Colorimetric MTT Assay for Rapid Detection of Rifampicin and Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Woldemeskel, Dawit; Gessesse, Amare

    2016-01-01

    With the spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains there is an increasing need for new accurate and cost-effective methods for a rapid diagnostic and drug susceptibility testing (DST), particularly in low-income countries where tuberculosis is hyperendemic. A colorimetric assay using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) has been suggested as a promising method for DST, especially to rifampicin. In this study, we standardized and evaluated the MTT assay for a rapid direct detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from sputum specimens using Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture medium as a gold standard. The MTT assay sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for rifampicin were 100%, 86%, 100%, 99%, respectively. For isoniazid, the MTT assay had a 100% sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Interestingly, the MTT assay gave interpretable results within two weeks for 94% of the samples compared to 7–14 weeks for LJ media. Overall, an excellent agreement was observed between MTT assay and LJ proportion method (Kappa, 0.91 for rifampicin and 1.00 for isoniazid). In conclusion, the direct colorimetric MTT assay simultaneously detects susceptible and resistant strains of M. tuberculosis within three weeks. It significantly shortens the time required to obtain a DST result and could be a reliable alternative method for rapid detection of drug-resistant TB strains in high-TB-burden resource-limited settings. PMID:28030634

  6. Evaluation of colorimetric nitrate reductase assay for rapid detection of methicillin resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Niveditha, N; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-07-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a major cause of health care-associated infections. Rapid detection of MRSA facilitates the early initiation of appropriate treatment and infection control. Hence, the present study was undertaken to standardize and evaluate the performance of rapid colorimetric nitrate reductase assay (NRA) for determining methicillin resistance in S.aureus. A total of 160 clinical isolates of S. aureus, (80 each of methicillin susceptible and methicillin resistant) were included in the study. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by NRA and reference broth micro dilution (BMD) methods. Results of NRA were compared with BMD and analyzed. For MRSA, the MIC values ranged from 4 to ≥ 16 μg/ml and for MSSA, ≤ 0.5 to 2 μg/ml. Category and essential agreement for NRA as compared with BMD were found to be 99.4 and 89.7 per cent, respectively. No minor or major discrepancy was observed. A single resistant isolate showed very major discrepancy. Colorimetric NRA being an inexpensive test requiring no special equipment can be employed as an alternative method for rapid detection of MRSA in resource limited settings.

  7. Evaluation of colorimetric nitrate reductase assay for rapid detection of methicillin resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Niveditha, N.; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a major cause of health care-associated infections. Rapid detection of MRSA facilitates the early initiation of appropriate treatment and infection control. Hence, the present study was undertaken to standardize and evaluate the performance of rapid colorimetric nitrate reductase assay (NRA) for determining methicillin resistance in S.aureus. Methods: A total of 160 clinical isolates of S. aureus, (80 each of methicillin susceptible and methicillin resistant) were included in the study. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by NRA and reference broth micro dilution (BMD) methods. Results of NRA were compared with BMD and analyzed. Results: For MRSA, the MIC values ranged from 4 to ≥ 16 μg/ml and for MSSA, ≤ 0.5 to 2 μg/ml. Category and essential agreement for NRA as compared with BMD were found to be 99.4 and 89.7 per cent, respectively. No minor or major discrepancy was observed. A single resistant isolate showed very major discrepancy. Interpretation & conclusions: Colorimetric NRA being an inexpensive test requiring no special equipment can be employed as an alternative method for rapid detection of MRSA in resource limited settings. PMID:27834331

  8. Electrospun nanofiber based colorimetric probe for rapid detection of Fe2+ in water.

    PubMed

    Ondigo, D A; Tshentu, Z R; Torto, N

    2013-12-04

    An imidazole derivative, 2-(2'-pyridyl)imidazole (PIMH), was developed as a colorimetric probe for the qualitative analysis of Fe(2+) in aqueous solution. PIMH was then used to post-functionalize poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (PVBC) nanofibers after electrospinning so as to afford a solid state colorimetric probe. Upon treatment with Fe(2+) the probe displayed a distinctive color change both in liquid and solid platforms. The linear dynamic range for the colorimetric determination of Fe(2+) was 0.0988-3.5 μg mL(-1). The ligand showed a high chromogenic selectivity for Fe(2+) over other cations with a detection limit of 0.102 μg mL(-1) in solution (lower than the WHO drinking water guideline limit of 2 mg L(-1)), and 2 μg mL(-1) in the solid state. The concentration of Fe(2+) in a certified reference material (Iron, Ferrous, 1072) was found to be 2.39±0.01 mg L(-1), which was comparable with the certified value of 2.44±0.12 mg L(-1). Application of the probe to real samples spiked with Fe(2+) achieved recoveries of over 97% confirming accuracy of the method and its potential for on-site monitoring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Straightforward rapid spectrophotometric quantification of total cyanogenic glycosides in fresh and processed cassava products.

    PubMed

    Tivana, Lucas Daniel; Da Cruz Francisco, Jose; Zelder, Felix; Bergenståhl, Bjorn; Dejmek, Petr

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we extend pioneering studies and demonstrate straightforward applicability of the corrin-based chemosensor, aquacyanocobyrinic acid (ACCA), for the instantaneous detection and rapid quantification of endogenous cyanide in fresh and processed cassava roots. Hydrolytically liberated endogenous cyanide from cyanogenic glycosides (CNp) reacts with ACCA to form dicyanocobyrinic acid (DCCA), accompanied by a change of colour from orange to violet. The method was successfully tested on various cassava samples containing between 6 and 200 mg equiv. HCN/kg as verified with isonicotinate/1,3-dimethylbarbiturate as an independent method. The affinity of ACCA sensor to cyanide is high, coordination occurs fast and the colorimetric response can therefore be instantaneously monitored with spectrophotometric methods. Direct applications of the sensor without need of extensive and laborious extraction processes are demonstrated in water-extracted samples, in acid-extracted samples, and directly on juice drops. ACCA showed high precision with a standard deviation (STDV) between 0.03 and 0.06 and high accuracy (93-96%). Overall, the ACCA procedure is straightforward, safe and easily performed. In a proof-of-concept study, rapid screening of ten samples within 20 min has been tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid determination of trace copper in animal feed based on micro-plate colorimetric reaction and statistical partitioning correction.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yiming; Wang, Jiayi; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Yiqiang

    2017-04-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a micro-plate based colorimetric assay for rapid and high-throughput detection of copper in animal feed. Copper ion in animal feed was extracted by trichloroacetic acid solution and reduced to cuprous ion by hydroxylamine. The cuprous ion can chelate with 2,2'-bicinchoninic acid to form a Cu-BCA complex which was detected with high sensitivity by micro-plate reader at 354nm. The whole assay procedure can be completed within 20min. To eliminate matrix interference, a statistical partitioning correction approach was proposed, which makes the detection of copper in complex samples possible. The limit of detection was 0.035μg/mL and the detection range was 0.1-10μg/mL of copper in buffer solution. Actual sample analysis indicated that this colorimetric assay produced results consistent with atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. These results demonstrated that the developed assay can be used for rapid determination of copper in animal feed.

  11. Rapid colorimetric detection of Salmonella typhimuriumusing a selective filtration technique combined with antibody-magnetic nanoparticle nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Shim, Won-Bo; Song, Jeong-Eon; Mun, Hyoyoung; Chung, Duck-Hwa; Kim, Min-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Detection of pathogenic bacteria that pose a great risk to human health requires a rapid, convenient, reliable, and sensitive detection method. In this study, we developed a selective filtration method using monoclonal antibody (MAb)-magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) nanocomposites for the rapid and sensitive colorimetric detection of Salmonella typhimurium. The method contains two key steps: the immunomagnetic separation of the bacteria using MAb-MNP nanocomposites and the filtration of the nanocomposite-bound bacteria. Color signals from the nanocomposites remaining on the membrane were measured, which reflected the amount of bacteria in test samples. Immunomagnetic capture efficiencies of 8 to 90 % for various concentrations of the pathogen (2 × 10(4)-2 × 10(1) cells) were obtained. After optimization of the method, 2 × 10(1) cells of S. typhimurium in pure culture solution was detectable as well as in artificially inoculated vegetables (100 cells/g). The method was confirmed to be highly specific to S. typhimurium without cross-reaction to other pathogenic bacteria and could be concluded within 45 min, yielding results in a shorter or similar time period as compared with recently reported antibody immobilized on magnetic-particle-based methods. This study also demonstrated direct application of MAb-MNP nanocomposites without a dissociation step of bacteria from magnetic beads in colorimetric assays in practice.

  12. Rapid Quantification of Energy Absorption and Dissipation Metrics for PPE Padding Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-22

    Oct 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Rapid Quantification of Energy Absorption & Dissipation Metrics for PPE 55332EGII Padding ...Engineering Seminar Series, Spring 2009 [2] Rapid Quantification of Energy Absorption & Dissipation Metrics for PPE Padding Materials: Final...55332EGII – Part2.pdf, and Part 3, respectively. [1] Rapid Quantification of Energy Absorption & Dissipation Metrics for PPE Padding Materials: Final

  13. Centrifugal loop-mediated isothermal amplification microdevice for rapid, multiplex and colorimetric foodborne pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Jun; Park, Byung Hyun; Jung, Jae Hwan; Choi, Goro; Lee, Doh C; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2016-01-15

    We present a centrifugal microfluidic device which enables multiplex foodborne pathogen identification by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and colorimetric detection using Eriochrome Black T (EBT). Five identical structures were designed in the centrifugal microfluidic system to perform the genetic analysis of 25 pathogen samples in a high-throughput manner. The sequential loading and aliquoting of the LAMP cocktail, the primer mixtures, and the DNA sample solutions were accomplished by the optimized zigzag-shaped microchannels and RPM control. We targeted three kinds of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and detected the amplicons of the LAMP reaction by the EBT-mediated colorimetric method. For the limit-of-detection (LOD) test, we carried out the LAMP reaction on a chip with serially diluted DNA templates of E. coli O157:H7, and could observe the color change with 380 copies. The used primer sets in the LAMP reaction were specific only to the genomic DNA of E. coli O157:H7, enabling the on-chip selective, sensitive, and high-throughput pathogen identification with the naked eyes. The entire process was completed in 60min. Since the proposed microsystem does not require any bulky and expensive instrumentation for end-point detection, our microdevice would be adequate for point-of-care (POC) testing with high simplicity and high speed, providing an advanced genetic analysis microsystem for foodborne pathogen detection.

  14. Rapid and selective lead (II) colorimetric sensor based on azacrown ether-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, A.; Khodaei, M. M.; Karami, Ch; Workentin, M. S.; Shamsipur, M.; Sadeghi, M.

    2010-08-01

    A gold nanoparticle (AuNPs)-based simple and fast colorimetric sensor for selective detecting of Pb(II) in aqueous solution has been developed. Monodisperse AuNPs (approx. 2.0 nm diameter) has been prepared facilely and further modified with an alkanethiol-bearing monoazacrown ether terminus. These AuNPs are shown to selectively sense Pb2 + through color change, which is visually discernible by an appearance of the surface plasmon band (SPB) at 520 nm. The recognition mechanism is attributed to the unique structure of the monoazacrown ether attached to AuNPs and metal sandwich coordination between two azacrown ether moieties that are attached to separate nanoparticles. This inter-particle cross-linking results in an aggregation and apparent color change from brown to purple. Additionally, TEM experiments support the optical absorption data proving the aggregation between azacrown ether-capped gold nanoparticles. This AuNP-based colorimetric assay is a facile and robust method and allows fast detection of Pb2 + at ambient temperatures. More importantly, the developed technique does not utilize enzymatic reactions, light-sensitive dye molecules, lengthy protocols or sophisticated instrumentation.

  15. Facile colorimetric method for simple and rapid detection of endotoxin based on counterion-mediated gold nanorods aggregation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yashan; Zhang, Daohong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiao; Yu, Shaoxuan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Wentao; Zhu, Wenxin; Wang, Jianlong

    2014-05-15

    Existence of endotoxin in food and injection products indicates bacterial contaminations and therefore poses threat to human health. Herein, a simple and rapid colorimetric method for the effective detection of endotoxin in food and injections based on counterion-mediated gold nanorods aggregation is first proposed. By taking advantage of the color change of unmodified gold nanorods resulted from endotoxin mediated gold nanorods aggregation, endotoxin could be detected in the concentration range of 0.01-0.6 μM. Further, we studied the performance of gold nanorods with different aspect ratios (2.7 and 3.3) in determination of endotoxin and found that gold nanorods with higher aspect ratio (AR) showed superiority in the sensing sensitivity of endotoxin. A good specificity for endotoxin, a detection limit of 0.0084 μM and recoveries ranging from 84% to 109% in spiked food and injection samples are obtained with the colorimetric method. Results demonstrate that the present method provides a novel and effective approach for on-site screening of endotoxin in common products, which is beneficial for monitoring and reducing the risk of bacterial contaminations in food and injections production.

  16. The Rapid and Sensitive Quantitative Determination of Galactose by Combined Enzymatic and Colorimetric Method: Application in Neonatal Screening.

    PubMed

    Kianmehr, Anvarsadat; Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Ansari, Javad; Oladnabi, Morteza; Shahbazmohammadi, Hamid

    2016-05-01

    The quantitative measurement of galactose in blood is essential for the early diagnosis, treatment, and dietary monitoring of galactosemia patients. In this communication, we aimed to develop a rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective combined method for galactose determination in dry blood spots. This procedure was based on the combination of enzymatic reactions of galactose dehydrogenase (GalDH), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), and alkaline phosphates with a colorimetric system. The incubation time and the concentration of enzymes used in new method were also optimized. The analytical performance was studied by the precision, recovery, linearity, and sensitivity parameters. Statistical analysis was applied to method comparison experiment. The regression equation and correlation coefficient (R (2)) were Y = 0.0085x + 0.032 and R (2) = 0.998, respectively. This assay exhibited a recovery in the range of 91.7-114.3 % and had the limit detection of 0.5 mg/dl for galactose. The between-run coefficient of variation (CV) was between 2.6 and 11.1 %. The within-run CV was between 4.9 and 9.2 %. Our results indicated that the new and reference methods were in agreement because no significant biases exist between them. Briefly, a quick and reliable combined enzymatic and colorimetric assay was presented for application in newborn mass screening and monitoring of galactosemia patients.

  17. A smartphone-based colorimetric reader coupled with a remote server for rapid on-site catechols analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Li, Yuanyuan; Bao, Xu; Han, Juan; Xia, Jinchen; Tian, Xiaoyu; Ni, Liang

    2016-11-01

    The search of a practical method to analyze cis-diol-containing compounds outside laboratory settings remains a substantial scientific challenge. Herein, a smartphone-based colorimetric reader was coupled with a remote server for rapid on-site analysis of catechols. A smallest-scale 2×2 colorimetric sensor array composed of pH indicators and phenylboronic acid was configured. The array was able to distinguish 13 catechols at 6 serial concentrations, through simultaneous treatment via principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and linear discriminant analysis. After both the discriminatory power of the array and the prediction ability of the partial least squares quantitative models were proved to be predominant, the smartphone was coupled to the remote server. All the ΔRGB data were uploaded to the remote server wherein linear discriminant analysis and partial least squares processing modules were established to provide qualitative discrimination and quantitative calculation, respectively, of the analytes in real time. The applicability of this novel method to a real-life scenario was confirmed by the on-site analysis of various catechols from a water sample of the Yangtze River; the feedback result in the smartphone showed the method was able to identify the catechols with 100% accuracy and predict the concentrations to within 0.706-2.240 standard deviation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. On the photoacoustic, photothermal and colorimetric quantification of carotenoids and other phytonutrients in some foods: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicanic, Dane Danijel

    2011-05-01

    The performance of various analytical methods is compared in terms of their potentiality to quantify the concentration of carotenoids in some foods accurately and rapidly. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry (SP), two absolute reference techniques, were used in parallel experiments. The emphasis is on the application of the new methods to significantly reduce the long analysis time (due to a laborious and costly extraction) characteristic for both HPLC and spectrophotometry. Among such direct quantification methods are colorimetry and a variety of novel photoacoustic (PA) and photothermal (PT) detection schemes that obviate the extraction step. The outcome of numerous studies shows a number of important advantages provided by these methods. Furthermore, the promising results suggest that the availability of practical, versatile, compact and affordable quality control instruments that offer a low-cost solution to routine analysis of specific carotenoids in some foods is within reach.

  19. Lab-in-a-syringe using gold nanoparticles for rapid colorimetric chiral discrimination of enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Zor, Erhan; Bekar, Nisa

    2017-05-15

    Nanomaterials with different characteristics are offering many ingenious sensing approaches with interest for simple and disposable paper-based (bio)sensing applications. In this study, the colorimetric discrimination of alanine enantiomers is examined and, more importantly, AuNPs-embedded paper-based lab-in-a-syringe (LIS) device is developed as a sensing strategy. The LIS consists of two cellulose acetate membranes: the conjugate pad capturing the analyte and the detection pad signaling the presence of the captured analyte, both are sandwiched between reusable plastic filter holders connected to a disposable syringe. The principle of LIS assay is based on the enantioselective interaction occurring between the inherently chiral AuNPs and enantiomers in the first filter holder, which results in aggregation of AuNPs to give a distinct colour change from red to purple in solution and finally the aggregated AuNPs is kept on the detection pad through vertical-flow operation. AuNPs show an enantioselective recognition response toward L-Alanine and limit of detection (LOD) value is determined as 0.77mM. In addition, we demonstrate the efficiency of the LIS device for detecting L-Alanine in human serum. The proposed LIS assay has some advantages such as useful for naked-eye observation, disposable, not time-consuming, inexpensive, no need of advanced instruments, easy to prepare and easy to handle. In the field, the approach which is the first demonstration of applicability of LIS device to show simple colorimetric enantioselective sensing of chiral species with a fast readout in less than 5min is truly new and may have broad interest in enantiosensing of various chiral molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microfluidic immunosensor for rapid and highly-sensitive salivary cortisol quantification.

    PubMed

    Pinto, V; Sousa, P; Catarino, S O; Correia-Neves, M; Minas, G

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents a novel poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic immunosensor that integrates a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) optical detection system for a rapid and highly-sensitive quantification of salivary cortisol. The simple and non-invasive method of saliva sampling provides an interesting alternative to the blood, allowing a fast sampling at short intervals, relevant for many clinical diagnostic applications. The developed approach is based on the covalent immobilization of a coating antibody (Ab), a polyclonal anti-IgG, onto a treated PDMS surface. The coating Ab binds the capture Ab, an IgG specific for cortisol, allowing its correct orientation. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labelled cortisol is added to compete with the cortisol in the sample, for the capture Ab binding sites. The HRP-labelled cortisol, bonded to the capture Ab, is measured through the HRP enzyme and the tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate reaction. The cortisol quantification is performed by colorimetric detection of HRP-labelled cortisol, through optical absorption at 450nm, using a CMOS silicon photodiode as the photodetector. Under the developed optimized conditions presented here, e.g., microfluidic channels geometry, immobilization method and immunoassay conditions, the immunosensor shows a linear range of detection between 0.01-20ng/mL, a limit of detection (LOD) of 18pg/mL and an analysis time of 35min, featuring a great potential for point-of-care applications requiring continuous monitoring of the salivary cortisol levels during a circadian cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A readily available colorimetric and near-infrared fluorescent turn-on probe for rapid and selective detection of cysteine in living cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shuanghong; Ding, Shuangshuang; Zhai, Qisong; Zhang, Haiyan; Feng, Guoqiang

    2015-06-15

    A readily available naphthofluorescein-based near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe was reported for rapid, colorimetric and NIR fluorescent turn-on detection of cysteine (Cys) with high selectivity and sensitivity over various analytes including the similar structured homocysteine (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH). This probe was successfully applied to bioimage intracellular Cys in living cells with low cytotoxicity.

  2. O-antigen and virulence profiling of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by a rapid and cost-effective DNA microarray colorimetric method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. To evaluate better methods to rapidly detect and genotype Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains, the present study evaluated the use of the ampliPHOX colorimetric detection technology, based on ...

  3. Genetically engineered colorimetric single-chain antibody fusion protein for rapid diagnosis of rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Mousli, M; Turki, I; Kharmachi, H; Dellagi, K

    2008-01-01

    The most widely used test for rabies diagnostics is the fluorescent antibody test, which is recommended by both the World Health Organization and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). This test may be used directly on a smear, and can also be used to confirm the presence of rabies antigen in cell culture or in brain tissue for diagnosis. The colorimetric enzymes are usually coupled to an antibody by chemical means using cross-linking reagents. However, such non-specific procedures lead to heterogeneous conjugates, sometimes with reduced activity and specificity. To bypass these problems, genetic engineering has provided a way to create chimeric bifunctional molecules in which the variable domains of an antibody are genetically linked to unrelated protein tracers. In this study, we describe the successful production of a bifunctional chimeric protein based on alkaline phosphatase-fused anti-rabies virus glycoprotein scFv antibody fragment. We also report the antigen binding properties and the alkaline phosphatase activity of the recombinant conjugate protein. We established its value as a novel in vitro tool for detecting the rabies virus in brain smear in a one-step procedure; it presents a similar sensitivity and specificity to that obtained using standard reagents.

  4. A rapid and sensitive colorimetric measurement of antibiotic efficacy against Escherichia coli in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaojie; Xu, Yingchao; Liu, Chang

    2016-04-01

    A common dye of prussian blue (PB) as an indicator was used to develop a colorimetric method for detecting the efficacy of the antibiotics in vitro. Considering the electronic production capacity of microbial respiration, ferricyanide was employed in transferring electrons from target microorganism of Escherichia coli (E. coli) to produce ferrocyanide. Subsequently, ferrocyanide reacted with ferric ions to form PB. In view of relationship between the PB yield and the bacterial activity, the efficacy of the antibiotics on E. coli was directly detected at 700 nm of PB absorption. When the 5% activity of antibiotics on 20 isolates of E. coli was quantified as 5% efficacy, the applied concentrations of eight antibiotics, such as cefepime, ceftriaxone sodium, cefoperazone sodium, piperacillin sodium, amoxicillin, gentamicin, amikacin and levofloxacin were 2, 2, 4, 4, 10, 4, 8 and 8 μg mL⁻¹, respectively. To compare with minimum inhibitory concentration results obtained by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth macrodilution method, the results of PB methods showed good agreements except with gentamicin. Paired t-test result (P) also showed that difference between two methods was statistically significant (P = 0.006). © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A smartphone readable colorimetric sensing platform for rapid multiple protein detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feiyang; Lu, Yuexiang; Yang, Jiacheng; Chen, Ying; Jing, Wenjie; He, Liuying; Liu, Yueying

    2017-08-21

    A simple, visible and smartphone readable strategy has been proposed for the sensitive detection and discrimination of multiple proteins. By employing five different concentrations of NaCl salt, AuNP exhibited different aggregation behavior for different proteins because of differential ion strength, leading to diverse color changes. The sensing system could not only discriminate twelve proteins at the concentration of 50 nM in aqueous solution, but it could also discriminate these proteins at 200 nM in the presence of human urine with an accuracy of 100%. More importantly, based on the theory of chromatics, we could directly read out the color value using a smartphone to distinguish twelve proteins, pure Lys and HSA at various concentrations, and the mixture of these two proteins in the presence of human urine with no confusion after a hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The inexpensive and convenient colorimetric sensor array using the ubiquitous smartphone for signal readout has great potential for the point-of-care diagnosis without additional devices.

  6. Rapid quantitative analysis of lipids using a colorimetric method in a microplate format.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Zheng, Yi; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2011-01-01

    A colorimetric sulfo-phospho-vanillin (SPV) method was developed for high throughput analysis of total lipids. The developed method uses a reaction mixture that is maintained in a 96-well microplate throughout the entire assay. The new assay provides the following advantages over other methods of lipid measurement: (1) background absorbance can be easily corrected for each well, (2) there is less risk of handling and transferring sulfuric acid contained in reaction mixtures, (3) color develops more consistently providing more accurate measurement of absorbance, and (4) the assay can be used for quantitative measurement of lipids extracted from a wide variety of sources. Unlike other spectrophotometric approaches that use fluorescent dyes, the optimal spectra and reaction conditions for the developed assay do not vary with the sample source. The developed method was used to measure lipids in extracts from four strains of microalgae. No significant difference was found in lipid determination when lipid content was measured using the new method and compared to results obtained using a macro-gravimetric method.

  7. Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle peroxidase mimetic-based colorimetric assay for the rapid detection of organophosphorus pesticide and nerve agent.

    PubMed

    Liang, Minmin; Fan, Kelong; Pan, Yong; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Fei; Yang, Dongling; Lu, Di; Feng, Jing; Zhao, Jianjun; Yang, Liu; Yan, Xiyun

    2013-01-02

    Rapid and sensitive detection methods are in urgent demand for the screening of extensively used organophosphorus pesticides and highly toxic nerve agents for their neurotoxicity. In this study, we developed a novel Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) peroxidase mimetic-based colorimetric method for the rapid detection of organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents. The detection assay is composed of MNPs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and choline oxidase (CHO). The enzymes AChE and CHO catalyze the formation of H(2)O(2) in the presence of acetylcholine, which then activates MNPs to catalyze the oxidation of colorimetric substrates to produce a color reaction. After incubation with the organophosphorus neurotoxins, the enzymatic activity of AChE was inhibited and produced less H(2)O(2), resulting in a decreased catalytic oxidation of colorimetric substrates over MNP peroxidase mimetics, accompanied by a drop in color intensity. Three organophosphorus compounds were tested on the assay: acephate and methyl-paraoxon as representative organophosphorus pesticides and the nerve agent Sarin. The novel assay displayed substantial color change after incubation in organophosphorus neurotoxins in a concentration-dependent manner. As low as 1 nM Sarin, 10 nM methyl-paraoxon, and 5 μM acephate are easily detected by the novel assay. In conclusion, by employing the peroxidase-mimicking activity of MNPs, the developed colorimetric assay has the potential of becoming a screening tool for the rapid and sensitive assessment of the neurotoxicity of an overwhelming number of organophosphate compounds.

  8. Colorimetric method for rapid detection of Oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and its comparison with PCR for mec A gene.

    PubMed

    Ghanwate, Niraj; Thakare, Prashant; Bhise, P R; Gawande, Sonali

    2016-03-10

    Rapid and accurate detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important role of clinical microbiology laboratories to avoid treatment failure. The detection of MRSA is based on phenotypic assays which require at least 24 h to perform. Detection of the mecA gene or of PBP 2a is the "gold standard", but not always available. The aim of this study was to evaluate a rapid method for detection of MRSA by using 3 (4, 5 dimethyl thiazole -2-yl) -2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT). Total 126 isolates of MRSA were collected from tertiary healthcare center and were confirmed by oxacillin screening agar test as per CLSI guidelines. Amplification of mecA gene was performed by using PCR. MTT assay was carried out for all the isolates in 96 well Microtitre plate and compared with standard methods of CLSI. Out of 126 isolates, 98 were found to be mecA positive. MTT method was found to be 98.98% sensitive and 96.43% specific. The MTT based colorimetric method is rapid and simple test for screening of oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. It significantly shortens the time to just 7 h required to obtained a drug susceptibility test and could be useful to screen MRSA.

  9. Colorimetric method for rapid detection of Oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and its comparison with PCR for mec A gene

    PubMed Central

    Ghanwate, Niraj; Thakare, Prashant; Bhise, P. R.; Gawande, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important role of clinical microbiology laboratories to avoid treatment failure. The detection of MRSA is based on phenotypic assays which require at least 24 h to perform. Detection of the mecA gene or of PBP 2a is the “gold standard”, but not always available. The aim of this study was to evaluate a rapid method for detection of MRSA by using 3 (4, 5 dimethyl thiazole -2-yl) -2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT). Total 126 isolates of MRSA were collected from tertiary healthcare center and were confirmed by oxacillin screening agar test as per CLSI guidelines. Amplification of mecA gene was performed by using PCR. MTT assay was carried out for all the isolates in 96 well Microtitre plate and compared with standard methods of CLSI. Out of 126 isolates, 98 were found to be mecA positive. MTT method was found to be 98.98% sensitive and 96.43% specific. The MTT based colorimetric method is rapid and simple test for screening of oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. It significantly shortens the time to just 7 h required to obtained a drug susceptibility test and could be useful to screen MRSA. PMID:26960268

  10. Efficient reaction based colorimetric probe for sensitive detection, quantification, and on-site analysis of nitrite ions in natural water resources.

    PubMed

    Adarsh, Nagappanpillai; Shanmugasundaram, Madhesh; Ramaiah, Danaboyina

    2013-11-05

    We have developed a novel aza-BODIPY probe for the sensitive colorimetric detection of the nitrite ions in the aqueous medium by a simple and direct method. This probe selectively recognizes the nitrite ions through a distinct visual color change from bright blue to intense green with a sensitivity of 20 ppb. Uniquely, this probe can be coated on a glass surface to fabricate a simple solid-state dipstick device that can be used for the visual detection of the nitrite ions in the presence of other competing anions in distilled as well as natural water resources like a sea, lake, and river. Furthermore, this probe can be used for the sensitive detection of the nitrate ions when coupled to a reduction step. Our results demonstrate that this probe not only can be used for the on-site analysis and quantification but also can replace the conventional spot test carried out for the nitrite ions in the laboratory practical experiments.

  11. Rapid quantification method for Legionella pneumophila in surface water.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Anika; Torggler, Carmen; Elsässer, Dennis; Lück, Christian; Niessner, Reinhard; Seidel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    World-wide legionellosis outbreaks caused by evaporative cooling systems have shown that there is a need for rapid screening methods for Legionella pneumophila in water. Antibody-based methods for the quantification of L. pneumophila are rapid, non-laborious, and relatively cheap but not sensitive enough for establishment as a screening method for surface and drinking water. Therefore, preconcentration methods have to be applied in advance to reach the needed sensitivity. In a basic test, monolithic adsorption filtration (MAF) was used as primary preconcentration method that adsorbs L. pneumophila with high efficiency. Ten-liter water samples were concentrated in 10 min and further reduced to 1 mL by centrifugal ultrafiltration (CeUF). The quantification of L. pneumophila strains belonging to the monoclonal subtype Bellingham was performed via flow-based chemiluminescence sandwich microarray immunoassays (CL-SMIA) in 36 min. The whole analysis process takes 90 min. A polyclonal antibody (pAb) against L. pneumophila serogroup 1-12 and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against L. pneumophila SG 1 strain Bellingham were immobilized on a microarray chip. Without preconcentration, the detection limit was 4.0 × 10(3) and 2.8 × 10(3) CFU/mL determined by pAb and mAb 10/6, respectively. For samples processed by MAF-CeUF prior to SMIA detection, the limit of detection (LOD) could be decreased to 8.7 CFU/mL and 0.39 CFU/mL, respectively. A recovery of 99.8 ± 15.9% was achieved for concentrations between 1-1000 CFU/mL. The established combined analytical method is sensitive for rapid screening of surface and drinking water to allow fast hygiene control of L. pneumophila.

  12. A rapid colorimetric assay for the quantitation of the viability of free-living larvae of nematodes in vitro.

    PubMed

    James, Catherine E; Davey, Mary W

    2007-09-01

    With increasing drug resistance in gastrointestinal parasites, identification of new anthelmintics is essential. The non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is used extensively as a model to identify drug targets and potential novel anthelmintics because it can be readily cultured in vitro. Traditionally, the assessment of worm viability has relied on labour-intensive developmental and behavioral assays. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide-formazan (MTT-formazan) colorimetric assay uses metabolic activity as a marker of viability in mammalian cell culture systems and has been applied for use with filarial nematodes. In the present study, this assay has been optimized and validated to rapidly assess the viability of C. elegans after drug treatment. Living, but not dead, C. elegans take up MTT and reduce it to the blue formazan, providing visual, qualitative, and quantitative assessment of viability. MTT at a concentration of 5 mg/ml with 3 h incubation was optimal for detecting changes in viability with drug treatment. We have applied this assay to quantitate the effects of ivermectin and short-chain alcohols on the viability of C. elegans. This assay is also applicable to first-stage larvae of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. The advantage of this assay is the rapid quantitation in screening drugs to identify potential anthelmintics.

  13. Integration of Novel Low-Cost Colorimetric, Laser Photometric, and Visual Fluorescent Techniques for Rapid Identification of Falsified Medicines in Resource-Poor Areas: Application to Artemether–Lumefantrine

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael D.; Hostetler, Dana M.; Nettey, Henry; Swamidoss, Isabel; Ranieri, Nicola; Newton, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    The availability of falsified antimalarial drugs can be reduced with effective drug regulatory agencies and proper enforcement. Fundamental to these agencies taking action, rapid identification must be made as soon as they appear in the market place. Since falsified antimalarials occur mostly in developing countries, performing drug analysis presents itself with unique challenges. A fundamental factor in choosing a useful technique is affordability and simplicity. Therefore, we suggest a three-tiered drug evaluation strategy for identifying a falsified drug in resource-poor areas. Tier I is a simple comparison of a tablet's weight and dimensions with official specifications. Tier II uses inexpensive photometric devices (laser and fluorescence) to evaluate a tablet. Suspicious samples from Tier I and II assessments are then subjected to a colorimetric assay for active ingredients identification and quantification. In this article, we evaluate a novel colorimetric assay for the simultaneous assessment of both lumefantrine and artemether in co-formulated Coartem™ tablets, and integrate the method with two novel, low-cost, fluorescence and laser photometric devices. Image analysis software is used for the assessments. Although artemether–lumefantrine is used as an example, the strategy may be adapted to other medicines. PMID:25897066

  14. The combined rapid detection and species-level identification of yeasts in simulated blood culture using a colorimetric sensor array

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung H.; Wilson, Deborah A.; SalasVargas, Ana Victoria; Churi, Yair S.; Rhodes, Paul A.; Mazzone, Peter J.; Procop, Gary W.

    2017-01-01

    Background A colorimetric sensor array (CSA) has been demonstrated to rapidly detect and identify bacteria growing in blood cultures by obtaining a species-specific “fingerprint” of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during growth. This capability has been demonstrated in prokaryotes, but has not been reported for eukaryotic cells growing in culture. The purpose of this study was to explore if a disposable CSA could differentially identify 7 species of pathogenic yeasts growing in blood culture. Methods Culture trials of whole blood inoculated with a panel of clinically important pathogenic yeasts at four different microorganism loads were performed. Cultures were done in both standard BacT/Alert and CSA-embedded bottles, after adding 10 mL of spiked blood to each bottle. Color changes in the CSA were captured as images by an optical scanner at defined time intervals. The captured images were analyzed to identify the yeast species. Time to detection by the CSA was compared to that in the BacT/Alert system. Results One hundred sixty-two yeast culture trials were performed, including strains of several species of Candida (Ca. albicans, Ca. glabrata, Ca. parapsilosis, and Ca. tropicalis), Clavispora (synonym Candida) lusitaniae, Pichia kudriavzevii (synonym Candida krusei) and Cryptococcus neoformans, at loads of 8.2 × 105, 8.3 × 103, 8.5 × 101, and 1.7 CFU/mL. In addition, 8 negative trials (no yeast) were conducted. All negative trials were correctly identified as negative, and all positive trials were detected. Colorimetric responses were species-specific and did not vary by inoculum load over the 500000-fold range of loads tested, allowing for accurate species-level identification. The mean sensitivity for species-level identification by CSA was 74% at detection, and increased with time, reaching almost 95% at 4 hours after detection. At an inoculum load of 1.7 CFU/mL, mean time to detection with the CSA was 6.8 hours (17%) less than with the

  15. The combined rapid detection and species-level identification of yeasts in simulated blood culture using a colorimetric sensor array.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Nabin K; Lim, Sung H; Wilson, Deborah A; SalasVargas, Ana Victoria; Churi, Yair S; Rhodes, Paul A; Mazzone, Peter J; Procop, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    A colorimetric sensor array (CSA) has been demonstrated to rapidly detect and identify bacteria growing in blood cultures by obtaining a species-specific "fingerprint" of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during growth. This capability has been demonstrated in prokaryotes, but has not been reported for eukaryotic cells growing in culture. The purpose of this study was to explore if a disposable CSA could differentially identify 7 species of pathogenic yeasts growing in blood culture. Culture trials of whole blood inoculated with a panel of clinically important pathogenic yeasts at four different microorganism loads were performed. Cultures were done in both standard BacT/Alert and CSA-embedded bottles, after adding 10 mL of spiked blood to each bottle. Color changes in the CSA were captured as images by an optical scanner at defined time intervals. The captured images were analyzed to identify the yeast species. Time to detection by the CSA was compared to that in the BacT/Alert system. One hundred sixty-two yeast culture trials were performed, including strains of several species of Candida (Ca. albicans, Ca. glabrata, Ca. parapsilosis, and Ca. tropicalis), Clavispora (synonym Candida) lusitaniae, Pichia kudriavzevii (synonym Candida krusei) and Cryptococcus neoformans, at loads of 8.2 × 105, 8.3 × 103, 8.5 × 101, and 1.7 CFU/mL. In addition, 8 negative trials (no yeast) were conducted. All negative trials were correctly identified as negative, and all positive trials were detected. Colorimetric responses were species-specific and did not vary by inoculum load over the 500000-fold range of loads tested, allowing for accurate species-level identification. The mean sensitivity for species-level identification by CSA was 74% at detection, and increased with time, reaching almost 95% at 4 hours after detection. At an inoculum load of 1.7 CFU/mL, mean time to detection with the CSA was 6.8 hours (17%) less than with the BacT/Alert platform. The CSA

  16. Rapid and simple colorimetric assay for detecting the enzymatic degradation of biodegradable plastic films.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yukiko; Watanabe, Takashi; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2013-01-01

    We developed a rapid and simple method for evaluating the degradation of solid biodegradable plastics (BPs). Dye-containing BP films were used as substrates and the release of dye caused by the degradation of BPs was confirmed by a color change in the enzyme solution after a reaction time of 24 h. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid colorimetric field test to determine levels of deltamethrin on PermaNet surfaces: association with mosquito bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael D; Atieli, Frances; Akogbeto, Martin

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate a simple and inexpensive colorimetric test to measure the amount of cyanopyrethroid insecticide residue from filter paper exposed to mosquito net surfaces. The net sampling protocol and colorimetric test (NetTest) were evaluated for deltamethrin-impregnated PermaNet 2.0 by comparison with high-performance liquid chromatographic assays and mosquito mortality (WHO Cone Test). The observed correlation between the amount of deltamethrin adsorbed onto the filter paper and the entire amount of deltamethrin per unit area of net material was good: 0.967, five assays. The relationship between the surface levels of deltamethrin determined by the colorimetric test and the 'gold standard' mosquito bioassay reveals a relatively accurate field test with a sensitivity of 91.4% and specificity if 85.4% (76 samplings from 19 nets).

  18. A highly sensitive and selective aptamer-based colorimetric sensor for the rapid detection of PCB 77.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ruojie; Liu, Siyao; Shi, Huijie; Zhao, Guohua

    2018-01-05

    A highly sensitive, specific and simple colorimetric sensor based on aptamer was established for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 77). The use of unmodified gold nanoparticles as a colorimetric probe for aptamer sensors enabled the highly sensitive and selective detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 77). A linear range of 0.5nM to 900nM was obtained for the colorimetric assay with a minimum detection limit of 0.05nM. In addition, by the methods of circular dichroism, UV and naked eyes, we found that the 35 base fragments retained after cutting 5 bases from the 5 'end of aptamer plays the most significant role in the PCB 77 specific recognition process. We found a novel way to truncated nucleotides to optimize the detection of PCB 77, and the selected nucleotides also could achieve high affinity with PCB 77. At the same time, the efficient detection of the PCB 77 by our colorimetric sensor in the complex environmental water samples was realized, which shows a good application prospect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid detection and quantification of impact damage in composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Barry T.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that a multidisciplinary nondestructive evaluation approach for impact damage detection in composite structures can be used to produce a more efficient inspection. The multidisciplinary NDE approach relies on fast large area thermographic inspections along with detailed ultrasonic volumetric imaging. The thermal inspection technique rapidly identifies the impact damage. The ultrasonic volumetric imaging quantifies the impact generated delaminations through the volume of the structure.

  20. Rapid quantification of soilborne pathogen communities in wheat-based long-term field experiments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional isolation and quantification of inoculum density is difficult for most soilborne pathogens. Quantitative PCR methods have been developed to rapidly identify and quantify many of these pathogens using a single DNA extract from soil. Rainfed experiments operated continuously for up to 84 y...

  1. Rapid method for the detection and quantification of N-nitrosodibutylamine in rubber products.

    PubMed

    Zwickenpflug, W; Richter, E

    1987-11-01

    A rapid method for the detection and quantification of N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) migrating from rubber products into a neutral buffer solution is described. The extraction, clean up, and concentration is done by a one-step procedure using C18 cartridges. NDBA in the ppb range is identified and quantitated by gas chromatography (GC) with a thermal energy analyzer (TEA) as detector.

  2. Simple and Rapid Quantification of Thrombocytes in Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Huarng, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Platelets are a critical component of hemostasis, with disorders of number or function resulting in coagulation disturbances. Insights into these processes have primarily been realized through studies using mammalian models or tissues. Increasingly, zebrafish embryos and larvae have been used to study the protein and cellular components of hemostasis and thrombosis, including the thrombocyte, a nucleated platelet analog. However, investigations of thrombocytes have been somewhat limited due to lack of a robust and simple methodology for quantitation, an important component of platelet studies in mammals. Using video capture, we have devised an assay that produces a rapid, reproducible, and precise measurement of thrombocyte number in zebrafish larvae by counting fluorescently tagged cells. Averaging 1000 frames, we were able to subtract background fluorescence, thus limiting assessment to circulating thrombocytes. This method facilitated rapid assessment of relative thrombocyte counts in a population of 372 zebrafish larvae by a single operator in less than 3 days. This technique requires basic microscopy equipment and rudimentary programming, lends itself to high throughput analysis, and will enhance future studies of thrombopoiesis in the zebrafish. PMID:25790244

  3. [A rapid quantificational identification model of minerals and its applications].

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Lin, Qi-Zhong; Liu, Qing-Jie; Wang, Meng-Fei; Wang, Qin-Jun; Wei, Yong-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Rapid identification of minerals is the key point for enhancing the efficiency of mineral exploration by remote sensing, mineral mapping by remote sensing and many geological investigations. Because of the limitation of technology and other aspects, the amount of models and software concerning rapid identification of minerals is very small. Since 1990s the development in spectrometers and computers has made it possible to apply near infrared spectrum technology to identify minerals. Two models have emerged. Model I is based on analyzing the position of absorption bands, while Model II is founded on waveform matching. In the present paper, characteristic spectrum linear inversion modeling was built. Validated by the data gained from end-members of USGS mineral spectrum library by mixing randomly, this model with the accuracy being approximately 100% is much better than Model I and II. Used to analyze the 23 samples selected in Baogutu area in Xinjiang, the model we built with the accuracy of 64.6% is superior to Model I (the accuracy is 33.8%) and Model II (the accuracy is 8.1%). Though the accuracy of our model is not as high as that of identification by microscope at present, using our model is much more effective and convenient, and there also will be less artificial error and smaller workload. The good performance of our model in the mineral exploration work by remote sensing in Baogutu area in Xinjiang shows wide popularizing prospects.

  4. Simple and rapid quantification of thrombocytes in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Huarng, Michael C; Shavit, Jordan A

    2015-06-01

    Platelets are a critical component of hemostasis, with disorders of number or function resulting in coagulation disturbances. Insights into these processes have primarily been realized through studies using mammalian models or tissues. Increasingly, zebrafish embryos and larvae have been used to study the protein and cellular components of hemostasis and thrombosis, including the thrombocyte, a nucleated platelet analog. However, investigations of thrombocytes have been somewhat limited due to lack of a robust and simple methodology for quantitation, an important component of platelet studies in mammals. Using video capture, we have devised an assay that produces a rapid, reproducible, and precise measurement of thrombocyte number in zebrafish larvae by counting fluorescently tagged cells. Averaging 1000 frames, we were able to subtract background fluorescence, thus limiting assessment to circulating thrombocytes. This method facilitated rapid assessment of relative thrombocyte counts in a population of 372 zebrafish larvae by a single operator in less than 3 days. This technique requires basic microscopy equipment and rudimentary programming, lends itself to high throughput analysis, and will enhance future studies of thrombopoiesis in the zebrafish.

  5. A colorimetric reaction to quantify fluid mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, Peter M.; Harvey, Charles F.

    2006-11-01

    We found the colorimetric reaction of Tiron (1,2-dihydroxybenzene-3,5-disulfonic acid) and molybdate suitable for optical quantification of chemical reaction during fluid-fluid mixing in laboratory chambers. This reaction consists of two colorless reagents that mix to rapidly form colored, stable, soluble products. These products can be digitally imaged and quantified using light absorbance to study fluid-fluid mixing. Here we provide a model and equilibrium constants for the relevant complexation reactions. We also provide methods for relating light absorbance to product concentrations. Practical implementation issues of this reaction are discussed and an example of imaged absorbances for fluid-fluid mixing in heterogeneous porous media is given.

  6. Microstructural Quantification of Rapidly Solidified Undercooled D2 Tool Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valloton, J.; Herlach, D. M.; Henein, H.; Sediako, D.

    2017-10-01

    Rapid solidification of D2 tool steel is investigated experimentally using electromagnetic levitation (EML) under terrestrial and reduced gravity conditions and impulse atomization (IA), a drop tube type of apparatus. IA produces powders 300 to 1400 μm in size. This allows the investigation of a large range of cooling rates ( 100 to 10,000 K/s) with a single experiment. On the other hand, EML allows direct measurements of the thermal history, including primary and eutectic nucleation undercoolings, for samples 6 to 7 mm in diameter. The final microstructures at room temperature consist of retained supersaturated austenite surrounded by eutectic of austenite and M7C3 carbides. Rapid solidification effectively suppresses the formation of ferrite in IA, while a small amount of ferrite is detected in EML samples. High primary phase undercoolings and high cooling rates tend to refine the microstructure, which results in a better dispersion of the eutectic carbides. Evaluation of the cell spacing in EML and IA samples shows that the scale of the final microstructure is mainly governed by coarsening. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis of IA samples reveals that IA powders are polycrystalline, regardless of the solidification conditions. EBSD on EML samples reveals strong differences between the microstructure of droplets solidified on the ground and in microgravity conditions. While the former ones are polycrystalline with many different grains, the EML sample solidified in microgravity shows a strong texture with few much larger grains having twinning relationships. This indicates that fluid flow has a strong influence on grain refinement in this system.

  7. A Novel and Rapid Colorimetric Method for Measuring Total Phosphorus and Phytic Acid in Foods and Animal Feeds.

    PubMed

    2016-04-08

    Phytic acid, or myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, is the primary source of inositol and storage phosphorus in plant seeds and has considerable nutritional importance. In this form, phosphorus is unavailable for absorption by monogastric animals, and the strong chelating characteristic of phytic acid reduces the bioavailability of multivalent minerals such as iron, zinc, and calcium. Currently, there is no simple quantitative method for phytic acid; existing methods are complex, and the most commonly accepted method, AOAC Official Method (SM) 986.11, has limitations. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a simple, high-throughput method for the measurement of total phosphorus and phytic acid in foods and animal feeds. The method described here involves acid extraction of phytic acid, followed by dephosphorylation with phytase and alkaline phosphatase. The phosphate released from phytic acid is measured using a modified colorimetric molybdenum blue assay and calculated as total phosphorus or phytic acid content of the original sample. The method was validated to a maximum linearity of 3.0 g phytic acid/100 g sample. Accuracy ranged from 98 to 105% using pure phytic acid and from 97 to 115% for spiked samples. Repeatability ranged from 0.81 to 2.32%, and intermediate precision was 2.27%.

  8. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by colorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool.

    PubMed

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Cáceres, Abraham G; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64°C for 60min using a heating block and/or water bath and DNA amplification was detected immediately after incubation. The LAMP assay had high detection sensitivity down to a level of 0.01 parasites per μl. The field- and clinic-applicability of the colorimetric FTA-LAMP assay was demonstrated with 122 clinical samples collected from patients suspected of having cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru, from which 71 positives were detected. The LAMP assay in combination with an FTA card described here is rapid and sensitive, as well as simple to perform, and has great potential usefulness for diagnosis and surveillance of leishmaniasis in endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid quantification of color vision: the cone contrast test.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Jeff; Gooch, John; Ivan, Douglas

    2011-02-09

    To describe the design, specificity, and sensitivity of the cone contrast test (CCT), a computer-based, cone-specific (L, M, S) contrast sensitivity test for diagnosing type and severity of color vision deficiency (CVD). The CCT presents a randomized series of colored letters visible only to L, M or S cones in decreasing steps of cone contrast to determine L, M, and S letter-recognition thresholds. Sensitivity and specificity were determined by retrospective comparison of CCT scores to anomaloscope and pseudoisochromatic plate (PIP) results in 1446 applicants for pilot training. CVD was detected in 49 (3.4%) of 1446 applicants with hereditary red-green (protan or deutan) CVD detected in 47 (3.5%) of 1359 men and blue-yellow (tritan) in 2 of 1446. In agreement with the anomaloscope, the CCT showed 100% sensitivity for detection and categorization of CVD (40 deutan, 7 protan, 2 tritan). PIP testing showed lower sensitivity (80% detected; 20% missed) due in part to the applicant's prior experience and/or pretest preparation. CCT specificity for confirming normal color vision was 100% for L and M cone tests and 99.8% for S cones. The CCT has sensitivity and specificity comparable to anomaloscope testing and exceeds PIP sensitivity in practiced observers. The CCT provides a rapid (6 minutes), clinically expedient, measure of color vision for quantifying normal color performance, diagnosing type and severity of hereditary deficiency, and detection of acquired sensitivity loss due to ocular, neurologic, and/or systemic disease, as well as injury and physiological stressors, such as altitude and fatigue.

  10. Gold nanoprobe functionalized with specific fusion protein selection from phage display and its application in rapid, selective and sensitive colorimetric biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Han, Lei; Wang, Fei; Petrenko, Valery A; Liu, Aihua

    2016-08-15

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most ubiquitous pathogens in public healthcare worldwide. It holds great insterest in establishing robust analytical method for S. aureus. Herein, we report a S. aureus-specific recognition element, isolated from phage monoclone GQTTLTTS, which was selected from f8/8 landscape phage library against S. aureus in a high-throughput way. By functionalizing cysteamine (CS)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (CS-AuNPs) with S. aureus-specific pVIII fusion protein (fusion-pVIII), a bifunctional nanoprobe (CS-AuNPs@fusion-pVIII) for S. aureus was developed. In this strategy, the CS-AuNPs@fusion-pVIII could be induced to aggregate quickly in the presence of target S. aureus, resulting in a rapid colorimetric response of gold nanoparticles. More importantly, the as-designed probe exhibited excellent selectivity over other bacteria. Thus, the CS-AuNPs@fusion-pVIII could be used as the indicator of target S. aureus. This assay can detect as low as 19CFUmL(-1)S. aureus within 30min. Further, this approach can be applicable to detect S. aureus in real water samples. Due to its sensitivity, specificity and rapidness, this proposed method is promising for on-site testing of S. aureus without using any costly instruments.

  11. Rapid detection and quantification of features such as damage or flaws in composite and metallic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor); Smith, Barry T. (Inventor); Zalameda, Joseph N. (Inventor); Winfree, William P. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for non-destructible evaluation (NDE) of a material use thermography to rapidly detect and/or generally locate a feature such as, for example, damage or a defect in the material. The apparatus, system, and method also use ultrasound to specifically locate the feature in the material for quantification and/or evaluation either by an operator or by an external device suited for such purpose. Accordingly, the apparatus, system and method are particularly useful for NDE in applications such as the analysis of the structure of an aircraft, for example, in which the scale of the material to be analyzed is large, thus requiring the rapid NDE afforded by thermography, and in which quantification and/or evaluation of a feature must be performed with precision, thus requiring the relatively high-resolution NDE afforded by ultrasound.

  12. Integration of Nanoparticle-Based Paper Sensors into the Classroom: An Example of Application for Rapid Colorimetric Analysis of Antioxidants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Erica; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    We describe a laboratory experiment that employs the Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (or NanoCerac) Assay to introduce students to portable nanoparticle-based paper sensors for rapid analysis and field detection of polyphenol antioxidants. The experiment gives students a hands-on opportunity to utilize nanoparticle chemistry to develop…

  13. Integration of Nanoparticle-Based Paper Sensors into the Classroom: An Example of Application for Rapid Colorimetric Analysis of Antioxidants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Erica; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    We describe a laboratory experiment that employs the Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (or NanoCerac) Assay to introduce students to portable nanoparticle-based paper sensors for rapid analysis and field detection of polyphenol antioxidants. The experiment gives students a hands-on opportunity to utilize nanoparticle chemistry to develop…

  14. Rapid detection and quantification of Enterovirus 71 by a portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Prabowo, Briliant Adhi; Wang, Robert Y L; Secario, Muhammad Khari; Ou, Po-Ting; Alom, Azharul; Liu, Jia-Jung; Liu, Kou-Chen

    2017-06-15

    This study presents the first report on a label-free detection and rapid quantification method for human enterovirus 71 (EV71) using a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system. The SPR sensor instrument was configured to run on low power in a miniaturized platform to improve the device portability for a wider application both in laboratories and in the field. A color tunable organic light emitting diode in red spectrum was attached on a trapezoidal prism for the disposable light source module. The SPR signal processing using integration area under the reflectivity curve is applied for optimum signal to noise ratio (SNR) enhancement. The major capsid protein VP1 of EV71 was selected as the biomarker target in the detection study. The experimental time required for the EV71 quantification was reduced from 6 days using the conventional viral plaque assay to several minutes using the proposed method. The study results establish a detection limit of approximately 67 virus particles per milliliter (vp/ml) of EV71 in a Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. The VP1 detection in the portable SPR biosensor had a detection limit of approximately 4.8pg/ml in the PBS buffer. Therefore, the proposed direct EV71 viral particle quantification method can be rapidly performed in real time, with high sensitivity and less labor and without assays or fluorescence.

  15. Paper-based magnetic nanoparticle-peptide probe for rapid and quantitative colorimetric detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Suaifan, Ghadeer A R Y; Alhogail, Sahar; Zourob, Mohammed

    2017-06-15

    There is a critical and urgent demand for a simple, rapid and specific qualitative and quantitative colorimetric biosensor for the detection of the food contaminant Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) in complex food products due to the recent outbreaks of food-borne diseases. Traditional detection techniques are time-consuming, require expensive instrumentation and are labour-intensive. To overcome these limitations, a novel, ultra-rapid visual biosensor was developed based on the ability of E. coli O157:H7 proteases to change the optical response of a surface-modified, magnetic nanoparticle-specific (MNP-specific) peptide probe. Upon proteolysis, a gradual increase in the golden color of the sensor surface was visually observed. The intensification of color was correlated with the E. coli O157:H7 concentration. The color change resulting from the dissociation of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was detected by the naked eye and analysed using an image analysis software (ImageJ) for the purpose of quantitative detection. This biosensor demonstrated high sensitivity and applicability, with lower limits of detection of 12CFUmL(-1) in broth samples and 30-300CFUmL(-1) in spiked complex food matrices. In conclusion, this approach permits the use of a disposable biosensor chip that can be mass-produced at low cost and can be used not only by food manufacturers but also by regulatory agencies for better control of potential health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated foods.

  16. Demonstration of a rapidly-swept external cavity quantum cascade laser for rapid and sensitive quantification of chemical mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Brumfield, Brian E.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-02-13

    A rapidly-swept external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system for fast open-path quantification of multiple chemicals and mixtures is presented. The ECQCL system is swept over its entire tuning range (>100 cm-1) at frequencies up to 200 Hz. At 200 Hz the wavelength tuning rate and spectral resolution are 2x104 cm-1/sec and < 0.2 cm-1, respectively. The capability of the current system to quantify changes in chemical concentrations on millesecond timescales is demonstrated at atmospheric pressure using an open-path multi-pass cell. The detection limits for chemicals ranged from ppb to ppm levels depending on the absorption cross-section.

  17. Demonstration of a rapidly-swept external cavity quantum cascade laser for rapid and sensitive quantification of chemical mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Brumfield, Brian E.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-02-13

    A rapidly-swept external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system for fast open-path quantification of multiple chemicals and mixtures is presented. The ECQCL system is swept over its entire tuning range (>100 cm-1) at frequencies up to 200 Hz. At 200 Hz the wavelength tuning rate and spectral resolution are 2x104 cm-1/sec and < 0.2 cm-1, respectively. The capability of the current system to quantify changes in chemical concentrations on millesecond timescales is demonstrated at atmospheric pressure using an open-path multi-pass cell. The detection limits for chemicals ranged from ppb to ppm levels depending on the absorption cross-section.

  18. Rapid quantification of periodontitis-related bacteria using a novel modification of Invader PLUS technologies.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Kawamura, Katsumi; Shimizu, Hajime; Egashira, Toru; Minabe, Masato; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Oguchi, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    The Invader PLUS technology is a sensitive, rapid method for the detection and quantification of nucleic acid. While the original technology is based on the amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the target sequence followed by its detection using the Invader technology, the current modification allows simultaneous PCR amplification and Invader reaction. The PCR primers and the Invader probes are designed to operate at the same temperature. This allows simpler design and faster results. This technology has been applied for the quantification of six periodontitis-related bacteria (Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Toreponema denticola, Tannerella forsythensis and Fusobacterium nucleatum). Direct comparison of this modified Invader PLUS with real-time PCR demonstrated similar linear range. Furthermore, testing of 64 volunteers showed a good correlation between both technologies with correlation factors r2 spanning between 0.827 and 0.987. We demonstrated here that the proposed improvement of the Invader PLUS allows the detection and quantification of DNA sequences using a simple design and protocol that can be implemented in clinical testing.

  19. Simple and rapid quantification of brominated vegetable oil in commercial soft drinks by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Chitranshi, Priyanka; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo

    2016-12-15

    We report here a simple and rapid method for the quantification of brominated vegetable oil (BVO) in soft drinks based upon liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Unlike previously reported methods, this novel method does not require hydrolysis, extraction or derivatization steps, but rather a simple "dilute and shoot" sample preparation. The quantification is conducted by mass spectrometry in selected ion recording mode and a single point standard addition procedure. The method was validated in the range of 5-25μg/mL BVO, encompassing the legal limit of 15μg/mL established by the US FDA for fruit-flavored beverages in the US market. The method was characterized by excellent intra- and inter-assay accuracy (97.3-103.4%) and very low imprecision [0.5-3.6% (RSD)]. The direct nature of the quantification, simplicity, and excellent statistical performance of this methodology constitute clear advantages in relation to previously published methods for the analysis of BVO in soft drinks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Rapid quantification of intracellular PHA using infrared spectroscopy: an application in mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Arcos-Hernandez, Mónica V; Gurieff, Nicholas; Pratt, Steven; Magnusson, Per; Werker, Alan; Vargas, Alejandro; Lant, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is proposed for a method for rapid quantification of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in mixed culture bacterial systems. Spectra from 122 samples from a wide range of PHA production systems were studied. The spectra were collected in a library that was used to calibrate a partial least squares (PLS) model linking FT-IR spectra with PHA content in the biomass. The library of spectra contained samples with a range of total PHA content (0.03-0.58 w/w) as well as varying compositions (poly-(3-hydroxyvalerate) (3HV) content of 0-63% in Cmol basis). A robust PLS model was developed using calibration data from a diverse range of systems and PHA content. Coupling this model with FT-IR spectra has been shown to be applicable for predicting PHA content in mixed culture production systems. The method was used to reliably determine PHA content in biomass from a new, independent PHA production system with a standard error of prediction (RMSEP) value of 0.023 w/w, despite the complexity of the matrices. This method reduces the analytical time for PHA quantification down to under 30 min (5 min handling time was achieved when FT-IR equipment was immediately available), and eliminates hazardous waste by-products. The work has demonstrated a level of accuracy and reproducibility in quantifying PHA in mixed culture systems similar to that obtained from the GC analytical technique. Further work is required to enable the use of the method to analyze crystallinity related factors that may be useful towards quantifying poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly-(3-hydroxyvalerate) (3HB/3HV) composition. The method has been shown to be suitable for rapid quantification in large scale applications and in its present form is reliable for routine process monitoring. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Simple and Portable Magnetic Immunoassay for Rapid Detection and Sensitive Quantification of Plant Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Rettcher, Stefanie; Jungk, Felicitas; Kühn, Christoph; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Nölke, Greta; Commandeur, Ulrich; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogens cause major economic losses in the agricultural industry because late detection delays the implementation of measures that can prevent their dissemination. Sensitive and robust procedures for the rapid detection of plant pathogens are therefore required to reduce yield losses and the use of expensive, environmentally damaging chemicals. Here we describe a simple and portable system for the rapid detection of viral pathogens in infected plants based on immunofiltration, subsequent magnetic detection, and the quantification of magnetically labeled virus particles. Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) was chosen as a model pathogen. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing the GFLV capsid protein were immobilized onto immunofiltration columns, and the same antibodies were linked to magnetic nanoparticles. GFLV was quantified by immunofiltration with magnetic labeling in a double-antibody sandwich configuration. A magnetic frequency mixing technique, in which a two-frequency magnetic excitation field was used to induce a sum frequency signal in the resonant detection coil, corresponding to the virus concentration within the immunofiltration column, was used for high-sensitivity quantification. We were able to measure GFLV concentrations in the range of 6 ng/ml to 20 μg/ml in less than 30 min. The magnetic immunoassay could also be adapted to detect other plant viruses, including Potato virus X and Tobacco mosaic virus, with detection limits of 2 to 60 ng/ml. PMID:25710366

  2. Selective colorimetric sensors based on the monitoring of an unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) reduction for a simple and rapid determination of mercury.

    PubMed

    Jarujamrus, Purim; Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Thima, Araya; Khongrangdee, Thatsanee; Mongkontong, Chakrit

    2015-05-05

    In this work, selective colorimetric sensors for simple and rapid detection of Hg(II) ions based on the monitoring of an unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) reduction were developed. The average diameter of synthesized AgNPs was 8.3±1.4nm which was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The abrupt change in absorbance of the unmodified AgNPs was observed which progressively decreased and slightly shifted to the blue wavelength as the concentration of Hg(II) increased, indicating the oxidation of Ag(0) to Ag(I) occurred. It appears that the AgNPs were oxidized by Hg(II), resulting in disintegration of the AgNPs into smaller particles as well as mediating the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) adsorbed onto the surface of AgNPs. The adsorption of Hg(0) resulted in the lack of sufficient charges on AgNPs surfaces due to the decrease in the surface coverage of negatively charged citrate molecules, which then leaded to enlargement of AgNPs. The calibration curve of this technique was demonstrated from 0.5 to 7ppm (r(2)=0.995), the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.06ppm (SDblank/slope of calibration curve) with the precision (RSD, n=4) of 3.24-4.53. Interestingly, the results show a significant enhance in the Hg(II) analytical sensitivity when Cu(II) is doped onto the unmodified AgNPs, which improves the quantitative detection limit to 0.008ppm. In addition, greater selectivity toward Hg(II) compared with the other metal ions tested was observed. Furthermore, the percentage recoveries of spiked drinking water, tap water and SRM1641d (mercury in water) were in acceptable range with a good precision (RSD) which were in agreement with the values obtained from graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS). The technique proposed in this study provides a rapid, simple, sensitive and selective detection method for Hg(II) in water samples.

  3. Selective colorimetric sensors based on the monitoring of an unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) reduction for a simple and rapid determination of mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarujamrus, Purim; Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Thima, Araya; Khongrangdee, Thatsanee; Mongkontong, Chakrit

    2015-05-01

    In this work, selective colorimetric sensors for simple and rapid detection of Hg(II) ions based on the monitoring of an unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) reduction were developed. The average diameter of synthesized AgNPs was 8.3 ± 1.4 nm which was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The abrupt change in absorbance of the unmodified AgNPs was observed which progressively decreased and slightly shifted to the blue wavelength as the concentration of Hg(II) increased, indicating the oxidation of Ag(0) to Ag(I) occurred. It appears that the AgNPs were oxidized by Hg(II), resulting in disintegration of the AgNPs into smaller particles as well as mediating the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) adsorbed onto the surface of AgNPs. The adsorption of Hg(0) resulted in the lack of sufficient charges on AgNPs surfaces due to the decrease in the surface coverage of negatively charged citrate molecules, which then leaded to enlargement of AgNPs. The calibration curve of this technique was demonstrated from 0.5 to 7 ppm (r2 = 0.995), the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.06 ppm (SDblank/slope of calibration curve) with the precision (RSD, n = 4) of 3.24-4.53. Interestingly, the results show a significant enhance in the Hg(II) analytical sensitivity when Cu(II) is doped onto the unmodified AgNPs, which improves the quantitative detection limit to 0.008 ppm. In addition, greater selectivity toward Hg(II) compared with the other metal ions tested was observed. Furthermore, the percentage recoveries of spiked drinking water, tap water and SRM1641d (mercury in water) were in acceptable range with a good precision (RSD) which were in agreement with the values obtained from graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS). The technique proposed in this study provides a rapid, simple, sensitive and selective detection method for Hg(II) in water samples.

  4. A rapid biosensor-based method for quantification of free and glucose-conjugated salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Defraia, Christopher T; Schmelz, Eric A; Mou, Zhonglin

    2008-12-31

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signalling molecule in plant defenses against biotrophic pathogens. It is also involved in several other processes such as heat production, flowering, and germination. SA exists in the plant as free SA and as an inert glucose conjugate (salicylic acid 2-O-beta-D-glucoside or SAG). Recently, Huang et al. developed a bacterial biosensor that responds to free SA but not SAG, designated as Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux. In this paper we describe an improved methodology for Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux-based free SA quantification, enabling high-throughput analysis, and present an approach for the quantification of SAG from crude plant extracts. On the basis of the original biosensor-based method, we optimized extraction and quantification. SAG content was determined by treating crude extracts with beta-glucosidase, then measuring the released free SA with the biosensor. beta-glucosidase treatment released more SA in acetate buffer extract than in Luria-Bertani (LB) extract, while enzymatic hydrolysis in either solution released more free SA than acid hydrolysis. The biosensor-based method detected higher amounts of SA in pathogen-infected plants than did a GC/MS-based method. SA quantification of control and pathogen-treated wild-type and sid2 (SA induction-deficient) plants demonstrated the efficacy of the method described. Using the methods detailed here, we were able to detect as little as 0.28 mug SA/g FW. Samples typically had a standard deviation of up to 25% of the mean. The ability of Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux to detect SA in a complex mixture, combined with the enzymatic hydrolysis of SAG in crude extract, allowed the development of a simple, rapid, and inexpensive method to simultaneously measure free and glucose-conjugated SA. This approach is amenable to a high-throughput format, which would further reduce the cost and time required for biosensor-based SA quantification. Possible applications of this approach include

  5. Atomic absorption spectroscopic, conductometric and colorimetric methods for determination of some fluoroquinolone antibacterials using ammonium reineckate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghannam, Sheikha M.

    2008-04-01

    Three accurate, rapid and simple atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS), conductometric and colorimetric methods were developed for the determination of gatifloxacin (GTF), moxifloxacin (MXF) and sparfloxacin (SPF). The proposed methods depend upon the reaction of ammonium reineckate with the studied drugs to form stable precipitate of ion-pair complexes, which was dissolved in acetone. The pink coloured complexes were determined either by AAS or colorimetrically at λmax 525 nm directly using the dissolved complex. Using conductometric titration, the studied drugs could be evaluated in 50% (v/v) acetone. The optimizations of various experimental conditions were described. Optimum concentration ranges for the determination of GTF, MXF and SPF were 5.0-150, 40-440 μg mL -1 and 0.10-1.5 mg mL -1 using atomic absorption (AAS), conductometric and colorimetric methods, respectively. Detection and quantification limits are ranges from 1.5 to 2.3 μg mL -1 using AAS method or 30-45 μg mL -1 using colorimetric method. The proposed procedures have been applied successfully to the analysis of these drugs in pharmaceutical formulations and the results are favourably comparable to the reference methods.

  6. Evaluation of a rapid colorimetric field test to assess the effective life of long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito nets in the Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael D; Mayxay, Mayfong; Beach, Ray; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Phompida, Samlane; Hongvanthong, Bouasy; Vanisaveth, Viengxay; Newton, Paul N; Vizcaino, Lucrecia; Swamidoss, Isabel

    2013-02-07

    Malaria morbidity and mortality have been significantly reduced through the proper use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets, but the extra protection afforded by the insecticide diminishes over time. The insecticide depletion rates vary according to location where wash frequency and wear are influenced by cultural habits as well as the availability of water. Monitoring of available insecticides on the net surface is essential for determining the effective life of the net. Therefore, a rapid and inexpensive colorimetric field test for cyanopyrethroids (Cyanopyrethroid Field Test or CFT) was used to measure surface levels of deltamethrin on insecticide-coated polyester nets (PowerNets™) in rural Lao PDR over a two-year period. Net surface levels of deltamethrin were measured by wiping the net with filter paper and measuring the adsorbed deltamethrin using the CFT. A relationship between surface levels of deltamethrin and whole net levels was established by comparing results of the CFT with whole levels assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). An effective deltamethrin surface concentration (EC80) was determined by comparing mosquito mortality (WHO Cone Test) with CFT and HPLC results. Five positions (roof to bottom) on each of 23 matched nets were assayed for deltamethrin surface levels at 6, 12, and 24 months. Mosquito mortality assays (WHO Cone Tests) were performed on a subset of eleven 24-month old nets and compared with the proportion of failed nets as predicted by the CFT. At six months, the nets retained about 80% of the baseline (new net) levels of deltamethrin with no significant differences between net positions. At 12 months, ~15-40%, and at 24 months <10% of deltamethrin was retained on the nets, with significant differences appearing between positions. Results from the CFT show that 93% of the nets failed (deltamethrin surface levels

  7. Novel antibody/gold nanoparticle/magnetic nanoparticle nanocomposites for immunomagnetic separation and rapid colorimetric detection of Staphylococcus aureus in milk.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yun Ju; Suk, Ho-Jun; Sung, Hwa Young; Li, Taihua; Poo, Haryoung; Kim, Min-Gon

    2013-05-15

    We demonstrated the new antibody/gold nanoparticle/magnetic nanoparticle nanocomposites (antibody/AuNP/MNPs) and their application in the detection of the foodborne pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), in milk. The nanocomposites were synthesized by coating the MNPs with bovine serum albumin (BSA) then adsorbing the AuNPs and anti-S. aureus antibodies on their surface. Using the completed immunomagnetic nanostructures, S. aureus inoculated in the milk sample was captured and isolated from the medium using the permanent magnet. The nanoparticle-bound cells as well as the unbound cells in the supernatant were enumerated via surface plating to evaluate the target binding capacity of the nanocomposites. The capture efficiencies of the antibody/AuNP/MNPs were 96% and 78% for S. aureus in PBS and the milk sample respectively, which were significantly higher than those of the antibody-coupled MNPs without any AuNP. The captured cells were also applied to the selective filtration system to produce color signals that were used for the detection of the target pathogen. During the filtration, the cells bound to the antibody/AuNP/MNPs remained on the surface of the membrane filter while unbound nanoparticles passed through the uniform pores of the membrane. After the gold enhancement, the cells-particles complex resting on the membrane surface rendered a visible color, and the signal intensity became higher as the target cell concentration increased. The detection limits of this colorimetric sensor were 1.5×10(3) and 1.5×10(5)CFU for S. aureus in PBS and the milk sample respectively. This sensing mechanism also had the high specificity for S. aureus over the other pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. The assay required only 40min to obtain the results. With the use of the appropriate antibodies, our immunomagnetic nanocomposites-based detection strategy can provide an easy, convenient, and rapid sensing method for a

  8. Measurement of ripening of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L) by near infrared and colorimetric imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Gil-Vicente, María; Gordillo, Belén; Heredia, Francisco J; González-Miret, M Lourdes

    2017-08-01

    This work includes the evaluation of 168 samples of raspberries 'Glen Lyon', representing whole maturation period, by colorimetric and near infrared imaging techniques, as well as the quantification of total phenols, total anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by chemical methods. Samples showed significant differences depending on the maturation stage using CIELAB colour parameters and total anthocyanins content. The application of partial least squares regression allowed predicting the chemical features from image analysis data, with coefficients of determination (R(2)) up to 0.75. The best prediction for total anthocyanins including colorimetric data was observed. The proposed methodology can be used as a reference method for assessing important quality attributes of raspberries. Moreover, it is useful, rapid and accurate automatic inspection method.

  9. Rapid quantification of O-acetyl and O-methyl residues in pectin extracts.

    PubMed

    Bédouet, Laurent; Courtois, Bernard; Courtois, Josiane

    2003-02-07

    A rapid method for the determination of the degrees of methylation (DM) and acetylation (DA) of pectins was developed. The polymer substitution degree as determined after saponification at 80 degrees C with NaOD during 1H NMR analysis. Under alkaline conditions, the cleavage of O-acetyl and O-methyl linkages allows the detection and the integration of the H-4 signal from galacturonic acid residues in the newly unesterified pectins. So, after a 10-min NMR recording, sodium acetate and sodium methanolate can be easily quantified relative to the clearly identified H-4 signal in galacturonic acid residues. Protons signals from pectin neutral sugars do not interfere with H-4. During the analysis, a limited (<3%) methanol evaporation leading to a weak reduced signal from the methanolate protons was observed. The proposed method allows in few minutes an accurate simultaneous quantification of DM and DA from few mg of pectin extracts, without the need of external standards.

  10. A rapid, sensitive and economic method for the detection, quantification and confirmation of aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Majerus, P; Zakaria, Z

    1992-10-01

    A rapid, sensitive and economic method for the detection, quantification and confirmation of aflatoxins is described. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, are extracted by methanol/water (85 + 15) and partitioned into methylene dichloride. The methylene dichloride solution is cleaned up on a polypropylene column, filled with 0.5 g silica gel 60. The aflatoxins are eluted with chloroform-acetone (90:10) and are detected using bidirectional thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with aluminium silica gel foil. The mean recovery of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in corn samples was 73, 78, 80, and 64%, respectively; the limit of detection was 0.5 micrograms/kg. The results can also be confirmed by derivative formation using trifluoroacetic acid on the TLC plate. The method has been applied to a wide range of foods with good results.

  11. Rapid quantification of free cholesterol in tears using direct insertion/electron ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojia Eric; Korth, John; Brown, Simon H J; Mitchell, Todd W; Truscott, Roger J W; Blanksby, Stephen J; Willcox, Mark D P; Zhao, Zhenjun

    2013-12-09

    To establish a simple and rapid analytical method, based on direct insertion/electron ionization-mass spectrometry (DI/EI-MS), for measuring free cholesterol in tears from humans and rabbits. A stable-isotope dilution protocol employing DI/EI-MS in selected ion monitoring mode was developed and validated. It was used to quantify the free cholesterol content in human and rabbit tear extracts. Tears were collected from adult humans (n = 15) and rabbits (n = 10) and lipids extracted. Screening, full-scan (m/z 40-600) DI/EI-MS analysis of crude tear extracts showed that diagnostic ions located in the mass range m/z 350 to 400 were those derived from free cholesterol, with no contribution from cholesterol esters. DI/EI-MS data acquired using selected ion monitoring (SIM) were analyzed for the abundance ratios of diagnostic ions with their stable isotope-labeled analogues arising from the D6-cholesterol internal standard. Standard curves of good linearity were produced and an on-probe limit of detection of 3 ng (at 3:1 signal to noise) and limit of quantification of 8 ng (at 10:1 signal to noise). The concentration of free cholesterol in human tears was 15 ± 6 μg/g, which was higher than in rabbit tears (10 ± 5 μg/g). A stable-isotope dilution DI/EI-SIM method for free cholesterol quantification without prior chromatographic separation was established. Using this method demonstrated that humans have higher free cholesterol levels in their tears than rabbits. This is in agreement with previous reports. This paper provides a rapid and reliable method to measure free cholesterol in small-volume clinical samples.

  12. Rapid quantification of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) with a continuous flow analyzer

    Treesearch

    James K. Nitao; Bruce A. Birr; Muraleedharan G. Nair; Daniel A. Herms; William J. Mattson

    2001-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) frequently need to be quantified in large numbers of samples in food, plant, and environmental studies. An automated colorimetric method to quantify proanthocyanidins with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was therefore developed for use in a continuous flow analyzer. Assay conditions were...

  13. High temperature polymer degradation: Rapid IR flow-through method for volatile quantification

    DOE PAGES

    Giron, Nicholas H.; Celina, Mathew C.

    2017-05-19

    Accelerated aging of polymers at elevated temperatures often involves the generation of volatiles. These can be formed as the products of oxidative degradation reactions or intrinsic pyrolytic decomposition as part of polymer scission reactions. A simple analytical method for the quantification of water, CO2, and CO as fundamental signatures of degradation kinetics is required. Here, we describe an analytical framework and develops a rapid mid-IR based gas analysis methodology to quantify volatiles that are contained in small ampoules after aging exposures. The approach requires identification of unique spectral signatures, systematic calibration with known concentrations of volatiles, and a rapid acquisitionmore » FTIR spectrometer for time resolved successive spectra. Furthermore, the volatiles are flushed out from the ampoule with dry N2 carrier gas and are then quantified through spectral and time integration. This method is sufficiently sensitive to determine absolute yields of ~50 μg water or CO2, which relates to probing mass losses of less than 0.01% for a 1 g sample, i.e. the early stages in the degradation process. Such quantitative gas analysis is not easily achieved with other approaches. Our approach opens up the possibility of quantitative monitoring of volatile evolution as an avenue to explore polymer degradation kinetics and its dependence on time and temperature.« less

  14. Rapid quantification of glutaminase 2 (GLS2)-related metabolites by HILIC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Yuan; Chao, Hsi-Chun; Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Tsai, I-Lin; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2017-10-06

    Glutamine, glutamate and glutathione are key modulators of excessive oxidative stress in tumor cells. In this study, we developed a rapid and accurate HILIC-MS/MS method to simultaneously determine concentrations of cellular glutamine, glutamate and glutathione. A bared silica HILIC column was employed to analyze these polar metabolites. The LC-MS parameters were optimized to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The analysis can be completed within 4 min under optimal conditions. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, and linearity. Intra-day (n = 9) precision was within 2.68-6.24% among QCs. Inter-day precision (n = 3) was below 12.4%. The method accuracy was evaluated by the recovery test, and the accuracy for three analytes were between 91.6 and 110%. The developed method was applied to study antioxidant function of GLS2 in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Changes in concentrations of glutamine, glutamate and glutathione revealed that the overexpression of GLS2 could effectively decrease oxidative stress. In summary, this study developed a rapid HILIC-MS/MS method for quantification of GLS2-related metabolites that could facilitate elucidation of the role of GLS2 in tumor development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Rapid quantification of ionophores in feeds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Rumbeiha, Wilson K; Braselton, W Emmett; Johnson, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    Ionophores are widely used in veterinary medicine as coccidiostats and for improving nutrient utilization in livestock production. Because of widespread use, ionophores sometimes cause poisoning in livestock. Quantifying concentration of these compounds in feeds for diagnostic purposes is needed. A method with a single step of solvent extraction was developed for rapid simultaneous quantification of monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin, and narasin in feeds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The ionophores were extracted using methanol:water (90:10). With the high specificity and high sensitivity of tandem mass spectrometry, the extract was introduced for measurement without further processing. The effect of particle size of feeds on extraction efficiency was also investigated. It was found that feeds passing through a 1-mm filter or sieve show better quantitative extraction. Nigericin was used as internal standard for the measurement. The method was validated by fortification of the selected ionophore compounds in horse feed at different concentrations. The typical recovery rate was 69-122%. Meanwhile, various interlaboratory proficiency test samples of different matrices were also quantified as part of the procedure for method validation. A good agreement was found between results and the suggested values. The method is very sensitive, with detection limits between 0.018 µg/g and 0.056 µg/g for the compounds tested. Results showed that the lower limit of quantification was 0.2 µg/g for the ionophore compounds, which is much lower than the contents of the ionophores in medicated feeds, which is generally approximately 10-100 µg/g feed.

  16. A simple and rapid method for optical visualization and quantification of bacteria on textiles

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Philipp; Schneider, Jana; Amberg, Caroline; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    To prevent bacterial contamination on textiles and the associated undesired effects different biocidal coatings have been investigated and applied. However, due to health and environmental concerns anti-adhesive coatings preventing the binding of bacteria would be favored. To develop such anti-adhesive coatings simple assays for reliable and fast screening are beneficial. Here an easy-to-handle, robust and rapid assay to assess bacteria on textiles utilizing a tetrazolium salt was reported. The assay allowed direct eye visualization of the color change of the textiles containing bacteria, facilitating fast screening. Quantification of the adhered bacteria could be done by generating standard curves which correlate the staining intensity to cell numbers. An additional advantage of the described assay is that with the same detection method anti-adhesive and biocidal effects can be investigated. The method was applied to different coatings, using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as model organisms. The detection limit was found to be between 2.5 * 106 and 9.4 * 108 for P. aeruginosa and between 1 * 106 and 3.3 * 108 for S. aureus. The anti-adhesive coating PLUMA was demonstrated to reduce bacterial adhesion without killing them, whereas the biocidal coating TH22-27 caused a clear reduction in the number of viable cells. PMID:28004762

  17. Validation of the body scanner as a measuring tool for a rapid quantification of body shape.

    PubMed

    Bretschneider, Thorsten; Koop, Urte; Schreiner, Volker; Wenck, Horst; Jaspers, Sören

    2009-08-01

    Currently, the body scanner, using laser-triangulation, is one of the most precise measuring tools for the rapid quantification of body shape. The VITUS body scanner is a laser-based system based on a principle called triangulation and the scan produced describes the distance to a surface at each point in the picture. The body scanner has multiple applications such as determining body measurements for tailoring, anthropometric investigations and cosmetic surgery. There are also intensive investigations into the effect of weight gain and thus body shape on health risks. In order to be of value, the body scanner needs to generate precise, accurate and reproducible data. To determine the precision and reproducibility of the VITUS XXL 3D body scanner. The measurements of geometric shapes (cones, columns) and human body parts (mid-thigh) were compared using a measuring tape and the body scanner. The precision of the measurements of the circumferences of a truncated cone and a column was within 1 mm of the actual values (0.29%). The reproducibility of the measurements was very good. The standard deviation in the measurement of a truncated cone was only 0.13% of the actual value. Likewise, the standard deviation of the thigh measurement of 12 human subjects was <1%. These results show that the body scanner can accurately, precisely and reproducibly measure the circumference of objects and human body parts.

  18. Rapid and Serial Quantification of Adhesion Forces of Yeast and Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Potthoff, Eva; Guillaume-Gentil, Orane; Ossola, Dario; Polesel-Maris, Jérôme; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé; Zambelli, Tomaso; Vorholt, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion to surfaces represents the basis for niche colonization and survival. Here we establish serial quantification of adhesion forces of different cell types using a single probe. The pace of single-cell force-spectroscopy was accelerated to up to 200 yeast and 20 mammalian cells per probe when replacing the conventional cell trapping cantilever chemistry of atomic force microscopy by underpressure immobilization with fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM). In consequence, statistically relevant data could be recorded in a rapid manner, the spectrum of examinable cells was enlarged, and the cell physiology preserved until approached for force spectroscopy. Adhesion forces of Candida albicans increased from below 4 up to 16 nN at 37°C on hydrophobic surfaces, whereas a Δhgc1-mutant showed forces consistently below 4 nN. Monitoring adhesion of mammalian cells revealed mean adhesion forces of 600 nN of HeLa cells on fibronectin and were one order of magnitude higher than those observed for HEK cells. PMID:23285166

  19. Method and apparatus using selected superparamagnetic labels for rapid quantification of immunochromatographic tests

    PubMed Central

    Laitinen, Mika PA; Salmela, Jari; Gilbert, Leona; Kaivola, Risto; Tikkala, Topi; Oker-Blom, Christian; Pekola, Jukka; Vuento, Matti

    2009-01-01

    A rapid method and instrumentation for quantification of immunochromatographic tests (ICT) are described. The principle and performance of the method was demonstrated by measuring the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) present in urine. The test format was a sandwich assay using two distinct monoclonal antibodies directed against hCG. The first anti-hCG antibody was labeled with superparamagnetic particles whereas the second was immobilized as a narrow detection zone on a porous membrane. The human urine sample was mixed with superparamagnetic particles coated with the first anti-hCG antibody, and the mixture was allowed to migrate past the detection zone containing the second anti-hCG antibody. Capillary forces facilitated migration of the immune complexes along the porous membrane. The amount of superparamagnetic particle-labelled monoclonal anti-hCG bound to the detection zone was directly proportional to the amount of hCG present in the sample as detected by measuring magnetization in the detector coil. The method had a practical detection limit of 20 U/l (54 nM) of hCG per 5 μl of human urine and a linear range of three decades from 20 U/l to 10 000 U/l. In addition, the analysis was completed within less than 10 minutes. Thus, the test format should be suitable for fast detection and monitoring of a large variety of clinically important parameters and analytes. PMID:24198463

  20. Method and apparatus using selected superparamagnetic labels for rapid quantification of immunochromatographic tests.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Mika Pa; Salmela, Jari; Gilbert, Leona; Kaivola, Risto; Tikkala, Topi; Oker-Blom, Christian; Pekola, Jukka; Vuento, Matti

    2009-01-01

    A rapid method and instrumentation for quantification of immunochromatographic tests (ICT) are described. The principle and performance of the method was demonstrated by measuring the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) present in urine. The test format was a sandwich assay using two distinct monoclonal antibodies directed against hCG. The first anti-hCG antibody was labeled with superparamagnetic particles whereas the second was immobilized as a narrow detection zone on a porous membrane. The human urine sample was mixed with superparamagnetic particles coated with the first anti-hCG antibody, and the mixture was allowed to migrate past the detection zone containing the second anti-hCG antibody. Capillary forces facilitated migration of the immune complexes along the porous membrane. The amount of superparamagnetic particle-labelled monoclonal anti-hCG bound to the detection zone was directly proportional to the amount of hCG present in the sample as detected by measuring magnetization in the detector coil. The method had a practical detection limit of 20 U/l (54 nM) of hCG per 5 μl of human urine and a linear range of three decades from 20 U/l to 10 000 U/l. In addition, the analysis was completed within less than 10 minutes. Thus, the test format should be suitable for fast detection and monitoring of a large variety of clinically important parameters and analytes.

  1. Rapid detection and quantification of milk adulteration using infrared microspectroscopy and chemometrics analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, P M; Pereira-Filho, E R; Rodriguez-Saona, L E

    2013-05-01

    The application of attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared microspectroscopy (MIR-microspectroscopy) was evaluated as a rapid method for detection and quantification of milk adulteration. Milk samples were purchased from local grocery stores (Columbus, OH, USA) and spiked at different concentrations of whey, hydrogen peroxide, synthetic urine, urea and synthetic milk. Samples were place on a 192-well microarray slide, air-dried and spectra were collected by using MIR-microspectroscopy. Pattern recognition analysis by Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) showed tight and well-separated clusters allowing discrimination of control samples from adulterated milk. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) showed standard error of prediction (SEP) ~2.33, 0.06, 0.41, 0.30 and 0.014 g/L for estimation of levels of adulteration with whey, synthetic milk, synthetic urine, urea and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. Results showed that MIR-microspectroscopy can provide an alternative methodology to the dairy industry for screening potential fraudulent practice for economic adulteration of cow's milk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid quantification of lamotrigine in human plasma by two LC systems connected with tandem MS.

    PubMed

    Shah, Hiten J; Subbaiah, Gunta; Patel, Dasharath M; Suhagia, Bhanubhai N; Patel, Chhagan N

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of lamotrigine in human plasma using multiplexing technique (two HPLC units connected to one MS-MS). Lamotrigine was extracted from human plasma by solid-phase extraction technique using Oasis Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance (HLB) or N-vinylpyrrolidone and divinylbenzene cartridge. A structural analog, 3,5-diamino-6-phenyl-1,2,4-triazine, was used as an internal standard (IS). A BetaBasic C(8) column was used for the chromatographic separation of analytes. The mass transition [M+H](+) ions used for detection were m/z 256.0 --> 211.0 for lamotrigine and m/z 188.0 --> 143.0 for IS. The method involved a simple multiplexing, rapid solid-phase extraction without evaporation and reconstitution. The proposed method has been validated for a linear range of 0.025 to 10.000 microg/mL with a correlation coefficient > or = 0.9991. The limit of quantification for lamotrigine was 0.025 microg/mL, and limit of detection was 50.000 pg/mL. The intra-run and inter-run precision and accuracy were within 10.0% for intra-HPLC runs and inter-HPLC runs. The overall recoveries for lamotrigine and IS were 97.9% and 92.5%, respectively. Total MS run time was 1.4 min per sample. The validated method has been successfully used to analyze human plasma samples for applications in pharmacokinetic, bioavailability, bioequivalence, or in vitro in vivo correlation studies.

  3. Biologically green synthesized silver nanoparticles as a facile and rapid label-free colorimetric probe for determination of Cu2 + in water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiri, Sedigheh; Mehdinia, Ali; Jabbari, Ali

    2017-01-01

    A highly sensitive and cost-effective colorimetric sensing platform for the selective trace analysis of Cu2 + ions was developed based on the accelerated etching of Riboflavin stabilized silver nanoparticles (R/AgNPs). The R/AgNPs were prepared from the Cucumis melo juice by a green chemistry approach. The bio-synthesized AgNPs were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and showed an intense absorption band at 404 nm that were further confirmed by FTIR and EDS analysis. Simultaneous presence of Cu2 + and thiosulfate decreased the absorption intensity of green synthesized AgNPs which resulted in sensitive and selective determination of Cu2 +. The selectivity of R/AgNPs detection system for Cu2 + was excellent. Furthermore, the method offered a wide linear detection range from 5 nM to 100 nM with a detection limit of 1.12 nM. Surprisingly, it was a quick approach and the decolorization of the R/AgNPs solutions occurred only within 5 min. Our results clearly indicate these R/AgNPs could be used as an efficient probe for the colorimetric sensing of Cu2 + in environmental water samples.

  4. Rapid and high-throughput colorimetric screening for anti-aggregation reagents of protein conformational diseases by using gold nanoplasmonic particles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Young; Kwon, Jung A; Kang, Taewook; Choi, Inhee

    2017-05-01

    Cellular deposition of destabilized proteins and their aggregates is considered one of the most indisputable factors implicated in protein conformational diseases. Here, we report an innovative high-throughput screening method for discovering anti-aggregation reagents out of numerous potential candidates by using gold nanoplasmonic particles. In our method, nanoparticles act as catalytic activators to accelerate protein aggregation and simultaneously exhibit a colorimetric response according to their embedded shape on the protein aggregates. Using this principle, we observed the colorimetric response to the anti-aggregation effect of amyloid β (Aβ) with the naked eye within a few minutes. Investigation of the anti-aggregation effects of select candidates under three different protein aggregation stages showed that the anti-aggregation efficiency could relate to disease progression. Finally, results obtained with spiked samples in cerebrospinal fluid as well as under various denaturation conditions and different Aβ compositions show the feasibility of future personalized medicine considering individual patient's disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Doped colorimetric assay liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides compositions comprising colorimetric assay liposomes. The present invention also provides methods for producing colorimetric liposomes and calorimetric liposome assay systems. In preferred embodiments, these calorimetric liposome systems provide high levels of sensitivity through the use of dopant molecules. As these dopants allow the controlled destabilization of the liposome structure, upon exposure of the doped liposomes to analyte(s) of interest, the indicator color change is facilitated and more easily recognized.

  6. A colorimetric assay for cytokinin oxidase.

    PubMed

    Libreros-Minotta, C A; Tipton, P A

    1995-11-01

    A simple and rapid colorimetric assay for cytokinin oxidase is described. The assay is based on the formation of a Schiff base between the enzymatic reaction product 3-methyl-2-butenal and p-aminophenol. The assay is effective in the submicromolar concentration range and can be used in crude plant extracts as well as in more highly purified preparations.

  7. High-resolution colorimetric assay for rapid visual readout of phosphatase activity based on gold/silver core/shell nanorod.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhuangqiang; Deng, Kaichao; Wang, Xu-Dong; Miró, Manuel; Tang, Dianping

    2014-10-22

    Nanostructure-based visual assay has been developed for determination of enzymatic activity, but most involve in poor visible color resolution and are not suitable for routine utilization. Herein, we designed a high-resolution colorimetric protocol based on gold/silver core/shell nanorod for visual readout of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity by using bare-eyes. The method relied on enzymatic reaction-assisted silver deposition on gold nanorod to generate significant color change, which was strongly dependent on ALP activity. Upon target ALP introduction into the substrate, the ascorbic acid 2-phosphate was hydrolyzed to form ascorbic acid, and then, the generated ascorbic acid reduced silver ion to metal silver and coated on the gold nanorod, thereby resulting in the blue shift of longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance peak of gold nanorod accompanying a perceptible color change from red to orange to yellow to green to cyan to blue and to violet. Under optimal conditions, the designed method exhibited the wide linear range 5-100 mU mL(-1) ALP with a detection limit of 3.3 mU mL(-1). Moreover, it could be used for the semiquantitative detection of ALP from 20 to 500 mU mL(-1) by using the bare-eyes. The coefficients of variation for intra- and interassay were below 3.5% and 6.2%, respectively. Finally, this method was validated for the analysis of real-life serum samples, giving results matched well with those from the 4-nitrophenyl phosphate disodium salt hexahydrate (pNPP)-based standard method. In addition, the system could even be utilized in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect IgG at picomol concentration. With the merits of simplification, low cost, user-friendliness, and sensitive readout, the gold nanorod-based colorimetric assay has the potential to be utilized by the public and opens a new horizon for bioassays.

  8. Sensitive and rapid HPLC quantification of tenofovir from hyaluronic acid-based nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, Vivek; Youan, Bi-Botti C

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a rapid, sensitive, and specific reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantitative determination of native tenofovir (TNF) for various applications. Different analytical performance parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of quantification (LOQ), limit of detection (LOD), and robustness were determined according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. A Bridge™ C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used as stationary phase. The retention time of TNF was 1.54 ± 0.03 min (n = 6). The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.1-10 μg/mL. The proposed method was sensitive with LOD and LOQ values equal to 50 and 100 ng/mL, respectively. The method was accurate with percent mean recovery from 95.41% to 102.90% and precise as percent RSD (relative standard deviation) values for intra-day, and inter-day precision were less than 2%. This method was utilized for the estimation of molar absorptivity of TNF at 259 nm (ε(259) = 12,518 L/mol/cm), calculated from linear regression analysis. The method was applied for determination of percentage of encapsulation efficiency (22.93 ± 0.04%), drug loading (12.25 ± 1.03%), in vitro drug release profile in the presence of enzyme (43% release in the first 3 h) and purification analysis of hyaluronic acid-based nanomedicine.

  9. Rapid quantification and analysis of kinetic • OH radical footprinting data using SAFA

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Katrina; Martin, Joshua S.; Shcherbakova, Inna; Laederach, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The use of highly reactive chemical species to probe the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids is greatly simplified by software that enables rapid quantification of the gel images that result from these experiments. SAFA (Semi-Automated Footprinting Analysis) allows a user to quickly and reproducibly quantify a chemical footprinting gel image through a series of steps that rectify, assign, and integrate the relative band intensities. The output of this procedure is raw band intensities that report on the relative reactivity of each nucleotide with the chemical probe. We describe here how to obtain these raw band intensities using SAFA and the subsequent normalization and analysis procedures required to process this data. In particular, we focus on analyzing time-resolved hydroxyl radical (•OH) data, which we use to monitor the kinetics of folding of a large RNA (the L-21 T. thermophila group I intron). Exposing the RNA to bursts of •OH radicals at specific time-points during the folding process monitors the time-progress of the reaction. Specifically, we identify protected (nucleotides that become inaccessible to the •OH radical probe when folded) and invariant (nucleotides with constant accessibility to the •OH probe) residues that we use for monitoring and normalization of the data. With this analysis, we obtain time-progress curves from which we determine kinetic rates of folding. We also report on a data visualization tool implemented in SAFA that allows users to map data onto a secondary structure diagram. PMID:20946764

  10. Rapid detection and quantification of triacylglycerol by HPLC-ELSD in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella strains.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoko; Noel, Eric A; Barnes, Austin; Rosenberg, Julian; DiRusso, Concetta; Black, Paul; Oyler, George A

    2013-10-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis and quantification are commonly performed by first obtaining a purified TAG fraction from a total neutral lipid extract using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and then analyzing the fatty acid composition of the purified TAG fraction by gas chromatography (GC). This process is time-consuming, labor intensive and is not suitable for analysis of small sample sizes or large numbers. A rapid and efficient method for monitoring oil accumulation in algae using high performance liquid chromatography for separation of all lipid classes combined with detection by evaporative light scattering (HPLC-ELSD) was developed and compared to the conventional TLC/GC method. TAG accumulation in two Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (21 gr and CC503) and three Chlorella strains (UTEX 1230, CS01 and UTEX 2229) grown under conditions of nitrogen depletion was measured. The TAG levels were found to be 3-6 % DW (Chlamydomonas strains) and 7-12 % DW (Chlorella strains) respectively by both HPLC-ELSD and TLC/GC methods. HPLC-ELSD resolved the major lipid classes such as carotenoids, TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG), free fatty acids, phospholipids, and galactolipids in a 15-min run. Quantitation of TAG content was based on comparison to calibration curves of trihexadecanoin (16:0 TAG) and trioctadecadienoin (18:2 TAG) and showed linearity from 0.2 to 10 μg. Algal TAG levels >0.5 μg/g DW were detectable by this method. Furthermore TAG content in Chlorella kessleri UTEX 2229 could be detected. TAG as well as DAG and TAG content were estimated at 1.6 % DW by HPLC-ELSD, while it was undetectable by TLC/GC method.

  11. Ultraminiaturized assay for rapid, low cost detection and quantification of clinical and biochemical samples.

    PubMed

    Parween, Shahila; Nahar, Pradip

    2016-04-01

    Herein, we report a simple, sensitive, rapid and low-cost ultraminiaturized assay technique for quantitative detection of 1 μl of clinical or biochemical sample on a novel ultraminiaturized assay plate (UAP). UAP is prepared by making tiny cavities on a polypropylene sheet. As UAP cannot immobilize a biomolecule through absorption, we have activated the tiny cavities of UAP by 1-fluoro-2-nitro-4-azidobenzene in a photochemical reaction. Activated UAP (AUAP) can covalently immobilize any biomolecule having an active nucleophilic group such as amino group. Efficacy of AUAP is demonstrated by detecting human IgE, antibody of hepatitis C virus core antigen and oligonucleotides. Quantification is performed by capturing the image of the colored assay solution and digitally quantifying the image by color saturation without using costly NanoDrop spectrophotometer. Image - based detection of human IgE and an oligonucleotide shows an excellent correlation with absorbance - based assay (recorded in a NanoDrop spectrophotometer); it is validated by Pearson's product-moment correlation with correlation coefficient of r = 0.9545088 and r = 0.9947444 respectively. AUAP is further checked by detecting hepatitis C virus Ab where strong correlation of color saturation with absorbance with respect to concentration is observed. Ultraminiaturized assay successfully detects target oligonucleotides by perfectly hybridizing with their respective complementary oligonucleotide probes but not with a random oligonucleotide. Ultraminiaturized assay technique has substantially reduced the requirement of reagents by 100 times and assay timing by 50 times making it a potential alternative to conventional method.

  12. Potential of Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Pattern Recognition for Rapid Quantification of Notoginseng Powder with Adulterants

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Pengcheng; Wu, Di; Sun, Da-Wen; Cao, Fang; Bao, Yidan; He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Notoginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medical herb, which is of high economic and medical value. Notoginseng powder (NP) could be easily adulterated with Sophora flavescens powder (SFP) or corn flour (CF), because of their similar tastes and appearances and much lower cost for these adulterants. The objective of this study is to quantify the NP content in adulterated NP by using a rapid and non-destructive visible and near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy method. Three wavelength ranges of visible spectra, short-wave near infrared spectra (SNIR) and long-wave near infrared spectra (LNIR) were separately used to establish the model based on two calibration methods of partial least square regression (PLSR) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM), respectively. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was conducted to identify the most important wavelengths/variables that had the greatest influence on the adulterant quantification throughout the whole wavelength range. The CARS-PLSR models based on LNIR were determined as the best models for the quantification of NP adulterated with SFP, CF, and their mixtures, in which the rP values were 0.940, 0.939, and 0.867 for the three models respectively. The research demonstrated the potential of the Vis-NIR spectroscopy technique for the rapid and non-destructive quantification of NP containing adulterants. PMID:24129019

  13. Potential of visible and near infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition for rapid quantification of notoginseng powder with adulterants.

    PubMed

    Nie, Pengcheng; Wu, Di; Sun, Da-Wen; Cao, Fang; Bao, Yidan; He, Yong

    2013-10-14

    Notoginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medical herb, which is of high economic and medical value. Notoginseng powder (NP) could be easily adulterated with Sophora flavescens powder (SFP) or corn flour (CF), because of their similar tastes and appearances and much lower cost for these adulterants. The objective of this study is to quantify the NP content in adulterated NP by using a rapid and non-destructive visible and near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy method. Three wavelength ranges of visible spectra, short-wave near infrared spectra (SNIR) and long-wave near infrared spectra (LNIR) were separately used to establish the model based on two calibration methods of partial least square regression (PLSR) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM), respectively. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was conducted to identify the most important wavelengths/variables that had the greatest influence on the adulterant quantification throughout the whole wavelength range. The CARS-PLSR models based on LNIR were determined as the best models for the quantification of NP adulterated with SFP, CF, and their mixtures, in which the rP values were 0.940, 0.939, and 0.867 for the three models respectively. The research demonstrated the potential of the Vis-NIR spectroscopy technique for the rapid and non-destructive quantification of NP containing adulterants.

  14. The colorimetric detection and quantitation of total protein.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Randall I

    2011-09-01

    Protein quantification is an important step for handling protein samples for isolation and characterization; it is a prerequisite step before submitting proteins for chromatographic, electrophoretic, or immunochemical analysis and separation. Colorimetric methods are fast, simple, and not laborious. This unit describes a number of assays able to detect protein concentrations in the low microgram to milligram per milliliter ranges in a variety of formats.

  15. Rapid detection of Trypanosoma cruzi by colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): A potential novel tool for the detection of congenital Chagas infection.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Rocío; Bisio, Margarita; Velázquez, Elsa Beatriz; Esteva, Mónica Inés; Scollo, Karenina; González, Nicolás Leonel; Altcheh, Jaime; Ruiz, Andrés Mariano

    2017-09-01

    Early diagnosis of congenital Trypanosomacruzi transmission in newborns is essential because babies show high indices of cure. Conventional diagnosis is based on microscopic examination and serology. Molecular diagnosis is a promising alternative to replace conventional diagnosis, although it is not well suited for adoption in laboratories with limited resources. Isothermal DNA amplification methods have the advantage of not requiring expensive equipment. The aim of this work was to apply loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect congenital infection in babies colorimetrically. This assay was able to detect all T. cruzi discrete typing units and Leishmania braziliensis, but not other pathogens. The assay showed a limit of detection of 50 parasites/mL in spiked artificial samples. This assay was tested in 27 blood samples of babies born to T. cruzi-infected mothers and showed 100% of concordance with conventional diagnosis. This is the first study to detect T. cruzi in clinical samples by LAMP, showing that this assay would be useful in the detection of congenital T. cruzi infection. The advantages of this novel tool include the speed with which the assays can be completed, the no-need of trained personnel, and the fact that it can be performed without complex and expensive laboratory equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. RNA-Skim: a rapid method for RNA-Seq quantification at transcript level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaojun; Wang, Wei

    2014-06-15

    RNA-Seq technique has been demonstrated as a revolutionary means for exploring transcriptome because it provides deep coverage and base pair-level resolution. RNA-Seq quantification is proven to be an efficient alternative to Microarray technique in gene expression study, and it is a critical component in RNA-Seq differential expression analysis. Most existing RNA-Seq quantification tools require the alignments of fragments to either a genome or a transcriptome, entailing a time-consuming and intricate alignment step. To improve the performance of RNA-Seq quantification, an alignment-free method, Sailfish, has been recently proposed to quantify transcript abundances using all k-mers in the transcriptome, demonstrating the feasibility of designing an efficient alignment-free method for transcriptome quantification. Even though Sailfish is substantially faster than alternative alignment-dependent methods such as Cufflinks, using all k-mers in the transcriptome quantification impedes the scalability of the method. We propose a novel RNA-Seq quantification method, RNA-Skim, which partitions the transcriptome into disjoint transcript clusters based on sequence similarity, and introduces the notion of sig-mers, which are a special type of k-mers uniquely associated with each cluster. We demonstrate that the sig-mer counts within a cluster are sufficient for estimating transcript abundances with accuracy comparable with any state-of-the-art method. This enables RNA-Skim to perform transcript quantification on each cluster independently, reducing a complex optimization problem into smaller optimization tasks that can be run in parallel. As a result, RNA-Skim uses <4% of the k-mers and <10% of the CPU time required by Sailfish. It is able to finish transcriptome quantification in <10 min per sample by using just a single thread on a commodity computer, which represents >100 speedup over the state-of-the-art alignment-based methods, while delivering comparable or higher

  17. RNA-Skim: a rapid method for RNA-Seq quantification at transcript level

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaojun; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: RNA-Seq technique has been demonstrated as a revolutionary means for exploring transcriptome because it provides deep coverage and base pair-level resolution. RNA-Seq quantification is proven to be an efficient alternative to Microarray technique in gene expression study, and it is a critical component in RNA-Seq differential expression analysis. Most existing RNA-Seq quantification tools require the alignments of fragments to either a genome or a transcriptome, entailing a time-consuming and intricate alignment step. To improve the performance of RNA-Seq quantification, an alignment-free method, Sailfish, has been recently proposed to quantify transcript abundances using all k-mers in the transcriptome, demonstrating the feasibility of designing an efficient alignment-free method for transcriptome quantification. Even though Sailfish is substantially faster than alternative alignment-dependent methods such as Cufflinks, using all k-mers in the transcriptome quantification impedes the scalability of the method. Results: We propose a novel RNA-Seq quantification method, RNA-Skim, which partitions the transcriptome into disjoint transcript clusters based on sequence similarity, and introduces the notion of sig-mers, which are a special type of k-mers uniquely associated with each cluster. We demonstrate that the sig-mer counts within a cluster are sufficient for estimating transcript abundances with accuracy comparable with any state-of-the-art method. This enables RNA-Skim to perform transcript quantification on each cluster independently, reducing a complex optimization problem into smaller optimization tasks that can be run in parallel. As a result, RNA-Skim uses <4% of the k-mers and <10% of the CPU time required by Sailfish. It is able to finish transcriptome quantification in <10 min per sample by using just a single thread on a commodity computer, which represents >100 speedup over the state-of-the-art alignment-based methods, while delivering

  18. A high throughput solubility assay for drug discovery using microscale shake-flask and rapid UHPLC-UV-CLND quantification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Baiwei; Pease, Joseph H

    2016-04-15

    The rapid determination of key physical properties of lead compounds is essential to the drug discovery process. Solubility is one of the most important properties since good solubility is needed not only for obtaining reliable in vitro and in vivo assay results in early discovery but also to ensure sufficient concentration of the drug being in circulation to get the desired therapeutic exposure at the target of interest. In order for medicinal chemists to tune solubility of lead compounds, a rapid assay is needed to provide solubility data that is accurate and predictive so that it can be reliably used for designing the next generation of compounds with improved properties. To ensure speed and data quality, we developed a high throughput solubility assay that utilizes a single calibration UHPLC-UV-CLND method and a 24h shake-flask format for rapid quantification. A set of 46 model compounds was used to demonstrate that the method is accurate, reproducible and predictive. Here we present development of the assay, including evaluation of quantification method, filtration membranes, equilibrium times, DMSO concentrations, and buffer conditions. A comparison of thermodynamic solubility results to our high throughput 24h shake-flask solubility assay results is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An improved qPCR protocol for rapid detection and quantification of Clostridium difficile in cattle feces.

    PubMed

    Bandelj, Petra; Logar, Katarina; Usenik, Alenka M; Vengust, Modest; Ocepek, Matjaz

    2013-04-01

    Clostridium difficile (CD) can cause a significant and transmissible disease in animals and humans, with poorly understood epidemiology. Animals have been suggested as a possible source of infection and environment contamination. It is necessary that a precise and rapid diagnostic tool is available for the detection of CD from clinical and/or environmental samples. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) protocol for CD detection defined by Penders et al. (FEMS Microbiol Lett, 243, 2005, 141-147) was modified. The modified protocol, supported by a novel extraction method, was tested on CD-spiked cattle feces and clinical fecal samples from calves. Quantification was performed targeting CD 16S rRNA gene. Three different commonly used TaqMan universal PCR master mixes were also compared. Results indicate that the modified protocol is very sensitive with an LOD of 7.72 CD cells per g CD-spiked feces. The protocol is capable of precise quantification with an LOQ of 77.2 CD cells per g CD-spiked feces, R(2) between 0.9957 and 0.9968, isolation efficiency from 87.89% to 90.96%, and an interassay CV ranging from 3.71% to 9.57%. The qPCR protocol for the detection and quantification of CD from animal feces investigated and described in this article using MIQE guidelines has the lowest detection and quantification limits published to date. Therefore, it can be implemented for precise epidemiological investigations of CD infections in animals and humans. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid testing and quantification of Salmonella in ileocaecal lymph nodes of Austrian pigs slaughtered for consumption.

    PubMed

    Mann, Evelyne; Wagner, Martin; Schmoll, Friedrich; Slaghuis, Jörg; Schönenbrücher, Holger; Mester, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Traditionally, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is based on culture-dependent technologies. However, molecular quantification could forge additional, detailed information. A prerequisite of quantitative real-time PCR in animal science is a tissue preparation method where large volumes of tissue material can be reduced and particularly target cells can be concentrated. An easy-to-use sample preparation method for food (Matrix-Lysis) was recently adapted to tissues and now permits quantification of target cells from up to 5 g of organic matrix. The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of Matrix-Lysis for quantification of Salmonella in porcine ileocaecal lymph nodes (ICLNs). After demonstrating constant recovery rates, ICLNs from 540 pigs were examined for Salmonella spp. with Matrix-Lysis. Samples were also analysed using ISO 6579:2002, a combined enrichment/qPCR method and a lateral flow test. It could be shown that qPCR coupled with Matrix-Lysis can contribute to QMRA in food safety by enabling reproducible quantitative data, even at low contamination rates.

  1. Cyclewise Operation of Printed MoS2 Transistor Biosensors for Rapid Biomolecule Quantification at Femtomolar Levels.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Byunghoon; Nam, Hongsuk; Oh, Bo-Ram; Song, Yujing; Chen, Pengyu; Park, Younggeun; Wan, Wenjie; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Liang, Xiaogan

    2017-02-24

    Field-effect transistors made from MoS2 and other emerging layered semiconductors have been demonstrated to be able to serve as ultrasensitive biosensors. However, such nanoelectronic sensors still suffer seriously from a series of challenges associated with the poor compatibility between electronic structures and liquid analytes. These challenges hinder the practical biosensing applications that demand rapid, low-noise, highly specific biomolecule quantification at femtomolar levels. To address such challenges, we study a cyclewise process for operating MoS2 transistor biosensors, in which a series of reagent fluids are delivered to the sensor in a time-sequenced manner and periodically set the sensor into four assay-cycle stages, including incubation, flushing, drying, and electrical measurement. Running multiple cycles of such an assay can acquire a time-dependent sensor response signal quantifying the reaction kinetics of analyte-receptor binding. This cyclewise detection approach can avoid the liquid-solution-induced electrochemical damage, screening, and nonspecific adsorption to the sensor and therefore improves the transistor sensor's durability, sensitivity, specificity, and signal-to-noise ratio. These advantages in combination with the inherent high sensitivity of MoS2 biosensors allow for rapid biomolecule quantification at femtomolar levels. We have demonstrated the cyclewise quantification of Interleukin-1β in pure and complex solutions (e.g., serum and saliva) with a detection limit of ∼1 fM and a total detection time ∼23 min. This work leverages the superior properties of layered semiconductors for biosensing applications and advances the techniques toward realizing fast real-time immunoassay for low-abundance biomolecule detection.

  2. Rapid quantification of resveratrol in mouse plasma by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Pichardo, Linette; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie; Rodríguez-Orengo, José F

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound with multiple health beneficial effects, in mouse plasma. We used reversed-phase ultra high pressure-liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection for the determination of resveratrol levels in mouse plasma. An Agilent Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column (2.1 mm x 50 mm, 1.8 μm) was used as the stationary phase. The mobile phase consisted of a gradient formed using 1 mM ammonium fluoride and methanol. Using this improved method, we obtained a retention time of 2.2 min and a total run time of 5 min, for resveratrol. The calibration curve for resveratrol showed a linear range from 0.5 to 100 ng/mL. The average coefficient of variation was 6% for interday variation and 4% for intraday variation. The recovery for resveratrol in mouse plasma was 85 ± 10% (mean ± standard deviation). The method presented herein allows a rapid and very sensitive quantification of resveratrol in mouse plasma at concentrations as low as 500 ppt.

  3. Rapid quantification of methamphetamine: using attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Juanita; Ayoko, Godwin; Collett, Simon; Golding, Gary

    2013-01-01

    In Australia and increasingly worldwide, methamphetamine is one of the most commonly seized drugs analysed by forensic chemists. The current well-established GC/MS methods used to identify and quantify methamphetamine are lengthy, expensive processes, but often rapid analysis is requested by undercover police leading to an interest in developing this new analytical technique. Ninety six illicit drug seizures containing methamphetamine (0.1%-78.6%) were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with an Attenuated Total Reflectance attachment and Chemometrics. Two Partial Least Squares models were developed, one using the principal Infrared Spectroscopy peaks of methamphetamine and the other a Hierarchical Partial Least Squares model. Both of these models were refined to choose the variables that were most closely associated with the methamphetamine % vector. Both of the models were excellent, with the principal peaks in the Partial Least Squares model having Root Mean Square Error of Prediction 3.8, R(2) 0.9779 and lower limit of quantification 7% methamphetamine. The Hierarchical Partial Least Squares model had lower limit of quantification 0.3% methamphetamine, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction 5.2 and R(2) 0.9637. Such models offer rapid and effective methods for screening illicit drug samples to determine the percentage of methamphetamine they contain.

  4. Rapid Quantification of Methamphetamine: Using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Juanita; Ayoko, Godwin; Collett, Simon; Golding, Gary

    2013-01-01

    In Australia and increasingly worldwide, methamphetamine is one of the most commonly seized drugs analysed by forensic chemists. The current well-established GC/MS methods used to identify and quantify methamphetamine are lengthy, expensive processes, but often rapid analysis is requested by undercover police leading to an interest in developing this new analytical technique. Ninety six illicit drug seizures containing methamphetamine (0.1%–78.6%) were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with an Attenuated Total Reflectance attachment and Chemometrics. Two Partial Least Squares models were developed, one using the principal Infrared Spectroscopy peaks of methamphetamine and the other a Hierarchical Partial Least Squares model. Both of these models were refined to choose the variables that were most closely associated with the methamphetamine % vector. Both of the models were excellent, with the principal peaks in the Partial Least Squares model having Root Mean Square Error of Prediction 3.8, R2 0.9779 and lower limit of quantification 7% methamphetamine. The Hierarchical Partial Least Squares model had lower limit of quantification 0.3% methamphetamine, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction 5.2 and R2 0.9637. Such models offer rapid and effective methods for screening illicit drug samples to determine the percentage of methamphetamine they contain. PMID:23936058

  5. Rapid classification and quantification of cocaine in seized powders with ATR-FTIR and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Eliaerts, Joy; Dardenne, Pierre; Meert, Natalie; Van Durme, Filip; Samyn, Nele; Janssens, Koen; De Wael, Karolien

    2016-12-15

    Traditionally, fast screening for the presence of cocaine in unknown powders is performed by means of colour tests. The major drawbacks of these tests are subjective colour evaluation depending on the operator ('50 shades of blue') and a lack of selectivity. An alternative fast screening technique is Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometry. This technique provides spectra that are difficult to interpret without specialized expertise and shows a lack of sensitivity for the detection of cocaine in mixtures. To overcome these limitations, a portable FTIR spectrometer using Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) sampling was combined with a multivariate technique, called Support Vector Machines (SVM). Representative street drug powders (n = 482), seized during the period January 2013 to July 2015, and reference powders (n = 33) were used to build and validate a classification model (n = 515) and a quantification model (n = 378). Both models were compared with the conventional chromatographic techniques. The SVM classification model showed a high sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency (99%). The SVM quantification model determined cocaine content with a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 6% calculated over a wide working range from 4 to 99 w%. In conclusion, the developed models resulted in a clear output (cocaine detected or cocaine not detected) and a reliable estimation of the cocaine content in a wide variety of mixtures. The ATR-FTIR technique combined with SVM is a straightforward, user-friendly, and fast approach for routine classification and quantification of cocaine in seized powders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A rapid, micro-scale preliminary screening method for active components in Galangal with protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced cell apoptosis through "thin layer chromatography" and "tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay" array correspondence.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuan; Li, Yuanting; Li, Jin; Deng, Yifeng

    2015-05-22

    A new method has been established for rapid preliminary screening active ingredients in natural products through thin layer chromatography (TLC) array responding with tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay) along with post LC-MS in micro-scale. The extract of the natural product was first separated by TLC. The separated spots obtained from TLC were visualized in situ with vanillin-ethanolic sulfuric acid agent to define the array correspondence between TLC spots and 384-cell culture plate for MTT cell viability assay. The TLC spots from the replicate TLC plates were then eluted and transferred into the wells of 384-cell culture plates according to the array respondence. The TLC spots with significant antioxidant activities were further screened by MTT assay, and subsequently traced and identified by LC-MS based on the TLC-MTT assay array correspondence. This new method was successfully applied to screen active ingredients in a Chinese medicine known as Galangal. Two major inhibitors for the decline of PC12 cell survival (Galangin, m/z 269.1, and 5-hydroxy-7-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-3-heptanone, m/z 327.2) were effectively screened and identified by this method.

  7. Development of Rapid and Economical Colorimetric Screening Method for p-Phenylenediamine in Variety of Biological Matrices and its Application to Eleven Fatal Cases of p-Phenylenediamine Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Usman, Hafiz Faisal; Shafi, Humera; Sarwar, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Ashraf

    2017-03-01

    A rapid colorimetric method for detection of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in various biological samples is developed. The o-cresol test for acetaminophen detection has been modified to detect PPD in blood, urine, gastric contents, and liver. After precipitating protein with trichloroacetic acid solution (2 mL, 10% w/v), biological specimens were required to convert PPD metabolites to PPD by acid hydrolysis. Finally, o-cresol solution (1 mL, 1% w/v), hydrogen peroxide (200 μL, 3%v/v), and concentrated ammonium hydroxide (0.5 mL) were added in the biological samples. The presence of PPD was indicated by formation of violet color which was turned to bluish green color within 10-15 min. The limit of detection was found to be 2 mg/L in blood, urine, and gastric contents and 2 mg/Kg in liver. This method is also free from any potential interference by p-aminophenol, acetaminophen, and other amine drugs under test conditions. This method was successfully employed to thirteen fatal cases of PPD poisoning.

  8. Colorimetric enumeration of bacterial contamination in water based on β-galactosidase gold nanoshell activity.

    PubMed

    Tanvir, Fouzia; Yaqub, Atif; Tanvir, Shazia; Anderson, William A

    2017-04-01

    In this study we report a method for the rapid and sensitive estimation of bacterial cell concentration in solution based on a colorimetric enzyme/gold nanoshells conjugate system. The CTAB capped gold nanoshells are electrostatically attracted by both the bacterial surface and the enzyme β-galactosidase. The preferential binding of cationic (CTAB)-functionalized gold nanoshells to the more negative bacterial surfaces leaves active β-galactosidase in solution, providing an enzyme-amplified colorimetric response of the binding event. A progressive increase in the enzyme activity is evidenced by the conversion of the yellow-orange CPRG substrate into the red chromophore chlorophenol red, which can be correlated with increasing bacterial cell numbers. Using this strategy, the quantification of bacteria at concentrations as low as 10 bacteria/mL of solution has been achieved. The present method of bacterial cell load assessment offers a distinct potential advantage over other conventional methods such as plate counting in terms of ease of operation, rapidity, high sensitivity and quantitative detection of bacterial cells.

  9. Rapid and sensitive Nitrosomonas europaea biosensor assay for quantification of bioavailable ammonium sensu strictu in soil.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Dong; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Sørensen, Jan; Brandt, Kristian K

    2011-02-01

    Knowledge on bioavailable ammonium sensu strictu (i.e., immediately available for cellular uptake) in soil is required to understand nutrient uptake processes in microorganisms and thus of vital importance for plant production. We here present a novel ammonium biosensor approach based on the lithoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea transformed with a luxAB sensor plasmid. Bioluminescence-based ammonium detection was achieved within 10 min with a quantification limit in liquid samples of ∼20 μM and a linear response range up to 400 μM. Biosensor and conventional chemical quantification of ammonium in soil solutions agreed well across a range of sample and assay conditions. The biosensor was subsequently applied for a solid phase-contact assay allowing for direct interaction of biosensor cells with soil particle-associated (i.e., exchangeable plus fixed) ammonium. The assay successfully quantified bioavailable ammonium even in unfertilized soil and demonstrated markedly higher ratios of bioavailable ammonium to water- or 2 M KCl-exchangeable ammonium in anoxic soil than in corresponding oxic soil. Particle-associated ammonium contributed by at least 74% and 93% of the total bioavailable pool in oxic and anoxic soil, respectively. The N. europaea biosensor should have broad relevance for environmental monitoring of bioavailable ammonium and processes depending on ammonium bioavailability.

  10. Rapid typing, subtyping and RNA quantification of influenza virus type A strains in respiratory secretions.

    PubMed

    Percivalle, Elena; Rovida, Francesca; Piralla, Antonio; Rognoni, Vanina; Zavattoni, Maurizio; Baldanti, Fausto; Marchi, Antonietta; Gerna, Giuseppe

    2008-07-01

    During the winter-spring season 2006-2007, 38 influenza virus strains were identified in patients admitted to hospital with an acute respiratory tract infection. Infections were diagnosed in parallel by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) staining using type-specific monoclonal antibodies and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR targeting the gene M (nt 25-124). In addition, virus strains were isolated in MDCK cells. Overall, 37 influenza virus strains were type A, and one type B. Of these, 35 (80.4%) were detected and typed by real-time RT-PCR, 34 (80.1%) by DFA, and 27 (71.0%) by virus isolation. Subtyping of 37 influenza virus A strains by RT-PCR and DFA gave the following results: 4/6 H1 strains were correctly subtyped by both methods, while of the 29 H3 strains subtyped by RT-PCR 7 were missed by DFA. Thus, the overall concordance of the two subtyping methods was 28/37 (75.7%). Viral RNA quantification by real-time PCR showed that when respiratory secretion collection was done within 5 days after the onset of symptoms, viral load was greater than 1 x 10(6) RNA copies/ml. In conclusion, typing and subtyping of influenza virus type A strains may benefit from both MAbs and RT-PCR, while viral RNA quantification may provide an indication of symptom onset.

  11. Rapid quantification of six β-lactams to optimize dosage regimens in severely septic patients.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Fleur; Deprez, Guillaume; Seyler, Lucie; Taccone, Fabio; Hites, Maya; Gulbis, Béatrice; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Jacobs, Frédérique; Cotton, Frédéric

    2013-01-15

    A fast analytical procedure was developed for the simultaneous quantification of cefepime (CEF), meropenem (MEM), ceftazidime (CZA), cefuroxime (CFX), aztreonam (AZT), and piperacillin (PIP) in serum of intensive care patients. The β-lactam pharmacokinetic parameters can be altered in severe sepsis due to changes in the distribution, the metabolism and the elimination process. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of β-lactams is therefore recommended in critically ill patients. The plasma samples were spiked with cefoperazone as internal standard and proteins were precipitated with methanol. The different β-lactams were separated with high performance liquid chromatography within 18 min, and quantified by UV spectrophotometry with a diode array detector. The method was validated by means of the accuracy profile approach based on β expectation tolerance intervals. The acceptance limits were settled at ± 30% according to the regulatory requirements. Assay validation demonstrated good performance for all β-lactams analyzed in terms of trueness, repeatability, linearity and intermediate precision over the range of 2-200 μg/mL. The simple extraction procedure provides respective absolute and relative recoveries ranging from 70% to 86% and from 66% to 89% for all the β-lactams analyzed. Few interferences were observed and the method was easily applicable to TDM in intensive care patients. The quantification of β-lactams should allow for antibiotic regimen adjustment in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid colorimetric detection of Zika virus from serum and urine specimens by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP).

    PubMed

    Calvert, Amanda E; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Tanner, Nathan A; Lauterbach, Molly; Lanciotti, Robert S

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a major global public health concern in the last two years due to its link as a causative agent of human birth defects. Its rapid expansion into the Western Hemisphere as well as the ability to be transmitted from mother to fetus, through sexual transmission and possibly through blood transfusions has increased the need for a rapid and expansive public health response to this unprecedented epidemic. A non-invasive and rapid ZIKV diagnostic screening assay that can be performed in a clinical setting throughout pregnancy is vital for prenatal care of women living in areas of the world where exposure to the virus is possible. To meet this need we have developed a sensitive and specific reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect ZIKV RNA in urine and serum with a simple visual detection. RT-LAMP results were shown to have a limit of detection 10-fold higher than qRT-PCR. As little as 1.2 RNA copies/μl was detected by RT-LAMP from a panel of 178 diagnostic specimens. The assay was shown to be highly specific for ZIKV RNA when tested with diagnostic specimens positive for dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The assay described here illustrates the potential for a fast, reliable, sensitive and specific assay for the detection of ZIKV from urine or serum that can be performed in a clinical or field setting with minimal equipment and technological expertise.

  13. Highly selective fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor for detection of Hg2 + ion in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zareh Jonaghani, Mohammad; Zali-Boeini, Hassan

    2017-05-01

    A highly efficient and selective fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor based on naphthothiazole skeleton was synthesized and its colorimetric and fluorescent properties were investigated. The sensor displays a rapid and highly selective colorimetric and fluorescence response toward Hg2 + without interference with other metal ions in CH3CN/H2O mixture (50/50, v/v). The detection limit for the fluorescent chemosensor S1 toward Hg2 + was 3.42 × 10- 8 M.

  14. Rapid and Reliable Method for Quantification of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by Use of the BACTEC MGIT 960 System▿

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sung Jae; Han, Jun Hee; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Collins, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for the enumeration of viable Mycobacterium paratuberculosis cells was developed and evaluated using the MGIT 960 culture system. For each of 12 M. paratuberculosis strains isolated from either cattle or humans, single-cell suspensions of M. paratuberculosis cells were adjusted to an optical density at 600 nm of 1.00 (107.6 to 108.2 cells/ml), and serial dilutions were prepared. Standard curves were established by relating the MGIT time-to-detection data to the log10 CFU for these suspensions using standard plate counting and BACTEC 460 results as reference methods. Universal and strain-specific standard quantification curves were generated. A one-phase exponential decay equation best fit the universal standard curve and strain-specific curves (R2 of 0.96 and >0.99, respectively). Two subgroups within the universal curves were distinguished: one for laboratory-adapted strains and the other for recently isolated low-passage bovine strains. The predictive errors for log10 estimations using the universal standard curve, each subgroup's standard curve, and strain-specific curves were ±0.87, ±0.45, and ±0.31 log10 units, respectively. CFU estimations by all three standard curves were highly reproducible, regardless of the M. paratuberculosis strain or inoculum volume. In comparison with the previously described BACTEC 460 M. paratuberculosis counting method, quantification with MGIT 960 was less expensive, more rapid, more accurate, and more sensitive (<10 CFU). This MGIT counting method has broad applications for studies requiring the quantification of viable M. paratuberculosis cells, such as drug susceptibility testing or environmental survival studies. PMID:17428943

  15. [Evaluation of Basic Performance of "Point Strip ferritin-3000" for Simple and Rapid Quantification of Serum Ferritin].

    PubMed

    Shibusa, Kotoe; Hatayama, Mayumi; Toki, Yasumichi; Yamamoto, Masayo; Ito, Satoshi; Shindo, Motohiro; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Niizeki, Noriyasu; Tomoda, Yutaka; Kawai, Yuichi; Addo, Lynda; Ikuta, Katsuya

    2015-12-01

    Serum ferritin is an excellent marker for total iron content in the body and is essential for the diagnosis of iron deficiency or iron overload. Recently, a simple and rapid method, which utilizes immunochromatography for the quantification of serum ferritin, was developed. However, the range of measurement in previous reagents was limited (10-500 ng/mL). This range is rather narrow and is not fully helpful for the diagnosis of iron overload which sometimes occurs as a result of prolonged transfusions, or for monitoring iron contents during iron chelation therapy against iron overload. In the present study we evaluated the basic performance of the newly developed "Point Strip ferritin-3000", which can measure serum ferritin in the range of 300-3,000 ng/mL. Coefficient of variation (CV) s of within and inter-day assays were in the ranges of 7.3-11.1% and 2.1-5.2%, respectively. Using 87 serum samples obtained from the patients with written informed consents, the correlation coefficient was calculated to be 0.93 compared to the control method. In addition, the quantification of serum ferritin by "Point Strip ferritin-3000" was not influenced by bilirubin, hemoglobin, chyle, rheumatoid factor, or ascorbic acid. From our data, "Point Strip ferritin-3000" is reliable reagent in the range of 300-3,000 ng/mL, and is therefore considered to be useful for the diagnosis of iron overload, as well as for monitoring iron contents during iron chelation therapy. In addition, this quantification method can be easily performed using a small desktop equipment without any special technique, making this system applicable for epidemiological surveys and clinical studies.

  16. Rapid quantification of dimethyl methylphosphonate from activated carbon particles by static headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Billingsley, Brit G; Logue, Brian A

    2013-06-07

    Activated carbon (AC) particles are utilized as an adsorbent for binding hazardous vapors in protective equipment. The binding affinity and utilization of these AC particles should be known to ensure effective and efficient use. Therefore, a simple and effective method was developed for the quantification of the chemical warfare agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), from AC particles. Static headspace gas chromatography mass-spectrometry with internal standard, DMMP-d6, was used to perform the analysis. The method produced a linear dynamic range of 2.48-620g DMMP/kg carbon and a detection limit of 1.24g DMMP/kg carbon. Furthermore, the method produced a coefficient of variation of less than 16% for all intra- and inter-assay analyses. The method provided a simple and effective procedure for quantifying DMMP from AC particles and was applied to the analysis of a DMMP-exposed AC protective respirator filter.

  17. A rapid HPLC method for indirect quantification of β-lactamase activity in milk.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuang; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2015-04-01

    To circumvent the strictly regulated limits of antibiotics in milk, illegal addition of β-lactamase to lower the antibiotic levels in milk has been reported recently in China. Herein, we describe a fast, sensitive, and robust HPLC-UV method for the determination of β-lactamase activity in milk, based on an indirect quantification strategy. The test milk sample was mixed with a known amount of penicillin G, a specific substrate of β-lactamase. After incubation, an aliquot of the mixture was injected into the HPLC-UV system to quantify the remaining penicillin G in less than 10 min. Comparative analysis of the amount of penicillin G before and after incubation was used to indirectly deduce the activity of β-lactamase in the test sample. This method was successfully applied to milk products with different fat percentages, resulting in a detection limit of 0.6 U/mL. Good recoveries, ranging from 94 to 105%, were obtained from blank milk samples spiked with β-lactamase at levels of 2 to 50 U/mL, with relative standard deviations <6%. A good correlation was demonstrated between the HPLC method and the conventional culture-based assay. Using this method, the activity changes in β-lactamase during milk pasteurization, sterilization, and storage were investigated. The advantages of low-cost, accurate quantification and easily accessible instrumentation make the proposed method an ideal alternative for high-throughput routine analysis in the dairy industry. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Demonstration of a rapidly-swept external cavity quantum cascade laser for rapid and sensitive quantification of chemical mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumfield, B. E.; Taubman, M. S.; Phillips, M. C.

    2016-02-01

    A rapidly-swept external-cavity quantum cascade laser with an open-path Herriott cell is used to quantify gas-phase chemical mixtures of D2O and HDO at an update rate of 40 Hz (25 ms measurement time). The chemical mixtures were generated by evaporating D2O liquid near the open-path Herriott cell, allowing the H/D exchange reaction with ambient H2O to produce HDO. Fluctuations in the ratio of D2O and HDO on timescales of < 1 s due to the combined effects of plume transport and the H/D exchange chemical reaction are observed. Based on a noise equivalent concentration analysis of the current system, detection limits of 147.0 ppbv and 151.6 ppbv in a 25 ms measurement time are estimated for D2O and HDO respectively with a 127 m optical path. These detection limits are reduced to 23.0 and 24.0 ppbv with a 1 s averaging time for D2O and HDO respectively. Detection limits < 200 ppbv are also estimated for N2O, F134A, CH4, Acetone, and SO2 for a 25 ms measurement time.

  19. Rapid and sensitive quantification of isotopic mixtures using a rapidly-swept external cavity quantum cascade laser

    DOE PAGES

    Brumfield, Brian E.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-05-23

    A rapidly-swept external-cavity quantum cascade laser with an open-path Herriott cell is used to quantify gas-phase chemical mixtures of D2O and HDO at a rate of 40 Hz (25-ms measurement time). The chemical mixtures were generated by evaporating D2O liquid near the open-path Herriott cell, allowing the H/D exchange reaction with ambient H2O to produce HDO. Fluctuations in the ratio of D2O and HDO on timescales of <1 s due to the combined effects of plume transport and the H/D exchange chemical reaction are observed. Noise-equivalent concentrations (1σ) (NEC) of 147.0 ppbv and 151.6 ppbv in a 25-ms measurement timemore » are determined for D2O and HDO, respectively, with a 127-m optical path. These NECs are improved to 23.0 and 24.0 ppbv with a 1-s averaging time for D2O and HDO, respectively. NECs <200 ppbv are also estimated for N2O, 1,1,1,2–tetrafluoroethane (F134A), CH4, acetone and SO2 for a 25-ms measurement time. Finally, the isotopic precision for measurement of the [D2O]/[HDO] concentration ratio of 33‰ and 5‰ is calculated for the current experimental conditions for measurement times of 25 ms and 1 s, respectively.« less

  20. Quantification of changes in oil sands mining infrastructure land based on RapidEye and SPOT5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Lantz, Nicholas; Guindon, Bert; Shipman, Todd; Chao, Dennis; Raymond, Don

    2013-10-01

    Natural resources development, spanning exploration, production and transportation activities, alters local land surface at various spatial scales. Quantification of these anthropogenic changes, both permanent and reversible, is needed for compliance assessment and for development of effective sustainable management strategies. Multi-spectral high resolution imagery data from SPOT5 and RapidEye were used for extraction and quantification of the anthropogenic and natural changes for a case study of Alberta bitumen (oil sands) mining located near Fort McMurray, Canada. Two test sites representative of the major Alberta bitumen production extraction processes, open pit and in-situ extraction, were selected. A hybrid change detection approach, combining pixel- and object-based target detection and extraction, is proposed based on Change Vector Analysis (CVA). The extraction results indicate that the changed infrastructure landscapes of these two sites have different footprints linked with their differing oil sands production processes. Pixeland object-based accuracy assessments have been applied for validation of the change detection results. For manmade disturbances, other than fine linear features such as the seismic lines, accuracies of about 80% have been achieved at the pixel level while, at the object level, these rise to 90-95%. Since many disturbance features are transient, the land surface changes by re-growth of vegetation and the capability for natural restoration on the mining sites have been assessed.

  1. Rapid and sensitive quantification of isotopic mixtures using a rapidly-swept external cavity quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect

    Brumfield, Brian E.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-05-23

    A rapidly-swept external-cavity quantum cascade laser with an open-path Herriott cell is used to quantify gas-phase chemical mixtures of D2O and HDO at a rate of 40 Hz (25-ms measurement time). The chemical mixtures were generated by evaporating D2O liquid near the open-path Herriott cell, allowing the H/D exchange reaction with ambient H2O to produce HDO. Fluctuations in the ratio of D2O and HDO on timescales of <1 s due to the combined effects of plume transport and the H/D exchange chemical reaction are observed. Noise-equivalent concentrations (1σ) (NEC) of 147.0 ppbv and 151.6 ppbv in a 25-ms measurement time are determined for D2O and HDO, respectively, with a 127-m optical path. These NECs are improved to 23.0 and 24.0 ppbv with a 1-s averaging time for D2O and HDO, respectively. NECs <200 ppbv are also estimated for N2O, 1,1,1,2–tetrafluoroethane (F134A), CH4, acetone and SO2 for a 25-ms measurement time. Finally, the isotopic precision for measurement of the [D2O]/[HDO] concentration ratio of 33‰ and 5‰ is calculated for the current experimental conditions for measurement times of 25 ms and 1 s, respectively.

  2. Rapid quantification of Staphylococcus aureus from endotracheal aspirates of ventilated patients: a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Morgane; Barraud, Olivier; Clavel, Marc; Filiputti, Delphine; Prudent, Sandrine; François, Bruno; Ploy, Marie Cécile; Jestin, Marie-Astrid; Rodrigue, Marc; Pachot, Alexandre; Yugueros-Marcos, Javier; Moucadel, Virginie

    2015-10-01

    Major concern for intubated patients is ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Early detection of VAP and its causative microorganism(s) is a key challenge for clinicians. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological, and microbiological elements, the latter being provided 24-48h after sampling. According to practices, clinicians can sample endotracheal aspirates (ETAs) so as to check for patient colonization or perform ETA in case of VAP suspicion. In this proof-of-concept study, we report the evaluation of a semiautomated molecular method to rapidly quantify Staphylococcus aureus, one of the most involved microorganisms in VAP, directly from raw ETA samples. After evaluation using artificial ETA samples, our method was applied on 40 clinical ETA samples. All S. aureus-positive samples were successfully detected and quantified. Our method can provide an efficient sample preparation protocol for all raw ETA samples, combined with an accurate quantification of the bacterial load, in less than 3h 30min.

  3. Admission cell free DNA as a prognostic factor in burns: quantification by use of a direct rapid fluorometric technique.

    PubMed

    Shoham, Yaron; Krieger, Yuval; Perry, Zvi H; Shaked, Gad; Bogdanov-Berezovsky, Alexander; Silberstein, Eldad; Sagi, Amiram; Douvdevani, Amos

    2014-01-01

    Despite great advances in the treatment of burn patients, useful prognostic markers are sparse. During the past years there has been increasing interest in circulating plasma cell free DNA as a potential marker for tissue injury. We have developed a rapid direct fluorescent assay for cell free DNA quantification that allows obtaining accurate, fast, and inexpensive measurements. To use this technique for measuring plasma cell free DNA levels in burn patients and to further explore the use of cell free DNA as a potential marker of patient outcome in burns. Cell free DNA levels obtained from 14 burn victims within 6 hours of injury and 14 healthy controls were quantified by a direct rapid fluorometric assay. Patient admission cell free DNA levels were significantly elevated compared with that of controls (1797 ± 1523 ng/mL versus 374 ± 245 ng/mL, P = 0.004). There are statistically significant correlations between cell free DNA admission levels and burn degree (Spearman's correlation = 0.78, P = 0.001), total body surface area (Spearman's correlation = 0.61, P = 0.02), and total burn volume (Spearman's correlation = 0.64, P = 0.014). Admission cell free DNA levels can serve as a prognostic factor in burns and future routine use can be made possible by use of our direct rapid fluorometric assay.

  4. A Rapid Molecular Test for Determining Yersinia pestis Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin by the Quantification of Differentially Expressed Marker Genes

    PubMed Central

    Steinberger-Levy, Ida; Shifman, Ohad; Zvi, Anat; Ariel, Naomi; Beth-Din, Adi; Israeli, Ofir; Gur, David; Aftalion, Moshe; Maoz, Sharon; Ber, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Standard antimicrobial susceptibility tests used to determine bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics are growth dependent and time consuming. The long incubation time required for standard tests may render susceptibility results irrelevant, particularly for patients infected with lethal bacteria that are slow growing on agar but progress rapidly in vivo, such as Yersinia pestis. Here, we present an alternative approach for the rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility, based on the quantification of the changes in the expression levels of specific marker genes following exposure to growth-inhibiting concentrations of the antibiotic, using Y. pestis and ciprofloxacin as a model. The marker genes were identified by transcriptomic DNA microarray analysis of the virulent Y. pestis Kimberley53 strain after exposure to specific concentrations of ciprofloxacin for various time periods. We identified several marker genes that were induced following exposure to growth-inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, and we confirmed the marker expression profiles at additional ciprofloxacin concentrations using quantitative RT-PCR. Eleven candidate marker transcripts were identified, of which four mRNA markers were selected for a rapid quantitative RT-PCR susceptibility test that correctly determined the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values and the categories of susceptibility of several Y. pestis strains and isolates harboring various ciprofloxacin MIC values. The novel molecular susceptibility test requires just 2 h of antibiotic exposure in a 7-h overall test time, in contrast to the 24 h of antibiotic exposure required for a standard microdilution test. PMID:27242774

  5. Fractal circuit sensors enable rapid quantification of biomarkers for donor lung assessment for transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Andrew T.; Besant, Justin D.; Mahmoudian, Laili; Poudineh, Mahla; Bai, Xiaohui; Zamel, Ricardo; Hsin, Michael; Sargent, Edward H.; Cypel, Marcelo; Liu, Mingyao; Keshavjee, Shaf; Kelley, Shana O.

    2015-01-01

    Biomarker profiling is being rapidly incorporated in many areas of modern medical practice to improve the precision of clinical decision-making. This potential improvement, however, has not been transferred to the practice of organ assessment and transplantation because previously developed gene-profiling techniques require an extended period of time to perform, making them unsuitable in the time-sensitive organ assessment process. We sought to develop a novel class of chip-based sensors that would enable rapid analysis of tissue levels of preimplantation mRNA markers that correlate with the development of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) in recipients after transplant. Using fractal circuit sensors (FraCS), three-dimensional metal structures with large surface areas, we were able to rapidly (<20 min) and reproducibly quantify small differences in the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and ATP11B mRNA in donor lung biopsies. A proof-of-concept study using 52 human donor lungs was performed to develop a model that was used to predict, with excellent sensitivity (74%) and specificity (91%), the incidence of PGD for a donor lung. Thus, the FraCS-based approach delivers a key predictive value test that could be applied to enhance transplant patient outcomes. This work provides an important step toward bringing rapid diagnostic mRNA profiling to clinical application in lung transplantation. PMID:26601233

  6. Fractal circuit sensors enable rapid quantification of biomarkers for donor lung assessment for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sage, Andrew T; Besant, Justin D; Mahmoudian, Laili; Poudineh, Mahla; Bai, Xiaohui; Zamel, Ricardo; Hsin, Michael; Sargent, Edward H; Cypel, Marcelo; Liu, Mingyao; Keshavjee, Shaf; Kelley, Shana O

    2015-08-01

    Biomarker profiling is being rapidly incorporated in many areas of modern medical practice to improve the precision of clinical decision-making. This potential improvement, however, has not been transferred to the practice of organ assessment and transplantation because previously developed gene-profiling techniques require an extended period of time to perform, making them unsuitable in the time-sensitive organ assessment process. We sought to develop a novel class of chip-based sensors that would enable rapid analysis of tissue levels of preimplantation mRNA markers that correlate with the development of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) in recipients after transplant. Using fractal circuit sensors (FraCS), three-dimensional metal structures with large surface areas, we were able to rapidly (<20 min) and reproducibly quantify small differences in the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and ATP11B mRNA in donor lung biopsies. A proof-of-concept study using 52 human donor lungs was performed to develop a model that was used to predict, with excellent sensitivity (74%) and specificity (91%), the incidence of PGD for a donor lung. Thus, the FraCS-based approach delivers a key predictive value test that could be applied to enhance transplant patient outcomes. This work provides an important step toward bringing rapid diagnostic mRNA profiling to clinical application in lung transplantation.

  7. A Novel Assay for Easy and Rapid Quantification of Helicobacter pylori Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Skindersoe, Mette E; Rasmussen, Lone; Andersen, Leif P; Krogfelt, Karen A

    2015-06-01

    Reducing adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to gastric epithelial cells could be a new way to counteract infections with this organism. We here present a novel method for quantification of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to cells. Helicobacter pylori is allowed to adhere to AGS or MKN45g cells in a 96-well microtiter plate. Then wells are added saponin, which lyses the cells without affecting the bacteria. After addition of alamarBlue(®) (resazurin) and 1- to 2-hour incubation, fluorescence measurements can be used to quantify the number of adherent bacteria. By use of the method, we demonstrate that adhesion of both a sabA and babA deletion mutant of H. pylori is significantly reduced compared to the wild type. The method offers a number of applications and may be used to compare the adherence potential of different strains of H. pylori to either cells or different materials or to screen for potential anti-adhesive compounds. The results presented here suggest that this easy and reproducible assay is well suited for quantitative investigation of H. pylori adhesion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Rapid perfusion quantification using Welch-Satterthwaite approximation and analytical spectral filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Karthik; Reddy, Kasireddy V.; Ajani, Bhavya; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K.

    2017-02-01

    CT and MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) enable quantification of perfusion parameters in stroke studies. These parameters are calculated from the residual impulse response function (IRF) based on a physiological model for tissue perfusion. The standard approach for estimating the IRF is deconvolution using oscillatory-limited singular value decomposition (oSVD) or Frequency Domain Deconvolution (FDD). FDD is widely recognized as the fastest approach currently available for deconvolution of CT Perfusion/MR PWI. In this work, three faster methods are proposed. The first is a direct (model based) crude approximation to the final perfusion quantities (Blood flow, Blood volume, Mean Transit Time and Delay) using the Welch-Satterthwaite approximation for gamma fitted concentration time curves (CTC). The second method is a fast accurate deconvolution method, we call Analytical Fourier Filtering (AFF). The third is another fast accurate deconvolution technique using Showalter's method, we call Analytical Showalter's Spectral Filtering (ASSF). Through systematic evaluation on phantom and clinical data, the proposed methods are shown to be computationally more than twice as fast as FDD. The two deconvolution based methods, AFF and ASSF, are also shown to be quantitatively accurate compared to FDD and oSVD.

  9. Rapid onsite detection of bacterial spores of biothreat importance by paper-based colorimetric method using erbium-pyrocatechol violet complex.

    PubMed

    Shivakiran, M S; Venkataramana, M; Lakshmana Rao, P V

    2016-01-01

    Dipicolinic acid (DPA) is an important chemical marker for the detection of bacterial spores. In this study, complexes of lanthanide series elements such as erbium, europium, neodymium, and terbium were prepared with pyrocatechol violet and effectively immobilized the pyrocatechol violet (PV)-metal complex on a filter paper using polyvinyl alcohol. These filter paper strips were employed for the onsite detection of bacterial spores. The test filter papers were evaluated quantitatively with different concentrations of DPA and spores of various bacteria. Among the four lanthanide ions, erbium displayed better sensitivity than the other ions. The limit of detection of this test for DPA was 60 μM and 5 × 10(6) spores. The effect of other non-spore-forming bacteria and interfering chemicals on the test strips was also evaluated. The non-spore-forming bacteria did not have considerable effect on the test strip whereas chemicals such as EDTA had significant effects on the test results. The present test is rapid and robust, capable of providing timely results for better judgement to save resources on unnecessary decontamination procedures during false alarms.

  10. Specific ionic effect for simple and rapid colorimetric sensing assays of amino acids using gold nanoparticles modified with task-specific ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Datong; Cai, Pengfei; Tao, Zhihao; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel task-specific ionic liquid functionalized gold nanoparticle (TSIL-GNP) was successfully prepared and applied in the recognition of amino acids. Particularly, the surface of GNP was modified with the ionic liquid containing carbamido and ester group via thiol, which was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The stability of this material in aqueous solution improves apparently and can remain unchanged for more than three months. The effect of pH was also discussed in this study. Attractive ionic interaction would effectively weaken intensity of the covalent coupling between the metal ion and the functional groups of amino acids. Thus, TSIL-GNP was successfully applied to recognizing serine, aspartic acid, lysine, arginine, and histidine in the presence of Cu(2+) through distinctive color changes. Suspension would be generated once a spot of cysteine was added into the GNPs solution. Results indicated that it had a good linear relationship between extinction coefficients and concentration of amino acids in a wide range of 10(-3)-10(-6) M. Moreover, the proposed strategy was successfully used to analyze the histidine in urinary samples. In brief, TSIL-GNP is a suitable substrate for discrimination of five amino acids in a rapid and simple way without sophisticated instruments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-assembly of graphene oxide with a silyl-appended spiropyran dye for rapid and sensitive colorimetric detection of fluoride ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinhui; Duan, Yu; Zheng, Jing; Li, Jishan; Zhao, Wenjie; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Ronghua

    2013-12-03

    Fluoride ion (F(-)), the smallest anion, exhibits considerable significance in a wide range of environmental and biochemical processes. To address the two fundamental and unsolved issues of current F(-) sensors based on the specific chemical reaction (i.e., the long response time and low sensitivity) and as a part of our ongoing interest in the spiropyran sensor design, we reported here a new F(-) sensing approach that, via assembly of a F(-)-specific silyl-appended spiropyran dye with graphene oxide (GO), allows rapid and sensitive detection of F(-) in aqueous solution. 6-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyloxy)-1',3',3'-trimethylspiro [chromene- 2,2'-indoline] (SPS), a spiropyran-based silylated dye with a unique reaction activity for F(-), was designed and synthesized. The nucleophilic substitution reaction between SPS and F(-) triggers cleavage of the Si-O bond to promote the closed spiropyran to convert to its opened merocyanine form, leading to the color changing from colorless to orange-yellow with good selectivity over other anions. With the aid of GO, the response time of SPS for F(-) was shortened from 180 to 30 min, and the detection limit was lowered more than 1 order of magnitude compared to the free SPS. Furthermore, due to the protective effect of nanomaterials, the SPS/GO nanocomposite can function in a complex biological environment. The SPS/GO nanocomposite was characterized by XPS and AFM, etc., and the mechanism for sensing F(-) was studied by (1)H NMR and ESI-MS. Finally, this SPS/GO nanocomposite was successfully applied to monitoring F(-) in the serum.

  12. Rapid Quantification of Mitogen-induced Blastogenesis in T Lymphocytes for Identifying Immunomodulatory Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Jennifer N.; Beesetty, Pavani; Sulentic, Courtney; Kozak, J. Ashot

    2016-01-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation is a readily quantifiable phenomenon useful for testing immunomodulatory (i.e., immunosuppressive or immunostimulatory) chemical compounds and biologics. One of the earliest steps during mitogenesis is cell enlargement or blastogenic transformation, whereupon the cell volume increases before division. It is usually detectable in the first several hours of T-lymphocyte stimulation. Here, we describe a rapid method to quantify blastogenesis in T lymphocytes isolated from mouse spleens and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using an automated cell counter. Various commonly used proliferation assays for the most part are laborious and only reflect the overall population effect rather than individual cellular effects within a population. In contrast, the presented automated cell counter assay provides rapid, direct, and precise measurements of cell diameters that can be used for assessing the effectiveness of various mitogens and immunomodulatory drugs in vitro. PMID:28060354

  13. Adjustment of a rapid method for quantification of Fusarium spp. spore suspensions in plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Caligiore-Gei, Pablo F; Valdez, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The use of a Neubauer chamber is a broadly employed method when cell suspensions need to be quantified. However, this technique may take a long time and needs trained personnel. Spectrophotometry has proved to be a rapid, simple and accurate method to estimate the concentration of spore suspensions of isolates of the genus Fusarium. In this work we present a linear formula to relate absorbance measurements at 530nm with the number of microconidia/ml in a suspension.

  14. Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Koydemir, Hatice Ceylan; Gorocs, Zoltan; Tseng, Derek; Cortazar, Bingen; Feng, Steve; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Burbano, Jordi; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-07

    Rapid and sensitive detection of waterborne pathogens in drinkable and recreational water sources is crucial for treating and preventing the spread of water related diseases, especially in resource-limited settings. Here we present a field-portable and cost-effective platform for detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts, one of the most common waterborne parasites, which has a thick cell wall that makes it resistant to most water disinfection techniques including chlorination. The platform consists of a smartphone coupled with an opto-mechanical attachment weighing ~205 g, which utilizes a hand-held fluorescence microscope design aligned with the camera unit of the smartphone to image custom-designed disposable water sample cassettes. Each sample cassette is composed of absorbent pads and mechanical filter membranes; a membrane with 8 μm pore size is used as a porous spacing layer to prevent the backflow of particles to the upper membrane, while the top membrane with 5 μm pore size is used to capture the individual Giardia cysts that are fluorescently labeled. A fluorescence image of the filter surface (field-of-view: ~0.8 cm(2)) is captured and wirelessly transmitted via the mobile-phone to our servers for rapid processing using a machine learning algorithm that is trained on statistical features of Giardia cysts to automatically detect and count the cysts captured on the membrane. The results are then transmitted back to the mobile-phone in less than 2 minutes and are displayed through a smart application running on the phone. This mobile platform, along with our custom-developed sample preparation protocol, enables analysis of large volumes of water (e.g., 10-20 mL) for automated detection and enumeration of Giardia cysts in ~1 hour, including all the steps of sample preparation and analysis. We evaluated the performance of this approach using flow-cytometer-enumerated Giardia-contaminated water samples, demonstrating an average cyst capture

  15. Rapid quantification of live/dead lactic acid bacteria in probiotic products using high-sensitivity flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shengbin; Hong, Xinyi; Huang, Tianxun; Zhang, Wenqiang; Zhou, Yingxing; Wu, Lina; Yan, Xiaomei

    2017-06-01

    A laboratory-built high-sensitivity flow cytometer (HSFCM) was employed for the rapid and accurate detection of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their viability in probiotic products. LAB were stained with both the cell membrane-permeable SYTO 9 green-fluorescent nucleic acid stain and the red-fluorescent nucleic acid stain, propidium iodide, which penetrates only bacteria with compromised membranes. The side scatter and dual-color fluorescence signals of single bacteria were detected simultaneously by the HSFCM. Ultra-high temperature processing milk and skim milk spiked with Lactobacillus casei were used as the model systems for the optimization of sample pretreatment and staining. The viable LAB counts measured by the HSFCM were in good agreement with those of the plate count method, and the measured ratios between the live and dead LAB matched well with the theoretical ratios. The established method was successfully applied to the rapid quantification of live/dead LAB in yogurts and fermented milk beverages of different brands. Moreover, the concentration and viability status of LAB in ambient yogurt, a relatively new yet popular milk product in China, are also reported.

  16. Rapid quantification of live/dead lactic acid bacteria in probiotic products using high-sensitivity flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    He, Shengbin; Hong, Xinyi; Huang, Tianxun; Zhang, Wenqiang; Zhou, Yingxing; Wu, Lina; Yan, Xiaomei

    2017-03-30

    A laboratory-built high-sensitivity flow cytometer (HSFCM) was employed for the rapid and accurate detection of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their viability in probiotic products. LAB were stained with both the cell membrane-permeable SYTO 9 green-fluorescent nucleic acid stain and the red-fluorescent nucleic acid stain, propidium iodide, which penetrates only bacteria with compromised membranes. The side scatter and dual-color fluorescence signals of single bacteria were detected simultaneously by the HSFCM. Ultra-high temperature processing milk and skim milk spiked with Lactobacillus casei were used as the model systems for the optimization of sample pretreatment and staining. The viable LAB counts measured by the HSFCM were in good agreement with those of the plate count method, and the measured ratios between the live and dead LAB matched well with the theoretical ratios. The established method was successfully applied to the rapid quantification of live/dead LAB in yogurts and fermented milk beverages of different brands. Moreover, the concentration and viability status of LAB in ambient yogurt, a relatively new yet popular milk product in China, are also reported.

  17. Laser Induced breakdown spectroscopy: A rapid tool for the identification and quantification of minerals in cucurbit seeds.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jyotsana; Kumar, Rohit; Awasthi, Shikha; Singh, Vinti; Rai, A K

    2017-04-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was investigated to estimate the viability as a simple and rapid method for analysis of nutrient elements in seed kernels of cucurbits. LIBS spectra were recorded in the range of 200-975nm by using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 532nm (4ns, 10Hz) attached to echelle spectrometer with intensified charged coupled device (ICCD). The spectral analysis revealed the presence of several elements like C, O, N, Mg, Ca, Na and K in seeds. The quantification of elements (Mg, Ca, Na and K) through LIBS was done using calibration curve method in which all calibration curve shows good linearity (r>0.95). The result obtained through LIBS was in reasonable agreement with that obtained through atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also applied to the LIBS data for rapid categorization of seed samples belonging to same species although samples have similar nutrient elements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A real-time PCR assay for rapid detection and quantification of Exserohilum rostratum, a causative pathogen of fungal meningitis associated with injection of contaminated methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanan; Petraitiene, Ruta; Walsh, Thomas J; Perlin, David S

    2013-03-01

    A species-specific molecular beacon real-time PCR assay was developed for rapid diagnosis of Exserohilum rostratum infection. As low as 100 fg of E. rostratum DNA can be reliably detected in the presence of 50 ng of human DNA, with a dynamic linear quantification range from 20 ng to 200 fg.

  19. Semiautomatic and rapid quantification of heartbeat parameters in Drosophila using optical coherence tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shou-Yuan; Liao, Fang-Tsu; Su, Ming-Tsan; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Su, Hong-Ren; Huang, Jyun-Cin; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2013-02-01

    We report a semiautomatic algorithm that is specialized for rapid analysis of beat-to-beat contraction-relaxation parameters of the heart in Drosophila. The presented algorithm adapts the general graph theoretical image segmentation algorithm and a histogram-based thresholding algorithm, which can measure many cardiac parameters, including heart rate, heart period, diastolic and systolic intervals, and end-diastolic and end-systolic areas. Additionally, dynamic cardiac functions, such as arrhythmia index and percent fractional shortening, can be automatically calculated for all the recorded heartbeats over significant periods of time.

  20. Quantification of anthropogenic and natural changes in oil sands mining infrastructure land based on RapidEye and SPOT5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert; Lantz, Nicholas; Shipman, Todd; Chao, Dennis; Raymond, Don

    2014-06-01

    Natural resources development, spanning exploration, production and transportation activities, alters local land surface at various spatial scales. Quantification of these anthropogenic changes, both permanent and reversible, is needed for compliance assessment and for development of effective sustainable management strategies. Multi-spectral high resolution imagery data from SPOT5 and RapidEye were used for extraction and quantification of the anthropogenic and natural changes for a case study of Alberta bitumen (oil sands) mining located in the Western Boreal Plains near Fort McMurray, Canada. Two test sites representative of the major Alberta bitumen production extraction processes, open pit and in situ extraction, were selected. A hybrid change detection approach, combining pixel- and object-based target detection and extraction, is proposed based on Change Vector Analysis (CVA). The extraction results indicate that the changed infrastructure landscapes of these two sites have different footprints linked with their differing oil sands production processes. Pixel- and object-based accuracy assessments have been applied for validation of the change detection results. For manmade disturbances, except for those fine linear features such as the seismic lines, accuracies of about 80% have been achieved at the pixel level while, at the object level, these rise to 90-95%. Since many disturbance features are transient, a new landscape index, entitled the Re-growth Index, has been formulated at single object level specifically to monitor restoration of these features to their natural state. It is found that the temporal behaviour of the Re-growth Index in an individual patch varies depending on the type of natural land cover. In addition, the Re-growth Index is also useful for assessing the detectability of disturbed sites.

  1. Rapid quantification of Salmonella typhimurium inoculated to meat products by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Yang; Chi, Jing-Ruei; Lin, Sin-Rong; Chou, Chi-Chiang; Huang, Chin-Cheng

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to use a 5'-nuclease (TaqMan) real-time PCR method with primers and probe specific to the spaQ gene as a rapid approach to quantitatively determine Salmonella Typhimurium. The result showed that the correlation coefficient between real-time PCR estimates and bovine serum albumin (BSA) plate counts of S. Typhimurium was 0.99, independently of 10(5)-fold numbers of bystander Escherichia coli O157:H7 or total viable counts. The sensitivity of the real-time quantitative PCR assay was 10 CFU/mL for pure S. Typhimurium culture without enrichment. A known number of S. Typhimurium target cells were inoculated to dumpling fillings and chicken nuggets and DNA was extracted for real-time PCR analysis. The sensitivity was 60 CFU/g for S. Typhimurium inoculated to the food samples without any preceding procedure of enrichment. The duration of the entire experiment from DNA isolation and purification to PCR amplification was less than 12 h. This study demonstrated that real-time PCR is a rapid and reliable technique for quantifying S. Typhimurium possessing the spaQ gene in pure culture and in meat products.

  2. Device for rapid quantification of human carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprenkle, J. M.; Eckberg, D. L.; Goble, R. L.; Schelhorn, J. J.; Halliday, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    A new device has been designed, constructed, and evaluated to characterize the human carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex response relation rapidly. This system was designed for study of reflex responses of astronauts before, during, and after space travel. The system comprises a new tightly sealing silicon rubber neck chamber, a stepping motor-driven electrodeposited nickel bellows pressure system, capable of delivering sequential R-wave-triggered neck chamber pressure changes between +40 and -65 mmHg, and a microprocessor-based electronics system for control of pressure steps and analysis and display of responses. This new system provokes classic sigmoid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses with threshold, linear, and saturation ranges in most human volunteers during one held expiration.

  3. Rapid Cell-Based Assay for Detection and Quantification of Active Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type D.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Hernlem, Bradley J

    2017-03-01

    Food poisoning by Staphylococcus aureus is a result of ingestion of Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by this bacterium and is a major source of foodborne illness. Staphylococcal enterotoxin D (SED) is one of the predominant enterotoxins recovered in Staphylococcal food poisoning incidences, including a recent outbreak in Guam affecting 300 children. Current immunology methods for SED detection cannot distinguish between the biologically active form of the toxin, which poses a threat, from the inactive form, which poses no threat. In vivo bioassays that measure emetic activity in kitten and monkeys have been used, but these methods rely upon expensive procedures using live animals and raising ethical concerns. A rapid (5 h) quantitative bioluminescence assay, using a genetically engineered T-cell Jurkat cell line expressing luciferase under regulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells response elements, in combination with the lymphoblastoid B-cell line Raji for antigen presentation, was developed. In this assay, the detection limit of biologically active SED is 100 ng/mL, which is 10 times more sensitive than the splenocyte proliferation assay, and 10(5) times more sensitive than monkey or kitten bioassay. Pasteurization or repeated freeze-thaw cycles had no effect on SED activity, but reduction in SED activity was shown with heat treatment at 100°C for 5 min. It was also shown that milk exhibits a protective effect on SED. This bioluminescence assay may also be used to rapidly evaluate antibodies to SED for potential therapeutic application as a measurement of neutralizing biological effects of SED. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Quantification of cell viability and rapid screening anti-cancer drug utilizing nanomechanical fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangquan; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xiarong; Liang, Xin M; Gao, Dayong; Liu, Hong; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wu, Xiaoping

    2016-03-15

    Cancer is a serious threat to human health. Although numerous anti-cancer drugs are available clinically, many have shown toxic side effects due to poor tumor-selectivity, and reduced effectiveness due to cancers rapid development of resistance to treatment. The development of new highly efficient and practical methods to quantify cell viability and its change under drug treatment is thus of significant importance in both understanding of anti-cancer mechanism and anti-cancer drug screening. Here, we present an approach of utilizing a nanomechanical fluctuation based highly sensitive microcantilever sensor, which is capable of characterizing the viability of cells and quantitatively screening (within tens of minutes) their responses to a drug with the obvious advantages of a rapid, label-free, quantitative, noninvasive, real-time and in-situ assay. The microcantilever sensor operated in fluctuation mode was used in evaluating the paclitaxel effectiveness on breast cancer cell line MCF-7. This study demonstrated that the nanomechanical fluctuations of the microcantilever sensor are sensitive enough to detect the dynamic variation in cellular force which is provided by the cytoskeleton, using cell metabolism as its energy source, and the dynamic instability of microtubules plays an important role in the generation of the force. We propose that cell viability consists of two parts: biological viability and mechanical viability. Our experimental results suggest that paclitaxel has little effect on biological viability, but has a significant effect on mechanical viability. This new method provides a new concept and strategy for the evaluation of cell viability and the screening of anti-cancer drugs.

  5. Rapid guided wave delamination detection and quantification in composites using global-local sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu; Leckey, Cara

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a rapid guided ultrasonic wave inspection approach through global inspection by phased array beamforming and local damage evaluation via wavenumber analysis. The global-local approach uses a hybrid system consisting of a PZT wafer and a non-contact laser vibrometer. The overall inspection is performed in two steps. First, a phased array configured by a small number of measurements performs beamforming and beamsteering over the entire plate in order to detect and locate the presence of the damage. A local area is identified as target damage area for the second step. Then a high density wavefield measurement is taken over the target damage area and a spatial wavenumber imaging is performed to quantitatively evaluate the damage. The two-step inspection has been applied to locate and quantify impact-induced delamination damage in a carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite plate. The detected delamination location, size and shape agree well with those of an ultrasonic C-scan. For the test case studied in this work the global-local approach reduced the total composite inspection (damage detection and characterization) time by ∼97% compared to using a full scan approach.

  6. A rapid method for the extraction, enantiomeric separation and quantification of amphetamines in hair.

    PubMed

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Botrè, Francesco; Bermejo, Ana Maria; Tabernero, Maria Jesús

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents a rapid and sensitive method for the determination and chiral separation of amphetamines and related designer drugs in hair samples. The substances are extracted from hair matrix by a 30 min treatment with a saturated carbonate buffer at pH 10 under ultrasonication. A commercial chiral derivatizing agent, trifluoroacetyl-prolyl chloride, is then added to the solution that is directly extracted with hexane and subsequently analyzed by GC/MS in SIM mode. R and S isomers of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA and MDEA can be separated and detected with a limit of detection of 0.1 ng/mg for amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDA, and of 0.2 ng/mg for MDMA and MDEA. The method was then applied to 12 samples from suspected amphetamines abusers, showing the presence of both isomers of amphetamine and MDMA in one sample (27 and 1.5 ng/mg, respectively) and of MDMA in further eight samples, in concentrations ranging from traces to 2.7 ng/mg. No differences were observed in the disposition of different isomers in hair.

  7. Rapid discrimination and quantification of alkaloids in Corydalis Tuber by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-yan; Wang, Shi-sheng; Cai, Rui; Meng, Yu; Xie, Xin; Zhao, Wei-jie

    2012-02-05

    With the application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a convenient and rapid method for determination of alkaloids in Corydalis Tuber extract and classification for samples from different locations have been developed. Five different samples were collected according to their geographical origin, 2-Der with smoothing point of 17 was applied as the spectral pre-treatment, and the 1st to scaling range algorithm was adjusted to be optimal approach, classification model was constructed over the wavelength range of 4582-4270 cm⁻¹, 5562-4976 cm⁻¹ and 7000-7467 cm⁻¹ with a great recognition rate. For prediction model, partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was utilized referring to HPLC-UV reference method, the optimum models were obtained after adjustment. Pre-processing methods of calibration models were COE for protopine and min-max normalization for palmatine and MSC for tetrahydropalmatine, respectively. The root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) for protopine, palmatine, tetrahydropalmatine were 0.884, 1.83, 3.23 mg/g. The correlation coefficients (R²) were 99.75, 98.41 and 97.34%. T test was applied, in the model of tetrahydropalmatine; there is no significant difference between NIR prediction and HPLC reference method at 95% confidence interval with t=0.746

  8. Rapid fluorescent reporter quantification by leaf disc analysis and its application in plant-virus studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluorescent proteins are extraordinary tools for biology studies due to their versatility; they are used extensively to improve comprehension of plant-microbe interactions. The viral infection process can easily be tracked and imaged in a plant with fluorescent protein-tagged viruses. In plants, fluorescent protein genes are among the most commonly used reporters in transient RNA silencing and heterologous protein expression assays. Fluorescence intensity is used to quantify fluorescent protein accumulation by image analysis or spectroscopy of protein extracts; however, these methods might not be suitable for medium- to large-scale comparisons. Results We report that laser scanners, used routinely in proteomic studies, are suitable for quantitative imaging of plant leaves that express different fluorescent protein pairs. We developed a microtiter plate fluorescence spectroscopy method for direct quantitative comparison of fluorescent protein accumulation in intact leaf discs. We used this technique to measure a fluorescent reporter in a transient RNA silencing suppression assay, and also to monitor early amplification dynamics of a fluorescent protein-labeled potyvirus. Conclusions Laser scanners allow dual-color fluorescence imaging of leaf samples, which might not be acquired in standard stereomicroscope devices. Fluorescence microtiter plate analysis of intact leaf discs can be used for rapid, accurate quantitative comparison of fluorescent protein accumulation. PMID:25053970

  9. Rapid and simple UPLC-MS/MS method for precise phytochelatin quantification in alga extracts.

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, Anja; Wesenberg, Dirk; Preud'homme, Hugues; Schaumlöffel, Dirk

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative phytochelatin (PC) analysis is, due to oxidation sensitivity of the PCs, matrix effects, and time consuming sample preparation, still a challenging analytical task. In this study, a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for precise determination of native PCs in crude extracts of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was developed. Algae were exposed 48 h to 70 μM Cd. Coupling of ultra performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with multi-reaction mode transitions for detection permitted the required short-time, high-resolution separation and detection specificity. Thus, under optimized chromatographic conditions, 10 thiol peptides were baseline-separated within 7 min. Relative detection limits in the nanomolar range in microliter sample volumes were achieved (corresponding to absolute detection limits at femtomole level). Next to glutathione (GSH), the most abundant cadmium-induced PCs in C. reinhardtii, namely CysGSH, PC(2), PC(3), CysPC(2), and CysPC(3), were quantified with high reproducibility at concentrations between 15 and 198 nmol g(-1) fresh weight. The biological variation of PC synthesis of nine independently grown alga cultures was determined to be on average 13.7%.

  10. Rapid and reliable quantification of biofilm weight and nitrogen content of biofilm attached to polystyrene beads.

    PubMed

    Delatolla, Robert; Berk, Dimitrios; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2008-06-01

    Increased popularity of attached-growth wastewater treatment systems (e.g. biological aerated filtration processes-BAF) has created the need for a rapid and reliable method of characterizing biofilms. In addition to the mass of the biofilm that may serve as a control parameter for attached-growth treatment systems, the nitrogen content of the biofilm is also of great interest with increasingly strict nitrogen removal guidelines. Existing methods that may be used to analyse biofilms in such processes involve complex sample preparation and microbiological expertise that limit their application in many biofilm wastewater treatment studies and at existing treatment facilities as a feasible method of monitoring the biofilm. This paper describes a simple technical procedure that enables biofilm samples attached to polystyrene beads to be characterized in terms of the biofilm mass and the nitrogen content of the biofilm. The proposed protocol incorporates an agitation procedure that demonstrates 99.9% removal of the biofilm from polystyrene beads; a modified TSS procedure that measures the removed biofilm mass; and subsequently a modified total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) procedure that enables the nitrogen content of the biofilm to be measured directly on the filter. Moreover, this protocol allows numerous beads to be analysed with limited manipulation and without the loss of critical mass.

  11. Rapid TaqMan-based quantification of chlorophyll d-containing cyanobacteria in the genus Acaryochloris.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Lars; Nielsen, Jeppe L; Sørensen, Søren J; Larkum, Anthony W D; Winther, Jakob R; Kühl, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Reports of the chlorophyll (Chl) d-containing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris have accumulated since its initial discovery in 1996. The majority of this evidence is based on amplification of the gene coding for the 16S rRNA, and due to the wide geographical distribution of these sequences, a global distribution of Acaryochloris species was suggested. Here, we present a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective TaqMan-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay that was developed for the specific detection of Acaryochloris species in complex environmental samples. The TaqMan probe showed detection limits of ~10 16S rRNA gene copy numbers based on standard curves consisting of plasmid inserts. DNA from five Acaryochloris strains, i.e., MBIC11017, CCMEE5410, HICR111A, CRS, and Awaji-1, exhibited amplification efficiencies of >94% when tested in the TaqMan assay. When used on complex natural communities, the TaqMan assay detected the presence of Acaryochloris species in four out of eight samples of crustose coralline algae (CCA), collected from temperate and tropical regions. In three out of these TaqMan-positive samples, the presence of Chl d was confirmed via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and corresponding cell estimates of Acaryochloris species amounted to 7.6 × 10(1) to 3.0 × 10(3) per mg of CCA. These numbers indicate a substantial contribution of Chl d-containing cyanobacteria to primary productivity in endolithic niches. The new TaqMan assay allows quick and easy screening of environmental samples for the presence of Acaryochloris species and is an important tool to further resolve the global distribution and significance of this unique oxyphototroph.

  12. Rapid TaqMan-Based Quantification of Chlorophyll d-Containing Cyanobacteria in the Genus Acaryochloris

    PubMed Central

    Behrendt, Lars; Nielsen, Jeppe L.; Sørensen, Søren J.; Larkum, Anthony W. D.; Winther, Jakob R.

    2014-01-01

    Reports of the chlorophyll (Chl) d-containing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris have accumulated since its initial discovery in 1996. The majority of this evidence is based on amplification of the gene coding for the 16S rRNA, and due to the wide geographical distribution of these sequences, a global distribution of Acaryochloris species was suggested. Here, we present a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective TaqMan-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay that was developed for the specific detection of Acaryochloris species in complex environmental samples. The TaqMan probe showed detection limits of ∼10 16S rRNA gene copy numbers based on standard curves consisting of plasmid inserts. DNA from five Acaryochloris strains, i.e., MBIC11017, CCMEE5410, HICR111A, CRS, and Awaji-1, exhibited amplification efficiencies of >94% when tested in the TaqMan assay. When used on complex natural communities, the TaqMan assay detected the presence of Acaryochloris species in four out of eight samples of crustose coralline algae (CCA), collected from temperate and tropical regions. In three out of these TaqMan-positive samples, the presence of Chl d was confirmed via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and corresponding cell estimates of Acaryochloris species amounted to 7.6 × 101 to 3.0 × 103 per mg of CCA. These numbers indicate a substantial contribution of Chl d-containing cyanobacteria to primary productivity in endolithic niches. The new TaqMan assay allows quick and easy screening of environmental samples for the presence of Acaryochloris species and is an important tool to further resolve the global distribution and significance of this unique oxyphototroph. PMID:24632258

  13. Electromechanical transducer for rapid detection, discrimination and quantification of lung cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Waqas; Jalvhei Moghaddam, Fatemeh; Usman Raza, Muhammad; Bui, Loan; Sayles, Bailey; Kim, Young-Tae; Iqbal, Samir M.

    2016-05-01

    Tumor cells are malignant derivatives of normal cells. There are characteristic differences in the mechanophysical properties of normal and tumor cells, and these differences stem from the changes that occur in the cell cytoskeleton during cancer progression. There is a need for viable whole blood processing techniques for rapid and reliable tumor cell detection that do not require tagging. Micropore biosensors have previously been used to differentiate tumor cells from normal cells and we have used a micropore-based electromechanical transducer to differentiate one type of tumor cells from the other types. This device generated electrical signals that were characteristic of the cell properties. Three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, NCl-H1155, A549 and NCI-H460, were successfully differentiated. NCI-H1155, due to their comparatively smaller size, were found to be the quickest in translocating through the micropore. Their translocation through a 15 μm micropore caused electrical pulses with an average translocation time of 101 ± 9.4 μs and an average peak amplitude of 3.71 ± 0.42 μA, whereas translocation of A549 and NCI-H460 caused pulses with average translocation times of 126 ± 17.9 μs and 148 ± 13.7 μs and average peak amplitudes of 4.58 ± 0.61 μA and 5.27 ± 0.66 μA, respectively. This transformation of the differences in cell properties into differences in the electrical profiles (i.e. the differences in peak amplitudes and translocation times) with this electromechanical transducer is a quantitative way to differentiate these lung cancer cells. The solid-state micropore device processed whole biological samples without any pre-processing requirements and is thus ideal for point-of-care applications.

  14. Sensitive and rapid RT-qPCR quantification of pathogenic Candida species in human blood.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Kiyohito; Matsuda, Kazunori; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nomoto, Koji

    2015-10-01

    For accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of candidiasis, we developed a highly sensitive quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) system for five Candida species that have been reported to be the major causes of bloodstream fungal infection (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei), together with a system for all pathogenic Candida species. Cells of each fungal species spiked into human peripheral blood (PB) were specifically detected at a lower detection limit of 10(0) cell/1 mL PB by this system using the newly developed specific primer sets targeting 18S or 26S rRNA of the five Candida species, together with the existing group primer set. The total count of the five Candida spp. as the sum of those obtained by using the five species primer sets was equivalent to the count obtained by using the group primer set, indicating that the group set covered the major five Candida spp. in human blood with the same degree of accuracy as the species primer sets. The RT-qPCR counts of the Candida species were in good agreement with CFU counts obtained by their culture on CHROMagar™, with a lower detection limit of 10(0)cell/mL of PB. Candida rRNA molecules were stably stored for at least 7 days at 4°C by keeping the blood specimens in an RNA stabilizing reagent. These results strongly suggest that this sensitive system is useful for accurate and rapid diagnosis of Candida bloodstream infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid speciation and quantification of selenium compounds by HPLC-ICP MS using multiple standards labelled with different isotopes.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yuki; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Yayoi; Hirano, Seishiro

    2011-09-01

    Speciation analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP MS) is now commonly used to investigate metabolic and toxicological aspects of some metals and metalloids. We have developed a rapid method for simultaneous identification and quantification of metabolites of selenium (Se) compounds using multiple standards labelled with different isotopes. A mixture of the labelled standards was spiked in a selenised garlic extract and the sample was subjected to speciation analysis by HPLC-ICP MS. The selenised garlic contains γ-glutamyl-methylselenocysteine, methylselenocysteine, and selenomethionine and the concentrations of those Se compounds were 723.8, 414.8, and 310.7 ng Se ml(-1), respectively. The isotopically labelled standards were also applied to the speciation of Se in rat urine. Selenate, methylselenonic acid, selenosugar, and trimethyselenium ions were found to be excreted by the present speciation procedure. Multiple standards labelled with different stable isotopes enable high-throughput identification and quantitative measurements of Se metabolites.

  16. Rapid quantification of carotenoids and fat in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) by Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Wold, Jens Petter; Marquardt, Brian J; Dable, Brian K; Robb, Dave; Hatlen, Bjarne

    2004-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy (785 nm excitation) was used to determine the overall carotenoid (astaxanthin and cantaxanthin) and fat content in 49 samples of ground muscle tissue from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Chemically determined contents ranged from 1.0 to 6.8 mg/kg carotenoids and 36 to 205 g/kg fat. In addition to the raw Raman spectra, three types of spectral preprocessing were evaluated: the first derivative, subtraction of the fitted fourth-order polynomial (POLY), and the intensity normalized versions of POLY (POLY-SNV). Further, variable selection based on significance testing by use of jack-knifing was performed on each spectral data set. Partial least-squares regression resulted in a root mean square error of prediction of 0.33 mg/kg (R = 0.97) for carotenoids for the variable selected versions of all the preprocessed spectral data sets. The fat content was best estimated by the variable selected POLYSNV, resulting in a root mean square error of prediction of 15.5 g/kg (R = 0.95). Both preprocessing and variable selection improved the regression models significantly. The results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy is a suitable method for simultaneous, rapid, and nondestructive quantification of both pigments and fat in ground salmon muscle tissue.

  17. Simultaneous quantification of polyherbal formulations containing Rhodiola rosea L. and Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim. using rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC).

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuan-Chun; Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Hou, Feifei; Ma, Jie; Luo, Mai; Lu, Shane; Jin, Peter; Chen, Alice; Xu, Iris; Patel, Asmita V; Gorecki, Derek

    2011-07-15

    An RRLC method capable of simultaneous identification and rapid quantification of six biologically active compounds (salidroside, tyrosol, rosarin, rosavin, rosin, rosiridin) in Rhodiola rosea L. and two active compounds (eleutheroside B and eleutheroside E) in Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim. was developed. The chromatographic analyses were performed on a reversed phase Phenomenex C18 (2)-HST column at 40°C with a neutral mobile phase (purified water and acetonitrile) gradient system at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min and UV detection at 205 and 220nm simultaneously. Baseline separation of eight active compounds was achieved within 8min. This developed method provides good linearity (R>0.9997), precision (RSD<1.99%) and recovery of the bioactive compounds. The RRLC method developed is capable of controlling the quality of R. rosea and E. senticosus raw herbs, commercial extracts, as well as polyherbal formulations containing R. rosea and E. senticosus as ingredients. This RRLC method is accurate and sensitive; in addition, it greatly increases sample analysis throughput with reduced analysis time, which is suitable for routine quality control analysis.

  18. A new rapid colorimetric detection method of Al³⁺ with high sensitivity and excellent selectivity based on a new mechanism of aggregation of smaller etched silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ningning; Gao, Yuexia; Zhang, Yujie; Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Aiguo

    2014-05-01

    As a pathogenic factor of the Alzheimer׳s disease, aluminum has been associated with the damage of the central nervous system in humans. In this study, we propose a new facile and rapid colorimetric detection method of Al(3+) with excellent selectivity and high sensitivity based on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized by reduced glutathione (GSH) in the presence of l-cysteine (Cys). The new mechanism of our Al(3+) detection system based on GSH-AgNPs, i.e., aggregation of smaller etched GSH-AgNPs, are confirmed by TEM, EDS and DLS. The aggregation of smaller etched GSH-AgNPs results in obvious color change of the nanoparticle dispersion from yellow to reddish brown, and red shift and intensity decrease of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption. The GSH concentration, Cys concentration and pH value of the GSH-AgNPRs-based detection system are respectively optimized to be 10.0 mM, 50.0 mM and 6.0 according to the sensing effect of Al(3+). At the optimized conditions, the selectivity of the GSH-AgNPs detection system for Al(3+) is excellent compared with other ions including K(+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Cu(2+), Cr(3+), Hg(2+), Ni(2+), [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] . Furthermore, this detection system is very sensitive for Al(3+). The limit of detection (LOD) is 1.2 µM by the naked eyes and 0.16 µM by UV-vis spectra, which are both much lower than the national drinking water standards (7.4 µM). Furthermore, the UV-vis detection offers a good linear detection range from 0.4 to 4.0 µM (R(2)=0.9924), which indicates that our developed detection system can also be used for the quantitative analysis of Al(3+). The detection results of real water samples indicate that this method can be used for real water detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Colorimetric micro-assay for accelerated screening of mould inhibitors

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2013-01-01

    Since current standard laboratory methods are time-consuming macro-assays that rely on subjective visual ratings of mould growth, rapid and quantitative laboratory methods are needed to screen potential mould inhibitors for use in and on cellulose-based products. A colorimetric micro-assay has been developed that uses XTT tetrazolium salt to enzymatically assess...

  20. Accelerated Colorimetric Micro-assay for Screening Mold Inhibitors

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Rapid quantitative laboratory test methods are needed to screen potential antifungal agents. Existing laboratory test methods are relatively time consuming, may require specialized test equipment and rely on subjective visual ratings. A quantitative, colorimetric micro-assay has been developed that uses XTT tetrazolium salt to metabolically assess mold spore...

  1. A rapid chemiluminescent slot blot immunoassay for the detection and quantification of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E, in cultures.

    PubMed

    Cadieux, Brigitte; Blanchfield, Burke; Smith, James P; Austin, John W

    2005-05-01

    A simple, rapid, cost-effective in vitro slot blot immunoassay was developed for the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E) in cultures. Culture supernatants of 36 strains of clostridia, including 12 strains of Clostridium botulinum type E, 12 strains of other C. botulinum neurotoxin serotypes, and 12 strains of other clostridial species were tested. Samples containing BoNT/E were detected using affinity-purified polyclonal rabbit antisera prepared against BoNT/E with subsequent detection of secondary antibodies using chemiluminescence. All strains of C. botulinum type E tested positive, while all non C. botulinum type E strains tested negative. The sensitivity of the slot blot immunoassay for detection of BoNT/E was approximately four mouse lethal doses (MLD). The intensity of chemiluminescence was directly correlated with the concentration of BoNT/E up to 128 MLD, allowing quantification of BoNT/E between 4 and 128 MLD. The slot blot immunoassay was compared to the mouse bioassay for detection of BoNT/E using cultures derived from fish samples inoculated with C. botulinum type E, and cultures derived from naturally contaminated environmental samples. A total of 120 primary enrichment cultures derived from fish samples, of which 103 were inoculated with C. botulinum type E, and 17 were uninoculated controls, were assayed. Of the 103 primary enrichment cultures derived from inoculated fish samples, all were positive by mouse bioassay, while 94 were also positive by slot blot immunoassay, resulting in a 7.5% false-negative rate. All 17 primary enrichment cultures derived from the uninoculated fish samples were negative by both mouse bioassay and slot blot immunoassay. A total of twenty-six primary enrichment cultures derived from environmental samples were tested by mouse bioassay and slot blot immunoassay. Of 13 primary enrichment cultures positive by mouse bioassay, 12 were also positive by slot blot immunoassay, resulting in a 3

  2. Simple and rapid quantification of serotonin transporter binding using [(11)C]DASB bolus plus constant infusion.

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, G; Rischka, L; Philippe, C; Hahn, A; James, G M; Klebermass, E; Hienert, M; Silberbauer, L; Vanicek, T; Kautzky, A; Berroterán-Infante, N; Nics, L; Traub-Weidinger, T; Mitterhauser, M; Wadsak, W; Hacker, M; Kasper, S; Lanzenberger, R

    2017-04-01

    In-vivo quantification of serotonin transporters (SERT) in human brain has been a mainstay of molecular imaging in the field of neuropsychiatric disorders and helped to explore the underpinnings of several medical conditions, therapeutic and environmental influences. The emergence of PET/MR hybrid systems and the heterogeneity of SERT binding call for the development of efficient methods making the investigation of larger or vulnerable populations with limited scanner time and simultaneous changes in molecular and functional measures possible. We propose [(11)C]DASB bolus plus constant infusion for these applications and validate it against standard analyses of dynamic PET data. [(11)C]DASB bolus/infusion optimization was performed on data acquired after [(11)C]DASB bolus in 8 healthy subjects. Subsequently, 16 subjects underwent one scan using [(11)C]DASB bolus plus constant infusion with Kbol 160-179min and one scan after [(11)C]DASB bolus for inter-method reliability analysis. Arterial blood sampling and metabolite analysis were performed for all scans. Distribution volumes (VT) were obtained using Logan plots for bolus scans and ratios between tissue and plasma parent activity for bolus plus infusion scans for different time spans of the scan (VT-70 for 60-70min after start of tracer infusion, VT-90 for 75-90min, VT-120 for 100-120min) in 9 subjects. Omitting blood data, binding potentials (BPND) obtained using multilinear reference tissue modeling (MRTM2) and cerebellar gray matter as reference region were compared in 11 subjects. A Kbol of 160min was observed to be optimal for rapid equilibration in thalamus and striatum. VT-70 showed good intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of 0.61-0.70 for thalamus, striatal regions and olfactory cortex with bias ≤5.1% compared to bolus scans. ICCs increased to 0.72-0.78 for VT-90 and 0.77-0.93 for VT-120 in these regions. BPND-90 had negligible bias ≤2.5%, low variability ≤7.9% and ICCs of 0.74-0.87; BPND-120

  3. Individual Colorimetric Observer Model

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Yuta; Fairchild, Mark D.; Blondé, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a vision model for individual colorimetric observers. The proposed model can be beneficial in many color-critical applications such as color grading and soft proofing to assess ranges of color matches instead of a single average match. We extended the CIE 2006 physiological observer by adding eight additional physiological parameters to model individual color-normal observers. These eight parameters control lens pigment density, macular pigment density, optical densities of L-, M-, and S-cone photopigments, and λmax shifts of L-, M-, and S-cone photopigments. By identifying the variability of each physiological parameter, the model can simulate color matching functions among color-normal populations using Monte Carlo simulation. The variabilities of the eight parameters were identified through two steps. In the first step, extensive reviews of past studies were performed for each of the eight physiological parameters. In the second step, the obtained variabilities were scaled to fit a color matching dataset. The model was validated using three different datasets: traditional color matching, applied color matching, and Rayleigh matches. PMID:26862905

  4. Colorimetric detection for paper-based biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, C.; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-02-01

    Research on affordable point-of-care health diagnostics is rapidly advancing1. Colorimetric biosensor applications are typically qualitative, but recently the focus has been shifted to quantitative measurements2,3. Although numerous qualitative point-of-care (POC) health diagnostic devices are available, the challenge exists of developing a quantitative colorimetric array reader system that complies with the ASSURED (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User-friendly, Rapid and Robust, Equipment-free, Deliverable to end-users) principles of the World Health Organization4. This paper presents a battery powered 8-bit tonal resolution colorimetric sensor circuit for paper microfluidic assays using low cost photo-detection circuitry and a low-power LED light source. A colorimetric 3×3-pixel array reader was developed for rural environments where resources and personnel are limited. The device sports an ultralow-power E-ink paper display. The colorimetric device includes integrated GPS functionality and EEPROM memory to log measurements with geo-tags for possible analysis of regional trends. The device competes with colour intensity measurement techniques using smartphone cameras, but proves to be a cheaper solution, compensating for the typical performance variations between cameras of different brands of smartphones. Inexpensive methods for quantifying bacterial assays have been shown using desktop scanners, which are not portable, and cameras, which suffer severely from changes in ambient light in different environments. Promising colorimetric detection results have been demonstrated using devices such as video cameras5, digital colour analysers6, flatbed scanners7 or custom portable readers8. The major drawback of most of these methods is the need for specialized instrumentation and for image analysis on a computer.

  5. Quantification of rapid environmental redox processes with quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS).

    PubMed

    Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Landrot, Gautier; Fischel, Jason S; Sparks, Donald L

    2009-09-22

    Quantification of the initial rates of environmental reactions at the mineral/water interface is a fundamental prerequisite to determining reaction mechanisms and contaminant transport modeling and predicting environmental risk. Until recently, experimental techniques with adequate time resolution and elemental sensitivity to measure initial rates of the wide variety of environmental reactions were quite limited. Techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies suffer from limited elemental specificity and poor sensitivity to inorganic elements, respectively. Ex situ analysis of batch and stirred-flow systems provides high elemental sensitivity; however, their time resolution is inadequate to characterize rapid environmental reactions. Here we apply quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS), at sub-second time-scales, to measure the initial oxidation rate of As(III) to As(V) by hydrous manganese(IV) oxide. Using Q-XAS, As(III) and As(V) concentrations were determined every 0.98 s in batch reactions. The initial apparent As(III) depletion rate constants (t < 30 s) measured with Q-XAS are nearly twice as large as rate constants measured with traditional analytical techniques. Our results demonstrate the importance of developing analytical techniques capable of analyzing environmental reactions on the same time scale as they occur. Given the high sensitivity, elemental specificity, and time resolution of Q-XAS, it has many potential applications. They could include measuring not only redox reactions but also dissolution/precipitation reactions, such as the formation and/or reductive dissolution of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, solid-phase transformations (i.e., formation of layered-double hydroxide minerals), or almost any other reaction occurring in aqueous media that can be measured using x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  6. Application of laboratory and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopic approaches for rapid quantification of alpaca serum immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Elsohaby, Ibrahim; Burns, Jennifer B; Riley, Christopher B; Shaw, R Anthony; McClure, J Trenton

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and compare the performance of laboratory grade and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopic approaches in combination with partial least squares regression (PLSR) for the rapid quantification of alpaca serum IgG concentration, and the identification of low IgG (<1000 mg/dL), which is consistent with the diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in neonates. Serum samples (n = 175) collected from privately owned, healthy alpacas were tested by the reference method of radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay, and laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers. Various pre-processing strategies were applied to the ATR-IR spectra that were linked to corresponding RID-IgG concentrations, and then randomly split into two sets: calibration (training) and test sets. PLSR was applied to the calibration set and calibration models were developed, and the test set was used to assess the accuracy of the analytical method. For the test set, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the IgG measured by RID and predicted by both laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers was 0.91. The average differences between reference serum IgG concentrations and the two IR-based methods were 120.5 mg/dL and 71 mg/dL for the laboratory and portable ATR-IR-based assays, respectively. Adopting an IgG concentration <1000 mg/dL as the cut-point for FTPI cases, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying serum samples below this cut point by laboratory ATR-IR assay were 86, 100 and 98%, respectively (within the entire data set). Corresponding values for the portable ATR-IR assay were 95, 99 and 99%, respectively. These results suggest that the two different ATR-IR assays performed similarly for rapid qualitative evaluation of alpaca serum IgG and for diagnosis of IgG <1000 mg/dL, the portable ATR-IR spectrometer performed slightly better, and provides more flexibility for potential

  7. Application of laboratory and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopic approaches for rapid quantification of alpaca serum immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jennifer B.; Riley, Christopher B.; Shaw, R. Anthony; McClure, J. Trenton

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and compare the performance of laboratory grade and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopic approaches in combination with partial least squares regression (PLSR) for the rapid quantification of alpaca serum IgG concentration, and the identification of low IgG (<1000 mg/dL), which is consistent with the diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in neonates. Serum samples (n = 175) collected from privately owned, healthy alpacas were tested by the reference method of radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay, and laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers. Various pre-processing strategies were applied to the ATR-IR spectra that were linked to corresponding RID-IgG concentrations, and then randomly split into two sets: calibration (training) and test sets. PLSR was applied to the calibration set and calibration models were developed, and the test set was used to assess the accuracy of the analytical method. For the test set, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the IgG measured by RID and predicted by both laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers was 0.91. The average differences between reference serum IgG concentrations and the two IR-based methods were 120.5 mg/dL and 71 mg/dL for the laboratory and portable ATR-IR-based assays, respectively. Adopting an IgG concentration <1000 mg/dL as the cut-point for FTPI cases, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying serum samples below this cut point by laboratory ATR-IR assay were 86, 100 and 98%, respectively (within the entire data set). Corresponding values for the portable ATR-IR assay were 95, 99 and 99%, respectively. These results suggest that the two different ATR-IR assays performed similarly for rapid qualitative evaluation of alpaca serum IgG and for diagnosis of IgG <1000 mg/dL, the portable ATR-IR spectrometer performed slightly better, and provides more flexibility for potential

  8. Colorimetric protein assay techniques.

    PubMed

    Sapan, C V; Lundblad, R L; Price, N C

    1999-04-01

    There has been an increase in the number of colorimetric assay techniques for the determination of protein concentration over the past 20 years. This has resulted in a perceived increase in sensitivity and accuracy with the advent of new techniques. The present review considers these advances with emphasis on the potential use of such technologies in the assay of biopharmaceuticals. The techniques reviewed include Coomassie Blue G-250 dye binding (the Bradford assay), the Lowry assay, the bicinchoninic acid assay and the biuret assay. It is shown that each assay has advantages and disadvantages relative to sensitivity, ease of performance, acceptance in the literature, accuracy and reproducibility/coefficient of variation/laboratory-to-laboratory variation. A comparison of the use of several assays with the same sample population is presented. It is suggested that the most critical issue in the use of a chromogenic protein assay for the characterization of a biopharmaceutical is the selection of a standard for the calibration of the assay; it is crucial that the standard be representative of the sample. If it is not possible to match the standard with the sample from the perspective of protein composition, then it is preferable to use an assay that is not sensitive to the composition of the protein such as a micro-Kjeldahl technique, quantitative amino acid analysis or the biuret assay. In a complex mixture it might be inappropriate to focus on a general method of protein determination and much more informative to use specific methods relating to the protein(s) of particular interest, using either specific assays or antibody-based methods. The key point is that whatever method is adopted as the 'gold standard' for a given protein, this method needs to be used routinely for calibration.

  9. A versatile targeted metabolomics method for the rapid quantification of multiple classes of phenolics in fruits and beverages.

    PubMed

    Vrhovsek, Urska; Masuero, Domenico; Gasperotti, Mattia; Franceschi, Pietro; Caputi, Lorenzo; Viola, Roberto; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2012-09-12

    Compelling evidence of the health benefits of phenolic compounds and their impact on food quality have stimulated the development of analytical methods for the identification and quantification of these compounds in different matrices in recent years. A targeted metabolomics method has been developed for the quantification of 135 phenolics, such as benzoates, phenylpropanoids, coumarins, stilbenes, dihydrochalcones, and flavonoids, in fruit and tea extracts and wine using UPLC/QqQ-MS/MS. Chromatography was optimized to achieve separation of the compounds over a period of 15 min, and MRM transitions were selected for accurate quantification. The method was validated by studying the detection and quantification limits, the linearity ranges, and the intraday and interday repeatability of the analysis. The validated method was applied to the analysis of apples, berries, green tea, and red wine, providing a valuable tool for food quality evaluation and breeding studies.

  10. Colorimetric biosensing using smart materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Yujun; Wei, Weili; Qu, Xiaogang

    2011-10-04

    In recent years, colorimetric biosensing has attracted much attention because of its low cost, simplicity, and practicality. Since color changes can be read out by the naked eye, colorimetric biosensing does not require expensive or sophisticated instrumentation and may be applied to field analysis and point-of-care diagnosis. For transformation of the detection events into color changes, a number of smart materials have been developed, including gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, cerium oxide nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, and conjugated polymers. Here, we focus on recent developments in colorimetric biosensing using these smart materials. Along with introducing the mechanisms of color changes based on different smart materials, we concentrate on the design of biosensing assays and their potential applications in biomedical diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. New method for rapid and sensitive quantification of sulphide-producing bacteria in fish from arctic and temperate waters.

    PubMed

    Skjerdal, Olaug Taran; Lorentzen, Grete; Tryland, Ingun; Berg, James D

    2004-06-15

    The offensive, fishy, rotten H2S-off-odours in spoiled, aerobically and cold stored fish from arctic and temperate waters are generally caused by sulphide-producing bacteria (SPB), mainly Shewanella putrefaciens. In the present work, a new, rapid, simple and accurate method for estimation of the SPB content in fish from these areas is described. The quantification is based on the formation rate of iron sulphide during growth of SPBs incubated at 30 degrees C in a liquid growth medium containing cysteine, sodium thiosulphate and iron(III)citrate as specific substrates for iron sulphide formation. The iron sulphide turns the medium grey and masks the background fluorescence in the medium when the SPB content in the assay is approximately 10(9) cfu/ml. The fluorescence change could be detected instrumentally and the colour change visually. The method was developed and evaluated in tests with S. putrefaciens CCUG 13452 DT as well as naturally occurring SPBs in cod, salmon, wolf fish and coal fish. A linear correlation between the SPB count and detection time was obtained over the entire range from 1 to 10(9) cfu SPB/g, corresponding to detection times 17 and 1 h, respectively. The correlation is described by the equation: log cfu/g fish= -0.59(+/- 0.17) x DT+ 9.65(+/- 0.09), where DT is the detection time in hours. The model was valid for all the tested fish species and all tested naturally occurring SPBs in these species. The regression coefficients (R2) for cod, coal fish, wolf fish and salmon were 0.99, 0.92, 0.97 and 0.97, respectively. The detection level of the method is 1 SPB per sample tube, corresponding to 16 cfu/g fish. The method could be used to predict the remaining shelf life of the fish for different markets, even when the time-temperature history during storage of the fish is unknown.

  12. A rapid, reproducible, on-the-fly orthogonal array optimization method for targeted protein quantification by LC/MS and its application for accurate and sensitive quantification of carbonyl reductases in human liver.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jin; Gonzalez-Covarrubias, Vanessa; Covarrubias, Vanessa M; Straubinger, Robert M; Wang, Hao; Duan, Xiaotao; Yu, Haoying; Qu, Jun; Blanco, Javier G

    2010-04-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS) in selected-reactions-monitoring (SRM) mode provides a powerful tool for targeted protein quantification. However, efficient, high-throughput strategies for proper selection of signature peptides (SP) for protein quantification and accurate optimization of their SRM conditions remain elusive. Here we describe an on-the-fly, orthogonal array optimization (OAO) approach that enables rapid, comprehensive, and reproducible SRM optimization of a large number of candidate peptides in a single nanoflow-LC/MS run. With the optimized conditions, many peptide candidates can be evaluated in biological matrixes for selection of the final SP. The OAO strategy employs a systematic experimental design that strategically varies product ions, declustering energy, and collision energy in a cycle of 25 consecutive SRM trials, which accurately reveals the effects of these factors on the signal-to-noise ratio of a candidate peptide and optimizes each. As proof of concept, we developed a highly sensitive, accurate, and reproducible method for the quantification of carbonyl reductases CBR1 and CBR3 in human liver. Candidate peptides were identified by nano-LC/LTQ/Orbitrap, filtered using a stringent set of criteria, and subjected to OAO. After evaluating both sensitivity and stability of the candidates, two SP were selected for quantification of each protein. As a result of the accurate OAO of assay conditions, sensitivities of 80 and 110 amol were achieved for CBR1 and CBR3, respectively. The method was validated and used to quantify the CBRs in 33 human liver samples. The mean level of CBR1 was 93.4 +/- 49.7 (range: 26.2-241) ppm of total protein, and of CBR3 was 7.69 +/- 4.38 (range: 1.26-17.9) ppm. Key observations of this study: (i) evaluation of peptide stability in the target matrix is essential for final selection of the SP; (ii) utilization of two unique SP contributes to high reliability of target protein quantification; (iii

  13. A rapid, reproducible, on-the-fly orthogonal array optimization method for targeted protein quantification by LC/MS and its application for accurate and sensitive quantification of carbonyl reductases in human liver

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jin; Gonzalez-Covarrubias, Vanessa; Straubinger, Robert M.; Wang, Hao; Duan, Xiaotao; Yu, Haoying; Qu, Jun; Blanco, Javier G.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS) in selected-reactions-monitoring (SRM) mode provides a powerful tool for targeted protein quantification. However, efficient, high-throughput strategies for proper selection of signature peptides (SP) for protein quantification and accurate optimization of their SRM conditions remain elusive. Here we describe an on-the-fly, orthogonal array optimization (OAO) approach that enables rapid, comprehensive, and reproducible SRM optimization of a large number of candidate peptides in a single nanoflow-LC/MS run. With the optimized conditions, many peptide candidates can be evaluated in biological matrices for selection of the final SP. The OAO strategy employs a systematic experimental design that strategically varies product ions, de-clustering energy and collision energy in a cycle of 25 consecutive SRM trials, which accurately reveals the effects of these factors on the single-to-noise ratio of a candidate peptide, and optimizes each. As proof of concept, we developed a highly sensitive, accurate, and reproducible method for the quantification of carbonyl reductases CBR1 and CBR3 in human liver. Candidate peptides were identified by nano-LC/LTQ/Orbitrap, filtered using a stringent set of criteria, and subjected to OAO. After evaluating both sensitivity and stability of the candidates, two SP were selected for quantification of each protein. As a result of the accurate OAO of assay conditions, sensitivities of 80 and 110 amol were achieved for CBR1 and CBR3, respectively. The method was validated and used to quantify the CBRs in 33 human liver samples. The mean level of CBR1 was 93.4±49.7 (range: 26.2–241) ppm of total protein, and for CBR3 was 7.69±4.38 (range: 1.26–17.9) ppm. Key observations of this study are that: i) evaluation of peptide stability in the target matrix is essential for final selection of the SP; ii) utilization of two unique SP contributes to high reliability of target protein quantification

  14. A rapid and accurate quantification method for real-time dynamic analysis of cellular lipids during microalgal fermentation processes in Chlorella protothecoides with low field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Zejian; Tian, Xiwei; Yang, Yi; Guo, Meijin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping

    2016-05-01

    The rapid and real-time lipid determination can provide valuable information on process regulation and optimization in the algal lipid mass production. In this study, a rapid, accurate and precise quantification method of in vivo cellular lipids of Chlorella protothecoides using low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was newly developed. LF-NMR was extremely sensitive to the algal lipids with the limits of the detection (LOD) of 0.0026g and 0.32g/L in dry lipid samples and algal broth, respectively, as well as limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.0093g and 1.18g/L. Moreover, the LF-NMR signal was specifically proportional to the cellular lipids of C. protothecoides, thus the superior regression curves existing in a wide detection range from 0.02 to 0.42g for dry lipids and from 1.12 to 8.97gL(-1) of lipid concentration for in vivo lipid quantification were obtained with all R(2) higher than 0.99, irrespective of the lipid content and fatty acids profile variations. The accuracy of this novel method was further verified to be reliable by comparing lipid quantification results to those obtained by GC-MS. And the relative standard deviation (RSD) of LF-NMR results were smaller than 2%, suggesting the precision of this method. Finally, this method was successfully used in the on-line lipid monitoring during the algal lipid fermentation processes, making it possible for better understanding of the lipid accumulation mechanism and dynamic bioprocess control.

  15. Rapid Development and Validation of Improved Reversed-Phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Quantification of Mangiferin, a Polyphenol Xanthone Glycoside in Mangifera indica.

    PubMed

    Naveen, P; Lingaraju, H B; Prasad, K Shyam

    2017-01-01

    Mangiferin, a polyphenolic xanthone glycoside from Mangifera indica, is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. The present study was aimed to develop and validate a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the quantification of mangiferin from the bark extract of M. indica. RP-HPLC analysis was performed by isocratic elution with a low-pressure gradient using 0.1% formic acid: acetonitrile (87:13) as a mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. The separation was done at 26°C using a Kinetex XB-C18 column as stationary phase and the detection wavelength at 256 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and robustness by the International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. In linearity, the excellent correlation coefficient more than 0.999 indicated good fitting of the curve and also good linearity. The intra- and inter-day precision showed < 1% of relative standard deviation of peak area indicated high reliability and reproducibility of the method. The recovery values at three different levels (50%, 100%, and 150%) of spiked samples were found to be 100.47, 100.89, and 100.99, respectively, and low standard deviation value < 1% shows high accuracy of the method. In robustness, the results remain unaffected by small variation in the analytical parameters, which shows the robustness of the method. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of mangiferin with M/Z value of 421. The assay developed by HPLC method is a simple, rapid, and reliable for the determination of mangiferin from M. indica. The present study was intended to develop and validate an RP-HPLC method for the quantification of mangiferin from the bark extract of M. indica. The developed method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness by International Conference

  16. Rapid Development and Validation of Improved Reversed-Phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Quantification of Mangiferin, a Polyphenol Xanthone Glycoside in Mangifera indica

    PubMed Central

    Naveen, P.; Lingaraju, H. B.; Prasad, K. Shyam

    2017-01-01

    Mangiferin, a polyphenolic xanthone glycoside from Mangifera indica, is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. The present study was aimed to develop and validate a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the quantification of mangiferin from the bark extract of M. indica. RP-HPLC analysis was performed by isocratic elution with a low-pressure gradient using 0.1% formic acid: acetonitrile (87:13) as a mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. The separation was done at 26°C using a Kinetex XB-C18 column as stationary phase and the detection wavelength at 256 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and robustness by the International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. In linearity, the excellent correlation coefficient more than 0.999 indicated good fitting of the curve and also good linearity. The intra- and inter-day precision showed < 1% of relative standard deviation of peak area indicated high reliability and reproducibility of the method. The recovery values at three different levels (50%, 100%, and 150%) of spiked samples were found to be 100.47, 100.89, and 100.99, respectively, and low standard deviation value < 1% shows high accuracy of the method. In robustness, the results remain unaffected by small variation in the analytical parameters, which shows the robustness of the method. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of mangiferin with M/Z value of 421. The assay developed by HPLC method is a simple, rapid, and reliable for the determination of mangiferin from M. indica. SUMMARY The present study was intended to develop and validate an RP-HPLC method for the quantification of mangiferin from the bark extract of M. indica. The developed method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness by International

  17. Smartphone spectrometer for colorimetric biosensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Xiaohu; Chen, Peng; Tran, Nhung Thi; Zhang, Jinling; Chia, Wei Sheng; Boujday, Souhir; Liedberg, Bo

    2016-05-23

    We report on a smartphone spectrometer for colorimetric biosensing applications. The spectrometer relies on a sample cell with an integrated grating substrate, and the smartphone's built-in light-emitting diode flash and camera. The feasibility of the smartphone spectrometer is demonstrated for detection of glucose and human cardiac troponin I, the latter in conjunction with peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles.

  18. Rapid quantification of the aminoglycoside arbekacin in serum using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Breaud, Autumn R; Henemyre-Harris, Claudia L; Schools, Sabitha; Emezienna, Nkechinyere; Clarke, William

    2013-03-15

    This project entails the development and validation of a method for quantification of the aminoglycoside antibiotic arbekacin in serum using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for therapeutic drug monitoring in future clinical trials. Following a protein precipitation with 0.3 mol/l perchloric acid containing internal standard dibekacin at a concentration of 0.6 μg/ml, human serum samples containing arbekacin were analyzed using a Hypersil Gold PFP column and a liquid chromatography system. Elution occurred with a gradient of water and acetonitrile, each containing 0.05% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid. Analytes were detected over a 3.25 minute run time using a tandem mass spectrometer with a heated electrospray-ionization (HESI) source in positive ionization mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Matrix effects, carryover, linearity, recovery, precision, and limit of quantification were carefully evaluated. The limit of quantification for arbekacin was 0.1 μg/ml. All simple and total precision CV's were less than 6.2%. The method was linear from 0.1 μg/ml to 45.9 μg/ml (slope of 0.973). The mean recovery ranged from 94.7 to 103.8%. No matrix effects were detected. This developed and validated LC-MS/MS method allows for the quantification of arbekacin in serum following protein precipitation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microwave-assisted extraction and rapid isolation of ursolic acid from the leaves of Eucalyptus × hybrida Maiden and its quantification using HPLC-diode array technique.

    PubMed

    Verma, Subash C; Jain, Chhoten L; Kumari, Amita; Padhi, Madan M; Devalla, Ramesh B

    2013-04-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is the most important bioactive phytoconstituent of Eucalyptus × hybrida Maiden leaves and exhibits anticancer, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiprotozoal activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction technique was employed for rapid isolation of UA from the leaves of Eucalyptus × hybrida and simultaneously HPLC-diode array method was developed for the quantification of UA. Effects of several experimental parameters on the extraction efficiencies of UA, such as type and volume of extraction solvents, microwave power and extraction time, were evaluated. The optimal extraction conditions were found to be 20 mL of a mixture of chloroform/methanol, 60:40; liquid-to-material ratio, 4:1; preleaching time, 10 min; microwave power, 600 W; temperature, 50°C; and microwave irradiation time, 5 min. Under the optimum conditions, the yield of UA was found to be 1.95 ± 0.08% in the dry leaves of Eucalyptus × hybrida. The results showed that microwave-assisted extraction is a more rapid extraction method with higher yield and lower solvent consumptions than the conventional method. It is a faster, convenient, and appropriate method and it may be used for rapid isolation and quantification of UA and other important phytoconstituents present in the leaves of Eucalyptus × hybrida. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Rapid Quantification of Melamine in Different Brands/Types of Milk Powders Using Standard Addition Net Analyte Signal and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate calibration (MVC) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have demonstrated potential for rapid analysis of melamine in various dairy products. However, the practical application of ordinary MVC can be largely restricted because the prediction of a new sample from an uncalibrated batch would be subject to a significant bias due to matrix effect. In this study, the feasibility of using NIR spectroscopy and the standard addition (SA) net analyte signal (NAS) method (SANAS) for rapid quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders was investigated. In SANAS, the NAS vector of melamine in an unknown sample as well as in a series of samples added with melamine standards was calculated and then the Euclidean norms of series standards were used to build a straightforward univariate regression model. The analysis results of 10 different brands/types of milk powders with melamine levels 0~0.12% (w/w) indicate that SANAS obtained accurate results with the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) values ranging from 0.0012 to 0.0029. An additional advantage of NAS is to visualize and control the possible unwanted variations during standard addition. The proposed method will provide a practically useful tool for rapid and nondestructive quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders. PMID:27525154

  1. Rapid Quantification of Melamine in Different Brands/Types of Milk Powders Using Standard Addition Net Analyte Signal and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bang-Cheng; Cai, Chen-Bo; Shi, Wei; Xu, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate calibration (MVC) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have demonstrated potential for rapid analysis of melamine in various dairy products. However, the practical application of ordinary MVC can be largely restricted because the prediction of a new sample from an uncalibrated batch would be subject to a significant bias due to matrix effect. In this study, the feasibility of using NIR spectroscopy and the standard addition (SA) net analyte signal (NAS) method (SANAS) for rapid quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders was investigated. In SANAS, the NAS vector of melamine in an unknown sample as well as in a series of samples added with melamine standards was calculated and then the Euclidean norms of series standards were used to build a straightforward univariate regression model. The analysis results of 10 different brands/types of milk powders with melamine levels 0~0.12% (w/w) indicate that SANAS obtained accurate results with the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) values ranging from 0.0012 to 0.0029. An additional advantage of NAS is to visualize and control the possible unwanted variations during standard addition. The proposed method will provide a practically useful tool for rapid and nondestructive quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders.

  2. Dynamic solid phase microextraction for sampling of airborne sarin with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for rapid field detection and quantification.

    PubMed

    Hook, Gary L; Jackson Lepage, Carmela; Miller, Stephen I; Smith, Philip A

    2004-08-01

    A portable dynamic air sampler and solid phase microextraction were used to simultaneously detect, identify, and quantify airborne sarin with immediate analysis of samples using a field portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. A mathematical model was used with knowledge of the mass of sarin trapped, linear air velocity past the exposed sampling fiber, and sample duration allowing calculation of concentration estimates. For organizations with suitable field portable instrumentation, these methods are potentially useful for rapid onsite detection and quantification of high concern analytes, either through direct environmental sampling or through sampling of air collected in bags.

  3. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-Nan; Hou, Chang-Jun; Huo, Dan-Qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-Bao; Lei, Jin-Can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  4. Molecular diagnosis of α-thalassemias by the colorimetric nanogold.

    PubMed

    Chomean, Sirinart; Wangmaung, Nantawan; Sritongkham, Pornpimol; Promptmas, Chamras; Mas-Oodi, Sumana; Tanyong, Dalina; Ittarat, Wanida

    2014-02-21

    A new application of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a colorimetric method for gene detection of α-thalassemia 1 (SEA deletion) is reported here for the first time. This technique is based on color changes from salt-induced aggregation of un-hybridized nanogold probes after hybridization with the target DNA. Specific DNA probes were synthesized, thiol modified and conjugated on the surface of AuNPs. The target DNA was amplified and hybridized with the AuNPs-immobilized probe. Salt solution (NaCl) was added to induce aggregation of the un-hybridized nanogold probes. The color changes were visualized either by the naked eye or by UV-vis spectrophotometry at 520 nm. By this nanogold colorimetric method samples carrying normal α-globin genes could be successfully identified from samples carrying α-globin genes causing α-thalassemia 1 (SEA deletion), either as a carrier or disease form. Results demonstrated that the new colorimetric nanogold method is a definite gene diagnosis of α-thalassemia. It is accurate, simple, rapid, specific, sensitive, and cost effective. It is also a promising point-of-care testing (POCT) method for thalassemias and other genetic disorders. The new colorimetric nanogold is a method of choice for areas where access to sophisticated molecular diagnosis is limited.

  5. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao-gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-nan; Hou, Chang-jun; Huo, Dan-qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-bao; Lei, Jin-can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  6. SynPAnal: software for rapid quantification of the density and intensity of protein puncta from fluorescence microscopy images of neurons.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Eric; Lee, Sang H

    2014-01-01

    Continuous modification of the protein composition at synapses is a driving force for the plastic changes of synaptic strength, and provides the fundamental molecular mechanism of synaptic plasticity and information storage in the brain. Studying synaptic protein turnover is not only important for understanding learning and memory, but also has direct implication for understanding pathological conditions like aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders. Proteins involved in synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity are typically concentrated at synapses of neurons and thus appear as puncta (clusters) in immunofluorescence microscopy images. Quantitative measurement of the changes in puncta density, intensity, and sizes of specific proteins provide valuable information on their function in synaptic transmission, circuit development, synaptic plasticity, and synaptopathy. Unfortunately, puncta quantification is very labor intensive and time consuming. In this article, we describe a software tool designed for the rapid semi-automatic detection and quantification of synaptic protein puncta from 2D immunofluorescence images generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The software, dubbed as SynPAnal (for Synaptic Puncta Analysis), streamlines data quantification for puncta density and average intensity, thereby increases data analysis throughput compared to a manual method. SynPAnal is stand-alone software written using the JAVA programming language, and thus is portable and platform-free.

  7. A comparison of two colorimetric assays, based upon Lowry and Bradford techniques, to estimate total protein in soil extracts.

    PubMed

    Redmile-Gordon, M A; Armenise, E; White, R P; Hirsch, P R; Goulding, K W T

    2013-12-01

    Soil extracts usually contain large quantities of dissolved humified organic material, typically reflected by high polyphenolic content. Since polyphenols seriously confound quantification of extracted protein, minimising this interference is important to ensure measurements are representative. Although the Bradford colorimetric assay is used routinely in soil science for rapid quantification protein in soil-extracts, it has several limitations. We therefore investigated an alternative colorimetric technique based on the Lowry assay (frequently used to measure protein and humic substances as distinct pools in microbial biofilms). The accuracies of both the Bradford assay and a modified Lowry microplate method were compared in factorial combination. Protein was quantified in soil-extracts (extracted with citrate), including standard additions of model protein (BSA) and polyphenol (Sigma H1675-2). Using the Lowry microplate assay described, no interfering effects of citrate were detected even with concentrations up to 5 times greater than are typically used to extract soil protein. Moreover, the Bradford assay was found to be highly susceptible to two simultaneous and confounding artefacts: 1) the colour development due to added protein was greatly inhibited by polyphenol concentration, and 2) substantial colour development was caused directly by the polyphenol addition. In contrast, the Lowry method enabled distinction between colour development from protein and non-protein origin, providing a more accurate quantitative analysis. These results suggest that the modified-Lowry method is a more suitable measure of extract protein (defined by standard equivalents) because it is less confounded by the high polyphenolic content which is so typical of soil extracts.

  8. A comparison of two colorimetric assays, based upon Lowry and Bradford techniques, to estimate total protein in soil extracts

    PubMed Central

    Redmile-Gordon, M.A.; Armenise, E.; White, R.P.; Hirsch, P.R.; Goulding, K.W.T.

    2013-01-01

    Soil extracts usually contain large quantities of dissolved humified organic material, typically reflected by high polyphenolic content. Since polyphenols seriously confound quantification of extracted protein, minimising this interference is important to ensure measurements are representative. Although the Bradford colorimetric assay is used routinely in soil science for rapid quantification protein in soil-extracts, it has several limitations. We therefore investigated an alternative colorimetric technique based on the Lowry assay (frequently used to measure protein and humic substances as distinct pools in microbial biofilms). The accuracies of both the Bradford assay and a modified Lowry microplate method were compared in factorial combination. Protein was quantified in soil-extracts (extracted with citrate), including standard additions of model protein (BSA) and polyphenol (Sigma H1675-2). Using the Lowry microplate assay described, no interfering effects of citrate were detected even with concentrations up to 5 times greater than are typically used to extract soil protein. Moreover, the Bradford assay was found to be highly susceptible to two simultaneous and confounding artefacts: 1) the colour development due to added protein was greatly inhibited by polyphenol concentration, and 2) substantial colour development was caused directly by the polyphenol addition. In contrast, the Lowry method enabled distinction between colour development from protein and non-protein origin, providing a more accurate quantitative analysis. These results suggest that the modified-Lowry method is a more suitable measure of extract protein (defined by standard equivalents) because it is less confounded by the high polyphenolic content which is so typical of soil extracts. PMID:24302786

  9. A rapid Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method for direct quantification of paracetamol content in solid pharmaceutical formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallah, Muhammad Ali; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Mahesar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Bajeer, Muhammad Ashraf

    2015-04-01

    A transmission FTIR spectroscopic method was developed for direct, inexpensive and fast quantification of paracetamol content in solid pharmaceutical formulations. In this method paracetamol content is directly analyzed without solvent extraction. KBr pellets were formulated for the acquisition of FTIR spectra in transmission mode. Two chemometric models: simple Beer's law and partial least squares employed over the spectral region of 1800-1000 cm-1 for quantification of paracetamol content had a regression coefficient of (R2) of 0.999. The limits of detection and quantification using FTIR spectroscopy were 0.005 mg g-1 and 0.018 mg g-1, respectively. Study for interference was also done to check effect of the excipients. There was no significant interference from the sample matrix. The results obviously showed the sensitivity of transmission FTIR spectroscopic method for pharmaceutical analysis. This method is green in the sense that it does not require large volumes of hazardous solvents or long run times and avoids prior sample preparation.

  10. A colorimetric sensor array of porous pigments.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung H; Kemling, Jonathan W; Feng, Liang; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2009-12-01

    The development of a low-cost, simple colorimetric sensor array capable of the detection and identification of toxic gases is reported. This technology uses a disposable printed array of porous pigments in which metalloporphyrins and chemically-responsive dyes are immobilized in a porous matrix of organically modified siloxanes (ormosils) and printed on a porous membrane. The printing of the ormosil into the membrane is highly uniform and does not lessen the porosity of the membrane, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. When exposed to an analyte, these pigments undergo reactions that result in well-defined color changes due to strong chemical interactions: ligation to metal ions, Lewis or Brønsted acid-base interactions, hydrogen bonding, etc. Striking visual identification of 3 toxic gases has been shown at the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration, at the PEL (permissible exposure level), and at a level well below the PEL. Identification and quantification of analytes were achieved using the color change profiles, which were readily distinguishable in a hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) dendrogram, with no misclassifications in 50 trials.

  11. A colorimetric sensor array of porous pigments

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung H.; Kemling, Jonathan W.; Feng, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The development of a low-cost, simple colorimetric sensor array capable of detection and identification of toxic gases is reported. This technology uses a disposable printed array of porous pigments in which metalloporphyrins and chemically responsive dyes are immobilized in a porous matrix of organically modified siloxanes (ormosils) and printed on a porous membrane. The printing of the ormosil into the membrane is highly uniform and does not lessen the porosity of the membrane, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. When exposed to an analyte, these pigments undergo reactions that result in well-defined color changes due to strong chemical interactions: ligation to metal ions, Lewis or Bronsted acid-base interactions, hydrogen bonding, etc. Striking visual identification of 3 toxic gases has been shown at the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health), at the PEL (permissible exposure level), and at a level well below the PEL. Identification and quantification of analytes were achieved using the color change profiles, which were readily distinguishable in a hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) dendrogram, with no misclassifications in 50 trials. PMID:19918616

  12. Colorimetric characterization of LED luminaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, C. L. M.; Vieira, R. R.; Pereira, R. C.; Silva, P. V. M.; Oliveira, I. A. A.; Sardinha, A. S.; Viana, D. D.; Barbosa, A. H.; Souza, L. P.; Alvarenga, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    The Optical Metrology Division of Inmetro - National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology has recently started the colorimetric characterization of lamps by implementing Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) and Color Rendering Index (CRI) measurements of incandescent lamps, followed by the CFL, and LED lamps and luminaires. Here we present the results for the verification of the color characterization of samples of SSL luminaires for public as well as indoor illumination that are sold in Brazil.

  13. Quantification of whey proteins by reversed phase-HPLC and effectiveness of mid-infrared spectroscopy for their rapid prediction in sweet whey.

    PubMed

    Sturaro, Alba; De Marchi, Massimo; Masi, Antonio; Cassandro, Martino

    2016-01-01

    In the dairy industry, membrane filtration is used to reduce the amount of whey waste and, simultaneously, to recover whey proteins (WP). The composition of WP can strongly affect the filtration treatment of whey, and rapid determination of WP fractions would be of interest for dairy producers to monitor WP recovery. This study aimed to develop mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) prediction models for the rapid quantification of protein in sweet whey, using a validated rapid reversed phase (RP)-HPLC as a reference method. Quantified WP included α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) A and B, bovine serum albumin, caseinomacropeptides, and proteose peptone. Validation of RP-HPLC was performed by calculating the relative standard deviation (RSD) in repeatability and reproducibility tests for WP retention time and peak areas. Samples of liquid whey (n=187) were analyzed by RP-HPLC and scanned through MIRS to collect spectral information (900 to 4,000 cm(-1)); statistical analysis was carried out through partial least squares regression and random cross-validation procedure. Retention times in RP-HPLC method were stable (RSD between 0.03 and 0.80%), whereas the RSD of peak area (from 0.25 to 8.48%) was affected by WP relative abundance. Higher coefficients of determination in validation for MIRS model were obtained for protein fractions present in whey in large amounts, such as β-LG (0.58), total identified WP (0.58), and α-LA (0.56). Results of this study suggest that MIRS is an easy method for rapid quantification of detail protein in sweet whey, even if better resolution was achieved with the method based on RP-HPLC. The prediction of WP in sweet whey by MIRS might be used for screening and for classifying sweet whey according to its total and individual WP contents.

  14. Development of a SYBR Green quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid detection and quantification of infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudian, Alireza; Kirkpatrick, Naomi C; Coppo, Mauricio; Lee, Sang-Won; Devlin, Joanne M; Markham, Philip F; Browning, Glenn F; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2011-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis is an acute viral respiratory disease of chickens with a worldwide distribution. Sensitive detection of the causative herpesvirus is particularly important because it can persist in the host at a very low copy number and be transmitted to other birds. Quantification of viral genome copy number is also useful for clinical investigations and experimental studies. In the study presented here, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed using SYBR Green chemistry and the viral gene UL15a to detect and quantify infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in ILTV-inoculated chicken embryos or naturally infected birds. The specificity of the assay was confirmed using a panel of viral and bacterial pathogens of poultry. The sensitivity of the assay was compared with two conventional PCR assays, virus titration and an antigen-detecting enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The qPCR developed in this study was highly sensitive and specific, and has potential for quantification of ILTV in tissues from naturally and experimentally infected birds and embryos.

  15. Rapid and thiol-specific high-throughput assay for simultaneous relative quantification of total thiols, protein thiols, and nonprotein thiols in cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Guan, Xiangming

    2015-01-06

    Thiol groups in biological molecules play a significant role in various physiological functions and pathological conditions. Thiols are divided into two major groups: protein thiols and nonprotein thiols. Numerous methods have been reported for thiol assays. Most of these methods have been developed for glutathione, the principal nonprotein thiol, despite the fact that cellular protein thiols are more abundant than glutathione. Further, these methods usually involve a process of biological sample preparation followed by a separation method, and they are time-consuming. We reported previously a series of thiol-specific fluorogenic benzofurazan sulfides. These nonfluorescent benzofurazan sulfides react rapidly and specifically with a thiol to form a strong fluorescent thiol adduct. The rapid reaction, thiol-specific and fluorogenic nature of the sulfides successfully yielded an application of one of the sulfides for relative quantitation of total thiols in live cells through fluorescence microscopy. In this work, we employed the same compound to develop the first high-throughput method for simultaneous monitoring of protein thiols, nonprotein thiols, and total thiols in cells in a 96-well plate on a fluorescence microplate reader at λ(ex) = 430 nm and λ(em) = 520 nm, respectively. The method is rapid and sensitive, and has been validated by an HPLC thiol assay method. The method can detect thiols with cell concentrations as low as 500 cells/well. We also demonstrated that the method can readily monitor changes in cellular thiol levels. Although the method cannot provide an absolute quantification for thiols because fluorescence intensity of different thiol adducts varies, it provides an accurate measurement of relative quantification, relative to the control. The method will be a valuable tool in thiol-related biomedical/pharmaceutical research.

  16. Rapid, cost-effective and accurate quantification of Yucca schidigera Roezl. steroidal saponins using HPLC-ELSD method.

    PubMed

    Tenon, Mathieu; Feuillère, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Birtić, Simona

    2017-04-15

    Yucca GRAS-labelled saponins have been and are increasingly used in food/feed, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. Existing techniques presently used for Yucca steroidal saponin quantification remain either inaccurate and misleading or accurate but time consuming and cost prohibitive. The method reported here addresses all of the above challenges. HPLC/ELSD technique is an accurate and reliable method that yields results of appropriate repeatability and reproducibility. This method does not over- or under-estimate levels of steroidal saponins. HPLC/ELSD method does not require each and every pure standard of saponins, to quantify the group of steroidal saponins. The method is a time- and cost-effective technique that is suitable for routine industrial analyses. HPLC/ELSD methods yield a saponin fingerprints specific to the plant species. As the method is capable of distinguishing saponin profiles from taxonomically distant species, it can unravel plant adulteration issues.

  17. Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The heart of a colorimetric solid phase extractor (CSPE) test kit quickly measures the concentration of the biocides silver or iodine in astronauts' drinking water to determine whether concentrations are safe. When 10 milliliters (ml) of water is drawn through the disk, the disk will turn color (yellow in this picture for iodine) indicating the presence of the biocides. The device could someday be used to test water safety at reservoirs and water treatment plants on Earth. (photo credit: Microanalytical Instrumentation Center, Iowa State University).

  18. Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The heart of a colorimetric solid phase extractor (CSPE) test kit quickly measures the concentration of the biocides silver or iodine in astronauts' drinking water to determine whether concentrations are safe. When 10 milliliters (ml) of water is drawn through the disk, the disk will turn color (yellow in this picture for iodine) indicating the presence of the biocides. The device could someday be used to test water safety at reservoirs and water treatment plants on Earth. (photo credit: Microanalytical Instrumentation Center, Iowa State University).

  19. Rapid quantification of urinary 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid using fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jamerson, Matthew H; Welton, Robert M; Morris-Kukoski, Cynthia L; Klette, Kevin L

    2005-10-01

    Human urine specimens that were determined to be presumptively positive for metabolites of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol by immunoassay screening were assayed using a novel fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (FGC-MS) analytical method to determine whether this method would improve the efficiency of specimen processing without diminishing the reliability of metabolite identification and quantification. Urine specimens were spiked with deuterated internal standard, subjected to solid-phase extraction, and derivatized using tetramethylammonium hydroxide and iodomethane. The methyl ester/methyl ether derivatives were identified and quantified using both a traditional GC-MS method and the newly developed FGC-MS method. The FGC-MS method was demonstrated to be linear between 3.8 and 1500 ng/mL 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (11-nor-delta-THC-COOH). The intrarun precision of 15 replicates of a 15 ng/mL control and the interrun precision of 161 sets of 7, 15, and 60 ng/mL controls were acceptable (coefficients of variation < 5.5%). The FGC-MS method was demonstrated to be specific for identifying 11-nor-delta9-THC-COOH and none of 43 tested substances interfered with identification and quantification of 11-nor-delta9-THC-COOH. Excellent data concordance (R2 > 0.993) was found for two specimen sets assayed using both methods. The FGC-MS method, when compared with a traditional GC-MS method, reduces total assay time by approximately 40% with no decrease in data quality.

  20. Rapid quantification of tilidine, nortilidine, and bisnortilidine in urine by automated online SPE-LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Christoph; Grobosch, Thomas; Binscheck, Torsten

    2011-04-01

    The opioid tilidine is a prodrug which is hepatically metabolized to active nortilidine and bisnortilidine. Due to the increasing abuse of tilidine by drug users and the lack of a specific immunoassay, we developed an analytical method for the quantification of tilidine, nortilidine, and bisnortilidine in urine suitable for screening. In a following step, this method was used to establish data on excretion kinetics of the substances in order to evaluate the time window of detection after a single oral dose of tilidine/naloxone and also was applied to authentic urine samples from correctional facilities. Urine samples were mixed with internal standard solution and extracted on a weak cation exchanger at pH 6 using a Symbiosis Pico system. The chromatographic separation was achieved within a 3.5-min run time on a Phenylhexyl column (50 × 2.0 mm, 5 μm) via gradient elution (methanol and 0.2% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.50 mL/min. The ESI-MS/MS was performed on a QTrap 3,200 in positive multiple reaction monitoring mode using two mass transitions per analyte. Validating the method resulted in a lower limit of quantification of 1.0 μg/L followed by a linear calibration range to 100 μg/L for each analyte (r(2) > 0.99). The analytical method allowed the detection of a single dose of a commercially available tilidine solution up to 7 days after administration. Using this highly sensitive method, 55 of 3,665 urine samples were tested positive.

  1. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry as an alternative to cloud point extraction based methods for rapid quantification of silver ions and surface coated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak K; Linder, Sean W

    2016-01-15

    Speciation and accurate quantification of ionic silver and metallic silver nanoparticles are critical to investigate silver toxicity and to determine the shelf-life of products that contain nano silver under various storage conditions. We developed a rapid method for quantification of silver ions and silver nanoparticles using capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The addition of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (tiopronin) to the background electrolyte was used to facilitate the chromatographic separation of ionic silver and maintain the oxidation state of silver. The obtained limits of detection were 0.05 μg kg(-1) of silver nanoparticles and 0.03 μg kg(-1) of ionic silver. Nanoparticles of varied sizes (10-110 nm) with different surface coating, including citrate acid, lipoic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were successfully analyzed. Particularly good recoveries (>93%) were obtained for both ionic silver and silver nanoparticle in the presence of excess amount of BSA. The method was further tested with six commercially available dietary supplements which varied in concentration and matrix components. The summed values of silver ions and silver nanoparticles correlated well with the total silver concentration determined by ICPMS after acid digestion. This method can serve as an alternative to cloud point extraction technique when the extraction efficiency for protein coated nanoparticles is low.

  2. Rapid quantification of drug resistance gene expression in Candida albicans by reverse transcriptase LightCycler PCR and fluorescent probe hybridization.

    PubMed

    Frade, Joao P; Warnock, David W; Arthington-Skaggs, Beth A

    2004-05-01

    We developed a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible assay to quantify Candida albicans ACT1, CDR1, CDR2, ERG11, and MDR1 mRNA using a two-step reverse transcription and LightCycler real-time PCR (RT-LightCycler PCR) method with sequence-specific hybridization probes. We compared RT-LightCycler PCR with Northern hybridization for quantitative analysis of gene expression in isolates with various fluconazole susceptibilities. Specificity of each LightCycler PCR was verified by LightCycler melting curve analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified products. Correlation of quantification results between RT-LightCycler PCR and Northern hybridization yielded correlation coefficients of > or = 0.91 for all genes except MDR1 (0.74). In this case, reduced correlation was due to the inability of Northern hybridization to accurately quantify the high MDR1 expression in a susceptible dose-dependent isolate which was shown by RT-LightCycler PCR to overexpress MDR1 >200-fold relative to the other isolates tested. In four isolates, low levels of CDR2 mRNA were detected by RT-LightCycler PCR but were undetectable by Northern hybridization. mRNA quantification by RT-LightCycler PCR correlates with Northern hybridization and offers additional advantages, including increased sensitivity and speed of analysis, along with lower RNA concentration requirements and an increased dynamic range of signal detection.

  3. Rapid quantification of iridoid glycosides analogues in the formulated Chinese medicine Longdan Xiegan Decoction using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry [corrected].

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Wang, Yun; Wang, Longxing; Xiao, Hongbin; Wang, Zhengtao; Hu, Zhibi

    2009-03-13

    Longdan Xiegan Decoction (LXD) is a formulated preparation composed of 10 ingredient herbs, with iridoids as the main bioactive components. In this study, a rapid, simple and reliable method of simultaneous determination of four iridoid glycosides in LXD using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) was first developed and validated. The four iridoid glycosides references were isolated from LXD extract and purified using a preparative HPLC chromatography. The sample preparation for quantification comprised of a simple ultrasonic extraction and the satisfactory chromatographic separation of the four structurally similar iridoid glycosides was effected in less than three minutes on a CAPCELL PAK C(18) MGII column (3 microm, 100 mm x 2.0 mm), using an elution system of 10% methanol and their concentrations in different batches of LXD and ingredient herbs were simultaneously determined by HPLC-MS/MS using a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was validated with respect to the overall intra- and inter-day variation (RSD less than 8%) and the limits of quantification for the four iridoid glycosides were 35, 20, 37 and 33 ng/mL, respectively.

  4. Simple colorimetric method determines uranium in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, D.; Frigerio, N. A.

    1967-01-01

    Simple colorimetric micromethod determines concentrations of uranium in tissue. The method involves dry ashing organic extraction, and colorimetric determination of uranyl ferrocyanide. This uranium determination technique could be used in agricultural research, tracer studies, testing of food products, or medical research.

  5. Colorimetric evaluation of display performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmowski, Bogdan B.

    2001-08-01

    The development of information techniques, using new technologies, physical phenomena and coding schemes, enables new application areas to be benefited form the introduction of displays. The full utilization of the visual perception of a human operator, requires the color coding process to be implemented. The evolution of displays, from achromatic (B&W) and monochromatic, to multicolor and full-color, enhances the possibilities of information coding, creating however a need for the quantitative methods of display parameter assessment. Quantitative assessment of color displays, restricted to photometric measurements of their parameters, is an estimate leading to considerable errors. Therefore, the measurements of a display's color properties have to be based on spectral measurements of the display and its elements. The quantitative assessment of the display system parameters should be made using colorimetric systems like CIE1931, CIE1976 LAB or LUV. In the paper, the constraints on the measurement method selection for the color display evaluation are discussed and the relations between their qualitative assessment and the ergonomic conditions of their application are also presented. The paper presents the examples of using LUV colorimetric system and color difference (Delta) E in the optimization of color liquid crystal displays.

  6. Rapid and simultaneous quantification of levetiracetam and its carboxylic metabolite in human plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Li-Ling; Lo, Yoke-Lin

    2014-01-01

    A simple liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated according to the guidelines of the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for a simultaneous quantification of levetiracetam (LEV) and its metabolite, UCB L057 in the plasma of patients. A 0.050 mL plasma sample was prepared by a simple and direct protein precipitation with 0.450 mL acetonitrile (ACN) containing 1 µg/mL of internal standard (IS, diphenhydramine), then vortex mixed and centrifuged. A 0.100 mL of the clear supernatant was diluted with 0.400 mL water and well mixed. A 0.010 mL of the resultant solution was injected into an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 (2.1 mm×100 mm, 3.5 µm) column with an isocratic elution at 0.5 mL/min using a mixture of 0.1% formic acid in water and ACN (40:60 v/v). Detection was performed using an AB Sciex API 3000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, equipped with a Turbo Ion Spray source, operating in a positive mode: LEV at transition 171.1>154.1, UCB L057 at 172.5>126.1, and IS at 256.3>167.3; with an assay run time of 2 minutes. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for both LEV and UCB L057 was validated at 0.5 µg/mL, while their lower limit of detection (LOD) was 0.25 µg/mL. The calibration curves were linear between 0.5 and 100 µg/mL for both analytes. The inaccuracy and imprecision of both intra-assay and inter-assay were less than 10%. Matrix effects were consistent between sources of plasma and the recoveries of all compounds were between 100% and 110%. Stability was established under various storage and processing conditions. The carryovers from both LEV and UCB L057 were less than 6% of the LLOQ and 0.13% of the IS. This assay method has been successfully applied to a population pharmacokinetic study of LEV in patients with epilepsy.

  7. Development of a barcode-style lateral flow immunoassay for the rapid semi-quantification of gliadin in foods.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hsin-Yi; Chu, Pei-Tzu; Tsai, Wen-Che; Wen, Hsiao-Wei

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a barcode-style lateral flow immunoassay is developed using two cut-off values (10 and 50 mg kg(-1) gliadin) to provide a semi-quantification for identifying "gluten-free" and "very low gluten" foods, based on the international Codex Alimentarius Standard. This developed assay exhibits favorable specificity in differentiating wheat from seven commonly used grains, with only a slight cross-reaction with barely. The intra-assay and inter-assay CV values of this assay were 1.5-1.7% and 2.5-4.5%, respectively, revealing high reproducibility. In the analysis of 48 food samples, the results of this assay closely agreed with those obtained using AOAC-approved ELISA or strip kits, as the Cohen's kappa coefficients for both comparisons exceeded 0.8. Thus, this developed assay can be used to quickly estimate the gliadin content in foods in order to protect people with wheat allergy or celiac disease from the accidental ingestion of gliadin.

  8. Rapid quantification of single-nucleotide mutations in mixed influenza A viral populations using allele-specific mixture analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cindy M; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Schupp, James; Kelley, Erin; Nguyen, Jack T; McSharry, James J; Weng, Qingmei; Engelthaler, David M; Keim, Paul S

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring antiviral resistance in influenza is critical to public health epidemiology and pandemic preparedness activities. Effective monitoring requires methods to detect low-level resistance and to monitor the change in resistance as a function of time and drug treatment. Resistance-conferring single-nucleotide mutations in influenza virus are ideal targets for such methods. In the present study, fives sets of paired TaqMan allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) assays were developed and validated for quantitative single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. This novel method using Delta Ct is termed allele-specific mixture analysis (ASMA) or FluASMA. The FluASMA assays target L26F, V27A, A30T, and S31N mutations in the A/Albany/1/98 (H3N2) M2 gene and H275Y mutation in the A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) NA gene and have a limit of quantification of 0.25-0.50% mutant. The error for % mutant estimation was less than 10% in all FluASMA assays, with intra-run Delta Ct coefficient of variance (CoV) at

  9. Rapid authentication of coffee blends and quantification of 16-O-methylcafestol in roasted coffee beans by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Schievano, Elisabetta; Finotello, Claudia; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Mammi, Stefano; Navarini, Luciano

    2014-12-24

    Roasted coffee is subject to commercial frauds, because the high-quality Coffea arabica species, described as "100% Arabica" or "Highland coffee", is often mixed with the less expensive Coffea canephora var. Robusta. The quantification of 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC) is useful to monitor the authenticity of the products as well as the Robusta content in blends. The German standard method DIN 10779 is used in the determination of 16-OMC in roasted coffee beans to detect C. canephora in blends, but it is laborious and time-consuming. Here, we introduce a new method that provides a quantitative determination of esterified 16-OMC directly in coffee extracts by means of high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 5 and 20 mg/kg, respectively, which are adequate to detect the presence of Robusta at percentages lower than 0.9%. The proposed method is much faster, more sensitive, and much more reproducible than the DIN standard method.

  10. Development of a colorimetric sensor array for squid spoilage assessment.

    PubMed

    Zaragozá, Patricia; Fuentes, Ana; Ruiz-Rico, María; Vivancos, José-Luis; Fernández-Segovia, Isabel; Ros-Lis, José V; Barat, José M; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a rapid, easy-to-use optoelectronic system for the shelf-life assessment of squid in cold storage. For this purpose, an optoelectronic nose was designed, which consisted of an array containing six sensing materials prepared by combining different dyes and two inorganic supports (aluminium oxide and silica gel). Samples were packaged with the colorimetric array and kept in cold storage for 12 days. Squid spoilage was monitored simultaneously by the colorimetric array and by the physico-chemical and microbial analyses during storage. Samples exceeded the acceptability limits for microbial counts on the third day. PCA analysis carried out with CIELab showed that the colorimetric array was able to discriminate between fresh squid fit for consumption and spoiled squid. The statistical models obtained by PLS, with the optoelectronic nose, successfully predicted CO2 and O2 content in the headspace as well as microbial growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemometrics enhanced HPLC-DAD performance for rapid quantification of carbamazepine and phenobarbital in human serum samples.

    PubMed

    Vosough, Maryam; Ghafghazi, Shiva; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes development and validation of a simple and efficient bioanalytical procedure for simultaneous determination of phenobarbital and carbamazepine in human serum samples using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) regarding a fast elution methodology in less than 5 min. Briefly, this method consisted of a simple deproteinization step of serum samples followed by HPLC analysis on a Bonus-RP column using an isocratic mode of elution with acetonitrile/K2HPO4 (pH=7.5) buffer solution (45:55). Due to the presence of serum endogenous components as non-calibrated components in the sample, second-order calibration based on multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS), has been applied on a set of absorbance matrices collected as a function of retention time and wavelengths. Acceptable resolution and quantification results were achieved in the presence of matrix interferences and the second-order advantage was fully exploited. The average recoveries for carbamazepine and phenobarbital were 89.7% and 86.1% and relative standard deviation values were lower than 9%. Additionally, computed elliptical joint confidence region (EJCR) confirmed the accuracy of the proposed method and indicated the absence of both constant and proportional errors in the predicted concentrations. The developed method enabled the determination of the analytes in different serum samples in the presence of overlapped profiles, while keeping experimental time and extraction steps at minimum. Finally, the serum concentration levels of carbamazepine in three time intervals were reported for morphine-dependents who had received carbamazepine for treating their neuropathic pain. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Method development and validation for rapid quantification of hydroxychloroquine in human blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Zhi; Ong, Rina Yue-Ling; Chin, Tan-Min; Thuya, Win-Lwin; Wan, Seow-Ching; Wong, Andrea Li-Ann; Chan, Sui-Yung; Ho, Paul C; Goh, Boon-Cher

    2012-03-05

    A novel and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the quantification of hydroxychloroquine in human blood using its stable labeled isotope, hydroxychloroquine-d4 as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved using an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB - C8 analytical HPLC column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase comprising water containing 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile (94:6, v/v) was delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The column effluent was detected by API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization (ESI) and monitored by multiple reaction monitoring with positive mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 336 → 247 and m/z 340 → 251 were used to measure the analyte and IS, respectively. The assay demonstrated a good linear dynamic range of 5-2000 ng/mL for hydroxychloroquine in human blood, with coefficient of determination (r(2)) of =0.9999. The values for intra-day and inter-day precisions of hydroxychloroquine were ≤ 7.86% with the accuracies ranged from 93.8% to 107.6%. The chromatographic run time was 3 min, making it possible to achieve a high throughput analysis. This method was used as a bio-analytical tool in a phase I clinical trial to quantify blood hydroxychloroquine concentrations in patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving both hydroxychloroquine and gefitinib in their treatment.

  13. Detection and Quantification of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A by a Novel Rapid In Vitro Fluorimetric Assay▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Poras, Hervé; Ouimet, Tanja; Orng, Sou-Vinh; Fournié-Zaluski, Marie-Claude; Popoff, Michel R.; Roques, Bernard P.

    2009-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A), the most poisonous substance known to humans, is a potential bioterrorism agent. The light-chain protein induces a flaccid paralysis through cleavage of the 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein (SNAP-25), involved in acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. BoNT/A is widely used as a therapeutic agent and to reduce wrinkles. The toxin is used at very low doses, which have to be accurately quantified. With this aim, internally quenched fluorescent substrates containing the fluorophore/repressor pair pyrenylalanine (Pya)/4-nitrophenylalanine (Nop) were developed. Nop and Pya were, respectively, introduced at positions 197 and 200 of the cleavable fragment (amino acids 187 to 203) of SNAP-25 (with norleucine at position 202 [Nle202]), which is acetylated at its N terminus and amidated at its C terminus. Cleavage of this peptide occurred between positions 197 and 198, as in SNAP-25, and was easily quantified by the strong fluorescence emission of the metabolite. To increase the assay sensitivity, the peptide sequence of the previous substrate was lengthened to account for exosite binding to BoNT/A. We synthesized the peptide PL50 (SNAP-25-NH2 acetylated at positions 156 to 203 [Nop197, Pya200, Nle202]) and its analogue PL51, in which all methionines were replaced by nonoxidizable Nle. Consistent with a large increase in affinity for BoNT/A, PL50 and PL51 exhibit catalytic efficiencies of 2.6 × 106 M−1 s−1 and 8.85 × 106 M−1 s−1, respectively, and behave as the best fluorigenic substrates of BoNT/A reported to date. Under optimized assay conditions, they allow simple quantification of as little as 100 and 60 pg of BoNT/A, respectively, within 2 h with a classical fluorimeter. Calibration of the method against the mouse 50% lethal dose assay unequivocally validates the enzymatic assay. PMID:19429547

  14. Development of a real-time PCR method (Taqman) for rapid identification and quantification of Prorocentrum donghaiense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jian; Mi, Tiezhu; Zhen, Yu; Yu, Zhigang

    2012-09-01

    Prorocentrum donghaiense is a dinoflagellate that is widely distributed in the East China Sea and has become increasingly involved in Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Therefore, it is necessary to study this dinoflagellate to monitor HABs. In this study, 13 pairs of primers specific to P. donghaiense (within its internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions) were designed for SYBR Green I real-time PCR. As the SYBR Green I real-time PCR could not identify P. donghaiense in a specific manner, a Taqman real-time PCR method was developed by designing a set of specific primers and a Taqman probe. A 10-fold serial dilution of recombinant plasmid containing ITS regions of P. donghaiense was prepared as standard samples and the standard curve was established. Additionally, we quantified the genomic DNA in P. donghaiense cells and utilized this DNA to prepare another 10-fold serial dilution of standard sample and accordingly set up the standard curve. The mathematic correlation between the cell number and its corresponding plasmid copy number was also established. In order to test the efficiency of the real-time PCR method, laboratory samples and P. donghaiense HAB field samples were employed for identification and quantitative analysis. As to laboratory samples, as few as 102 cells of P. donghaiense could be quantified precisely utilizing both centrifugation and filtration techniques. The quantification results from field samples by real-time PCR were highly similar to those by light microscopy. In conclusion, the real-time PCR could be applied to identify and quantify P. donghaiense in HABs.

  15. A Rapid Protocol of Crude RNA/DNA Extraction for RT-qPCR Detection and Quantification of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum'.

    PubMed

    Minguzzi, Stefano; Terlizzi, Federica; Lanzoni, Chiara; Poggi Pollini, Carlo; Ratti, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Many efforts have been made to develop a rapid and sensitive method for phytoplasma and virus detection. Taking our cue from previous works, different rapid sample preparation methods have been tested and applied to Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum ('Ca. P. prunorum') detection by RT-qPCR. A duplex RT-qPCR has been optimized using the crude sap as a template to simultaneously amplify a fragment of 16S rRNA of the pathogen and 18S rRNA of the host plant. The specific plant 18S rRNA internal control allows comparison and relative quantification of samples. A comparison between DNA and RNA contribution to qPCR detection is provided, showing higher contribution of the latter. The method presented here has been validated on more than a hundred samples of apricot, plum and peach trees. Since 2013, this method has been successfully applied to monitor 'Ca. P. prunorum' infections in field and nursery. A triplex RT-qPCR assay has also been optimized to simultaneously detect 'Ca. P. prunorum' and Plum pox virus (PPV) in Prunus.

  16. A colorimetric sensor array for organics in water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2005-08-24

    Molecular recognition of organic compounds in aqueous solutions is inherently challenging due to the potential interference from the very high concentration of water. Here we present a simple colorimetric sensor array that probes a wide range of chemical properties. By printing hydrophobic dyes on a hydrophobic membrane, sensor arrays are easily prepared that provide substantial chemical selectivity for the identification and quantification of various organics (both single compounds and complex mixtures) dissolved in water. It is possible to differentiate easily even among closely related organic compounds. Upon immersion in aqueous solutions, digital imaging of the dye array before and after exposure to an analyte provide a color change profile that is a fingerprint for the organic components of the solution. Facile identification of a wide variety of aqueous organic solutions is possible over a concentration range of 0.1 M to 1 muM. Complex mixtures present no inherent difficulty; for example, a series of commercial soft drinks were easily distinguished using the colorimetric sensor array approach.

  17. Rapid quantification of viable fungi in hospital environments: analysis of air and surface samples using solid-phase cytometry.

    PubMed

    Méheust, D; Le Cann, P; Gangneux, J-P

    2013-02-01

    Environmental surveillance is important in high-risk areas of hospitals to prevent fungal infections in immunosuppressed patients. Conventional culture methods for enumerating environmental fungi are time-consuming. In this field study, a solid-phase cytometry technique (SPC) and a more conventional culture-based method to quantify fungal contamination of hospital air and surface samples were compared. For the air sampling, a liquid cyclone air sampler was used with a flow rate of 300 L/min for 10 min in each of four hospital locations. Surface swabbing was done in two locations, with two different swab types. Samples from all areas were processed by SPC and by culture on malt extract agar. The mean airborne concentrations of viable fungi determined by SPC were about 1.5-fold higher than the mean concentrations obtained with the culture-based method. These differences for air samples were significant in three hospital environments. No significant difference was observed for surface samples between the two swab types and between the two analytical methods. One of the prominent advantages of SPC was its rapidity in comparison with the culture-based method (5 h versus 5 days). In this study, we showed that SPC allows for rapid monitoring of viable fungi in hospital environments. SPC can thus be used to provide an early warning and a rapid implementation of corrective measures. Viable fungi detection may be an important tool to assess infectious risk in wards with immunosuppressed patients. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. eMethylsorb: rapid quantification of DNA methylation in cancer cells on screen-printed gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kevin M; Sina, Abu Ali Ibn; Carrascosa, Laura G; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Trau, Matt

    2014-12-07

    Simple, sensitive and inexpensive regional DNA methylation detection methodologies are imperative for routine patient diagnostics. Herein, we describe eMethylsorb, an electrochemical assay for quantitative detection of regional DNA methylation on a single-use and cost-effective screen-printed gold electrode (SPE-Au) platform. The eMethylsorb approach is based on the inherent differential adsorption affinity of DNA bases to gold (i.e. adenine > cytosine ≥ guanine > thymine). Through bisulfite modification and asymmetric PCR of DNA, methylated and unmethylated DNA in the sample becomes guanine-enriched and adenine-enriched respectively. Under optimized conditions, adenine-enriched unmethylated DNA (higher affinity to gold) adsorbs more onto the SPE-Au surface than methylated DNA. Higher DNA adsorption causes stronger coulombic repulsion and hinders reduction of ferricyanide [Fe(CN)6](3-)ions on the SPE-Au surface to give a lower electrochemical response. Hence, the response level is directly proportional to the methylation level in the sample. The applicability of this methodology was tested by detecting the regional methylation status in a cluster of eight CpG sites within the engrailed (EN1) gene promoter of the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. A 10% methylation level sensitivity with good reproducibility (RSD = 5.8%, n = 3) was achieved rapidly in 10 min. Furthermore, eMethylsorb also has advantages over current methylation assays such as being inexpensive, rapid and does not require any electrode surface modification. We thus believe that the eMethylsorb assay could potentially be a rapid and accurate diagnostic assay for point-of-care DNA methylation analysis.

  19. Adobe photoshop quantification (PSQ) rather than point-counting: A rapid and precise method for quantifying rock textural data and porosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Bo; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Zhe; Shi, Kaibo; Wu, Shuanglin

    2014-08-01

    Commonly used petrological quantification methods are visual estimation, counting, and image analyses. However, in this article, an Adobe Photoshop-based analyzing method (PSQ) is recommended for quantifying the rock textural data and porosities. Adobe Photoshop system provides versatile abilities in selecting an area of interest and the pixel number of a selection could be read and used to calculate its area percentage. Therefore, Adobe Photoshop could be used to rapidly quantify textural components, such as content of grains, cements, and porosities including total porosities and different genetic type porosities. This method was named as Adobe Photoshop Quantification (PSQ). The workflow of the PSQ method was introduced with the oolitic dolomite samples from the Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China, for example. And the method was tested by comparing with the Folk's and Shvetsov's "standard" diagrams. In both cases, there is a close agreement between the "standard" percentages and those determined by the PSQ method with really small counting errors and operator errors, small standard deviations and high confidence levels. The porosities quantified by PSQ were evaluated against those determined by the whole rock helium gas expansion method to test the specimen errors. Results have shown that the porosities quantified by the PSQ are well correlated to the porosities determined by the conventional helium gas expansion method. Generally small discrepancies (mostly ranging from -3% to 3%) are caused by microporosities which would cause systematic underestimation of 2% and/or by macroporosities causing underestimation or overestimation in different cases. Adobe Photoshop could be used to quantify rock textural components and porosities. This method has been tested to be precise and accurate. It is time saving compared with usual methods.

  20. Rapid identification and quantification of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by real-time PCR in pure cultures and in complex samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and Campylobacter coli (C. coli), are recognized as the leading human foodborne pathogens in developed countries. Livestock animals carrying Campylobacter pose an important risk for human contamination. Pigs are known to be frequently colonized with Campylobacter, especially C. coli, and to excrete high numbers of this pathogen in their faeces. Molecular tools, notably real-time PCR, provide an effective, rapid, and sensitive alternative to culture-based methods for the detection of C. coli and C. jejuni in various substrates. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool supporting Campylobacter epidemiology, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR method for species-specific detection and quantification of C. coli and C. jejuni directly in faecal, feed, and environmental samples. Results With a sensitivity of 10 genome copies and a linear range of seven to eight orders of magnitude, the C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays allowed a precise quantification of purified DNA from C. coli and C. jejuni. The assays were highly specific and showed a 6-log-linear dynamic range of quantification with a quantitative detection limit of approximately 2.5 × 102 CFU/g of faeces, 1.3 × 102 CFU/g of feed, and 1.0 × 103 CFU/m2 for the environmental samples. Compared to the results obtained by culture, both C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays exhibited a specificity of 96.2% with a kappa of 0.94 and 0.89 respectively. For faecal samples of experimentally infected pigs, the coefficients of correlation between the C. coli or C. jejuni real-time PCR assay and culture enumeration were R2 = 0.90 and R2 = 0.93 respectively. Conclusion The C. coli and C. jejuni real-time quantitative PCR assays developed in this study provide a method capable of directly detecting and quantifying C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces, feed, and environmental samples. These assays represent a new diagnostic tool for studying

  1. Photoacoustic and Colorimetric Visualization of Latent Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Song, Kai; Huang, Peng; Yi, Chenglin; Ning, Bo; Hu, Song; Nie, Liming; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Nie, Zhihong

    2015-12-22

    There is a high demand on a simple, rapid, accurate, user-friendly, cost-effective, and nondestructive universal method for latent fingerprint (LFP) detection. Herein, we describe a combination imaging strategy for LFP visualization with high resolution using poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-b-polystyrene (PSMA-b-PS) functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs). This general approach integrates the merits of both colorimetric imaging and photoacoustic imaging. In comparison with the previous methods, our strategy is single-step and does not require the signal amplification by silver staining. The PSMA-b-PS functionalized GNPs have good stability, tunable color, and high affinity for universal secretions (proteins/polypeptides/amino acids), which makes our approach general and flexible for visualizing LFPs on different substrates (presumably with different colors) and from different people. Moreover, the unique optical property of GNPs enables the photoacoustic imaging of GNPs-deposited LFPs with high resolution. This allows observation of level 3 hyperfine features of LFPs such as the pores and ridge contours by photoacoustic imaging. This technique can potentially be used to identify chemicals within LFP residues. We believe that this dual-modality imaging of LFPs will find widespread use in forensic investigations and medical diagnostics.

  2. Rapid simultaneous quantification of zearalenone and fumonisin B1 in corn and wheat by lateral flow dual immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Kai; Yan, Ya-Xian; Ji, Wen-Hui; Wang, Heng-An; Li, Shu-Qing; Zou, Qi; Sun, Jian-He

    2013-05-29

    A lateral flow dual immunoassay (LFDIA) was developed for rapid quantitative detection of zearalenone (ZEN) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) in corn and wheat samples on a single test strip. Two test lines and the control line on the nitrocellulose membrane were coated with ZEN and FB1 conjugates and goat anti-mouse IgG, respectively. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were conjugated with monoclonal antibodies against ZEN or FB1. The intensity of the test lines was analyzed by a photometric strip reader to determine the concentrations of ZEN and FB1 based on the calibration curves of known concentrations versus intensity readings. Test parameters such as types of buffers, ratio of the two gold-labeled antibodies, and dilution of the sample extracts and the gold-labeled antibodies were optimized. The detection limit was 0.35 and 5.23 ng/mL for ZEN and FB1, respectively, and the corresponding detection ranges were 0.94-7.52 and 9.34-100.45 ng/mL, respectively. Spiked and natural samples were analyzed using both LFDIA and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The two methods had a good correlation (R(2) = 0.96). The dual quantitative LFDIA is sensitive, rapid, and easy-to-use for on-site testing of a large number of samples.

  3. Rapid quantification of phenolic acids in radix Salvia miltiorrhiza extract solutions by FT-NIR spectroscopy in transflective mode.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlong; Qu, Haibin

    2010-08-01

    A rapid method for simultaneous determination of main phenolic acids in Radix Salvia Miltrorrhiza extract solutions was developed using Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy in transflective mode and multivariate calibration and HPLC-UV as the reference method. Partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was conducted on the calibration of regression models. The multiplicative scatter correction, Norris derivative and second derivative were adopted for the spectral pre-processing, and the number of PLS factors were optimized by leave-one-out cross-validation. The performance of the final model was evaluated according to root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R). The R values achieved in the prediction set were above 0.93. The developed models were used for analysis of unknown samples and routine monitoring with satisfactory results. This work demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy combined with PLS algorithm could be used for the rapid determination of the main phenolic acids of Salvia Miltrorrhiza extract solutions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid screening and quantification of residual pesticides and illegal adulterants in red wine by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tianyang; Fang, Pingping; Jiang, Juanjuan; Zhang, Feng; Yong, Wei; Liu, Jiahui; Dong, Yiyang

    2016-11-04

    A rapid method to screen and quantify multi-class analytic targets in red wine has been developed by direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled with triple quadruple tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS). A modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) procedure was used for increasing analytical speed and reducing matrix effect, and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in DART-MS/MS ensured accurate analysis. One bottle of wine containing 50 pesticides and 12 adulterants, i.e., preservatives, antioxidant, sweeteners, and azo dyes, could be totally determined less than 12min. This method exhibited proper linearity (R(2)≥0.99) in the range of 1-1000ng/mL for pesticides and 10-5000ng/mL for adulterants. The limits of detection (LODs) were obtained in a 0.5-50ng/mL range for pesticides and 5-50ng/mL range for adulterants, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in a 1-100ng/mL range for pesticides and 10-250ng/mL range for adulterants. Three spiked levels for each analyte in wine were evaluated, and the recoveries were in a scope of 75-120%. The results demonstrated DART-MS/MS was a rapid and simple method, and could be applied to rapid analyze residual pesticides and illegal adulterants in a large quantities of red wine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of NIRS coupled with PLS regression as a rapid, non-destructive alternative method for quantification of KBA in Boswellia sacra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Mabood, Fazal; Albroumi, Muhammaed; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Hussain, Hidayat; Csuk, René; Khan, Abdul Latif; Alam, Tanveer; Alameri, Saif

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, for the first time, NIR spectroscopy coupled with PLS regression as a rapid and alternative method was developed to quantify the amount of Keto-β-Boswellic Acid (KBA) in different plant parts of Boswellia sacra and the resin exudates of the trunk. NIR spectroscopy was used for the measurement of KBA standards and B. sacra samples in absorption mode in the wavelength range from 700-2500 nm. PLS regression model was built from the obtained spectral data using 70% of KBA standards (training set) in the range from 0.1 ppm to 100 ppm. The PLS regression model obtained was having R-square value of 98% with 0.99 corelationship value and having good prediction with RMSEP value 3.2 and correlation of 0.99. It was then used to quantify the amount of KBA in the samples of B. sacra. The results indicated that the MeOH extract of resin has the highest concentration of KBA (0.6%) followed by essential oil (0.1%). However, no KBA was found in the aqueous extract. The MeOH extract of the resin was subjected to column chromatography to get various sub-fractions at different polarity of organic solvents. The sub-fraction at 4% MeOH/CHCl3 (4.1% of KBA) was found to contain the highest percentage of KBA followed by another sub-fraction at 2% MeOH/CHCl3 (2.2% of KBA). The present results also indicated that KBA is only present in the gum-resin of the trunk and not in all parts of the plant. These results were further confirmed through HPLC analysis and therefore it is concluded that NIRS coupled with PLS regression is a rapid and alternate method for quantification of KBA in Boswellia sacra. It is non-destructive, rapid, sensitive and uses simple methods of sample preparation.

  6. Rapid quantification of cyanamide by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography in fertilizer, soil or plant samples.

    PubMed

    Nagumo, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Kazuya; Tewari, Kaushal; Thiraporn, Khwankaew; Tsuchida, Toru; Honma, Toshimitsu; Ohtake, Norikuni; Sueyoshi, Kuni; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Ohyama, Takuji

    2009-07-17

    A rapid and simple method for determination of cyanamide in fertilizer, soil and plants has been developed. In this method, cyanamide is extracted with 2% acetic acid and the extract separated by centrifugation. It is then purified by passing through a membrane filter. The extract was derivatized with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-carbamate and the derivatized compound separated by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. It is then detected with a UV detector at 260 nm by the same method as is used for amino acid analysis. The proposed method is fast, simple and cheap and also has good selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of cyanamide in a wide range of biotic and abiotic materials.

  7. Application of a rapid scanning plasma emission detector and gas chromatography for multi-element quantification of halogenated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zerezghi, M; Mulligan, K J; Caruso, J A

    1984-08-01

    A microwave induced plasma emission detector is used as an element-selective detector for gas chromatography. The spectrometer, which is fitted with a rapid scanning galvanometer mirror, is used to scan a pre-selected spectral window to provide information in the multi-element mode. This information is used to determine the per mole response of some elements as a function of molecular structure. Despite the low microwave powers employed, the response per mole appears to be independent of the molecular structure. Detection limits and linear dynamic ranges are determined by narrowing the spectral coverage to increase the sensitivity. Calibration curves are linear over several orders of magnitude and detection limits are at the pg/sec levels.

  8. Remodelling of the palatal dome following rapid maxillary expansion (RME): laser scan-quantifications during a low growth period.

    PubMed

    Muchitsch, A P; Winsauer, H; Wendl, B; Pichelmayer, M; Kuljuh, E; Szalay, A; Muchitsch, M

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate changes in the palatal vault after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) with bonded splint appliances. The sample comprised 24 children (12 boys and 12 girls) with mixed dentition (mean age 8.3 years; range 6.4-10.4 years). Following expansion, the splint appliance was used as a retainer for 6 months and then removed. Study casts were taken before RME (T0) and when the appliance was removed (T1). Then, 3D laser scans were taken to build complete 3D jaw models. Frontal cross sections were constructed at 53-63, 55-65 and 16-26, exported as coordinates, and finite element calculated to quantify their area, width and height. Maxillary length was also determined. Paired t-tests indicated statistically significant increases in the average palatal width (T1-T0=6.53-6.79 mm) and cross-sectional area (T1-T0=20.39-21.39 mm2) after RME (p<0.001). However, small but statistically significant reductions were observed in palatal height (T1-T0=-0.49 mm, only at 55-65; p<0.001) and length (T1-T0=-0.54 mm; p<0.01). Linear regression analysis showed statistically significant (p<0.001) direct correlations between the widths and respective cross-sectional areas. Age did not influence any measurement. The reliability of the measurements was examined with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We found an ICC>0.99 (p<0.001) for all tested parameters. Rapid maxillary expansion distinctly increased mean palatal widths and cross-sectional areas. However, palatal height (55-65) and maxillary length decreased to a small extent. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Quantitative colorimetric measurement of cellulose degradation under microbial culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Haft, Rembrandt J F; Gardner, Jeffrey G; Keating, David H

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a simple, rapid, quantitative colorimetric assay to measure cellulose degradation based on the absorbance shift of Congo red dye bound to soluble cellulose. We term this assay "Congo Red Analysis of Cellulose Concentration," or "CRACC." CRACC can be performed directly in culture media, including rich and defined media containing monosaccharides or disaccharides (such as glucose and cellobiose). We show example experiments from our laboratory that demonstrate the utility of CRACC in probing enzyme kinetics, quantifying cellulase secretion, and assessing the physiology of cellulolytic organisms. CRACC complements existing methods to assay cellulose degradation, and we discuss its utility for a variety of applications.

  10. Optimetric system facilitates colorimetric and fluorometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, F. C.

    1968-01-01

    Compact, unitary optimetric systems uses a single device for colorimetric, fluorometric and spectral absorption measurements. The basic element of the unitary systems is a test cell containing filter elements with uniquely fabricated lenses.

  11. Rapid quantification of hepatitis B virus DNA by real-time PCR using efficient TaqMan probe and extraction of virus DNA.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Qin; Han, Jin-Xiang; Qi, Peng; Xu, Wei; Zu, Yan-Hui; Zhu, Bo

    2006-12-07

    To rapidly quantify hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA by real-time PCR using efficient TaqMan probe and extraction methods of virus DNA. Three standards were prepared by cloning PCR products which targeted S, C and X region of HBV genome into pGEM-T vector respectively. A pair of primers and matched TaqMan probe were selected by comparing the copy number and the Ct values of HBV serum samples derived from the three different standard curves using certain serum DNA. Then the efficiency of six HBV DNA extraction methods including guanidinium isothiocyanate, proteinase K, NaI, NaOH lysis, alkaline lysis and simple boiling was analyzed in sample A, B and C by real-time PCR. Meanwhile, 8 clinical HBV serum samples were quantified. The copy number of the same HBV serum sample originated from the standard curve of S, C and X regions was 5.7 multiply 10(4)/mL, 6.3 multiply 10(2)/mL and 1.6 multiply 10(3)/mL respectively. The relative Ct value was 26.6, 31.8 and 29.5 respectively. Therefore, primers and matched probe from S region were chosen for further optimization of six extraction methods. The copy number of HBV serum samples A, B and C was 3.49 multiply 10(9)/mL, 2.08 multiply 10(6)/mL and 4.40 multiply 10(7)/mL respectively, the relative Ct value was 19.9, 30 and 26.2 in the method of NaOH lysis, which was the efficientest among six methods. Simple boiling showed a slightly lower efficiency than NaOH lysis. Guanidinium isothiocyanate, proteinase K and NaI displayed that the copy number of HBV serum sample A, B and C was around 10(5)/mL, meanwhile the Ct value was about 30. Alkaline failed to quantify the copy number of three HBV serum samples. Standard deviation (SD) and coefficient variation (CV) were very low in all 8 clinical HBV serum samples, showing that quantification of HBV DNA in triplicate was reliable and accurate. Real-time PCR based on optimized primers and TaqMan probe from S region in combination with NaOH lysis is a simple, rapid and accurate method for

  12. Development of a Colony Lift Immunoassay To Facilitate Rapid Detection and Quantification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Agar Plates and Filter Monitor Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, David T.; Lamichhane, Chinta M.; Rollins, David M.; Carr, Lewis E.; Mallinson, Edward T.; Joseph, Sam W.

    1998-01-01

    E. coli O157:H7 is a food-borne adulterant that can cause hemorrhagic ulcerative colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Faced with an increasing risk of foods contaminated with E. coli O157:H7, food safety officials are seeking improved methods to detect and isolate E. coli O157:H7 in hazard analysis and critical control point systems in meat- and poultry-processing plants. A colony lift immunoassay was developed to facilitate the positive identification and quantification of E. coli O157:H7 by incorporating a simple colony lift enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with filter monitors and traditional culture methods. Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes (Millipore, Bedford, Mass.) were prewet with methanol and were used to make replicates of every bacterial colony on agar plates or filter monitor membranes that were then reincubated for 15 to 18 h at 36 ± 1°C, during which the colonies not only remained viable but were reestablished. The membranes were dried, blocked with blocking buffer (Kirkegaard and Perry Laboratories [KPL], Gaithersburg, Md.), and exposed for 7 min to an affinity-purified horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-E. coli O157 antibody (KPL). The membranes were washed, exposed to a 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine membrane substrate (TMB; KPL) or aminoethyl carbazole (AEC; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.), rinsed in deionized water, and air dried. Colonies of E. coli O157:H7 were identified by either a blue (via TMB) or a red (via AEC) color reaction. The colored spots on the PVDF lift membrane were then matched to their respective parent colonies on the agar plates or filter monitor membranes. The colony lift immunoassay was tested with a wide range of genera in the family Enterobacteriaceae as well as different serotypes within the E. coli genus. The colony lift immunoassay provided a simple, rapid, and accurate method for confirming the presence of E. coli O157:H7 colonies isolated on filter monitors or spread plates by traditional

  13. Development of a colony lift immunoassay to facilitate rapid detection and quantification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from agar plates and filter monitor membranes.

    PubMed

    Ingram, D T; Lamichhane, C M; Rollins, D M; Carr, L E; Mallinson, E T; Joseph, S W

    1998-07-01

    E. coli O157:H7 is a food-borne adulterant that can cause hemorrhagic ulcerative colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Faced with an increasing risk of foods contaminated with E. coli O157:H7, food safety officials are seeking improved methods to detect and isolate E. coli O157:H7 in hazard analysis and critical control point systems in meat- and poultry-processing plants. A colony lift immunoassay was developed to facilitate the positive identification and quantification of E. coli O157:H7 by incorporating a simple colony lift enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with filter monitors and traditional culture methods. Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes (Millipore, Bedford, Mass.) were prewet with methanol and were used to make replicates of every bacterial colony on agar plates or filter monitor membranes that were then reincubated for 15 to 18 h at 36 +/- 1 degree C, during which the colonies not only remained viable but were reestablished. The membranes were dried, blocked with blocking buffer (Kirkegaard and Perry Laboratories [KPL], Gaithersburg, Md.), and exposed for 7 min to an affinity-purified horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-E. coli O157 antibody (KPL). The membranes were washed, exposed to a 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine membrane substrate (TMB; KPL) or aminoethyl carbazole (AEC; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.), rinsed in deionized water, and air dried. Colonies of E. coli O157:H7 were identified by either a blue (via TMB) or a red (via AEC) color reaction. The colored spots on the PVDF lift membrane were then matched to their respective parent colonies on the agar plates or filter monitor membranes. The colony lift immunoassay was tested with a wide range of genera in the family Enterobacteriaceae as well as different serotypes within the E. coli genus. The colony lift immunoassay provided a simple, rapid, and accurate method for confirming the presence of E. coli O157:H7 colonies isolated on filter monitors or spread plates by

  14. Rapid quantification of histamine in human psoriatic plaques using microdialysis and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Guihen, Elizabeth; Ho, Wen Lyn; Hogan, Anna-Marie; O'Connell, Marie-Louise; Leahy, Martin J; Ramsay, Bart; O'Connor, William T

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease resulting from abnormal immune function and is characterized by the presence of scaly psoriatic plaques which are areas of inflammation and excessive skin production. The psoriatic plaques contain mast cells which are increased in number in the uppermost dermis of the psoriatic lesion and which may play a role in the initiation and maintenance of the lesion. These processes are thought to be mediated via the local release of histamine along with other mediators from the mast cells; however their precise role still remains a mystery. Our study involved the development of a rapid and ultra-sensitive liquid chromatographic method for the separation and detection of histamine. To this end a state-of-the-art ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) system incorporating the latest technology in fluorescence detection system was employed which allowed for the rapid and reliable trace level detection of histamine in human derived microdialysate samples. This new reverse phase method utilized a sub-two-micron packed C(18) stationary phase (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 1.8 μm particle size) and a polar mobile phase of ACN:H(2)O:acetic acid (70:30:0.05) (v/v). The column temperature was maintained at (30±2°C), the injection volume was (8 μl), with a flow rate of (1.1 ml/min). Dermal microdialysis was used to collect (20 μl) samples from healthy, peri-lesional and lesional skin regions, in the forearms of a small cohort of subjects (n=6), and the ultra sensitive liquid chromatographic method allowed for nanomolar quantitation of histamine in 6.7 min. To date this represents one of the fastest reported separations of histamine using fluorescence detection with very high chromatographic efficiency (258,000/m) and peak symmetry of (0.88). Prior to sample analysis being performed method linearity, precision and limit of detection (LOD) were investigated. The results showed that intracutaneous histamine measured at 70 min after catheter

  15. A new surface plasmon resonance-based immunoassay for rapid, reproducible and sensitive quantification of pentraxin-3 in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Canovi, Mara; Lucchetti, Jacopo; Stravalaci, Matteo; Valentino, Sonia; Bottazzi, Barbara; Salmona, Mario; Bastone, Antonio; Gobbi, Marco

    2014-06-19

    A new immunoassay based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for the rapid, reproducible and sensitive determination of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) levels in human plasma has been developed and characterized. The method involves a 3-min flow of plasma over a sensor chip pre-coated with a monoclonal anti-PTX3 antibody (MNB4), followed by a 3-min flow of a polyclonal anti-PTX3 antibody (pAb), required for specific recognition of captured PTX3. The SPR signal generated with this secondary antibody linearly correlates with the plasma PTX3 concentration, in the range of 5-1500 ng/mL, with a lowest limit of detection of 5 ng/mL. The PTX3 concentrations determined with the SPR-based immunoassay in the plasma of 21 patients with sepsis, ranging 15-1600 ng/mL, were superimposable to those found in a classic ELISA immunoassay. Since the PTX3 concentration in the plasma of healthy subjects is <2 ng/mL, but markedly rises in certain medical conditions, the method is useful to quantify pathological levels of this important biomarker, with important diagnostic applications. In comparison with the classic ELISA, the SPR-based approach is much faster (30 min versus 4-5 h) and could be exploited for the development of new cost-effective SPR devices for point-of-care diagnosis.

  16. A New Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Immunoassay for Rapid, Reproducible and Sensitive Quantification of Pentraxin-3 in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Canovi, Mara; Lucchetti, Jacopo; Stravalaci, Matteo; Valentino, Sonia; Bottazzi, Barbara; Salmona, Mario; Bastone, Antonio; Gobbi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A new immunoassay based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for the rapid, reproducible and sensitive determination of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) levels in human plasma has been developed and characterized. The method involves a 3-min flow of plasma over a sensor chip pre-coated with a monoclonal anti-PTX3 antibody (MNB4), followed by a 3-min flow of a polyclonal anti-PTX3 antibody (pAb), required for specific recognition of captured PTX3. The SPR signal generated with this secondary antibody linearly correlates with the plasma PTX3 concentration, in the range of 5–1500 ng/mL, with a lowest limit of detection of 5 ng/mL. The PTX3 concentrations determined with the SPR-based immunoassay in the plasma of 21 patients with sepsis, ranging 15–1600 ng/mL, were superimposable to those found in a classic ELISA immunoassay. Since the PTX3 concentration in the plasma of healthy subjects is <2 ng/mL, but markedly rises in certain medical conditions, the method is useful to quantify pathological levels of this important biomarker, with important diagnostic applications. In comparison with the classic ELISA, the SPR-based approach is much faster (30 min versus 4–5 h) and could be exploited for the development of new cost-effective SPR devices for point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:24949642

  17. [Rapid quantification of total nitrogen and end-point determination of hide melting in manufacturing of donkey-hide gelatin].

    PubMed

    Han, Hai-Fan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yan; Li, Wen-Long; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2014-03-01

    Hide melting presents itself as one of the most critical processes in the production of donkey-hide gelatin. Here a NIR-based method was established for the rapid analysis of in-process hide melting solutions as well as for end-point determination of this process. Near infrared (NIR) spectra of hide melting solutions were collected in transflective mode. With the contents of total nitrogen determined by the Kjeldahl method as reference values, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was employed to build calibration models between NIR spectra and total nitrogen. Model parameters including wavelength range and PLS factors were optimized to achieve best model performance. Based on the contents of total nitrogen predicted by calibration model, end point of hide melting was determined. The constructed PLS model gave a high correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.991 3 and a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.807 g x L(-1). With the predicted total nitrogen and predefined limit, decisions concerning the proper times of melting were made. This research demonstrated that NIR transflectance spectroscopy could be used to expeditiously determine the contents of total nitrogen which was subsequently chosen as the indictor for determining the end-point of hide melting. The proposed procedure may help avoid unnecessary raw material or energy consumption.

  18. A rapid cation-exchange HPLC method for detection and quantification of pyridinium oximes in plasma and tissue.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harry; Moorad-Doctor, Deborah; Ratcliffe, Ruthie H; Wachtel, Katie; Castillo, Andres; Garcia, Gregory E

    2007-03-01

    A rapid and sensitive assay for pyridinium oximes in plasma and tissue was developed. The method was suitable for the analysis of mono- and di-pyridinium oximes and utilizes ultrafiltration followed by cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The assay was originally developed for the measurement of the oxime MMB-4 in plasma for which the lower limit of detection was 0.0005 pg and the limit of quantitation was 0.001 to 2.5 microg. The assay required as little as 50 microL of whole blood or 30 pL of tissue homogenate, and it was used for a pharmacokinetic study from a single intramuscular injection of MMB-4 (dichloride or dimethylsulfonate salt) in the guinea pig. Both salts were found to have similar pharmacokinetic properties in the plasma with a T1/2 of about 34 to 42 min and the area-under-the-curve values increased dose dependently. MMB-4 tissue concentrations were much lower than the plasma. The tissue levels peaked at 5-20 min depending on the tissue. A rank of concentration was diaphragm > heart > thigh muscle.

  19. A study on the use of near-infrared spectroscopy for the rapid quantification of major compounds in Tanreqing injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenlong; Cheng, Zhiwei; Wang, Yuefei; Qu, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the strategy used in the development and validation of a near infrared spectroscopy method for the rapid determination of baicalin, chlorogenic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and the total solid contents (TSCs) in the Tanreqing injection. To increase the representativeness of calibration sample set, a concentrating-diluting method was adopted to artificially prepare samples. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models, with which the five quality indicators can be determined with satisfied accuracy and repeatability. In addition, the slope/bias (S/B) method was used for the models transfer between two different types of NIR instruments from the same manufacturer, which is contributing to enlarge the application range of the established models. With the presented method, a great deal of time, effort and money can be saved when large amounts of Tanreqing injection samples need to be analyzed in a relatively short period of time, which is of great significance to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) industries.

  20. Zinc Biosorption by Seaweed Illustrated by the Zincon Colorimetric Method and the Langmuir Isotherm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areco, Maria Mar; dos Santos Afonso, Maria; Valdman, Erika

    2007-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to promote biotechnology knowledge that is an emerging technology on cleaning treatment, showing the potential of seaweed to remove heavy-metal ions from solution. The rapid and accurate determination of zinc in aqueous solution by the zincon colorimetric method gives an interesting and simple experiment for any…

  1. Zinc Biosorption by Seaweed Illustrated by the Zincon Colorimetric Method and the Langmuir Isotherm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areco, Maria Mar; dos Santos Afonso, Maria; Valdman, Erika

    2007-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to promote biotechnology knowledge that is an emerging technology on cleaning treatment, showing the potential of seaweed to remove heavy-metal ions from solution. The rapid and accurate determination of zinc in aqueous solution by the zincon colorimetric method gives an interesting and simple experiment for any…

  2. Identification of Escherichia coli O157 by Using a Novel Colorimetric Detection Method with DNA Microarrays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. To evaluate better methods to rapidly detect and genotype E. coli O157 strains, the present study evaluated the use of ampliPHOX, a novel colorimetric detection method based on photopolymerization, for...

  3. Rapid total volatile organic carbon quantification from microbial fermentation using a platinum catalyst and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Heidi R; Peyton, Brent M; Knighton, W Berk

    2016-12-01

    A novel analytical system was developed to rapidly and accurately quantify total volatile organic compound (VOC) production from microbial reactor systems using a platinum catalyst and a sensitive CO2 detector. This system allows nearly instantaneous determination of total VOC production by utilizing a platinum catalyst to completely and quantitatively oxidize headspace VOCs to CO2 in coordination with a CO2 detector. Measurement of respiratory CO2 by bypassing the catalyst allowed the total VOC content to be determined from the difference in the two signals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first instance of a platinum catalyst and CO2 detector being used to quantify the total VOCs produced by a complex bioreactor system. Continuous recording of these CO2 data provided a record of respiration and total VOC production throughout the experiments. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to identify and quantify major VOCs. The sum of the individual compounds measured by PTR-MS can be compared to the total VOCs quantified by the platinum catalyst to identify potential differences in detection, identification and calibration. PTR-MS measurements accounted on average for 94 % of the total VOC carbon detected by the platinum catalyst and CO2 detector. In a model system, a VOC producing endophytic fungus Nodulisporium isolate TI-13 was grown in a solid state reactor utilizing the agricultural byproduct beet pulp as a substrate. Temporal changes in production of major volatile compounds (ethanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, terpenes, and terpenoids) were quantified by PTR-MS and compared to the total VOC measurements taken with the platinum catalyst and CO2 detector. This analytical system provided fast, consistent data for evaluating VOC production in the nonhomogeneous solid state reactor system.

  4. Rapid HPLC Quantification Approach for Detection of Active Constituents in Modern Combinatorial Formula, San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tung-Ying; Chang, Fang-Rong; Liou, Jing-Ru; Lo, I-Wen; Chung, Tang-Chia; Lee, Li-Yao; Chi, Chun-Chen; Du, Ying-Chi; Wong, Man-Hon; Juo, Suh-Hang Hank; Lee, Chun-Chen; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), one of the most important traditional Chinese medicinal formulas, is comprised by three herbal medicines, the rhizome of Rheum officinale [or Rheum tanguticum (Polygonaceae) (Dahuang in Chinese)], the root of Scutellaria baicalensis (Labiatae) (Huangqin in Chinese), and the rhizome of Coptis chinensis (Ranunculaceae) (Huanglian in Chinese) in the ratios of 2:1:1 or 1:1:1. This study is aimed to quantitate and qualify of SHXXT, by a rapid, convenient, and effective HPLC-PDA approach associated with LC-MS technique. Of which method, nine chosen major bioactive components in SHXXT, including aloe-emodin (Ale), baicalin (Ba), berberine (Be), coptisine (Co), palmatine (Pa), resveratroloside (Res), rhein (Rh), sennoside A (Se-A), and wogonin (Wo), were evaluated within 30 min. The nine chemical markers were monitored in a high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.01−0.55 μg/mL and the correlation coefficient of the regression curve revealed a good linearity with R2 > 0.99. Moreover, the extraction solution system and the HPLC elution conditions were also optimized in the present study. This present developed protocol was then successfully applied to quantify nine chemical markers of 10 SHXXT products from eight Taiwanese TCM pharmaceutical companies. In quantitative results, Res was found as the major compound in SHXXT-1~5 and 8 with significantly higher amounts than those in other products, indicating the products SHXXT-1~5 and 8 may use R. tanguticum as the raw material, which possessed a higher concentration of the bioactive composition Res, instead of R. officinale. Simultaneously, Ale, Rh, and Wo were < 2% in these 10 products. Different chemical profiles of commercial products indicated that, probably, each product with the same named formula might be regarded as a sole medicine and need to be investigated individually. Importantly, it is never too much to emphasize the importance of quality control in TCM development. PMID

  5. A UHPLC method for the rapid separation and quantification of anthocyanins in acai berry and dry blueberry extracts.

    PubMed

    Fibigr, Jakub; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2017-09-05

    The presented work describes the development and validation of a rapid UHPLC-UV method using a core-shell particle column with a pentafluorophenyl stationary phase for the separation and quantitative analysis of the six anthocyanins in acai berry and dry blueberry extracts. The anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutenoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-rutenoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside) were separated and analyzed in 5min. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex PFP (150×2.1mm) core-shell column with a particle size of 1.7μm at a temperature of 50°C. Acetonitrile was used as mobile phase B and 5% formic acid, filtrated through a 0.22μm filter, as mobile phase A. They were delivered at a flow rate of 0.55mLmin(-1) according to the elution gradient program. The detection wavelength was set at 520nm. A solid-liquid extraction with a solution of methanol and a 5% water solution of formic acid (25+75v/v) using an ultrasonic bath was chosen for the preparation of the available commercial samples of food supplements with a content of acai berry extract and blueberry extract. Under optimal chromatographic conditions, the method was validated. Recoveries for all analyzed anthocyanins were 97.8-102.6% and the relative standard deviation ranged from 0.4% to 3.0% for within-day and from 0.6% to 3.1% for between-day repeatability. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.11-0.14μgmL(-1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MnO2 nanosheets as an artificial enzyme to mimic oxidase for rapid and sensitive detection of glutathione.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Meng, Lingjie; Fei, Zhaofu; Dyson, Paul J; Jing, Xunan; Liu, Xing

    2017-04-15

    Nanozymes are increasingly used as components in assays and diagnostics. Here, we describe a rapid and highly sensitive colorimetric assay for the detection and quantification of glutathione (GSH) employing MnO2 nanosheets as an artificial oxidase. In the assay pale yellow 3,3´,5,5´-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) is oxidized to a blue product (oxTMB) under catalyzing of MnO2 nanosheets with a significant change in absorption at 650nm. GSH selectively inhibits this reaction with a detection limit of 300nM. The high specificity of inhibition by GSH allows this system to be used to determine the GSH concentrations in human serum samples. The MnO2 nanosheet-based assay is simple, rapid, sensitive and selective for the quantification of GSH and surpasses detection methods based on other MnO2 nanomaterials.

  7. Highly Sensitive Colorimetric Detection of Ochratoxin A by a Label-Free Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Yunxia; Chen, Jiayi; Li, Cheng; Xie, Gang; Fu, Hailong; Ma, Zhihong; Lu, Anxiang

    2015-01-01

    A label-free aptamer-based assay for the highly sensitive and specific detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) was developed using a cationic polymer and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The OTA aptamer was used as a recognition element for the colorimetric detection of OTA based on the aggregation of AuNPs by the cationic polymer. By spectroscopic quantitative analysis, the colorimetric assay could detect OTA down to 0.009 ng/mL with high selectivity in the presence of other interfering toxins. This study offers a new alternative in visual detection methods that is rapid and sensitive for OTA detection. PMID:26690477

  8. Highly Sensitive Colorimetric Detection of Ochratoxin A by a Label-Free Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yunxia; Chen, Jiayi; Li, Cheng; Xie, Gang; Fu, Hailong; Ma, Zhihong; Lu, Anxiang

    2015-12-10

    A label-free aptamer-based assay for the highly sensitive and specific detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) was developed using a cationic polymer and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The OTA aptamer was used as a recognition element for the colorimetric detection of OTA based on the aggregation of AuNPs by the cationic polymer. By spectroscopic quantitative analysis, the colorimetric assay could detect OTA down to 0.009 ng/mL with high selectivity in the presence of other interfering toxins. This study offers a new alternative in visual detection methods that is rapid and sensitive for OTA detection.

  9. Optimized preservation of isoforms of creatine kinase MM isoenzyme in plasma specimens and their rapid quantification by semi-automated chromatofocusing.

    PubMed

    Abendschein, D R; Fontanet, H L; Nohara, R

    1990-05-01

    We report a convenient chromatofocusing procedure for rapid and sensitive quantification of isoforms of the MM isoenzyme of creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) in plasma and efficient methods for preserving isoform profiles during handling of specimens. The assay involves use of prepacked, re-usable Mono P chromatofocusing columns and a "Fast Protein Liquid Chromatograph" (FPLC) system with on-line detection of isoform enzymatic activity in column effluent. Profiles of isoforms are analyzed within 25 min with the use of a 1-mL column; the lower limit of sensitivity for CK activity is 5 mU, and recovery of each isoform is within 1% of the amount added to plasma. Collection of blood specimens in Vacutainer Tubes containing 28.5 mumol of EDTA (final concentration in plasma, 7 to 10 mmol/L) inhibited carboxypeptidase activity in plasma by 76%, sufficient to essentially abolish isoform conversion in vitro at room temperature. These methods should facilitate applications of isoform analysis for diagnosis of myocardial infarction and coronary artery recanalization.

  10. Rapid and selective quantification of L-theanine in ready-to-drink teas from Chinese market using SPE and UPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Yun; Song, Weiqi; Zhao, Bo; Dou, Yuling

    2012-11-15

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method combined with solid phase extraction (SPE) sample pre-treatment was developed and validated for the rapid quantification of L-theanine in ready-to-drink (RTD) teas. UPLC analysis of twenty-seven RTD teas from the Chinese market revealed that the L-theanine levels in various types of RTD teas were significantly different. RTD green teas were found to contain highest mean L-theanine level (37.85±20.54 mg/L), followed by jasmine teas (36.60±12.08 mg/L), Tieguanying teas (18.54±3.46 mg/L) black teas (16.89±6.56), Pu-erh teas (11.31±0.90 mg/L) and oolong teas (3.85±2.27 mg/L). The ratio of total polyphenols content to L-theanine content could be used as a featured parameter for differentiating RTD teas. L-theanine in RTD teas could be a reliable quality parameter that is complementary to total polyphenols.

  11. Rapid and sensitive ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography method for quantification of antichagasic benznidazole in plasma: application in a preclinical pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Davanço, Marcelo Gomes; de Campos, Michel Leandro; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves

    2015-07-01

    Benznidazole (BNZ) and nifurtimox are the only drugs available for treating Chagas disease. In this work, we validated a bioanalytical method for the quantification of BNZ in plasma aimed at improving sensitivity and time of analysis compared with the assays already published. Furthermore, we demonstrated the application of the method in a preclinical pharmacokinetic study after administration of a single oral dose of BNZ in Wistar rats. A Waters® Acquity UHPLC system equipped with a UV-vis detector was employed. The method was established using an Acquity® UHPLC HSS SB C18 protected by an Acquity® UHPLC HSS SB C18 VanGuard guard column and detection at 324 nm. The mobile phase consisted of ultrapure water-acetonitrile (65:35), and elution was isocratic. The mobile phase flow rate was 0.55 mL/min, the volume of injection was 1 μL, and the run time was just 2 min. The samples were kept at 25°C until injection and the column at 45°C for the chromatographic separation. The sample preparation was performed by a rapid protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The linear concentration range was 0.15-20 µg/mL. The pharmacokinetic parameters of BNZ in rats were determined and the method was considered sensitive, fast and suitable for application in pharmacokinetic studies.

  12. Development of a Taqman real-time PCR assay for rapid detection and quantification of Vibrio tapetis in extrapallial fluids of clams

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Gaëlle G.; Le Bris, Cédric; Paillard, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio tapetis is known as the causative agent of Brown Ring Disease (BRD) in the Manila clam Venerupis (=Ruditapes) philippinarum. This bivalve is the second most important species produced in aquaculture and has a high commercial value. In spite of the development of several molecular methods, no survey has been yet achieved to rapidly quantify the bacterium in the clam. In this study, we developed a Taqman real-time PCR assay targeting virB4 gene for accurate and quantitative identification of V. tapetis strains pathogenic to clams. Sensitivity and reproducibility of the method were assessed using either filtered sea water or extrapallial fluids of clam injected with the CECT4600T V. tapetis strain. Quantification curves of V. tapetis strain seeded in filtered seawater (FSW) or extrapallial fluids (EF) samples were equivalent showing reliable qPCR efficacies. With this protocol, we were able to specifically detect V. tapetis strains down to 1.125 101 bacteria per mL of EF or FSW, taking into account the dilution factor used for appropriate template DNA preparation. This qPCR assay allowed us to monitor V. tapetis load both experimentally or naturally infected Manila clams. This technique will be particularly useful for monitoring the kinetics of massive infections by V. tapetis and for designing appropriate control measures for aquaculture purposes. PMID:26713238

  13. Simple and rapid determination of phthalates using microextraction by packed sorbent and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry quantification in cold drink and cosmetic samples.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Heena; Kaur, Ripneel; Rani, Susheela; Malik, Ashok Kumar

    2016-03-01

    A simple and rapid method using microextraction by packed sorbent coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry has been developed for the analysis of five phthalates, namely, diethyl phthalate, benzyl-n-butyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate, in cold drink and cosmetic samples. The various parameters that influence the microextraction by packed sorbent performance such as extraction cycle (extract-discard), type and amount of solvent, washing solvent, and pH have been studied. The optimal conditions of microextraction using C18 as the packed sorbent were 15 extraction cycles with water as washing solvent and 3 × 10 μL of ethyl acetate as the eluting solvent. Chromatographic separation was also optimized for injection temperature, flow rate, ion source, interface temperature, column temperature gradient and mass spectrometry was evaluated using the scan and selected ion monitoring data acquisition mode. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of linearity with R(2) >0.9992 within the established concentration range. The limit of detection was 0.003-0.015 ng/mL, and the limit of quantification was 0.009-0.049 ng/mL. The recoveries were in the range of 92.35-98.90% for cold drink, 88.23-169.20% for perfume, and 88.90-184.40% for cream. Analysis by microextraction by packed sorbent promises to be a rapid method for the determination of these phthalates in cold drink and cosmetic samples, reducing the amount of sample, solvent, time and cost.

  14. Rapid analysis and quantification of fluorescent brighteners in wheat flour by Tri-step infrared spectroscopy and computer vision technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiao-Xi; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Gu, Dong-Chen; Sun, Su-Qin; Xu, Chang-Hua; Wang, Xi-Chang

    2015-11-01

    Fluorescent brightener, industrial whitening agent, has been illegally used to whitening wheat flour. In this article, computer vision technology (E-eyes) and colorimetry were employed to investigate color difference among different concentrations of fluorescent brightener in wheat flour using DMS as an example. Tri-step infrared spectroscopy (Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy coupled with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2DCOS-IR)) was used to identify and quantitate DMS in wheat flour. According to color analysis, the whitening effect was significant when added with less than 30 mg/g DMS but when more than 100 mg/g, the flour began greenish. Thus it was speculated that the concentration of DMS should be below 100 mg/g in real flour adulterant with DMS. With the increase of the concentration, the spectral similarity of wheat flour with DMS to DMS standard was increasing. SD-IR peaks at 1153 cm-1, 1141 cm-1, 1112 cm-1, 1085 cm-1 and 1025 cm-1 attributed to DMS were regularly enhanced. Furthermore, it could be differentiated by 2DOS-IR between DMS standard and wheat flour added with DMS low to 0.05 mg/g and the bands in the range of 1000-1500 cm-1 could be an exclusive range to identify whether wheat flour contained DMS. Finally, a quantitative prediction model based on IR spectra was established successfully by Partial least squares (PLS) with a concentration range from 1 mg/g to 100 mg/g. The calibration set gave a determination coefficient of 0.9884 with a standard error (RMSEC) of 5.56 and the validation set presented a determination coefficient of 0.9881 with a standard error of 5.73. It was demonstrated that computer vision technology and colorimetry were effective to estimate the content of DMS in wheat flour and the Tri-step infrared macro-fingerprinting combined with PLS was applicable for rapid and nondestructive fluorescent brightener identification and quantitation.

  15. ESR and HPLC-EC analysis of ethanol oxidation to 1-hydroxyethyl radical: rapid reduction and quantification of POBN and PBN nitroxides.

    PubMed

    Stoyanovsky, D A; Cederbaum, A I

    1998-09-01

    Extensive ESR spin-trapping studies have shown that ethanol is oxidized to 1-hydroxyethyl radical (HER) by rat and deer mice liver microsomal systems. The ESR detection of POBN/HER nitroxide in bile, and formation of antibodies, which recognize HER adducts in alcoholics, suggest that HER is produced in vivo. In liver, where ethanol is primarily metabolized, only traces of PBN/HER nitroxide are documented. One limitation of the ESR spin-trapping technique, however, is that the nitroxides formed in the presence of cellular reductants can be metabolized to the corresponding ESR "silent" hydroxylamines. Ascorbate and NADPH plus liver microsomes were found to reduce rapidly both POBN/HER and PBN/HER nitroxides to their ESR "silent" hydroxylamine derivatives. An HPLC method with electrochemical detection was developed for the detection and quantification of both POBN/HER and PBN/HER nitroxides, as well as their hydroxylamines. Both the diastereomers of the POBN/HER nitroxide and hydroxylamine can be detected, as can both isomers of the PBN/HER nitroxide, and it is estimated that the sensitivity of the HPLC procedure is in the nM range when using EC detection. The hydroxylamines are stable in ethanol, while pH-dependent auto-oxidation occurs in aqueous buffers. Some of the characteristics associated with HER formation by microsomes as detected with ESR (e.g., sensitivity to SOD and catalase, increase after induction of CYP2E1) are reproduced with the HPLC method. By quantification of the POBN/HER hydroxylamine, the NADPH-dependent rates of HER formation by microsomes from pyrazole-treated rats are estimated to be about 1-1.5 nmol HER per min per mg microsomal protein. This rate is less, as compared to the two electron-dependent rate of acetaldehyde formation by these microsomes, about 10-15 nmol per min per mg protein. Thus, at first approximation, the one electron-dependent rate of ethanol oxidation is about 10% the two electron-dependent rate by isolated microsomes. The

  16. Rapid identification and quantification of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry coupled with micropulverized extraction, aqueous acetylation and microextraction by packed sorbent.

    PubMed

    Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko T; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kuwayama, Kenji; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2009-05-01

    We developed a rapid identification and quantification method for the toxicological analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hair by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry coupled with a novel combination of micropulverized extraction, aqueous acetylation and microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) named MiAMi-GC/MS. A washed hair sample (1-5 mg) was micropulverized for 5 min in a 2 mL plastic tube with 250 microL of water. An anion-exchange sorbent was added to adsorb anionic interferences. After removing the residue with a membrane-filter unit, sodium carbonate and acetic anhydride was admixed in turn. Acetylation was completed in approximately 20 min at room temperature. The acetylated analytes in the reaction liquid were concentrated to an octadecylsilica sorbent packed in the needle of a syringe by a CombiPAL autosampler. Elution was carried out with 50 microL of methanol, and the entire eluate injected into a gas chromatograph using a programmable temperature vaporizing (PTV) technique. The time required for sample preparation and GC/MS analysis was approximately 1 h from a washed hair sample, and an evaporation process was not required. Ranges for quantification were 0.20-50 (ng/mg) each for methamphetamine and amphetamine using 1 mg of hair. Accuracy and relative standard deviation (RSD) were evaluated intraday and interday at three concentrations, and the results were within the limit of a guidance issued by U.S. Food and Drug Administration. For identification, full-scan mass spectra of methamphetamine and amphetamine were obtained using 5 mg of fortified hair samples at 0.2 ng/mg. The extraction device of MEPS was durable for at least 300 extractions, whereas the liner of the gas chromatograph should be replaced after 20-30 times use. The carry over was estimated to be about 1-2%. This sample-preparation method coupled with GC/MS is fast and labor-saving in comparison with conventional methods.

  17. Gold nanoparticles based colorimetric nanodiagnostics for cancer and infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, Paola; Persano, Stefano; Cecere, Paola; Sabella, Stefania; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Traditional in vitro diagnostics requires specialized laboratories and costly instrumentation, both for the amplification of nucleic acid targets (usually achieved by PCR) and for the assay readout, often based on fluorescence. We are developing hybrid nanomaterials-based sensors for the rapid and low-cost diagnosis of various disease biomarkers, for applications in portable platforms for diagnostics at the point-of-care. To this aim, we exploited the size and distancedependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to achieve colorimetric detection. Moreover, in order to avoid the complexity of thermal cycles associated to traditional PCR, the design of our systems includes signal amplification schemes, achieved by the use of enzymes (nucleases, helicase) or DNAzymes. Focused on instrument-free and sensitive detection, we carefully combined the intrinsic sensitivity by multivalency of functionalized AuNPs with isothermal and non-stringent enzyme-aided reaction conditions, controlled AuNPs aggregates, universal reporters and magnetic microparticles, the latter used both as a substrate and as a means for the colorimetric detection. We obtained simple and robust assays for the sensitive (pM range or better) naked-eye detection of cancer or infectious diseases (HPV, HCV) biomarkers, requiring no instrumentation except for a simple heating plate. Finally, we are also developing non-medical applications of these bio-nanosensors, such as in the development of on-field rapid tests for the detection of pollutants and other food and water contaminants.

  18. Global quantification of γH2AX as a triage tool for the rapid estimation of received dose in the event of accidental radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Viau, Muriel; Testard, Isabelle; Shim, Grace; Morat, Luc; Normil, Marie D; Hempel, William M; Sabatier, Laure

    2015-11-01

    The phosphorylation of the H2AX histone to form γH2AX foci has been shown to be an accurate biomarker of ionizing radiation exposure. It is well established that there is a one-to-one correlation between the number of γH2AX foci and radiation-induced double strand breaks in cellular DNA, which can be translated to the received dose. However, manual counting of foci is time-consuming, and cannot accommodate high throughput analysis required to obtain rapid results for medical triage purposes in the case of large-scale accidental exposure. Furthermore, the accuracy of γH2AX measurements could potentially be compromised by delays between the time of exposure and analysis of results, as well as inter-cellular and inter-individual variability of this biological response. To evaluate more rapid approaches of quantifying γH2AX for use in an emergency situation, and to determine the impact of inter-individual variability, we compared two methods of global γH2AX fluorescence quantification (low magnification immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry) to the well-established γH2AX foci scoring method in human primary fibroblasts. All three approaches were well correlated, indicating that global γH2AX fluorescence measurements are suitable for dose estimation. For rapid triage in an emergency situation, we propose the use of flow cytometry, as it is more highly correlated with foci scoring and because of the speed and ease of the method. Dose response curves (0.25-6Gy) using flow cytometry measurements showed that inter-individual variability in global γH2AX fluorescence is statistically insignificant at 4h post-irradiation. Based on these data, we propose calibration curves that can be applied to populations exposed to moderate radiation doses to estimate individual received doses, independent of individual radiosensitivity, at this specific time point post-irradiation using human fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Furthermore, we define three triage categories that

  19. Application of NIRS coupled with PLS regression as a rapid, non-destructive alternative method for quantification of KBA in Boswellia sacra.

    PubMed

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Mabood, Fazal; Albroumi, Muhammaed; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Hussain, Hidayat; Csuk, René; Khan, Abdul Latif; Alam, Tanveer; Alameri, Saif

    2017-09-05

    In the present study, for the first time, NIR spectroscopy coupled with PLS regression as a rapid and alternative method was developed to quantify the amount of Keto-β-Boswellic Acid (KBA) in different plant parts of Boswellia sacra and the resin exudates of the trunk. NIR spectroscopy was used for the measurement of KBA standards and B. sacra samples in absorption mode in the wavelength range from 700-2500nm. PLS regression model was built from the obtained spectral data using 70% of KBA standards (training set) in the range from 0.1ppm to 100ppm. The PLS regression model obtained was having R-square value of 98% with 0.99 corelationship value and having good prediction with RMSEP value 3.2 and correlation of 0.99. It was then used to quantify the amount of KBA in the samples of B. sacra. The results indicated that the MeOH extract of resin has the highest concentration of KBA (0.6%) followed by essential oil (0.1%). However, no KBA was found in the aqueous extract. The MeOH extract of the resin was subjected to column chromatography to get various sub-fractions at different polarity of organic solvents. The sub-fraction at 4% MeOH/CHCl3 (4.1% of KBA) was found to contain the highest percentage of KBA followed by another sub-fraction at 2% MeOH/CHCl3 (2.2% of KBA). The present results also indicated that KBA is only present in the gum-resin of the trunk and not in all parts of the plant. These results were further confirmed through HPLC analysis and therefore it is concluded that NIRS coupled with PLS regression is a rapid and alternate method for quantification of KBA in Boswellia sacra. It is non-destructive, rapid, sensitive and uses simple methods of sample preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Detection of viable metabolically active yeast cells using a colorimetric assay].

    PubMed

    Růzicka, F; Holá, V

    2008-02-01

    The increasing concern of yeasts able to form biofilm brings about the need for susceptibility testing of both planktonic and biofilm cells. Detection of viability or metabolic activity of yeast cells after exposure to antimicrobials plays a key role in the assessment of susceptibility testing results. Colorimetric assays based on the color change of the medium in the presence of metabolically active cells proved suitable for this purpose. In this study, the usability of a colorimetric assay with the resazurin redox indicator for monitoring the effect of yeast inoculum density on the reduction rate was tested. As correlation between the color change rate and inoculum density was observed, approximate quantification of viable cells was possible. The assay would be of relevance to antifungal susceptibility testing in both planktonic and biofilm yeasts.

  1. Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Multiplexed colorimetric solid-phase extraction (MC-SPE) is an extension of colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) an analytical platform that combines colorimetric reagents, solid phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water. In CSPE, analytes are extracted and complexed on the surface of an extraction membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. The analytes are then quantified directly on the membrane surface using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Importantly, the use of solid-phase extraction membranes as the matrix for impregnation of the colorimetric reagents creates a concentration factor that enables the detection of low concentrations of analytes in small sample volumes. In extending C-SPE to a multiplexed format, a filter holder that incorporates discrete analysis channels and a jig that facilitates the concurrent operation of multiple sample syringes have been designed, enabling the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes. Separate, single analyte membranes, placed in a readout cartridge create unique, analyte-specific addresses at the exit of each channel. Following sample exposure, the diffuse reflectance spectrum of each address is collected serially and the Kubelka-Munk function is used to quantify each water quality parameter via calibration curves. In a demonstration, MC-SPE was used to measure the pH of a sample and quantitate Ag(I) and Ni(II).

  2. A Colorimetric Bioassay for Perchlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinnickel, M. L.; Smith, S.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Recognition of perchlorate (ClO4-) as a widespread contaminant across the United States and its potential adverse affects towards human health has motivated the EPA to place ClO4- on its contaminant candidate list for drinking water supplies. While a federal MCL has not yet been set, a recommended public health goal of 1 ppb (μg.L-1) was established by the US EPA in 2002. To date, methods of detection require use of sensitive ion chromatographic equipment that are expensive, time consuming, and require highly trained personnel for use. Our studies are focused on the development of a highly sensitive, simple, and robust colorimetric bioassay based on the primary enzyme involved in microbial ClO4- reduction, the perchlorate reductase (Pcr). A previously published assay used reduced methyl viologen (MV, the dye is reduced with sodium hydrosulfite) as an electron donor to demonstrate Pcr activity. The assay directly correlates the amount of MV oxidized with the amount of ClO4- reduced by assuming a transfer of four electrons. To test this assumption, we compared actual concentrations of MV oxidized to ClO4- reduced in this assay. ClO4- concentrations were determined using a Dionex ICS-500 ion chromatography system, while MV concentrations were determined using a standard curve generated at 578 nm. Comparisons between the two revealed that twelve molecules of MV were oxidized for each molecule of ClO4- reduced. The oxidation of these additional eight MV molecules is explained by the interaction of the dye with chlorite (the product of the Pcr reaction) and other contaminants that could be present in the enzyme prep. This unsettling result indicated this assay would be problematic for the detection of ClO4- in soil, which has many chemicals that could react with MV. To improve upon this assay, we have tried to reduce ClO4- using less reactive dyes and reductants. The reductants ascorbic acid, NADH, and dithiothreitol drive Pcr catalyzed ClO4- reduction, however, they

  3. A novel colorimetric method for field arsenic speciation analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Lu, Jinsuo; Jing, Chuanyong

    2012-01-01

    Accurate on-site determination of arsenic (As) concentration as well as its speciation presents a great environmental challenge especially to developing countries. To meet the need of routine field monitoring, we developed a rapid colorimetric method with a wide dynamic detection range and high precision. The novel application of KMnO4 and CH4N2S as effective As(III) oxidant and As(V) reductant, respectively, in the formation of molybdenum blue complexes enabled the differentiation of As(III) and As(V). The detection limit of the method was 8 microg/L with a linear range (R2 = 0.998) of four orders of magnitude in total As concentrations. The As speciation in groundwater samples determined with the colorimetric method in the field were consistent with the results using the high performance liquid chromatography atomic fluorescence spectrometry, as evidenced by a linear correlation in paired analysis with a slope of 0.9990-0.9997 (p < 0.0001, n = 28). The recovery of 96%-116% for total As, 85%-122% for As(III), and 88%-127% for As(V) were achieved for groundwater samples with a total As concentration range 100-800 microg/L. The colorimetric result showed that 3.61 g/L As(III) existed as the only As species in a real industrial wastewater, which was in good agreement with the HPLC-AFS result of 3.56 g/L As(III). No interference with the color development was observed in the presence of sulfate, phosphate, silicate, humic acid, and heavy metals from complex water matrix. This accurate, sensitive, and easy-to-use method is especially suitable for field As determination.

  4. Rapid and sensitive screening and selective quantification of antibiotics in human urine by two-dimensional ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, He-Xing; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2014-12-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the screening and selective quantification of antibiotics in urine by two-dimensional ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed. This method allowed the injection of 200 μL urine extract. The 200-μL injection volume used in this method increased the absolute sensitivity for target antibiotics in solvent by an average 13.3 times, with a range from 8.4 to 28.5 times, compared with the 10-μL conventional injection volume. A 96-well solid phase extraction procedure was established to eliminate the contamination on the chromatographic column resulting from the large-volume injection and increase the throughput of sample preparation. Fourteen target antibiotics from six common categories (β-lactams, quinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides, sulfonamides, and chloramphenicols) were selected as model compounds, and a database containing an additional 74 antibiotics was compiled for posttarget screening. The limit of detection of the target antibiotics, defined as a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, ranged from 0.04 to 1.99 ng/mL. The mean interday recoveries ranged between 79.6 and 121.3 %, with a relative standard deviation from 2.9 to 18.3 % at three spiking levels of 20 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL, and 100 ng/mL. This method was successfully applied in 60 real urine samples from schoolchildren aged 8-11 years, and four target antibiotics (azithromycin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, and oxytetracycline) and two posttarget antibiotics (sulfadimidine and cefaclor) were found in the urine samples. This method can be used as a large-scale biomonitoring tool for exposure of the human population to antibiotics.

  5. DNA-based methodologies for rapid detection, quantification, and species- or strain-level identification of respiratory pathogens (Mycobacteria and Pseudomonads) in metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jagjit S; Khan, Izhar U H; Fakhari, Farnaz; Soellner, Mathew B

    2003-11-01

    Mycobacteria and pseudomonads occurring in modern metalworking fluids (MWF) have been implicated in occupational health hazards as causal agents for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and other respiratory illnesses in machine workers exposed to these fluids and their aerosols. Unlike the conventional cultural and biochemical methods, which are often slow and ambiguous and detect only culturable cells, DNA-based methods offer a time-saving alternative for reliable detection and identification of both culturable and nonculturable bacteria in MWF and for selective quantification of individual genera of pathogens of interest in these fluids. This is the first report on DNA-based direct detection of mycobacteria and pseudomonads in MWF without culturing. Genus-specific PCR approach was successfully applied for screening of field MWF samples originating from different industrial users for detection of mycobacteria or pseudomonads including both culturable and nonculturable cells. PCR in combination with amplicon DNA sequencing led to the identification of Mycobacterium chelonae, Pseudomonas nitroreducens, and an undefined Pseudomonas species from these fluids. Genome fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on Mycobacterium isolates further showed that the isolates represented three strains of M. chelonae although the possibility of one of the strains being clonal with M. immunogenum cannot be excluded. In parallel efforts, a quantitative competitive PCR method developed based on the Pseudomonas-specific PCR was applied to quantify total P. fluorescens cells in contaminated metalworking fluid and MWF aerosol without culturing. The DNA-based protocols developed in this study will allow rapid screening of field MWF samples for the presence of both culturable and nonculturable cells and thus facilitate effective fluid management and timely exposure assessment.

  6. A Rapid and Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Quantification of Benzoic Acid, Metronidazole and Miconazole Nitrate in Vaginal Formulations.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Dibya Ranjan; Jain, Sourabh

    2016-07-03

    A rapid, specific, precise and accurate reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for the determination of benzoic acid, metronidazole and miconazole nitrate in vaginal formulations of cream and tablet (excluding benzoic acid). The validation was carried out with reference to ICH guidelines. The chromatography was carried out on a Zorbax SB-CN column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) linear gradient elution with mixture of solvent A (phosphate buffer) and solvent B (acetonitrile) as a mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and dual mode of detection that is 233 nm for benzoic acid and miconazole nitrate and 319 nm for metronidazole. The limit of detection and limit of quantification are 1.07, 0.79 and 0.62 μg/mL and 3.23, 2.40 and 1.88 μg/mL for benzoic acid, metronidazole and miconazole nitrate, respectively. The linearity of benzoic acid, metronidazole and miconazole nitrate showed a correlation coefficient of 0.9997, 0.9995 and 0.9993, respectively. The good results were achieved with respect to repeatability of relative standard deviation ≤2% and recovery within 98.0-102.0%. The selected column in this study performed well. The method is simple, accurate and precise, and may be recommended for routine quality control test for any dosage forms containing benzoic acid, metronidazole and miconazole nitrate. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Rapid Quantification and Quantitation of Alkaloids in Xinjiang Fritillaria by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mohammat, Aziz; Yili, Abulimiti; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2017-05-01

    The Fritillaria genus, including different kinds of medicinal and edible plants belonging to the Liliaceae family which have the function of treating and relieving a cough and eliminating phlegm, is widely planted in Xinjiang (China). There are few comprehensive studies reporting on the characterization of the chemical constituents of Fritillaria from Xinjiang, and to date, no work describing the quantitative differences between the components in Fritillaria from Xinjiang and related species. The purpose of this study was to develop qualitative and quantitative analytical methods by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) for the rapid quantification and quantitation of alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria, which could be used in the quality control of medicine based on this natural herb. Using the UPLC-QTOF-MS method, the chemical constituents of Xinjiang Fritillaria were identified by fragmentation information and retention behavior, and were compared to reference standards. Furthermore, a quantitative comparision of four major alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria was conducted by determining the content of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A, respectively. A total of 89 characteristic peaks, including more than 40 alkaloids, were identified in the chromatographic results of Fritillaria. Four main alkaloids were quantified by using a validated method based on UPLC-QTOF-MS. The relative contents of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A varied from 0.0013%~0.1357%, 0.0066%~0.1218%, 0.0033%~0.0437%, and 0.0019%~0.1398%, respectively. A rough separation of wild and cultivated Fritillaria could be achieved by the cluster analysis method.

  8. Integration of New Observation Techniques, Remote Sensing, and High Resolution Modelling for Improved Quantification of Rapid Environmental Change at a Canadian Arctic Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, P.; Toure, A.; Baltzer, J. L.; Sonnentag, O.; Berg, A. A.; Derksen, C.; Walker, B.; Wilcox, E.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-decade observations at a research watershed in the western Canadian Arctic has demonstrated rapid environmental change, but has also shown that our quantification of, and understanding of, these changes is greatly limited by both the large errors involved in many observation data sets and the limitations of standard models to operate at the extremely high resolution required. This paper will outline an expanding research program being developed at the Trail Valley Creek research watershed south of Tuktoyaktuk, NWT with the gaol to overcome these limitations. Although this watershed has existing high quality observations, the following example will illustrate the challenges faced in understanding the ongoing changes. As might be expected, the climate at this location is dramatically warming, but it is also drying, and the active layer is deepening, shrub patches are both infilling and expanding, the end of winter snow cover is expanding in shrub patches and possibly decreasing in slope drifts, and snowmelt rate is changing. However, the resulting decrease in streamflow and delayed melt runoff, is unexpected and hard to explain. Although we can postulate why these changes are occurring, the observations at this site, among the best in the Canadian Arctic, are not sufficient to allow us to fully explain the ongoing changes. Our experience at Trail Valley Creek suggests that in order to improve our understanding and predictive ability, we need enhanced field observations and models. This paper will outline how we are developing such a program at Trail Valley Creek with field observations across a range of scales (a network of cosmic ray sensors, eddy covariance measurements, and sap flow sensors for example); enhanced remote sensing using lidar, optical and radar methods from Unmanned Aerial Systems, aircraft and satellites; and high resolution, physics based, snow, permafrost and hydrologic models.

  9. Rapid quantification of Escherichia coli in food and media using bacteriophage T7 amplification and liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Banu, Mazlina; Ng, Daniel; Zheng, Lu; Goh, Lin-Tang; Bi, Xuezhi; Ow, Dave Siak-Wei

    2014-12-20

    Conventional microbiological assays have been a valuable tool for specific enumeration of indicative bacteria of relevance to food and public health, but these culture-based methods are time-consuming and require tedious biochemical and morphological identification. In this work, we exploit the ability of bacteriophage T7 to specifically infect Escherichia coli and amplify nearly a 100-fold in 1–2 h. Bacteriophage amplification is integrated with liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MRM–MS/MS) for quantitation of phage-specific peptides. Heavy isotopic 15N labeled T7 is introduced as the inoculum phage and internal standard. Quantification is performed by determining the ratio of phage-specific peptides over the internal standard which value is proportional to E. coli numbers. A broad dynamic range of 6-log orders ranging from 3.0 × 10(3) to 3.0 × 10(9) CFU/ml is attained in LB, while between 4.1 × 10(4)–2.7 × 10(9) CFU/ml and 1.9 × 10(3)–3.0 × 10(7) CFU/ml was enumerated respectively in coconut water and apple juice. With this method, viable E. coli are quantified in 4 h with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10(3) CFU/ml, 4.1 × 10(4) CFU/ml and 1.9 × 10(3) CFU/ml in LB, coconut water and apple juice, respectively. This method has potential as a rapid tool for detection of fecal contamination during food bioprocessing and distribution to safeguard public health.

  10. Spectrophotometric and colorimetric determination of protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Simonian, Michael H; Smith, John A

    2006-11-01

    This unit describes spectrophotometric and colorimetric methods for measuring the concentration of a sample protein in solution. Absorbance measurement at 280 nm is used to calculate protein concentration by comparison with a standard curve or published absorptivity values for that protein. An alternate protocol uses absorbance at 205 nm to calculate the protein concentration. Both methods can be used to quantitate total protein in crude lysates and purified or partially purified protein. Use of a spectrofluorometer or a filter fluorometer to measure the intrinsic fluorescence emission of a sample solution is also described. The measurement is compared with the emissions from standard solutions to determine the concentration of purified protein. The Bradford colorimetric method, based upon binding of the dye Coomassie brilliant blue to an unknown protein, is also presented, as is the Lowry method, which measures colorimetric reaction of tyrosyl residues in an unknown.

  11. Integrating Deoxyribozymes into Colorimetric Sensing Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Dingran; Zakaria, Sandy; Deng, Mimi; Allen, Nicholas; Tram, Kha; Li, Yingfu

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors are analytical devices that have found a variety of applications in medical diagnostics, food quality control, environmental monitoring and biodefense. In recent years, functional nucleic acids, such as aptamers and nucleic acid enzymes, have shown great potential in biosensor development due to their excellent ability in target recognition and catalysis. Deoxyribozymes (or DNAzymes) are single-stranded DNA molecules with catalytic activity and can be isolated to recognize a wide range of analytes through the process of in vitro selection. By using various signal transduction mechanisms, DNAzymes can be engineered into fluorescent, colorimetric, electrochemical and chemiluminescent biosensors. Among them, colorimetric sensors represent an attractive option as the signal can be easily detected by the naked eye. This reduces reliance on complex and expensive equipment. In this review, we will discuss the recent progress in the development of colorimetric biosensors that make use of DNAzymes and the prospect of employing these sensors in a range of chemical and biological applications. PMID:27918487

  12. Surfactant-aided precipitation/on-pellet-digestion (SOD) procedure provides robust and rapid sample preparation for reproducible, accurate and sensitive LC/MS quantification of therapeutic protein in plasma and tissues.

    PubMed

    An, Bo; Zhang, Ming; Johnson, Robert W; Qu, Jun

    2015-04-07

    For targeted protein quantification by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS), an optimal approach for efficient, robust and hi-throughput sample preparation is critical, but often remains elusive. Here we describe a straightforward surfactant-aided-precipitation/on-pellet-digestion (SOD) strategy that provides effective sample cleanup and enables high and constant peptide yields in various matrices, allowing reproducible, accurate and sensitive protein quantification. This strategy was developed using quantification of monocolnocal antibody in tissues and plasma as the model system. Surfactant treatment before precipitation substantially increased peptide recovery and reproducibility from plasma/tissue, likely because surfactant permits extensive denaturation/reduction/alkylation of proteins and inactivation of endogenous protease inhibitors, and facilitates removal of matrix components. The subsequent precipitation procedure effectively eliminates the surfactant and nonprotein matrix components, and the thorough denaturation by both surfactant and precipitation enabled very rapid on-pellet-digestion (45 min at 37 °C) with high peptide recovery. The performance of SOD was systematically compared against in-solution-digestion, in-gel-digestion and filter-aided-sample-preparation (FASP) in plasma/tissues, and then examined in a full pharmacokinetic study in rats. SOD achieved the best peptide recovery (∼21.0-700% higher than the other three methods across various matrices), reproducibility (3.75-10.9%) and sensitivity (28-30 ng/g across plasma and tissue matrices), and its performance was independent of matrix types. Finally, in validation and pharmacokinetic studies in rats, SOD outperformed other methods and provided highly accurate and precise quantification in all plasma samples without using stable isotope labeled (SIL)-protein internal standard (I.S.). In summary, the SOD method has proven to be highly robust, efficient and rapid, making it readily

  13. Sensitiveness of the colorimetric estimation of titanium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.C.

    1911-01-01

    The accuracy of the colorimetric estimation of titanium is practically constant over concentrations ranging from the strongest down to those containing about 1.5 mg. TiO2 in 100 cc. The change in concentration required to produce a perceptible difference in intensity between two solutions, at favorable concentrations, was found to be about 6.5 per cent, which does not differ much from the results of others with chromium and copper solutions. With suitable precautions, such as comparing by substitution and taking the mean of several settings or of the two perceptibly different extremes, the accuracy of the colorimetric comparisons appears to be about 2 per cent.

  14. A rapid and sensitive automated image-based approach for in vitro and in vivo characterization of cell morphology and quantification of cell number and neurite architecture.

    PubMed

    Tapias, Victor; Greenamyre, J Timothy

    2014-04-01

    Stereological methods for tissue cell counting, specifically for neuron quantification, decrease systematic error and sampling bias; however, they are tedious, labor intensive, and time consuming. Approaches for cell (neuron) quantification in vitro are not accurate, sensitive, or subsequently reproducible. Neuronal phenotype is related to alterations in cell morphology and neurite pattern. The techniques currently available for quantification of these features present several limitations. In this unit, we provide validated automated procedures for in vivo and in vitro quantification of cell number, morphological cell changes, and neurite morphometry in a fast, simple, and reliable manner. Our method counts up to 8 times as many neurons in less than 5% to 10% of the time required for stereological analysis (optical fractionator). In summary, this technology offers an unparalleled opportunity to examine features of cells at high resolution in a complex three-dimensional environment. These techniques provide an exceptional in vivo and in vitro system for neurotoxicity studies, disease modeling, and drug discovery.

  15. Preparation of reversible colorimetric temperature nanosensors and their application in quantitative two-dimensional thermo-imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-dong; Song, Xin-hong; He, Chun-yan; Yang, Chaoyong James; Chen, Guonan; Chen, Xi

    2011-04-01

    Reversible colorimetric temperature nanosensors were prepared using a very simple precipitation method to encapsulate two color luminescent dyes. These nanosensors presented obvious reversible temperature response and enabled both rapid colorimetric temperature estimation using the eyes and quantitative two-dimensional thermo-imaging. Heat-exchange induced fluid motion was, for the first time, rapidly, precisely, and quantitatively imaged by just taking color pictures, and this presented good temporal and spatial resolution for studying heat-driven hydrodynamics. These nanosensors should have great application in micro/nanoscale research and also fabrication into films for macroscopic study.

  16. Reactive Arrays of Colorimetric Sensors for Metabolite and Steroid Identification

    PubMed Central

    Batres, Gary; Jones, Talia; Johnke, Hannah; Wilson, Mark; Holmes, Andrea E.; Sikich, Sharmin

    2014-01-01

    The work described herein examines a rapid mix-and-measure method called DETECHIP suitable for screening of steroids and metabolites. The addition of steroids and metabolites to reactive arrays of colorimetric sensors generated characteristic color “fingerprints” that were used to identify the analyte. A color analysis tool was used to identify the analyte pool that now includes biologically relevant analytes. The mix-and-measure arrays allowed the detection of disease metabolites, orotic acid and argininosuccinic acid; and the steroids androsterone, 1,4-androstadiene, testosterone, stanozolol, and estrone. The steroid 1,4-androstadiene was also detected by this method while dissolved in synthetic urine. Some of the steroids, such as androstadiene, stanozolol, and androsterone were co-dissolved with (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin in order to increase solubility in aqueous buffered solutions. The colorimetric arrays do not intend to eliminate ELISA or mass spectroscopy based screening, but to possibly provide an alternative analytical detection method for steroids and metabolites. PMID:25019034

  17. DNA aptamer-based colorimetric detection platform for Salmonella Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Bayraç, Ceren; Eyidoğan, Füsun; Avni Öktem, Hüseyin

    2017-12-15

    Food safety is a major issue to protect public health and a key challenge is to find detection methods for identification of hazards in food. Food borne infections affects millions of people each year and among pathogens, Salmonella Enteritidis is most widely found bacteria causing food borne diseases. Therefore, simple, rapid, and specific detection methods are needed for food safety. In this study, we demonstrated the selection of DNA aptamers with high affinity and specificity against S. Enteritidis via Cell Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (Cell-SELEX) and development of sandwich type aptamer-based colorimetric platforms for its detection. Two highly specific aptamers, crn-1 and crn-2, were developed through 12 rounds of selection with Kd of 0.971µM and 0.309µM, respectively. Both aptamers were used to construct sandwich type capillary detection platforms. With the detection limit of 10(3) CFU/mL, crn-1 and crn-2 based platforms detected target bacteria specifically based on color change. This platform is also suitable for detection of S. Enteritidis in complex food matrix. Thus, this is the first to demonstrate use of Salmonella aptamers for development of the colorimetric aptamer-based detection platform in its identification and detection with naked eye in point-of-care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Colorimetric values of esthetic stainless steel crowns.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Omachi, Koichi; Staninec, Michal

    2002-01-01

    The colorimetric values of two different kinds of esthetic stainless steel crowns were measured and compared with the colorimetric values of primary anterior teeth in Japanese children. The colorimetric values of resin composite-faced stainless steel crowns (Kinder Krown) and epoxy-coated stainless steel crowns (White Steel Crown) were measured with a color difference meter. The Commission Internationale de Eclairage L*, a*, b*, and delta E*ab values and Munsell value, chroma, and hue were calculated. The data were compared with previously reported colorimetric values of Japanese primary anterior teeth measured with the same color difference meter used in this study. Compared to Japanese primary anterior teeth, Kinder Krown Pedo I and Pedo II showed much higher L* values and lower hue; on the other hand, White Steel Crown showed much higher L*, a*, b* values, much higher value and chroma, and much lower hue. Color analysis revealed that the colors of the White Steel Crown and Kinder Krown Pedo I were substantially different from the color of Japanese primary anterior teeth. The color difference between Pedo II crowns and Japanese primary anterior teeth was relatively high, but the color of Pedo II might be acceptable for clinical use.

  19. Visualizing Capsaicinoids: Colorimetric Analysis of Chili Peppers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert Q.; Chu, Christopher; Gent, Robin; Gould, Alexandra P.; Rios, Laura; Vertigan, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    A colorimetric method for total capsaicinoids in chili pepper ("Capsicum") fruit is described. The placental material of the pepper, containing 90% of the capsaicinoids, was physically separated from the colored materials in the pericarp and extracted twice with methanol, capturing 85% of the remaining capsaicinoids. The extract, evaporated and…

  20. Visualizing Capsaicinoids: Colorimetric Analysis of Chili Peppers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert Q.; Chu, Christopher; Gent, Robin; Gould, Alexandra P.; Rios, Laura; Vertigan, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    A colorimetric method for total capsaicinoids in chili pepper ("Capsicum") fruit is described. The placental material of the pepper, containing 90% of the capsaicinoids, was physically separated from the colored materials in the pericarp and extracted twice with methanol, capturing 85% of the remaining capsaicinoids. The extract, evaporated and…

  1. Colorimetric Titration Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Edwin; Vassos, Basil H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a colorimetric titration instrument usable in the undergraduate laboratory that fulfills the objectives of ruggedness, freedom from ambient light interference, and low cost. Although accessories can be added (raising the price), the basic instrument is low priced and can be used manually with a simple voltmeter. (JN)

  2. Nucleic acid-coupled colorimetric analyte detectors

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah H.; Jonas, Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the direct detection of analytes and membrane conformational changes through the detection of color changes in biopolymeric materials. In particular, the present invention provide for the direct colorimetric detection of analytes using nucleic acid ligands at surfaces of polydiacetylene liposomes and related molecular layer systems.

  3. Colorimetric determination of o-phenylenediamine in water samples based on the formation of silver nanoparticles as a colorimetric probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Gu, Yu; Gao, Mengmeng; Wang, Zilu; Xiao, Deli; Li, Yun; Lin, Rui; He, Hua

    2015-04-01

    A simple, rapid and cost-effective method for visual colorimetric detection of o-phenylenediamine (OPD) based on the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been developed in this paper. Silver ions can be reduced to AgNPs by OPD in a few minutes, causing changes in absorption spectra and color of the reaction system. Therefore, colorimetric detection of OPD could be realized by a UV-vis spectrophotometer or even the naked eye. Results showed that the absorption intensity of AgNPs at 416 nm exhibited a good linear correlation (R2 = 0.998) with OPD concentration in the range from 10-6 to 8 × 10-5 mol L-1 and the detection limit (3 σ/S) was calculated to be 1.61 × 10-7 mol L-1. Furthermore, as low as 4 × 10-6 mol L-1 OPD can be visualized by the naked eye without the requirement of any complicated or expensive instruments. This proposed method has been successfully applied to determine OPD in water samples, and may provide an innovative platform in the development of sensors for guiding environmental monitoring in the future.

  4. Rapid Identification and Quantification of Natural Antioxidants in the Seeds of Rhubarb from Different Habitats in China Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction and HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn-DPPH Assay.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liang; Geng, Dan-dan; Hu, Feng-zu; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the 10 accessions of rhubarb seeds from different habitats in China were investigated. Lipids were removed using petroleum ether, and the effective components were then separated using accelerated solvent extraction with 80% aqueous methanol. An off-line 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging method was used as the marker to evaluate the total antioxidant capability of extracts. On-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detectors-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)) and HPLC-DAD-DPPH assays were developed for rapid identification and quantification of individual free-radical scavengers in extracts of rhubarb seeds. Ten free-radical scavengers from methanolic extracts of the rhubarb seeds were screened, five of which were identified and quantitatively analyzed: epicatechin, myricetin, hyperoside, quercitrin and quercetin. All were identified in rhubarb seeds for the first time and can be regarded as the major potent antioxidants in rhubarb seeds due to representing most of the total free-radical scavenging activity. Preliminary analysis of structures was performed for another five antioxidants. Based on our validation results, the developed method can be used for rapid separation, convenient identification and quantification of the multiple antioxidative constituents in rhubarb seeds, featuring good quantification parameters, accuracy and precision. The results are important to clarify the material basis and therapeutic mechanism of rhubarb seeds.

  5. The colorimetric determination of selectively cleaved adenosines and guanosines in DNA oligomers using bicinchoninic acid and copper.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Elizabeth M; Testa, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    Colorimetric methods combined with color-changing chemical probes are widely used as simple yet effective tools for identifying and quantifying a wide variety of molecules in solution. For nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), perhaps the most commonly used colorimetric probe is potassium permanganate, which can be used to identify single-stranded pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine) in polymers. Unfortunately, permanganate is not an effective probe for identifying purines (adenine and guanine), especially in the presence of the more reactive pyrimidines. Therefore, robust methods for discriminating between the purines remain elusive, thereby creating a barrier toward developing more complex colorimetric applications. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate that bicinchoninic acid (BCA) and copper, when combined with purine-specific chemical cleavage reactions, can be a colorimetric probe for the identification and quantification of adenosines and/or guanosines in single-stranded DNA oligomers, even in the presence of pyrimidines. Furthermore, the reactions are stoichiometric, which allows for the quantification of the number of adenosines and/or guanosines in these oligomers. Because the BCA/copper reagent detects the reducing sugar, 2-deoxyribose, that results from the chemical cleavage of a given nucleotide's N-glycosidic bond, these colorimetric assays are effectively detecting apurinic sites in DNA oligomers, which are known to occur via DNA damage in biological systems. We demonstrate that simple digital analysis of the color-changing chromophore (BCA/copper) is all that is necessary to obtain quantifiable and reproducible data, which indicates that these assays should be broadly accessible.

  6. Hybrid nanosensor for colorimetric and ultrasensitive detection of nuclease contaminations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecere, Paola; Valentini, Paola; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Nucleases are ubiquitous enzymes that degrade DNA or RNA, thus they can prejudice the good outcome of molecular biology experiments involving nucleic acids. We propose a colorimetric test for the naked-eye detection of nuclease contaminations. The system uses an hybrid nanosensor, based on gold nanoparticles functionalized with DNA probes. Our assay is rapid, instrument-free, simple and low-cost. Moreover, it reaches sensitivity equal or better than those of commercial kits, and presents a lot of advantageous aspects. Therefore, it is very competitive, with a real market potential. This test will be relevant in routine process monitoring in scientific laboratories, and in quality control in clinical laboratories and industrial processes, allowing the simultaneous detection of nucleases with different substrate specificities and large-scale screening.

  7. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any separation steps. The proposed strategy was realized by controlling the growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mediate the interparticle spacing in the protein-AuNP oligomers. We have demonstrated the successful in vitro detection of cancer biomarker in serum samples from patients with high clinical sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26722373

  8. Paper-based tuberculosis diagnostic devices with colorimetric gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Shen, Shu-Wei; Cheng, Chao-Min; Chen, Chien-Fu

    2013-08-01

    A colorimetric sensing strategy employing gold nanoparticles and a paper assay platform has been developed for tuberculosis diagnosis. Unmodified gold nanoparticles and single-stranded detection oligonucleotides are used to achieve rapid diagnosis without complicated and time-consuming thiolated or other surface-modified probe preparation processes. To eliminate the use of sophisticated equipment for data analysis, the color variance for multiple detection results was simultaneously collected and concentrated on cellulose paper with the data readout transmitted for cloud computing via a smartphone. The results show that the 2.6 nM tuberculosis mycobacterium target sequences extracted from patients can easily be detected, and the turnaround time after the human DNA is extracted from clinical samples was approximately 1 h.

  9. Highly selective colorimetric bacteria sensing based on protein-capped nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Suyan; Lin, Zhenyu; Zhou, Yaomin; Wang, Donggen; Yuan, Lijuan; Wei, Yihua; Dai, Tingcan; Luo, Linguang; Chen, Guonan

    2015-02-21

    A rapid and cost-effective colorimetric sensor has been developed for the detection of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis was selected as an example). The sensor was designed to rely on lysozyme-capped AuNPs with the advantages of effective amplification and high specificity. In the sensing system, lysozyme was able to bind strongly to Bacillus subtilis, which effectively induced a color change of the solution from light purple to purplish red. The lowest concentration of Bacillus subtilis detectable by the naked eye was 4.5 × 10(3) colony-forming units (CFU) mL(-1). Similar results were discernable from UV-Vis absorption measurements. A good specificity was observed through a statistical analysis method using the SPSS software (version 17.0). This simple colorimetric sensor may therefore be a rapid and specific method for a bacterial detection assay in complex samples.

  10. Optimized enzymatic colorimetric assay for determination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity of plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Chamira Dilanka; Soysa, Preethi

    2015-01-01

    The classical method to determine hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity of plant extracts is evaluated by measuring the disappearance of H2O2 at a wavelength of 230 nm. Since this method suffers from the interference of phenolics having strong absorption in the UV region, a simple and rapid colorimetric assay was developed where plant extracts are introduced to H2O2, phenol and 4-aminoantipyrine reaction system in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). This reaction yields a quinoneimine chromogen which can be measured at 504 nm. Decrease in the colour intensity reflects the H2O2 scavenged by the plant material. • Optimum conditions determined for this assay were 30 min reaction time, 37 °C, pH 7, enzyme concentration of 1 U/ml and H2O2 concentration of 0.7 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 136 μM and 411 μM, respectively. • Half maximal effective concentration required to scavenge 50% of H2O2 in the system (EC50 value) calculated for several plant extracts and standard antioxidants resulted in coefficient of variance (CV%) of the EC50 values less than 3.0% and correlation coefficient values (R2) > 0.95 for all dose response curves obtained. • This method is convenient and very precise which is suitable for the rapid quantification of H2O2 scavenging ability of standard antioxidants and natural antioxidants present in plant extracts. PMID:26285798

  11. Colorimetric sensor array for soft drink analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2007-01-24

    Fourteen commercial soft drinks have been analyzed using colorimetric sensor arrays made from a set of 25 chemically responsive dyes printed on a hydrophobic membrane. Digital imaging of the dye array before and after immersion provides a color change profile as a unique fingerprint for each specific analyte. The digital data library generated was analyzed with statistical and chemometric methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Facile identification of all of the soft drinks was readily achieved using comparison of the color change profiles or a PCA score plot. Using a HCA dendrogram, the misclassification rate was <2%, and even very similar sodas were easily differentiated. In addition, the monitoring of soft drinks as they degas or upon dilution also proved to be possible. This work demonstrates the potential of our colorimetric sensor array technology for quality assurance/control applications of sodas and perhaps other beverages as well.

  12. A simple and sensitive colorimetric pH meter based on DNA conformational switch and gold nanoparticle aggregation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cuie; Song, Guangtao; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2008-12-14

    A simple and rapid colorimetric pH meter has been developed based on the conformational switch of i-motif DNA and non-crosslinking AuNP aggregation, the average accuracy of the nano-meter was found to be +/-0.04 pH unit across the physiological operating range.

  13. Synthesis of a mixed valence state Ce-MOF as an oxidase mimetic for the colorimetric detection of biothiols.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yuhao; Chen, Siheng; Ye, Fanggui; Su, Lingjing; Zhang, Cong; Shen, Shufen; Zhao, Shulin

    2015-03-18

    We demonstrate a facile and rapid in situ partial oxidation synthetic strategy for the fabrication of a mixed valence state Ce-MOF (MVCM) which exhibits intrinsic oxidase-like activity. Furthermore, on the basis of the excellent catalytic activity of the MCVM, a colorimetric approach for the high-throughput detection of biothiols in serum samples was established.

  14. Colorimetric detection of Shewanella oneidensis based on immunomagnetic capture and bacterial intrinsic peroxidase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Junlin; Zhou, Shungui; Chen, Junhua

    2014-06-01

    Rapid detection and enumeration of target microorganisms is considered as a powerful tool for monitoring bioremediation process that typically involves cleaning up polluted environments with functional microbes. A novel colorimetric assay is presented based on immunomagnetic capture and bacterial intrinsic peroxidase activity for rapidly detecting Shewanella oneidensis, an important model organism for environmental bioremediation because of its remarkably diverse respiratory abilities. Analyte bacteria captured on the immunomagnetic beads provided a bacterial out-membrane peroxidase-amplified colorimetric readout of the immunorecognition event by oxidizing 3, 3', 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the present of hydrogen peroxide. The high-efficiency of immunomagnetic capture and signal amplification of peroxidase activity offers an excellent detection performance with a wide dynamic range between 5.0 × 103 and 5.0 × 106 CFU/mL toward target cells. Furthermore, this method was demonstrated to be feasible in detecting S. oneidensis cells spiked in environmental samples. The proposed colorimetric assay shows promising environmental applications for rapid detection of target microorganisms.

  15. Rapid Identification and Simultaneous Quantification of Multiple Constituents in Nao-Shuan-Tong Capsule by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography/Diode-Array Detector/Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Panlin; Su, Weiwei; Xie, Chengshi; Zeng, Xuan; Peng, Wei; Liu, Menghua

    2015-07-01

    A rapid and high-sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with a diode-array detector and a quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) method was established and validated for the chemical profiling of Nao-shuan-tong capsule (NSTC) and simultaneous quantification of five major constituents. A total of 59 components including monoterpene glycosides, flavonoids, sesquiterpenoids, ketosteroids, thiophenes, organic acids and alkaloids were identified or tentatively characterized in NSTC based on the accurate mass and tandem MS behavior. Five major bioactive constituents were chosen as the chemical indexes of holistic quality evaluation and quantified simultaneously. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r(2) > 0.9991) in the range 25.2-510, 145-2,900, 1.84-36.8, 2.61-52.2 and 3.25-26.2 μg/mL for gastrodin, paeoniflorin, typhaneoside, β-ecdysterone and isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside, respectively. It also showed good precision, stability and accuracy for quantification of these five compounds. The limit of detections and limit of quantitations for the analytes ranged from 0.14 to 1.09 μg/mL and from 0.47 to 3.63 μg/mL, respectively. The validated quantification method was applied to analyze 10 batches of commercial NSTC. These results will provide a basis for quality control of the production process and the further pharmacological study in vivo of NSTC.

  16. Rational design of aminoanthraquinones for colorimetric detection of heavy metal ions in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ranyuk, Elena; Uglov, Alexei; Meyer, Michel; Bessmertnykh Lemeune, Alla; Denat, Franck; Averin, Alexei; Beletskaya, Irina; Guilard, Roger

    2011-10-28

    A family of water-soluble colorimetric chemosensors incorporating an anthraquinone signalling subunit functionalized with a polyamine chain that bears hydrophilic diethoxyphosphoryl moieties was prepared with the aim of assaying metal cations. The outstanding UV-Vis absorption properties of the 1-aminoanthraquinone chromophore allowed the efficient visual detection and quantification of copper(II) ions by chelators L(1)-L(3) in buffered aqueous solution. Moreover, the visible response of L(2) is not interfered by addition of large excesses of 13 common metal ions, whereas chemosensor L(3) produces also a color change in the presence of equimolar amounts of lead(II). Considering the 134 nm gap between both absorption maxima, simultaneous colorimetric quantification of lead and copper can be envisaged. Detailed potentiometric and spectrophotometric analysis of Cu(2+) complexation by L(2) and L(3), as well as Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) by L(3) was undertaken in order to gain a deeper insight into the pH-dependent speciation and understanding the color changing process. Furthermore, the inner coordination sphere of the [PbL(3)](2+) complex was probed by NMR spectroscopy.

  17. High-Performance Colorimetric Detection of Thiosulfate by Using Silver Nanoparticles for Smartphone-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chen; Wang, Zhuqing; Zhang, Yujie; Ma, Xuehua; Iqbal, M Zubair; Miao, Lijing; Zhou, Zhuangwei; Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Aiguo

    2017-08-25

    Developing thiosulfate (S2O3(2-)) sensors with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for analysis of aqueous solutions with the interference of other anions remains challenging. In this study, we propose a new strategy for excellent selective colorimetric detection of S2O3(2-). The nonmorphological transition of AgNPs leading to a color change from yellow to brown is verified by UV-vis, TEM, DLS, SEM, and XPS analyses. The sensor exhibits high sensitivity with detection limits of 1.0 μM by naked-eye determination and 0.2 μM by UV-vis spectroscopy analysis. The linear relationship (R(2) = 0.998) between the (A0 - A)/A0 values and S2O3(2-) concentrations from 0.2 μM to 2.0 μM indicates that the fabricated AgNPs-based colorimetric sensor can be employed for quantitative assay of S2O3(2-). Colorimetric responses are also monitored using the built-in camera of a smartphone. The sensor shows a linear response to S2O3(2-) in 0-20.0 μM solutions under the optimized conditions and is thus more suitable for rapid on-site tests than other detection methods. A smartphone application (app) is downloaded under Android or IOS platforms to measure the RGB (red, green, blue) values of the colorimetric sensor after exposure to the analyte. Following data processing, the RGB values are converted into concentration values by using preloaded calibration curves. Confirmatory analysis indicates that the proposed S2O3(2-) colorimetric sensor exhibits feasibility and sensitivity for S2O3(2-) detection in real environmental samples.

  18. An organic indicator functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite-based colorimetric assay for the detection of sarcosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhonghua; Yin, Bo; Wang, Hui; Li, Mengqian; Rao, Honghong; Liu, Xiuhui; Zhou, Xinbin; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2016-03-01

    Rapid detection of sarcosine is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of disease. We report here a simple yet sensitive colorimetric nanocomposite platform for rapid detection of sarcosine in alkaline media. The approach exploited the benefits of a rapid color-producing reaction between an organic indicator, 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid sodium salt (NQS), and the analyte of sarcosine species as well as the good catalytic ability of graphene oxide (GO) to the formation of highly colored products due to its good water dispersibility, extremely large surface area and facile surface modification. As a result, a NQS functionalized GO nanocomposite through π-π stacking has been demonstrated to be useful as a highly efficient catalyst system for the selective and sensitive colorimetric determination of sarcosine by providing a nanocomposite-amplified colorimetric response. Meanwhile, the strategy offered excellent selectivity toward sarcosine species against other amino acids as well as a satisfying detection limit of 0.73 μM. More importantly, by using an electrochemical method, a credible sensing mechanism of GO nanocomposite-based colorimetric platform for a special analyte determination can be easily verified and elucidated, which also provides an attractive alternative to conventional characterization strategies.Rapid detection of sarcosine is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of disease. We report here a simple yet sensitive colorimetric nanocomposite platform for rapid detection of sarcosine in alkaline media. The approach exploited the benefits of a rapid color-producing reaction between an organic indicator, 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid sodium salt (NQS), and the analyte of sarcosine species as well as the good catalytic ability of graphene oxide (GO) to the formation of highly colored products due to its good water dispersibility, extremely large surface area and facile surface modification. As a result, a NQS

  19. Semi-automatic carotid intraplaque hemorrhage detection and quantification on Magnetization-Prepared Rapid Acquisition Gradient-Echo (MP-RAGE) with optimized threshold selection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Balu, Niranjan; Hippe, Daniel S; Ferguson, Marina S; Martinez-Malo, Vanesa; DeMarco, J Kevin; Zhu, David C; Ota, Hideki; Sun, Jie; Xu, Dongxiang; Kerwin, William S; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Yuan, Chun

    2016-07-16

    Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) is associated with atherosclerosis progression and subsequent cardiovascular events. We sought to develop a semi-automatic method with an optimized threshold for carotid IPH detection and quantification on MP-RAGE images using matched histology as the gold standard. Fourteen patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy underwent 3D MP-RAGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) preoperatively. Presence and area of IPH were recorded using histology. Presence and area of IPH were also recorded on CMR based on intensity thresholding using three references for intensity normalization: the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), the adjacent muscle and the automatically generated local median value. The optimized intensity thresholds were obtained by maximizing the Youden's index for IPH detection. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the sensitivity and specificity for IPH detection based on our proposed semi-automatic method and the agreement with histology on IPH area quantification were evaluated. The optimized intensity thresholds for IPH detection were 1.0 times the SCM intensity, 1.6 times the adjacent muscle intensity and 2.2 times the median intensity. Using the semi-automatic method with the optimized intensity threshold, the following IPH detection and quantification performance was obtained: sensitivities up to 59, 68 and 80 %; specificities up to 85, 74 and 79 %; Pearson's correlation coefficients (IPH area measurement) up to 0.76, 0.93 and 0.90, respectively, using SCM, the adjacent muscle and the local median value for intensity normalization, after heavily calcified and small IPH were excluded. A semi-automatic method with good performance on IPH detection and quantification can be obtained in MP-RAGE CMR, using an optimized intensity threshold comparing to the adjacent muscle. The automatically generated reference of local median value provides comparable performance and may be particularly useful for developing automatic

  20. A gold nanoparticles-based colorimetric test to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms for improvement of personalized therapy of psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Alessandra; Valentini, Paola; Tarantino, Paolo; Congedo, Maurizio; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-01

    We report a simple, rapid and low-cost test, based on gold nanoparticles, for the naked-eye colorimetric detection of a signature of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) relevant for the personalized medicine of psoriasis patients. We validated the colorimetric assay on real-world DNA samples from a cohort of 30 psoriasis patients and we compared the results, in double-blind, with those obtained with two state-of-the-art instrumental techniques, namely reverse dot blotting and direct sequencing, finding 100% agreement. We demonstrated high accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the colorimetric test that can be easily adapted for the genotypization of different SNPs, important for the pharmacogenomics of various diseases, and in other fields, such as food traceability and population structure analysis.

  1. Multidimensional colorimetric sensor array for discrimination of proteins.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jinpeng; Lu, Yuexiang; Chang, Ning; Yang, Jiaoe; Zhang, Sichun; Liu, Yueying

    2016-12-15

    An extensible multidimensional colorimetric sensor array for the detection of protein is developed based on DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs) as receptors. In the presence of different proteins, the aggregation behavior of DNA-AuNPs was regulated by the high concentrations of salt and caused different color change; while DNA-AuNPs grew induced by the reduction of HAuCl4 and NH2OH as a reductant on the surface of nanoparticles exhibited different morphologies and color appearance for different proteins. The transducers based on AuNPs modified by specific and nonspecific DNA enables naked-eye discrimination of the target analytes. This extensible sensing platform with only two receptors could simultaneously discriminate ten native proteins and their thermally denatured conformations using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) at the concentration of 50nM with 100% accuracy. This opens up the possibility of the sensor array to investigate the different conformational changes of biomacromolecules, and it gives a new direction of developing multidimensional transduction principles based on plasmonic nanoparticle conjugates. Furthermore, the sensing system could discriminate proteins at the concentration of 500nM in the presence of 50% human urine, which indicated this sensor array has great potential ability in analyzing real biological fluids. In addition, the multidimensional colorimetric sensor array is suitable for analysis of target analytes in the resource-restricted regions because of rapid, simple, low cost, and in-field detection with the naked eye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A sensitive colorimetric assay system for nucleic acid detection based on isothermal signal amplification technology.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Guo, Jing; Xu, Ying; Wei, Hua; Zhao, Guojie; Guan, Yifu

    2017-08-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of microRNAs in biological systems is of great importance. Here, we report the development of a visual colorimetric assay which possesses the high amplification capabilities and high selectivity of the rolling circle amplification (RCA) method and the simplicity and convenience of gold nanoparticles used as a signal indicator. The designed padlock probe recognizes the target miRNA and is circularized, and then acts as the template to extend the target miRNA into a long single-stranded nucleotide chain of many tandem repeats of nucleotide sequences. Next, the RCA product is hybridized with oligonucleotides tagged onto gold nanoparticles. This interaction leads to the aggregation of gold nanoparticles, and the color of the system changes from wine red to dark blue according to the abundance of miRNA. A linear correlation between fluorescence and target oligonucleotide content was obtained in the range 0.3-300 pM, along with a detection limit of 0.13 pM (n = 7) and a RSD of 3.9% (30 pM, n = 9). The present approach provides a simple, rapid, and accurate visual colorimetric assay that allows sensitive biodetection and bioanalysis of DNA and RNA nucleotides of interest in biologically important samples. Graphical abstract The colorimetric assay system for analyzing target oligonucleotides.

  3. Illumination and device independence for colorimetric detection of urinary biomarkers with smartphone.

    PubMed

    Karisen, Haakon; Tao Dong

    2016-08-01

    Diaper wearing elderly with functional impairments and/or incontinence is at high risk of contracting urinary tract infections. Nurses struggle with collection of urine samples for analysis. Therefore, a smartphone application is under development as a rapid screening device to work in conjunction with a colorimetric diaper assay that collects and tests urine within a diaper. The focus of this work is to make a practical and useful tool that medical personnel (the user) can use for rapid screening on patients in the field, only with a smartphone and assay available. The main challenge is to achieve illumination and device independency for a wide range of colorimetric biomarkers without using any standardization, such as attachments, special lamps, or boxes. We achieved illumination and device independent semi-quantitative detection by using discriminant analysis and classification of simultaneously photographed colorimetric test results and reference colors to ensure that any variation in image conditions applies approximately equal for reference and test. This requires retraining of classifiers on each analysis, but appears to be the most viable solution to solving the challenges while maintaining the user-friendliness.

  4. Discrimination of honeys using colorimetric sensor arrays, sensory analysis and gas chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Haroon Elrasheid; Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Jiyong, Shi; Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam

    2016-09-01

    Aroma profiles of six honey varieties of different botanical origins were investigated using colorimetric sensor array, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and descriptive sensory analysis. Fifty-eight aroma compounds were identified, including 2 norisoprenoids, 5 hydrocarbons, 4 terpenes, 6 phenols, 7 ketones, 9 acids, 12 aldehydes and 13 alcohols. Twenty abundant or active compounds were chosen as key compounds to characterize honey aroma. Discrimination of the honeys was subsequently implemented using multivariate analysis, including hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Honeys of the same botanical origin were grouped together in the PCA score plot and HCA dendrogram. SPME-GC/MS and colorimetric sensor array were able to discriminate the honeys effectively with the advantages of being rapid, simple and low-cost. Moreover, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to indicate the relationship between sensory descriptors and aroma compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A colorimetric sensor for determination of cysteine by carboxymethyl cellulose-functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoyi; Qi, Li; Tan, Junjun; Liu, Ruigang; Wang, Fuyi

    2010-06-25

    A simple and sensitive colorimetric method for cysteine detection was established based on the carboxymethyl cellulose-functionalized gold nanoparticles (CMC-AuNPs). The nanoparticles were directly synthesized with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by a simple approach, which would protect particles against salt-induced aggregation. Then the CMC-AuNPs solution exhibited a high colorimetric selectivity to cysteine. The assay results indicated that the introduction of cysteine could induce the aggregation of the colloidal solutions at the presence of sodium chloride, displaying changes in color and in UV-vis absorption spectra. Thus an exceptionally simple, rapid method for detecting cysteine was obtained at the linear range of 10.0-100.0 microM with the relative coefficient of 0.997. The proposed method possessed the advantages of simplicity and sensitivity, and was applied to real urine sample detection. The results were satisfying and the proposed method was especially appropriate for detection of cysteine in biological samples.

  6. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for Rapid Detection and Quantification of Dehalococcoides Biomarker Genes in Commercial Reductive Dechlorinating Cultures KB-1 and SDC-9

    PubMed Central

    Kanitkar, Yogendra H.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Steffan, Robert J.; Hashsham, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) protocols specific to the reductive dehalogenase (RDase) genes vcrA, bvcA, and tceA are commonly used to quantify Dehalococcoides spp. in groundwater from chlorinated solvent-contaminated sites. In this study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed as an alternative approach for the quantification of these genes. LAMP does not require a real-time thermal cycler (i.e., amplification is isothermal), allowing the method to be performed using less-expensive and potentially field-deployable detection devices. Six LAMP primers were designed for each of three RDase genes (vcrA, bvcA, and tceA) using Primer Explorer V4. The LAMP assays were compared to conventional qPCR approaches using plasmid standards, two commercially available bioaugmentation cultures, KB-1 and SDC-9 (both contain Dehalococcoides species). DNA was extracted over a growth cycle from KB-1 and SDC-9 cultures amended with trichloroethene and vinyl chloride, respectively. All three genes were quantified for KB-1, whereas only vcrA was quantified for SDC-9. A comparison of LAMP and qPCR using standard plasmids indicated that quantification results were similar over a large range of gene concentrations. In addition, the quantitative increase in gene concentrations over one growth cycle of KB-1 and SDC-9 using LAMP was comparable to that of qPCR. The developed LAMP assays for vcrA and tceA genes were validated by comparing quantification on the Gene-Z handheld platform and a real-time thermal cycler using DNA isolated from eight groundwater samples obtained from an SDC-9-bioaugmented site (Tulsa, OK). These assays will be particularly useful at sites subject to bioaugmentation with these two commonly used Dehalococcoides species-containing cultures. PMID:26746711

  7. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for Rapid Detection and Quantification of Dehalococcoides Biomarker Genes in Commercial Reductive Dechlorinating Cultures KB-1 and SDC-9.

    PubMed

    Kanitkar, Yogendra H; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Steffan, Robert J; Hashsham, Syed A; Cupples, Alison M

    2016-01-08

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) protocols specific to the reductive dehalogenase (RDase) genes vcrA, bvcA, and tceA are commonly used to quantify Dehalococcoides spp. in groundwater from chlorinated solvent-contaminated sites. In this study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed as an alternative approach for the quantification of these genes. LAMP does not require a real-time thermal cycler (i.e., amplification is isothermal), allowing the method to be performed using less-expensive and potentially field-deployable detection devices. Six LAMP primers were designed for each of three RDase genes (vcrA, bvcA, and tceA) using Primer Explorer V4. The LAMP assays were compared to conventional qPCR approaches using plasmid standards, two commercially available bioaugmentation cultures, KB-1 and SDC-9 (both contain Dehalococcoides species). DNA was extracted over a growth cycle from KB-1 and SDC-9 cultures amended with trichloroethene and vinyl chloride, respectively. All three genes were quantified for KB-1, whereas only vcrA was quantified for SDC-9. A comparison of LAMP and qPCR using standard plasmids indicated that quantification results were similar over a large range of gene concentrations. In addition, the quantitative increase in gene concentrations over one growth cycle of KB-1 and SDC-9 using LAMP was comparable to that of qPCR. The developed LAMP assays for vcrA and tceA genes were validated by comparing quantification on the Gene-Z handheld platform and a real-time thermal cycler using DNA isolated from eight groundwater samples obtained from an SDC-9-bioaugmented site (Tulsa, OK). These assays will be particularly useful at sites subject to bioaugmentation with these two commonly used Dehalococcoides species-containing cultures.

  8. A smartphone platform for the quantification of vitamin D levels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoho; Oncescu, Vlad; Mancuso, Matt; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2014-04-21

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to a number of diseases and adverse outcomes including: osteoporosis, infections, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and even cancer. At present the vast majority of vitamin D testing is performed in large-scale laboratories at the request of a physician as part of an annual panel of blood tests. Here we present a system for rapid quantification of vitamin D levels on a smartphone. The system consists of a smartphone accessory, an app, and a test strip that allows the colorimetric detection of 25-hydroxyvitamin D using a novel gold nanoparticle-based immunoassay. We show that the system can be used to accurately measure physiological levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with accuracy better than 15 nM and a precision of 10 nM. We compare our system with well-established ELISA test kits for serum samples of unknown concentration and demonstrate equivalency of the results. We envision this as the first step towards the development of the NutriPhone, a comprehensive system for the analysis of multiple vitamins and micronutrients on a smartphone.

  9. Rapid and sensitive quantification of levoglucosan in aerosols by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPAEC-positive ESI-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Daichi; Furuichi, Yuko; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Oku, Yuichiro; Funasaka, Kunihiro

    2015-12-01

    A convenient quantification method for underivatized levoglucosan, which is a tracer for biomass burning influenced particulate matter (PM), has been established using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) coupled to positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry ((+)ESI-MS). Levoglucosan was chromatographically separated from its isomers (mannosan and galactosan) and detected selectively with positive ESI-MS. Limits of detection and quantification for this method were 0.40 and 1.3 ng mL-1, respectively. A comparison of simultaneous measurements by this method and conventional derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed a good linearity with a slope of 1.008 and a determination coefficient of 0.9932. The developed method was applied to ambient suspended particulate matter hourly collected by continuous particulate monitors at 10 stations. The hourly concentration of levoglucosan during August 9-11, 2011, was 1.7-918 ng m-3 and its distribution indicated the transportation of biomass burning aerosols of a forest fire. This is the first report of horizontal distribution of the hourly levoglucosan concentration in Japan.

  10. Extractive colorimetric method for the determination of dothiepin hydrochloride and risperidone in pure and in dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Wafaa El-Sayed

    2008-08-01

    Three rapid, simple, reproducible and sensitive extractive colorimetric methods (A--C) for assaying dothiepin hydrochloride (I) and risperidone (II) in bulk sample and in dosage forms were investigated. Methods A and B are based on the formation of an ion pair complexes with methyl orange (A) and orange G (B), whereas method C depends on ternary complex formation between cobalt thiocyanate and the studied drug I or II. The optimum reaction conditions were investigated and it was observed the calibration curves resulting from the measurements of absorbance concentration relations of the extracted complexes were linear over the concentration range 0.1--12 microg ml(-1) for method A, 0.5--11 mug ml(-1) for method B, and 3.2--80 microg ml(-1) for method C with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.17 and 1.28 for drug I and II, respectively. The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, Ringbom optimum concentration ranges, and detection and quantification limits for all complexes were calculated and evaluated at maximum wavelengths of 423, 498, and 625 nm, using methods A, B, and C, respectively. The interference from excipients commonly present in dosage forms and common degradation products was studied. The proposed methods are highly specific for the determination of drugs I and II, in their dosage forms applying the standard additions technique without any interference from common excipients. The proposed methods have been compared statistically to the reference methods and found to be simple, accurate (t-test) and reproducible (F-value).

  11. High-throughput quantification of hydroxyproline for determination of collagen.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Kathleen; Hall, Bronwyn; Cleaver, Helen; Marshall, Susan

    2011-10-15

    An accurate and high-throughput assay for collagen is essential for collagen research and development of collagen products. Hydroxyproline is routinely assayed to provide a measurement for collagen quantification. The time required for sample preparation using acid hydrolysis and neutralization prior to assay is what limits the current method for determining hydroxyproline. This work describes the conditions of alkali hydrolysis that, when combined with the colorimetric assay defined by Woessner, provide a high-throughput, accurate method for the measurement of hydroxyproline.

  12. Colorimetric Detection of Staphylococcus aureus Contaminated Solutions without Purification.

    PubMed

    Tiet, Pamela; Clark, Karen C; McNamara, James O; Berlin, Jacob M

    2017-01-18

    Current water quality monitoring methods rely on growth-based measurements to detect fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and enterococci, and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). These growth-based measurements, however, can take days to complete. This is a significant limitation in the evaluation of contaminated food and water sources. Various methods for selective in vitro detection of S. aureus have also been reported; however, these strategies, such as ELISA, agar-diffusion, PCR, or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, all require overnight culturing or sophisticated instrumentation. There is a pressing need for a portable, simple diagnostic for S. aureus. Here, we demonstrate that oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (Oligo-AuNPs) can be designed to rapidly and selectively detect S. aureus with a colorimetric readout. We have functionalized a chemically modified 11-mer sequence onto AuNPs and have found that aggregation occurs in the presence of S. aureus supernantants. The particles can be stored as a lyophilized powder and reconstituted at time of use, and this has been tested in biologically relevant samples such as creek and ocean water. This approach requires minimal sample preparation and requires no extraneous instrumentation, leading to a rapid and simple diagnostic read-out that could be used in field tests to monitor food and water sources.

  13. A rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of serum androsterone glucuronide, etiocholanolone glucuronide, and androstan-3α, 17β diol 17-glucuronide in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Isabelle, Maxim; Bertin, Jonathan; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Dury, Alain Y; Labrie, Fernand

    2015-05-01

    Quantification of steroidal glucuronide conjugates by the indirect methods of immunoassay and GC-MS/MS may underestimate some conjugates since hydrolysis is needed in sample processing. In the present work, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous direct quantification of androsterone glucuronide, etiocholanolone glucuronide, and androstan-3α, 17β diol 17-glucuronide in postmenopausal women's serum. The quantification limits are 0.1ng/mL for 3α-diol-17G and 4ng/mL for both ADT-G and Etio-G, respectively, with an extraction from 200μL serum while the total run time is less than 6min for all three glucuronides. In this method, solid phase extraction is used for sample preparation. The assay has been validated in compliance with EndoCeutics SOPs and FDA guidelines for bioanalytical method development and validation. The recovery of glucuronides in stripped serum is consistent with that in unstripped serum, where the average difference in stripped and unstripped is less than 10%. A linear regression model fits well the standard curves of all three compounds with R≥0.99 where the weighting factor is 1/X. Interday accuracy and CV for all levels of QCs are within the range of 15% in both stripped and unstripped serum while all calibration curves are within the range of 6% except for LLOQs, which are within the range of 9%. Other parameters have also been assessed such as selectivity, matrix, lipemic and hemolysis effects as well as stabilities in solution and matrix. Incurred sample reanalysis has been performed with a result of over 93% within 20% of the original values. This reliable, sensitive and fast method is ready for large-scale clinical sample assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of molluscan sterols: Colorimetric methods.

    PubMed

    Swift, M L

    1984-08-01

    The wide variety of sterols normally found in extracts of bivalve molluscs leads to high variability in analytical data obtained with colorimetric (chole)sterol methods. Total sterol levels in oyster (Crassostrea virginica) extracts were determined using the Liebermann-Burchard reagent, an acid-FeCl3 reagent and a cholesterol oxidase procedure. The data from the latter two agreed to within 5.4% and yielded about 30% higher estimates of sterol content than the Liebermann-Burchard test. Gas-liquid chromatographic data also are compared.Several pure sterols, selected because of their presence in oyster sterol fractions or because of their structural similarities to such sterols, were examined using each of the three procedures. Sterols, differing from cholesterol only with regard to the side chain, reacted 80-102% as well as cholesterol with the acid-FeCl3 reagent and cholesterol oxidase. The Liebermann-Burchard reaction was more specific for cholesterol. The colorimetric cholesterol oxidase method is recommended for the estimation of total molluscan sterol content.

  15. Improving colorimetric assays through protein enzyme-assisted gold nanoparticle amplification.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoji; Xu, Wei; Liu, Xiaogang

    2012-09-18

    The discovery of the DNA-mediated assembly of gold nanoparticles was a great moment in the history of science; this understanding and chemical control enabled the rational design of functional nanomaterials as novel probes in biodetection. In contrast with conventional probes such as organic dyes, gold nanoparticles exhibit high photostability and unique size-dependent optical properties. Because of their high extinction coefficients and strong distance dependent optical properties, these nanoparticles have emerged over the past decade as a promising platform for rapid, highly sensitive colorimetric assays that allow for the visual detection of low concentrations of metal ions, small molecules, and biomacromolecules. These discoveries have deepened our knowledge of biological phenomena and facilitated the development of many new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Despite these many advances and continued research efforts, current nanoparticle-based colorimetric detection systems still suffer from several drawbacks, such as limited sensitivity and selectivity. This Account describes the recent development of colorimetric assays based on protein enzyme-assisted gold nanoparticle amplification. The benefits of such detection systems include significantly improved detection sensitivity and selectivity. First, we discuss the general design of enzyme-modified nanoparticle systems in colorimetric assays. We show that a quantitative understanding of the unique properties of different enzymes is paramount for effective biological assays. We then examine the assays for nucleic acid detection based on different types of enzymes, including endonucleases, ligases, and polymerases. For each of these assays, we identify the underlying principles that contribute to the enhanced detection capability of nanoparticle systems and illustrate them with selected examples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the combination of gold nanoparticles and specific enzymes can probe enzyme dynamics

  16. QUANTIFICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SEDIMENT SAMPLES BY A GC/MS METHOD AND COMPARISON WITH EPA 418.1 AND A RAPID FIELD METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Total Petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as a lumped parameter can be easily and rapidly measured or monitored. Despite interpretational problems, it has become an accepted regulatory benchmark used widely to evaluate the extent of petroleum product contamination. Three cu...

  17. QUANTIFICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SEDIMENT SAMPLES BY A GC/MS METHOD AND COMPARISON WITH EPA 418.1 AND A RAPID FIELD METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Total Petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as a lumped parameter can be easily and rapidly measured or monitored. Despite interpretational problems, it has become an accepted regulatory benchmark used widely to evaluate the extent of petroleum product contamination. Three cu...

  18. A rapid method for the simultaneous quantification of the major tocopherols, carotenoids, free and esterified sterols in canola (Brassica napus) oil using normal phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Flakelar, Clare L; Prenzler, Paul D; Luckett, David J; Howitt, Julia A; Doran, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    A normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to simultaneously quantify several prominent bioactive compounds in canola oil vis. α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol. The use of sequential diode array detection (DAD) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) allowed direct injection of oils, diluted in hexane without derivatisation or saponification, greatly reducing sample preparation time, and permitting the quantification of both free sterols and intact sterol esters. Further advantages over existing methods included increased analytical selectivity, and a chromatographic run time substantially less than other reported normal phase methods. The HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was applied to freshly extracted canola oil samples as well as commercially available canola, palm fruit, sunflower and olive oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid and accurate liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of ten metabolic reactions catalyzed by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong; Ma, Bingliang; Wu, Jiasheng; Wang, Tianming; Ma, Yueming

    2015-10-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes play a central role in the biotransformation of endogenous and exogenous substances. A sensitive high-throughput liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of the products of ten metabolic reactions catalyzed by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. After the substrates were incubated separately, the samples were pooled and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization source in the positive and negative ion modes. The method exhibited linearity over a broad concentration range, insensitivity to matrix effects, and high accuracy, precision, and stability. The novel method was successfully applied to study the kinetics of phenacetin-O deethylation, coumarin-7 hydroxylation, bupropion hydroxylation, taxol-6 hydroxylation, omeprazole-5 hydroxylation, dextromethorphan-O demethylation, tolbutamide-4 hydroxylation, chlorzoxazone-6 hydroxylation, testosterone-6β hydroxylation, and midazolam-1 hydroxylation in rat liver microsomes.

  20. Development and validation of an ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry method for rapid quantification of free amino acids in human urine.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Richard; Kuziene, Viktorija; Zou, Xin; Wang, Xueting; Pullen, Frank; Loo, Ruey Leng

    2016-01-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-qTOF-MS) method using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of 18 free amino acids in urine with a total acquisition time including the column re-equilibration of less than 18 min per sample. This method involves simple sample preparation steps which consisted of 15 times dilution with acetonitrile to give a final composition of 25 % aqueous and 75 % acetonitrile without the need of any derivatization. The dynamic range for our calibration curve is approximately two orders of magnitude (120-fold from the lowest calibration curve point) with good linearity (r (2) ≥ 0.995 for all amino acids). Good separation of all amino acids as well as good intra- and inter-day accuracy (<15 %) and precision (<15 %) were observed using three quality control samples at a concentration of low, medium and high range of the calibration curve. The limits of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification of our method were ranging from approximately 1-300 nM and 0.01-0.5 µM, respectively. The stability of amino acids in the prepared urine samples was found to be stable for 72 h at 4 °C, after one freeze thaw cycle and for up to 4 weeks at -80 °C. We have applied this method to quantify the content of 18 free amino acids in 646 urine samples from a dietary intervention study. We were able to quantify all 18 free amino acids in these urine samples, if they were present at a level above the LOD. We found our method to be reproducible (accuracy and precision were typically <10 % for QCL, QCM and QCH) and the relatively high sample throughput nature of this method potentially makes it a suitable alternative for the analysis of urine samples in clinical setting.

  1. Development and validation of a reliable and rapid LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of sacubitril and valsartan in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Raja Haranadha Babu; Dannana, Gowri Sankar

    2016-09-01

    A selective, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatographic method with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric detection has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of sacubitril and valsartan in rat plasma using telmisartan as internal standard (IS). The analytes were extracted by deprotenization of 50 μL of plasma sample using 200 μL of acetonitrile. In a short chromatographic run of 1.50 min run time, separation was achieved on a Hypersil Gold C18 column using a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid in Milli-Q water-0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile in gradient elution mode. The quantification of target compounds was performed in a positive electrospray ionization mode and multiple reaction monitoring. Response was a linear function of concentration in the ranges of 0.5-20,000 ng/mL for both analytes, with r(2)  > 0.9997. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy results were <15% and acceptable as per US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Stability of compounds were established in a battery of stability studies, i.e. bench-top, autosampler and long-term storage stability as well as freeze-thaw cycles. The validated method can be used as a routine method to support pharmacokinetic studies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Development of a rapid column-switching LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of THCCOOH and THCCOOH-glucuronide in whole blood for assessing cannabis consumption frequency.

    PubMed

    Hädener, Marianne; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Schürch, Stefan; König, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    The concentration of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in whole blood is used as a parameter for assessing the consumption behavior of cannabis consumers. The blood level of THCCOOH-glucuronide might provide additional information about the frequency of cannabis use. To verify this assumption, a column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the rapid and direct quantification of free and glucuronidated THCCOOH in human whole blood was newly developed. The method comprised protein precipitation, followed by injection of the processed sample onto a trapping column and subsequent gradient elution to an analytical column for separation and detection. The total LC run time was 4.5 min. Detection of the analytes was accomplished by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and selected reaction monitoring using a triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was fully validated by evaluating the following parameters: linearity, lower limit of quantification, accuracy and imprecision, selectivity, extraction efficiency, matrix effect, carry-over, dilution integrity, analyte stability, and re-injection reproducibility. All acceptance criteria were analyzed and the predefined criteria met. Linearity ranged from 5.0 to 500 μg/L for both analytes. The method was successfully applied to whole blood samples from a large collective of cannabis consumers, demonstrating its applicability in the forensic field.

  3. Comparison of macro-gravimetric and micro-colorimetric lipid determination methods.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Laura S; Lotufo, Guiherme R

    2006-10-15

    In order to validate a method for lipid analysis of small tissue samples, the standard macro-gravimetric method of Bligh-Dyer (1959) [E.G. Bligh, W.J. Dyer, Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37 (1959) 911] and a modification of the micro-colorimetric assay developed by Van Handel (1985) [E. Van Handel, J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 1 (1985) 302] were compared. No significant differences were observed for wet tissues of two species of fish. However, limited analysis of wet tissue of the amphipod, Leptocheirusplumulosus, indicated that the Bligh-Dyer gravimetric method generated higher lipid values, most likely due to the inclusion of non-lipid materials. Additionally, significant differences between the methods were observed with dry tissues, with the micro-colorimetric method consistently reporting calculated lipid values greater than as reported by the gravimetric method. This was most likely due to poor extraction of dry tissue in the standard Bligh-Dyer method, as no significant differences were found when analyzing a single composite extract. The data presented supports the conclusion that the micro-colorimetric method described in this paper is accurate, rapid, and minimizes time and solvent use.

  4. Using the iPhone as a device for a rapid quantitative analysis of trinitrotoluene in soil.

    PubMed

    Choodum, Aree; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Wongniramaikul, Worawit; Daeid, Niamh Nic

    2013-10-15

    Mobile 'smart' phones have become almost ubiquitous in society and are typically equipped with a high-resolution digital camera which can be used to produce an image very conveniently. In this study, the built-in digital camera of a smart phone (iPhone) was used to capture the results from a rapid quantitative colorimetric test for trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soil. The results were compared to those from a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The colored product from the selective test for TNT was quantified using an innovative application of photography where the relationships between the Red Green Blue (RGB) values and the concentrations of colorimetric product were exploited. The iPhone showed itself to be capable of being used more conveniently than the DSLR while providing similar analytical results with increased sensitivity. The wide linear range and low detection limits achieved were comparable with those from spectrophotometric quantification methods. Low relative errors in the range of 0.4 to 6.3% were achieved in the analysis of control samples and 0.4-6.2% for spiked soil extracts with good precision (2.09-7.43% RSD) for the analysis over 4 days. The results demonstrate that the iPhone provides the potential to be used as an ideal novel platform for the development of a rapid on site semi quantitative field test for the analysis of explosives.

  5. Beetroot-pigment-derived colorimetric sensor for detection of calcium dipicolinate in bacterial spores.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Letícia Christina Pires; Da Silva, Sandra Maria; DeRose, Paul C; Ando, Rômulo Augusto; Bastos, Erick Leite

    2013-01-01

    In this proof-of-concept study, we describe the use of the main red beet pigment betanin for the quantification of calcium dipicolinate in bacterial spores, including Bacillus anthracis. In the presence of europium(III) ions, betanin is converted to a water-soluble, non-luminescent orange 1∶1 complex with a stability constant of 1.4 × 10(5) L mol(-1). The addition of calcium dipicolinate, largely found in bacterial spores, changes the color of the aqueous solution of [Eu(Bn)(+)] from orange to magenta. The limit of detection (LOD) of calcium dipicolinate is around 2.0 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) and the LOD determined for both spores, B. cereus and B. anthracis, is (1.1 ± 0.3)× 10(6) spores mL(-1). This simple, green, fast and low cost colorimetric assay was selective for calcium dipicolinate when compared to several analogous compounds. The importance of this work relies on the potential use of betalains, raw natural pigments, as colorimetric sensors for biological applications.

  6. Colorimetric determination of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) through ion-associate complex formation.

    PubMed

    Amin, Alaa S; Moustafa, Moustafa E; El-Dosoky, Reham

    2009-01-01

    A simple, quick, accurate, and sensitive colorimetric method is described for the determination of sildenafil citrate (SLD). The method is based on the reaction of SLD with Congo Red, Sudan II, and Gentian Violet in buffered aqueous solutions at pH 2.5, 6.5, and 11.0, respectively, to give highly colored soluble ion-associate complex species; the colored products are quantitated colorimetrically at 523, 554, and 569 nm, respectively. The various experimental conditions were optimized. The stoichiometric ratio was found to be 1:1 for all ion associates; the calculated logarithmic stability constants were 8.51, 7.79, and 5.58, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration range of 0.2-7.0 microg/mL, whereas the Ringbom optimum concentration range was 0.4-6.5 microg/mL. Values for molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, and detection and quantification limits were also calculated. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SLD in Viagra tablets and in serum samples by using the technique of standard additions with mean accuracy values of 100.06 +/- 1.14, 99.87 +/- 0.70, and 99.86 +/- 0.97% for Viagra tablets and 99.88 +/- 0.60, 99.90 +/- 0.90, and 100.24 +/- 0.80% for serum samples, respectively.

  7. Beetroot-Pigment-Derived Colorimetric Sensor for Detection of Calcium Dipicolinate in Bacterial Spores

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Letícia Christina Pires; Da Silva, Sandra Maria; DeRose, Paul C.; Ando, Rômulo Augusto; Bastos, Erick Leite

    2013-01-01

    In this proof-of-concept study, we describe the use of the main red beet pigment betanin for the quantification of calcium dipicolinate in bacterial spores, including Bacillus anthracis. In the presence of europium(III) ions, betanin is converted to a water-soluble, non-luminescent orange 1∶1 complex with a stability constant of 1.4×105 L mol–1. The addition of calcium dipicolinate, largely found in bacterial spores, changes the color of the aqueous solution of [Eu(Bn)+] from orange to magenta. The limit of detection (LOD) of calcium dipicolinate is around 2.0×10–6 mol L–1 and the LOD determined for both spores, B. cereus and B. anthracis, is (1.1±0.3)×106 spores mL–1. This simple, green, fast and low cost colorimetric assay was selective for calcium dipicolinate when compared to several analogous compounds. The importance of this work relies on the potential use of betalains, raw natural pigments, as colorimetric sensors for biological applications. PMID:24019934

  8. Rapid detection of immunity against bacteria in Asian honeybee and Western honeybee with quantification of royalisin in the hemolymphe by fast ELISA.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-Rong; Dilireba, Shatar; Zhou, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Yi-Ran; Li, Mei-Lu; Zhai, Liang

    2014-09-24

    Royalisin from royal jelly (RJ) is a valuable peptide both for the prevention of honeybee diseases and for RJ preservation. ELISA for fast determination of royalisin content in hemolymphe (RCH) of honeybees with polyclonal antibody against recombinant royalisin from Asian honeybee was established. Assay on RCHs of health samples from Asian honeybee and Western honeybee showed the former (7.06 μg/mL) was significantly higher than that of the latter (5.64 μg/mL, p < 0.01). Moreover, relative to the non infection, the RCHs of Asian honeybees at 24 and 48 h post infection of Eschericha coli were higher than those of Western honeybees by 32.90% and 29.66%, respectively. Evidence revealed that Asian honeybee possesses higher innate immunity and immune response against bacteria in relation to the Western honeybee. The method will be a potential tool for detection of resistant levels to pathogens in honeybees and for quantification of royalisin in RJ products.

  9. Highly sensitive and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of uroselective alpha1-blocker, alfuzosin and an antimuscarinic agent, solifenacin in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Mistri, Hiren N; Jangid, Arvind G; Pudage, Ashutosh; Rathod, Dhiraj M; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2008-12-15

    An accurate, selective and sensitive bioanalytical method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of alfuzosin and solifenacin in human plasma using propranolol as internal standard (IS). The analytes and IS were extracted in methyl tert-butyl ether, separated on Hypurity C8 column and detected by tandem mass spectrometry with a turbo ion spray interface. The method had a chromatographic run time of 3.0 min and linear calibration curves over the concentration range of 0.25-25 ng/mL for alfuzosin and 0.6-60 ng/mL for solifenacin. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision (%CV) evaluated at four quality control levels were within 88.2-106.4% and 0.9-7.7% respectively. The absolute recovery from spiked plasma samples was 71.8% for alfuzosin and 93.1% for solifenacin. Stability of alfuzosin and solifenacin was assessed under different storage conditions. The validated method was successfully employed for bioavailability study after oral administration of 10 mg of alfuzosin hydrochloride and 5mg of solifenacin succinate tablet formulations in eight healthy volunteers under fed condition.

  10. Rapid quantification of four major bioactive alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. by pressurised liquid extraction combined with liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Jiang, Yongxiang; Zhou, Xiujin; Zhu, Zhenou; Lei, Xinxiang

    2011-05-30

    A new method based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) followed by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QTrap-MS) analysis has been developed for the identification and quantification of four major alkaloids in extracts of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. PLE extractions were performed using 90% ethanol; temperature was set at 100°C and pressure at 1500 psi. HPLC analysis was performed on a Waters XBridge™ C(18) column (150 mm × 2.1mm i.d., 3.5 μm) eluted by a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.2% acetic acid. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions (MRMs) mode, monitoring two MRM transitions to ensure an accurate identification of target compounds in the samples. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus (EPI) of the linear ion trap. The novel LC-QTrap-MS platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of the four alkaloids in C. decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. and fulfils the quality criteria for routine laboratory application.

  11. Rapid quantification of conjugated and unconjugated bile acids and C27 precursors in dried blood spots and small volumes of serum.

    PubMed

    Janzen, N; Sander, S; Terhardt, M; Das, A M; Sass, J O; Kraetzner, R; Rosewich, H; Rosevich, H; Peter, M; Sander, J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a method for fast and reliable diagnosis of peroxisomal diseases and to facilitate differential diagnosis of cholestatic hepatopathy. For the quantification of bile acids and their conjugates as well as C(27) precursors di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acid (DHCA, THCA), in small pediatric blood samples we combined HPLC separation on a reverse-phase C18 column with ESI-MS/MS analysis in the negative ion mode. Analysis was done with good precision (CV 3,7%-11.1%) and sufficient sensitivity (LOQ: 11-91 nmol/L) without derivatization. Complete analysis of 17 free and conjugated bile acids from dried blood spots and 10 microL serum samples, respectively, was performed within 12 min. Measurement of conjugated primary bile acids plus DHCA and THCA as well as ursodeoxycholic acid was done in 4.5 min. In blood spots of healthy newborns, conjugated primary bile acids were found in the range of 0.01 to 2.01 micromol/L. Concentrations of C(27) precursors were below the detection limit in normal controls. DHCA and THCA were specifically elevated in cases of peroxysomal defects and one Zellweger patient.

  12. Rapid PCR-mediated synthesis of competitor molecules for accurate quantification of beta(2) GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA.

    PubMed

    Vela, J; Vitorica, J; Ruano, D

    2001-12-01

    We describe a fast and easy method for the synthesis of competitor molecules based on non-specific conditions of PCR. RT-competitive PCR is a sensitive technique that allows quantification of very low quantities of mRNA molecules in small tissue samples. This technique is based on the competition established between the native and standard templates for nucleotides, primers or other factors during PCR. Thus, the most critical parameter is the use of good internal standards to generate a standard curve from which the amount of native sequences can be properly estimated. At the present time different types of internal standards and methods for their synthesis have been described. Normally, most of these methods are time-consuming and require the use of different sets of primers, different rounds of PCR or specific modifications, such as site-directed mutagenesis, that need subsequent analysis of the PCR products. Using our method, we obtained in a single round of PCR and with the same primer pair, competitor molecules that were successfully used in RT-competitive PCR experiments. The principal advantage of this method is high versatility and economy. Theoretically it is possible to synthesize a specific competitor molecule for each primer pair used. Finally, using this method we have been able to quantify the increase in the expression of the beta(2) GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA that occurs during rat hippocampus development.

  13. Rapid detection and quantification of tyrosine decarboxylase gene (tdc) and its expression in gram-positive bacteria associated with fermented foods using PCR-based methods.

    PubMed

    Torriani, Sandra; Gatto, Veronica; Sembeni, Silvia; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna; Belletti, Nicoletta; Gardini, Fausto; Bover-Cid, Sara

    2008-01-01

    In this study, PCR-based procedures were developed to detect the occurrence and quantify the expression of the tyrosine decarboxylase gene (tdc) in gram-positive bacteria associated with fermented foods. Consensus primers were used in conventional and reverse transcription PCR to analyze a collection of 87 pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria and staphylococci. All enterococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus curvatus, and Lactobacillus fermentum strains and 1 of 10 Staphylococcus xylosus strains produced amplification products with the primers DEC5 and DEC3 in accordance with results of the screening plate method and with previously reported result obtained with high-performance liquid chromatography. No amplicons were obtained for tyramine-negative strains, confirming the high specificity of these new primers. A novel quantitative real-time PCR assay was successfully applied to quantify tdc and its transcript in pure cultures and in meat and meat products. This assay allowed estimation of the influence of different variables (pH, temperature, and NaCl concentration) on the tdc expression of the tyraminogenic strain Enterococcus faecalis EF37 after 72 h of growth in M17 medium. Data obtained suggest that stressful conditions could induce greater tyrosine decarboxylase activity. The culture-independent PCR procedures developed here may be used for reliable and fast detection and quantification of bacterial tyraminogenic activity without the limitations of conventional techniques.

  14. Rapid quantification of conjugated and unconjugated bile acids and C27 precursors in dried blood spots and small volumes of serum[S

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, N.; Sander, S.; Terhardt, M.; Das, A. M.; Sass, J. O.; Kraetzner, R.; Rosewich, H.; Peter, M.; Sander, J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a method for fast and reliable diagnosis of peroxisomal diseases and to facilitate differential diagnosis of cholestatic hepatopathy. For the quantification of bile acids and their conjugates as well as C27 precursors di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acid (DHCA, THCA), in small pediatric blood samples we combined HPLC separation on a reverse-phase C18 column with ESI-MS/MS analysis in the negative ion mode. Analysis was done with good precision (CV 3,7%–11.1%) and sufficient sensitivity (LOQ: 11–91 nmol/L) without derivatization. Complete analysis of 17 free and conjugated bile acids from dried blood spots and 10 µL serum samples, respectively, was performed within 12 min. Measurement of conjugated primary bile acids plus DHCA and THCA as well as ursodeoxycholic acid was done in 4.5 min. In blood spots of healthy newborns, conjugated primary bile acids were found in the range of 0.01 to 2.01 µmol/L. Concentrations of C27 precursors were below the detection limit in normal controls. DHCA and THCA were specifically elevated in cases of peroxysomal defects and one Zellweger patient. PMID:20093478

  15. Accurate colorimetric feedback for RGB LED clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Kwong; Ashdown, Ian

    2006-08-01

    We present an empirical model of LED emission spectra that is applicable to both InGaN and AlInGaP high-flux LEDs, and which accurately predicts their relative spectral power distributions over a wide range of LED junction temperatures. We further demonstrate with laboratory measurements that changes in LED spectral power distribution with temperature can be accurately predicted with first- or second-order equations. This provides the basis for a real-time colorimetric feedback system for RGB LED clusters that can maintain the chromaticity of white light at constant intensity to within +/-0.003 Δuv over a range of 45 degrees Celsius, and to within 0.01 Δuv when dimmed over an intensity range of 10:1.

  16. Colorimetric Method for Beryllium Surface Contamination Detection

    SciTech Connect

    MCWHORTER, CHRISTOPHER

    2004-03-11

    To address the need for real-time accurate total beryllium analyses, Savannah River Technology Center Analytical Development Section personnel evaluated and modified a colorimetric screening method developed at Los Alamos National Lab to measure beryllium on surfaces. This method was based on a color complex formed by beryllium and chromium azurol s . SRTC converted this visual method to a quantitative analysis method using spectrophotometric detection. The addition of a cationic surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) to the Be-CAS system shifted the complex absorbance away from the CAS absorbance and allowed for the detection. Assuming complete dissolution and a 10 mL rinse solution volume to remove the beryllium from the wipe, the detection limit was calculated comfortably below the free release limit. The spectrophotometric method was rugged and simple enough that it could be used as a field method.

  17. Colorimetric calibration of coupled infrared simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Fei, Jindong; Gao, Yang; Du, Jian

    2015-10-01

    In order to test 2-color infrared sensors, a coupled infrared simulation system can generate radiometric outputs with wavelengths that range from less than 3 microns to more than 12 microns. There are two channels in the coupled simulation system, optically combined by a diachronic beam combiner. Each channel has an infrared blackbody, a filter, a diaphragm, and diaphragm-motors. The system is projected to the sensor under testing by a collimator. This makes it difficult to calibrate the system with only one-band thermal imager. Errors will be caused in the radiance levels measured by the narrow band thermal imager. This paper describes colorimetric temperature measurement techniques that have been developed to perform radiometric calibrations of these infrared simulation systems above. The calibration system consists of two infrared thermal imagers; one is operated at the wavelength range of MW-IR, and the other at the range of LW-IR.

  18. Colorimetric consideration of transparencies for a typical LACIE scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, R. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The production film converter used to produce LACIE imagery is described as well as schemes designed to provide the analyst with operational film products. Two of these products are discussed from the standpoint of color theory. Colorimetric terminology is defined and the mathematical calculations are given. Topics covered include (1) history of product 1 and 3 algorithm development; (2) colorimetric assumptions for product 1 and 3 algorithms; (3) qualitative results from a colorimetric analysis of a typical LACIE scene; and (4) image-to-image color stability.

  19. MATRIX DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS WITH APPLICATION TO COLORIMETRIC SENSOR ARRAY DATA.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenxuan; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2015-09-01

    With the rapid development of nano-technology, a "colorimetric sensor array" (CSA) which is referred to as an optical electronic nose has been developed for the identification of toxicants. Unlike traditional sensors which rely on a single chemical interaction, CSA can measure multiple chemical interactions by using chemo-responsive dyes. The color changes of the chemo-responsive dyes are recorded before and after exposure to toxicants and serve as a template for classification. The color changes are digitalized in the form of a matrix with rows representing dye effects and columns representing the spectrum of colors. Thus, matrix-classification methods are highly desirable. In this article, we develop a novel classification method, matrix discriminant analysis (MDA), which is a generalization of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for the data in matrix form. By incorporating the intrinsic matrix-structure of the data in discriminant analysis, the proposed method can improve CSA's sensitivity and more importantly, specificity. A penalized MDA method, PMDA, is also introduced to further incorporate sparsity structure in discriminant function. Numerical studies suggest that the proposed MDA and PMDA methods outperform LDA and other competing discriminant methods for matrix predictors. The asymptotic consistency of MDA is also established. R code and data are available online as supplementary material.

  20. MATRIX DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS WITH APPLICATION TO COLORIMETRIC SENSOR ARRAY DATA

    PubMed Central

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of nano-technology, a “colorimetric sensor array” (CSA) which is referred to as an optical electronic nose has been developed for the identification of toxicants. Unlike traditional sensors which rely on a single chemical interaction, CSA can measure multiple chemical interactions by using chemo-responsive dyes. The color changes of the chemo-responsive dyes are recorded before and after exposure to toxicants and serve as a template for classification. The color changes are digitalized in the form of a matrix with rows representing dye effects and columns representing the spectrum of colors. Thus, matrix-classification methods are highly desirable. In this article, we develop a novel classification method, matrix discriminant analysis (MDA), which is a generalization of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for the data in matrix form. By incorporating the intrinsic matrix-structure of the data in discriminant analysis, the proposed method can improve CSA’s sensitivity and more importantly, specificity. A penalized MDA method, PMDA, is also introduced to further incorporate sparsity structure in discriminant function. Numerical studies suggest that the proposed MDA and PMDA methods outperform LDA and other competing discriminant methods for matrix predictors. The asymptotic consistency of MDA is also established. R code and data are available online as supplementary material. PMID:26783371

  1. Colorimetric characterisation of flatbed scanners for rock/sediment imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, David B.

    2014-06-01

    Colour is a physical property of rocks and sediments that has the potential to provide key insights into composition, and by extension the physical and chemical processes governing deposition. The rapid, non-destructive measurement of colour using spectrophotometers is an increasingly popular way of generating long datasets (i.e. >1000 data points) suitable for high-resolution palaeoclimate analysis. Digital image analysis of core photographs is another commonly applied method of extracting colour information, but the application of flatbed scanners for direct rock and sediment colour measurement has not received widespread attention. Here, a simple calibration methodology is presented that demonstrates how scanners can be colorimetrically characterised. The technique offers a quantitative approach to colour analysis that is superior to the subjective comparison of rocks/sediments to Munsell colour charts. Moreover, the accuracy of the method makes rock and sediment scanning a viable alternative to colour analysis using spectrophotometers. The technique is applied to Late Pleistocene sediment samples from the Canterbury Basin, New Zealand (IODP 317, Site U1352B) to emphasise the utility and precision of the method and the tight relationship between sediment colour and composition.

  2. Development of a rapid method for the sequential extraction and subsequent quantification of fatty acids and sugars from avocado mesocarp tissue.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marjolaine D; Terry, Leon A

    2008-08-27

    Methods devised for oil extraction from avocado (Persea americana Mill.) mesocarp (e.g., Soxhlet) are usually lengthy and require operation at high temperature. Moreover, methods for extracting sugars from avocado tissue (e.g., 80% ethanol, v/v) do not allow for lipids to be easily measured from the same sample. This study describes a new simple method that enabled sequential extraction and subsequent quantification of both fatty acids and sugars from the same avocado mesocarp tissue sample. Freeze-dried mesocarp samples of avocado cv. Hass fruit of different ripening stages were extracted by homogenization with hexane and the oil extracts quantified for fatty acid composition by GC. The resulting filter residues were readily usable for sugar extraction with methanol (62.5%, v/v). For comparison, oil was also extracted using the standard Soxhlet technique and the resulting thimble residue extracted for sugars as before. An additional experiment was carried out whereby filter residues were also extracted using ethanol. Average oil yield using the Soxhlet technique was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that obtained by homogenization with hexane, although the difference remained very slight, and fatty acid profiles of the oil extracts following both methods were very similar. Oil recovery improved with increasing ripeness of the fruit with minor differences observed in the fatty acid composition during postharvest ripening. After lipid removal, methanolic extraction was superior in recovering sucrose and perseitol as compared to 80% ethanol (v/v), whereas mannoheptulose recovery was not affected by solvent used. The method presented has the benefits of shorter extraction time, lower extraction temperature, and reduced amount of solvent and can be used for sequential extraction of fatty acids and sugars from the same sample.

  3. Development of an extraction method based on new porous organogel materials coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the rapid quantification of bisphenol A in urine.

    PubMed

    ter Halle, Alexandra; Claparols, Catherine; Garrigues, Jean Christophe; Franceschi-Messant, Sophie; Perez, Emile

    2015-10-02

    A new method based on the use of porous organogel materials in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was assessed for the quantification of trace contaminants in complex matrices. As a demonstration of the use of these new materials, the contaminant chosen as a model was bisphenol A (BPA) and its extraction was investigated in urine. Organogel materials consist of an organic solvent immobilized by an organogelator. The composition of the organogel materials was optimized in terms of extraction efficiency and compatibility with LC-MS-MS. Porosity was introduced into the organogel by means of the particulate leaching method using sugar crystals. This new absorbing material is simple to use; the extraction method is reduced to a few steps. The originality of the method lies in the complete dissolution of the material for analysis by LC-MS-MS. The matrix effect of the organogel components was studied and was found to be minimal in atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) compared to electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative mode. The influence of matrix components on the extraction was investigated by working with different media (acidified water, synthetic urine, horse urine and human urine). The partition coefficient was not affected within the margin of error (±0.1). After optimization, bisphenol A recoveries from urine samples reached 80%. The actual concentration factor was 10. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n=6) for the extraction and determination of BPA in horse urine spiked at 10ngmL(-1) was 9%. Tests with spiked human urine showed that the extraction performances were the same as with the solutions tested previously. The use of porous organogel allowed a fast, simple, sensitive, robust, green method to be developed for the determination of trace contaminants in complex matrices.

  4. A Sensitive, Multifunctional Spinner Magnetometer Using Magneto-impedance Sensor: a Rapid and Convenient Tool for the Quantification of Inhomogeneity of Magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, K.

    2016-12-01

    A new type of spinner magnetometer with wide dynamic range from 10-7 mAm2 to 10-1 mAm2 and the resolution of 10-8 mAm2 was developed. The high sensitivity was achieved by using magneto-impedance (MI) sensor, a compact, high-performance magnetic sensor used in industrial fields. The slow spinning speed (5 Hz) and the unique mechanism enabling the adjustment of the sample-sensor distance allow measurements of fragile samples in any shape and size. A differential arrangement connecting a pair of the MI sensors in opposite serial reduces external noise and temperature drift. The differential sensor output is transferred to an amplification circuit associated with a programmable low-pass filter. The signal with reference to the spinning frequency is detected with a digital lock-in amplifier. The spinner magnetometer has two selectable measurement modes, the fundamental-mode (F-mode) and the harmonic-mode (H-mode). Measurements in the F-mode detect signals oscillating at the fundamental frequency (5 Hz) as conventional spinner magnetometers do. In the H-mode, additionally, the second (10 Hz) and the third (15 Hz) harmonic components can be measured. Tests in the H-mode were performed using a small coil and changing its position to simulate an offset-dipole. The results demonstrate that the dipole moment of the fundamental component is systematically biased by both quadrupole and octupole components arising in practice from inhomogeneity of magnetization or irregularity of sample shape. This study proposes, combined with theoretical and numerical analyses, quantification of such non-dipole effects and associated errors in the determination of dipole moment of a sample, as well as their correction that may be necessary, for example, when measuring irregular-shaped samples in the proximity of the sensor.

  5. Development of a rapid HPLC-UV method for simultaneous quantification of protodioscin and rutin in white and green asparagus spears.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2010-01-01

    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears are rich in bioactive compounds such as protodioscin, a saponin, and rutin, a flavonoid. Protodioscin and rutin are routinely quantified separately, and an approach permitting simultaneous measurement would significantly improve speed of analysis. We have optimized an extraction procedure and modified a method of high-performance liquid chromatography by coupling to an ultraviolet detector to simultaneously analyze protodioscin and rutin in asparagus extracts. An acidic ethanol solvent was more efficient than methanol, acetonitrile, or water in coextraction of protodioscin and rutin. Protodioscin and rutin were detected at 210 nm, with retention times of 12.6 min and 7.9 min, respectively. The method was validated by high linear correlations between 3.13 and 1000.0 μg/mL for protodioscin (r(2)= 0.9999), and between 0.3 and 1087.5 μg/mL for rutin (r(2)= 0.9997). The limit(s) of detection and quantification for protodioscin were 1.6 μg/mL and 3.13 μg/mL, respectively, and for rutin 0.2 μg/mL and 0.3 μg/mL, respectively. White asparagus spears and the crown of the plants were revealed to be rich sources of protodioscin and contained 2.59 to 10.4 mg/g dry weight. Green asparagus spears, particularly the upper portion, were rich in rutin and contained between 1.51 and 7.29 mg/g dry weight. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Rapid Identification and Quantification of Aureococcus anophagefferens by qPCR Method (Taqman) in the Qinhuangdao Coastal Area: A Region for Recurrent Brown Tide Breakout in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ping; Lei, Kun

    2016-12-01

    Since 2009, Aureococcus anophagefferens has caused brown tide to occur recurrently in Qinhuangdao coastal area, China. Because the algal cells of A. anophagefferens are so tiny (~3 µm) that it is very hard to identify exactly under a microscope for natural water samples, it is very urgent to develop a method for efficient and continuous monitoring. Here specific primers and Taqman probe are designed to develop a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for identification and quantification continually. The algal community and cell abundance of A. anophagefferens in the study area (E 119°20'-119°50' and N 39°30'-39°50') from April to October in 2013 are detected by pyrosequencing, and are used to validate the specification and precision of qPCR method for natural samples. Both pyrosequencing and qPCR shows that the targeted cells are present only in May, June and July, and the cell abundance are July > June > May. Although there are various algal species including dinoflagellata, diatom, Cryptomonadales, Chrysophyceae and Chlorophyta living in the natural seawater simultaneously, no disturbance happens to qPCR method. This qPCR method could detect as few as 10 targeted cells, indicating it is able to detect the algal cells at pre-bloom levels. Therefore, qPCR with Taqman probe provides a powerful and sensitive method to monitor the brown tide continually in Qinhuangdao coastal area, China. The results provide a necessary technology support for forecasting the brown tide initiation, in China.

  7. Colorimetric Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Identification of Chemical Weapons and Explosives.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Michael J; Burks, Raychelle M; Atwater, Jordyn; Lukowicz, Rachel M; Williams, Pat; Holmes, Andrea E

    2017-03-04

    There is a significant demand for devices that can rapidly detect chemical-biological-explosive (CBE) threats on-site and allow for immediate responders to mitigate spread, risk, and loss. The key to an effective reconnaissance mission is a unified detection technology that analyzes potential threats in real time. In addition to reviewing the current state of the art in the field, this review illustrates the practicality of colorimetric arrays composed of sensors that change colors in the presence of analytes. This review also describes an outlook toward future technologies, and describes how they could possibly be used in areas such as war zones to detect and identify hazardous substances.

  8. Hemicyanine-based colorimetric chemosensors: Different recognition mechanisms for CN- sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwon, Seon-Yeong; Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-10-01

    Simple hemicyanine dyes were synthesized by a classical condensation reaction. The structures of these dyes were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and FAB-Mass spectrometry. The sensing behavior of the hemicyanines towards a selection of anions was investigated by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. These structurally simple dyes displayed a rapid response and high selectivity for cyanide ion over other common anions in the DMSO/H2O solution. Different sensing mechanism of the dyes to cyanide ion were confirmed by 1H NMR studies, together with theoretical calculations based on DFT and PPP-MO methods. These dyes show no colorimetric response for other anions investigated.

  9. A Simple and Highly Sensitive Colorimetric Detection Method for Gaseous Formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Liang; Musto, Christopher J.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    A colorimetric detection method using amine functionalized polymer films doped with a pH indicator has been developed for the rapid, sensitive and quantitative detection of gaseous formaldehyde at concentrations well below the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health). In one minute, visible color changes are easily observed even down to the PEL (permissible exposure limit) at 750 ppb. The limit of detection is below 50 ppb (7% of PEL) after 10 min exposure. This sensor is essentially unaffected by changes in humidity or temperature (4 to 50 °C) and is not sensitive to common interferents. PMID:20218682

  10. Estimation of Nitrogenase Using a Colorimetric Determination for Ethylene 1

    PubMed Central

    Larue, T. A.; Kurz, W. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Ethylene is measured by oxidizing it to formaldehyde and determining the formaldehyde colorimetrically. The assay is applied to estimation of nitrogenase in nodulated legume roots by measuring the ethylene produced from acetylene. PMID:16658468

  11. Validation of a GC-FID method for rapid quantification of nicotine in fermented extracts prepared from Nicotiana tabacum fresh leaves and studies of nicotine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Millet, Agnès; Stintzing, Florian; Merfort, Irmgard

    2009-07-12

    A new GC-FID method, which allows rapid and reliable quantitation of nicotine in tobacco leaf extracts, was developed and validated. To avoid nicotine adsorption on the column, an amine-deactivated capillary column was used. The method developed was applied to study the degradation of nicotine in a fermented aqueous extract, and a loss of nearly 20% of nicotine over 12 months was observed. Careful inspection of GC-MS runs from concentrated samples of the same extract revealed the presence of nicotine metabolites such as nornicotine, anatabine, myosmine, 2,3'-bipyridyl, and 2-pyrrolidinone.

  12. A G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based colorimetric method for facile detection of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Zhu, Wenxin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Daohong; Wang, Jianlong

    2014-09-07

    The rapid and sensitive detection of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (AA) has become very important due to the frequent occurrence of fruit juice spoilage by AA. In the present study, using guaiacol, both as the metabolic product of AA related to its concentration and as a green colorimetric substrate of G-quadruplex DNAzyme, a novel G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based colorimetric method for a rapid detection of AA has been developed for the first time. Under optimal conditions, AA has been successfully detected in the concentration range of 10(2)-10(5) cfu mL(-1) with a detection limit of 85 cfu mL(-1). The recoveries ranging from 71.8% to 115.7% with relative standard deviation from 1.2% to 6.6% in spiked apple and orange juice samples were obtained. Results demonstrate that the sensitivity and precision of the developed method is comparable with most other analytical methods and is prominently rapid than them. We believe that the work provides a novel and effective approach and is beneficial for monitoring and reducing the risk of AA contaminations during the process of fruit juice production.

  13. Ferromagnetic particles as a rapid and robust sample preparation for the absolute quantification of seven eicosanoids in human plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Anna Catharina; Bruegel, Mathias; Maier, Barbara; Holdt, Lesca Miriam; Kleinhempel, Alisa; Teupser, Daniel; Grimm, Stefanie H; Vogeser, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We used ferromagnetic particles as a novel technique to deproteinize plasma samples prior to quantitative UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of seven eicosanoids [thromboxane B2 (TXB2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), PGD2, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), 11-HETE, 12-HETE, arachidonic acid (AA)]. A combination of ferromagnetic particle enhanced deproteination and subsequent on-line solid phase extraction (on-line SPE) realized quick and convenient semi-automated sample preparation-in contrast to widely used manual SPE techniques which are rather laborious and therefore impede the investigation of AA metabolism in larger patient cohorts. Method evaluation was performed according to a protocol based on the EMA guideline for bioanalytical method validation, modified for endogenous compounds. Calibrators were prepared in ethanol. The calibration curves were found to be linear in a range of 0.1-80ngmL(-1) (TXB2, PGE2, PGD2), 0.05-40ngmL(-1) (5-HETE, 11-HETE), 0.5-400ngmL(-1) (12-HETE) and 25-9800ngmL(-1) (AA). Regarding all analytes and all quality controls, the resulting precision data (inter-assay 2.6 %-15.5 %; intra-assay 2.5 %-15.1 %, expressed as variation coefficient) as well as the accuracy results (inter-assay 93.3 %-125 %; intra-assay 91.7 %-114 %) were adequate. Further experiments addressing matrix effect, recovery and robustness, yielded also very satisfying results. As a proof of principle, the newly developed LC-MS/MS assay was employed to determine the capacity of AA metabolite release after whole blood stimulation in healthy blood donors. For this purpose, whole blood specimens of 5 healthy blood donors were analyzed at baseline and after a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced blood cell activation. In several baseline samples some eicosanoids levels were below the Lower Limit of Quantification. However, in the stimulated samples all chosen eicosanoids (except PGD2) could be quantified. These results, in context with those obtained in validation, demonstrate the

  14. Translation-dependent bioassay for amino acid quantification using auxotrophic microbes as biocatalysts of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kameya, Masafumi; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2017-03-01

    Bioassay for amino acid quantification is an important technology for a variety of fields, which allows for easy, inexpensive, and high-throughput analyses. Here, we describe a novel translation-dependent bioassay for the quantification of amino acids. For this, the gene encoding firefly luciferase was introduced into Lactococcus lactis auxotrophic to Glu, His, Ile, Leu, Pro, Val, and Arg. After a preculture where luciferase expression was repressed, the cells were mixed with analytes, synthetic medium, and an inducer for luciferase expression. Luminescence response to the target amino acid appeared just after mixing, and linear standard curves for these amino acids were obtained during 15-60-min incubation periods. The rapid quantification of amino acids has neither been reported in previous works on bioassays nor is it theoretically feasible with conventional methods, which require incubation times of more than 4 h to allow for the growth of the microbe used. In contrast, our assay was shown to depend on protein translation, rather than on cell growth. Furthermore, replacement of the luciferase gene with that of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or β-galactosidase allowed for fluorescent and colorimetric detection of the amino acids, respectively. Significantly, when a Gln-auxotrophic Escherichia coli mutant was created and transformed by a luciferase expression plasmid, a linear standard curve for Gln was observed in 15 min. These results demonstrate that this methodology can provide versatile bioassays by adopting various combinations of marker genes and host strains according to the analytes and experimental circumstances.

  15. Rapid detection and quantification of Ebola Zaire virus by one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Ro, Young-Tae; Ticer, Anysha; Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L

    2017-04-01

    Given that Ebola virus causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with mortality rates as high as 90%, rapid and accurate detection of this virus is essential both for controlling infection and preventing further transmission. Here, a one-step qRT-PCR assay for rapid and quantitative detection of an Ebola Zaire strain using GP, VP24 or VP40 genes as a target is introduced. Routine assay conditions for hydrolysis probe detection were established from the manufacturer's protocol used in the assays. The analytical specificity and sensitivity of each assay was evaluated using in vitro synthesized viral RNA transcripts. The assays were highly specific for the RNA transcripts, no cross-reactivity being observed among them. The limits of detection of the assays ranged from 10(2) to 10(3) copies per reaction. The assays were also evaluated using viral RNAs extracted from cell culture-propagated viruses (Ebola Zaire, Sudan and Reston strains), confirming that they are gene- and strain-specific. The RT-PCR assays detected viral RNAs in blood samples from virus-infected animal, suggesting that they can be also a useful method for identifying Ebola virus in clinical samples. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Establishment of one-step SYBR green-based real time-PCR assay for rapid detection and quantification of chikungunya virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ho, Phui San; Ng, Mary Mah Lee; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2010-01-21

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus and one of the prevalent re-emerging arbovirus in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Central and South America. It produces a spectrum of illness ranging from inapparent infection to moderate febrile illness as well as severe arthralgia or arthritis affecting multiple joints. In this study, a quantitative, one-step real-time SYBR Green-based RT-PCR system for the non-structural protein 2 (nsP2) of CHIKV that can quantify a wide range of viral RNA concentrations was developed. Comparisons between the conventional semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay, immunofluorescence detection method and the one-step SYBR Green-based RT-PCR assay in the detection of CHIKV infection revealed much rapid and increase sensitivity of the latter method. Furthermore, this newly developed assay was validated by in vitro experiments in which ribavirin, a well-known RNA virus inhibitor, showed a dose-dependent inhibition of virus replication on cells that was assessed by viral infectivity and viral RNA production. Our results demonstrate the potential of this newly developed one-step SYBR Green I-based RT-PCR assay may be a useful tool in rapid detection of CHIKV and monitoring the extent of viral replication possibly in patients' samples.

  17. Establishment of one-step SYBR green-based real time-PCR assay for rapid detection and quantification of chikungunya virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus and one of the prevalent re-emerging arbovirus in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Central and South America. It produces a spectrum of illness ranging from inapparent infection to moderate febrile illness as well as severe arthralgia or arthritis affecting multiple joints. In this study, a quantitative, one-step real-time SYBR Green-based RT-PCR system for the non-structural protein 2 (nsP2) of CHIKV that can quantify a wide range of viral RNA concentrations was developed. Comparisons between the conventional semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay, immunofluorescence detection method and the one-step SYBR Green-based RT-PCR assay in the detection of CHIKV infection revealed much rapid and increase sensitivity of the latter method. Furthermore, this newly developed assay was validated by in vitro experiments in which ribavirin, a well-known RNA virus inhibitor, showed a dose-dependent inhibition of virus replication on cells that was assessed by viral infectivity and viral RNA production. Our results demonstrate the potential of this newly developed one-step SYBR Green I-based RT-PCR assay may be a useful tool in rapid detection of CHIKV and monitoring the extent of viral replication possibly in patients' samples. PMID:20092632

  18. Validation of an antibody-based biosensor for rapid quantification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) contamination in ground water and river water.

    PubMed

    Bromage, Erin S; Vadas, George G; Harvey, Ellen; Unger, Michael A; Kaattari, Stephen L

    2007-10-15

    Nitroaromatics are common pollutants of soil and groundwater at military installations because of their manufacture, storage, and use at these sites. Long-term monitoring of these pollutants comprise a significant percentage of restoration costs. Further, remediation activities often have to be delayed, while the samples are processed via traditional chemical assessment protocols. Here we describe a rapid (<5 min), cost-effective, accurate method using a KinExA Inline Biosensor for monitoring of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in field water samples. The biosensor, which is based on KinExA technology, accurately estimated the concentration of TNT in double-blind comparisons with similar accuracy to traditional high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). In the assessment of field samples, the biosensor accurately predicted the concentration of TNT over the range of 1-30,000 microg/L when compared to either HPLC or quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Various pre-assessment techniques were explored to examine whether field samples could be assessed untreated, without the removal of particulates or the use of solvents. In most cases, the KinExA Inline Biosensor gave a uniform assessment of TNT concentration independent of pretreatment method. This indicates that this sensor possesses significant promise for rapid, on-site assessment of TNT pollution in environmental water samples.

  19. Dummy-surface molecularly imprinted polymers on magnetic graphene oxide for rapid and selective quantification of acrylamide in heat-processed (including fried) foods.

    PubMed

    Ning, Fangjian; Qiu, Tingting; Wang, Qi; Peng, Hailong; Li, Yanbin; Wu, Xiaqing; Zhang, Zhong; Chen, Linxin; Xiong, Hua

    2017-04-15

    Novel nano-sized dummy-surface molecularly imprinted polymers (DSMIPs) on a magnetic graphene oxide (GO-Fe3O4) surface were developed as substrates, using propionamide as a dummy template molecule for the selective recognition and rapid pre-concentration and removal of acrylamide (AM) from food samples. These products showed rapid kinetics, high binding capacity (adsorption at 3.68mg·g(-1)), and selectivity (imprinting factor α 2.83); the adsorption processes followed the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Excellent recognition selectivity toward acrylamide was achieved compared to structural analogs, such as propionic and acrylic acids (selectivity factor β 2.33, and 2.20, respectively). Moreover, DSMIPs-GO-Fe3O4 was used to quantify acrylamide in food samples, yielding satisfactory recovery (86.7-94.3%) and low relative standard deviation (<4.85%). Thus, our DSMIPs-GO-Fe3O4-based procedure was demonstrated to be a convenient and practical method for the separation, enrichment, and removal of acrylamide from food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Confocal-based method for quantification of diffusion kinetics in microwell plates and its application for identifying a rapid mixing method for high-content/throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Song, Ok Ryul; Kim, Tae-Hee; Perrodon, Xavier; Lee, Changbok; Jeon, Hee Kyoung; Seghiri, Zahir; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Cechetto, Jonathan; Christophe, Thierry

    2010-02-01

    Rapid mixing in microplates is still an underappreciated challenge in screening assay development, particularly with the use of noncontact nanoliter liquid handlers. In high-content/throughput screening (HC/TS), fast and efficient mixing between compounds and cell culture medium is even more critical as biological kinetics dictates speed of mixing, usually within a few minutes. Moreover, mixing in HC/TS should be gentle enough to avoid any negative disruption in cell layer. Here the authors introduce a method to accurately quantify drop diffusion into a microplate well, independently of buffer, liquid handler, or dispensing protocol. This method was used to determine the effect of various mixing methods on the diffusion of a nanoliter drop of pure DMSO in aqueous buffer in 384-well plates. Rapid plate shaking and additional buffer addition were shown to be the most efficient and effective mixing methods for HC/TS. However, efficient mixing by plate shaking is limited by assay volume. Bulk addition shows fast and efficient mixing, without negative effects on cells. Moreover, this simple, fast, and inexpensive method can be easily adapted on any platform.

  1. ELISA-PLA: A novel hybrid platform for the rapid, highly sensitive and specific quantification of proteins and post-translational modifications.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qing-He; Tao, Tao; Xie, Li-Qi; Lu, Hao-Jie

    2016-06-15

    Detection of low-abundance proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) remains a great challenge. A conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is not sensitive enough to detect low-abundance PTMs and suffers from nonspecific detection. Herein, a rapid, highly sensitive and specific platform integrating ELISA with a proximity ligation assay (PLA), termed ELISA-PLA, was developed. Using ELISA-PLA, the specificity was improved by the simultaneous and proximate recognition of targets through multiple probes, and the sensitivity was significantly improved by rolling circle amplification (RCA). For GFP, the limit of detection (LOD) was decreased by two orders of magnitude compared to that of ELISA. Using site-specific phospho-antibody and pan-specific phospho-antibody, ELISA-PLA was successfully applied to quantify the phosphorylation dynamics of ERK1/2 and the overall tyrosine phosphorylation level of ERK1/2, respectively. ELISA-PLA was also used to quantify the O-GlcNAcylation of AKT, c-Fos, CREB and STAT3, which is faster and more sensitive than the conventional immunoprecipitation and western blotting (IP-WB) method. As a result, the sample consumption of ELISA-PLA was reduced 40-fold compared to IP-WB. Therefore, ELISA-PLA could be a promising platform for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of proteins and PTMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a Rapid LC-MS/MS Method for the Quantification of Cannabidiol, Cannabidivarin, Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabivarin, and Cannabigerol in Mouse Peripheral Tissues.

    PubMed

    Piscitelli, Fabiana; Pagano, Ester; Lauritano, Anna; Izzo, Angelo A; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2017-04-18

    Cannabis has been known as a medicine for several thousand years across many cultures and its beneficial effects are mostly due to the presence of cannabinoids, unique natural products, whose pharmacology is going to gain increasing interest in the scientific community. The discovery of the main psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L., Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), led to the identification of at least 100 additional phytocannabinoids, including cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarin (CBDV), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ(9)-THCV), and cannabigerol (CBG). These molecules are gaining growing interest for their medical properties; however, further research is needed to assess the differences in their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodymanic profiles. The aim of this study was to set up a rapid and accurate method, by using the LC-MS-IT-TOF technology, to detect and quantify CBD, CBDV, Δ(9)-THCV, and CBG in biological matrices. Data show that the method developed here is linear in the calibration range; recoveries from mouse tissues were in the 50-60% range and sensitivity was 2 ng/mL for CBDV, 4 ng/mL for CBG and THCV, and 7 ng/mL for CBD. The method is rapid, precise and accurate, and it will represent a fundamental tool to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of selected phytocannabinoids in tissues from different animal models, and develop new cannabinoid-based medicine.

  3. Ultrafast colorimetric determination of predominant protein structure evolution with gold nanoplasmonic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hye Young; Choi, Inhee

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular and extracellular accumulation of disordered proteins and aggregated proteins occurs in many protein conformational diseases, such as aging-related neurodegeneration and alcoholic liver diseases. However, the conventional methods to study protein structural changes are limited for the rapid detection and monitoring of protein aggregation because of long incubation times (i.e., usually several days), complicated sample pretreatment steps, and expensive instrumentation. Here, we describe an ultrafast colorimetric method for the real-time monitoring of protein structure evolution and the determination of predominant structures via nanoparticle-assisted protein aggregation. During the aggregation process, nanoparticles act as nucleation cores, which form networks depending on the structures of the protein aggregates, and accelerate the kinetics of the protein aggregation. Simultaneously, these nanoparticles exhibit colorimetric responses according to their embedded shapes (e.g., fibrillar and amorphous) on the protein aggregates. We observed distinct spectral shifts and concomitant colorimetric responses of concentration- and type-dependent protein aggregation with the naked eye within a few minutes (<2 min) under acidic conditions. Moreover, the morphological transitions from small aggregates to larger aggregates of nanoparticle-assisted protein aggregates were visualized with dark-field microscope imaging, which show a similar trend with that of protein aggregates formed without the aid of nanoparticles. Finally we show that our proposed method can be utilized to screen the protein aggregation propensity under a variety of conditions such as different pH levels, high temperature, and chemicals. These findings suggest that the proposed method is an easy way to study the molecular biophysics of protein aggregation and to rapidly screen anti-aggregation drugs for protein conformational diseases.The intracellular and extracellular accumulation of

  4. A novel strategy for rapid quantification of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol saponins in Panax notoginseng P. ginseng and P. quinquefolium.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fa-Xiang; Yuan, Cen; Wan, Jian-Bo; Yan, Ru; Hu, Hao; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2015-01-01

    A novel strategy for the qualitative and quantitative determination of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol saponins (PTS) and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol saponins (PDS) in Panax notoginseng, Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium, based on the overlapping peaks of main components of PTS (calibrated by ginsenoside Rg1) and PDS (calibrated by ginsenoside Rb1), was proposed. The analysis was performed by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). Under specific chromatographic conditions, all samples showed two overlapping peaks containing several main ginsenosides belonging to PTS and PDS, respectively. The overlapping peaks were also identified by using HPLC-MS. Based on the sum and ratio of PTS and PDS, 60 tested Panax samples were divided into three main clusters according to their species. The findings suggested that this strategy provides a simple and rapid approach to quantify PTS and PDS in Panax herbs.

  5. Characterisation and quantification of phenolic compounds of extra-virgin olive oils according to their geographical origin by a rapid and resolutive LC-ESI-TOF MS method.

    PubMed

    Ouni, Youssef; Taamalli, Ameni; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2011-08-01

    The phenolic compounds present in seven samples of olive fruits were analysed by a rapid and resolutive LC-ESI-TOF MS method. All samples were collected during the normal picking period for olive oil production, in central and south Tunisia, and were obtained from the Oueslati variety cultivated in different olive growing areas. In the Tunisian samples, 22 compounds have been characterised by LC-ESI-TOF MS analysis. Results showed no qualitative differences in the phenolic fractions between virgin olive oils from different geographical region. However, significant quantitative differences were observed in a wide number of phenolic compounds. These results permit to use the phenolic fractions as an indicator of each region.

  6. Simple and rapid assay method for simultaneous quantification of urinary nicotine and cotinine using micro-extraction by packed sorbent and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Masae; Ogawa, Tadashi; Hattori, Hideki; Zaitsu, Kei; Ishii, Akira; Suzuki, Osamu; Seno, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    A simple and rapid method for determination of nicotine and cotinine levels in urine was developed using samples prepared by micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. This method provided good reproducibility, as well as good linearity of calibration curves in the range of 1-100 and 50-1000 ng/mL for quality control samples spiked with nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The detection limit of nicotine and cotinine was as low as 0.25 and 20 ng/mL, respectively. An evaporation procedure is not suitable for nicotine determination, thus an advantage of the present MEPS assay method is direct testing with GC-MS without the need for evaporation to a dry solvent. Our findings show that it may be useful for determining nicotine levels in various types of research studies.

  7. A rapid MCM-41 dispersive micro-solid phase extraction coupled with LC/MS/MS for quantification of ketoconazole and voriconazole in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, Noorfatimah; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Abd Aziz, Noorizan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Nur, Hadi; Loh, Saw Hong; Kamaruzaman, Sazlinda

    2017-02-01

    A rapid dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) combined with LC/MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of ketoconazole and voriconazole in human urine and plasma samples. Synthesized mesoporous silica MCM-41 was used as sorbent in d-μ-SPE of the azole compounds from biological fluids. Important D-μ-SPE parameters, namely type desorption solvent, extraction time, sample pH, salt addition, desorption time, amount of sorbent and sample volume were optimized. Liquid chromatographic separations were carried out on a Zorbax SB-C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 3.5 μm), using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.05% formic acid in 5 mm ammonium acetate buffer (70:30, v/v). A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with positive ionization mode was used for the determination of target analytes. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.1-10,000 μg/L with satisfactory limit of detection (≤0.06 μg/L) and limit of quantitation (≤0.3 μg/L). The proposed method also showed acceptable intra- and inter-day precisions for ketoconazole and voriconazole from urine and human plasma with RSD ≤16.5% and good relative recoveries in the range 84.3-114.8%. The MCM-41-D-μ-SPE method proved to be rapid and simple and requires a small volume of organic solvent (200 μL); thus it is advantageous for routine drug analysis.

  8. Quantitative RT-PCR based platform for rapid quantification of the transcripts of highly homologous multigene families and their members during grain development.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka; Bowra, Steve; Elek, Zoltan; Vincze, Eva

    2012-10-09

    Cereal storage proteins represent one of the most important sources of protein for food and feed and they are coded by multigene families. The expression of the storage protein genes exhibits a temporal fluctuation but also a response to environmental stimuli. Analysis of temporal gene expression combined with genetic variation in large multigene families with high homology among the alleles is very challenging. We designed a rapid qRT-PCR system with the aim of characterising the variation in the expression of hordein genes families. All the known D-, C-, B-, and γ-hordein sequences coding full length open reading frames were collected from commonly available databases. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and the members of the different hordein families were classified into subfamilies. Primer sets were designed to discriminate the gene expression level of whole families, subfamilies or individual members. The specificity of the primer sets was validated before successfully applying them to a cDNA population derived from developing grains of field grown Hordeum vulgare cv. Barke. The results quantify the number of moles of transcript contributed to a particular gene family and its subgroups. More over the results indicate the genotypic specific gene expression. Quantitative RT-PCR with SYBR Green labelling can be a useful technique to follow gene expression levels of large gene families with highly homologues members. We showed variation in the temporal expression of genes coding for barley storage proteins. The results imply that our rapid qRT-PCR system was sensitive enough to identify the presence of alleles and their expression profiles. It can be used to check the temporal fluctuations in hordein expressions or to find differences in their response to environmental stimuli. The method could be extended for cultivar recognition as some of the sequences from the database originated from cv. Golden Promise were not expressed in the studied barley cultivar

  9. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  10. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-01-01

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry. PMID:26213946

  11. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  12. Simple Colorimetric Sensor for Trinitrotoluene Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanman, S.; Masoh, N.; Salah, Y.; Srisawat, S.; Wattanayon, R.; Wangsirikul, P.; Phumivanichakit, K.

    2017-02-01

    A simple operating colorimetric sensor for trinitrotoluene (TNT) determination using a commercial scanner as a captured image was designed. The sensor is based on the chemical reaction between TNT and sodium hydroxide reagent to produce the color change within 96 well plates, which observed finally, recorded using a commercial scanner. The intensity of the color change increased with increase in TNT concentration and could easily quantify the concentration of TNT by digital image analysis using the Image J free software. Under optimum conditions, the sensor provided a linear dynamic range between 0.20 and 1.00 mg mL-1(r = 0.9921) with a limit of detection of 0.10± 0.01 mg mL-1. The relative standard deviation for eight experiments for the sensitivity was 3.8%. When applied for the analysis of TNT in two soil extract samples, the concentrations were found to be non-detectable to 0.26±0.04 mg mL-1. The obtained recovery values (93-95%) were acceptable for soil samples tested.

  13. A colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide by finding the critical color in a color change process using silver triangular nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-Hua; Ling, Jian; Peng, Jun; Cao, Qiu-E; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Bian, Long-Chun

    2013-10-10

    In this contribution, we demonstrated a novel colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide using citrate-stabilized silver triangular nanoplates (silver TNPs). Very lower concentration of iodide can induce an appreciable color change of silver TNPs solution from blue to yellow by fusing of silver TNPs to nanoparticles, as confirmed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The principle of this colorimetric assay is not an ordinary colorimetry, but a new colorimetric strategy by finding the critical color in a color change process. With this strategy, 0.1 μM of iodide can be recognized within 30 min by naked-eyes observation, and lower concentration of iodide down to 8.8 nM can be detected using a spectrophotometer. Furthermore, this high sensitive colorimetric assay has good accuracy, stability and reproducibility comparing with other ordinary colorimetry. We believe this new colorimetric method will open up a fresh insight of simple, rapid and reliable detection of iodide and can find its future application in the biochemical analysis or clinical diagnosis.

  14. Quantification of Gas-Wall Partitioning in Teflon Environmental Chambers Using Rapid Bursts of Low-Volatility Oxidized Species Generated in Situ.

    PubMed

    Krechmer, Jordan E; Pagonis, Demetrios; Ziemann, Paul J; Jimenez, Jose L

    2016-06-07

    Partitioning of gas-phase organic compounds to the walls of Teflon environmental chambers is a recently reported phenomenon than can affect the yields of reaction products and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) measured in laboratory experiments. Reported time scales for reaching gas-wall partitioning (GWP) equilibrium (τGWE) differ by up to 3 orders of magnitude, however, leading to predicted effects that vary from substantial to negligible. A new technique is demonstrated here in which semi- and low-volatility oxidized organic compounds (saturation concentration c* < 100 μg m(-3)) were photochemically generated in rapid bursts in situ in an 8 m(3) environmental chamber, and then their decay in the absence of aerosol was measured using a high-resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) equipped with an "inlet-less" NO3(-) ion source. Measured τGWE were 7-13 min (rel. std. dev. 33%) for all compounds. The fraction of each compound that partitioned to the walls at equilibrium follows absorptive partitioning theory with an equivalent wall mass concentration in the range 0.3-10 mg m(-3). Measurements using a CIMS equipped with a standard ion-molecule reaction region showed large biases due to the contact of compounds with walls. On the basis of these results, a set of parameters is proposed for modeling GWP in chamber experiments.

  15. Rapid quantification of oxygen tension in blood flow with a fluorine nanoparticle reporter and a novel blood flow-enhanced-saturation-recovery sequence.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lingzhi; Chen, Junjie; Yang, Xiaoxia; Caruthers, Shelton D; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2013-07-01

    We present a novel blood flow-enhanced-saturation-recovery (BESR) sequence, which allows rapid in vivo T1 measurement of blood for both (1)H and (19)F nuclei. BESR sequence is achieved by combining homogeneous spin preparation and time-of-flight image acquisition and therefore preserves high time efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio for (19)F imaging of circulating perfluorocarbon nanoparticles comprising a perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether core and a lipid monolayer (nominal size = 250 nm). The consistency and accuracy of the BESR sequence for measuring T1 of blood was validated experimentally. With a confirmed linear response feature of (19)F R1 with oxygen tension in both salt solution and blood sample, we demonstrated the feasibility of the BESR sequence to quantitatively determine the oxygen tension within mouse left and right ventricles under both normoxia and hyperoxia conditions. Thus, (19)F BESR MRI of circulating perfluorocarbon nanoparticles represents a new approach to noninvasively evaluate intravascular oxygen tension. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Rapid quantification of oxygen tension in blood flow with a fluorine nanoparticle reporter and a novel Blood flow-Enhanced-Saturation-Recovery (BESR) sequence

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lingzhi; Chen, Junjie; Yang, Xiaoxia; Caruthers, Shelton D.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel Blood flow-Enhanced-Saturation-Recovery (BESR) sequence, which allows rapid in vivo T1 measurement of blood for both 1H and 19F nuclei. BESR sequence is achieved by combining homogeneous spin preparation and time-of-flight image acquisition and therefore preserves high time efficiency and SNR for 19F imaging of circulating Perfluorocarbon (PFC) Nanoparticles (NPs) comprising a perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether core and a lipid monolayer (nominal size = 250 nm). The consistency and accuracy of the BESR sequence for measuring T1 of blood was validated experimentally. With a confirmed linear response feature of 19F R1 with oxygen tension in both salt solution and blood sample, we demonstrated the feasibility of the BESR sequence to quantitatively determine the oxygen tension within mouse left and right ventricles under both normoxia and hyperoxia conditions. Thus, 19F BESR MRI of circulating PFC NPs represents a new approach to non-invasively evaluate intravascular oxygen tension. PMID:22915328

  17. Quantification of mtDNA in single oocytes, polar bodies and subcellular components by real-time rapid cycle fluorescence monitored PCR.

    PubMed

    Steuerwald, N; Barritt, J A; Adler, R; Malter, H; Schimmel, T; Cohen, J; Brenner, C A

    2000-08-01

    Oocytes, in general, are greatly enriched in mitochondria to support higher rates of macromolecular synthesis and critical physiological processes characteristic of early development. An inability of these organelles to amplify and/or to accumulate ATP has been linked to developmental abnormality or arrest. The number of mitochondrial genomes present in mature mouse and human metaphase II oocytes was estimated by fluorescent rapid cycle DNA amplification, which is a highly sensitive technique ideally suited to quantitative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis in individual cells. A considerable degree of variability was observed between individual samples. An overall average of 1.59 x 10(5) and 3.14 x 10(5) mtDNA molecules were detected per mouse and human oocyte, respectively. Furthermore, the mtDNA copy number was examined in polar bodies and contrasted with the concentration in their corresponding oocytes. In addition, the density of mtDNA in a cytoplasmic sample was estimated in an attempt to determine the approximate number of mitochondria transferred during clinical cytoplasmic donation procedures as well as to develop a clinical tool for the assessment and selection of oocytes during in vitro fertilisation procedures. However, no correlation was identified between the mtDNA concentration in either polar bodies or cytoplasmic samples and their corresponding oocyte.

  18. Rapid quantification of bacteria and viruses in influent, settled water, activated sludge and effluent from a wastewater treatment plant using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lili; Mao, Guannan; Liu, Jie; Yu, Hui; Gao, Guanghai; Wang, Yingying

    2013-01-01

    As microbiological parameters are important in monitoring the correct operation of wastewater treatment plants and controlling the microbiological quality of wastewater, the abundances of total bacteria (including intact and damaged bacterial cells) and total viruses in wastewater were investigated using a combination of ultrasonication and flow cytometry. The comparisons between flow cytometry (FCM) and other cultivation-independent methods (adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis for bacteria enumeration and epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) for virus enumeration) gave very similar patterns of microbial abundance changes, suggesting that FCM is suitable for targeting and obtaining reliable counts for bacteria and viruses in wastewater samples. The main experimental results obtained were: (1) effective removal of total bacteria in wastewater, with a decrease from an average concentration of 1.74 × 10(8)counts ml(-1) in raw wastewater to 3.91 × 10(6)counts ml(-1) in the effluent, (2) compared to influent raw wastewater, the average concentration of total viruses in the treated effluent (3.94 × 10(8)counts ml(-1)) exhibited no obvious changes, (3) the applied FCM approach is a rapid, easy, and convenient tool for understanding the microbial dynamics and monitoring microbiological quality in wastewater treatment processes.

  19. Simple and Rapid Determination of Ferulic Acid Levels in Food and Cosmetic Samples Using Paper-Based Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Tee-ngam, Prinjaporn; Nunant, Namthip; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-01-01

    Ferulic acid is an important phenolic antioxidant found in or added to diet supplements, beverages, and cosmetic creams. Two designs of paper-based platforms for the fast, simple and inexpensive evaluation of ferulic acid contents in food and pharmaceutical cosmetics were evaluated. The first, a paper-based electrochemical device, was developed for ferulic acid detection in uncomplicated matrix samples and was created by the photolithographic method. The second, a paper-based colorimetric device was preceded by thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the separation and detection of ferulic acid in complex samples using a silica plate stationary phase and an 85:15:1 (v/v/v) chloroform: methanol: formic acid mobile phase. After separation, ferulic acid containing section of the TLC plate was attached onto the patterned paper containing the colorimetric reagent and eluted with ethanol. The resulting color change was photographed and quantitatively converted to intensity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of ferulic acid was found to be 1 ppm and 7 ppm (S/N = 3) for first and second designs, respectively, with good agreement with the standard HPLC-UV detection method. Therefore, these methods can be used for the simple, rapid, inexpensive and sensitive quantification of ferulic acid in a variety of samples. PMID:24077320

  20. Simple and rapid determination of ferulic acid levels in food and cosmetic samples using paper-based platforms.

    PubMed

    Tee-ngam, Prinjaporn; Nunant, Namthip; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-09-26

    Ferulic acid is an important phenolic antioxidant found in or added to diet supplements, beverages, and cosmetic creams. Two designs of paper-based platforms for the fast, simple and inexpensive evaluation of ferulic acid contents in food and pharmaceutical cosmetics were evaluated. The first, a paper-based electrochemical device, was developed for ferulic acid detection in uncomplicated matrix samples and was created by the photolithographic method. The second, a paper-based colorimetric device was preceded by thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the separation and detection of ferulic acid in complex samples using a silica plate stationary phase and an 85:15:1 (v/v/v) chloroform: methanol: formic acid mobile phase. After separation, ferulic acid containing section of the TLC plate was attached onto the patterned paper containing the colorimetric reagent and eluted with ethanol. The resulting color change was photographed and quantitatively converted to intensity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of ferulic acid was found to be 1 ppm and 7 ppm (S/N = 3) for first and second designs, respectively, with good agreement with the standard HPLC-UV detection method. Therefore, these methods can be used for the simple, rapid, inexpensive and sensitive quantification of ferulic acid in a variety of samples.

  1. Quantification of forest carbon degradation in Nicaragua using RapidEye remote sensing data: El Cuá and Wiwili case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argoty, F. N.; Cifuentes, M.; Imbach, P. A.; Vilchez, S.; Casanoves, F.; Ibrahim, M.; Vierling, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Forest degradation and deforestation affect ecosystem function and climate regulation services such as carbon storage. Historically, Central America has been a deforestation and forest degradation hotspot. Wiwili and El Cuá municipalities in northern Nicaragua are no exception, where subsistence agriculture and cattle ranch expansion have driven deforestation and other wood extraction activities, leading to various levels of forest degradation. Reduction of Emissions from forest Degradation and Deforestation (REDD) projects are proposed as a tool to slow the degradation and loss of carbon stocks by restoring carbon to its natural levels in order to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions that cause global warming. REDD projects require baseline estimations of current carbon stocks and forest degradation status. We estimated carbon stocks across a forest degradation gradient based on common biophysical variables and commercially available (RapidEye) remote sensing data. We measured 80 temporary forest plots (50x20m) for aboveground biomass to sample a gradient of forest degradation at two municipalities (El Cuá and Wiwili) in northern Nicaragua. We measured biomass in trees (≥10 cm DBH), saplings (5-9.9 cm DBH), other growth forms (ferns, palms and woody vines), and large detritus (snags and downed wood). Biomass was estimated by a range of allometric models and a constant conversion factor (0.47) was applied to calculate aboveground carbon stocks. Remote sensing data from a RapidEye scene for 02/2010 provided data for 5 spectral bands and 19 vegetation indexes at 6 m spatial resolution. Precipitation, temperature, altitude, slope, canopy cover, and aspect were also used as input variables for carbon modeling. We tested linear mixed models, generalized additive mixed models and regression tree approaches to explain carbon stocks based on vegetation indexes and biophysical variables. Additionally, we grouped plots into low (17-168 Mg C ha-1), medium (168-302 Mg C ha-1

  2. Development of a real-time PCR assay (SYBR Green I) for rapid identification and quantification of scyphomedusae Aurelia sp.1 planulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianyan; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; Yu, Zhigang; Wang, Guoshan

    2015-07-01

    The complicated life cycle of Aurelia spp., comprising benthic asexually-reproducing polyps and sexually-reproducing medusae, makes it hard for researchers to identify and track them, especially for early stage individuals, such as planulae. To solve this problem, we developed a real-time PCR assay (SYBR Green I) to identify planulae in both cultured and natural seawater samples. Species-specific primers targeting Aurelia sp.1 mitochondrial 16S rDNA (mt 16S rDNA) regions were designed. Using a calibration curve constructed with plasmids containing the Aurelia sp.1 mt 16S rDNA fragment and a standard curve for planulae, the absolute number of mt 16S rDNA copies per planula was determined and from that the total number of planulae per sample was estimated. For the field samples, a 100-fold dilution of the sample DNA combined with a final concentration of 0.2 μg/μL BSA in the PCR reaction mixture was used to remove real-time PCR inhibitors. Samples collected in Jiaozhou Bay from July to September 2012 were subsequently analyzed using this assay. Peak Aurelia sp.1 planula abundance occurred in July 2012 at stations near Hongdao Island and Qingdao offshore; abundances were very low in August and September. The real-time PCR assay (SYBR Green I) developed here negates the need for traditional microscopic identification, which is laborious and time-consuming, and can detect and quantify jellyfish planulae in field plankton samples rapidly and specifically.

  3. A UHPLC method for the rapid separation and quantification of phytosterols using tandem UV/Charged aerosol detection - A comparison of both detection techniques.

    PubMed

    Fibigr, Jakub; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2017-06-05

    The presented work describes the development and validation of a rapid UHPLC-UV/CAD method using a core-shell particle column for the separation and quantitative analysis of seven plant sterols and stanols. The phytosterols (ergosterol, brassicasterol, campesterol, fucosterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol) and the phytostanol stigmastanol were separated and analyzed in 8.5min. The sample pre-treatment procedure was optimized to be less time-consuming than any other published method, especially due to no need of derivatization, evaporation and even reconstitution step. The chromatographic separation was performed on the Kinetex 1.7μ Phenyl-hexyl column (100×2.1mm) with a mobile phase acetonitrile/water according to the gradient program at a flow rate of 0.9mLmin(-1) and a temperature of 60°C. A tandem connection of PDA and CAD (Corona Charged Aerosol Detector) was used and both detection techniques were compared. The method was validated using saponification as a first step in sample pre-treatment and an universal CAD as the detector. Recoveries for all analyzed compounds were between 95.4% and 103.4% and relative standard deviation ranged from 1.0% to 5.8% for within-day and from 1.4% to 6.7% for between-day repeatability. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.4-0.6μgmL(-1) for standard solutions and 0.3-1.2μgmL(-1) for phytosterols in real samples. Although several gradient programs and different stationary phases were tested, two compounds, campesterol and campestanol, were not separated. Their peak was quantified as a sum of both analytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid, online quantification of H2S in JP-8 fuel reformate using near-infrared cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Feng; Junaedi, Christian; Roychoudhury, Subir; Gupta, Manish

    2011-06-01

    One of the key challenges in reforming military fuels for use with fuel cells is their high sulfur content, which can poison the fuel cell anodes. Sulfur-tolerant fuel reformers can convert this sulfur into H(2)S and then use a desulfurizing bed to remove it prior to the fuel cell. In order to optimize and verify this desulfurization process, a gas-phase sulfur analyzer is required to measure H(2)S at low concentrations (<1 ppm(v)) in the presence of other reforming gases (e.g., 25-30% H(2), 10-15% H(2)O, 15% CO, 5% CO(2), 35-40% N(2), and trace amounts of light hydrocarbons). In this work, we utilize near-infrared cavity-enhanced optical absorption spectroscopy (off-axis ICOS) to quantify H(2)S in a JP-8 fuel reformer product stream. The sensor provides rapid (2 s), highly precise (±0.1 ppm(v)) measurements of H(2)S in reformate gases over a wide dynamic range (0-1000 ppm(v)) with a low detection limit (3σ = ±0.09 ppm(v) in 1 s) and minimal cross-interferences from other present species. It simultaneously quantifies CO(2) (±0.2%), CH(4) (±150 ppm(v)), C(2)H(4) (±30 ppm(v)), and H(2)O (±300 ppm(v)) in the reformed gas for a better characterization of the fuel reforming process. Other potential applications of this technology include measurement of coal syngas and H(2)S in natural gas. By including additional near-infrared, distributive feedback diode lasers, the instrument can also be extended to other reformate species, including CO and H(2).

  5. A simple, rapid and sensitive UFLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of oral contraceptive norgestrel in human plasma and its pharmacokinetic applications.

    PubMed

    Batta, N; Pigili, R K; Pallapothu, L M K; Yejella, R P

    2014-09-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra flow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) assay for the determination of norgestrel in human plasma was developed using levonorgestrel D6 as an internal standard (IS). Norgestrel and IS were extracted from human plasma via liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax XDB-Phenyl column under isocratic conditions. Detection was done by tandem mass spectrometry, operating in positive ion mode. The protonated precursor to product ion transitions monitored for norgestrel and IS were at m/z 313.30→245.40 and 319.00→251.30 respectively. The method was fully validated as per current regulatory guidelines. Anticoagulant counter ion effect was also assessed with K2EDTA and K3EDTA. The method was validated with a linearity range of 304.356-50 807.337 pg/mL having run time of 2.0 min per sample. The method has shown tremendous reproducibility with intra- and inter-day precision (%CV) less than 11.0% and intra- and inter-day accuracy less than 9.0% of nominal values. The validated method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study in human plasma samples generated after administrating a single oral dose of 0.3 mg norgestrel tablets to healthy female volunteers and has proved to be highly reliable for the analysis of clinical samples. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Facile Synthesis of Glutathione-capped CdS Quantum Dots as a Fluorescence Sensor for Rapid Detection and Quantification of Paraquat.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Liu, Jingjing; Yang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a convenient and rapid fluorescence sensor for determination of paraquat (PA) based on glutathione-capped CdS quantum dots (QDs). The methodology enabled the use of a simple synthesis procedure for water solubilization of CdS QDs via a fast route using glutathione as a capping agent within 15 min. The resulting water-soluble QDs exhibit a strong fluorescence emission at 536 nm with high and reproducible photostability. PA is an important class of electron acceptors for QDs. Thus, the fluorescence intensity of the glutathione-capped CdS QDs probe could be dramatically quenched by PA due to the electron transfer mechanism. The fluorescence intensity of the CdS QDs system was proportional to PA concentration in the range of 0.025 to 1.5 μg mL(-1), with a detection limit of 0.01 μg mL(-1). The time of analysis sample, including preparation of QDs and fluorescent measurement for PA, was only 20 min. Most of the potentially coexisting substances did not interfere with the PA-induced quenching effect except diquat. Furthermore, the analytical applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated by analyzing PA in water, rice and cabbage samples, and the recoveries were between 86 and 105% which satisfied the requirement of detection for PA. These results showed that the proposed method was simple in design and fast in operation, and could be used as a sensitive tool for detecting PA in environmental and agricultural samples.

  7. Selective spectrophotometric determination of TNT using a dicyclohexylamine-based colorimetric sensor.

    PubMed

    Erçağ, Erol; Uzer, Ayşem; Apak, Reşat

    2009-05-15

    Because of the extremely heterogeneous distribution of explosives in contaminated soils, on-site colorimetric methods are efficient tools to assess the nature and extent of contamination. To meet the need for rapid and low-cost chemical sensing of explosive traces or residues in soil and post-blast debris, a colorimetric absorption-based sensor for trinitrotoluene (TNT) determination has been developed. The charge-transfer (CT) reagent (dicyclohexylamine, DCHA) is entrapped in a polyvinylchloride (PVC) polymer matrix plasticised with dioctylphtalate (DOP), and moulded into a transparent sensor membrane sliced into test strips capable of sensing TNT showing an absorption maximum at 530 nm when placed in a 1-mm spectrophotometer cell. The sensor gave a linear absorption response to 5-50 mg L(-1) TNT solutions in 30% aqueous acetone with limit of detection (LOD): 3 mg L(-1). The sensor is only affected by tetryl, but not by RDX, pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), dinitrotoluene (DNT), and picric acid. The proposed method was statistically validated for TNT assay against high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a standard sample of Comp B. The developed sensor was relatively resistant to air and water, was of low-cost and high specificity, gave a rapid and reproducible response, and was suitable for field use of TNT determination in both dry and humid soil and groundwater with a portable colorimeter.

  8. Simple colorimetric detection of doxycycline and oxytetracycline using unmodified gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Fan, Shumin; Li, Zhigang; Xie, Yuanzhe; Wang, Rui; Ge, Baoyu; Wu, Jing; Wang, Ruiyong

    2014-08-01

    The interaction between tetracycline antibiotics and gold nanoparticles was studied. With citrate-coated gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probe, a simple and rapid detection method for doxycycline and oxytetracycline has been developed. This method relies on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles. In weakly acidic buffer medium, doxycycline and oxytetracycline could rapidly induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles, resulting in red-to-blue (or purple) colour change. The experimental parameters were optimized with regard to pH, the concentration of the gold nanoparticles and the reaction time. Under optimal experimental conditions, the linear range of the colorimetric sensor for doxycycline/oxytetracycline was 0.06-0.66 and 0.59-8.85 μg mL-1, respectively. The corresponding limit of detection for doxycycline and oxytetracycline was 0.0086 and 0.0838 μg mL-1, respectively. This assay was sensitive, selective, simple and readily used to detect tetracycline antibiotics in food products.

  9. A rapid HPLC post-column reaction analysis for the quantification of ergothioneine in edible mushrooms and in animals fed a diet supplemented with extracts from the processing waste of cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, The Han; Giri, Anupam; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2012-07-15

    For establishing an efficient and sensitive method for the quantitative determination of 2-thiol-l-histidine-betaine (ergothioneine, ERG) in edible mushrooms and the blood and muscles of animals, a technique using reversed-phase separation and post-column reaction between 2'-dipyridyl disulphide and ERG was developed. A corresponding derivative 2-thiopyridone, detected at 343 nm, was used for estimating ERG concentration. The flow rate, temperature, pH, and composition of the solution were optimised. A low limit of quantification (1.41 ppm) and a simpler sample preparation made this technique more rapid compared to other methods using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The coefficient of variation (CV) values for the reproducibility and recovery of ERG were within the acceptable values of 6% and 97.5-100.0%, respectively. The efficiency of this methodology was compared with that of spectrophotometric and mass-spectrometric quantitative methods, and was assessed in the light of previous studies. The ERG contents in different mushrooms were 12.69-234.85 mg/kg wet weight basis. Dietary supplementation with extracts from mushroom processing waste significantly improved ERG bioavailability in the blood of yellowtail fish and muscle tissue of cattle.

  10. A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantification of quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-β-d-gentiobioside in plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Tao, Guizhou; Gao, Hang; Li, Keyan; Zhang, Yazhuo; Sun, Limin; Zhang, Yingjie

    2016-09-01

    A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method with good accuracy and precision was developed and validated for the pharmacokinetic study of quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-β-d-gentiobioside (QGG) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma samples were simply precipitated by methanol and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. A Venusil® ASB C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, i.d. 5 μm) was used for separation, with methanol-water (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 300 μL/min. The optimized mass transition ion-pairs (m/z) for quantitation were 787.3/301.3 for QGG, and 725.3/293.3 for internal standard. The linear range was 7.32-1830 ng/mL with an average correlation coefficient of 0.9992, and the limit of quantification was 7.32 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were less than ±15%. At low, medium and high quality control concentrations, the recovery and matrix effect of the analyte and IS were in the range of 89.06-92.43 and 88.58-97.62%, respectively. The method was applied for the pharmacokinetic study of QGG in Sprague-Dawley rats. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Rapid detection and quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg viruses, Lassa virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus by real-time reverse transcription-PCR.

    PubMed

    Drosten, Christian; Göttig, Stephan; Schilling, Stefan; Asper, Marcel; Panning, Marcus; Schmitz, Herbert; Günther, Stephan

    2002-07-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in suspected cases. We have established six one-step, real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays for these pathogens based on the Superscript reverse transcriptase-Platinum Taq polymerase enzyme mixture. Novel primers and/or 5'-nuclease detection probes were designed for RVFV, DENV, YFV, and CCHFV by using the latest DNA database entries. PCR products were detected in real time on a LightCycler instrument by using 5'-nuclease technology (RVFV, DENV, and YFV) or SybrGreen dye intercalation (MBGV/EBOV, LASV, and CCHFV). The inhibitory effect of SybrGreen on reverse transcription was overcome by initial immobilization of the dye in the reaction capillaries. Universal cycling conditions for SybrGreen and 5'-nuclease probe detection were established. Thus, up to three assays could be performed in parallel, facilitating rapid testing for several pathogens. All assays were thoroughly optimized and validated in terms of analytical sensitivity by using in vitro-transcribed RNA. The >or=95% detection limits as determined by probit regression analysis ranged from 1,545 to 2,835 viral genome equivalents/ml of serum (8.6 to 16 RNA copies per assay). The suitability of the assays was exemplified by detection and quantification of viral RNA in serum samples of VHF patients.

  12. Design of a gold nanoprobe for rapid and portable mercury detection with the naked eye.

    PubMed

    He, Shijiang; Li, Di; Zhu, Changfeng; Song, Shiping; Wang, Lihua; Long, Yitao; Fan, Chunhai

    2008-10-28

    A gold nanoprobe that can respond colorimetrically to Hg(2+) is designed and coupled with a power-free PDMS device; the system can be used for rapid and visual detection of low micromolar Hg(2+) in real environmental samples.

  13. Colorimetric paper-based detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from large volumes of agricultural water.

    PubMed

    Bisha, Bledar; Adkins, Jaclyn A; Jokerst, Jana C; Chandler, Jeffrey C; Pérez-Méndez, Alma; Coleman, Shannon M; Sbodio, Adrian O; Suslow, Trevor V; Danyluk, Michelle D; Henry, Charles S; Goodridge, Lawrence D

    2014-06-09

    This protocol describes rapid colorimetric detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from large volumes (10 L) of agricultural waters. Here, water is filtered through sterile Modified Moore Swabs (MMS), which consist of a simple gauze filter enclosed in a plastic cartridge, to concentrate bacteria. Following filtration, non-selective or selective enrichments for the target bacteria are performed in the MMS. For colorimetric detection of the target bacteria, the enrichments are then assayed using paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) embedded with bacteria-indicative substrates. Each substrate reacts with target-indicative bacterial enzymes, generating colored products that can be detected visually (qualitative detection) on the µPAD. Alternatively, digital images of the reacted µPADs can be generated with common scanning or photographic devices and analyzed using ImageJ software, allowing for more objective and standardized interpretation of results. Although the biochemical screening procedures are designed to identify the aforementioned bacterial pathogens, in some cases enzymes produced by background microbiota or the degradation of the colorimetric substrates may produce a false positive. Therefore, confirmation using a more discriminatory diagnostic is needed. Nonetheless, this bacterial concentration and detection platform is inexpensive, sensitive (0.1 CFU/ml detection limit), easy to perform, and rapid (concentration, enrichment, and detection are performed within approximately 24 hr), justifying its use as an initial screening method for the microbiological quality of agricultural water.

  14. Colorimetric Paper-based Detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from Large Volumes of Agricultural Water

    PubMed Central

    Bisha, Bledar; Adkins, Jaclyn A.; Jokerst, Jana C.; Chandler, Jeffrey C.; Pérez-Méndez, Alma; Coleman, Shannon M.; Sbodio, Adrian O.; Suslow, Trevor V.; Danyluk, Michelle D.; Henry, Charles S.; Goodridge, Lawrence D.

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes rapid colorimetric detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from large volumes (10 L) of agricultural waters. Here, water is filtered through sterile Modified Moore Swabs (MMS), which consist of a simple gauze filter enclosed in a plastic cartridge, to concentrate bacteria. Following filtration, non-selective or selective enrichments for the target bacteria are performed in the MMS. For colorimetric detection of the target bacteria, the enrichments are then assayed using paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) embedded with bacteria-indicative substrates. Each substrate reacts with target-indicative bacterial enzymes, generating colored products that can be detected visually (qualitative detection) on the µPAD. Alternatively, digital images of the reacted µPADs can be generated with common scanning or photographic devices and analyzed using ImageJ software, allowing for more objective and standardized interpretation of results. Although the biochemical screening procedures are designed to identify the aforementioned bacterial pathogens, in some cases enzymes produced by background microbiota or the degradation of the colorimetric substrates may produce a false positive. Therefore, confirmation using a more discriminatory diagnostic is needed. Nonetheless, this bacterial concentration and detection platform is inexpensive, sensitive (0.1 CFU/ml detection limit), easy to perform, and rapid (concentration, enrichment, and detection are performed within approximately 24 hr), justifying its use as an initial screening method for the microbiological quality of agricultural water. PMID:24962090

  15. Dystrophin quantification

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Karen; Arechavala-Gomeza, Virginia; Taylor, Laura E.; Vulin, Adeline; Kaminoh, Yuuki; Torelli, Silvia; Feng, Lucy; Janghra, Narinder; Bonne, Gisèle; Beuvin, Maud; Barresi, Rita; Henderson, Matt; Laval, Steven; Lourbakos, Afrodite; Campion, Giles; Straub, Volker; Voit, Thomas; Sewry, Caroline A.; Morgan, Jennifer E.; Flanigan, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We formed a multi-institution collaboration in order to compare dystrophin quantification methods, reach a consensus on the most reliable method, and report its biological significance in the context of clinical trials. Methods: Five laboratories with expertise in dystrophin quantification performed a data-driven comparative analysis of a single reference set of normal and dystrophinopathy muscle biopsies using quantitative immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. We developed standardized protocols and assessed inter- and intralaboratory variability over a wide range of dystrophin expression levels. Results: Results from the different laboratories were highly concordant with minimal inter- and intralaboratory variability, particularly with quantitative immunohistochemistry. There was a good level of agreement between data generated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, although immunohistochemistry was more sensitive. Furthermore, mean dystrophin levels determined by alternative quantitative immunohistochemistry methods were highly comparable. Conclusions: Considering the biological function of dystrophin at the sarcolemma, our data indicate that the combined use of quantitative immunohistochemistry and Western blotting are reliable biochemical outcome measures for Duchenne muscular dystrophy clinical trials, and that standardized protocols can be comparable between competent laboratories. The methodology validated in our study will facilitate the development of experimental therapies focused on dystrophin production and their regulatory approval. PMID:25355828

  16. ``Red-to-blue'' colorimetric detection of cysteine via anti-etching of silver nanoprisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yonglong; Li, Zihou; Gao, Yuexia; Gong, An; Zhang, Yujie; Hosmane, Narayan S.; Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Aiguo

    2014-08-01

    The reported strategies for cysteine (Cys) colorimetric detection based on noble metal nanomaterials include triggering aggregation, etching or fluorescence quenching of nanomaterials by Cys. In this study, we propose a new strategy for Cys colorimetric detection, i.e. anti-etching of silver nanoprisms (AgNPRs). In the absence of Cys, iodide ions (I-) could etch the corners and edges of AgNPRs and induce the morphology transition from nanoprism to nanodisk, which results in color change of the AgNPR dispersion from blue to red. In its presence, however, Cys can prevent the AgNPRs from I- attack. In that case, the color of the AgNPR dispersion containing I- and Cys remains blue. The mechanism is confirmed by using UV-vis spectra, TEM, DLS, Raman spectra and XPS spectra. According to the sensing effect of the Cys detection system, the concentration of I- incubated with AgNPRs, incubation time of AgNPRs and I-, and pH of AgNPR dispersions are optimized to 5.0 μM, 10 min, and pH 6.2, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed Cys detection system has excellent selectivity and high sensitivity. The limit of detection (LOD) of our Cys detection system is 25 nM by the naked eye, which is much better than the reported lowest LOD by eye-vision (100 nM), and 10 nM by UV-vis spectroscopy. The results of Cys detection in rabbit urine or plasma samples reinforce that our Cys detection system is applicable for rapid colorimetric detection of Cys in real body fluid samples.The reported strategies for cysteine (Cys) colorimetric detection based on noble metal nanomaterials include triggering aggregation, etching or fluorescence quenching of nanomaterials by Cys. In this study, we propose a new strategy for Cys colorimetric detection, i.e. anti-etching of silver nanoprisms (AgNPRs). In the absence of Cys, iodide ions (I-) could etch the corners and edges of AgNPRs and induce the morphology transition from nanoprism to nanodisk, which results in color change of the

  17. Development and validation of a rapid turboflow LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD in serum and urine samples of emergency toxicological cases.

    PubMed

    Dolder, Patrick C; Liechti, Matthias E; Rentsch, Katharina M

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a widely used recreational drug. The aim of the present study is to develop a quantitative turboflow LC-MS/MS method that can be used for rapid quantification of LSD and its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD (O-H-LSD) in serum and urine in emergency toxicological cases without time-consuming extraction steps. The method was developed on an ion-trap LC-MS/MS instrument coupled to a turbulent-flow extraction system. The validation data showed no significant matrix effects and no ion suppression has been observed in serum and urine. Mean intraday accuracy and precision for LSD were 101 and 6.84%, in urine samples and 97.40 and 5.89% in serum, respectively. For O-H-LSD, the respective values were 97.50 and 4.99% in urine and 107 and 4.70% in serum. Mean interday accuracy and precision for LSD were 100 and 8.26% in urine and 101 and 6.56% in serum, respectively. For O-H-LSD, the respective values were 101 and 8.11% in urine and 99.8 and 8.35% in serum, respectively. The lower limit of quantification for LSD was determined to be 0.1 ng/ml. LSD concentrations in serum were expected to be up to 8 ng/ml. 2-Oxo-3-hydroxy LSD concentrations in urine up to 250 ng/ml. The new method was accurate and precise in the range of expected serum and urine concentrations in patients with a suspected LSD intoxication. Until now, the method has been applied in five cases with suspected LSD intoxication where the intake of the drug has been verified four times with LSD concentrations in serum in the range of 1.80-14.70 ng/ml and once with a LSD concentration of 1.25 ng/ml in urine. In serum of two patients, the O-H-LSD concentration was determined to be 0.99 and 0.45 ng/ml. In the urine of a third patient, the O-H-LSD concentration was 9.70 ng/ml.

  18. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of trace veterinary drugs in milk by rapid screening and quantification using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqian; Li, Xiang; Liu, Xiaomao; Zhang, Jinjie; Cao, Yanzhong; Shi, Zhihong; Sun, Hanwen

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid multi-class multi-residue analytical method was developed for the screening and quantification of veterinary drugs in milk by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS). A total of 90 veterinary drugs investigated belonged to almost 20 classes including lincomycins, macrolides, sulfonamides, quinolones, tetracyclines, β-agonists, β-lactams, sedatives, β-receptor antagonists, sex hormones, glucocorticoids, nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, nitrofurans, and some others. A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) procedure was developed for the sample preparation without the solid-phase extraction step. The linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method were fully validated. The response of the detector was linear for each target compound in a wide concentration range with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9973 to 0.9999 (among them R(2)>0.999 for 73 of 90 analytes). The range of the limit of quantification for these compounds in the milk ranged from 0.10 to 17.30μg/kg. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2.11 to 9.62% and 2.76 to 13.9%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 72.62 to 122.2% with the RSD (n=6) of 1.30 to 9.61% at 3 concentration levels. For the screening method, the data of the precursor and product ions of the target analytes were simultaneously acquired under the all ions MS/MS mode in a single run. An accurate mass database for the confirmation and identification of the target compounds was established. The applicability of the screening method was verified by applying to real milk samples. The proposed analytical method allows the identification and confirmation of the target veterinary drugs at trace levels employing quick analysis time. Certain veterinary drugs were detected in some cases. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  19. Quantification of Plant Chlorophyll Content Using Google Glass

    PubMed Central

    Cortazar, Bingen; Koydemir, Hatice Ceylan; Tseng, Derek; Feng, Steve; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-01-01

    Measuring plant chlorophyll concentration is a well-known and commonly used method in agriculture and environmental applications for monitoring plant health, which also correlates with many other plant parameters including, e.g., carotenoids, nitrogen, maximum green fluorescence, etc. Direct chlorophyll measurement using chemical extraction is destructive, complex and time-consuming, which has led to the development of mobile optical readers, providing non-destructive but at the same time relatively expensive tools for evaluation of plant chlorophyll levels. Here we demonstrate accurate measurement of chlorophyll concentration in plant leaves using Google Glass and a custom-developed software application together with a cost-effective leaf holder and multi-spectral illuminator device. Two images, taken using Google Glass, of a leaf placed in our portable illuminator device under red and white (i.e., broadband) light-emitting-diode (LED) illumination are uploaded to our servers for remote digital processing and chlorophyll quantification, with results returned to the user in less than 10 seconds. Intensity measurements extracted from the uploaded images are mapped against gold-standard colorimetric measurements made through a commercially available reader to generate calibration curves for plant leaf chlorophyll concentration. Using five plant species to calibrate our system, we demonstrate that our approach can accurately and rapidly estimate chlorophyll concentration of fifteen different plant species under both indoor and outdoor lighting conditions. This Google Glass based chlorophyll measurement platform can display the results in spatiotemporal and tabular forms and would be highly useful for monitoring of plant health in environmental and agriculture related applications, including e.g., urban plant monitoring, indirect measurements of the effects of climate change, and as an early indicator for water, soil, and air quality degradation. PMID:25669673

  20. Quantification of plant chlorophyll content using Google Glass.

    PubMed

    Cortazar, Bingen; Koydemir, Hatice Ceylan; Tseng, Derek; Feng, Steve; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-04-07

    Measuring plant chlorophyll concentration is a well-known and commonly used method in agriculture and environmental applications for monitoring plant health, which also correlates with many other plant parameters including, e.g., carotenoids, nitrogen, maximum green fluorescence, etc. Direct chlorophyll measurement using chemical extraction is destructive, complex and time-consuming, which has led to the development of mobile optical readers, providing non-destructive but at the same time relatively expensive tools for evaluation of plant chlorophyll levels. Here we demonstrate accurate measurement of chlorophyll concentration in plant leaves using Google Glass and a custom-developed software application together with a cost-effective leaf holder and multi-spectral illuminator device. Two images, taken using Google Glass, of a leaf placed in our portable illuminator device under red and white (i.e., broadband) light-emitting-diode (LED) illumination are uploaded to our servers for remote digital processing and chlorophyll quantification, with results returned to the user in less than 10 seconds. Intensity measurements extracted from the uploaded images are mapped against gold-standard colorimetric measurements made through a commercially available reader to generate calibration curves for plant leaf chlorophyll concentration. Using five plant species to calibrate our system, we demonstrate that our approach can accurately and rapidly estimate chlorophyll concentration of fifteen different plant species under both indoor and outdoor lighting conditions. This Google Glass based chlorophyll measurement platform can display the results in spatiotemporal and tabular forms and would be highly useful for monitoring of plant health in environmental and agriculture related applications, including e.g., urban plant monitoring, indirect measurements of the effects of climate change, and as an early indicator for water, soil, and air quality degradation.

  1. Emergency First Responders' Experience with Colorimetric Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sandra L. Fox; Keith A. Daum; Carla J. Miller; Marnie M. Cortez

    2007-10-01

    Nationwide, first responders from state and federal support teams respond to hazardous materials incidents, industrial chemical spills, and potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attacks. Although first responders have sophisticated chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive detectors available for assessment of the incident scene, simple colorimetric detectors have a role in response actions. The large number of colorimetric chemical detection methods available on the market can make the selection of the proper methods difficult. Although each detector has unique aspects to provide qualitative or quantitative data about the unknown chemicals present, not all detectors provide consistent, accurate, and reliable results. Included here, in a consumer-report-style format, we provide “boots on the ground” information directly from first responders about how well colorimetric chemical detection methods meet their needs in the field and how they procure these methods.

  2. Colorimetric sensor based on two optical fiber couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybko, Artur; Maciejewski, Janusz; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Wroblewski, Wojciech

    1994-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to present an idea of a low-cost optical fiber colorimetric pH sensor (with disposable probe). Most of colorimetric sensors consist of two fibers: the illuminating one and one for collecting reflected light. Only one optical fiber is used as a sensing probe in our pH sensor. The end of the fiber is covered by a pH-sensing membrane, which is made of polyvinyl chloride. The colorimetric indicator (bromothymol blue) was immobilized on an ion- exchange resin. The sensing fiber is connected with two optical fiber couplers (type Y). The first coupler guides analytical and reference wavelengths from the light emitting diodes (LED) and the second one transmits light to the photodetector. Only one photodetector is used. Optical signals are filtered electronically because the LEDs are modulated at different frequencies. The results of the measuring tests of the sensor are presented.

  3. Accelerated colorimetric immunosensing using surface-modified porous monoliths and gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuag, Shao-Hsuan; Chen, Guan-Hua; Chou, Hsin-Hao; Shen, Shu-Wei; Chen, Chien-Fu

    2013-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive immunoassay platform integrating polymerized monoliths and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been developed. The porous monoliths are photopolymerized in situ within a silica capillary and serve as solid support for high-mass transport and high-density capture antibody immobilization to create a shorter diffusion length for antibody-antigen interactions, resulting in a rapid assay and low reagent consumption. AuNPs are modified with detection antibodies and are utilized as signals for colorimetric immunoassays without the need for enzyme, substrate and sophisticated equipment for quantitative measurements. This platform has been verified by performing a human IgG sandwich immunoassay with a detection limit of 0.1 ng ml-1. In addition, a single assay can be completed in 1 h, which is more efficient than traditional immunoassays that require several hours to complete.

  4. Colorimetric assay for heterogeneous-catalyzed lipase activity: enzyme-regulated gold nanoparticle aggregation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Yan; Liu, Jia; Jiang, Ling; Huang, Wei; Huo, Feng-Wei; Tian, Danbi

    2015-01-14

    Lipase is a neglected enzyme in the field of gold nanoparticle-based enzyme assays. This paper reports a novel colorimetric probe to rapidly visualize lipase activities by using Tween 20 functioned GNPs (Tween 20-GNPs) as a reporter. The present strategy hence could overcome the limitations caused by the heterogeneous interface in lipase assay. Catalytic hydrolytic cleavage of the ester bond in Tween 20-GNPs by lipase will trigger the rapid aggregation of GNPs at a high salt solution. The color change from red to purple could be used to sense the activity of lipase. The detection limit (3σ) is as low as 2.8 × 10-2 mg/mL. A preliminary enzyme activity screening was carried out for seven commercially purchased lipase samples. It also has been successfully applied to detecting lipase in fermentation broth of Bacillus subtilis without any pretreatment.

  5. Colorimetric Determination of Pure Mg2+-dependent Phosphatidate Phosphatase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Havriluk, Tara; Lozy, Fred; Siniossoglou, Symeon; Carman, George M.

    2008-01-01

    The malachite green-molybdate reagent was used for a colorimetric assay of pure Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphatase activity. This enzyme plays a major role in fat metabolism. Enzyme activity was linear with time and protein concentration, and with the concentration of water-soluble dioctanoyl phosphatidate. The colorimetric assay was used to examine enzyme inhibition by phenylglyoxal, propranolol, and dimethyl sulfoxide. Pure enzyme and a water-soluble phosphatidate substrate were required for the assay, which should be applicable to a well-defined large-scale screen of Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphatase inhibitors (or activators). PMID:17910939

  6. Colorimetric analysis of the decomposition of S-nitrosothiols on paper-based microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Abdulghani; Araújo, Marillya O; Chagas, Cyro L S; Griveau, Sophie; D'Orlyé, Fanny; Varenne, Anne; Bedioui, Fethi; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2016-10-24

    A disposable microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was developed to easily analyse different S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) through colorimetric measurements. RSNOs are carriers of nitric oxide (NO) that play several physiological and physiopathological roles. The quantification of RSNOs relies on their decomposition using several protocols and the colorimetric detection of the final product, NO or nitrite. μPADs were fabricated by wax printing technology in a geometry containing one central zone for the sample inlet and eight circular detection zones interconnected by microfluidic channels for decomposition and posterior detection of decayed products. Different decomposition protocols including mercuric ions and light (UV, visible, and infrared) were tested on μPADs. For this purpose, a 3D printed holder was coupled with μPADs to easily design a simultaneous decomposition procedure using different light sources. The Griess reagent was added to detect NO and nitrite produced by the different decomposition methods. μPADs were then scanned using a flat board scanner and calibration curves based on color intensity were plotted. The limit of detection (LOD) values achieved for nitrite (used as a reference compound) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) using mercuric decomposition were 3 and 4 μM, respectively. The LOD reported herein for nitrite is considered among the lowest LODs already reported for this compound using μPADs. The results also show that low-molecular-weight RSNO, namely S-nitrosocysteine, decomposes more easily than high-molecular-weight RSNOs with light. As a proof of concept, RSNOs in human plasma were successfully detected on μPADs. For this purpose, a preliminary treatment step was optimized and the presence of high-molecular-weight (HMW) RSNOs was evidenced in the available plasma samples. The concentrations of HMW-RSNOs and nitrite in the various samples ranged from 5 to 16 μM and from 37 to 58 μM, respectively.

  7. Smartphone-based colorimetric detection of glutathione.

    PubMed

    Vobornikova, Irena; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2016-12-18

    /L. The smartphone-based assay seems to be promising because of simplicity, reliability, robustness and low cost. In spite of the fact that there is a large scale for approaches for the glutathione determination, the main advantage of our colorimetric method is portability and easibility to perform the assay in the field and publically availability of smartphones for home applications.

  8. Automatic colorimetric calibration of human wounds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently, digital photography in medicine is considered an acceptable tool in many clinical domains, e.g. wound care. Although ever higher resolutions are available, reproducibility is still poor and visual comparison of images remains difficult. This is even more the case for measurements performed on such images (colour, area, etc.). This problem is often neglected and images are freely compared and exchanged without further thought. Methods The first experiment checked whether camera settings or lighting conditions could negatively affect the quality of colorimetric calibration. Digital images plus a calibration chart were exposed to a variety of conditions. Precision and accuracy of colours after calibration were quantitatively assessed with a probability distribution for perceptual colour differences (dE_ab). The second experiment was designed to assess the impact of the automatic calibration procedure (i.e. chart detection) on real-world measurements. 40 Different images of real wounds were acquired and a region of interest was selected in each image. 3 Rotated versions of each image were automatically calibrated and colour differences were calculated. Results 1st Experiment: Colour differences between the measurements and real spectrophotometric measurements reveal median dE_ab values respectively 6.40 for the proper patches of calibrated normal images and 17.75 for uncalibrated images demonstrating an important improvement in accuracy after calibration. The reproducibility, visualized by the probability distribution of the dE_ab errors between 2 measurements of the patches of the images has a median of 3.43 dE* for all calibrated images, 23.26 dE_ab for all uncalibrated images. If we restrict ourselves to the proper patches of normal calibrated images the median is only 2.58 dE_ab! Wilcoxon sum-rank testing (p < 0.05) between uncalibrated normal images and calibrated normal images with proper squares were equal to 0 demonstrating a highly

  9. EndoS and EndoS2 hydrolyze Fc-glycans on therapeutic antibodies with different glycoform selectivity and can be used for rapid quantification of high-mannose glycans

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, Jonathan; Cosgrave, Eoin F J; Allhorn, Maria; Nordgren, Maria; Björk, Stephan; Olsson, Fredrik; Fredriksson, Sarah; Collin, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes that affect glycoproteins of the human immune system, and thereby modulate defense responses, are abundant among bacterial pathogens. Two endoglycosidases from the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, EndoS and EndoS2, have recently been shown to hydrolyze N-linked glycans of human immunoglobulin G. However, detailed characterization and comparison of the hydrolyzing activities have not been performed. In the present study, we set out to characterize the enzymes by comparing the activities of EndoS and EndoS2 on a selection of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), cetuximab, adalimumab, panitumumab and denosumab. By analyzing the glycans hydrolyzed by EndoS and EndoS2 from the antibodies using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight, we found that both the enzymes cleaved complex glycans and that EndoS2 hydrolyzed hybrid and oligomannose structures to a greater extent compared with EndoS. A comparison of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) profiles of the glycan pool of cetuximab hydrolyzed with EndoS and EndoS2 showed that EndoS2 hydrolyzed hybrid and oligomannose glycans, whereas these peaks were missing in the EndoS chromatogram. We utilized this difference in glycoform selectivity, in combination with the IdeS protease, and developed a LC separation method to quantify high mannose content in the Fc fragments of the selected mAbs. We conclude that EndoS and EndoS2 hydrolyze different glycoforms from the Fc-glycosylation site on therapeutic mAbs and that this can be used for rapid quantification of high mannose content. PMID:26156869

  10. Rapid and sensitive ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the quantification of amitraz and identification of its degradation products in fruits.

    PubMed

    Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinel la; Tokman, Nilgun; Barceló, Damià

    2008-08-29

    Liquid chromatography under high pressure in combination with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QqTOF-MS and MS/MS) has been used to detect amitraz degradation products in pears, to characterize their structures, and to evaluate their occurrences in samples of different origins. Using the proposed approach, the parent pesticide and four degradation products were identified. To this end, pear samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and anhydrous sodium sulphate. Amitraz was found to be rapidly decomposed into four related compounds, of which N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)formamidine (DMPF) was the most abundant and persistent. N,N'-bisdimethylphenylformamidine (BDMPF), 2,4-dimethylformamidine (DMF) and 2,4-dimethyl aniline (DMA) were also main metabolites of amitraz. To our knowledge this is the first report that confirms the presence of BDMPF in pears. The method was validated using MS and MS/MS for those standard available (analytical or not). In MS, recoveries ranged from 83 to 101% with relative standard deviation (RSD) from 9 to 19% at the limit of quantification (LOQ) (between 5 and 20 microg kg(-1)). Using MS/MS, recoveries, linearity and precision were similar but LOQs were higher because the intense fragmentation of the protonated molecules in the product mass spectrum. BDMPF, as an approximation, was quantified based on the DMF metabolite. The results demonstrated that high-pressure LC-QqTOF-MS and MS/MS techniques enhance further the capabilities of LC-MS in the identification of polar species in complex food samples.

  11. Analytical strategy for rapid identification and quantification of lubricant additives in mineral oil by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with UV absorption and fluorescence detection combined with mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dytkiewitz, Elisabeth; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2008-01-01

    A simple strategy for identification and quantification of lubricant additives in mineral oil was demonstrated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with UV absorption and fluorescence detection using various coupling options, e.g., with attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). For the additives zinc bis(O,O'-diisobutyl dithiophosphate), zinc bis(O,O'-didodecyl dithiophosphate), and Anglamol 99, 2 chromatographic systems were developed, i.e., a reversed-phase (RP) system on RP2 plates using an acetonitrile-based mobile phase and a normal-phase system on silica gel 60 plates using a toluene-based gradient. Densitometry was performed by absorption measurement at 220 nm. Repeatabilities (relative standard deviation, n = 6) between 2.2 and 5.5% and correlation coefficients >0.9973 were highly satisfactory for the analysis of these additives in the mineral oil. Primuline reagent was used to improve the detection limit of the lipophilic additives by a factor of 2, followed by fluorescence measurement at UV 366/>400 nm. For rapid identification by ATR-IR and FTIR, the respective additive zones on the plate were online extracted by an interface called ChromeXtract, concentrated, and directly applied for measurements in the wave number range of 4000-400 cm(-1). Identification was confirmed by online ESI-MS within a minute using ChromeXtract and by DART-MS within seconds.

  12. Colorimetric determination of Timolol concentration based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirjani, Amirmostafa; Bagheri, Mozhgan; Heydari, Mojgan; Hesaraki, Saeed

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a rapid and simple colorimetric method based on the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed for the detection of the drug Timolol. The method used is based on the interaction of Timolol with the surface of the as-synthesized AgNPs, which promotes aggregation of the nanoparticles. This aggregation exploits the surface plasmon resonance through the electric dipole-dipole interaction and coupling among the agglomerated particles, hence bringing forth distinctive changes in the spectra as well as the color of colloidal silver. UV-vis spectrophotometery was used to monitor the changes of the localized surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs at wavelengths of 400 and 550 nm. The developed colorimetric sensor has a wide dynamic range of 1.0 × 10-7 M-1.0 × 10-3 M for detection of Timolol with a low detection limit of 1.2 × 10-6 M. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Timolol concentration in ophthalmic eye-drop solution with a response time lower than 40 s.

  13. A quantitative method for the measurement of membrane affinity by polydiacetylene-based colorimetric assay.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Feng; Wu, Zheng; Chen, Yihua

    2012-01-15

    The measurement of membrane affinity is an important early screening step during drug discovery. However, classical methods for membrane affinity measurement are tedious and difficult to implement in high-throughput screening. This article describes a quantitative method for the measurement of membrane affinity by colorimetric assay based on polydiacetylene (PDA) sensors. Prepared lipid/PDA chromatic vesicles were used to model cell membranes. By measuring the colorimetric response of the chromatic vesicles when drug-membrane interactions occurred, membrane affinity constant K(b) could be calculated using a simple quantitative model. Under optimized preparation conditions, the calculated log(K(b)) values exhibited an in-batch relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 4% and a between-batch RSD of less than 8% for all three reference compounds. The logarithm of K(b) of the six β-blockers exhibited excellent linear correlation with the logarithm of the liposome/water partition coefficient (K(m)) with R(2)=0.9793. For neutral compounds, the log(K(b)) of n-fatty alcohols correlated with the logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (K(oct)) with a linear correlation coefficient R(2)=0.9833. This work provides a simple, convenient, and reproducible method for the rapid measurement of membrane affinity and presents important implications for high-throughput screening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasmonic Metasurfaces Based on Nanopin-Cavity Resonator for Quantitative Colorimetric Ricin Sensing.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiao-Rong; Zhu, Jia; Wu, Wen-Gang; Huang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    In view of the toxic potential of a bioweapon threat, rapid visual recognition and sensing of ricin has been of considerable interest while remaining a challenging task up to date. In this study, a gold nanopin-based colorimetric sensor is developed realizing a multicolor variation for ricin qualitative recognition and analysis. It is revealed that such plasmonic metasurfaces based on nanopin-cavity resonator exhibit reflective color appearance, due to the excitation of standing-wave resonances of narrow bandwidth in visible region. This clear color variation is a consequence of the reflective color mixing defined by different resonant wavelengths. In addition, the colored metasurfaces appear sharp color difference in a narrow refractive index range, which makes them especially well-suited for sensing applications. Therefore, this antibody-functionalized nanopin-cavity biosensor features high sensitivity and fast response, allowing for visual quantitative ricin detection within the range of 10-120 ng mL(-1) (0.15 × 10(-9) -1.8 × 10(-9) m), a limit of detection of 10 ng mL(-1) , and the typical measurement time of less than 10 min. The on-chip integration of such nanopin metasurfaces to portable colorimetric microfluidic device may be envisaged for the quantitative studies of a variety of biochemical molecules.

  15. Highly sensitive and specific colorimetric detection of cancer cells via dual-aptamer target binding strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Fan, Daoqing; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Erkang

    2015-11-15

    Simple, rapid, sensitive and specific detection of cancer cells is of great importance for early and accurate cancer diagnostics and therapy. By coupling nanotechnology and dual-aptamer target binding strategies, we developed a colorimetric assay for visually detecting cancer cells with high sensitivity and specificity. The nanotechnology including high catalytic activity of PtAuNP and magnetic separation & concentration plays a vital role on the signal amplification and improvement of detection sensitivity. The color change caused by small amount of target cancer cells (10 cells/mL) can be clearly distinguished by naked eyes. The dual-aptamer target binding strategy guarantees the detection specificity that large amount of non-cancer cells and different cancer cells (10(4) cells/mL) cannot cause obvious color change. A detection limit as low as 10 cells/mL with detection linear range from 10 to 10(5) cells/mL was reached according to the experimental detections in phosphate buffer solution as well as serum sample. The developed enzyme-free and cost effective colorimetric assay is simple and no need of instrument while still provides excellent sensitivity, specificity and repeatability, having potential application on point-of-care cancer diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensitive colorimetric detection of Listeria monocytogenes based on isothermal gene amplification and unmodified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhongyu; Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da

    2013-12-15

    Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), one of most problematic food-borne bacteria, is mainly transmitted through the food chain and may cause listeriosis. Therefore, the development of rapid and sensitive L. monocytogenes detection technique has become an urgent task. In this study, we proposed a method using hyperbranching rolling circle amplification (HRCA) combined with gold nanoparticle (GNP) based colorimetric strategy to offer an isothermal, highly sensitive and specific assay for the detection of L. monocytogenes. First, a linear padlock probe targeting a specific sequence in the hly gene was designed and followed with a ligation by Taq DNA ligase. After ligation, further amplification by HRCA with a thiolated primer and an unlabeled primer is performed. The resulting thiolated HRCA products were then captured onto GNP surface and made GNP more salt-tolerant. Detection of the bacteria can be achieved by a facilitated GNP based colorimetric testing using naked eyes. Through this approach, as low as 100 aM synthetic hly gene targets and about 75 copies of L. monocytogenes can be detected. The specificity is evaluated by distinguishing target L. monocytogenes from other bacteria. The artificial contaminated food samples were also detected for its potential applications in real food detection. This method described here is ideal for bacteria detection due to its simplicity and high sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A portable lab-on-a-chip system for gold-nanoparticle-based colorimetric detection of metal ions in water.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen; Zhong, Guowei; Kim, Da-Eun; Liu, Jinxia; Liu, Xinyu

    2014-09-01

    Heavy metal ions released into various water systems have a severe impact on the environment and human beings, and excess exposure to toxic metal ions through drinking water poses high risks to human health and causes life-threatening diseases. Thus, there is high demand for the development of a rapid, low-cost, and sensitive method for detection of metal ions in water. We present a portable analytical system for colorimetric detection of lead (Pb(2+)) and aluminum (Al(3+)) ions in water based on gold nanoparticle probes and lab-on-a-chip instrumentation. The colorimetric detection of metal ions is conducted via single-step assays with low limits of detection (LODs) and high selectivity. We design a custom-made microwell plate and a handheld colorimetric reader for implementing the assays and quantifying the signal readout. The calibration experiments demonstrate that this portable system provides LODs of 30 ppb for Pb(2+) and 89 ppb for Al(3+), both comparable to bench-top analytical spectrometers. It promises an effective platform for metal ion analysis in a more economical and convenient way, which is particularly useful for water quality monitoring in field and resource-poor settings.

  18. Localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes for determination of Isoniazid in pharmacological formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zargar, Behrooz; Hatamie, Amir

    2013-04-01

    Isoniazid is an important antibiotic, which is widely used to treat tuberculosis. This study presents a colorimetric method for the determination of Isoniazid based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) property of gold nanoparticles. An LSPR band is produced by reducing gold ions in solution using Isoniazid as the reducing agent. Influences of the following relevant variables were examined and optimized in the experiment, formation time of gold nanoparticles, pH, buffer and stabilizer. These tests demonstrated that under optimum conditions the absorbance of Au nanoparticles at 530 nm related linearly to the concentration of Isoniazid in the range of 1.0-8.0 μg mL-1 with a detection limit of 0.98 μg mL-1. This colorimetric method has been successfully applied to the determine Isoniazid in tablets and spiked serum samples. The proposed colorimetric assay exhibits good reproducibility and accuracy, providing a simple and rapid method for analysis of Isoniazid.

  19. Testing of Colorimetric Tubes for Nitrogen Dioxide and Monomethylhydrazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Philip

    Colorimetric tubes for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) were tested for accuracy and results indicate that at the levels checked the tubes' average deviation was plus or minus 20 percent. Tube NO2 concentrations all read lower than the analyzed concentrations. MMH tubes read much higher than the analyzed concentration of 0.28…

  20. Evaluation of a Colorimetric Personal Dosimeter for Nitrogen Oxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Philip

    A personal colorimetric dosimeter for nitrogen dioxide was developed. Tests were performed to determine the response of these strips to various concentrations of NO2. The dosimeter strips were satisfactory for approximate determinations of total exposure (concentration + time) of nitrogen dioxide. The total exposure was calculated in terms of time…

  1. Color reproduction on inkjet printers and paper colorimetric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Reche, Jesus; Uroz, Joan; Diaz, Jose A.; Garcia-Beltran, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this work is to study the relationship between the colorimetric characteristics that identify a kind of paper and those that allow us to evaluate its color reproduction capabilities on inkjet printers. A set of 29 different commercial papers from several companies has been tested. The category of those papers ranged from photo quality to prepress proof and ordinary office papers, being their finishing matte, semi-matte or glossy. For each sample, we have measured their reflectance, intrinsic reflectance, opacity, CIE whiteness index and tint. All these measurements followed the procedures established in the international standards about paper and board. Then, we have printed on three different sheet of each paper the color chart proposed in the international standard for color printer characterization ANSI IT8/7.3. When calculated the CIELAB coordinates using the D50 standard illuminant, we studied the dynamic range, color gamut and the rendering linearity. The results show that the colorimetric properties and reproduction capabilities of the 29 commercial papers let us cluster them in accordance with their behavior. However, we found no systematic correlation between color reproduction and specific colorimetric properties of the types of paper: we should search for other physical (not just colorimetric) properties (for instance, gloss or ink absorption capacity).

  2. Photonic crystal structures with tunable structure color as colorimetric sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2013-03-28

    Colorimetric sensing, which transduces environmental changes into visible color changes, provides a simple yet powerful detection mechanism that is well-suited to the development of low-cost and low-power sensors. A new approach in colorimetric sensing exploits the structural color of photonic crystals (PCs) to create environmentally-influenced color-changeable materials. PCs are composed of periodic dielectrics or metallo-dielectric nanostructures that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EM) by defining the allowed and forbidden photonic bands. Simultaneously, an amazing variety of naturally occurring biological systems exhibit iridescent color due to the presence of PC structures throughout multi-dimensional space. In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli. Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules. The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors.

  3. Evaluation of a Colorimetric Personal Dosimeter for Nitrogen Oxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Philip

    A personal colorimetric dosimeter for nitrogen dioxide was developed. Tests were performed to determine the response of these strips to various concentrations of NO2. The dosimeter strips were satisfactory for approximate determinations of total exposure (concentration + time) of nitrogen dioxide. The total exposure was calculated in terms of time…

  4. Colorimetric "naked eye" sensing of anions in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur; Kruger, Paul E; Jensen, Paul; Tierney, Juliann; Ali, Haslin Dato Paduka; Hussey, Gillian M

    2005-12-23

    [structure: see text] The synthesis and UV-vis and NMR spectroscopic studies of thiourea-based colorimetric sensors for anions are presented. These sensors can recognize anions through hydrogen binding even in competitive pH-buffered aqueous solutions, giving rise to large color changes that are clearly visible to the naked eye.

  5. A Colorimetric Process to Visualize Erythrocyte Exovesicles Aggregates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldanha, Carlota; Santos, Nuno C.; Martins-Silva, J.

    2004-01-01

    A biochemistry laboratory class protocol is described in order to create an opportunity for students to apply by doing the theoretical concepts underlying biomolecules and vesicles properties, together with the principles of centrifugation and colorimetric methodologies. Through simple procedures the students will i) observe the segregation of the…

  6. Photonic Crystal Structures with Tunable Structure Color as Colorimetric Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Colorimetric sensing, which transduces environmental changes into visible color changes, provides a simple yet powerful detection mechanism that is well-suited to the development of low-cost and low-power sensors. A new approach in colorimetric sensing exploits the structural color of photonic crystals (PCs) to create environmentally-influenced color-changeable materials. PCs are composed of periodic dielectrics or metallo-dielectric nanostructures that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EM) by defining the allowed and forbidden photonic bands. Simultaneously, an amazing variety of naturally occurring biological systems exhibit iridescent color due to the presence of PC structures throughout multi-dimensional space. In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli. Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules. The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors. PMID:23539027

  7. A Colorimetric Process to Visualize Erythrocyte Exovesicles Aggregates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldanha, Carlota; Santos, Nuno C.; Martins-Silva, J.

    2004-01-01

    A biochemistry laboratory class protocol is described in order to create an opportunity for students to apply by doing the theoretical concepts underlying biomolecules and vesicles properties, together with the principles of centrifugation and colorimetric methodologies. Through simple procedures the students will i) observe the segregation of the…

  8. Improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrvatka, Vasyl J.; Slyvchuk, Yurij I.; Rozgoni, Ivan I.; Gevkan, Ivan I.; Overchuk, Marta O.

    2014-02-01

    Modern routine enzyme immunoassays for detection and quantification of biomolecules have several disadvantages such as high cost, insufficient sensitivity, complexity and long-term execution. The surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles gives reasons of creating new in the basis of simple, highly sensitive and low cost colorimetric assays that can be applied to the detection of small molecules, DNA, proteins and pollutants. The main aim of the study was the improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles. For this purpose we developed method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid and studied possibility of use these nanoparticles in direct determination of target molecules concentration (in particular proteins) and for improving of enzyme immunoassay. As model we used conventional enzyme immunoassays for determination of progesterone and estradiol concentration. We obtained the possibility to produce silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan homogeneous in size between 10 and 12 nm, soluble and stable in water during long term of storage using modified procedure of silver nanoparticles synthesis. New method allows to obtain silver nanoparticles with strong optical properties at the higher concentrations - 60-90 μg/ml with the peak of absorbance at the wavelength 400 nm. Therefore surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy provide an opportunity for rapid determination of target molecules concentration (especial protein). We used silver nanoparticles as enzyme carriers and signal enhancers. Our preliminary data show that silver nanoparticles increased absorbance of samples that allows improving upper limit of determination of estradiol and progesterone concentration.

  9. Water-soluble polymers, solid polymer membranes, and coated fibres as smart sensory materials for the naked eye detection and quantification of TNT in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Jesús L; Trigo-López, Miriam; Serna, Felipe; García, Félix C; García, José M

    2014-03-07

    This study developed sensory polymeric materials for the colorimetric sensing of TNT in aqueous media. Solid films and coated fabrics permitted the detection of TNT, through colour change, and its quantification, by taking a picture of the materials and processing their RGB parameters to define the evolved colour.

  10. Colorimetric and thin-layer chromatographic methods for field assay of chloroquine and its metabolites in urine*

    PubMed Central

    Mount, D. L.; Patchen, L. C.; Williams, S. B.; Churchill, F. C.

    1987-01-01

    Three field-adapted methods for the quantification of the antimalarial drug chloroquine are described. Two of the methods are modifications of the Haskins test and are based on ion-pair formation between chloroquine and methyl orange in either dichloromethane or chloroform. Absorbance values measured at 420 nm with a hand-held, battery-operated filter photometer were linearly related to chloroquine concentrations in urine up to 100 μmol/l (32 μg/ml) for both methods. The contribution of the desethylchloroquine metabolite to the measured absorbance for both methods is less than that of chloroquine; the relative sensitivity for this metabolite is about 50% of that of chloroquine for both methods. The detection limit for modification I is 1 μmol/l (0.3 μg/ml), while that for modification II is 3 μmol/l (1 μg/ml). A single dose of chloroquine diphosphate (300 mg as base) administered to each of three volunteers yielded detectable levels by modification I of chloroquine in the urine for 28 days after dosing. Results for the colorimetric methods correlated well with the liquid chromatographic reference method used. The related thin-layer chromatographic method confirmed the presence of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine in the urine and permitted independent estimation of the concentration of these two compounds if desired. The two colorimetric methods may be used in remote locations where no electricity is available. PMID:3501342

  11. Reverse-flow apparatus for enhanced colorimetric detection of bacteriuria.

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

    1984-01-01

    The reverse-flow apparatus is a new device for enhancing the detection of bacteria in urine. Bacteria are trapped onto a customized filter, and the pigments, crystals, and other interfering substances in the urine pass through the filter and are discarded. The bacteria are backflushed and are recovered as a concentrate, and the concentrate is then processed through the previously described colorimetric bacteriuria detection device. A total of 1,000 urine samples were obtained from randomly selected patients and were cultured on agar. Upon enumeration of the colonies, 160 urine samples were shown to contain more than 10(5) CFU/ml. In the bacteriuria detection device, 150 urine samples could not be processed (pigmenters and cloggers), and of the 850 urine samples processed, 127 were culture positive for 10(5) CFU/ml or greater, and 150 urine samples contained between 10(4) and 10(5) CFU/ml. At 10(5) CFU/ml, there were 140 false-positives and 14 false-negatives. When duplicate urine samples were processed through and concentrated by our new reverse-flow apparatus, all samples, including the above pigmenters and cloggers, could be tested in the bacteriuria detection device. The 150 unprocessable samples described above yielded 33 additional bacteria-positive urines, 23 at the 10(5)-CFU/ml cutoff and 10 at the 10(4)-to-10(5)-CFU/ml cutoff. There were 105 false-positives at 10(5) CFU/ml and only 2 false-negatives at the same level of bacteria. At 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml there was only 1% false-positive and 4% false-negative. The reverse-flow apparatus allows greater specificity and sensitivity in the rapid bacteriuria test. Urine containing 10(4) CFU/ml or more can now be detected with a 96% sensitivity in a total processing time of less than 2 min. Images PMID:6392325

  12. Analysis of antifreeze protein activity using colorimetric gold nanosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xu; Choi, Ho-seok; Park, Ji-In; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-07-01

    High activity and long stability of antifreeze proteins (AFPs), also known as ice-binding proteins (IBPs), are necessary for exerting their physiological functions in biotechnology and cryomedicine. Here we report a simple analysis of antifreeze protein activity and stability based on self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via freezing and thawing cycles. While the mercaptosuccinic acid-capped AuNP (MSA-AuNP) was easily self-assembled after a freezing/thawing cycle, due to the mechanical attack of ice crystal on the MSA-AuNP surface, the presence of AFP impeded the self-assembly of MSA-AuNP via the interaction of AFP with ice crystals via freezing and thawing cycles, which led to a strong color in the MSA-AuNP solution. As a result, the aggregation parameter (E520/E650) of MSA-AuNP showed the rapid detection of both activity and stability of AFPs. We suggest that our newly developed method is very suitable for measuring antifreeze activity and stability in a simple and rapid manner with reliable quantification.

  13. Resazurin Microtiter Assay Plate Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Susceptibilities to Second-Line Drugs: Rapid, Simple, and Inexpensive Method

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anandi; Camacho, Mirtha; Portaels, Françoise; Palomino, Juan Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis calls for new, rapid drug susceptibility tests. We have tested 150 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates against the second-line drugs ethionamide, kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and para-aminosalicylic acid by the colorimetric resazurin microtiter assay and the proportion method. By visual reading, MICs were obtained after 8 days. A very good correlation between results by the colorimetric resazurin microtiter assay and the proportion method was obtained. The colorimetric resazurin microtiter assay is inexpensive, rapid, and simple to perform, and implementation of the assay is feasible for low-resource countries. PMID:14576129

  14. Colorimetric detection of kanamycin based on analyte-protected silver nanoparticles and aptamer-selective sensing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Han, Tian; Li, Xiaqing; Sun, Linghao; Zhang, Yujuan; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2015-09-03

    In this work, a novel colorimetric detection method for kanamycin (Kana), a widely used aminoglycoside antibiotic, has been developed using unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as sensing probe. The method is designed based on the finding that the analyte (Kana) can protect AgNPs against salt-induced aggregation, and nucleic acid aptamers can decrease the risk of false positives through an aptamer-selective sensing mechanism. By use of the proposed method, selective quantification of Kana can be achieved over the concentration range from 0.05 to 0.6 μg mL(-1) within 20 min. The detection limit is estimated to be 2.6 ng mL(-1), which is much lower than the allowed maximum residue limit. Further studies also demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method in milk samples, revealing that the method may possess enormous potential for practical detection of Kana in the future.

  15. Simple colorimetric methods for determination of sub-milligram amounts of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear particles.

    PubMed

    Vesely, F; Zolotarevova, E; Spundova, M; Kaftan, F; Slouf, M; Entlicher, G

    2012-05-01

    New colorimetric methods are described for determination of sub-milligram amounts of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear particles. These methods are based on the irreversible binding of the fluorescein-conjugated bovine serum albumin or the hydrophobic dye Oil Red O to wear particles. UHMWPE particles bind both substances from their solutions and thus decrease the absorbance of these solutions. The decrease is linearly dependent on the amount of added wear particles in the sub-milligram range suitable for practical use. The newly developed method offers improved accuracy and precision compared to Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (Slouf M, et al. Quantification of UHMWPE wear in periprosthetic tissues of hip arthoplasty: description of a new method based on IR and comparison with radiographic appearance. Wear 2008;265:674-684.).

  16. Colorimetric As (V) detection based on S-layer functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Mathias; Matys, Sabine; Raff, Johannes; Pompe, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Herein, we present simple and rapid colorimetric and UV/VIS spectroscopic methods for detecting anionic arsenic (V) complexes in aqueous media. The methods exploit the aggregation of S-layer-functionalized spherical gold nanoparticles of sizes between 20 and 50 nm in the presence of arsenic species. The gold nanoparticles were functionalized with oligomers of the S-layer protein of Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-A12. The aggregation of the nanoparticles results in a color change from burgundy-red for widely dispersed nanoparticles to blue for aggregated nanoparticles. A detailed signal analysis was achieved by measuring the shift of the particle plasmon resonance signal with UV/VIS spectroscopy. To further improve signal sensitivity, the influence of larger nanoparticles was tested. In the case of 50 nm gold nanoparticles, a concentration of the anionic arsenic (V) complex lower than 24 ppb was detectable.

  17. A colorimetric assay for determination of methyl parathion using recombinant methyl parathion hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dau Hung; Cheunrungsikul, Kritsananporn; Wichitwechkarn, Jesdawan; Surareungchai, Werasak

    2011-05-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive colorimetric dipstick assay for the detection of the organophosphorous insecticide methyl parathion (MPT) residue in vegetables was developed. The assay was based on the hydrolysis of MPT by a recombinant methyl parathion hydrolase (recMPH), the encoding gene of which was isolated from Burkholderia cepacia, a soil bacterium indigenous to Thailand. This reaction generates protons leading to a change in pH that correlates with the amount of MPH present. Hence, the pH indicator bromothymol blue was used to monitor the MPH hydrolysis as the associated color changes can be observed by the naked eye. The recMPH was immobilized on a PVDF membrane to establish a dipstick assay format. The assays could detect MPT residues in spiked vegetable samples at the concentration of 1 mg/L without using analytical instrumentation. The test is reusable and stable for up to 3 months in the absence of any preservatives.

  18. Detection of Carbendazim Residues with a Colorimetric Sensor Based on Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Jiang, H.; Shen, C.; Hou, Ch.; Huo, D.; Wu, H.; Yang, M.

    2017-07-01

    Carbendazim is among the most popular benzimidazole bactericides that are widely used to boost food production, and its residue poses a great threat to human health and the environment. In this paper, we presented a colorimetric sensor based on gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) for the detection of carbendazim residues. The Au-NPs were stabilized by citric acid synthesized by chloroauric acid and sodium citrate with a diameter of about 13 nm. Upon reaction with carbendazim, the sensor gave a clear color change that could be distinguished with the naked eye. Thus we elaborated a new method for rapid determination of this benzimidazole bactericide. After optimization of the detection conditions, the sensor showed a very good linear relationship with the carbendazim concentrations varying from 10 to 600 ppb with a detection limit down to 3.4 ppb (S/N = 3). These preliminary results demonstrate that the presented sensor is promising for fast carbendazim analysis.

  19. Simplified three-dimensional tissue clearing and incorporation of colorimetric phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kevin; Ding, Yichen; Ma, Jianguo; Chen, Harrison; Huang, Vincent; Cheng, Michelle; Yang, Cindy F.; Kim, Jocelyn T.; Eguchi, Daniel; Di Carlo, Dino; Hsiai, Tzung K.; Nakano, Atsushi; Kulkarni, Rajan P.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue clearing methods promise to provide exquisite three-dimensional imaging information; however, there is a need for simplified methods for lower resource settings and for non-fluorescence based phenotyping to enable light microscopic imaging modalities. Here we describe the simplified CLARITY method (SCM) for tissue clearing that preserves epitopes of interest. We imaged the resulting tissues using light sheet microscopy to generate rapid 3D reconstructions of entire tissues and organs. In addition, to enable clearing and 3D tissue imaging with light microscopy methods, we developed a colorimetric, non-fluorescent method for specifically labeling cleared tissues based on horseradish peroxidase conversion of diaminobenzidine to a colored insoluble product. The methods we describe here are portable and can be accomplished at low cost, and can allow light microscopic imaging of cleared tissues, thus enabling tissue clearing and imaging in a wide variety of settings. PMID:27498769

  20. Colorimetric Detection of Plasmodium vivax in Urine Using MSP10 Oligonucleotides and Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Alnasser, Yossef; Ferradas, Cusi; Clark, Taryn; Calderon, Maritza; Gurbillon, Alejandro; Gamboa, Dionicia; McKakpo, Uri S.; Quakyi, Isabella A.; Bosompem, Kwabena M.; Sullivan, David J.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent cause of human malaria in the world and can lead to severe disease with high potential for relapse. Its genetic and geographic diversities make it challenging to control. P. vivax is understudied and to achieve control of malaria in endemic areas, a rapid, accurate, and simple diagnostic tool is necessary. In this pilot study, we found that a colorimetric system using AuNPs and MSP10 DNA detection in urine can provide fast, easy, and inexpensive identification of P. vivax. The test exhibited promising sensitivity (84%), high specificity (97%), and only mild cross-reactivity with P. falciparum (21%). It is simple to use, with a visible color change that negates the need for a spectrometer, making it suitable for use in austere conditions. Using urine eliminates the need for finger-prick, increasing both the safety profile and patient acceptance of this model. PMID:27706158

  1. Colorimetric Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Identification of Chemical Weapons and Explosives

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Michael J.; Burks, Raychelle M.; Atwater, Jordyn; Lukowicz, Rachel M.; Williams, Pat; Holmes, Andrea E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is a significant demand for devices that can rapidly detect chemical–biological–explosive (CBE) threats on-site and allow for immediate responders to mitigate spread, risk, and loss. The key to an effective reconnaissance mission is a unified detection technology that analyzes potential threats in real time. In addition to reviewing the current state of the art in the field, this review illustrates the practicality of colorimetric arrays composed of sensors that change colors in the presence of analytes. This review also describes an outlook toward future technologies, and describes how they could possibly be used in areas such as war zones to detect and identify hazardous substances. PMID:27636675

  2. Colorimetric monitoring of solid-phase aldehydes using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Simon K; Barany, George

    2004-01-01

    A simple and rapid method to achieve colorimetric monitoring of resin-bound aldehydes, based on ambient temperature reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) in the presence of dilute acid, has been developed as an adjunct to solid-phase organic synthesis and combinatorial chemistry. By this test, the presence of aldehydes is indicated by a red to dark-orange appearance, within a minute. Alternatively, resins that are free of aldehydes or in which aldehyde functions have reacted completely retain their original color. The DNPH test was demonstrated for poly(ethylene glycol)-polystyrene (PEG-PS), aminomethyl polystyrene (AMP), cross-linked ethoxylate acrylate resin (CLEAR), and acryloylated O,O'-bis(2-aminopropyl)poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGA) supports and gave results visible to the naked eye at levels as low as 18 micromol of aldehyde per gram of resin.

  3. Micro-RNA quantification using DNA polymerase and pyrophosphate quantification.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsiang-Ping; Hsiao, Yi-Ling; Pan, Hung-Yin; Huang, Chih-Hung; Hou, Shao-Yi

    2011-12-15

    A rapid quantification method for micro-RNA based on DNA polymerase activity and pyrophosphate quantification has been developed. The tested micro-RNA serves as the primer, unlike the DNA primer in all DNA sequencing methods, and the DNA probe serves as the template for DNA replication. After the DNA synthesis, the pyrophosphate detection and quantification indicate the existence and quantity of the tested miRNA. Five femtomoles of the synthetic RNA could be detected. In 20-100 μg RNA samples purified from SiHa cells, the measurement was done using the proposed assay in which hsa-miR-16 and hsa-miR-21 are 0.34 fmol/μg RNA and 0.71 fmol/μg RNA, respectively. This simple and inexpensive assay takes less than 5 min after total RNA purification and preparation. The quantification is not affected by the pre-miRNA which cannot serve as the primer for the DNA synthesis in this assay. This assay is general for the detection of the target RNA or DNA with a known matched DNA template probe, which could be widely used for detection of small RNA, messenger RNA, RNA viruses, and DNA. Therefore, the method could be widely used in RNA and DNA assays.

  4. Rapid automated screening, identification and quantification of organic micro-contaminants and their main transformation products in wastewater and river waters using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry with an accurate-mass database.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M J; Gómez-Ramos, M M; Malato, O; Mezcua, M; Férnandez-Alba, A R

    2010-11-05

    In this study we have developed and evaluated an analytical method for a rapid automated screening and confirmation of a large number of organic micro-contaminants (almost 400) and also the quantification of the positive findings in water samples of different types (surface and wastewaters) using liquid chromatography-electrospray quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOFMS) based on the use of an accurate-mass database. The created database includes data not only on the accurate masses of the target ions but also on the characteristic in-source fragment ions, isotopic pattern and retention time data. This customized database was linked to commercially available software which extracted all the potential compounds of interest from the LC-QTOFMS raw data of each sample and matched them against the database to search for targeted compounds in the sample. The detailed fragmentation information has also been used as a powerful tool for the automatic identification of unknown compounds and/or transformation products with similar structures to those of known organic contaminants included in the database. The database can be continually enlarged. To confirm identification of compounds which have no fragment ions (or fragments with low intensity/relative abundance) from in-source CID fragmentation or isomers which are not distinguished within full single mass spectra, a "Targeted MS/MS" method is developed. Thereafter, these compounds can be further analyzed using the collision energy (CE) in QTOF-MS/MS mode. Linearity and limits of detection were studied. Method detection limits (MDLs) in effluent wastewater and river waters were, in most cases, lowers or equal to 5 and 2 ng/L, respectively. Only 15 compounds had MDLs between 5 and 50 ng/L in effluent wastewater matrix. We obtained a linearity of the calibration curves over two orders of magnitude. The method has been applied to real samples and the results obtained reveal that most of the pharmaceutically

  5. Colorimetric Detection of 23 Human Papillomavirus Genotypes by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification.