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Sample records for rapid eye movement

  1. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-04-10

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Non-rapid eye movement sleep parasomnias.

    PubMed

    Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H

    2005-11-01

    Parasomnias are unpleasant or undesirable behavioral or experiential phenomena that occur during sleep. Once believed unitary phenomena related to psychiatric disorders, it is now clear that parasomnias result from several different phenomena and usually are not related to psychiatric conditions. Parasomnias are categorized as primary (disorders of the sleep states) and secondary (disorders of other organ systems that manifest themselves during sleep). Primary sleep parasomnias can be classified according to the sleep state of origin: rapid eye movement sleep, non-rapid eye movement sleep, and miscellaneous (those not respecting sleep state). Secondary sleep parasomnias are classified by the organ system involved.

  3. Human amygdala activation during rapid eye movements of rapid eye movement sleep: an intracranial study.

    PubMed

    Corsi-Cabrera, María; Velasco, Francisco; Del Río-Portilla, Yolanda; Armony, Jorge L; Trejo-Martínez, David; Guevara, Miguel A; Velasco, Ana L

    2016-10-01

    The amygdaloid complex plays a crucial role in processing emotional signals and in the formation of emotional memories. Neuroimaging studies have shown human amygdala activation during rapid eye movement sleep (REM). Stereotactically implanted electrodes for presurgical evaluation in epileptic patients provide a unique opportunity to directly record amygdala activity. The present study analysed amygdala activity associated with REM sleep eye movements on the millisecond scale. We propose that phasic activation associated with rapid eye movements may provide the amygdala with endogenous excitation during REM sleep. Standard polysomnography and stereo-electroencephalograph (SEEG) were recorded simultaneously during spontaneous sleep in the left amygdala of four patients. Time-frequency analysis and absolute power of gamma activity were obtained for 250 ms time windows preceding and following eye movement onset in REM sleep, and in spontaneous waking eye movements in the dark. Absolute power of the 44-48 Hz band increased significantly during the 250 ms time window after REM sleep rapid eye movements onset, but not during waking eye movements. Transient activation of the amygdala provides physiological support for the proposed participation of the amygdala in emotional expression, in the emotional content of dreams and for the reactivation and consolidation of emotional memories during REM sleep, as well as for next-day emotional regulation, and its possible role in the bidirectional interaction between REM sleep and such sleep disorders as nightmares, anxiety and post-traumatic sleep disorder. These results provide unique, direct evidence of increased activation of the human amygdala time-locked to REM sleep rapid eye movements.

  4. Rapid eye movement latency in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mason, Thornton B A; Teoh, Laurel; Calabro, Kristen; Traylor, Joel; Karamessinis, Laurie; Schultz, Brian; Samuel, John; Gallagher, Paul R; Marcus, Carole L

    2008-09-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep distribution changes during development, but little is known about rapid eye movement latency variation in childhood by age, sex, or pathologic sleep states. We hypothesized that: (1) rapid eye movement latency would differ in normal children by age, with a younger cohort (1-10 years) demonstrating shorter rapid eye movement latency than an older group (>10-18 years); (2) rapid eye movement latency in children would differ from typical adult rapid eye movement latency; and (3) intrinsic sleep disorders (narcolepsy, pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome) would disrupt normal developmental patterns of rapid eye movement latency. A retrospective chart review included data from clinic visits and of rapid eye movement latency and other parameters measured by overnight polysomnography. Participants included 98 control children, 90 children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and 13 children with narcolepsy. There were no statistically significant main effects of age category or sex on rapid eye movement latency. Rapid eye movement latency, however, exhibited a significant inverse correlation with age within the older control children. Healthy children exhibited rapid eye movement latencies significantly longer than adults. Normal control patients demonstrated significantly longer rapid eye movement latency than obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and narcolepsy patients.

  5. Do the eyes scan dream images during rapid eye movement sleep? Evidence from the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder model.

    PubMed

    Leclair-Visonneau, Laurène; Oudiette, Delphine; Gaymard, Bertrand; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Rapid eye movements and complex visual dreams are salient features of human rapid eye movement sleep. However, it remains to be elucidated whether the eyes scan dream images, despite studies that have retrospectively compared the direction of rapid eye movements to the dream recall recorded after having awakened the sleeper. We used the model of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (when patients enact their dreams by persistence of muscle tone) to determine directly whether the eyes move in the same directions as the head and limbs. In 56 patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 17 healthy matched controls, the eye movements were monitored by electrooculography in four (right, left, up and down) directions, calibrated with a target and synchronized with video and sleep monitoring. The rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-associated behaviours occurred 2.1 times more frequently during rapid eye movement sleep with than without rapid eye movements, and more often during or after rapid eye movements than before. Rapid eye movement density, index and complexity were similar in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and controls. When rapid eye movements accompanied goal-oriented motor behaviour during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (e.g. grabbing a fictive object, hand greetings, climbing a ladder), which happened in 19 sequences, 82% were directed towards the action of the patient (same plane and direction). When restricted to the determinant rapid eye movements, the concordance increased to 90%. Rapid eye movements were absent in 38-42% of behaviours. This directional coherence between limbs, head and eye movements during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder suggests that, when present, rapid eye movements imitate the scanning of the dream scene. Since the rapid eye movements are similar in subjects with and without rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, this concordance can be extended

  6. Rapid eye movement dependent central apnea with periodic leg movements.

    PubMed

    Yüceege, Melike; Fırat, Hikmet; Kuyucu, Mutlu; Ardıç, Sadık

    2013-04-01

    Central sleep apnea is a period of at least 10 s without airflow, during which no ventilatory effort is present. Most of the central apneas occur in Non-Rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Central apnea occuring in Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is extremely rare. We present our patient who had a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in another sleep center since 2003. His Auto Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) machine was disrupted so he admitted to our center to renew his machine and for daytime sleepiness while using his machine. The polysomnography revealed central apneas ending with respiratory arousals and periodic leg movements in rapid eye movement (REM) stage. We found no cause for central apneas. The patient benefited from servo ventilator therapy. We present this case as an unusual form of central apnea with the review of the literatures. Even the patients diagnosed as obstructive sleep apnea should be analyzed carefully. The diagnosis and the therapeutic approach may change in the favor of the patient.

  7. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however, a distinct phenotype with respect to other RBD patients and characterized also by absence of gender predominance, elementary rather than complex movements, less violent behavior and earlier age at onset of motor events, and strong association to narcolepsy with cataplexy/hypocretin deficiency. Patients with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic motor activities in REM sleep and dream-enacting behavior are mostly reported in presence of cataplexy. Narcolepsy without cataplexy is a condition rarely associated with hypocretin deficiency. We proposed that hypocretin neurons are centrally involved in motor control during wakefulness and sleep in humans, and that hypocretin deficiency causes a functional defect in the motor control involved in the development of cataplexy during wakefulness and RBD/RSWA/phasic motor activity during REM sleep.

  8. Absence of rapid eye movements during sleep in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Árnason, B B; Þorsteinsson, H; Karlsson, K Æ

    2015-09-15

    Sleep is not a uniform phenomenon, but is organized in alternating, fundamentally different states, rapid eye movement sleep and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have recently emerged as an excellent model for sleep research. Zebrafish are well characterized in terms of development, neurobiology and genetics. Moreover, there are many experimental tools not easily applied in mammalian models that can be readily applied to zebrafish, making them a valuable additional animal model for sleep research. Sleep in zebrafish is defined behaviorally and exhibits the hallmarks of mammalian sleep (e.g. sleep homeostasis and pressure). To our knowledge no attempts have been made to discern if sleep in zebrafish entails alternations of REM-NREM sleep cycles which are critical for further development of the model. In the current experiment we quantify two key REM sleep components, rapid eye movements and respiratory rates, across sleep-wake cycles. We find no sleep-related rapid eye movements. During sleep respiratory rates, however, are reduced and become less regular, further establishing that the behavioral definition used truly captures a change in the fish's physiology. We thus fail to find evidence for REM-NREM sleep cycles in zebrafish but demonstrate a physiological change that occurs concomitantly with the previously defined behavioral state of sleep. We do not rule out that other phasic REM components (e.g. atonia, cardiac arrhythmias, myoclonic twitches or desynchronized EEG) are coherently expressed during sleep but we conclude that adult zebrafish do not have REM-sleep-related rapid eye movements.

  9. The echidna manifests typical characteristics of rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Nicol, S C; Andersen, N A; Phillips, N H; Berger, R J

    2000-03-31

    The failure to identify rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) in an early study of the echidna at an unmeasured ambient temperature (T(a)) was unexpected, as its brain stem structures resemble those that generate REMS in other mammals. However, typical mammalian REMS was evident in echidnas exposed to several T(a)s. The parallel presence of REMS in birds points to its reptilian origin.

  10. The Involvement of Noradrenaline in Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Mentation

    PubMed Central

    Gottesmann, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Noradrenaline, one of the main brain monoamines, has powerful central influences on forebrain neurobiological processes which support the mental activities occurring during the sleep–waking cycle. Noradrenergic neurons are activated during waking, decrease their firing rate during slow wave sleep, and become silent during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Although a low level of noradrenaline is still maintained during REM sleep because of diffuse extrasynaptic release without rapid withdrawal, the decrease observed during REM sleep contributes to the mentation disturbances that occur during dreaming, which principally resemble symptoms of schizophrenia but seemingly also of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:22180750

  11. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with narcolepsy is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Jennum, Poul J

    2010-02-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by dream-enacting behaviour and impaired motor inhibition during rapid eye movement sleep. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but also reported in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Most narcolepsy with cataplexy patients lack the sleep-wake, and rapid eye movement sleep, motor-regulating hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. In contrast, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and hypocretin deficiency are rare in narcolepsy without cataplexy. We hypothesized that rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder coexists with cataplexy in narcolepsy due to hypocretin deficiency. In our study, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was diagnosed by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2nd edition) criteria in 63 narcolepsy patients with or without cataplexy. Main outcome measures were: rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder symptoms; short and long muscle activations per hour rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep; and periodic and non-periodic limb movements per hour rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Outcome variables were analysed in relation to cataplexy and hypocretin deficiency with uni- and multivariate logistic/linear regression models, controlling for possible rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder biasing factors (age, gender, disease duration, previous anti-cataplexy medication). Only hypocretin deficiency independently predicted rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder symptoms (relative risk = 3.69, P = 0.03), long muscle activations per hour rapid eye movement sleep (ln-coefficient = 0.81, P < 0.01), and short muscle activations per hour rapid eye movement sleep (ln-coefficient = 1.01, P < 0.01). Likewise, periodic limb movements per hour rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep were only associated with hypocretin deficiency (P < 0.01). A significant

  12. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder During Childhood.

    PubMed

    Kotagal, Suresh

    2015-06-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a type of parasomnia that arises out of REM sleep and is characterized by aggressive or violent motor dream enactment in conjunction with preservation of tonic electromyographic activity (ie, REM sleep without atonia). RBD occurs at all ages and in both sexes, although it remains relatively infrequent during childhood. The literature pertaining to RBD in childhood is scant, and composed only of single case reports or small case series. RBD etiologies include Parkinson disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body disease. This article presents an updated review of childhood RBD.

  13. Automated detection of rapid eye movements in children.

    PubMed

    Held, Claudio M; Causa, Javier; Causa, Leonardo; Estévez, Pablo A; Perez, Claudio A; Garrido, Marcelo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Algarin, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    We present an automated multiple-step tool to identify Rapid Eye Movements (REMs) in the polysomnogram, based on modeling expert criteria. It begins by identifying the polysomnogram segments compatible with REMs presence. On these segments, high-energy REMs are identified. Then, vicinity zones around those REMs are defined, and lesser-energy REMs are sought in these vicinities. This strategy has the advantage that it can detect lesser-energy REMs without increasing much the false positive detections. Signal processing, feature extraction, and fuzzy logic tools are used to achieve the goal. The tool was trained and validated on a database consisting of 20 all-night polysomnogram recordings (160 hr) of healthy ten-year-old children. Preliminary results on the validation set show 85.5% sensitivity and a false positive rate of 16.2%. Our tool works on complete polysomnogram recordings, without the need of preprocessing, prior knowledge of the hypnogram, or noise-free segments selection.

  14. [Parkinson Disease With Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by lack of muscle atonia during REM sleep and enactment of dream content. RBD is associated with Parkinson disease (PD) and has high incidence in PD patients. PD patient with RBD mainly presents rigid type, has longer disease duration, more severe motor and non-motor symptoms and poorer activity of daily living and life quality. The pathophysiological mechanisms of RBD may be related to dysfunctions of pontine tegmentum, locus coeruleus/sub-locus coeruleus complex and related projections. The diagnosis of RBD depends on clinical histories and video-polysomnography (v-PSG). Besides treatment for PD, protective measures have to be taken for patients and their sleep partners. If abnormal behaviors during sleep cause distress and danger,patients should be given drug therapy.

  15. Ictal SPECT in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Geert; Bitterlich, Marion; Kuwert, Torsten; Ritt, Philipp; Stefan, Hermann

    2015-05-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is a rapid eye movement parasomnia clinically characterized by acting out dreams due to disinhibition of muscle tone in rapid eye movement sleep. Up to 80-90% of the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder develop neurodegenerative disorders within 10-15 years after symptom onset. The disorder is reported in 45-60% of all narcoleptic patients. Whether rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is also a predictor for neurodegeneration in narcolepsy is not known. Although the pathophysiology causing the disinhibition of muscle tone in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been studied extensively in animals, little is known about the mechanisms in humans. Most of the human data are from imaging or post-mortem studies. Recent studies show altered functional connectivity between substantia nigra and striatum in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We were interested to study which regions are activated in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder during actual episodes by performing ictal single photon emission tomography. We studied one patient with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, one with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, and two patients with narcolepsy and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. All patients underwent extended video polysomnography. The tracer was injected after at least 10 s of consecutive rapid eye movement sleep and 10 s of disinhibited muscle tone accompanied by movements registered by an experienced sleep technician. Ictal single photon emission tomography displayed the same activation in the bilateral premotor areas, the interhemispheric cleft, the periaqueductal area, the dorsal and ventral pons and the anterior lobe of the cerebellum in all patients. Our study shows that in patients with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-in contrast to wakefulness

  16. GBA mutations are associated with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    PubMed

    Gan-Or, Ziv; Mirelman, Anat; Postuma, Ronald B; Arnulf, Isabelle; Bar-Shira, Anat; Dauvilliers, Yves; Desautels, Alex; Gagnon, Jean-François; Leblond, Claire S; Frauscher, Birgit; Alcalay, Roy N; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Bressman, Susan B; Marder, Karen; Monaca, Christelle; Högl, Birgit; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Dion, Patrick A; Montplaisir, Jacques Y; Giladi, Nir; Rouleau, Guy A

    2015-09-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and GBA mutations are both associated with Parkinson's disease. The GBA gene was sequenced in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients (n = 265), and compared to controls (n = 2240). Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder questionnaire was performed in an independent Parkinson's disease cohort (n = 120). GBA mutations carriers had an OR of 6.24 (10.2% in patients vs. 1.8% in controls, P < 0.0001) for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and among Parkinson's disease patients, the OR for mutation carriers to have probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder was 3.13 (P = 0.039). These results demonstrate that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is associated with GBA mutations, and that combining genetic and prodromal data may assist in identifying individuals susceptible to Parkinson's disease.

  17. GBA mutations are associated with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gan-Or, Ziv; Mirelman, Anat; Postuma, Ronald B; Arnulf, Isabelle; Bar-Shira, Anat; Dauvilliers, Yves; Desautels, Alex; Gagnon, Jean-François; Leblond, Claire S; Frauscher, Birgit; Alcalay, Roy N; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Bressman, Susan B; Marder, Karen; Monaca, Christelle; Högl, Birgit; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Dion, Patrick A; Montplaisir, Jacques Y; Giladi, Nir; Rouleau, Guy A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and GBA mutations are both associated with Parkinson's disease. The GBA gene was sequenced in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients (n = 265), and compared to controls (n = 2240). Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder questionnaire was performed in an independent Parkinson's disease cohort (n = 120). GBA mutations carriers had an OR of 6.24 (10.2% in patients vs. 1.8% in controls, P < 0.0001) for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and among Parkinson's disease patients, the OR for mutation carriers to have probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder was 3.13 (P = 0.039). These results demonstrate that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is associated with GBA mutations, and that combining genetic and prodromal data may assist in identifying individuals susceptible to Parkinson's disease. PMID:26401515

  18. Markers of neurodegeneration in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Postuma, R B; Gagnon, J F; Vendette, M; Montplaisir, J Y

    2009-12-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is an important risk factor in the development of Parkinson's disease. Numerous potential predictive markers of Parkinson's disease may present before motor symptoms emerge, but testing of these markers in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been performed only in small studies. There has been no comparison of markers between patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease, and between men and women. We evaluated an array of potential Parkinson's disease predictive markers in 159 patients; including 68 with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 36 controls, 34 Parkinson's patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 Parkinson's patients without rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Compared with controls, patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder demonstrated substantial olfactory loss (P < 0.001). Olfaction was more impaired in Parkinson's disease than idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and did not differ between Parkinson's patients with, or without, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Numerous measures of motor function including the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale alternate tap, Purdue Peg Board and Timed 'Up and Go' were impaired in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder compared with controls (P < 0.01). All of these motor measures were worse with Parkinson's disease than with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, regardless of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder status. Autonomic symptoms and systolic blood pressure drop were impaired in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder compared with controls (P = 0.003). Orthostatic abnormalities in Parkinson's disease were found in the group with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (P < 0.001). However, Parkinson

  19. Rhythmic movement disorder (head banging) in an adult during rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kirstie N; Smith, Ian E; Shneerson, John M

    2006-06-01

    Sleep-related rhythmic movements (head banging or body rocking) are extremely common in normal infants and young children, but less than 5% of children over the age of 5 years old exhibit these stereotyped motor behaviors. They characteristically occur during drowsiness or sleep onset rather than in deep sleep or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We present a 27-year-old man with typical rhythmic movement disorder that had persisted into adult life and was restricted to REM sleep. This man is the oldest subject with this presentation reported to date and highlights the importance of recognizing this nocturnal movement disorder when it does occur in adults.

  20. Monotremes and the evolution of rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J M; Manger, P R; Nienhuis, R; Fahringer, H M; Pettigrew, J D

    1998-07-29

    Early studies of the echidna led to the conclusion that this monotreme did not have rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Because the monotremes had diverged from the placental and marsupial lines very early in mammalian evolution, this finding was used to support the hypothesis that REM sleep evolved after the start of the mammalian line. The current paper summarizes our recent work on sleep in the echidna and platypus and leads to a very different interpretation. By using neuronal recording from mesopontine regions in the echidna, we found that despite the presence of a high-voltage cortical electroencephalogram (EEG), brainstem units fire in irregular bursts intermediate in intensity between the regular non-REM sleep pattern and the highly irregular REM sleep pattern seen in placentals. Thus the echidna displays brainstem activation during sleep with high-voltage cortical EEG. This work encouraged us to do the first study of sleep, to our knowledge, in the platypus. In the platypus we saw sleep with vigorous rapid eye, bill and head twitching, identical in behaviour to that which defines REM sleep in placental mammals. Recording of the EEG in the platypus during natural sleep and waking states revealed that it had moderate and high-voltage cortical EEGs during this REM sleep state. The platypus not only has REM sleep, but it had more of it than any other animal. The lack of EEG voltage reduction during REM sleep in the platypus, and during the REM sleep-like state of the echidna, has some similarity to the sleep seen in neonatal sleep in placentals. The very high amounts of REM sleep seen in the platypus also fit with the increased REM sleep duration seen in altricial mammals. Our findings suggest that REM sleep originated earlier in mammalian evolution than had previously been thought and is consistent with the hypothesis that REM sleep, or a precursor state with aspects of REM sleep, may have had its origin in reptilian species.

  1. The coeruleus/subcoeruleus complex in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    García-Lorenzo, Daniel; Longo-Dos Santos, Clarisse; Ewenczyk, Claire; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Gallea, Cecile; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Pita Lobo, Patricia; Poupon, Cyril; Benali, Habib; Arnulf, Isabelle; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehericy, Stéphane

    2013-07-01

    In Parkinson's disease, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is an early non-dopaminergic syndrome with nocturnal violence and increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep that can precede Parkinsonism by several years. The neuronal origin of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease is not precisely known; however, the locus subcoeruleus in the brainstem has been implicated as this structure blocks muscle tone during normal rapid eye movement sleep in animal models and can be damaged in Parkinson's disease. Here, we studied the integrity of the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus complex in patients with Parkinson's disease using combined neuromelanin-sensitive, structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging approaches. We compared 24 patients with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 12 patients without rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent clinical examination and characterization of rapid eye movement sleep using video-polysomnography and multimodal imaging at 3 T. Using neuromelanin-sensitive imaging, reduced signal intensity was evident in the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus area in patients with Parkinson's disease that was more marked in patients with than those without rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Reduced signal intensity correlated with the percentage of abnormally increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep. The results confirmed that this complex is affected in Parkinson's disease and showed a gradual relationship between damage to this structure, presumably the locus subcoeruleus, and abnormal muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, which is the cardinal marker of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In longitudinal studies, the technique may also provide early markers of non-dopaminergic Parkinson's disease pathology to predict the occurrence of Parkinson's disease.

  2. Respiratory movements and rapid eye movement sleep in the foetal lamb

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, G. S.; Fox, H. E.; Leduc, B. M.; Liggins, G. C.; Richards, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    1. In foetal lambs from 40 days gestation (0·27 of term) onwards delivered into a warm saline bath, apparently spontaneous breathing movements were present intermittently. They became deeper and more rapid with increasing age. 2. In foetal lambs (from 0·66 of term) in which observations were made for many days after chronic implantation of tracheal, carotid and amniotic catheters, rapid irregular respiratory movements were present up to 40% of the time, and brief gasps also were seen. 3. The presence of these movements was unrelated to the foetal carotid blood gas values over a wide range of spontaneous variation. 4. These foetal breathing movements were accompanied by comparatively small alterations of pulmonary volume recorded from a tracheal flowmeter, insufficient to clear the tracheal dead space. Occasionally a more prolonged expiration led to the outward flow of fluid. 5. A description is given of sleep and wakefulness in foetal lambs from 0·78 of term. 6. Rapid irregular breathing was associated with rapid eye movement sleep as seen in a warm saline bath or, in utero, as inferred from records of eye movements and electrocortical activity. 7. Respiratory movements were often associated with relatively large variations in foetal heart rate, blood pressure and descending aortic blood flow. 8. Rapid irregular foetal breathing was unaffected by section or blockade of the cervical vagi, but was abolished by general anaesthesia. 9. It is concluded that respiratory movements are normally but intermittently present in the foetal lamb over the greater part of gestation. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 4Fig. 8Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 13 PMID:4333826

  3. Ventral medullary control of rapid eye movement sleep and atonia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Michael C; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Guo, Chun-Ni; Chang, Catie; Fuller, Patrick M; Lu, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Discrete populations of neurons at multiple levels of the brainstem control rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and the accompanying loss of postural muscle tone, or atonia. The specific contributions of these brainstem cell populations to REM sleep control remains incompletely understood. Here we show in rats that viral vector-based lesions of the ventromedial medulla at a level rostral to the inferior olive (pSOM) produced violent myoclonic twitches and abnormal electromyographic spikes, but not complete loss of tonic atonia, during REM sleep. Motor tone during non-REM (NREM) sleep was unaffected in these same animals. Acute chemogenetic activation of pSOM neurons in rats robustly and selectively suppressed REM sleep but not NREM sleep. Similar lesions targeting the more rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) did not affect sleep or atonia, while chemogenetic stimulation of the RVM produced wakefulness and reduced sleep. Finally, selective activation of vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) pSOM neurons in mice produced complete suppression of REM sleep whereas their loss increased EMG spikes during REM sleep. These results reveal a key contribution of the pSOM and specifically the VGAT+ neurons in this region in REM sleep and motor control.

  4. Morbidities in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Jennum, Poul; Mayer, Geert; Ju, Yo-El; Postuma, Ron

    2013-08-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD, RBD without any obvious comorbid major neurological disease), is strongly associated with numerous comorbid conditions. The most prominent is that with neurodegenerative disorders, especially synuclein-mediated disorders, above all Parkinson disease (PD). Idiopathic RBD is an important risk factor for the development of synucleinopathies. Comorbidity studies suggest that iRBD is associated with a number of other potential pre-motor manifestations of synucleinopathies such as, cognitive and olfactory impairment, reduced autonomic function, neuropsychiatric manifestations and sleep complaints. Furthermore, patients with PD and RBD may have worse prognosis in terms of impaired cognitive function and overall morbidity/mortality; in dementia, the presence of RBD is strongly associated with clinical hallmarks and pathological findings of dementia with Lewy bodies. These findings underline the progressive disease process, suggesting involvement of more brain regions in patients with a more advanced disease stage. RBD is also associated with narcolepsy, and it is likely that RBD associated with narcolepsy is a distinct subtype associated with different comorbidities. RBD is also associated with antidepressant medications, autoimmune conditions, and, in rare cases, brainstem lesions.

  5. Rapid eye movement sleep promotes cortical plasticity in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Dumoulin Bridi, Michelle C; Aton, Sara J; Seibt, Julie; Renouard, Leslie; Coleman, Tammi; Frank, Marcos G

    2015-07-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is maximal during early life, but its function in the developing brain is unknown. We investigated the role of rapid eye movement sleep in a canonical model of developmental plasticity in vivo (ocular dominance plasticity in the cat) induced by monocular deprivation. Preventing rapid eye movement sleep after monocular deprivation reduced ocular dominance plasticity and inhibited activation of a kinase critical for this plasticity (extracellular signal-regulated kinase). Chronic single-neuron recording in freely behaving cats further revealed that cortical activity during rapid eye movement sleep resembled activity present during monocular deprivation. This corresponded to times of maximal extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. These findings indicate that rapid eye movement sleep promotes molecular and network adaptations that consolidate waking experience in the developing brain.

  6. Rapid eye movement sleep promotes cortical plasticity in the developing brain

    PubMed Central

    Dumoulin Bridi, Michelle C.; Aton, Sara J.; Seibt, Julie; Renouard, Leslie; Coleman, Tammi; Frank, Marcos G.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is maximal during early life, but its function in the developing brain is unknown. We investigated the role of rapid eye movement sleep in a canonical model of developmental plasticity in vivo (ocular dominance plasticity in the cat) induced by monocular deprivation. Preventing rapid eye movement sleep after monocular deprivation reduced ocular dominance plasticity and inhibited activation of a kinase critical for this plasticity (extracellular signal–regulated kinase). Chronic single-neuron recording in freely behaving cats further revealed that cortical activity during rapid eye movement sleep resembled activity present during monocular deprivation. This corresponded to times of maximal extracellular signal–regulated kinase activation. These findings indicate that rapid eye movement sleep promotes molecular and network adaptations that consolidate waking experience in the developing brain. PMID:26601213

  7. Investigating rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in Parkinson's disease using the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Bolitho, Samuel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R; Melehan, Kerri; Yee, Brendon J; Coeytaux, Alessandra; Gilat, Moran; Lewis, Simon J G

    2014-05-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Accurate diagnosis is essential for managing this condition. Furthermore, the emergence of idiopathic RBD in later life can represent a premotor feature, heralding the development of PD. Reliable, accurate methods for identifying RBD may offer a window for early intervention. This study sought to identify whether the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) and three questionnaires focused on dream enactment were able to correctly identify patients with REM without atonia (RWA), the neurophysiological hallmark of RBD. Forty-six patients with PD underwent neurological and sleep assessment in addition to completing the RBDSQ, the RBD single question (RBD1Q), and the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ). The REM atonia index was derived for all participants as an objective measure of RWA. Patients identified to be RBD positive on the RBDSQ did not show increased RWA on polysomnography (80% sensitivity and 55% specificity). However, patients positive for RBD on questionnaires specific to dream enactment correctly identified higher degrees of RWA and improved the diagnostic accuracy of these questionnaires. This study suggests that the RBDSQ does not accurately identify RWA, essential for diagnosing RBD in PD. Furthermore, the results suggest that self-report measures of RBD need to focus questions on dream enactment behavior to better identify RWA and RBD. Further studies are needed to develop accurate determination and quantification of RWA in RBD to improve management of patients with PD in the future.

  8. The coeruleus/subcoeruleus complex in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Ehrminger, Mickael; Latimier, Alice; Pyatigorskaya, Nadya; Garcia-Lorenzo, Daniel; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehericy, Stéphane; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by nocturnal violence, increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep and the lack of any other neurological disease. However, idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder can precede parkinsonism and dementia by several years. Using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging and neuromelanin-sensitive sequences, we previously found that the signal intensity was reduced in the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus area of patients with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Here, we studied the integrity of the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus complex with neuromelanin-sensitive imaging in 21 patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and compared the results with those from 21 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent a clinical examination, motor, cognitive, autonomous, psychological, olfactory and colour vision tests, and rapid eye movement sleep characterization using video-polysomnography and 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. The patients more frequently had preclinical markers of alpha-synucleinopathies, including constipation, olfactory deficits, orthostatic hypotension, and subtle motor impairment. Using neuromelanin-sensitive imaging, reduced signal intensity was identified in the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus complex of the patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour. The mean sensitivity of the visual analyses of the signal performed by neuroradiologists who were blind to the clinical diagnoses was 82.5%, and the specificity was 81% for the identification of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour. The results confirm that this complex is affected in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour (to the same degree as it is affected in Parkinson's disease). Neuromelanin-sensitive imaging provides an early marker of non-dopaminergic alpha-synucleinopathy that can be detected on an individual

  9. The improvement of movement and speech during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Valérie Cochen; Debs, Rachel; Oudiette, Delphine; Leu, Smaranda; Radji, Fatai; Tiberge, Michel; Yu, Huan; Bayard, Sophie; Roze, Emmanuel; Vidailhet, Marie; Dauvilliers, Yves; Rascol, Olivier; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy is an atypical parkinsonism characterized by severe motor disabilities that are poorly levodopa responsive. Most patients develop rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Because parkinsonism is absent during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease, we studied the movements of patients with multiple system atrophy during rapid eye movement sleep. Forty-nine non-demented patients with multiple system atrophy and 49 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were interviewed along with their 98 bed partners using a structured questionnaire. They rated the quality of movements, vocal and facial expressions during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder as better than, equal to or worse than the same activities in an awake state. Sleep and movements were monitored using video-polysomnography in 22/49 patients with multiple system atrophy and in 19/49 patients with Parkinson's disease. These recordings were analysed for the presence of parkinsonism and cerebellar syndrome during rapid eye movement sleep movements. Clinical rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was observed in 43/49 (88%) patients with multiple system atrophy. Reports from the 31/43 bed partners who were able to evaluate movements during sleep indicate that 81% of the patients showed some form of improvement during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. These included improved movement (73% of patients: faster, 67%; stronger, 52%; and smoother, 26%), improved speech (59% of patients: louder, 55%; more intelligible, 17%; and better articulated, 36%) and normalized facial expression (50% of patients). The rate of improvement was higher in Parkinson's disease than in multiple system atrophy, but no further difference was observed between the two forms of multiple system atrophy (predominant parkinsonism versus cerebellar syndrome). Video-monitored movements during rapid eye movement sleep in patients with multiple system

  10. Effect of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation on rat brain monoamine oxidases.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, M; Mallick, B N

    1993-08-01

    Monoamine oxidase, monoamine oxidase-A, and monoamine oxidase-B activities were compared in free moving, rapid eye movement sleep-deprived, recovered, and control rat brains. The activities were estimated in the whole brain, cerebrum, cerebellum, whole brainstem, medulla, pons, and midbrain. The flowerpot method was used for continuing deprivation for one, two, or four days. Monoamine oxidase activity decreased significantly in the cerebrum and the cerebellum of the sleep-deprived rats, whereas monoamine oxidase-A and monoamine oxidase-B were differentially affected. Medullary MAO-A was the first to be affected, showing an increase after just one day of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation, while longer deprivation decreased its activity. The activity of monoamine oxidase-B was not significantly affected in any brain areas of the deprived rats until after two days of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation. All the altered enzyme activities returned to control levels after recovery. Control experiments suggest that the decrease was primarily caused by the rapid eye movement sleep deprivation and was not due to nonspecific effects. These findings are consistent with past studies and may help to explain earlier observations. The results support the involvement of aminergic mechanisms in rapid eye movement sleep. The plausible reasons for the changes in the activities of monoamine oxidases, after rapid eye movement sleep deprivation, are discussed.

  11. Patterns of cortical thinning in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Rahayel, Shady; Montplaisir, Jacques; Monchi, Oury; Bedetti, Christophe; Postuma, Ronald B; Brambati, Simona; Carrier, Julie; Joubert, Sven; Latreille, Véronique; Jubault, Thomas; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2015-04-15

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia that is a risk factor for dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease. Brain function impairments have been identified in this disorder, mainly in the frontal and posterior cortical regions. However, the anatomical support for these dysfunctions remains poorly understood. We investigated gray matter thickness, gray matter volume, and white matter integrity in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Twenty-four patients with polysomnography-confirmed idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and 42 healthy individuals underwent a 3-tesla structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging examination using corticometry, voxel-based morphometry, and diffusion tensor imaging. In the patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, decreased cortical thickness was observed in the frontal cortex, the lingual gyrus, and the fusiform gyrus. Gray matter volume was reduced in the superior frontal sulcus only. Patients showed no increased gray matter thickness or volume. Diffusion tensor imaging analyses revealed no significant white matter differences between groups. Using corticometry in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, several new cortical regions with gray matter alterations were identified, similar to those reported in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease. These findings provide some anatomical support for previously identified brain function impairments in this disorder.

  12. Brain perfusion and markers of neurodegeneration in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Vendette, Mélanie; Gagnon, Jean-François; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Gosselin, Nadia; Postuma, Ronald B; Tuineag, Maria; Godin, Isabelle; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Potential early markers of neurodegeneration such as subtle motor signs, reduced color discrimination, olfactory impairment, and brain perfusion abnormalities have been reported in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, a risk factor for Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia. The aim of this study was to reproduce observations of regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in a larger independent sample of patients and to explore correlations between regional cerebral blood flow and markers of neurodegeneration. Twenty patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and 20 healthy controls were studied by single-photon emission computerized tomography. Motor examination, color discrimination, and olfactory identification were examined. Patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder showed decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the frontal cortex and in medial parietal areas and increased regional cerebral blood flow in subcortical regions including the bilateral pons, putamen, and hippocampus. In rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, brain perfusion in the frontal cortex and occipital areas was associated with poorer performance in the color discrimination test. Moreover, a relationship between loss of olfactory discrimination and regional cerebral blood flow reduction in the bilateral anterior parahippocampal gyrus, a region known to be involved in olfactory functions, was found. This study provides further evidence of regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder that are similar to those seen in Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia. Moreover, regional cerebral blood flow anomalies were associated with markers of neurodegeneration.

  13. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and subtypes in autopsy-confirmed dementia with Lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    Dugger, Brittany N; Boeve, Bradley F; Murray, Melissa E; Parisi, Joseph E; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Dickson, Dennis W; Ferman, Tanis J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dementia with Lewy bodies with and without probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder differ clinically or pathologically. Patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) with probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior sleep disorder (n = 71) were compared with those without it (n = 19) on demographics, clinical variables (core features of dementia with Lewy bodies, dementia duration, rate of cognitive/motor changes), and pathologic indices (Lewy body distribution, neuritic plaque score, Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage). Individuals with probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder were predominantly male (82% vs 47%) and had a shorter duration of dementia (mean, 8 vs 10 years), earlier onset of parkinsonism (mean, 2 vs 5 years), and earlier onset of visual hallucinations (mean, 3 vs 6 years). These patients also had a lower Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage (stage IV vs stage VI) and lower neuritic plaque scores (18% vs 85% frequency), but no difference in Lewy body distribution. When probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder developed early (at or before dementia onset), the onset of parkinsonism and hallucinations was earlier and Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage was lower compared with those who developed the sleep disorder after dementia onset. Women with autopsy-confirmed DLB without a history of dream enactment behavior during sleep had a later onset of hallucinations and parkinsonism and a higher Braak NFT stage. Probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is associated with distinct clinical and pathologic characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies.

  14. Consistent abnormalities in metabolic network activity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David; Ma, Yilong; Zuo, Chuantao

    2014-12-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been evaluated using Parkinson's disease-related metabolic network. It is unknown whether this disorder is itself associated with a unique metabolic network. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed in 21 patients (age 65.0±5.6 years) with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects (age 62.5±7.5 years) to identify a disease-related pattern and examine its evolution in 21 hemi-parkinsonian patients (age 62.6±5.0 years) and 16 moderate parkinsonian patients (age 56.9±12.2 years). We identified a rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-related metabolic network characterized by increased activity in pons, thalamus, medial frontal and sensorimotor areas, hippocampus, supramarginal and inferior temporal gyri, and posterior cerebellum, with decreased activity in occipital and superior temporal regions. Compared to the healthy control subjects, network expressions were elevated (P<0.0001) in the patients with this disorder and in the parkinsonian cohorts but decreased with disease progression. Parkinson's disease-related network activity was also elevated (P<0.0001) in the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder but lower than in the hemi-parkinsonian cohort. Abnormal metabolic networks may provide markers of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder to identify those at higher risk to develop neurodegenerative parkinsonism.

  15. Rapid Nonconjugate Adaptation of Vertical Voluntary Pursuit Eye Movements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    applied to the post-adaptation data from the left eye magnification condition: YRpost(Transformed) = (2 * YRpre) - YRPost (6) For example, if the pie ...nonconjugate adaptation with spectacle- mounted plano -cylindrical lenses, Lemij (1990) demonstrated that nonconjugate pursuit adaptation was

  16. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Abnormalities in Children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS)

    PubMed Central

    Gaughan, Thomas; Buckley, Ashura; Hommer, Rebecca; Grant, Paul; Williams, Kyle; Leckman, James F.; Swedo, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Polysomnographic investigation of sleep architecture in children presenting with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). Methods: Fifteen consecutive subjects meeting criteria for PANS (mean age = 7.2 y; range 3–10 y) underwent single-night full polysomnography (PSG) read by a pediatric neurologist. Results: Thirteen of 15 subjects (87%) had abnormalities detected with PSG. Twelve of 15 had evidence of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep motor disinhibition, as characterized by excessive movement, laughing, hand stereotypies, moaning, or the continuation of periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) into REM sleep. Conclusions: This study shows various forms of REM sleep motor disinhibition present in a population of children with PANS. Citation: Gaughan T, Buckley A, Hommer R, Grant P; Williams K, Leckman JF, Swedo SE. Rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities in children with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):1027–1032. PMID:27166296

  17. Rapid eye movement sleep does not seem to unbind memories from their emotional context.

    PubMed

    Deliens, Gaétane; Neu, Daniel; Peigneux, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Sleep unbinds memories from their emotional learning context, protecting them from emotional interference due to a change of mood between learning and recall. According to the 'sleep to forget and sleep to remember' model, emotional unbinding takes place during rapid eye movement sleep. To test this hypothesis, we investigated emotional contextual interference effects after early versus late post-learning sleep periods, in which slow wave and rapid eye movement sleep, respectively, predominate. Participants learned a list of neutral word pairs after induction of a happy or a sad mood, then slept immediately afterwards for 3 h of early or late sleep under polysomnographic recording, in a within-subject counterbalanced design. They slept for 3 h before learning in the late sleep condition. Polysomnographic data confirmed more rapid eye movement sleep in the late than in the early sleep condition. After awakening, half the list was recalled after induction of a similar mood than during the encoding session (non-interference condition), and the other half of the list was recalled after induction of a different mood (interference condition). The results disclosed an emotional interference effect on recall both in the early and late sleep conditions, which does not corroborate the hypothesis of a rapid eye movement sleep-related protection of recent memories from emotional contextual interference. Alternatively, the contextual demodulation process initiated during the first post-learning night might need several consecutive nights of sleep to be achieved.

  18. Quality of life in patients with an idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keun Tae; Motamedi, Gholam K; Cho, Yong Won

    2016-12-26

    There have been few quality of life studies in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compared the quality of life in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder patients to healthy controls, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus without complication and idiopathic restless legs syndrome. Sixty patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (24 female; mean age: 61.43 ± 8.99) were enrolled retrospectively. The diagnosis was established based on sleep history, overnight polysomnography, neurological examination and Mini-Mental State Examination to exclude secondary rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. All subjects completed questionnaires, including the Short Form 36-item Health Survey for quality of life. The total quality of life score in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (70.63 ± 20.83) was lower than in the healthy control group (83.38 ± 7.96) but higher than in the hypertension (60.55 ± 24.82), diabetes mellitus (62.42 ± 19.37) and restless legs syndrome (61.77 ± 19.25) groups. The total score of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder patients had a negative correlation with the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (r = -0.498, P < 0.001), Insomnia Severity Index (r = -0.645, P < 0.001) and the Beck Depression Inventory-2 (r = -0.694, P < 0.001). Multiple regression showed a negative correlation between the Short Form 36-item Health Survey score and the Insomnia Severity Index (β = -1.100, P = 0.001) and Beck Depression Inventory-2 (β = -1.038, P < 0.001). idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder had a significant negative impact on quality of life, although this effect was less than that of other chronic disorders. This negative effect might be related to a depressive mood associated with the disease.

  19. Long-Term Follow-up Investigation of Isolated Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Without Atonia Without Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Ambra; Gabelia, David; Högl, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Stockner, Heike; Poewe, Werner; Frauscher, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a harbinger of synuclein-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. It is unknown if this also applies to isolated REM sleep without atonia (RWA). We performed a long-term follow-up investigation of subjects with isolated RWA. Methods: Participants were recruited from 50 subjects with isolated RWA who were identified at the sleep laboratory of the Department of Neurology at the Medical University of Innsbruck between 2003 and 2005. Eligible subjects underwent follow-up clinical examination, polysomnography, and assessment of neurodegenerative biomarkers (cognitive impairment, finger speed deficit, impaired color vision, olfactory dysfunction, orthostatic hypotension, and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). Results: After a mean of 8.6 ± 0.9 y, 1 of 14 participating subjects (7.3%) progressed to RBD. Ten of 14 RWA subjects (71.4%) were positive for at least one neurodegenerative biomarker. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and presence of mild cognitive impairment were both present in 4 of 14 subjects with isolated RWA. Electromyographic activity measures increased significantly from baseline to follow-up polysomnography (“any” mentalis and both anterior tibialis muscles: 32.5 ± 9.4 versus 52.2 ± 16.6%; p = 0.004). Conclusion: This study provides first evidence that isolated RWA is an early biomarker of synuclein-mediated neurodegeneration. These results will have to be replicated in larger studies with longer observational periods. If confirmed, these disease findings have implications for defining at-risk cohorts for Parkinson disease. Citation: Stefani A, Gabelia D, Högl B, Mitterling T, Mahlknecht P, Stockner H, Poewe W, Frauscher B. Long-term follow-up investigation of isolated rapid eye movement sleep without atonia without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a pilot study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1273–1279. PMID:26156949

  20. Disrupted rapid eye movement sleep predicts poor declarative memory performance in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Lipinska, Malgorzata; Timol, Ridwana; Kaminer, Debra; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2014-06-01

    Successful memory consolidation during sleep depends on healthy slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep, and on successful transition across sleep stages. In post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep is disrupted and memory is impaired, but relations between these two variables in the psychiatric condition remain unexplored. We examined whether disrupted sleep, and consequent disrupted memory consolidation, is a mechanism underlying declarative memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder. We recruited three matched groups of participants: post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 16); trauma-exposed non-post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 15); and healthy control (n = 14). They completed memory tasks before and after 8 h of sleep. We measured sleep variables using sleep-adapted electroencephalography. Post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants experienced significantly less sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep percentage, and experienced more awakenings and wake percentage in the second half of the night than did participants in the other two groups. After sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants retained significantly less information on a declarative memory task than controls. Rapid eye movement percentage, wake percentage and sleep efficiency correlated with retention of information over the night. Furthermore, lower rapid eye movement percentage predicted poorer retention in post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed individuals. Our results suggest that declarative memory consolidation is disrupted during sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder. These data are consistent with theories suggesting that sleep benefits memory consolidation via predictable neurobiological mechanisms, and that rapid eye movement disruption is more than a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder.

  1. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  2. MicroRNA association with synucleinopathy conversion in rapid eye movement behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Santiago, Rubén; Iranzo, Alex; Gaig, Carles; Serradell, Mónica; Fernández, Manel; Tolosa, Eduardo; Santamaría, Joan; Ezquerra, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Recently, we reported downregulated circulating levels of the microRNAs miR-19b, miR-29a, and miR-29c in Parkinson disease. Here we investigated the expression of these microRNAs in serum samples from 56 patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, before and after their conversion into a synucleinopathy. Compared to controls, we found that the expression level of miR-19b is downregulated in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and antedates the diagnosis of Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies after 4.67 ± 2.61 years of follow-up. Our findings indicate that dysregulation of the microRNA miR-19b occurs in the prodromal stage of synucleinopathies.

  3. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder in Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration: Improvement with Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Thiago Cardoso; Fernandes do Prado, Lucila Bizari; do Prado, Gilmar Fernandes; Povoas Barsottini, Orlando Graziani; Pedroso, José Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To report two female patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) related to breast cancer that presented with rapid eye movement-sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and improved sleep symptoms with immunotherapy. Methods: The two patients were evaluated through clinical scale and polysomnography before and after therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin. Results: RBD was successfully treated with immunotherapy in both patients. Score on the RBD screening questionnaire dropped from 10 to 1 or 0, allied with the normalization of polysomnographic findings. Conclusions: A marked improvement in RBD after immunotherapy in PCD raises the hypothesis that secondary RBD may be an immune-mediated sleep disorder. Citation: Vale TC, do Prado LB, do Prado GF, Barsottini OG, Pedroso JL. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration: improvement with immunotherapy. SLEEP 2016;39(1):117–120. PMID:26414894

  4. The golden age of rapid eye movement sleep discoveries. 1. Lucretius--1964.

    PubMed

    Gottesmann, C

    2001-10-01

    Although there were several premonitory signs of a sleep stage with dreaming, it was only in 1953 that such a stage was identified with certainty. This paper analyses the observations and research related to this dreaming stage (rapid eye movement sleep) until 1964. During these 11 years of research, the main psychological and physiological characteristics of this sleep stage were first described. Where the few results or discussions were later questioned, today's current state of knowledge is briefly outlined.

  5. Importance of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder to the Primary Care Physician.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Stuart J; Howell, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Sleep disorders and neurodegenerative diseases are commonly encountered in primary care. A common, but underdiagnosed sleep disorder, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), is highly associated with Parkinson disease and related disorders. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is common. It is estimated to affect 0.5% of the general population and more than 7% of individuals older than 60 years; however, most cases go unrecognized. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder presents as dream enactment, often with patients thrashing, punching, and kicking while they are sleeping. Physicians can quickly assess for the presence of RBD with high sensitivity and specificity by asking patients the question "Have you ever been told that you act out your dreams, for example by punching or flailing your arms in the air or screaming and shouting in your sleep?" Patients with RBD exhibit subtle signs of neurodegenerative disease, such as mild motor slowing, constipation, or changes in sense of smell. These signs and symptoms may predict development of a neurodegenerative disease within 3 years. Ultimately, most patients with RBD develop a neurodegenerative disease, highlighting the importance of serial neurological examinations to assess for the presence of parkinsonism and/or cognitive impairment and prognostic counseling for these patients. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is treatable with melatonin (3-6 mg before bed) or clonazepam (0.5-1 mg before bed) and may be the most common, reversible cause of sleep-related injury. Thus, it is important to identify patients at risk of RBD in a primary care setting so that bedroom safety can be addressed and treatment may be initiated.

  6. Activation of the motor cortex during phasic rapid eye movement sleep

    PubMed Central

    De Carli, Fabrizio; Proserpio, Paola; Morrone, Elisa; Sartori, Ivana; Ferrara, Michele; Gibbs, Steve Alex; De Gennaro, Luigi; Lo Russo, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    When dreaming during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, we can perform complex motor behaviors while remaining motionless. How the motor cortex behaves during this state remains unknown. Here, using intracerebral electrodes sampling the human motor cortex in pharmacoresistant epileptic patients, we report a pattern of electroencephalographic activation during REM sleep similar to that observed during the performance of a voluntary movement during wakefulness. This pattern is present during phasic REM sleep but not during tonic REM sleep, the latter resembling relaxed wakefulness. This finding may help clarify certain phenomenological aspects observed in REM sleep behavior disorder. Ann Neurol 2016;79:326–330 PMID:26575212

  7. Optogenetic activation of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons increases non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep during the night in rats.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Centurion, Carlos; Liu, Meng; Konadhode, Roda P; Zhang, Xiaobing; Pelluru, Dheeraj; van den Pol, Anthony N; Shiromani, Priyattam J

    2016-11-01

    Neurons containing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) are located in the hypothalamus. In mice, optogenetic activation of the MCH neurons induces both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep at night, the normal wake-active period for nocturnal rodents [R. R. Konadhode et al. (2013) J. Neurosci., 33, 10257-10263]. Here we selectively activate these neurons in rats to test the validity of the sleep network hypothesis in another species. Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) driven by the MCH promoter was selectively expressed by MCH neurons after injection of rAAV-MCHp-ChR2-EYFP into the hypothalamus of Long-Evans rats. An in vitro study confirmed that the optogenetic activation of MCH neurons faithfully triggered action potentials. In the second study, in Long-Evans rats, rAAV-MCH-ChR2, or the control vector, rAAV-MCH-EYFP, were delivered into the hypothalamus. Three weeks later, baseline sleep was recorded for 48 h without optogenetic stimulation (0 Hz). Subsequently, at the start of the lights-off cycle, the MCH neurons were stimulated at 5, 10, or 30 Hz (1 mW at tip; 1 min on - 4 min off) for 24 h. Sleep was recorded during the 24-h stimulation period. Optogenetic activation of MCH neurons increased both REM and NREM sleep at night, whereas during the day cycle, only REM sleep was increased. Delta power, an indicator of sleep intensity, was also increased. In control rats without ChR2, optogenetic stimulation did not increase sleep or delta power. These results lend further support to the view that sleep-active MCH neurons contribute to drive sleep in mammals.

  8. Physiology of aqueous humor dynamic in the anterior chamber due to rapid eye movement.

    PubMed

    Modarreszadeh, SeyedAmirreza; Abouali, Omid; Ghaffarieh, Alireza; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2014-08-01

    The nature of aqueous humor (AH) mixing in the anterior chamber (AC) of the human eye due to rapid eye movement (REM) has not been fully understood and has been somewhat a controversial issue. This study uses a computational modeling approach to shed light on this issue. For this purpose a numerical method was developed and used to solve the mathematical equations governing the flow and mixing of aqueous humor motion in the eye subjected to such movements. Based on the experimental measurements available in the literature for the average and maximum amplitudes of the eye movements, a harmonic model for the REM was developed. The corresponding instantaneous and time-averaged velocity fields were evaluated. The simulation results showed that, contrary to earlier reports, the REM led to complex flow structures and a 3-D mixing of AH in the anterior chamber. In addition, the mixing velocity increased in direct proportion to the REM amplitudes. Thus, the AC flow generated by REM could carry nutrients to the posterior surface of the cornea during the sleep. Furthermore, the shear stress acting on the corneal endothelial cells due to REM was computed and compared with that of buoyancy driven flow in the AC due to temperature gradient. It was found that the shear stress generated by REM is much higher than that introduced by the natural convection. A video file for providing a better understanding of the AH mixing process in the AC was also prepared. This video is available on the web.

  9. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in adults younger than 50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yo-El S

    2013-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) occurring prior to age 50 is termed early-onset RBD. Early-onset RBD comprises a substantial minority of cases, and demonstrates the differences in demographics, comorbidities, and clinical considerations from previously described typical RBD with onset >50years. The world literature on RBD is reviewed with specific focus on features that distinguish early-onset RBD, including more gender parity, increased proportion of idiopathic cases, increased proportion of cases associated with narcolepsy, parasomnia overlap disorder, antidepressants, and possibly autoimmune disorders, and clinical presentation.

  10. Validation of the cuff pedestal technique for rapid eye movement sleep (REMs) deprivation by electrophysiological recordings.

    PubMed

    Hilakivi, I; Peder, M; Elomaa, E; Johansson, G

    1984-06-01

    Twenty-four-hour recordings of electrophysiological correlates of the sleep-waking cycle in the rat were performed during different stages of cuff pedestal treatment. It was found that rats adapted to live on pedestals with the cuff raised displayed undisturbed patterns of sleep and wakefulness. Lowering the cuff for three days resulted in virtually total disappearance of rapid eye movement sleep (REMs), while slow wave sleep (SWs) was only slightly reduced. Raising the cuff induced a prominent rebound increase of REMs. These results accord with data obtained by means of the conventional flowerpot procedure and corroborate the validity of the cuff pedestal technique.

  11. The anatomical, cellular and synaptic basis of motor atonia during rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Elda; Chen, Michael C; Fuller, Patrick M

    2016-10-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a recurring part of the sleep-wake cycle characterized by fast, desynchronized rhythms in the electroencephalogram (EEG), hippocampal theta activity, rapid eye movements, autonomic activation and loss of postural muscle tone (atonia). The brain circuitry governing REM sleep is located in the pontine and medullary brainstem and includes ascending and descending projections that regulate the EEG and motor components of REM sleep. The descending signal for postural muscle atonia during REM sleep is thought to originate from glutamatergic neurons of the sublaterodorsal nucleus (SLD), which in turn activate glycinergic pre-motor neurons in the spinal cord and/or ventromedial medulla to inhibit motor neurons. Despite work over the past two decades on many neurotransmitter systems that regulate the SLD, gaps remain in our knowledge of the synaptic basis by which SLD REM neurons are regulated and in turn produce REM sleep atonia. Elucidating the anatomical, cellular and synaptic basis of REM sleep atonia control is a critical step for treating many sleep-related disorders including obstructive sleep apnoea (apnea), REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and narcolepsy with cataplexy.

  12. Validation of the Turkish Version of the Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Tarı Cömert, Itır; Pelin, Zerrin; Arıcak, Tolga; Yapan, Saadet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a Turkish version of the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder questionnaire (the RBDSQ-T) for identifying patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and to ensure that this tool can be applied in Turkish language. Three groups were enrolled to validate the RBDSQ-T: 78 healthy controls, 17 patients previously diagnosed with RBD, and 28 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Based on a cut-off score of five, the RBDSQ-T was able to discriminate RBD patients from healthy controls with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87%. Accordingly, 63% of patients were correctly diagnosed using the RBDSQ-T. Similarly, with a cut-off score of five, the RBDSQ-T was able to discriminate RBD from OSAS with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 64%. Assessment of test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability using Kuder-Richardson 20 analysis revealed a test-retest correlation coefficient of 0.95 and a Kuder-Richardson 20 value of 0.82. The findings demonstrate that the RBDSQ-T is a valid and reliable tool.

  13. An Open-Labeled Trial of Ramelteon in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Esaki, Yuichi; Kitajima, Tsuyoshi; Koike, Shigefumi; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Iwata, Yasuyo; Tsuchiya, Akiko; Hirose, Marina; Iwata, Nakao

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by REM sleep without atonia and elaborate motor activity in association with dream mentation. The melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon has been documented as being effective in two patients with secondary RBD. However, there are no reports on ramelteon treatment for idiopathic RBD. Methods: In an open-labeled trial, we treated 12 consecutive patients with idiopathic RBD for at least 4 w with 8 mg ramelteon given within 30 min before bedtime. Results: Ramelteon treatment did not have a clear effect on REM sleep without atonia or an RBD severity scale measured by video-supported polysomnography. However, clinical assessment using a visual analog scale showed a trend toward significance and there were also definitely positive changes in some individual cases. Ramelteon was well tolerated in most patients, with minor side effects. Conclusions: Considering that ramelteon is associated with few side effects, further study may ascertain whether patients with RBD could be effectively treated by ramelteon, especially when clonazepam may not be suitable due to its side effects. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 643. Citation: Esaki Y, Kitajima T, Koike S, Fujishiro H, Iwata Y, Tsuchiya A, Hirose M, Iwata N. An open-labeled trial of ramelteon in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):689–693. PMID:26857053

  14. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation does not affect fear memory reconsolidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaowen; Huang, Fulian; Li, Peng; Ouyang, Xinping; Li, Zengbang; Deng, Haifeng; Yang, Yufeng

    2009-09-29

    There is increasing evidence that sleep may be involved in memory consolidation. However, there remain comparatively few studies that have explored the relationship between sleep and memory reconsolidation. At present study, we tested the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (RSD) on the reconsolidation of cued (experiment 1) and contextual (experiment 2) fear memory in rats. Behaviour procedure involved four training phases: habituation, fear conditioning, reactivation and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after reactivation or 6h later. The control rats were returned to their home cages immediately after reactivation and left undisturbed. Contrary to those hypotheses speculating a potential role of sleep in reconsolidation, we found that post-reactivation RSD whether from 0 to 6h or 6 to 12h had no effect on the reconsolidation of both cued and contextual fear memory. However, our present results did not exclude the potential roles of non-rapid eye movement sleep in the reconsolidation of fear memory or sleep in the reconsolidation of other memory paradigms.

  15. Validation of the Turkish Version of the Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Tarı Cömert, Itır; Pelin, Zerrin; Arıcak, Tolga; Yapan, Saadet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a Turkish version of the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder questionnaire (the RBDSQ-T) for identifying patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and to ensure that this tool can be applied in Turkish language. Three groups were enrolled to validate the RBDSQ-T: 78 healthy controls, 17 patients previously diagnosed with RBD, and 28 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Based on a cut-off score of five, the RBDSQ-T was able to discriminate RBD patients from healthy controls with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87%. Accordingly, 63% of patients were correctly diagnosed using the RBDSQ-T. Similarly, with a cut-off score of five, the RBDSQ-T was able to discriminate RBD from OSAS with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 64%. Assessment of test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability using Kuder-Richardson 20 analysis revealed a test-retest correlation coefficient of 0.95 and a Kuder-Richardson 20 value of 0.82. The findings demonstrate that the RBDSQ-T is a valid and reliable tool. PMID:27340339

  16. Functional eye movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, D; Bronstein, A M

    2017-01-01

    Functional (psychogenic) eye movement disorders are perhaps less established in the medical literature than other types of functional movement disorders. Patients may present with ocular symptoms (e.g., blurred vision or oscillopsia) or functional eye movements may be identified during the formal examination of the eyes in patients with other functional disorders. Convergence spasm is the most common functional eye movement disorder, but functional gaze limitation, functional eye oscillations (also termed "voluntary nystagmus"), and functional convergence paralysis may be underreported. This chapter reviews the different types of functional eye movement abnormalities and provides a practical framework for their diagnosis and management.

  17. Eye Movements and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Larry L.

    Research on the use of eye movement indices (such as number of fixations, the average fixation duration, and saccadic movements) as a measure of cognitive processing is reviewed in this paper. Information is provided on the physiology of the eye, computer applications to eye movement study, the influence of stimulus materials and intelligence on…

  18. Non-rapid eye movement sleep characteristics in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Latreille, Véronique; Carrier, Julie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Lafortune, Marjolaine; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated slow waves (SW; >75μV and <4Hz) characteristics in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Thirty patients with iRBD and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects underwent one polysomnographic (PSG) nocturnal sleep recording. SW automatic detection was performed on F3, C3, P3, and O1 leads and SW characteristics were derived (SW density, amplitude, frequency, slope, and duration of negative and positive phases). We also compared iRBD patients and control subjects on PSG variables and delta (0.25-4.0Hz) spectral power. No between-group differences were found on PSG variables, delta spectral power, or SW characteristics. Results show no SW abnormalities in iRBD patients compared to healthy participants, which suggests similar level of synchronization of thalamo-cortical neurons during N-REM sleep.

  19. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: informing future drug development.

    PubMed

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Julie Ae; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson's disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep-wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement of the brainstem and other structures, which is in line with the gradual involvement known in these disorders. We propose that these findings may help identify biomarkers of individuals at high risk of subsequent conversion to parkinsonism.

  20. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation affects sleep similarly in castrated and noncastrated rats.

    PubMed

    Peder, M

    1987-03-01

    Twenty-four-hour recordings of electrophysiological correlates of the sleep-waking cycle in castrated and noncastrated Wistar rats were performed to validate the cuff pedestal technique in the deprivation of rapid eye movement sleep. An undisturbed pattern of sleep was found in both castrated and noncastrated rats when the cuffs were in the raised position. The lowering of the cuff for 4 days virtually abolished REMs in both groups of rats. During neither the dark nor the light period was there any difference between the castrated and noncastrated rats in the total amount of REMs rebound. The results accord with the data obtained by the conventional flowerpot procedure and show that castration does not influence the amount of REMs before, during, and after REMs deprivation in the rat. It is suggested that testicular testosterone, contrary to growth hormone, is not essential for the triggering of REMs sleep, although both have anabolic actions.

  1. Memory Reactivation during Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Promotes Its Generalization and Integration in Cortical Stores

    PubMed Central

    Sterpenich, Virginie; Schmidt, Christina; Albouy, Geneviève; Matarazzo, Luca; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Boveroux, Pierre; Degueldre, Christian; Leclercq, Yves; Balteau, Evelyne; Collette, Fabienne; Luxen, André; Phillips, Christophe; Maquet, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Memory reactivation appears to be a fundamental process in memory consolidation. In this study we tested the influence of memory reactivation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep on memory performance and brain responses at retrieval in healthy human participants. Participants: Fifty-six healthy subjects (28 women and 28 men, age [mean ± standard deviation]: 21.6 ± 2.2 y) participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. Methods and Results: Auditory cues were associated with pictures of faces during their encoding. These memory cues delivered during REM sleep enhanced subsequent accurate recollections but also false recognitions. These results suggest that reactivated memories interacted with semantically related representations, and induced new creative associations, which subsequently reduced the distinction between new and previously encoded exemplars. Cues had no effect if presented during stage 2 sleep, or if they were not associated with faces during encoding. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that following exposure to conditioned cues during REM sleep, responses to faces during retrieval were enhanced both in a visual area and in a cortical region of multisensory (auditory-visual) convergence. Conclusions: These results show that reactivating memories during REM sleep enhances cortical responses during retrieval, suggesting the integration of recent memories within cortical circuits, favoring the generalization and schematization of the information. Citation: Sterpenich V, Schmidt C, Albouy G, Matarazzo L, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Boveroux P, Degueldre C, Leclercq Y, Balteau E, Collette F, Luxen A, Phillips C, Maquet P. Memory reactivation during rapid eye movement sleep promotes its generalization and integration in cortical stores. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1061-1075. PMID:24882901

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea related to rapid-eye-movement or non-rapid-eye-movement sleep: comparison of demographic, anthropometric, and polysomnographic features

    PubMed Central

    Sunnetcioglu, Aysel; Sertogullarından, Bunyamin; Ozbay, Bulent; Gunbatar, Hulya; Ekin, Selami

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To determine whether there are significant differences between rapid-eye-movement (REM)-related obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and non-REM (NREM)-related OSA, in terms of the demographic, anthropometric, and polysomnographic characteristics of the subjects. Methods : This was a retrospective study of 110 patients (75 males) with either REM-related OSA (n = 58) or NREM-related OSA (n = 52). To define REM-related and NREM-related OSA, we used a previously established criterion, based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): AHI-REM/AHI-NREM ratio > 2 and ≤ 2, respectively. Results : The mean age of the patients with REM-related OSA was 49.5 ± 11.9 years, whereas that of the patients with NREM-related OSA was 49.2 ± 12.6 years. The overall mean AHI (all sleep stages combined) was significantly higher in the NREM-related OSA group than in the REM-related OSA group (38.6 ± 28.2 vs. 14.8 ± 9.2; p < 0.05). The mean AHI in the supine position (s-AHI) was also significantly higher in the NREM-related OSA group than in the REM-related OSA group (49.0 ± 34.3 vs. 18.8 ± 14.9; p < 0.0001). In the NREM-related OSA group, the s-AHI was higher among the men. In both groups, oxygen desaturation was more severe among the women. We found that REM-related OSA was more common among the patients with mild-to-moderate OSA, whereas NREM-related OSA was more common among those with severe OSA. Conclusions : We found that the severity of NREM-related OSA was associated mainly with s-AHI. Our findings suggest that the s-AHI has a more significant effect on the severity of OSA than does the AHI-REM. When interpreting OSA severity and choosing among treatment modalities, physicians should take into consideration the sleep stage and the sleep posture. PMID:26982041

  3. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder symptomatic of a brain stem cavernoma.

    PubMed

    Felix, Sandra; Thobois, Stephane; Peter-Derex, Laure

    2016-04-01

    A 75-year-old man complained of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), difficulty falling asleep and nocturnal agitation during sleep. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) was diagnosed and treated. Because of persistent EDS, snoring and nycturia, a nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) was performed. PSG showed high sleep fragmentation related to a moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment (CPAP) was proposed. Because of the persistence of abnormal nocturnal behaviours, characterized by screaming, punching and falling out of bed, a video-PSG with CPAP treatment was performed. The recording showed typical chin electromyography (EMG) activity increase associated with violent movements during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, suggesting REM sleep behaviour disorders (RBD). Clinical neurological examination found no parkinsonian syndrome, no dysautonomic sign and no neurological focal sign. Dopamine transporter imaging [123I-FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)] did not find any presynaptic dopaminergic pathways degeneration. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a vascular lesion suggestive of cavernoma located in the pons. The present case illustrates the complexity of sleep disturbance diagnosis with a possible entanglement of aetiologies responsible for nocturnal agitation, and confirms that an isolated pons cavernoma should be considered among the rare causes of RBD.

  4. Rapid eye movement-sleep is reduced in patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis-an observational study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenxi; Alamili, Mahdi; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Sleep disturbances are commonly found in patients in the postoperative period. Sleep disturbances may give rise to several complications including cardiopulmonary instability, transient cognitive dysfunction and prolonged convalescence. Many factors including host inflammatory responses are believed to cause postoperative sleep disturbances, as inflammatory responses can alter sleep architecture through cytokine-brain interactions. Our aim was to investigate alteration of sleep architecture during acute infection and its relationships to inflammation and clinical symptoms. Materials & Methods. In this observational study, we included patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis as a model to investigate the isolated effects of inflammatory responses on sleep. Eleven patients completed the study. Patients were admitted and treated with antibiotics for two nights, during which study endpoints were measured by polysomnography recordings, self-reported discomfort scores and blood samples of cytokines. One month later, the patients, who now were in complete remission, were readmitted and the endpoints were re-measured (the baseline values). Results. Total sleep time was reduced 4% and 7% the first (p = 0.006) and second (p = 0.014) nights of diverticulitis, compared to baseline, respectively. The rapid eye movement sleep was reduced 33% the first night (p = 0.016), compared to baseline. Moreover, plasma IL-6 levels were correlated to non-rapid eye movement sleep, rapid eye movement sleep and fatigue. Conclusion. Total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep were reduced during nights with active diverticulitis and correlated with markers of inflammation.

  5. Increased non-rapid eye movement sleep by cocaine withdrawal: possible involvement of A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Long; Han, Jin-Yi; Kim, Yun-Bae; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Song, Sukgil; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2011-02-01

    This study attempted to clarify whether cocaine withdrawal altered sleep architecture and the role of adenosine receptors in this process. Cocaine (20 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously once per day for 7 days to rat implanted with sleep/wake recording electrode. Polygraphic signs of undisturbed sleep/wake activities were recorded for 24 h before cocaine administration (basal recording as control); withdrawal-day 1 (after 1 day of repeated cocaine administration), withdrawal-day 8 (after 8 days of repeated cocaine administration), and withdrawal-day 14 (after 14 days of repeated cocaine administration), respectively. On cocaine withdrawal-day 1, wakefulness was significantly increased, total sleep was decreased, non-rapid eye movement sleep was markedly reduced, and rapid eye movement sleep was enhanced. Sleep/wake cycles were also increased on cocaine withdrawal day 1. However, non-rapid eye movement sleep was increased on withdrawal-day 8 and 14, whereas rapid eye movement sleep was decreased and no significant changes were observed in the total sleep and sleep/wake cycles during these periods. Adenosine A(2A) receptors expression was increased on withdrawal-day 8 and 14, whereas A(1) receptors levels were reduced after 14 days of withdrawal and the A(2B) receptors remained unchanged. Our findings suggest that alterations of sleep and sleep architecture during cocaine subacute and subchronic withdrawals after repeated cocaine administration may be partially involved in A(2A) receptors over-expression in the rat hypothalamus.

  6. Cacna1c (Cav1.2) Modulates Electroencephalographic Rhythm and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deependra; Dedic, Nina; Flachskamm, Cornelia; Voulé, Stephanie; Deussing, Jan M.; Kimura, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The CACNA1C gene encodes the alpha 1C (α1C) subunit of the Cav1.2 voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel (LTCC). Some of the other voltage-dependent calcium channels, e.g., P-/Q-type, Cav2.1; N-type, Cav2.2; E-/R-type, Cav2.3; and T-type, Cav3.3 have been implicated in sleep modulation. However, the contribution of LTCCs to sleep remains largely unknown. Based on recent genome-wide association studies, CACNA1C emerged as one of potential candidate genes associated with both sleep and psychiatric disorders. Indeed, most patients with mental illnesses have sleep problems and vice versa. Design: To investigate an impact of Cav1.2 on sleep-wake behavior and electroencephalogram (EEG) activity, polysomnography was performed in heterozygous Cacna1c (HET) knockout mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates under baseline and challenging conditions (acute sleep deprivation and restraint stress). Measurements and Results: HET mice displayed significantly lower EEG spectral power than WT mice across high frequency ranges (beta to gamma) during wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Although HET mice spent slightly more time asleep in the dark period, daily amounts of sleep did not differ between the two genotypes. However, recovery sleep after exposure to both types of challenging stress conditions differed markedly; HET mice exhibited reduced REM sleep recovery responses compared to WT mice. Conclusions: These results suggest the involvement of Cacna1c (Cav1.2) in fast electroencephalogram oscillations and REM sleep regulatory processes. Lower spectral gamma activity, slightly increased sleep demands, and altered REM sleep responses found in heterozygous Cacna1c knockout mice may rather resemble a sleep phenotype observed in schizophrenia patients. Citation: Kumar D, Dedic N, FLachskamm C, Voulé S, Deussing JM, Kimura M. Cacna1c (Cav1.2) modulates electroencephalographic rhythm and rapid eye movement sleep recovery. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1371–1380. PMID

  7. A restricted parabrachial pontine region is active during non-rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, P; Sampogna, S; Chase, M H

    2011-09-08

    The principal site that generates both rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and wakefulness is located in the mesopontine reticular formation, whereas non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is primarily dependent upon the functioning of neurons that are located in the preoptic region of the hypothalamus. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether the occurrence of NREM might also depend on the activity of mesopontine structures, as has been shown for wakefulness and REM sleep. Adult cats were maintained in one of the following states: quiet wakefulness (QW), alert wakefulness (AW), NREM, or REM sleep induced by microinjections of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis (REM-carbachol). Subsequently, they were euthanized and single-labeling immunohistochemical studies were undertaken to determine state-dependent patterns of neuronal activity in the brainstem based upon the expression of the protein Fos. In addition, double-labeling immunohistochemical studies were carried out to detect neurons that expressed Fos as well as choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, or GABA. During NREM, only a few Fos-immunoreactive cells were present in different regions of the brainstem; however, a discrete cluster of Fos+ neurons was observed in the caudolateral parabrachial region (CLPB). The number of Fos+ neurons in the CLPB during NREM was significantly greater (67.9±10.9, P<0.0001) compared with QW (8.0±6.7), AW (5.2±4.2), or REM-carbachol (8.0±4.7). In addition, there was a positive correlation (R=0.93) between the time the animals spent in NREM and the number of Fos+ neurons in the CLPB. Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the CLPB were neither cholinergic nor catecholaminergic; however, about 50% of these neurons were GABAergic. We conclude that a group of GABAergic and unidentified neurons in the CLPB are active during NREM and likely involved in the control of this behavioral state. These data open new avenues for the study of NREM, as well as for the

  8. Recent data on rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in patients with Parkinson disease: analysis of behaviors, movements, and periodic limb movements.

    PubMed

    Cochen De Cock, Valérie

    2013-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a fascinating parasomnia in which patients are able to enact their dreams because of a lack of muscle atonia during REM sleep. RBD represents a unique window into the dream world. Frequently associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), RBD raises various issues about dream modifications in this pathology and about aggressiveness during RBD episodes in placid patients during wakefulness. Studies on these behaviors have underlined their non-stereotyped, action-filled and violent characteristics but also their isomorphism with dream content. Complex, learnt behaviors may reflect the cortical involvement in this parasomnia but the more frequent elementary movements and the associated periodic limb movements during sleep also implicate the brainstem. Surprisingly, patients with PD have an improvement of their movements during their RBD as if they were disease-free. Also not yet understood, this improvement of movement during REM sleep raises issues about the pathways involved in RBD and about the possibility of using this pathway to improve movement in PD during the day.

  9. Validation of the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Zong-Wen; Yang, Yue-Chang; Wu, Hui-Juan; Zhao, Hong-Yi; Zhao, Zhong-Xin

    2015-09-01

    We validated the Chinese version of the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) and calculated its cut-off value for idiopathic or symptomatic sleep behavior disorders (iRBD or sRBD) in Chinese people. Patients with RBD (n=63) and controls (n=165) were enrolled. After all subjects had completed a structured interview, the Chinese version of the RBDSQ and the video polysomnography test, we evaluated the reliability, areas under the curves and the best cut-off values of the RBDSQ and investigated the utility of RBDSQ for iRBD and sRBD in China. We found that Cronbach's alpha was 0.769 and the test-retest reliability was 0.916. RBDSQ scores in iRBD and sRBD patients were similar and higher than those in controls. A total of five points represented the best cut-off value for detecting all RBD patients. In Parkinson's disease, a total score of six points represented the best cut-off value for detecting sRBD. There was no statistically significant difference in total RBDSQ score between iRBD and sRBD, or male and female patients. There was no significant correlation between the RBDSQ score and duration or severity of RBD symptoms. The Chinese version of the RBDSQ had high sensitivity, specificity and reliability and could be used as a tool for screening RBD patients in China.

  10. Subtle rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities in presymptomatic spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 gene carriers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Velázquez-Perez, Luis; Ochoa, Nalia Canales; Polo, Lourdes Galicia; Valencia, Reyes Haro; Cruz, Gilberto Sánchez; Montero, Jacqueline Medrano; Laffita-Mesa, José M; Mederos, Luis E Almaguer; Zaldívar, Yanetza González; Parra, Cira Torres; Acosta, Arnoy Peña; Mariño, Tania Cruz

    2011-02-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disorders are commonly associated to patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2); however, these abnormalities have not been studied in presymptomatic gene carriers. To determine whether the REM sleep pathology is detectable before clinical manifestation of SCA2 and evaluate it as a preclinical biomarker, we studied 36 presymptomatic SCA2 individuals and 36 controls by video-polysomnography (VPSG) and sleep questionnaires. Presymptomatic subjects showed significant decrease of REM sleep percentage, REMs density, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency. Aging effect on REM sleep percentage was significant in both groups. There was no correlation between cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat length and REM sleep. Our findings identified the REM sleep pathology as a prominent herald sign of SCA2, conferring a special importance to VPSG as a sensitive neurophysiological tool to detect early changes associated with SCA2, which contributes to the understanding of disease pathophysiology and the development of therapeutic trials focused on the preclinical disease stage.

  11. Structural Brain Alterations Associated with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boucetta, Soufiane; Salimi, Ali; Dadar, Mahsa; Jones, Barbara E.; Collins, D. Louis; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by dream-enactment motor manifestations arising from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently encountered in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Yet the specific neurostructural changes associated with RBD in PD patients remain to be revealed by neuroimaging. Here we identified such neurostructural alterations by comparing large samples of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in 69 PD patients with probable RBD, 240 patients without RBD and 138 healthy controls, using deformation-based morphometry (p < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). All data were extracted from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative. PD patients with probable RBD showed smaller volumes than patients without RBD and than healthy controls in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum, medullary reticular formation, hypothalamus, thalamus, putamen, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. These results demonstrate that RBD is associated with a prominent loss of volume in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum, where cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons are located and implicated in the promotion of REM sleep and muscle atonia. It is additionally associated with more widespread atrophy in other subcortical and cortical regions whose loss also likely contributes to the altered regulation of sleep-wake states and motor activity underlying RBD in PD patients. PMID:27245317

  12. Consciousness and cortical responsiveness: a within-state study during non-rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Jaakko O; Gosseries, Olivia; Massimini, Marcello; Saad, Elyana; Sheldon, Andrew D; Boly, Melanie; Siclari, Francesca; Postle, Bradley R; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-08-05

    When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive-negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma. To avoid these confounding factors, we focused on NREM sleep only and measured TMS-evoked EEG responses before awakening the subjects and asking them if they had been conscious (dreaming) or not. As shown here, when subjects reported no conscious experience upon awakening, TMS evoked a larger negative deflection and a shorter phase-locked response compared to when they reported a dream. Moreover, the amplitude of the negative deflection-a hallmark of neuronal bistability according to intracranial studies-was inversely correlated with the length of the dream report (i.e., total word count). These findings suggest that variations in the level of consciousness within the same physiological state are associated with changes in the underlying bistability in cortical circuits.

  13. Consciousness and cortical responsiveness: a within-state study during non-rapid eye movement sleep

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Gosseries, Olivia; Massimini, Marcello; Saad, Elyana; Sheldon, Andrew D.; Boly, Melanie; Siclari, Francesca; Postle, Bradley R.; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS–EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive–negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma. To avoid these confounding factors, we focused on NREM sleep only and measured TMS-evoked EEG responses before awakening the subjects and asking them if they had been conscious (dreaming) or not. As shown here, when subjects reported no conscious experience upon awakening, TMS evoked a larger negative deflection and a shorter phase-locked response compared to when they reported a dream. Moreover, the amplitude of the negative deflection—a hallmark of neuronal bistability according to intracranial studies—was inversely correlated with the length of the dream report (i.e., total word count). These findings suggest that variations in the level of consciousness within the same physiological state are associated with changes in the underlying bistability in cortical circuits. PMID:27491799

  14. A new function of rapid eye movement sleep: improvement of muscular efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zi-Jian

    2015-05-15

    Previously I demonstrated that the slow wave sleep (SWS) functioned to adjust the emotional balance disrupted by emotional memories randomly accumulated during waking, while the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep played the opposite role. Many experimental results have unambiguously shown that various emotional memories are processed during REM sleep. In this article, it is attempted to combine this confirmed function of REM sleep with the atonic state unique to REM sleep, and to integrate a new theory suggesting that improvement of muscular efficiency be a new function of REM sleep. This new function of REM sleep is more advantageous than the function of REM sleep in emotional memories and disinhibited drives to account for the phylogenetic variations of REM sleep, especially the absence of REM sleep in dolphins and short duration of REM sleep in birds in contrary to that in humans and rodents, the absence of penile erections in REM sleep in armadillo, as well as the higher voltage in EEG during REM sleep in platypus and ostrich. Besides, this new function of REM sleep is also advantageous to explain the association of REM sleep with the atonic episodes in SWS, the absence of drastic menopausal change in duration of REM sleep, and the effects of ambient temperature on the duration of REM sleep. These comparative and experimental evidences support the improvement of muscular efficiency as a new and major function of REM sleep.

  15. Xylaria nigripes mitigates spatial memory impairment induced by rapid eye movement sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhengqing; Li, Yanpeng; Chen, Haiyan; Huang, Liuqing; Zhao, Fei; Yu, Qiang; Xiang, Zhenghua; Zhao, Zhongxin

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of Xylaria nigripes (XN) extracts on the rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REMSD)-induced memory impairment, and explore related mechanism. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: cage control (CC)-NaCl group; tank control (TC)-NaCl group; sleep deprivation (SD)-NaCl group; CC-XN group; TC-XN group and SD-XN group. The rats were administered with intragastric XN and 0.9% of sodium chloride. SD group rats were deprived of REM sleep for 72 h. Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess the effects of XN on spatial learning and memory. The expression of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and p-CREB were also investigated in all groups. Result showed rats in SD-NaCl group had significantly longer mean escape latencies in finding the platform as compared to the control rats (p<0.05) in MWM test. The SD-NaCl group spent significantly less time in goal quadrant compared with the SD-XN group. REMSD and XN did not alter CREB expression in the hippocampus, while sleep deprivation resulted in reduced phosphorylation of CREB in the hippocampus, which was reversed by XN. XN mitigates spatial memory impairment induced by REMSD in rat. Phosphorylation of CREB in hippocampus might be one of the mechanisms.

  16. Complementary roles of slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep in emotional memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Cairney, Scott A; Durrant, Simon J; Power, Rebecca; Lewis, Penelope A

    2015-06-01

    Although rapid eye movement sleep (REM) is regularly implicated in emotional memory consolidation, the role of slow-wave sleep (SWS) in this process is largely uncharacterized. In the present study, we investigated the relative impacts of nocturnal SWS and REM upon the consolidation of emotional memories using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and polysomnography (PSG). Participants encoded emotionally positive, negative, and neutral images (remote memories) before a night of PSG-monitored sleep. Twenty-four hours later, they encoded a second set of images (recent memories) immediately before a recognition test in an MRI scanner. SWS predicted superior memory for remote negative images and a reduction in right hippocampal responses during the recollection of these items. REM, however, predicted an overnight increase in hippocampal-neocortical connectivity associated with negative remote memory. These findings provide physiological support for sequential views of sleep-dependent memory processing, demonstrating that SWS and REM serve distinct but complementary functions in consolidation. Furthermore, these findings extend those ideas to emotional memory by showing that, once selectively reorganized away from the hippocampus during SWS, emotionally aversive representations undergo a comparably targeted process during subsequent REM.

  17. Paeoniflorin Promotes Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep via Adenosine A1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Rui; Sun, Yu; Luo, Yan-Jia; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2016-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF, C23H28O11), one of the principal active ingredients of Paeonia Radix, exerts depressant effects on the central nervous system. We determined whether PF could modulate sleep behaviors and the mechanisms involved. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings in mice showed that intraperitoneal PF administered at a dose of 25 or 50 mg/kg significantly shortened the sleep latency and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement (NREM). Immunohistochemical study revealed that PF decreased c-fos expression in the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). The sleep-promoting effects and changes in c-fos induced by PF were reversed by 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, and PF-induced sleep was not observed in adenosine A1 receptor knockout mice. Whole-cell patch clamping in mouse brain slices showed that PF significantly decreased the firing frequency of histaminergic neurons in TMN, which could be completely blocked by CPT. These results indicate that PF increased NREM sleep by inhibiting the histaminergic system via A1 receptors.

  18. Pointwise transinformation distinguishes a recurrent increase of synchronization in the rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Landwehr, Ralf; Jowaed, Ahmad

    2012-02-01

    The analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) coupling patterns is essential for understanding how interrelations between cortical sites change with the wake-sleep cycle. Waking and sleep EEGs of 12 normal sleepers were analyzed by pointwise transinformation (PTI). Stage-dependent differences of PTI were assessed, and a spectral analysis of synchronized events was performed. A pattern of recurrent EEG synchronization was distinguished in all rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phases. The mean coupling of EEG leads differed regionally, with high coupling levels of frontal and occipital derivations and lower midtemporal and central coupling levels. Mean coupling levels were comparable in stages R, W, and N1 but were lower than in N2 and N3. An REM-specific pattern of low EEG synchronization was identified for F7-F8 and T3-T4, with lowest coupling levels during tonic REM sleep. Also, maximal intervals of uncoupled EEG were longer during tonic REM sleep. Because of these results, a new descriptive entity is proposed: the recurrent increase of synchronization in the EEG (RISE). This seems to reflect the dynamic aspects of spatiotemporal EEG synchronization on small time scales. A possibly specific low coupling pattern of the temporal leads may distinguish REM sleep from other states with a "desynchronized" EEG and, to some extent, tonic from phasic REM sleep.

  19. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: informing future drug development

    PubMed Central

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Julie AE; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson’s disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep–wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement of the brainstem and other structures, which is in line with the gradual involvement known in these disorders. We propose that these findings may help identify biomarkers of individuals at high risk of subsequent conversion to parkinsonism. PMID:27186147

  20. Sleep alterations in mammals: did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep?

    PubMed

    Madan, Vibha; Jha, Sushil K

    2012-12-01

    Sleep has been studied widely in mammals and to some extent in other vertebrates. Higher vertebrates such as birds and mammals have evolved an inimitable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep state. During REM sleep, postural muscles become atonic and the temperature regulating machinery remains suspended. Although REM sleep is present in almost all the terrestrial mammals, the aquatic mammals have either radically reduced or completely eliminated REM sleep. Further, we found a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water. The amount of REM sleep is highest in terrestrial mammals, significantly reduced in semi-aquatic mammals and completely absent or negligible in aquatic mammals. The aquatic mammals are obligate swimmers and have to surface at regular intervals for air. Also, these animals live in thermally challenging environments, where the conductive heat loss is approximately ~90 times greater than air. Therefore, they have to be moving most of the time. As an adaptation, they have evolved unihemispheric sleep, during which they can rove as well as rest. A condition that immobilizes muscle activity and suspends the thermoregulatory machinery, as happens during REM sleep, is not suitable for these animals. It is possible that, in accord with Darwin's theory, aquatic mammals might have abolished REM sleep with time. In this review, we discuss the possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals.

  1. Rhythmic alternating patterns of brain activity distinguish rapid eye movement sleep from other states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Chow, Ho Ming; Horovitz, Silvina G; Carr, Walter S; Picchioni, Dante; Coddington, Nate; Fukunaga, Masaki; Xu, Yisheng; Balkin, Thomas J; Duyn, Jeff H; Braun, Allen R

    2013-06-18

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep constitutes a distinct "third state" of consciousness, during which levels of brain activity are commensurate with wakefulness, but conscious awareness is radically transformed. To characterize the temporal and spatial features of this paradoxical state, we examined functional interactions between brain regions using fMRI resting-state connectivity methods. Supporting the view that the functional integrity of the default mode network (DMN) reflects "level of consciousness," we observed functional uncoupling of the DMN during deep sleep and recoupling during REM sleep (similar to wakefulness). However, unlike either deep sleep or wakefulness, REM was characterized by a more widespread, temporally dynamic interaction between two major brain systems: unimodal sensorimotor areas and the higher-order association cortices (including the DMN), which normally regulate their activity. During REM, these two systems become anticorrelated and fluctuate rhythmically, in reciprocally alternating multisecond epochs with a frequency ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 Hz. This unique spatiotemporal pattern suggests a model for REM sleep that may be consistent with its role in dream formation and memory consolidation.

  2. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation modulates synapsinI expression in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhuman; Amar, Megha; Mallick, Birendra N

    2012-06-27

    Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) deprivation (REMSD) has been reported to elevate neurotransmitter level in the brain; however, intracellular mechanism of its increased release was not studied. Phosphorylation of synapsinI, a synaptic vesicle-associated protein, is involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. In this study, rats were REMS deprived by classical flowerpot method; free moving control (FMC), large platform control (LPC) and recovery control (REC) was carried out. In another set REMS deprived rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (PRZ). Effects of REMSD on Na-K ATPase activity and on the total synapsinI as well as phosphorylated synapsinI levels were estimated in synaptosomes prepared from whole brain. It was observed that REMSD significantly increased synaptosomal Na-K ATPase activity, which was prevented by PRZ. Western blotting of the same samples by anti-synapsinI and anti-synapsinI-phosphoSer603 showed that REMSD increased both the total as well as phospho-form of synapsinI as compared to respective levels in FMC and LPC samples. These findings suggest a functional link between REMSD and synaptic vesicular mobilization at the presynaptic terminal, a process that is essential for neurotransmitter release. The findings help explaining the intracellular mechanism of elevated neurotransmitter release associated to REMSD.

  3. Potential role of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 in rapid eye movement sleep rebound.

    PubMed

    Navarro, L; Martínez-vargas, M; Murillo-rodríguez, E; Landa, A; Méndez-díaz, M; Prospéro-garcía, O

    2003-01-01

    Sleep is an unavoidable activity of the brain. The delay of the time to sleep (sleep deprivation), induces an increase of slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep (rebound) once the subject is allowed to sleep. This drive to sleep has been hypothesized to be dependent on the accumulation of sleep-inducing molecules and on the high expression of these molecule receptors. In this study we selectively deprived rats of REM sleep for 24 h by using the flowerpot technique. One group deprived of REM sleep was treated with SR141716A, a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist and then allowed to sleep for the next 4 h. Two other groups were killed, one immediately after the REM sleep deprivation period and the other after 2 h of REM sleep rebound (REM sleep deprivation plus 2 h of rebound). In both groups we determined the expression of the CB1 receptor and its mRNA. Results indicated that SR141716A prevents REM sleep rebound and REM sleep deprivation does not modify the expression of the CB1 protein or mRNA. However, REM sleep deprivation plus 2 h of sleep rebound increased the CB1 receptor protein and, slightly but significantly, decreased mRNA expression. These results suggest that endocannabinoids may be participating in the expression of REM sleep rebound.

  4. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and subtypes of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Romenets, Silvia Rios; Gagnon, Jean-Francois; Latreille, Véronique; Panniset, Michel; Chouinard, Sylvain; Montplaisir, Jacques; Postuma, Ronald B

    2012-07-01

    Numerous studies have explored the potential relationship between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and manifestations of PD. Our aim was to perform an expanded extensive assessment of motor and nonmotor manifestations in PD to identify whether RBD was associated with differences in the nature and severity of these manifestations. PD patients underwent polysomnography (PSG) to diagnose the presence of RBD. Participants then underwent an extensive evaluation by a movement disorders specialist blinded to PSG results. Measures of disease severity, quantitative motor indices, motor subtypes, therapy complications, and autonomic, psychiatric, visual, and olfactory dysfunction were assessed and compared using regression analysis, adjusting for disease duration, age, and sex. Of 98 included patients, 54 had RBD and 44 did not. PD patients with RBD were older (P = 0.034) and were more likely to be male (P < 0.001). On regression analysis, the most consistent links between RBD and PD were a higher systolic blood pressure (BP) change while standing (-23.9 ± 13.9 versus -3.5 ± 10.9; P < 0.001), a higher orthostatic symptom score (0.89 ± 0.82 versus 0.44 ± 0.66; P = 0.003), and a higher frequency of freezing (43% versus 14%; P = 0.011). A systolic BP drop >10 could identify PD patients with RBD with 81% sensitivity and 86% specificity. In addition, there was a probable relationship between RBD and nontremor predominant subtype of PD (P = 0.04), increased frequency of falls (P = 0.009), and depression (P = 0.009). Our results support previous findings that RBD is a multifaceted phenomenon in PD. Patients with PD who have RBD tend to have specific motor and nonmotor manifestations, especially orthostatic hypotension.

  5. Eye movement tics.

    PubMed Central

    Shawkat, F; Harris, C M; Jacobs, M; Taylor, D; Brett, E M

    1992-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented with opsoclonus-like eye movement and an 18 month history of intermittent facial tics. Investigations were all normal. Electro-oculography showed the eye movements to be of variable amplitude (10-40 degrees), with no intersaccadic interval, and with a frequency of 3-4 Hz. Saccades, smooth pursuit, optokinetic, and vestibular reflexes were all normal. These abnormal eye movements eventually disappeared. It is thought that they were a form of ocular tics. PMID:1477052

  6. Emotional Memory Formation Is Enhanced across Sleep Intervals with High Amounts of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Ullrich; Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies indicated a selective activation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep of the amygdala known to play a decisive role in the processing of emotional stimuli. This study compared memory retention of emotional versus neutral text material over intervals covering either early sleep known to be dominated by nonREM slow wave sleep (SWS) or late sleep, in which REM sleep is dominant. Two groups of men were tested across 3-h periods of early and late sleep (sleep group) or corresponding retention intervals filled with wakefulness (wake group). Sleep was recorded polysomnographically. Cortisol concentrations in saliva were monitored at acquisition and retrieval testing. As expected, the amount of REM sleep was about three times greater during late than during early retention sleep, whereas a reversed pattern was observed for SWS distribution (P < 0.001). Sleep improved retention, compared with the effects of wake intervals (P < 0.02). However, this effect was substantial only in the late night (P < 0.005), during which retention was generally worse than during the early night (P < 0.02). Late sleep particularly enhanced memory for emotional texts. This effect was highly significant in comparison with memory for neutral texts (P < 0.01) and in comparison with memory after late and early wake intervals (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentration differed between early and late retention intervals but not between sleep and wake conditions. Results are consonant with a supportive function of REM sleep predominating late sleep for the formation of emotional memory in humans. PMID:11274257

  7. Rapid-Eye-Movement-Sleep (REM) Associated Enhancement of Working Memory Performance after a Daytime Nap.

    PubMed

    Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Hui, Florence Wai Ying; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2015-01-01

    The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males) were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40) or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40) between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that "sleep gain" during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression), which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits), this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy.

  8. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex regulates depressive-like behavior and rapid eye movement sleep in the rat.

    PubMed

    Chang, Celene H; Chen, Michael C; Qiu, Mei Hong; Lu, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disease with symptoms like persistent depressed mood and sleep disturbances. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated as an important structure in the neural circuitry of MDD, with pronounced abnormalities in blood flow and metabolic activity in PFC subregions, including the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC, or Brodmann area 25). In addition, deep brain stimulation in the sgACC has recently been shown to alleviate treatment-resistant depression. Depressed patients also show characteristic changes in sleep: insomnia, increased rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and shortened REM sleep latency. We hypothesized that sleep changes and depressive behavior may be a consequence of the abnormal PFC activity in MDD. The rat ventromedial PFC (vmPFC, prelimbic and infralimbic cortices) is considered to be the homolog of the human sgACC, so we examined the effect of excitotic lesions in the vmPFC on sleep-wake and depressive behavior. We also made lesions in the adjacent dorsal region (dmPFC) to compare the effect of this similar but distinct mPFC region. We found that both dmPFC and vmPFC lesions led to increased REM sleep, but only vmPFC-lesioned animals displayed increased sleep fragmentation, shortened REM latency and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Anatomic tracing suggests that the mPFC projects to the pontine REM-off neurons that interact with REM-on neurons in the dorsal pons. These results support our hypothesis that neuronal loss in the rat vmPFC resembles several characteristics of MDD and may be a critical area for modulating both mood and sleep.

  9. Apnea-induced rapid eye movement sleep disruption impairs human spatial navigational memory.

    PubMed

    Varga, Andrew W; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P; Osorio, Ricardo S; Rapoport, David M; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-10-29

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restricting CPAP withdrawal to REM through real-time monitoring of the polysomnogram provides a novel way of addressing the role of REM sleep in spatial navigational memory with a physiologically relevant stimulus. Individuals spent two different nights in the laboratory, during which subjects performed timed trials before and after sleep on one of two unique 3D spatial mazes. One night of sleep was normally consolidated with use of therapeutic CPAP throughout, whereas on the other night, CPAP was reduced only in REM sleep, allowing REM OSA to recur. REM disruption via this method caused REM sleep reduction and significantly fragmented any remaining REM sleep without affecting total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or slow-wave sleep. We observed improvements in maze performance after a night of normal sleep that were significantly attenuated after a night of REM disruption without changes in psychomotor vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in maze completion time significantly positively correlated with the mean REM run duration across both sleep conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role for REM sleep in human memory formation and highlight a significant cognitive consequence of OSA.

  10. Automatic detection of rapid eye movements (REMs): A machine learning approach

    PubMed Central

    Yetton, Benjamin D.; Niknazar, Mohammad; Duggan, Katherine A.; McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Whitehurst, Lauren N.; Sattari, Negin; Mednick, Sara C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Rapid eye movements (REMs) are a defining feature of REM sleep. The number of discrete REMs over time, or REM density, has been investigated as a marker of clinical psychopathology and memory consolidation. However, human detection of REMs is a time-consuming and subjective process. Therefore, reliable, automated REM detection software is a valuable research tool. New method We developed an automatic REM detection algorithm combining a novel set of extracted features and the ‘AdaBoost’ classification algorithm to detect the presence of REMs in Electrooculogram data collected from the right and left outer canthi (ROC/LOC). Algorithm performance measures of Recall (percentage of REMs detected) and Precision (percentage of REMs detected that are true REMs) were calculated and compared to the gold standard of human detection by three expert sleep scorers. REM detection by four non-experts were also investigated and compared to expert raters and the algorithm. Results The algorithm performance (78.1% Recall, 82.6% Precision) surpassed that of the average (expert & non-expert) single human detection performance (76% Recall, 83% Precision). Agreement between non-experts (Cronbach Alpha = 0.65) is markedly lower than experts (Cronbach Alpha = 0.80). Comparison with existing method(s) By following reported methods, we implemented all previously published LOC and ROC based detection algorithms on our dataset. Our algorithm performance exceeded all others. Conclusions The automatic detection algorithm presented is a viable and efficient method of REM detection as it reliably matches the performance of human scorers and outperforms all other known LOC- and ROC-based detection algorithms. PMID:26642967

  11. Neocortical 40 Hz oscillations during carbachol-induced rapid eye movement sleep and cataplexy.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Castro-Zaballa, Santiago; Cavelli, Matías; Chase, Michael H; Falconi, Atilio

    2016-02-01

    Higher cognitive functions require the integration and coordination of large populations of neurons in cortical and subcortical regions. Oscillations in the gamma band (30-45 Hz) of the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been involved in these cognitive functions. In previous studies, we analysed the extent of functional connectivity between cortical areas employing the 'mean squared coherence' analysis of the EEG gamma band. We demonstrated that gamma coherence is maximal during alert wakefulness and is almost absent during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The nucleus pontis oralis (NPO) is critical for REM sleep generation. The NPO is considered to exert executive control over the initiation and maintenance of REM sleep. In the cat, depending on the previous state of the animal, a single microinjection of carbachol (a cholinergic agonist) into the NPO can produce either REM sleep [REM sleep induced by carbachol (REMc)] or a waking state with muscle atonia, i.e. cataplexy [cataplexy induced by carbachol (CA)]. In the present study, in cats that were implanted with electrodes in different cortical areas to record polysomnographic activity, we compared the degree of gamma (30-45 Hz) coherence during REMc, CA and naturally-occurring behavioural states. Gamma coherence was maximal during CA and alert wakefulness. In contrast, gamma coherence was almost absent during REMc as in naturally-occurring REM sleep. We conclude that, in spite of the presence of somatic muscle paralysis, there are remarkable differences in cortical activity between REMc and CA, which confirm that EEG gamma (≈40 Hz) coherence is a trait that differentiates wakefulness from REM sleep.

  12. Selective rapid eye movement sleep deprivation affects cell size and number in kitten locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Shaffery, James P; Allard, Joanne S; Manaye, Kebreten F; Roffwarg, Howard P

    2012-01-01

    Cells in the locus coeruleus (LC) constitute the sole source of norepinephrine (NE) in the brain and change their discharge rates according to vigilance state. In addition to its well established role in vigilance, NE affects synaptic plasticity in the postnatal critical period (CP) of development. One form of CP synaptic plasticity affected by NE results from monocular occlusion, which leads to physiological and cytoarchitectural alterations in central visual areas. Selective suppression of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) in the CP kitten enhances the central effects of monocular occlusion. The mechanisms responsible for heightened cortical plasticity following REMS deprivation (REMSD) remain undetermined. One possible mediator of an increase in plasticity is continuous NE outflow, which presumably persists during extended periods of REMSD. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of NE and serves as a marker for NE-producing cells. We selectively suppressed REMS in kittens for 1 week during the CP. The number and size of LC cells expressing immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-ir) was assessed in age-matched REMS-deprived (RD)-, treatment-control (TXC)-, and home cage-reared (HCC) animals. Sleep amounts and slow wave activity (SWA) were also examined relative to baseline. Time spent in REMS during the study was lower in RD compared to TXC animals, and RD kittens increased SWA delta power in the latter half of the REMSD period. The estimated total number of TH-ir cells in LC was significantly lower in the RD than in the TXC kittens and numerically lower than in the HCC animals. The size of LC cells expressing TH-ir was greatest in the HCC group. HCC cells were significantly larger than TH-ir cells in the RD kittens. These data are consistent with presumed reduction in NE in forebrain areas, including visual cortex, caused by 1 week of REMSD.

  13. Medullary circuitry regulating rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and motor atonia

    PubMed Central

    Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Fuller, Patrick M; Tong, Qingchun; Lu, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Considerable data support a role for glycinergic ventromedial medulla neurons in the mediation of the postsynaptic inhibition of spinal motoneurons necessary for the motor atonia of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in cats. These data are however difficult to reconcile with the fact that large lesions of the rostral ventral medulla do not result in loss of REM atonia in rats. In the present study, we sought to clarify which medullary networks in rodents are responsible for REM motor atonia by retrogradely tracing inputs to the spinal ventral horn from the medulla, ablating these medullary sources to determine their effects on REM atonia and using transgenic mice to identify the neurotransmitter(s) involved. Our results reveal a restricted region within the ventromedial medulla, termed here the ‘supraolivary medulla’ (SOM), which contains glutamatergic neurons that project to the spinal ventral horn. Cell-body specific lesions of the SOM resulted in an intermittent loss of muscle atonia, taking the form of exaggerated phasic muscle twitches, during REM sleep. A concomitant reduction in REM sleep time was observed in the SOM-lesioned animals. We next used mice with lox-P modified alleles of either the glutamate or GABA/glycine vesicular transporters to selectively eliminate glutamate or GABA/glycine neurotransmission from SOM neurons. Loss of SOM glutamate release, but not SOM GABA/glycine release, resulted in exaggerated muscle twitches during REM sleep that were similar to those observed following SOM lesions in rats. These findings, taken together, demonstrate that SOM glutamatergic neurons comprise key elements of the medullary circuitry mediating REM atonia. PMID:19625526

  14. Endogenous excitatory drive to the respiratory system in rapid eye movement sleep in cats

    PubMed Central

    Orem, John; Lovering, Andrew T; Dunin-Barkowski, Witali; Vidruk, Edward H

    2000-01-01

    A putative endogenous excitatory drive to the respiratory system in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may explain many characteristics of breathing in that state, e.g. its irregularity and variable ventilatory responses to chemical stimuli. This drive is hypothetical, and determinations of its existence and character are complicated by control of the respiratory system by the oscillator and its feedback mechanisms. In the present study, endogenous drive was studied during apnoea caused by mechanical hyperventilation. We reasoned that if there was a REM-dependent drive to the respiratory system, then respiratory activity should emerge out of the background apnoea as a manifestation of the drive. Diaphragmatic muscle or medullary respiratory neuronal activity was studied in five intact, unanaesthetized adult cats who were either mechanically hyperventilated or breathed spontaneously in more than 100 REM sleep periods. Diaphragmatic activity emerged out of a background apnoea caused by mechanical hyperventilation an average of 34 s after the onset of REM sleep. Emergent activity occurred in 60 % of 10 s epochs in REM sleep and the amount of activity per unit time averaged approximately 40 % of eupnoeic activity. The activity occurred in episodes and was poorly related to pontogeniculo-occipital waves. At low CO2 levels, this activity was non-rhythmic. At higher CO2 levels (less than 0.5 % below eupnoeic end-tidal percentage CO2 levels in non-REM (NREM) sleep), activity became rhythmic. Medullary respiratory neurons were recorded in one of the five animals. Nineteen of twenty-seven medullary respiratory neurons were excited in REM sleep during apnoea. Excited neurons included inspiratory, expiratory and phase-spanning neurons. Excitation began about 43 s after the onset of REM sleep. Activity increased from an average of 6 impulses s−1 in NREM sleep to 15.5 impulses s−1 in REM sleep. Neuronal activity was non-rhythmic at low CO2 levels and became rhythmic when levels

  15. The role of eye movements in the missing-letter effect revisited with the rapid serial visual presentation procedure.

    PubMed

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Kenny, Sophie; Roy-Charland, Annie

    2010-03-01

    When participants read a text while searching for a target letter, they are more likely to miss the target letter embedded in frequent function words than in less frequent content words. This effect is usually observed with a text displayed normally, for which it has been found that frequent function words are fixated for a smaller amount of time than less frequent content words. However, similar pattern of omissions have been observed with a rapid serial visual presentation procedure in which words appear one at a time. These parallel results would demonstrate that fixation duration per se is not the proximal cause of the missing-letter effect only if eye movements are not made during the rapid serial visual presentation procedure. Therefore, the authors performed eye monitoring during the rapid serial visual presentation procedure. Results revealed that, with a rapid serial visual presentation procedure, participants fixated function and content words for almost the entire presentation duration. It is concluded that eye movements are not the proximal cause of the missing-letter effect.

  16. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Symptoms Correlate with Domains of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-Ru; Chen, Jing; Yang, Zi-Jiao; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Fu, Yun-Ting; Shen, Yun; He, Pei-Cheng; Mao, Cheng-Jie; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known regarding the relation between the severity of RBD and the different domains of cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate the domains of cognitive impairment in patients with PD and RBD, and (2) to explore risk factors for PD-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and the relationship between RBD severity and impairment in different cognitive domains in PD. Methods: The participants were grouped as follows: PD without RBD (PD-RBD; n = 42), PD with RBD (PD + RBD; n = 32), idiopathic RBD (iRBD; n = 15), and healthy controls (HCs; n = 36). All participants completed a battery of neuropsychological assessment of attention and working memory, executive function, language, memory, and visuospatial function. The information of basic demographics, diseases and medication history, and motor and nonmotor manifestations was obtained and compared between PD-RBD and PD + RBD groups. Particular attention was paid to the severity of RBD assessed by the RBD Questionnaire-Hong Kong (RBDQ-HK) and the RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ), then we further examined associations between the severity of RBD symptoms and cognitive levels via correlation analysis. Results: Compared to PD-RBD subjects, PD + RBD patients were more likely to have olfactory dysfunction and their Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores were higher (P < 0.05). During neuropsychological testing, PD + RBD patients performed worse than PD-RBD patients, including delayed memory function, especially. The MCI rates were 33%, 63%, 33%, and 8% for PD-RBD, PD + RBD, iRBD, and HC groups, respectively. RBD was an important factor for the PD-MCI variance (odds ratio = 5.204, P = 0.018). During correlation analysis, higher RBDSQ and RBDQ-HK scores were significantly associated with poorer performance on the Trail Making Test-B (errors

  17. Evaluation of the King-Devick Test to Assess Eye Movements and the Performance of Rapid Number Naming in Concussed and Non-Concussed Service Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0173 TITLE: “Evaluation of the King-Devick Test to Assess Eye Movements and the Performance of Rapid Number Naming in...Assess Eye Movements and the Performance of Rapid Number Naming in Concussed and Non-Concussed Service Members” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...https://www.usamraa.army.mil) shall be updated and submitted as an appendix. Appendices 6 Evaluation of the King-Devick Test to Assess Eye Movements

  18. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  19. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  20. Automated analysis of connected speech reveals early biomarkers of Parkinson's disease in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Hlavnička, Jan; Čmejla, Roman; Tykalová, Tereza; Šonka, Karel; Růžička, Evžen; Rusz, Jan

    2017-12-01

    For generations, the evaluation of speech abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) has been limited to perceptual tests or user-controlled laboratory analysis based upon rather small samples of human vocalizations. Our study introduces a fully automated method that yields significant features related to respiratory deficits, dysphonia, imprecise articulation and dysrhythmia from acoustic microphone data of natural connected speech for predicting early and distinctive patterns of neurodegeneration. We compared speech recordings of 50 subjects with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), 30 newly diagnosed, untreated PD patients and 50 healthy controls, and showed that subliminal parkinsonian speech deficits can be reliably captured even in RBD patients, which are at high risk of developing PD or other synucleinopathies. Thus, automated vocal analysis should soon be able to contribute to screening and diagnostic procedures for prodromal parkinsonian neurodegeneration in natural environments.

  1. Substance P and the neurokinin-1 receptor regulate electroencephalogram non-rapid eye movement sleep slow-wave activity locally.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, M R; Karpova, S A; Yang, X; Gerashchenko, D

    2015-01-22

    The neuropeptide substance P is an excitatory neurotransmitter produced by various cells including neurons and microglia that is involved in regulating inflammation and cerebral blood flow--functions that affect sleep and slow-wave activity (SWA). Substance P is the major ligand for the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R), which is found throughout the brain including the cortex. The NK-1R is found on sleep-active cortical neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase whose activity is associated with SWA. We determined the effects of local cortical administration of a NK-1R agonist (substance P-fragment 1, 7) and a NK-1R antagonist (CP96345) on sleep and SWA in mice. The NK-1R agonist significantly enhanced SWA for several hours when applied locally to the cortex of the ipsilateral hemisphere as the electroencephalogram (EEG) electrode but not after application to the contralateral hemisphere when compared to saline vehicle control injections. In addition, a significant compensatory reduction in SWA was found after the NK-1R agonist-induced enhancements in SWA. Conversely, injections of the NK-1R antagonist into the cortex of the ipsilateral hemisphere of the EEG electrode attenuated SWA compared to vehicle injections but this effect was not found after injections of the NK-1R antagonist into contralateral hemisphere as the EEG electrode. Non-rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep duration responses after NK-1R agonist and antagonist injections were not significantly different from the responses to the vehicle. Our findings indicate that the substance P and the NK-1R are involved in regulating SWA locally.

  2. Repeated Administration of Korea Red Ginseng Extract Increases Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep via GABAAergic Systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Il; Kim, Chung-Soo; Han, Jin-Yi; Oh, Eun-Hye; Oh, Ki-Wan; Eun, Jae Soon

    2012-10-01

    The current inquiry was conducted to assess the change in sleep architecture after long periods of administration to determine whether ginseng can be used in the therapy of sleeplessness. Following post-surgical recovery, red ginseng extract (RGE, 200 mg/ kg) was orally administrated to rats for 9 d. Data were gathered on the 1st, 5th, and 9th day, and an electroencephalogram was recorded 24 h after RGE administration. Polygraphic signs of unobstructed sleep-wake activities were simultaneously recorded with sleep-wake recording electrodes from 11:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. for 6 h. Rodents were generally tamed to freely moving polygraphic recording conditions. Although the 1st and 5th day of RGE treatment showed no effect on power densities in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the 9th day of RGE administration showed augmented α-wave (8.0 to 13.0 Hz) power densities in NREM and REM sleep. RGE increased total sleep and NREM sleep. The total percentage of wakefulness was only decreased on the 9th day, and the number of sleep-wake cycles was reduced after the repeated administration of RGE. Thus, the repeated administration of RGE increased NREM sleep in rats. The α-wave activities in the cortical electroencephalograms were increased in sleep architecture by RGE. Moreover, the levels of both α- and β-subunits of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor were reduced in the hypothalamus of the RGE-treated groups. The level of glutamic acid decarboxylase was over-expressed in the hypothalamus. These results demonstrate that RGE increases NREM sleep via GABAAergic systems.

  3. Dopamine agonist suppression of rapid-eye-movement sleep is secondary to sleep suppression mediated via limbic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Miletich, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pergolide, a direct dopamine receptor agonist, on sleep and wakefulness, motor behavior and /sup 3/H-spiperone specific binding in limbic structures and striatum in rats was studied. The results show that pergolide induced a biphasic dose effect, with high doses increasing wakefulness and suppressing sleep while low dose decreased wakefulness, but increased sleep. It was shown that pergolide-induced sleep suppression was blocked by ..cap alpha..-glupenthixol and pimozide, two dopamine receptor antagonists. It was further shown that pergolide merely delayed the rebound resulting from rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep deprivation, that dopamine receptors stimulation had no direct effect on the period, phase or amplitude of the circadian rhythm of REM sleep propensity and that there was no alteration in the coupling of REM sleep episodes with S/sub 2/ episodes. Rapid-eye-movement sleep deprivation resulted in increased sensitivity to the pergolide-induced wakefulness stimulation and sleep suppression and pergolide-induced motor behaviors of locomotion and head bobbing. /sup 3/H-spiperone specific binding to dopamine receptors was shown to be altered by REM sleep deprivation in the subcortical limbic structures. It is concluded that the REM sleep suppressing action of dopamine receptor stimulation is secondary to sleep suppression per se and not secondary to a unique effect on the REM sleep. Further, it is suggested that the wakefulness stimulating action of dopamine receptor agonists is mediated by activation of the dopamine receptors in the terminal areas of the mesolimbocortical dopamine projection system.

  4. Glycinergic and GABA(A)-mediated inhibition of somatic motoneurons does not mediate rapid eye movement sleep motor atonia.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Patricia L; Peever, John H

    2008-04-02

    A hallmark of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a potent suppression of postural muscle tone. Motor control in REM sleep is unique because it is characterized by flurries of intermittent muscle twitches that punctuate muscle atonia. Because somatic motoneurons are bombarded by strychnine-sensitive IPSPs during REM sleep, it is assumed that glycinergic inhibition underlies REM atonia. However, it has never been determined whether glycinergic inhibition of motoneurons is indeed responsible for triggering the loss of postural muscle tone during REM sleep. Therefore, we used reverse microdialysis, electrophysiology, and pharmacological and histological methods to determine whether glycinergic and/or GABA(A)-mediated neurotransmission at the trigeminal motor pool mediates masseter muscle atonia during REM sleep in rats. By antagonizing glycine and GABA(A) receptors on trigeminal motoneurons, we unmasked a tonic glycinergic/GABAergic drive at the trigeminal motor pool during waking and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Blockade of this drive potently increased masseter muscle tone during both waking and NREM sleep. This glycinergic/GABAergic drive was immediately switched-off and converted into a phasic glycinergic drive during REM sleep. Blockade of this phasic drive potently provoked muscle twitch activity in REM sleep; however, it did not prevent or reverse REM atonia. Muscle atonia in REM even persisted when glycine and GABA(A) receptors were simultaneously antagonized and trigeminal motoneurons were directly activated by glutamatergic excitation, indicating that a powerful, yet unidentified, inhibitory mechanism overrides motoneuron excitation during REM sleep. Our data refute the prevailing hypothesis that REM atonia is caused by glycinergic inhibition. The inhibitory mechanism mediating REM atonia therefore requires reevaluation.

  5. Reduction in ultrasonic vocalizations in pups born to rapid eye movement sleep restricted mothers in rat model.

    PubMed

    Gulia, Kamalesh K; Patel, Niraj; Radhakrishnan, Arathi; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of rapid eye movement sleep restriction (REMSR) in rats during late pregnancy were studied on the ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) made by the pups. USVs are distress calls inaudible to human ears. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was restricted in one group of pregnant rats for 22 hours, starting from gestational day 14 to 20, using standard single platform method. The USVs of male pups were recorded after a brief isolation from their mother for two minutes on alternate post-natal days, from day one till weaning. The USVs were recorded using microphones and were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using SASPro software. Control pups produced maximum vocalization on post-natal days 9 to 11. In comparison, the pups born to REMSR mothers showed not only a reduction in vocalization but also a delay in peak call making days. The experimental group showed variations in the types and characteristics of call types, and alteration in temporal profile. The blunting of distress call making response in these pups indicates that maternal sleep plays a role in regulating the neural development involved in vocalizations and possibly in shaping the emotional behaviour in neonates. It is suggested that the reduced ultrasonic vocalizations can be utilized as a reliable early marker for affective state in rat pups. Such impaired vocalization responses could provide an important lead in understanding mother-child bonding for an optimal cognitive development during post-partum life. This is the first report showing a potential link between maternal REM sleep deprivation and the vocalization in neonates and infants.

  6. Global field synchronization reveals rapid eye movement sleep as most synchronized brain state in the human EEG.

    PubMed

    Achermann, Peter; Rusterholz, Thomas; Dürr, Roland; König, Thomas; Tarokh, Leila

    2016-10-01

    Sleep is characterized by a loss of consciousness, which has been attributed to a breakdown of functional connectivity between brain regions. Global field synchronization (GFS) can estimate functional connectivity of brain processes. GFS is a frequency-dependent measure of global synchronicity of multi-channel EEG data. Our aim was to explore and extend the hypothesis of disconnection during sleep by comparing GFS spectra of different vigilance states. The analysis was performed on eight healthy adult male subjects. EEG was recorded during a baseline night, a recovery night after 40 h of sustained wakefulness and at 3 h intervals during the 40 h of wakefulness. Compared to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, REM sleep showed larger GFS values in all frequencies except in the spindle and theta bands, where NREM sleep showed a peak in GFS. Sleep deprivation did not affect GFS spectra in REM and NREM sleep. Waking GFS values were lower compared with REM and NREM sleep except for the alpha band. Waking alpha GFS decreased following sleep deprivation in the eyes closed condition only. Our surprising finding of higher synchrony during REM sleep challenges the view of REM sleep as a desynchronized brain state and may provide insight into the function of REM sleep.

  7. Global field synchronization reveals rapid eye movement sleep as most synchronized brain state in the human EEG

    PubMed Central

    Achermann, Peter; Rusterholz, Thomas; Dürr, Roland; König, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is characterized by a loss of consciousness, which has been attributed to a breakdown of functional connectivity between brain regions. Global field synchronization (GFS) can estimate functional connectivity of brain processes. GFS is a frequency-dependent measure of global synchronicity of multi-channel EEG data. Our aim was to explore and extend the hypothesis of disconnection during sleep by comparing GFS spectra of different vigilance states. The analysis was performed on eight healthy adult male subjects. EEG was recorded during a baseline night, a recovery night after 40 h of sustained wakefulness and at 3 h intervals during the 40 h of wakefulness. Compared to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, REM sleep showed larger GFS values in all frequencies except in the spindle and theta bands, where NREM sleep showed a peak in GFS. Sleep deprivation did not affect GFS spectra in REM and NREM sleep. Waking GFS values were lower compared with REM and NREM sleep except for the alpha band. Waking alpha GFS decreased following sleep deprivation in the eyes closed condition only. Our surprising finding of higher synchrony during REM sleep challenges the view of REM sleep as a desynchronized brain state and may provide insight into the function of REM sleep. PMID:27853537

  8. Chess players' eye movements reveal rapid recognition of complex visual patterns: Evidence from a chess-related visual search task.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M

    2017-03-01

    To explore the perceptual component of chess expertise, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players during a chess-related visual search task that tested anecdotal reports that a key differentiator of chess skill is the ability to visualize the complex moves of the knight piece. Specifically, chess players viewed an array of four minimized chessboards, and they rapidly searched for the target board that allowed a knight piece to reach a target square in three moves. On each trial, there was only one target board (i.e., the "Yes" board), and for the remaining "lure" boards, the knight's path was blocked on either the first move (the "Easy No" board) or the second move (i.e., "the Difficult No" board). As evidence that chess experts can rapidly differentiate complex chess-related visual patterns, the experts (but not the novices) showed longer first-fixation durations on the "Yes" board relative to the "Difficult No" board. Moreover, as hypothesized, the task strongly differentiated chess skill: Reaction times were more than four times faster for the experts relative to novices, and reaction times were correlated with within-group measures of expertise (i.e., official chess ratings, number of hours of practice). These results indicate that a key component of chess expertise is the ability to rapidly recognize complex visual patterns.

  9. Rapid eye movement sleep and hippocampal theta oscillations precede seizure onset in the tetanus toxin model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sedigh-Sarvestani, Madineh; Thuku, Godfrey I; Sunderam, Sridhar; Parkar, Anjum; Weinstein, Steven L; Schiff, Steven J; Gluckman, Bruce J

    2014-01-22

    Improved understanding of the interaction between state of vigilance (SOV) and seizure onset has therapeutic potential. Six rats received injections of tetanus toxin (TeTX) in the ventral hippocampus that resulted in chronic spontaneous seizures. The distribution of SOV before 486 seizures was analyzed for a total of 19 d of recording. Rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and exploratory wake, both of which express prominent hippocampal theta rhythm, preceded 47 and 34%, for a total of 81%, of all seizures. Nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREM) and nonexploratory wake, neither of which expresses prominent theta, preceded 6.8 and 13% of seizures. We demonstrate that identification of SOV yields significant differentiation of seizure susceptibilities, with the instantaneous seizure rate during REM nearly 10 times higher than baseline and the rate for NREM less than half of baseline. Survival analysis indicated a shorter duration of preseizure REM bouts, with a maximum transition to seizure at ∼90 s after the onset of REM. This study provides the first analysis of a correlation between SOV and seizure onset in the TeTX model of temporal lobe epilepsy, as well as the first demonstration that hippocampal theta rhythms associated with natural behavioral states can serve a seizure-promoting role. Our findings are in contrast with previous studies suggesting that the correlations between SOV and seizures are primarily governed by circadian oscillations and the notion that hippocampal theta rhythms inhibit seizures. The documentation of significant SOV-dependent seizure susceptibilities indicates the potential utility of SOV and its time course in seizure prediction and control.

  10. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  11. On biometrics with eye movements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti

    2016-04-07

    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In the present article, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  12. A quantitative analysis of the submentalis muscle electromyographic amplitude during rapid eye movement sleep across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero; Fulda, Stephany; Zucconi, Marco; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    The current definition of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia has no quantitative character, and cut-off values above which the level of electromyographic tone can be considered to be 'excessive' are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of chin electromyographic amplitude by means of an automatic approach in a large group of normal controls, subdivided into different age groups. Eighty-eight normal controls were included, subdivided into six age groups: preschoolers (≤6 years); schoolers (6-10 years); preadolescents (10-13 years); young adults (24-40 years); middle-aged (58-65 years); and old (>65 years). The average amplitude of the rectified submentalis muscle electromyographic signal was used for the computation of the REM sleep Atonia Index. Chin muscle activations were detected, and their amplitude, duration and interval analysed. REM sleep Atonia Index showed a progressive and rapid increase from the preschool age to school and preadolescent age, reaching the maximum in the young adult group; after this age a small decline was observed in the middle-aged and old subjects. Conversely, the number of movements per hour in REM sleep showed a 'U'-shaped distribution across these age groups, with the minimum in the preadolescent group and the two extremes (preschool age and old) showing similar average levels of activity. Our results show that REM sleep atonia develops continuously during the lifespan, and undergoes complex changes with different developmental trajectories for REM atonia and electromyographic activations during REM sleep. Different mechanisms might subserve these two phenomena and their differential developmental dynamics.

  13. Acute enhancement of non-rapid eye movement sleep in rats after drinking water contaminated with cadmium chloride.

    PubMed

    Unno, Katsuya; Yamoto, Kurumi; Takeuchi, Kouhei; Kataoka, Aya; Ozaki, Tomoya; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Honda, Kazuki; Miura, Nobuhiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal widely used or effused by industries. Serious environmental Cd pollution has been reported over the past two centuries, whereas the mechanisms underlying Cd-mediated diseases are not fully understood. Interestingly, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) after Cd exposure has been shown. Our group has demonstrated that sleep is triggered via accumulation of ROS during neuronal activities, and we thus hypothesize the involvement of Cd poisoning in sleep-wake irregularities. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of Cd intake (1-100 ppm CdCl₂ in drinking water) on rats by monitoring sleep encephalograms and locomotor activities. The results demonstrated that 100 ppm CdCl₂ administration for 28 h was sufficient to increase non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep and reduce locomotor activities during the night (the rat active phase). In contrast, free-running locomotor rhythms under constant dim red light and their re-entrainment to 12:12-h light/dark cycles were intact under chronic (1 month) 100 ppm CdCl₂ administrations, suggesting a limited influence on circadian clock movements at this dosage. The relative amount of oxidized glutathione increased in the brain after the 28-h 100 ppm CdCl₂ administrations similar to the levels in cultured astrocytes receiving H₂O₂ or CdCl₂ in culture medium. Therefore, we propose Cd-induced sleep as a consequence of oxidative stress. As oxidized glutathione is an endogenous sleep substance, we suggest that Cd rapidly induces sleepiness and influences activity performance by occupying intrinsic sleep-inducing mechanisms. In conclusion, we propose increased non-REM sleep during the active phase as an index of acute Cd exposure.

  14. Microinjection of 70-kDal heat shock protein into the oral reticular nucleus of the pons suppresses rapid eye movement sleep in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Gusel'nikova, E A; Pastukhov, Yu F

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that increases in the duration of slow-wave sleep and decreases in somatovisceral measures in response to microinjections of 70-kDal heat shock protein (Hsp70) into the third ventricle in pigeons may be due to activation of GABAA receptors in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. With the aim of identifying the transmitter mechanisms whose activation is temporally (2-3 h) linked with suppression of rapid eye movement sleep, the present studies were based on injection of Hsp70 into the oral reticular pontine nucleus (nucleus reticularis pontis oralis, NRPO), whose cholinergic neurons are critical for generating rapid eye movement sleep. Hsp70 was found to induce earlier (within the first 2 h) decreases in the number of episodes and the total duration of rapid eye movement sleep, with decreases in electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power in the range 9-14 Hz, the level of muscle contractile activity, and brain temperature. It is hypothesized that the effects of Hsp70 are mediated by activation of GABAA receptors in the NRPO, evoking suppression of the cholinergic mechanisms initiating rapid eye movement sleep. The increase in the total duration of slow-wave sleep occurring with a long latent period (8-12 h after injection of Hsp70 into the NRPO) may be due to the influence of Hsp70 on the population of neurons responsible for maintaining slow-wave sleep outside the NRPO.

  15. Phasic brain activity related to the onset of rapid eye movements during rapid eye movement sleep: study of event-related potentials and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Keiko; Abe, Takashi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Katuo; Hori, Tadao

    2010-09-01

    The function of rapid eye movements (REMs) during REM sleep is still a matter that is open to debate. In a previous study, we found positive brain potential (P200r) time-locked to the onset of REMs. This potential was not observed during saccades of wakefulness. In this study, we estimated the electrical generation of this potential to investigate the phasic brain activity related to REMs. Data were collected in a sleep laboratory from nine healthy university students. REMs during REM sleep were recorded during natural nocturnal sleep. Event-related potential time-locked to the onset of REMs were averaged. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) was used to identify the current sources of P200r. The results showed that P200r have neuronal generators in the left premotor area, left primary motor and sensory cortices, left inferior parietal lobule and bilateral occipital areas (precuneus, cuneus and lingual gyrus). All these areas are known to contribute to visuomotor processing. These phasic brain activities might play a key role in explaining the function of REMs during REM sleep.

  16. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation decreases long-term potentiation stability and affects some glutamatergic signaling proteins during hippocampal development.

    PubMed

    Lopez, J; Roffwarg, H P; Dreher, A; Bissette, G; Karolewicz, B; Shaffery, J P

    2008-04-22

    Development of the mammalian CNS requires formation and stabilization of neuronal circuits and synaptic connections. Sensory stimulation provided by the environment orchestrates neuronal circuit formation in the waking state. Endogenous sources of activation are also implicated in these processes. Accordingly we hypothesized that sleep, especially rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), the stage characterized by high neuronal activity that is more prominent in development than adulthood, provides endogenous stimulation, which, like sensory input, helps to stabilize and refine neuronal circuits during CNS development. Young (Y: postnatal day (PN) 16) and adolescent (A: PN44) rats were rapid eye movement sleep-deprived (REMSD) by gentle cage-shaking for only 4 h on 3 consecutive days (total 12 h). The effect of REMS deprivation in Y and A rats was tested 3-7 days after the last deprivation session (Y, PN21-25; A, PN49-53) and was compared with younger (immature, I, PN9-12) untreated, age-matched, treated and normal control groups. REMS deprivation negatively affected the stability of long-term potentiation (LTP) in Y but not A animals. LTP instability in Y-REMSD animals was similar to the instability in even the more immature, untreated animals. Utilizing immunoblots, we identified changes in molecular components of glutamatergic synapses known to participate in mechanisms of synaptic refinement and plasticity. Overall, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 2A, AMPA receptor subunit 1 (GluR1), postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), and calcium/calmodulin kinase II tended to be lower in Y REMSD animals (NR2B, GluR1 and PSD-95 were significantly lower) compared with controls, an effect not present in the A animals. Taken together, these data indicate that early-life REMS deprivation reduces stability of hippocampal neuronal circuits, possibly by hindering expression of mature glutamatergic synaptic components. The findings

  17. The Clinical Phenotype of Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder at Presentation: A Study in 203 Consecutive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Arcos, Ana; Iranzo, Alex; Serradell, Mónica; Gaig, Carles; Santamaria, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical phenotype of idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) at presentation in a sleep center. Methods: Clinical history review of 203 consecutive patients with IRBD identified between 1990 and 2014. IRBD was diagnosed by clinical history plus video-polysomnographic demonstration of REM sleep with increased electromyographic activity linked to abnormal behaviors. Results: Patients were 80% men with median age at IRBD diagnosis of 68 y (range, 50–85 y). In addition to the already known clinical picture of IRBD, other important features were apparent: 44% of the patients were not aware of their dream-enactment behaviors and 70% reported good sleep quality. In most of these cases bed partners were essential to convince patients to seek medical help. In 11% IRBD was elicited only after specific questioning when patients consulted for other reasons. Seven percent did not recall unpleasant dreams. Leaving the bed occurred occasionally in 24% of subjects in whom dementia with Lewy bodies often developed eventually. For the correct diagnosis of IRBD, video-polysomnography had to be repeated in 16% because of insufficient REM sleep or electromyographic artifacts from coexistent apneas. Some subjects with comorbid obstructive sleep apnea reported partial improvement of RBD symptoms following continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Lack of therapy with clonazepam resulted in an increased risk of sleep related injuries. Synucleinopathy was frequently diagnosed, even in patients with mild severity or uncommon IRBD presentations (e.g., patients who reported sleeping well, onset triggered by a life event, nocturnal ambulation) indicating that the development of a neurodegenerative disease is independent of the clinical presentation of IRBD. Conclusions: We report the largest IRBD cohort observed in a single center to date and highlight frequent features that were not reported or not sufficiently emphasized in previous

  18. Sleep spindles and rapid eye movement sleep as predictors of next morning cognitive performance in healthy middle-aged and older participants.

    PubMed

    Lafortune, Marjolaine; Gagnon, Jean-François; Martin, Nicolas; Latreille, Véronique; Dubé, Jonathan; Bouchard, Maude; Bastien, Célyne; Carrier, Julie

    2014-04-01

    Spindles and slow waves are hallmarks of non-rapid eye movement sleep. Both these oscillations are markers of neuronal plasticity, and play a role in memory and cognition. Normal ageing is associated with spindle and slow wave decline and cognitive changes. The present study aimed to assess whether spindle and slow wave characteristics during a baseline night predict cognitive performance in healthy older adults the next morning. Specifically, we examined performance on tasks measuring selective and sustained visual attention, declarative verbal memory, working memory and verbal fluency. Fifty-eight healthy middle-aged and older adults (aged 50-91 years) without sleep disorders underwent baseline polysomnographic sleep recording followed by neuropsychological assessment the next morning. Spindles and slow waves were detected automatically on artefact-free non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram. All-night stage N2 spindle density (no./min) and mean frequency (Hz) and all-night non-rapid eye movement sleep slow wave density (no./min) and mean slope (μV/s) were analysed. Pearson's correlations were performed between spindles, slow waves, polysomnography and cognitive performance. Higher spindle density predicted better performance on verbal learning, visual attention and verbal fluency, whereas spindle frequency and slow wave density or slope predicted fewer cognitive performance variables. In addition, rapid eye movement sleep duration was associated with better verbal learning potential. These results suggest that spindle density is a marker of cognitive functioning in older adults and may reflect neuroanatomic integrity. Rapid eye movement sleep may be a marker of age-related changes in acetylcholine transmission, which plays a role in new information encoding.

  19. Endothelial function and sleep: associations of flow-mediated dilation with perceived sleep quality and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Denise C; Ziegler, Michael G; Milic, Milos S; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Mills, Paul J; Loredo, José S; Von Känel, Roland; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2014-02-01

    Endothelial function typically precedes clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease and provides a potential mechanism for the associations observed between cardiovascular disease and sleep quality. This study examined how subjective and objective indicators of sleep quality relate to endothelial function, as measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In a clinical research centre, 100 non-shift working adults (mean age: 36 years) completed FMD testing and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, along with a polysomnography assessment to obtain the following measures: slow wave sleep, percentage rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, REM sleep latency, total arousal index, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency and apnea-hypopnea index. Bivariate correlations and follow-up multiple regressions examined how FMD related to subjective (i.e., Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores) and objective (i.e., polysomnography-derived) indicators of sleep quality. After FMD showed bivariate correlations with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores, percentage REM sleep and REM latency, further examination with separate regression models indicated that these associations remained significant after adjustments for sex, age, race, hypertension, body mass index, apnea-hypopnea index, smoking and income (Ps < 0.05). Specifically, as FMD decreased, scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index increased (indicating decreased subjective sleep quality) and percentage REM sleep decreased, while REM sleep latency increased (Ps < 0.05). Poorer subjective sleep quality and adverse changes in REM sleep were associated with diminished vasodilation, which could link sleep disturbances to cardiovascular disease.

  20. Role of noradrenergic and GABA-ergic inputs in pedunculopontine tegmentum for regulation of rapid eye movement sleep in rats.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dinesh; Mallick, Birendra Nath

    2006-07-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbance is associated with several psycho-behavioral disorders, hence, it is important to understand its neural mechanism of regulation. Although it was known that the noradrenergic (NA-ergic) neurons from locus coeruleus (LC) project to the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT), the role of noradrenaline (NA) alone and in association with GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in PPT for REM sleep regulation was not known and was investigated in this study in freely moving normally behaving rats. Rats were surgically prepared for electrophysiological sleep-wake recording and simultaneous bilateral microinjections into PPT. 200nl of prazosin (alpha1-antagonist) or clonidine (alpha2-agonist) or propranolol (beta-antagonist) or combination of picrotoxin (GABA-A antagonist) and clonidine or vehicle (control) was microinjected bilaterally into PPT using a remote-controlled pump and the effects on REM sleep compared. Prazosin, clonidine and propranolol increased the total time spent in REM sleep whereas co-injection of picrotoxin and clonidine did not affect REM sleep. The results suggest that NA in PPT tonically inhibits REM sleep, possibly by acting on the cholinergic REM-ON neurons, while GABA inhibits the release of NA for REM sleep regulation. A model of neural connections explaining such regulation has been presented.

  1. A new quantitative automatic method for the measurement of non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalographic amplitude variability.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Novelli, Luana; Terzano, Mario G; Parrino, Liborio; Bruni, Oliviero

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to arrange an automatic quantitative measure of the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal amplitude variability during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, correlated with the visually extracted cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) parameters. Ninety-eight polysomnographic EEG recordings of normal controls were used. A new algorithm based on the analysis of the EEG amplitude variability during NREM sleep was designed and applied to all recordings, which were also scored visually for CAP. All measurements obtained with the new algorithm correlated positively with corresponding CAP parameters. In particular, total CAP time correlated with total NREM variability time (r = 0.596; P < 1E-07), light sleep CAP time with light sleep variability time (r = 0.597; P < 1E-07) and slow wave sleep CAP time with slow wave sleep variability time (r = 0.809; P < 1E-07). Only the duration of CAP A phases showed a low correlation with the duration of variability events. Finally, the age-related modifications of CAP time and of NREM variability time were found to be very similar. The new method for the automatic analysis of NREM sleep amplitude variability presented here correlates significantly with visual CAP parameters; its application requires a minimum work time, compared to CAP analysis, and might be used in large studies involving numerous recordings in which NREM sleep EEG amplitude variability needs to be assessed.

  2. Effects of partial sleep deprivation on slow waves during non-rapid eye movement sleep: a high density EEG investigation

    PubMed Central

    Plante, David T.; Goldstein, Michael R.; Cook, Jesse D.; Smith, Richard; Riedner, Brady A.; Rumble, Meredith E.; Jelenchick, Lauren; Roth, Andrea; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M.; Peterson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Changes in slow waves during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in response to acute total sleep deprivation are well-established measures of sleep homeostasis. This investigation utilized high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to examine topographic changes in slow waves during repeated partial sleep deprivation. Methods Twenty-four participants underwent a 6-day sleep restriction protocol. Spectral and period-amplitude analyses of sleep hdEEG data were used to examine changes in slow wave energy, count, amplitude, and slope relative to baseline. Results Changes in slow wave energy were dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized for analysis, with widespread increases during sleep restriction and recovery when comparing data from the first portion of the sleep period, but restricted to recovery sleep if the entire sleep episode was considered. Period-amplitude analysis was less dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized, and demonstrated topographic changes in the count, amplitude, and distribution of slow waves, with frontal increases in slow wave amplitude, numbers of high-amplitude waves, and amplitude/slopes of low amplitude waves resulting from partial sleep deprivation. Conclusions Topographic changes in slow waves occur across the course of partial sleep restriction and recovery. Significance These results demonstrate a homeostatic response to partial sleep loss in humans. PMID:26596212

  3. Doxepin and diphenhydramine increased non-rapid eye movement sleep through blockade of histamine H1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Takata, Yohko; Li, Rui; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Urade, Yoshihiro; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2015-02-01

    Histaminergic neurons have been reported to play an important role in the regulation of sleep-wake behavior through the histamine H1 receptor (R, H1R). First generation H1R antagonists, such as doxepin and diphenhydramine, produce drowsiness in humans, and are occasionally used to treat insomnia. However, if H1R antagonists function via physically blocking the H1R remains unclear. In the current study, we used H1R knockout (KO) mice to investigate if the sleep-promoting effects of doxepin and diphenhydramine are dependent on blockade of the H1R. When doxepin was administered, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in wild type (WT) mice increased for 4h, with an increase in the numbers of NREM sleep bouts of 256-512 s and 512-1024 s. These effects were not observed in the H1R KO mice. Furthermore, diphenhydramine increased NREM sleep for 6h in WT, and not in the H1R KO mice after the injection. These results indicate that both doxepin at 15 mg/kg and diphenhydramine at 10 mg/kg induce NREM sleep through blockade of H1R.

  4. The spectrum of the non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram following total sleep deprivation is trait-like.

    PubMed

    Tarokh, Leila; Rusterholz, Thomas; Achermann, Peter; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2015-08-01

    The sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) spectrum is unique to an individual and stable across multiple baseline recordings. The aim of this study was to examine whether the sleep EEG spectrum exhibits the same stable characteristics after acute total sleep deprivation. Polysomnography (PSG) was recorded in 20 healthy adults across consecutive sleep periods. Three nights of baseline sleep [12 h time in bed (TIB)] following 12 h of wakefulness were interleaved with three nights of recovery sleep (12 h TIB) following 36 h of sustained wakefulness. Spectral analysis of the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep EEG (C3LM derivation) was used to calculate power in 0.25 Hz frequency bins between 0.75 and 16.0 Hz. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to assess stable individual differences for baseline and recovery night spectra separately and combined. ICCs were high across all frequencies for baseline and recovery and for baseline and recovery combined. These results show that the spectrum of the NREM sleep EEG is substantially different among individuals, highly stable within individuals and robust to an experimental challenge (i.e. sleep deprivation) known to have considerable impact on the NREM sleep EEG. These findings indicate that the NREM sleep EEG represents a trait.

  5. Small platform sleep deprivation selectively increases the average duration of rapid eye movement sleep episodes during sleep rebound.

    PubMed

    Kitka, Tamas; Katai, Zita; Pap, Dorottya; Molnar, Eszter; Adori, Csaba; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2009-12-28

    The single platform-on-water (flower pot) method is extensively used for depriving rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Detailed comparison of sleep-wake architecture, recorded during the rebound period after spending three days on either a small or large platform, could separate the effects of REMS deficit from other stress factors caused by the procedure. A further aim of the study was to find the most characteristic REMS parameter of the rebound originating from REMS deficit. Rats were kept on a small or large platform for 72 h. Their fronto-parietal electroencephalogram, electromyogram and motility were recorded during the 24 h rebound at the beginning of the passive phase. A similar period of a home cage group was also recorded. The most typical differences between the two rebound groups were the increased cumulative time and longer average duration of REMS episodes without significant change in the number of these episodes of the small platform animals during the passive phase. Results obtained by cosinor analysis were in accordance with the findings above. Since we did not find any difference in the average duration of REMS episodes comparing the large platform rebound group and the home cage group, we concluded that the increased mean duration of REMS episodes is a selective marker for the rebound caused by small platform sleep deprivation, while other changes in sleep architecture may be the consequence of stress and also some sleep deficit.

  6. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation disrupts consolidation but not reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Tian, Shaowen; Ke, Jie

    2014-03-20

    There is increasing evidence that sleep plays a critical role in memory consolidation. However, there are comparatively few studies that have assessed the relationship between sleep and memory reconsolidation. In the present study, we explored the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (RSD) on the consolidation (experiment 1) and reconsolidation (experiment 2) of novel object recognition memory in rats. In experiment 1 behavioral procedure involved two training phases: sample and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after sample (exposed to 2 objects) or 6h later. In experiment 2 behavioral procedure involved three training phases: sample, reactivation and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after reactivation (exposed to the same 2 sample objects to reactivate the memory trace) or 6h later. Results from experiment 1 showed that post-sample RSD from 0 to 6h but not 6 to 12h disrupted novel object recognition memory consolidation. However, we found that post-reactivation RSD whether from 0 to 6h or 6 to 12h had no effect on novel object recognition memory reconsolidation in experiment 2. The results indicated that RSD selectively disrupted consolidation of novel object recognition memory, suggesting a dissociation effect of RSD on consolidation and reconsolidation.

  7. The Fingerprint of Rapid Eye Movement: Its Algorithmic Detection in the Sleep Electroencephalogram Using a Single Derivation.

    PubMed

    McCarty, David E; Kim, Paul Y; Frilot, Clifton; Chesson, Andrew L; Marino, Andrew A

    2016-10-01

    The strong associations of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep with dreaming and memory consolidation imply the existence of REM-specific brain electrical activity, notwithstanding the visual similarity of the electroencephalograms (EEGs) in REM and wake states. Our goal was to detect REM sleep by means of algorithmic analysis of the EEG. We postulated that novel depth and fragmentation variables, defined in relation to temporal changes in the signal (recurrences), could be statistically combined to allow disambiguation of REM epochs. The cohorts studied were consecutive patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) recruited from a sleep medicine clinic, and clinically normal participants selected randomly from a national database (N = 20 in each cohort). Individual discriminant analyses were performed, for each subject based on 4 recurrence biomarkers, and used to classify every 30-second epoch in the subject's overnight polysomnogram as REM or NotREM (wake or any non-REM sleep stage), using standard clinical staging as ground truth. The primary outcome variable was the accuracy of algorithmic REM classification. Average accuracies of 90% and 87% (initial and cross-validation analyses) were achieved in the OSA cohort; corresponding results in the normal cohort were 87% and 85%. Analysis of brain recurrence allowed identification of REM sleep, disambiguated from wake and all other stages, using only a single EEG lead, in subjects with or without OSA.

  8. Asymmetry of rapid eye movements in chronic unilateral neglect does not change with behavioral improvement induced by rehabilitation treatment.

    PubMed

    Doricchi, F; Guariglia, C; Paolucci, S; Pizzamiglio, L

    1996-01-01

    A strong reduction of leftward rapid eye movements (REMs) during REM sleep was recently documented in patients with severe and chronic left unilateral neglect. The aim of the present research was to study the stability of the unilateral suppression of REMs before and after a rehabilitative treatment for neglect disorders. Six right-brain-damaged patients were tested for neglect at the beginning and at the end of a 2 month cognitive rehabilitation treatment. REMs were recorded during 1 night of undisturbed sleep before and after the training. Five out of 6 patients improved considerably their ability to attend the previously neglected left hemispace; in all patients REM asymmetry remained unchanged. The lack of relationship between the improvement of the neglect disorder and the persistence of REM asymmetry suggests that the sensorimotor mechanisms activated by rehabilitation are different from those involved in the production of REMs. It is proposed that: (a) the directional vectors of REMs are computed on the basis of the exclusive or predominant endogenous activation of the central attentional mechanisms related to vestibular input; (b) the presence of rightward and leftward saccades and the positive effects of the rehabilitation treatment are functionally linked to attentional oculomotor mechanisms that are not active in REM sleep.

  9. Selective slow wave sleep but not rapid eye movement sleep suppression impairs morning glucose tolerance in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Nina; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Hyzy, Franziska; Richter, Annekatrin; Friedrich, Alexia; Benedict, Christian; Oltmanns, Kerstin M

    2013-10-01

    Shortened nocturnal sleep impairs morning glucose tolerance. The underlying mechanism of this effect is supposed to involve a reduced fraction of slow wave sleep (SWS). However, it remains unanswered if impaired glucose tolerance occurs due to specific SWS reduction or a general disturbance of sleep. Sixteen healthy men participated in three experimental conditions in a crossover design: SWS suppression, rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep disturbance, and regular sleep. Selective sleep stage disturbance was performed by means of an acoustic tone (532Hz) with gradually rising sound intensity. Blood concentrations of glucoregulatory parameters were measured upon an oral glucose tolerance test the next morning. Our data show that morning plasma glucose and serum insulin responses were significantly increased after selective SWS suppression. Moreover, SWS suppression reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity up to 20%, as determined by Matsuda Index. Contrastingly, disturbed REM-sleep did not affect glucose homeostasis. We conclude that specifically SWS reduction is critically involved in the impairment of glucose tolerance associated with disturbed sleep. Therefore, glucose metabolism in subjects predisposed to reduced SWS (e.g. depression, aging, obstructive sleep apnea, pharmacological treatment) should be thoroughly monitored.

  10. Noradrenergic modulation of masseter muscle activity during natural rapid eye movement sleep requires glutamatergic signalling at the trigeminal motor nucleus.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Peter B; Mir, Saba; Peever, John H

    2014-08-15

    Noradrenergic neurotransmission in the brainstem is closely coupled to changes in muscle activity across the sleep-wake cycle, and noradrenaline is considered to be a key excitatory neuromodulator that reinforces the arousal-related stimulus on motoneurons to drive movement. However, it is unknown if α-1 noradrenoceptor activation increases motoneuron responsiveness to excitatory glutamate (AMPA) receptor-mediated inputs during natural behaviour. We studied the effects of noradrenaline on AMPA receptor-mediated motor activity at the motoneuron level in freely behaving rats, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, a period during which both AMPA receptor-triggered muscle twitches and periods of muscle quiescence in which AMPA drive is silent are exhibited. Male rats were subjected to electromyography and electroencephalography recording to monitor sleep and waking behaviour. The implantation of a cannula into the trigeminal motor nucleus of the brainstem allowed us to perfuse noradrenergic and glutamatergic drugs by reverse microdialysis, and thus to use masseter muscle activity as an index of motoneuronal output. We found that endogenous excitation of both α-1 noradrenoceptor and AMPA receptors during waking are coupled to motor activity; however, REM sleep exhibits an absence of endogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor activity. Importantly, exogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor stimulation cannot reverse the muscle twitch suppression induced by AMPA receptor blockade and nor can it elevate muscle activity during quiet REM, a phase when endogenous AMPA receptor activity is subthreshold. We conclude that the presence of an endogenous glutamatergic drive is necessary for noradrenaline to trigger muscle activity at the level of the motoneuron in an animal behaving naturally.

  11. The development of human fetal eye movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Birnholz, J C

    1981-08-07

    The eye can be visualized ultrasonically in more than 90 percent of fetuses 16 through 42 weeks of gestational age. Slow eye movements are present by 16 weeks. Rapid eye movements begin at 23 weeks and become more frequent between 24 and 35 weeks. Eye inactivity becomes more common after 36 weeks and is associated with sustained diaphragmatic excursions implying a "quiet sleep" state. Pathologic eye movements were seen in four fetuses with dysmorphic brain structure.

  12. Control and Functions of Fixational Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Rucci, Michele; Poletti, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Humans and other species explore a visual scene by rapidly shifting their gaze 2-3 times every second. Although the eyes may appear immobile in the brief intervals in between saccades, microscopic (fixational) eye movements are always present, even when attending to a single point. These movements occur during the very periods in which visual information is acquired and processed and their functions have long been debated. Recent technical advances in controlling retinal stimulation during normal oculomotor activity have shed new light on the visual contributions of fixational eye movements and their degree of control. The emerging body of evidence, reviewed in this article, indicates that fixational eye movements are important components of the strategy by which the visual system processes fine spatial details, enabling both precise positioning of the stimulus on the retina and encoding of spatial information into the joint space-time domain. PMID:27795997

  13. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  14. The acute inhibition of rapid eye movement sleep by citalopram may impair spatial learning and passive avoidance in mice.

    PubMed

    Bridoux, A; Laloux, C; Derambure, P; Bordet, R; Monaca Charley, C

    2013-03-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is known to be essential for memory. Hence, REM sleep deprivation impairs memory processes. The frequently prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known to cause REM sleep deprivation and to impair cognitive performance in humans and rodents. We suggested that impaired memory processes by citalopram in C57/BL6 mice could be explained by the acute inhibition of REM sleep. We hypothesized that those acute citalopram 5 and 10 mg/kg injections induced REM sleep deprivation, altered cognitive performance in passive avoidance, impaired spatial memory compared to controls. Three experiments have been realized: (1) mice received successively physiological saline, injection of citalopram 5 and 10 mg/kg and were recorded by polysomnographic recording after each injection. (2) Cognitive performance was evaluated in the passive avoidance with two groups of mice. One group received citalopram before training and one, after training. (3) Spatial learning was evaluated with another group of animals in the Y-maze test. At 5 and 10 mg/kg, citalopram delayed REM sleep onset and decreased REM sleep amounts (vs. controls). The same doses were administrated in the passive avoidance test and have significantly shortened latency to enter the dark compartment. In the Y-maze, citalopram-treated mice showed a decreased percentage of time spent in the novel arm in contrast to the two other arms compared with controls. We showed that citalopram impaired cognitive performance in behavioral tasks. Those impairments could be linked to REM sleep deprivation induced by citalopram although causal relationship needs to be investigated in further studies.

  15. Sertraline and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia: an 8-week, open-label study of depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Hao, Yanli; Jia, Fujun; Tang, Yi; Li, Xueli; Liu, Wuhan; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2013-12-02

    Previous studies have reported that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may induce or exacerbate rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA) and increase the risk of developing REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). However, most of these studies are retrospective and cross-sectional and employed small sample sizes and a mixture of SSRIs. In this 8-week open-label trial of sertraline in depressed patients (n = 31), depressed patients were administered 50mg sertraline at 8 am on the 1st day and subsequently titrated up to a maximum of 200mg/day. All patients underwent repeated video-polysomnography (vPSG) (baseline, 1st day, 14th day, 28th day, and 56th day). Both tonic (submental) and phasic (submental and anterior tibialis) RSWA events were visually counted. Tonic RSWA increased from 3.2 ± 1.8% at baseline to 5.1 ± 2.3% on the 1st day and 10.4 ± 2.7% on the 14th day; after that, measurements were stable until the 56th day. A similar profile was observed for phasic RSWA. The increases in tonic RSWA (r = 0.56, P = 0.004) and phasic RSWA (submental: r = -0.51, P = 0.02; anterior tibialis: r = 0.41, P = 0.04) were correlated with the degree of the prolonging of REM latency. All of RSWAs were not correlated with patients' demographic and clinical characteristics. Sertraline may induce or exacerbate RSWA. In contrast to idiopathic RBD, sertraline-related RSWA had the specific characteristics of being correlated with the degree of the prolonging of REM latency and no predominance of male sex and elder age, suggesting different pathophysiological mechanisms. The antidepressant-related RSWA should be a potential public health problem in the depressed patients.

  16. Prevalence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in Parkinson's disease: a meta and meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaona; Sun, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Junhong; Tang, Liou; Xie, Anmu

    2017-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is thought to be one of the most frequent preceding symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the prevalence of RBD in PD stated in the published studies is still inconsistent. We conducted a meta and meta-regression analysis in this paper to estimate the pooled prevalence. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE and EBSCO up to June 2016 for related articles. STATA 12.0 statistics software was used to calculate the available data from each research. The prevalence of RBD in PD patients in each study was combined to a pooled prevalence with a 95 % confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis were performed to search for the causes of the heterogeneity. A total of 28 studies with 6869 PD cases were deemed eligible and included in our meta-analysis based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of RBD in PD was 42.3 % (95 % CI 37.4-47.1 %). In subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis, we found that the important causes of heterogeneity were the diagnosis criteria of RBD and age of PD patients (P = 0.016, P = 0.019, respectively). The results indicate that nearly half of the PD patients are suffering from RBD. Older age and longer duration are risk factors for RBD in PD. We can use the minimal diagnosis criteria for RBD according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders to diagnose RBD patients in our daily work if polysomnography is not necessary.

  17. Eye Movements in Risky Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, Frouke; Matthews, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We asked participants to make simple risky choices while we recorded their eye movements. We built a complete statistical model of the eye movements and found very little systematic variation in eye movements over the time course of a choice or across the different choices. The only exceptions were finding more (of the same) eye movements when choice options were similar, and an emerging gaze bias in which people looked more at the gamble they ultimately chose. These findings are inconsistent with prospect theory, the priority heuristic, or decision field theory. However, the eye movements made during a choice have a large relationship with the final choice, and this is mostly independent from the contribution of the actual attribute values in the choice options. That is, eye movements tell us not just about the processing of attribute values but also are independently associated with choice. The pattern is simple—people choose the gamble they look at more often, independently of the actual numbers they see—and this pattern is simpler than predicted by decision field theory, decision by sampling, and the parallel constraint satisfaction model. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27522985

  18. An eye movement technique for correlating fixational target eye movements with location on the retinal image.

    PubMed

    Barrett, S F; Zwick, H

    2000-01-01

    Recent investigation demonstrate that ocular motility in eyes with retinal pathology may show a lower propensity to visit such areas of the retina as compared to non-pathological retinal sites. While current ophthalmic instruments with the ability to image both the retina and visual function test target placement on the retina have provided this observation, the ability to quantify in real time these images as an eye movement measurement is presently lacking and the objective of this paper. A Rodenstock confocal scanning ophthalmoscope (CSLO) was used to image the retina during the performance of a visual fixation task. Direct observation of acuity target placement at the retina under continuous viewing conditions was possible with this apparatus. Target fixation eye movement images of the retina were rapidly digitized from video tape records and registered using a specialized rapid retinal image tracking algorithm. Fixational eye movement pattern densities at the retina were derived from these data. Preliminary data obtained demonstrate the utility of this technique in quantifying fixation eye movement patterns observed in three human patients with vocation-related laser retinal injury. In all patients, areas of severe retinal damage was generally avoided. The density of ocular eye movement tends to reflect regions of retinal normality and avoidance of retinal regions with severe pathology. Variation in eye movement density may exist where pathology is less severe.

  19. Eye Movement Disorders in Dyslexia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festinger, Leon; And Others

    Eye movements of 18 male and seven female dyslexic children and 10 normal children were evaluated to determine if eye movement disorders may be the cause of some of the symptoms associated with dyslexia. Data on eye movements were collected while Ss moved their eyes from one fixation point to another in a nonreading situation. Errors in vertical…

  20. The perception of heading during eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royden, Constance S.; Banks, Martin S.; Crowell, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Warren and Hannon (1988, 1990), while studying the perception of heading during eye movements, concluded that people do not require extraretinal information to judge heading with eye/head movements present. Here, heading judgments are examined at higher, more typical eye movement velocities than the extremely slow tracking eye movements used by Warren and Hannon. It is found that people require extraretinal information about eye position to perceive heading accurately under many viewing conditions.

  1. Eye movements in depth to visual illusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismeijer, D. A.

    2009-10-01

    We perceive the three-dimensional (3D) environment that surrounds us with deceptive effortlessness. In fact, we are far from comprehending how the visual system provides us with this stable perception of the (3D) world around us. This thesis will focus on the interplay between visual perception of depth and its closely related action system, eye movements in depth. The human visual system is comprised of a sensory (input) and an output (motor) system. Processed information from the sensory system can result in two explicit measurable response types: conscious visual perception and ocular motor behavior. It is still a matter of debate whether conscious visual perception and action (including hand- and arm-movements) use the same information or whether the visual system has separate channels processing information for perception and action. In this thesis, we study (1) if separate channels, one for eye movements and one for conscious visual perception, indeed exist, and (2) if so, if there is a direct input from the perceptual pathway to the motor pathway. Assuming that either eye movements and conscious visual perception are based on information from a common source (a negative answer to issue 1) or perception can directly influence, or guide, eye movements (an affirmative answer to research question 2), (eye) movements reflect our conscious visual perception. If so, eye movements could provide us with an alternative method to probe our conscious visual perception, making explicit perceptual reports superfluous. In this thesis we focus on depth perception and the two types of eye movements that are closest related to depth perception, namely vergence (an eye movement that gets a certain depth plane into focus) and saccades (a rapid eye movement to change gaze direction). Over the last 20 years it has been shown that depth perception is based on a weighted combination of depth cues available such as linear perspective, occlusion and binocular disparity. How eye

  2. A microstructural study of sleep instability in drug-naive patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: sleep spindles, rapid eye movements, and muscle atonia.

    PubMed

    Guénolé, Fabian; Chevrier, Elyse; Stip, Emmanuel; Godbout, Roger

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the functional stability of sleep in schizophrenia by quantifying dissociated stages of sleep (DSS), and to explore their correlation with psychopathology. The sleep of 10 first-break, drug-naive young adults with schizophrenia and 10 controls was recorded. Four basic DSS patterns were scored: 1) the transitional EEG-mixed intermediate stage (EMIS); 2) Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep without rapid eye movement (RSWR); 3) REM sleep without atonia (RSWA); and 4) non-REM sleep with rapid eye movements. An intermediate sleep (IS) score was calculated by summing EMIS and RSWR scores, and the durations of intra-REM sleep periods IS (IRSPIS) and IS scored "at the expense" of REM sleep (ISERS) were determined. Patients were administered the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) at the time of recording. Proportions of each DSS variables over total sleep time and proportions of IRSPIS and ISERS over REM sleep duration were compared between patients and controls. Correlation coefficients between DSS variables and BPRS total scores were calculated. The proportion of total DSS did not differ between patients and controls. Among DSS subtypes, RSWA was significantly increased in patients while other comparisons showed no significant differences. Significant positive correlations were found between BPRS scores and proportions of DSS, IS, RSWR, IRSPIS and ISERS over total sleep and REM sleep durations. These results demonstrate the functional instability of REM sleep in first-break, drug naive young adults with schizophrenia and unveil a pattern reminiscent of REM sleep behavior disorder. The significant correlation suggests that schizophrenia and REM sleep share common neuronal control mechanisms.

  3. Eye movements and information geometry.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Reiner

    2016-08-01

    The human visual system uses eye movements to gather visual information. They act as visual scanning processes and can roughly be divided into two different types: small movements around fixation points and larger movements between fixation points. The processes are often modeled as random walks, and recent models based on heavy tail distributions, also known as Levý flights, have been used in these investigations. In contrast to these approaches we do not model the stochastic processes, but we will show that the step lengths of the movements between fixation points follow generalized Pareto distributions (GPDs). We will use general arguments from the theory of extreme value statistics to motivate the usage of the GPD and show empirically that the GPDs provide good fits for measured eye tracking data. In the framework of information geometry the GPDs with a common threshold form a two-dimensional Riemann manifold with the Fisher information matrix as a metric. We compute the Fisher information matrix for the GPDs and introduce a feature vector describing a GPD by its parameters and different geometrical properties of its Fisher information matrix. In our statistical analysis we use eye tracker measurements in a database with 15 observers viewing 1003 images under free-viewing conditions. We use Matlab functions with their standard parameter settings and show that a naive Bayes classifier using the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix provides a high classification rate identifying the 15 observers in the database.

  4. Saccadic eye movement during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thornton, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements were studied in six subjects during two Space Shuttle missions. Reaction time, peak velocity and accuracy of horizontal, visually-guided saccades were examined preflight, inflight and postflight. Conventional electro-oculography was used to record eye position, with the subjects responding to pseudo-randomly illuminated targets at 0 deg and + or - 10 deg and 20 deg visual angles. In all subjects, preflight measurements were within normal limits. Reaction time was significantly increased inflight, while peak velocity was significantly decreased. A tendency toward a greater proportion of hypometric saccades inflight was also noted. Possible explanations for these changes and possible correlations with space motion sickness are discussed.

  5. Objectifying eye movements during rapid number naming: Methodology for assessment of normative data for the King–Devick test

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, John-Ross; Hudson, Todd E.; Dai, Weiwei; Desai, Ninad; Yousefi, Arash; Palsana, Dhaval; Selesnick, Ivan; Balcer, Laura J.; Galetta, Steven L.; Rucker, Janet C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Concussion is a major public health problem and considerable efforts are focused on sideline-based diagnostic testing to guide return-to-play decision-making and clinical care. The King–Devick (K–D) test, a sensitive sideline performance measure for concussion detection, reveals slowed reading times in acutely concussed subjects, as compared to healthy controls; however, the normal behavior of eye movements during the task and deficits underlying the slowing have not been defined. Methods Twelve healthy control subjects underwent quantitative eye tracking during digitized K–D testing. Results The total K–D reading time was 51.24 (±9.7) seconds. A total of 145 saccades (±15) per subject were generated, with average peak velocity 299.5°/s and average amplitude 8.2°. The average inter-saccadic interval was 248.4 ms. Task-specific horizontal and oblique saccades per subject numbered, respectively, 102 (±10) and 17 (±4). Subjects with the fewest saccades tended to blink more, resulting in a larger amount of missing data; whereas, subjects with the most saccades tended to make extra saccades during line transitions. Conclusions Establishment of normal and objective ocular motor behavior during the K–D test is a critical first step towards defining the range of deficits underlying abnormal testing in concussion. Further, it sets the groundwork for exploration of K–D correlations with cognitive dysfunction and saccadic paradigms that may reflect specific neuroanatomic deficits in the concussed brain. PMID:26944155

  6. Identification of a rapid eye movement sleep window for learning of the win-shift radial arm maze task for male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Legault, Glenn; Delay, Saoirse; Madore, Alex

    2010-12-01

    This study identified a rapid eye movement sleep window (RSW) for the eight-arm win-shift radial arm maze (RAM) task. The RSW is defined as a period of time after training during which rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is necessary for efficient learning of a task. Rats were trained over a 15-day period on the win-shift RAM task. After daily training, groups of rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flowerpot technique or were returned to their cages to serve as controls. Groups were deprived of REM sleep during separate 4-h intervals, such that the entire 24-h time-period after training was investigated for the effects of REM sleep deprivation on learning. The results of the analyses of variance that were calculated for latency to completion data and a measure of the rate of performance improvements, and a survival analysis that was calculated using the first day of maze completion as a censoring variable, indicated that the RSW for the win-shift task is 0-4 h post-training.

  7. Eye Movements Reveal Hierarchical Motion Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: In the analysis of visual motion, local features such as orientation are analyzed early in the cortical processing stream (V1), while integration across orientation and space is thought to occur in higher cortical areas such as MT, MST, etc. If all areas provide inputs to eye movement control centers, we would expect that local properties would drive eye movements with relatively short latencies, while global properties would require longer latencies. When such latencies are observed, they can provide information about when (and where?) various stimulus properties are analyzed. Methods: The stimulus employed was an elliptical Gabor patch with a drifting carrier, in which the orientations of the carrier grating and the contrast window were varied independently. We have previously demonstrated that the directional percepts evoked by this stimulus vary between the "grating direction" (the normal to the grating's orientation) and the "window direction", and that similar effects can be observed in reflexive eye movements. Subjects viewed such a stimulus while attempting to maintain steady fixation on the center of the pattern, and the small reflexive eye movements ("stare OKN") were recorded. In the middle of the trial, the orientation of either the grating or the window was rotated smoothly by 30 degrees. Results: Responses to the shift of both grating orientation and window orientation are seen in the average OKN slow phase velocity. Grating rotations produce a rapid OKN rotation to the grating direction (100 ms latency, 300 ms time constant), followed by a slower rebound to the steady state perceived direction midway between the grating and window directions. Window rotations, on the other hand, evoke a slower response (200 ms latency, 500 ms time constant). Conclusions: The results demonstrate multiple cortical inputs to eye movement control: a fast, early input driven by orientation, and a slower input from higher areas sensitive to global stimulus

  8. Balancing Arc synthesis, mRNA decay, and proteasomal degradation: maximal protein expression triggered by rapid eye movement sleep-like bursts of muscarinic cholinergic receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Soulé, Jonathan; Alme, Maria; Myrum, Craig; Schubert, Manja; Kanhema, Tambudzai; Bramham, Clive R

    2012-06-22

    Cholinergic signaling induces Arc/Arg3.1, an immediate early gene crucial for synaptic plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms that dictate Arc mRNA and protein dynamics during and after cholinergic epochs are little understood. Using human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, we show that muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAchR) stimulation triggers Arc synthesis, whereas translation-dependent RNA decay and proteasomal degradation strictly limit the amount and duration of Arc expression. Chronic application of the mAchR agonist, carbachol (Cch), induces Arc transcription via ERK signaling and release of calcium from IP(3)-sensitive stores. Arc translation requires ERK activation, but not changes in intracellular calcium. Proteasomal degradation of Arc (half-life ∼37 min) was enhanced by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the endoplasmic calcium-ATPase pump. Similar mechanisms of Arc protein regulation were observed in cultured rat hippocampal slices. Functionally, we studied the impact of cholinergic epoch duration and temporal pattern on Arc protein expression. Acute Cch treatment (as short as 2 min) induces transient, moderate Arc expression, whereas continuous treatment of more than 30 min induces maximal expression, followed by rapid decline. Cholinergic activity associated with rapid eye movement sleep may function to facilitate long term synaptic plasticity and memory. Employing a paradigm designed to mimic intermittent rapid eye movement sleep epochs, we show that application of Cch in a series of short bursts generates persistent and maximal Arc protein expression. The results demonstrate dynamic, multifaceted control of Arc synthesis during mAchR signaling, and implicate cholinergic epoch duration and repetition as critical determinants of Arc expression and function in synaptic plasticity and behavior.

  9. Coming to grips with a "new" state of consciousness: the study of rapid-eye-movement sleep in the 1960s.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Adrian R

    2013-01-01

    The recognition of rapid-eye-movement sleep (REM) and its association with dreaming in 1953 by Aserinsky and Kleitman opened a new world to explore in the brain. Discussions at two major symposia in the early 1960s reveal that a state with characteristics resembling both wakefulness and sleep was overturning accepted views of the regulation of the two states. Participants grappled with the idea that cortical activation could occur during sleep. They struggled with picking a name that would capture the essence of REM without focusing on just one aspect of the state. Questioning whether REM in cats could be homologous with that of humans suggested an anthropocentric focus on human dreaming as the essence of the state. The need for biochemical studies was evident given that deprivation of REM caused a rebound in the amount of subsequent REM, which indicated that simple synaptic activity could not support this phenomenon.

  10. Large-scale functional brain networks in human non-rapid eye movement sleep: insights from combined electroencephalographic/functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Spoormaker, Victor I; Czisch, Michael; Maquet, Pierre; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-10-13

    This paper reviews the existing body of knowledge on the neural correlates of spontaneous oscillations, functional connectivity and brain plasticity in human non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. The first section reviews the evidence that specific sleep events as slow waves and spindles are associated with transient increases in regional brain activity. The second section describes the changes in functional connectivity during NREM sleep, with a particular focus on changes within a low-frequency, large-scale functional brain network. The third section will discuss the possibility that spontaneous oscillations and differential functional connectivity are related to brain plasticity and systems consolidation, with a particular focus on motor skill acquisition. Implications for the mode of information processing per sleep stage and future experimental studies are discussed.

  11. α-Pinene, a Major Constituent of Pine Tree Oils, Enhances Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Mice through GABAA-benzodiazepine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyejin; Woo, Junsung; Pae, Ae Nim; Um, Min Young; Cho, Nam-Chul; Park, Ki Duk; Yoon, Minseok; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, C Justin; Cho, Suengmok

    2016-11-01

    α-Pinene is a major monoterpene of the pine tree essential oils. It has been reported that α-pinene shows anxiolytic and hypnotic effects upon inhaled administration. However, hypnotic effect by oral supplementation and the molecular mechanism of α-pinene have not been determined yet. By combining in vivo sleep behavior, ex vivo electrophysiological recording from brain slices, and in silico molecular modeling, we demonstrate that (-)-α-pinene shows sleep enhancing property through a direct binding to GABAA-benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors by acting as a partial modulator at the BZD binding site. The effect of (-)-α-pinene on sleep-wake profiles was evaluated by recording electroencephalogram and electromyogram. The molecular mechanism of (-)-α-pinene was investigated by electrophysiology and molecular docking study. (-)-α-pinene significantly increased the duration of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) and reduced the sleep latency by oral administration without affecting duration of rapid eye movement sleep and delta activity. (-)-α-pinene potentiated the GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic response by increasing the decay time constant of sIPSCs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. These effects of (-)-α-pinene on sleep and inhibitory synaptic response were mimicked by zolpidem, acting as a modulator for GABAA-BZD receptors, and fully antagonized by flumazenil, an antagonist for GABAA-BZD receptor. (-)-α-pinene was found to bind to aromatic residues of α1- and -γ2 subunits of GABAA-BZD receptors in the molecular model. We conclude that (-)-α-pinene enhances the quantity of NREMS without affecting the intensity of NREMS by prolonging GABAergic synaptic transmission, acting as a partial modulator of GABAA-BZD receptors and directly binding to the BZD binding site of GABAA receptor.

  12. Oral administration of Japanese sake yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake) promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice via adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Midorikawa, Tatsuyuki; Monoi, Noriyuki; Kimura, Eriko; Murata-Matsuno, Ayumi; Sano, Tomomi; Oka, Kengo; Sugafuji, Toshihiro; Uchiyama, Akira; Murakoshi, Michiaki; Sugiyama, Keikichi; Nishino, Hoyoku; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated previously that Japanese sake yeast improves sleep quality in humans. In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanisms of sake yeast to induce sleep by monitoring locomotor activity, electromyogram and electroencephalogram in mice. Oral administration of Japanese sake yeast (100, 200, and 300 mg kg(-1) ) decreased the locomotor activity by 18, 46 and 59% and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep by 1.5-, 2.3- and 2.4-fold (to 37 ± 6, 57 ± 8, and 60 ± 4 min from 25 ± 6 min in the vehicle-administered group, respectively) in a dose-dependent manner for 4 h after oral administration. However, Japanese sake yeast did not change the amount of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the electroencephalogram power density during NREM sleep or show any adverse effects, such as rebound of insomnia, during 24 h postadministration and on the next day. An intraperitoneal pretreatment with an adenosine A2A receptor-selective antagonist, ZM241385 (15 mg kg(-1) ), reduced the amount of NREM sleep of sake yeast-administered mice to the basal level, without changing basal amount of sleep. Conversely, an A1 receptor-selective antagonist, 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (10 mg kg(-1) ), did not affect the sleep-promoting effect of Japanese sake yeast. Thus, Japanese sake yeast promotes NREM sleep via activation of adenosine A2A but not A1 receptors.

  13. Relationship between the perifornical hypothalamic area and oral pontine reticular nucleus in the rat. Possible implication of the hypocretinergic projection in the control of rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, A; Moreno-Balandrán, M E; Rodrigo-Angulo, M L; Garzón, M; De Andrés, I

    2006-11-01

    The perifornical (PeF) area in the posterior lateral hypothalamus has been implicated in several physiological functions including the regulation of sleep-wakefulness. Some PeF neurons, which contain hypocretin, have been suggested to play an important role in sleep-wake regulation. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the PeF area and hypocretin on the electrophysiological activity of neurons of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO), which is an important structure in the generation and maintenance of rapid eye movement sleep. PnO neurons were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. Extracellular recordings were performed by means of tungsten microelectrodes or barrel micropipettes. Electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral PeF area elicited orthodromic responses in both type I (49%) and type II (58%) electrophysiologically characterized PnO neurons, with a mean latency of 13.0 +/- 2 and 8.3 +/- 5 ms, respectively. In six cases, antidromic spikes were evoked in type I PnO neurons with a mean latency of 3.2 +/- 0.4 ms, indicating the existence of PnO neurons that projected to the PeF area. Anatomical studies showed retrogradely labeled neurons in the PeF area from the PnO. Some of these neurons projecting to the PnO contained hypocretin (17.8%). Iontophoretic application of hypocretin-1 through a barrel micropipette in the PnO induced an inhibition, which was blocked by a previous iontophoretic application of bicuculline, indicating that the inhibitory action of hypocretin-1 may be due to activation of GABA(A) receptors. These data suggest that the PeF area may control the generation of rapid eye movement sleep through a hypocretinergic projection by inhibiting the activity of PnO neurons.

  14. The Trajectories of Saccadic Eye Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahill, A. Terry; Stark, Lawrence

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the trajectories of saccadic eye movements, the control signals of the eye, and nature of the mechanisms that generate them, using the techniques of bioengineering in collecting the data. (GA)

  15. The Effect of an Eye Movement Recorder on Head Movements,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    in several research settings. For example, the NAC Eye Mark (e Recorder system (an eye movement recorder that utilizes the cor- neal reflection...reported that the NAC system could be used with a large number of subjects and that normal eye movement patterns were not altered by the use of’ this...equipment (2,4); however, no mention has been made of the extent to which the NAC system alters normal head movement patterns. It has been shown that head

  16. Eye Movements During Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Falck-Ytter, Terje

    2015-01-01

    An important element in social interactions is predicting the goals of others, including the goals of others’ manual actions. Over a decade ago, Flanagan and Johansson demonstrated that, when observing other people reaching for objects, the observer’s gaze arrives at the goal before the action is completed. Moreover, those authors proposed that this behavior was mediated by an embodied process, which takes advantage of the observer’s motor knowledge. Here, we scrutinize work that has followed that seminal article. We include studies on adults that have used combined eye tracking and transcranial magnetic stimulation technologies to test causal hypotheses about underlying brain circuits. We also include developmental studies on human infants. We conclude that, although several aspects of the embodied process of predictive eye movements remain to be clarified, current evidence strongly suggests that the motor system plays a causal role in guiding predictive gaze shifts that focus on another person’s future goal. The early emergence of the predictive gaze in infant development underlines its importance for social cognition and interaction. PMID:26385998

  17. Advances in Relating Eye Movements and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhoe, Mary M.

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of eye movements is a powerful tool for investigating perceptual and cognitive function in both infants and adults. Straightforwardly, eye movements provide a multifaceted measure of performance. For example, the location of fixations, their duration, time of occurrence, and accuracy all are potentially revealing and often allow…

  18. Eye Movement Analysis of Second Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankins, Huana; Thompson, Richard A.

    An investigation was undertaken to measure objectively children's eye movements to determine whether the effect of fatigue of the average school day decreases eye movement efficiency, suggesting that children might benefit more from reading instruction in the morning than in the afternoon. Using a photoelectric instrument designed to graph eye…

  19. Eye Movements in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, Robert J.; Ko, Philip C.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has investigated changes in eye movements as a result of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). When compared to healthy, age-matched controls, patients display a number of remarkable alterations to oculomotor function and viewing behavior. In this article, we review AD-related changes to fundamental eye movements, such as saccades and smooth pursuit motion, in addition to changes to eye movement patterns during more complex tasks like visual search and scene exploration. We discuss the cognitive mechanisms that underlie these changes and consider the clinical significance of eye movement behavior, with a focus on eye movements in mild cognitive impairment. We conclude with directions for future research. PMID:25182738

  20. Image Rotation Does Not Rotate Smooth Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Stone, Leland S. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Subjects viewing a drifting noise pattern make reflexive smooth eye movements in the direction of motion, which follow rapid changes in movement direction. These responses are unaffected by rotations of the pattern, suggesting that there is no coupling between visually sensed rotation and the direction of ocular following.

  1. Learning optimal eye movements to unusual faces

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Matthew F.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2014-01-01

    Eye movements, which guide the fovea’s high resolution and computational power to relevant areas of the visual scene, are integral to efficient, successful completion of many visual tasks. How humans modify their eye movements through experience with their perceptual environments, and its functional role in learning new tasks, has not been fully investigated. Here, we used a face identification task where only the mouth discriminated exemplars to assess if, how, and when eye movement modulation may mediate learning. By interleaving trials of unconstrained eye movements with trials of forced fixation, we attempted to separate the contributions of eye movements and covert mechanisms to performance improvements. Without instruction, a majority of observers substantially increased accuracy and learned to direct their initial eye movements towards the optimal fixation point. The proximity of an observer’s default face identification eye movement behavior to the new optimal fixation point and the observer’s peripheral processing ability were predictive of performance gains and eye movement learning. After practice in a subsequent condition in which observers were directed to fixate different locations along the face, including the relevant mouth region, all observers learned to make eye movements to the optimal fixation point. In this fully learned state, augmented fixation strategy accounted for 43% of total efficiency improvements while covert mechanisms accounted for the remaining 57%. The findings suggest a critical role for eye movement planning to perceptual learning, and elucidate factors that can predict when and how well an observer can learn a new task with unusual exemplars. PMID:24291712

  2. Eye Movements in Strategic Choice

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Noguchi, Takao; Mullett, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In risky and other multiattribute choices, the process of choosing is well described by random walk or drift diffusion models in which evidence is accumulated over time to threshold. In strategic choices, level‐k and cognitive hierarchy models have been offered as accounts of the choice process, in which people simulate the choice processes of their opponents or partners. We recorded the eye movements in 2 × 2 symmetric games including dominance‐solvable games like prisoner's dilemma and asymmetric coordination games like stag hunt and hawk–dove. The evidence was most consistent with the accumulation of payoff differences over time: we found longer duration choices with more fixations when payoffs differences were more finely balanced, an emerging bias to gaze more at the payoffs for the action ultimately chosen, and that a simple count of transitions between payoffs—whether or not the comparison is strategically informative—was strongly associated with the final choice. The accumulator models do account for these strategic choice process measures, but the level‐k and cognitive hierarchy models do not. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27513881

  3. Brain-machine interface for eye movements.

    PubMed

    Graf, Arnulf B A; Andersen, Richard A

    2014-12-09

    A number of studies in tetraplegic humans and healthy nonhuman primates (NHPs) have shown that neuronal activity from reach-related cortical areas can be used to predict reach intentions using brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) and therefore assist tetraplegic patients by controlling external devices (e.g., robotic limbs and computer cursors). However, to our knowledge, there have been no studies that have applied BMIs to eye movement areas to decode intended eye movements. In this study, we recorded the activity from populations of neurons from the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), a cortical node in the NHP saccade system. Eye movement plans were predicted in real time using Bayesian inference from small ensembles of LIP neurons without the animal making an eye movement. Learning, defined as an increase in the prediction accuracy, occurred at the level of neuronal ensembles, particularly for difficult predictions. Population learning had two components: an update of the parameters of the BMI based on its history and a change in the responses of individual neurons. These results provide strong evidence that the responses of neuronal ensembles can be shaped with respect to a cost function, here the prediction accuracy of the BMI. Furthermore, eye movement plans could be decoded without the animals emitting any actual eye movements and could be used to control the position of a cursor on a computer screen. These findings show that BMIs for eye movements are promising aids for assisting paralyzed patients.

  4. Effects of oral temazepam on slow waves during non-rapid eye movement sleep in healthy young adults: a high-density EEG investigation

    PubMed Central

    Plante, DT; Goldstein, MR; Cook, JD; Smith, R; Riedner, BA; Rumble, ME; Jelenchick, L; Roth, A; Tononi, G; Benca, RM; Peterson, MJ

    2016-01-01

    Slow waves are characteristic waveforms that occur during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep that play an integral role in sleep quality and brain plasticity. Benzodiazepines are commonly used medications that alter slow waves, however, their effects may depend on the time of night and measure used to characterize slow waves. Prior investigations have utilized minimal scalp derivations to evaluate the effects of benzodiazepines on slow waves, and thus the topography of changes to slow waves induced by benzodiazepines has yet to be fully elucidated. This study used high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to evaluate the effects of oral temazepam on slow wave activity, incidence, and morphology during NREM sleep in 18 healthy adults relative to placebo. Temazepam was associated with significant decreases in slow wave activity and incidence, which were most prominent in the latter portions of the sleep period. However, temazepam was also associated with a decrease in the magnitude of high-amplitude slow waves and their slopes in the first NREM sleep episode, which was most prominent in frontal derivations. These findings suggest that benzodiazepines produce changes in slow waves throughout the night that vary depending on cortical topography and measures used to characterize slow waves. Further research that explores the relationships between benzodiazepine-induced changes to slow waves and the functional effects of these waveforms is indicated. PMID:26779596

  5. Gastrodiae Rhizoma Ethanol Extract Enhances Pentobarbital-Induced Sleeping Behaviors and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep via the Activation of GABAA-ergic Transmission in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Joon; Oh, Eun-Hye; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Chung, Youn Bok; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2014-01-01

    This research was designed to identify whether Gastrodiae Rhizoma ethanol extract (GREE) enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep via  γ-aminobutyric acid- (GABA-) ergic systems and modulated sleep architectures in animals. GREE (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited locomotor activity in mice, in a dose-dependent manner. GREE not only prolonged total sleep time, but also reduced sleep latency time in pentobarbital (42 mg/kg)-treated mice. Subhypnotic pentobarbital (28 mg/kg, i.p.) also increased the number of total sleeping animals in concomitant administration of GREE. GREE (100 mg/kg) alone reduced the count of sleep-wake cycles in electroencephalogram. Furthermore, GREE increased total sleep time and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. From the in vitro experiments, GREE increased intracellular chloride level in primary cultured cerebellar granule cells. Protein expressions of glutamine acid decarboxylase (GAD) and GABAA receptors subtypes by western blot were increased. Therefore, our study suggested that GREE enhances pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors and increased REM via the activation of GABAA-ergic transmission in rodents. PMID:25614750

  6. Effects of oral temazepam on slow waves during non-rapid eye movement sleep in healthy young adults: A high-density EEG investigation.

    PubMed

    Plante, D T; Goldstein, M R; Cook, J D; Smith, R; Riedner, B A; Rumble, M E; Jelenchick, L; Roth, A; Tononi, G; Benca, R M; Peterson, M J

    2016-03-01

    Slow waves are characteristic waveforms that occur during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep that play an integral role in sleep quality and brain plasticity. Benzodiazepines are commonly used medications that alter slow waves, however, their effects may depend on the time of night and measure used to characterize slow waves. Prior investigations have utilized minimal scalp derivations to evaluate the effects of benzodiazepines on slow waves, and thus the topography of changes to slow waves induced by benzodiazepines has yet to be fully elucidated. This study used high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to evaluate the effects of oral temazepam on slow wave activity, incidence, and morphology during NREM sleep in 18 healthy adults relative to placebo. Temazepam was associated with significant decreases in slow wave activity and incidence, which were most prominent in the latter portions of the sleep period. However, temazepam was also associated with a decrease in the magnitude of high-amplitude slow waves and their slopes in the first NREM sleep episode, which was most prominent in frontal derivations. These findings suggest that benzodiazepines produce changes in slow waves throughout the night that vary depending on cortical topography and measures used to characterize slow waves. Further research that explores the relationships between benzodiazepine-induced changes to slow waves and the functional effects of these waveforms is indicated.

  7. Essential Roles of GABA Transporter-1 in Controlling Rapid Eye Movement Sleep and in Increased Slow Wave Activity after Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin-Hong; Qu, Wei-Min; Bian, Min-Juan; Huang, Fang; Fei, Jian; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2013-01-01

    GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1) constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA and regulates GABAergic transmission in the brain. However, the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation remains elusive. In the current study, we characterized the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and responses to sleep deprivation in GAT1 knock-out (KO) mice. GAT1 KO mice exhibited dominant theta-activity and a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies across all vigilance stages. Under baseline conditions, spontaneous rapid eye movement (REM) sleep of KO mice was elevated both during the light and dark periods, and non-REM (NREM) sleep was reduced during the light period only. KO mice also showed more state transitions from NREM to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness, as well as more number of REM and NREM sleep bouts than WT mice. During the dark period, KO mice exhibited more REM sleep bouts only. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. However, slow wave activity, the intensity component of NREM sleep was briefly elevated in WT mice but remained completely unchanged in KO mice, compared with their respective baselines. These results indicate that GAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of REM sleep and homeostasis of NREM sleep. PMID:24155871

  8. Loss of Goosecoid-like and DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 in interpeduncular nucleus results in altered regulation of rapid eye movement sleep

    PubMed Central

    Funato, Hiromasa; Sato, Makito; Sinton, Christopher M.; Gautron, Laurent; Williams, S. Clay; Skach, Amber; Elmquist, Joel K.; Skoultchi, Arthur I.; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and wakefulness are regulated primarily by inhibitory interactions between the hypothalamus and brainstem. The expression of the states of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep also are correlated with the activity of groups of REM-off and REM-on neurons in the dorsal brainstem. However, the contribution of ventral brainstem nuclei to sleep regulation has been little characterized to date. Here we examined sleep and wakefulness in mice deficient in a homeobox transcription factor, Goosecoid-like (Gscl), which is one of the genes deleted in DiGeorge syndrome or 22q11 deletion syndrome. The expression of Gscl is restricted to the interpeduncular nucleus (IP) in the ventral region of the midbrain–hindbrain transition. The IP has reciprocal connections with several cell groups implicated in sleep/wakefulness regulation. Although Gscl−/− mice have apparently normal anatomy and connections of the IP, they exhibited a reduced total time spent in REM sleep and fewer REM sleep episodes. In addition, Gscl−/− mice showed reduced theta power during REM sleep and increased arousability during REM sleep. Gscl−/− mice also lacked the expression of DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 (Dgcr14) in the IP. These results indicate that the absence of Gscl and Dgcr14 in the IP results in altered regulation of REM sleep. PMID:20921407

  9. Blockade of GABA, type A, receptors in the rat pontine reticular formation induces rapid eye movement sleep that is dependent upon the cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Marks, G A; Sachs, O W; Birabil, C G

    2008-09-22

    The brainstem reticular formation is an area important to the control of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The antagonist of GABA-type A (GABA(A)) receptors, bicuculline methiodide (BMI), injected into the rat nucleus pontis oralis (PnO) of the reticular formation resulted in a long-lasting increase in REM sleep. Thus, one factor controlling REM sleep appears to be the number of functional GABA(A) receptors in the PnO. The long-lasting effect produced by BMI may result from secondary influences on other neurotransmitter systems known to have long-lasting effects. To study this question, rats were surgically prepared for chronic sleep recording and additionally implanted with guide cannulas aimed at sites in the PnO. Multiple, 60 nl, unilateral injections were made either singly or in combination. GABA(A) receptor antagonists, BMI and gabazine (GBZ), produced dose-dependent increases in REM sleep with GBZ being approximately 35 times more potent than BMI. GBZ and the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, produced very similar results, both increasing REM sleep for about 8 h, mainly through increased period frequency, with little reduction in REM latency. Pre-injection of the muscarinic antagonist, atropine, completely blocked the REM sleep-increase by GBZ. GABAergic control of REM sleep in the PnO requires the cholinergic system and may be acting through presynaptic modulation of acetylcholine release.

  10. Quantitative electroencephalography during rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep in combat-exposed veterans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Daniel J; Begley, Amy; Alman, Jennie J; Cashmere, David J; Pietrone, Regina N; Seres, Robert J; Germain, Anne

    2013-02-01

    Sleep disturbances are a hallmark feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and associated with poor clinical outcomes. Few studies have examined sleep quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG), a technique able to detect subtle differences that polysomnography does not capture. We hypothesized that greater high-frequency qEEG would reflect 'hyperarousal' in combat veterans with PTSD (n = 16) compared to veterans without PTSD (n = 13). EEG power in traditional EEG frequency bands was computed for artifact-free sleep epochs across an entire night. Correlations were performed between qEEG and ratings of PTSD symptoms and combat exposure. The groups did not differ significantly in whole-night qEEG measures for either rapid eye movement (REM) or non-REM (NREM) sleep. Non-significant medium effect sizes suggest less REM beta (opposite to our hypothesis), less REM and NREM sigma and more NREM gamma in combat veterans with PTSD. Positive correlations were found between combat exposure and NREM beta (PTSD group only), and REM and NREM sigma (non-PTSD group only). Results did not support global hyperarousal in PTSD as indexed by increased beta qEEG activity. The correlation of sigma activity with combat exposure in those without PTSD and the non-significant trend towards less sigma activity during both REM and NREM sleep in combat veterans with PTSD suggests that differential information processing during sleep may characterize combat-exposed military veterans with and without PTSD.

  11. Loss of Goosecoid-like and DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 in interpeduncular nucleus results in altered regulation of rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Funato, Hiromasa; Sato, Makito; Sinton, Christopher M; Gautron, Laurent; Williams, S Clay; Skach, Amber; Elmquist, Joel K; Skoultchi, Arthur I; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2010-10-19

    Sleep and wakefulness are regulated primarily by inhibitory interactions between the hypothalamus and brainstem. The expression of the states of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep also are correlated with the activity of groups of REM-off and REM-on neurons in the dorsal brainstem. However, the contribution of ventral brainstem nuclei to sleep regulation has been little characterized to date. Here we examined sleep and wakefulness in mice deficient in a homeobox transcription factor, Goosecoid-like (Gscl), which is one of the genes deleted in DiGeorge syndrome or 22q11 deletion syndrome. The expression of Gscl is restricted to the interpeduncular nucleus (IP) in the ventral region of the midbrain-hindbrain transition. The IP has reciprocal connections with several cell groups implicated in sleep/wakefulness regulation. Although Gscl(-/-) mice have apparently normal anatomy and connections of the IP, they exhibited a reduced total time spent in REM sleep and fewer REM sleep episodes. In addition, Gscl(-/-) mice showed reduced theta power during REM sleep and increased arousability during REM sleep. Gscl(-/-) mice also lacked the expression of DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 (Dgcr14) in the IP. These results indicate that the absence of Gscl and Dgcr14 in the IP results in altered regulation of REM sleep.

  12. Ventricular orexin-A (hypocretin-1) levels correlate with rapid-eye-movement sleep without atonia in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Bridoux, Agathe; Moutereau, Stephane; Covali-Noroc, Ala; Margarit, Laurent; Palfi, Stephane; Nguyen, Jean-Paul; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Césaro, Pierre; d’Ortho, Marie-Pia; Drouot, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Objective Patients with Parkinson’s disease frequently complain of sleep disturbances and loss of muscle atonia during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep is not rare. The orexin-A (hypocretin-1) hypothalamic system plays a central role in controlling REM sleep. Loss of orexin neurons results in narcolepsy-cataplexy, a condition characterized by diurnal sleepiness and REM sleep without atonia. Alterations in the orexin-A system have been also documented in Parkinson’s disease, but whether these alterations have clinical consequences remains unknown. Methods Here, we measured orexin-A levels in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid from eight patients with Parkinson’s disease (four males and four females) who underwent ventriculography during deep brain-stimulation surgery and performed full-night polysomnography before surgery. Results Our results showed a positive correlation between orexin-A levels and REM sleep without muscle atonia. Conclusion Our results suggest that high levels of orexin-A in Parkinson’s disease may be associated with loss of REM muscle atonia. PMID:23847436

  13. Essential roles of GABA transporter-1 in controlling rapid eye movement sleep and in increased slow wave activity after sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Hong; Qu, Wei-Min; Bian, Min-Juan; Huang, Fang; Fei, Jian; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2013-01-01

    GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1) constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA and regulates GABAergic transmission in the brain. However, the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation remains elusive. In the current study, we characterized the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and responses to sleep deprivation in GAT1 knock-out (KO) mice. GAT1 KO mice exhibited dominant theta-activity and a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies across all vigilance stages. Under baseline conditions, spontaneous rapid eye movement (REM) sleep of KO mice was elevated both during the light and dark periods, and non-REM (NREM) sleep was reduced during the light period only. KO mice also showed more state transitions from NREM to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness, as well as more number of REM and NREM sleep bouts than WT mice. During the dark period, KO mice exhibited more REM sleep bouts only. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. However, slow wave activity, the intensity component of NREM sleep was briefly elevated in WT mice but remained completely unchanged in KO mice, compared with their respective baselines. These results indicate that GAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of REM sleep and homeostasis of NREM sleep.

  14. Changes in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone, neuropeptide Y, and proopiomelanocortin gene expression during chronic rapid eye movement sleep deprivation of rats.

    PubMed

    Koban, Michael; Le, Wei Wei; Hoffman, Gloria E

    2006-01-01

    Chronic rapid eye movement (paradoxical) sleep deprivation (REM-SD) of rats leads to two conspicuous pathologies: hyperphagia coincident with body weight loss, prompted by elevated metabolism. Our goals were to test the hypotheses that 1) as a stressor, REM-SD would increase CRH gene expression in the hypothalamus and that 2) to account for hyperphagia, hypothalamic gene expression of the orexigen neuropeptide Y (NPY) would increase, but expression of the anorexigen proopiomelanocortin (POMC) would decrease. Enforcement of REM-SD of adult male rats for 20 d with the platform (flowerpot) method led to progressive hyperphagia, increasing to approximately 300% of baseline; body weight steadily declined by approximately 25%. Consistent with changes in food intake patterns, NPY expression rapidly increased in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus by d 5 of REM-SD, peaking at d 20; by contrast, POMC expression decreased progressively during REM-SD. CRH expression was increased by d 5, both in mRNA and ability to detect neuronal perikaryal staining in paraventricular nucleus with immunocytochemistry, and it remained elevated thereafter with modest declines. Taken together, these data indicate that changes in hypothalamic neuropeptides regulating food intake are altered in a manner consistent with the hyperphagia seen with REM-SD. Changes in CRH, although indicative of REM-SD as a stressor, suggest that the anorexigenic actions of CRH are ineffective (or disabled). Furthermore, changes in NPY and POMC agree with current models of food intake behavior, but they are opposite to their acute effects on peripheral energy metabolism and thermogenesis.

  15. Tonic and phasic phenomena underlying eye movements during sleep in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Escudero, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian sleep is not a homogenous state, and different variables have traditionally been used to distinguish different periods during sleep. Of these variables, eye movement is one of the most paradigmatic, and has been used to differentiate between the so-called rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep periods. Despite this, eye movements during sleep are poorly understood, and the behaviour of the oculomotor system remains almost unknown. In the present work, we recorded binocular eye movements during the sleep–wake cycle of adult cats by the scleral search-coil technique. During alertness, eye movements consisted of conjugated saccades and eye fixations. During NREM sleep, eye movements were slow and mostly unconjugated. The two eyes moved upwardly and in the abducting direction, producing a tonic divergence and elevation of the visual axis. During the transition period between NREM and REM sleep, rapid monocular eye movements of low amplitude in the abducting direction occurred in coincidence with ponto-geniculo-occipital waves. Along REM sleep, the eyes tended to maintain a tonic convergence and depression, broken by high-frequency bursts of complex rapid eye movements. In the horizontal plane, each eye movement in the burst comprised two consecutive movements in opposite directions, which were more evident in the eye that performed the abducting movements. In the vertical plane, rapid eye movements were always upward. Comparisons of the characteristics of eye movements during the sleep–wake cycle reveal the uniqueness of eye movements during sleep, and the noteworthy existence of tonic and phasic phenomena in the oculomotor system, not observed until now. PMID:18499729

  16. Eye movements may cause motor contagion effects.

    PubMed

    Constable, Merryn D; de Grosbois, John; Lung, Tiffany; Tremblay, Luc; Pratt, Jay; Welsh, Timothy N

    2016-10-26

    When a person executes a movement, the movement is more errorful while observing another person's actions that are incongruent rather than congruent with the executed action. This effect is known as "motor contagion". Accounts of this effect are often grounded in simulation mechanisms: increased movement error emerges because the motor codes associated with observed actions compete with motor codes of the goal action. It is also possible, however, that the increased movement error is linked to eye movements that are executed simultaneously with the hand movement because oculomotor and manual-motor systems are highly interconnected. In the present study, participants performed a motor contagion task in which they executed horizontal arm movements while observing a model making either vertical (incongruent) or horizontal (congruent) movements under three conditions: no instruction, maintain central fixation, or track the model's hand with the eyes. A significant motor contagion-like effect was only found in the 'track' condition. Thus, 'motor contagion' in the present task may be an artifact of simultaneously executed incongruent eye movements. These data are discussed in the context of stimulation and associative learning theories, and raise eye movements as a critical methodological consideration for future work on motor contagion.

  17. EMDR effects on pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Bonnet, Audrey; Bourtoire, Pauline; Sandretto, Jean

    2010-05-21

    This study aimed to objectivize the quality of smooth pursuit eye movements in a standard laboratory task before and after an Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) session run on seven healthy volunteers. EMDR was applied on autobiographic worries causing moderate distress. The EMDR session was complete in 5 out of the 7 cases; distress measured by SUDS (Subjective Units of Discomfort Scale) decreased to a near zero value. Smooth pursuit eye movements were recorded by an Eyelink II video system before and after EMDR. For the five complete sessions, pursuit eye movement improved after their EMDR session. Notably, the number of saccade intrusions-catch-up saccades (CUS)-decreased and, reciprocally, there was an increase in the smooth components of the pursuit. Such an increase in the smoothness of the pursuit presumably reflects an improvement in the use of visual attention needed to follow the target accurately. Perhaps EMDR reduces distress thereby activating a cholinergic effect known to improve ocular pursuit.

  18. Comparison Study of Polysomnographic Features in Multiple System Atrophy-cerebellar Types Combined with and without Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yan; Hu, Yue-Qing; Zhan, Shu-Qin; Li, Cun-Jiang; Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background: The brain stem is found to be impaired in multiple system atrophy-cerebellar types (MSA-C). Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is reported as a marker of progressive brain stem dysfunction. Few systematic studies about the sleep disturbances in MSA-C patients combined with or without RBD were reported. This study aimed to explore the polysomnographic (PSG) features of sleep disturbances between MSA-C patients with and without RBD. Methods: Totally, 46 MSA-C patients (23 with RBD, and 23 without RBD) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent a structured interview for their demographic data, history of sleep pattern, and movement disorders; and then, overnight video-PSG was performed in each patient. All the records were evaluated by specialists at the Sleep Medicine Clinic for RBD and the Movement Disorder Clinic for MSA-C. The Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables, and the Chi-square test for categorical variables were used in this study. Results: MSA-C patients with RBD had younger visiting age (52.6 ± 7.4 vs. 56.7 ± 6.0 years, P = 0.046) and shorter duration of the disease (12.0 [12.0, 24.0] vs. 24.0 [14.0, 36.0] months, P = 0.009) than MSA-C patients without RBD. MSA-C with RBD had shorter REM sleep latency (111.7 ± 48.2 vs. 157.0 ± 68.8 min, P = 0.042), higher percentage of REM sleep (14.9% ±4.0% vs. 10.0% ± 3.2%, P = 0.019), and lower Stage I (9.5% ±7.2% vs. 15.9% ±8.0%, P = 0.027) than MSA-C without RBD. Moreover, MSA-C patients with RBD had more decreased sleep efficiency (52.4% ±12.6% vs. 65.8% ±15.9%, P = 0.029) than that without RBD. Conclusions: In addition to the RBD, MSA-C patients with RBD had other more severe sleep disturbances than those without RBD. The sleep disorders of MSA patients might be associated with the progress of the disease. PMID:27625088

  19. Kinematics of Visually-Guided Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Bernhard J. M.; Thomassen, Jakob S.

    2014-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of an eye movement that follows Listing’s law is the half-angle rule that says that the angular velocity of the eye tilts by half the angle of eccentricity of the line of sight relative to primary eye position. Since all visually-guided eye movements in the regime of far viewing follow Listing’s law (with the head still and upright), the question about its origin is of considerable importance. Here, we provide theoretical and experimental evidence that Listing’s law results from a unique motor strategy that allows minimizing ocular torsion while smoothly tracking objects of interest along any path in visual space. The strategy consists in compounding conventional ocular rotations in meridian planes, that is in horizontal, vertical and oblique directions (which are all torsion-free) with small linear displacements of the eye in the frontal plane. Such compound rotation-displacements of the eye can explain the kinematic paradox that the fixation point may rotate in one plane while the eye rotates in other planes. Its unique signature is the half-angle law in the position domain, which means that the rotation plane of the eye tilts by half-the angle of gaze eccentricity. We show that this law does not readily generalize to the velocity domain of visually-guided eye movements because the angular eye velocity is the sum of two terms, one associated with rotations in meridian planes and one associated with displacements of the eye in the frontal plane. While the first term does not depend on eye position the second term does depend on eye position. We show that compounded rotation - displacements perfectly predict the average smooth kinematics of the eye during steady- state pursuit in both the position and velocity domain. PMID:24751602

  20. Analysis of EEG Related Saccadic Eye Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funase, Arao; Kuno, Yoshiaki; Okuma, Shigeru; Yagi, Tohru

    Our final goal is to establish the model for saccadic eye movement that connects the saccade and the electroencephalogram(EEG). As the first step toward this goal, we recorded and analyzed the saccade-related EEG. In the study recorded in this paper, we tried detecting a certain EEG that is peculiar to the eye movement. In these experiments, each subject was instructed to point their eyes toward visual targets (LEDs) or the direction of the sound sources (buzzers). In the control cases, the EEG was recorded in the case of no eye movemens. As results, in the visual experiments, we found that the potential of EEG changed sharply on the occipital lobe just before eye movement. Furthermore, in the case of the auditory experiments, similar results were observed. In the case of the visual experiments and auditory experiments without eye movement, we could not observed the EEG changed sharply. Moreover, when the subject moved his/her eyes toward a right-side target, a change in EEG potential was found on the right occipital lobe. On the contrary, when the subject moved his/her eyes toward a left-side target, a sharp change in EEG potential was found on the left occipital lobe.

  1. Eye Movements Reveal Mental Looking through Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Kurt; Hartmann, Matthias; Martarelli, Corinna S.; Mast, Fred W.

    2016-01-01

    People often make use of a spatial "mental time line" to represent events in time. We investigated whether the eyes follow such a mental time line during online language comprehension of sentences that refer to the past, present, and future. Participants' eye movements were measured on a blank screen while they listened to these…

  2. Motion perception during saccadic eye movements.

    PubMed

    Castet, E; Masson, G S

    2000-02-01

    During rapid eye movements, motion of the stationary world is generally not perceived despite displacement of the whole image on the retina. Here we report that during saccades, human observers sensed visual motion of patterns with low spatial frequency. The effect was greatest when the stimulus was spatiotemporally optimal for motion detection by the magnocellular pathway. Adaptation experiments demonstrated dependence of this intrasaccadic motion percept on activation of direction-selective mechanisms. Even two-dimensional complex motion percepts requiring spatial integration of early motion signals were observed during saccades. These results indicate that the magnocellular pathway functions during saccades, and that only spatiotemporal limitations of visual motion perception are important in suppressing awareness of intrasaccadic motion signals.

  3. Temporal eye movement strategies during naturalistic viewing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helena X.; Freeman, Jeremy; Merriam, Elisha P.; Hasson, Uri; Heeger, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The deployment of eye movements to complex spatiotemporal stimuli likely involves a variety of cognitive factors. However, eye movements to movies are surprisingly reliable both within and across observers. We exploited and manipulated that reliability to characterize observers’ temporal viewing strategies. Introducing cuts and scrambling the temporal order of the resulting clips systematically changed eye movement reliability. We developed a computational model that exhibited this behavior and provided an excellent fit to the measured eye movement reliability. The model assumed that observers searched for, found, and tracked a point-of-interest, and that this process reset when there was a cut. The model did not require that eye movements depend on temporal context in any other way, and it managed to describe eye movements consistently across different observers and two movie sequences. Thus, we found no evidence for the integration of information over long time scales (greater than a second). The results are consistent with the idea that observers employ a simple tracking strategy even while viewing complex, engaging naturalistic stimuli. PMID:22262911

  4. Development of eye-movement control.

    PubMed

    Luna, Beatriz; Velanova, Katerina; Geier, Charles F

    2008-12-01

    Cognitive control of behavior continues to improve through adolescence in parallel with important brain maturational processes including synaptic pruning and myelination, which allow for efficient neuronal computations and the functional integration of widely distributed circuitries supporting top-down control of behavior. This is also a time when psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and mood disorders, emerge reflecting a particularly vulnerability to impairments in development during adolescence. Oculomotor studies provide a unique neuroscientific approach to make precise associations between cognitive control and brain circuitry during development that can inform us of impaired systems in psychopathology. In this review, we first describe the development of pursuit, fixation, and visually-guided saccadic eye movements, which collectively indicate early maturation of basic sensorimotor processes supporting reflexive, exogenously-driven eye movements. We then describe the literature on the development of the cognitive control of eye movements as reflected in the ability to inhibit a prepotent eye movement in the antisaccade task, as well as making an eye movement guided by on-line spatial information in working memory in the oculomotor delayed response task. Results indicate that the ability to make eye movements in a voluntary fashion driven by endogenous plans shows a protracted development into adolescence. Characterizing the transition through adolescence to adult-level cognitive control of behavior can inform models aimed at understanding the neurodevelopmental basis of psychiatric disorders.

  5. Eye Carduino: A Car Control System using Eye Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arjun; Nagaraj, Disha; Louzardo, Joel; Hegde, Rajeshwari

    2011-12-01

    Modern automotive systems are rapidly becoming highly of transportation, but can be a web integrated media centre. This paper explains the implementation of a vehicle control defined and characterized by embedded electronics and software. With new technologies, the vehicle industry is facing new opportunities and also new challenges. Electronics have improved the performance of vehicles and at the same time, new more complex applications are introduced. Examples of high level applications include adaptive cruise control and electronic stability programs (ESP). Further, a modern vehicle does not have to be merely a means using only eye movements. The EyeWriter's native hardware and software work to return the co-ordinates of where the user is looking. These co-ordinates are then used to control the car. A centre-point is defined on the screen. The higher on the screen the user's gaze is, the faster the car will accelerate. Braking is done by looking below centre. Steering is done by looking left and right on the screen.

  6. Manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Niehorster, Diederick C.; Siu, Wilfred W. F.; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements only when tracking a self-driven or a predictable moving target. Here, we used a control-theoretic approach to examine whether concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit of an unpredictable moving target. In the eye-hand tracking condition, participants used their eyes to track a Gaussian target that moved randomly along a horizontal axis. In the meantime, they used their dominant hand to move a mouse to control the horizontal movement of a Gaussian cursor to vertically align it with the target. In the eye-alone tracking condition, the target and cursor positions recorded in the eye-hand tracking condition were replayed, and participants only performed eye tracking of the target. Catch-up saccades were identified and removed from the recorded eye movements, allowing for a frequency-response analysis of the smooth pursuit response to unpredictable target motion. We found that the overall smooth pursuit gain was higher and the number of catch-up saccades made was less when eye tracking was accompanied by manual tracking than when not. We conclude that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit. This enhancement is a fundamental property of eye-hand coordination that occurs regardless of the predictability of the target motion. PMID:26605840

  7. How Were Eye Movements Recorded Before Yarbus?

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Yarbus introduced a new dimension of precision in recording how the eyes moved, either when attempts were made to keep them stationary or when scanning pictures. Movements of the eyes had been remarked upon for millennia, but recording how they move is a more recent preoccupation. Emphasis was initially placed on abnormalities of oculomotor function (like strabismus) before normal features were considered. The interest was in where the eyes moved to rather than determining how they got there. The most venerable technique for examining ocular stability involved comparing the relative motion between an afterimage and a real image. In the late 18th century, Wells compared afterimages generated before body rotation with real images observed following it when dizzy; he described both lateral and torsional nystagmus, thereby demonstrating the directional discontinuities in eye velocities. At around the same time Erasmus Darwin used afterimages as a means of demonstrating ocular instability when attempting to fixate steadily. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Thus, the characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare (working in Javal's laboratory) in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening (with tubes placed over the eyelids) to the sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. Eye movements over pictures were examined by Stratton and later by Buswell, who drew attention to the effects of instructions on the pattern of eye movements. In midcentury, attention shifted back to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The suction cap methods developed by Yarbus were applied

  8. Changes in the activity of units of the cat motor cortex with rapid conditioning and extinction of a compound eye blink movement.

    PubMed

    Aou, S; Woody, C D; Birt, D

    1992-02-01

    Patterns of spike activity were measured in the pericruciate cortex of conscious cats before and after development of a Pavlovian conditioned eye blink response. Unit activity was tested with presentations of a click conditioned stimulus (CS) and a hiss discriminative stimulus (DS) of similar intensity to the click. Unit discharge in response to the CS increased after conditioning, but not after backward conditioning when conditioned reflexes (CRs) were not performed. Rates of spontaneous, baseline discharge were not increased after conditioning with respect to rates of discharge measured in the naive state. It appeared that an increase in the ratio of CS-elicited discharge to background activity, together with an increase in the number of units responding to the CS after conditioning, supported discrimination of the CS from the DS and performance of the conditioned blink response. This is the first detailed characterization of patterns of a rapidly conditioned Pavlovian response. Activation of units by the CS preceded the onset of the CR, supporting the hypothesis that the activity played a role in initiating the conditioned eye blink movement. Extinction with retention of performance of the CR was associated with perseverance of the increased unit discharge in response to the CS. Extinction with substantially reduced performance of the CR was associated with diminution of the unit response to the CS below levels found with conditioning. Averages of patterns of spike activity elicited by the CS after conditioning showed components of discharge with onsets of 8-40 msec (alpha 1), 40-72 msec (alpha 2), 72-112 msec (beta), and greater than 112 msec (gamma), corresponding to each of four separate excitatory EMG components of the compound blink CR. Each component increased in magnitude after conditioning, relative to levels found in the naive state. The finding that long- as well as short-latency components of unit activation increased after conditioning supported the

  9. Translational evaluation of JNJ-18038683, a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 7 receptor antagonist, on rapid eye movement sleep and in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bonaventure, Pascal; Dugovic, Christine; Kramer, Michelle; De Boer, Peter; Singh, Jaskaran; Wilson, Sue; Bertelsen, Kirk; Di, Jianing; Shelton, Jonathan; Aluisio, Leah; Dvorak, Lisa; Fraser, Ian; Lord, Brian; Nepomuceno, Diane; Ahnaou, Abdellah; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Chai, Wenying; Dvorak, Curt; Sands, Steve; Carruthers, Nicholas; Lovenberg, Timothy W

    2012-08-01

    In rodents 5-hydroxytryptamine type 7 (5-HT(7)) receptor blockade has been shown to be effective in models of depression and to increase the latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and decrease REM duration. In the clinic, the REM sleep reduction observed with many antidepressants may serve as a biomarker. We report here the preclinical and clinical evaluation of a 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist, (3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1-(phenylmethyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]azepine 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylate) (JNJ-18038683). In rodents, JNJ-18038683 increased the latency to REM sleep and decreased REM duration, and this effect was maintained after repeated administration for 7 days. The compound was effective in the mouse tail suspension test. JNJ-18038683 enhanced serotonin transmission, antidepressant-like behavior, and REM sleep suppression induced by citalopram in rodents. In healthy human volunteers JNJ-18038683 prolonged REM latency and reduced REM sleep duration, demonstrating that the effect of 5-HT(7) blockade on REM sleep translated from rodents to humans. Like in rats, JNJ-18038683 enhanced REM sleep suppression induced by citalopram in humans, although a drug-drug interaction could not be ruled out. In a double-blind, active, and placebo-controlled clinical trial in 225 patients suffering from major depressive disorder, neither treatment with pharmacologically active doses of JNJ-18038683 or escitalopram separated from placebo, indicating a failed study lacking assay sensitivity. Post hoc analyses using an enrichment window strategy, where all the efficacy data from sites with an implausible high placebo response [placebo group Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) < = 12] and from sites with no placebo response (MADRS > = 28) are removed, there was a clinically meaningful difference between JNJ-18038683 and placebo. Further clinical studies are required to characterize the potential antidepressant efficacy of JNJ-18038683.

  10. Selective blockade of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)7 receptors enhances 5-HT transmission, antidepressant-like behavior, and rapid eye movement sleep suppression induced by citalopram in rodents.

    PubMed

    Bonaventure, Pascal; Kelly, Lisa; Aluisio, Leah; Shelton, Jonathan; Lord, Brian; Galici, Ruggero; Miller, Kirsten; Atack, John; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Dugovic, Christine

    2007-05-01

    Evidence has accumulated supporting a role for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)7 receptors in circadian rhythms, sleep, and mood disorders, presumably as a consequence of the modulation of 5-HT-mediated neuronal activity. We hypothesized that a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, (2R)-1-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-2-[2-(4-methyl-1-piperidinyl)ethyl]-pyrrolidine (SB-269970), should increase activity of 5-HT neurons and potentiate the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (citalopram). In rats, administration of 3 mg/kg s.c. citalopram alone increased the extracellular concentration of 5-HT. This effect of citalopram on extracellular 5-HT concentration was significantly enhanced by an ineffective dose of SB-269970. Combining this dose of SB-269970 with a low dose of citalopram also resulted in a significant increase in extracellular concentration of 5-HT, suggesting a potentiation of neurochemical effects. In mice, citalopram and SB-269970 dose-dependently decreased immobility time in the tail suspension test. The dose-effect curve of citalopram was shifted leftward by coadministration of an effective dose of SB-269970. Furthermore, combining ineffective doses of citalopram and SB-269970 also resulted in a significant decrease of immobility time in the tail suspension test, suggesting potentiation of antidepressant-like effects. In rats, SB-269970 potentiated the increase of rapid eye movement (REM) latency and the REM sleep decrease induced by citalopram. SB-269970 also reversed the increase in sleep fragmentation induced by citalopram. Rat plasma and brain concentrations of citalopram were not affected by coadministration of SB-269970, arguing for a pharmacodynamic rather than a pharmacokinetic mechanism. Overall, these results indicate that selective blockade of 5-HT7 receptors may enhance the antidepressant efficacy of citalopram and may provide a novel therapy to alleviate sleep disturbances associated with depression.

  11. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation Induces Neuronal Apoptosis by Noradrenaline Acting on Alpha1 Adrenoceptor and by Triggering Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Somarajan, Bindu I.; Khanday, Mudasir A.; Mallick, Birendra N.

    2016-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders are associated with rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) loss; however, the mechanism was unknown. As REMS loss elevates noradrenaline (NA) level in the brain as well as induces neuronal apoptosis and degeneration, in this study, we have delineated the intracellular molecular pathway involved in REMS deprivation (REMSD)-associated NA-induced neuronal apoptosis. Rats were REMS deprived for 6 days by the classical flower pot method; suitable controls were conducted and the effects on apoptosis markers evaluated. Further, the role of NA was studied by one, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of NA-ergic alpha1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (PRZ) and two, by downregulation of NA synthesis in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons by local microinjection of tyrosine hydroxylase siRNA (TH-siRNA). Immunoblot estimates showed that the expressions of proapoptotic proteins viz. Bcl2-associated death promoter protein, apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), cytochrome c, caspase9, caspase3 were elevated in the REMS-deprived rat brains, while caspase8 level remained unaffected; PRZ treatment did not allow elevation of these proapoptotic factors. Further, REMSD increased cytochrome c expression, which was prevented if the NA synthesis from the LC neurons was blocked by microinjection of TH-siRNA in vivo into the LC during REMSD in freely moving normal rats. Mitochondrial damage was re-confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, which showed distinctly swollen mitochondria with disintegrated cristae, chromosomal condensation, and clumping along the nuclear membrane, and all these changes were prevented in PRZ-treated rats. Combining findings of this study along with earlier reports, we propose that upon REMSD NA level increases in the brain as the LC, NA-ergic REM-OFF neurons do not cease firing and TH is upregulated in those neurons. This elevated NA acting on alpha1 adrenoceptors damages mitochondria causing release of cytochrome c to activate

  12. Characterization of GABAergic neurons in rapid-eye-movement sleep controlling regions of the brainstem reticular formation in GAD67-green fluorescent protein knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ritchie E; McKenna, James T; Winston, Stuart; Basheer, Radhika; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Thakkar, Mahesh M; McCarley, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Recent experiments suggest that brainstem GABAergic neurons may control rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, understanding their pharmacology/physiology has been hindered by difficulty in identification. Here we report that mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the GAD67 promoter (GAD67-GFP knock-in mice) exhibit numerous GFP-positive neurons in the central gray and reticular formation, allowing on-line identification in vitro. Small (10-15 microm) or medium-sized (15-25 microm) GFP-positive perikarya surrounded larger serotonergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic and reticular neurons, and > 96% of neurons were double-labeled for GFP and GABA, confirming that GFP-positive neurons are GABAergic. Whole-cell recordings in brainstem regions important for promoting REM sleep [subcoeruleus (SubC) or pontine nucleus oralis (PnO) regions] revealed that GFP-positive neurons were spontaneously active at 3-12 Hz, fired tonically, and possessed a medium-sized depolarizing sag during hyperpolarizing steps. Many neurons also exhibited a small, low-threshold calcium spike. GFP-positive neurons were tested with pharmacological agents known to promote (carbachol) or inhibit (orexin A) REM sleep. SubC GFP-positive neurons were excited by the cholinergic agonist carbachol, whereas those in the PnO were either inhibited or excited. GFP-positive neurons in both areas were excited by orexins/hypocretins. These data are congruent with the hypothesis that carbachol-inhibited GABAergic PnO neurons project to, and inhibit, REM-on SubC reticular neurons during waking, whereas carbachol-excited SubC and PnO GABAergic neurons are involved in silencing locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe aminergic neurons during REM sleep. Orexinergic suppression of REM during waking is probably mediated in part via excitation of acetylcholine-inhibited GABAergic neurons.

  13. Re-presentation of Olfactory Exposure Therapy Success Cues during Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep did not Increase Therapy Outcome but Increased Sleep Spindles

    PubMed Central

    Rihm, Julia S.; Sollberger, Silja B.; Soravia, Leila M.; Rasch, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Exposure therapy induces extinction learning and is an effective treatment for specific phobias. Sleep after learning promotes extinction memory and benefits therapy success. As sleep-dependent memory-enhancing effects are based on memory reactivations during sleep, here we aimed at applying the beneficial effect of sleep on therapy success by cueing memories of subjective therapy success during non-rapid eye movement sleep after in vivo exposure-based group therapy for spider phobia. In addition, oscillatory correlates of re-presentation during sleep (i.e., sleep spindles and slow oscillations) were investigated. After exposure therapy, spider-phobic patients verbalized their subjectively experienced therapy success under presence of a contextual odor. Then, patients napped for 90 min recorded by polysomnography. Half of the sleep group received the odor during sleep while the other half was presented an odorless vehicle as control. A third group served as a wake control group without odor presentation. While exposure therapy significantly reduced spider-phobic symptoms in all subjects, these symptoms could not be further reduced by re-presenting the odor associated with therapy success, probably due to a ceiling effect of the highly effective exposure therapy. However, odor re-exposure during sleep increased left-lateralized frontal slow spindle (11.0–13.0 Hz) and right-lateralized parietal fast spindle (13.0–15.0 Hz) activity, suggesting the possibility of a successful re-presentation of therapy-related memories during sleep. Future studies need to further examine the possibility to enhance therapy success by targeted memory reactivation (TMR) during sleep. PMID:27445775

  14. Slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation during non-rapid eye movement sleep improves behavioral inhibition in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Munz, Manuel T.; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Thielking, Frederieke; Mölle, Matthias; Göder, Robert; Baving, Lioba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Behavioral inhibition, which is a later-developing executive function (EF) and anatomically located in prefrontal areas, is impaired in attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While optimal EFs have been shown to depend on efficient sleep in healthy subjects, the impact of sleep problems, frequently reported in ADHD, remains elusive. Findings of macroscopic sleep changes in ADHD are inconsistent, but there is emerging evidence for distinct microscopic changes with a focus on prefrontal cortical regions and non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) slow-wave sleep. Recently, slow oscillations (SO) during non-REM sleep were found to be less functional and, as such, may be involved in sleep-dependent memory impairments in ADHD. Objective:By augmenting slow-wave power through bilateral, slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS, frequency = 0.75 Hz) during non-REM sleep, we aimed to improve daytime behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD. Methods: Fourteen boys (10–14 years) diagnosed with ADHD were included. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, patients received so-tDCS either in the first or in the second experimental sleep night. Inhibition control was assessed with a visuomotor go/no-go task. Intrinsic alertness was assessed with a simple stimulus response task. To control for visuomotor performance, motor memory was assessed with a finger sequence tapping task. Results: SO-power was enhanced during early non-REM sleep, accompanied by slowed reaction times and decreased standard deviations of reaction times, in the go/no-go task after so-tDCS. In contrast, intrinsic alertness, and motor memory performance were not improved by so-tDCS. Conclusion: Since behavioral inhibition but not intrinsic alertness or motor memory was improved by so-tDCS, our results suggest that lateral prefrontal slow oscillations during sleep might play a specific role for executive functioning in ADHD. PMID:26321911

  15. Stimulatory role of calcium in rapid eye movement sleep deprivation-induced noradrenaline-mediated increase in Na-K-ATPase activity in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Das, G; Gopalakrishnan, A; Faisal, M; Mallick, B N

    2008-07-31

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation elevates noradrenaline level, which upon acting on alpha1-adrenoceptors increases Na-K-ATPase activity; however, the detailed intracellular mechanism of action was unknown. Since membrane integrity is crucial for maintaining Na-K-ATPase activity as well as ionic exchange and noradrenaline affects membrane lipid-peroxidation, we proposed that the deprivation might modulate membrane lipid-peroxidation, which would modulate intracellular ionic concentration and thereby increase Na-K-ATPase activity. Hence, in this in vivo and in vitro study, rats were deprived of REM sleep for 4 days by the flowerpot method and suitable control experiments were conducted. The deprivation simultaneously decreased membrane lipid-peroxidation as well as increased Na-K-ATPase activity by its dephosphorylation and all the effects were induced by noradrenaline. Further, in vitro experiments showed that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced enhanced lipid-peroxidation increased synaptosomal calcium (Ca(2+))-influx, which was also prevented by noradrenaline and nifidipine, an L-type Ca(2+)-channel blocker. Additionally, both nifidipine and cyclopiazonic acid, which have opposite effects on intracellular Ca(2+)-concentration, prevented deprivation induced increased Na-K-ATPase activity. We propose that REM sleep deprivation elevates noradrenaline level in the brain that acting on alpha1-adrenoceptor simultaneously reduces membrane lipid-peroxidation but activates phospholipase-C, resulting in closure of L-type Ca(2+)-channel and releasing membrane bound Ca(2+); the latter then dephosphorylates Na-K-ATPase, the active form, causing its increased activity.

  16. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Methods Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. Results We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. Discussion This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity. PMID:26930079

  17. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Marshall, N J; Land, M F; Cronin, T W

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a 'primate-like' awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly.

  18. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, N. J.; Land, M. F.; Cronin, T. W.

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a ‘primate-like’ awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly. PMID:24395969

  19. Eye Movements in Implicit Artificial Grammar Learning.

    PubMed

    Silva, Susana; Inácio, Filomena; Folia, Vasiliki; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2017-03-13

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) has been probed with forced-choice behavioral tests (active tests). Recent attempts to probe the outcomes of learning (implicitly acquired knowledge) with eye-movement responses (passive tests) have shown null results. However, these latter studies have not tested for sensitivity effects, for example, increased eye movements on a printed violation. In this study, we tested for sensitivity effects in AGL tests with (Experiment 1) and without (Experiment 2) concurrent active tests (preference- and grammaticality classification) in an eye-tracking experiment. Eye movements discriminated between sequence types in passive tests and more so in active tests. The eye-movement profile did not differ between preference and grammaticality classification, and it resembled sensitivity effects commonly observed in natural syntax processing. Our findings show that the outcomes of implicit structured sequence learning can be characterized in eye tracking. More specifically, whole trial measures (dwell time, number of fixations) showed robust AGL effects, whereas first-pass measures (first-fixation duration) did not. Furthermore, our findings strengthen the link between artificial and natural syntax processing, and they shed light on the factors that determine performance differences in preference and grammaticality classification tests. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Eye movements and poor reading: does the Developmental Eye Movement test measure cause or effect?

    PubMed

    Medland, Coraley; Walter, Helen; Woodhouse, J Margaret

    2010-11-01

    The literature concerning subjects who have reading difficulties has repeatedly noted their abnormal eye movements. The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test was developed on the assumption that poor eye movement control is a major cause of reading difficulties. The hypothesis tested by this study was that practice in fluent reading trains the eye movements that result in a good DEM score, whilst poor readers will exhibit low DEM scores due to insufficient training. English readers (43 children, 20 adults), and Arabic readers (six children, five adults) were recruited. The DEM test was administered twice, performed once reading the horizontal section in the habitual reading direction and secondly in the opposite direction, thus enabling the subjects' eye movements to be compared when reading in their habitual direction and when reading in a direction which is relatively unpracticed. Paired t-tests showed that the difference in eye movements (quantified via the DEM test ratio) between the two opposing reading directions was significant in English reading adults, English reading children and Arabic reading children, but not significant in the Arabic adults, who were equally practised in reading in the two directions. The results support the hypothesis that abnormal eye movements are more likely to be an effect and not the cause of reading difficulties. The DEM test should not be used to diagnose eye movement difficulties in a patient with poor reading ability.

  1. Vergence Eye Movements in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bolding, MS; Lahti, AC; White, D; Moore, C; Gurler, D; Gawne, TJ; Gamlin, PD

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that smooth pursuit eye movements are impaired in patients with schizophrenia. However, under normal viewing conditions, targets move not only in the frontoparallel plane but also in depth, and tracking them requires both smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements. Although previous studies in humans and non-human primates suggest that these two eye movement subsystems are relatively independent of one another, to our knowledge, there have been no prior studies of vergence tracking behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, we have investigated these eye movements in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. We found that patients with schizophrenia exhibited substantially lower gains compared to healthy controls during vergence tracking at all tested speeds (e.g. 0.25 Hz vergence tracking mean gain of 0.59 vs. 0.86). Further, consistent with previous reports, patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly lower gains than healthy controls during smooth pursuit at higher target speeds (e.g. 0.5 Hz smooth pursuit mean gain of 0.64 vs. 0.73). In addition, there was a modest (r≈0.5), but significant, correlation between smooth pursuit and vergence tracking performance in patients with schizophrenia. Our observations clearly demonstrate substantial vergence tracking deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In these patients, deficits for smooth pursuit and vergence tracking are partially correlated suggesting overlap in the central control of smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements. PMID:25088242

  2. An information maximization model of eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra

    2005-01-01

    We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

  3. Effect of two GABA-ergic drugs on the cognitive functions of rapid eye movement in sleep-deprived and recovered rats

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Lidao; Si, Lengge; Wang, Yuehong; Wuyun, Gerile; Bo, Agula

    2016-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is closely associated with nervous functions. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gabazine and tiagabine on the cognitive functions (CF) of REM sleep-deprived and sleep recovered rats. Rats were divided into REM sleep deprivation, blank control (CC) and environmental groups. The REM sleep deprivation group was further divided into non-operation (nonOP), sham-operated (Sham), gabazine (SR) and tiagabine groups. Each group was evaluated over five time points: Sleep deprived for 1 day (SD 1 day), SD 3 day, SD 5 day, sleep recovery 6 h (RS 6 h) and RS 12 h. A rat model of REM sleep deprivation was established by a modified multi-platform water method, with CF assessed by Morris water maze. Hypothalamic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamic acid contents were measured via high performance liquid chromatography. The number and morphology of hypocretin (Hcrt) neurons and Fos in the hypothalamus, and GABAARα1-induced integral optical density were detected by immunofluorescence. Compared to the CC group, the nonOP and Sham group rats CF were significantly diminished, Fos-positive and Fos-Hcrt double positive cells were significantly increased, and GABA content and GABAARα1 expression levels were significantly elevated (P<0.05). The tiagabine and CC groups exhibited similar results at three time points. The CF of rats in the SR group were diminished and the number of Fos-positive and Fos-Hcrt double positive cells were significantly increased (P<0.05) at RS 6 h and RS l2 h. GABA content and GABAARα1 expression levels were significantly increased in the SR group at all time points (P<0.05), whereas only GABAARα1 expression levels were significantly increased in the tiagabine group at SD 5 day (P<0.05). The results of the present study indicated that REM sleep deprivation diminished CF, increased the number of Hcrt neurons, GABA content and GABAARα1 expression. Furthermore, all alterations were positively correlated with

  4. Effect of two GABA-ergic drugs on the cognitive functions of rapid eye movement in sleep-deprived and recovered rats.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lidao; Si, Lengge; Wang, Yuehong; Wuyun, Gerile; Bo, Agula

    2016-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is closely associated with nervous functions. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gabazine and tiagabine on the cognitive functions (CF) of REM sleep-deprived and sleep recovered rats. Rats were divided into REM sleep deprivation, blank control (CC) and environmental groups. The REM sleep deprivation group was further divided into non-operation (nonOP), sham-operated (Sham), gabazine (SR) and tiagabine groups. Each group was evaluated over five time points: Sleep deprived for 1 day (SD 1 day), SD 3 day, SD 5 day, sleep recovery 6 h (RS 6 h) and RS 12 h. A rat model of REM sleep deprivation was established by a modified multi-platform water method, with CF assessed by Morris water maze. Hypothalamic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamic acid contents were measured via high performance liquid chromatography. The number and morphology of hypocretin (Hcrt) neurons and Fos in the hypothalamus, and GABAARα1-induced integral optical density were detected by immunofluorescence. Compared to the CC group, the nonOP and Sham group rats CF were significantly diminished, Fos-positive and Fos-Hcrt double positive cells were significantly increased, and GABA content and GABAARα1 expression levels were significantly elevated (P<0.05). The tiagabine and CC groups exhibited similar results at three time points. The CF of rats in the SR group were diminished and the number of Fos-positive and Fos-Hcrt double positive cells were significantly increased (P<0.05) at RS 6 h and RS l2 h. GABA content and GABAARα1 expression levels were significantly increased in the SR group at all time points (P<0.05), whereas only GABAARα1 expression levels were significantly increased in the tiagabine group at SD 5 day (P<0.05). The results of the present study indicated that REM sleep deprivation diminished CF, increased the number of Hcrt neurons, GABA content and GABAARα1 expression. Furthermore, all alterations were positively correlated with

  5. Eye and head movements shape gaze shifts in Indian peafowl.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Platt, Michael L; Land, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    Animals selectively direct their visual attention toward relevant aspects of their environments. They can shift their attention using a combination of eye, head and body movements. While we have a growing understanding of eye and head movements in mammals, we know little about these processes in birds. We therefore measured the eye and head movements of freely behaving Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) using a telemetric eye-tracker. Both eye and head movements contributed to gaze changes in peafowl. When gaze shifts were smaller, eye movements played a larger role than when gaze shifts were larger. The duration and velocity of eye and head movements were positively related to the size of the eye and head movements, respectively. In addition, the coordination of eye and head movements in peafowl differed from that in mammals; peafowl exhibited a near-absence of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which may partly result from the peafowl's ability to move their heads as quickly as their eyes.

  6. Learning rational temporal eye movement strategies.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, David; Rothkopf, Constantin A

    2016-07-19

    During active behavior humans redirect their gaze several times every second within the visual environment. Where we look within static images is highly efficient, as quantified by computational models of human gaze shifts in visual search and face recognition tasks. However, when we shift gaze is mostly unknown despite its fundamental importance for survival in a dynamic world. It has been suggested that during naturalistic visuomotor behavior gaze deployment is coordinated with task-relevant events, often predictive of future events, and studies in sportsmen suggest that timing of eye movements is learned. Here we establish that humans efficiently learn to adjust the timing of eye movements in response to environmental regularities when monitoring locations in the visual scene to detect probabilistically occurring events. To detect the events humans adopt strategies that can be understood through a computational model that includes perceptual and acting uncertainties, a minimal processing time, and, crucially, the intrinsic costs of gaze behavior. Thus, subjects traded off event detection rate with behavioral costs of carrying out eye movements. Remarkably, based on this rational bounded actor model the time course of learning the gaze strategies is fully explained by an optimal Bayesian learner with humans' characteristic uncertainty in time estimation, the well-known scalar law of biological timing. Taken together, these findings establish that the human visual system is highly efficient in learning temporal regularities in the environment and that it can use these regularities to control the timing of eye movements to detect behaviorally relevant events.

  7. Pharmacological Treatment Effects on Eye Movement Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, James L.; Lencer, Rebekka; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Keedy, Sarah; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of eye movement paradigms to assess the functional integrity of brain systems involved in sensorimotor and cognitive processing in clinical disorders requires greater attention to effects of pharmacological treatments on these systems. This is needed to better differentiate disease and medication effects in clinical samples, to…

  8. EMDR Effects on Pursuit Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Bonnet, Audrey; Bourtoire, Pauline; Sandretto, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to objectivize the quality of smooth pursuit eye movements in a standard laboratory task before and after an Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) session run on seven healthy volunteers. EMDR was applied on autobiographic worries causing moderate distress. The EMDR session was complete in 5 out of the 7 cases; distress measured by SUDS (Subjective Units of Discomfort Scale) decreased to a near zero value. Smooth pursuit eye movements were recorded by an Eyelink II video system before and after EMDR. For the five complete sessions, pursuit eye movement improved after their EMDR session. Notably, the number of saccade intrusions—catch-up saccades (CUS)—decreased and, reciprocally, there was an increase in the smooth components of the pursuit. Such an increase in the smoothness of the pursuit presumably reflects an improvement in the use of visual attention needed to follow the target accurately. Perhaps EMDR reduces distress thereby activating a cholinergic effect known to improve ocular pursuit. PMID:20505828

  9. Eye Movements and Visual Memory for Scenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Di Lo110,V. (1980). Temporal integration in visual memory. Journal of Experimental Pychology : General 109,7597. Duhamel, J. R, Colby, C. L, and...H. (1978). Direction-specific motion thresholds for abnormal 9,441474. image shifts during saccadic eye movement. Perception and Psychophyn’cs

  10. Eye movements: The past 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Kowler, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the past 25 of research on eye movements (1986–2011). Emphasis is on three oculomotor behaviors: gaze control, smooth pursuit and saccades, and on their interactions with vision. Focus over the past 25 years has remained on the fundamental and classical questions: What are the mechanisms that keep gaze stable with either stationary or moving targets? How does the motion of the image on the retina affect vision? Where do we look – and why – when performing a complex task? How can the world appear clear and stable despite continual movements of the eyes? The past 25 years of investigation of these questions has seen progress and transformations at all levels due to new approaches (behavioral, neural and theoretical) aimed at studying how eye movements cope with real-world visual and cognitive demands. The work has led to a better understanding of how prediction, learning and attention work with sensory signals to contribute to the effective operation of eye movements in visually rich environments. PMID:21237189

  11. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  12. Information Integration across Saccadic Eye Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, David E.

    1991-01-01

    The nature of memory storage and information integration across saccadic eye movements was studied in 6 experiments involving 12 college students. Results indicate that transsaccadic memory is an undetailed, limited-capacity long-lasting memory not strictly tied to absolute spatial position. Transsaccadic memory is very similar to visual…

  13. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  14. Cognitive Control of Saccadic Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The saccadic eye movement system provides researchers with a powerful tool with which to explore the cognitive control of behaviour. It is a behavioural system whose limited output can be measured with exceptional precision, and whose input can be controlled and manipulated in subtle ways. A range of cognitive processes (notably those involved in…

  15. Lateral Eye Movement Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    1980-01-01

    The conjugate lateral eye movement phenomenon was investigated for 52 children aged 2 through 10 using both spatial and verbal-analytic questions. The phenomenon was observed in 50 subjects and appeared well-established by age 3 1/2. Some interesting developmental findings and discrepancies with the results of adult studies are noted. (Author/SJL)

  16. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Juliana; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Salles, José Inácio; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study presented here analyzed the patterns of relationship between oculomotor performance and psychopathology, focusing on depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorder. Methods Scientific articles published from 1967 to 2013 in the PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time), though electrophysiological measures are absent. PMID:24072973

  17. Eye Movements Reveal Dynamics of Task Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich; Kuhns, David; Rieter, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    With the goal to determine the cognitive architecture that underlies flexible changes of control settings, we assessed within-trial and across-trial dynamics of attentional selection by tracking of eye movements in the context of a cued task-switching paradigm. Within-trial dynamics revealed a switch-induced, discrete delay in onset of…

  18. Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koene, Ansgar Roald

    2002-11-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology and psychophysics with basic principles of physics (mechanics) and mathematics (geometry). In chapter 2 we investigate the degree to which mechanical and neural non-linearities contribute to the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. On the basis of the velocity profiles of centrifugal and centripetal saccades we calculate the forces and muscle innervations during these eye movements. This was done using an inverted model of the eye plant. Our results indicate that the non-linear force-velocity relationship (i.e. muscle viscosity) of the muscles is probably the cause of the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. In chapter 3 we calculate the adjustment of the saccadic command that is necessary to compensate for the eye plant non-linearities. These calculations show that the agonist and antagonist muscles require different net saccade signal gain changes. In order to better understand how this gain change is accomplished we use the inverted model of the eye plant (chapter 2) to calculate the muscle innervation profiles of saccades with different starting orientations. Based on these calculations we conclude that the saccade signal gain changes are accomplished primarily by changes in the magnitude of the saccade signal. In chapter 4 we examine the requirements that the oculomotor system must meet for the eye to be able to make desired gaze changes and fixate at various eye orientations. We first determine how the axes of action (i.e. unit moment vectors) of the muscles are related to eye orientation and the location of the effective muscle origin (i.e. the muscle pulleys). Next we show how this relation constrains

  19. Predictive eye movements in natural vision

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Travis; Chajka, Kelly; Pelz, Jeff B.

    2012-01-01

    In the natural world, the brain must handle inherent delays in visual processing. This is a problem particularly during dynamic tasks. A possible solution to visuo-motor delays is prediction of a future state of the environment based on the current state and properties of the environment learned from experience. Prediction is well known to occur in both saccades and pursuit movements and is likely to depend on some kind of internal visual model as the basis for this prediction. However, most evidence comes from controlled laboratory studies using simple paradigms. In this study, we examine eye movements made in the context of demanding natural behavior, while playing squash. We show that prediction is a pervasive component of gaze behavior in this context. We show in addition that these predictive movements are extraordinarily precise and operate continuously in time across multiple trajectories and multiple movements. This suggests that prediction is based on complex dynamic visual models of the way that balls move, accumulated over extensive experience. Since eye, head, arm, and body movements all co-occur, it seems likely that a common internal model of predicted visual state is shared by different effectors to allow flexible coordination patterns. It is generally agreed that internal models are responsible for predicting future sensory state for control of body movements. The present work suggests that model-based prediction is likely to be a pervasive component in natural gaze control as well. PMID:22183755

  20. Palsies of Cranial Nerves That Control Eye Movement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical News Palsies of Cranial Nerves That Control Eye Movement By Michael Rubin, MDCM, Weill Cornell Medical College; ... Gaze Palsies Palsies of Cranial Nerves That Control Eye Movement Third Cranial Nerve (Oculomotor Nerve) Palsy Fourth Cranial ...

  1. The Relationship of Saccadic Eye Movements to Reading Disabilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Alan O.

    Saccadic (small, rapid, and apparently involuntary) eye movements of 14 children (7- to 12-years-old) with reading difficulties and of 14 normal readers were compared before and after the problem readers underwent a 7-month individual tutoring program. At pretesting the problem readers showed a rate of eye movements that was markedly lower than…

  2. Asymmetries in the Control of Saccadic Eye Movements to Bifurcating Targets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeevi, Yehoshua Y.; And Others

    The examination of saccadic eye movements--rapid shifts in gaze from one visual area of interest to another--is useful in studying pilot's visual learning in flight simulator training. Saccadic eye movements are the basic oculomotor response associated with the acquisition of visual information and provide an objective measure of higher perceptual…

  3. 21 CFR 886.1510 - Eye movement monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eye movement monitor. 886.1510 Section 886.1510...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1510 Eye movement monitor. (a) Identification. An eye movement monitor is an AC-powered device with an electrode intended to measure and...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1510 - Eye movement monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eye movement monitor. 886.1510 Section 886.1510...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1510 Eye movement monitor. (a) Identification. An eye movement monitor is an AC-powered device with an electrode intended to measure and...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1510 - Eye movement monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eye movement monitor. 886.1510 Section 886.1510...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1510 Eye movement monitor. (a) Identification. An eye movement monitor is an AC-powered device with an electrode intended to measure and...

  6. 21 CFR 886.1510 - Eye movement monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eye movement monitor. 886.1510 Section 886.1510...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1510 Eye movement monitor. (a) Identification. An eye movement monitor is an AC-powered device with an electrode intended to measure and...

  7. 21 CFR 886.1510 - Eye movement monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eye movement monitor. 886.1510 Section 886.1510...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1510 Eye movement monitor. (a) Identification. An eye movement monitor is an AC-powered device with an electrode intended to measure and...

  8. Bilateral Saccadic Eye Movements and Tactile Stimulation, but Not Auditory Stimulation, Enhance Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Ras, Priscilla H.; Berends, Floris; Duijs, Peter; Samara, Zoe; Slagter, Heleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown superior memory retrieval when participants make a series of horizontal saccadic eye movements between the memory encoding phase and the retrieval phase compared to participants who do not move their eyes or move their eyes vertically. It has been hypothesized that the rapidly alternating activation of the two hemispheres…

  9. Eye Movements and Visual Search: A Bibliography,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    594-598. VIS, AID 117 Carpenter, R.II.S. Oculomotor Procrastination . In: D.F. Fisher, R.A., Monty, J.W., Senders (Eds). Eye Movements Cognition and... Affect and Conition: The 17th Annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition . Lawrence Erlbaum, 1982, New Jersey. PSY, BOK 134 Clement, W.F.; Graham, D...8217. IMQ: ’Image quality’. Objuctive measures. IND: ’Individual differences ’. Inter-subject variance in vision and visual task performance. INS

  10. Persistence in eye movement during visual search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, Tatiana A.; Reis, Saulo D. S.; Campos, Daniel; Herrmann, Hans J.; Andrade, José S.

    2016-02-01

    As any cognitive task, visual search involves a number of underlying processes that cannot be directly observed and measured. In this way, the movement of the eyes certainly represents the most explicit and closest connection we can get to the inner mechanisms governing this cognitive activity. Here we show that the process of eye movement during visual search, consisting of sequences of fixations intercalated by saccades, exhibits distinctive persistent behaviors. Initially, by focusing on saccadic directions and intersaccadic angles, we disclose that the probability distributions of these measures show a clear preference of participants towards a reading-like mechanism (geometrical persistence), whose features and potential advantages for searching/foraging are discussed. We then perform a Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) over the time series of jump magnitudes in the eye trajectory and find that it exhibits a typical multifractal behavior arising from the sequential combination of saccades and fixations. By inspecting the time series composed of only fixational movements, our results reveal instead a monofractal behavior with a Hurst exponent , which indicates the presence of long-range power-law positive correlations (statistical persistence). We expect that our methodological approach can be adopted as a way to understand persistence and strategy-planning during visual search.

  11. Persistence in eye movement during visual search.

    PubMed

    Amor, Tatiana A; Reis, Saulo D S; Campos, Daniel; Herrmann, Hans J; Andrade, José S

    2016-02-11

    As any cognitive task, visual search involves a number of underlying processes that cannot be directly observed and measured. In this way, the movement of the eyes certainly represents the most explicit and closest connection we can get to the inner mechanisms governing this cognitive activity. Here we show that the process of eye movement during visual search, consisting of sequences of fixations intercalated by saccades, exhibits distinctive persistent behaviors. Initially, by focusing on saccadic directions and intersaccadic angles, we disclose that the probability distributions of these measures show a clear preference of participants towards a reading-like mechanism (geometrical persistence), whose features and potential advantages for searching/foraging are discussed. We then perform a Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) over the time series of jump magnitudes in the eye trajectory and find that it exhibits a typical multifractal behavior arising from the sequential combination of saccades and fixations. By inspecting the time series composed of only fixational movements, our results reveal instead a monofractal behavior with a Hurst exponent , which indicates the presence of long-range power-law positive correlations (statistical persistence). We expect that our methodological approach can be adopted as a way to understand persistence and strategy-planning during visual search.

  12. Persistence in eye movement during visual search

    PubMed Central

    Amor, Tatiana A.; Reis, Saulo D. S.; Campos, Daniel; Herrmann, Hans J.; Andrade, José S.

    2016-01-01

    As any cognitive task, visual search involves a number of underlying processes that cannot be directly observed and measured. In this way, the movement of the eyes certainly represents the most explicit and closest connection we can get to the inner mechanisms governing this cognitive activity. Here we show that the process of eye movement during visual search, consisting of sequences of fixations intercalated by saccades, exhibits distinctive persistent behaviors. Initially, by focusing on saccadic directions and intersaccadic angles, we disclose that the probability distributions of these measures show a clear preference of participants towards a reading-like mechanism (geometrical persistence), whose features and potential advantages for searching/foraging are discussed. We then perform a Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) over the time series of jump magnitudes in the eye trajectory and find that it exhibits a typical multifractal behavior arising from the sequential combination of saccades and fixations. By inspecting the time series composed of only fixational movements, our results reveal instead a monofractal behavior with a Hurst exponent , which indicates the presence of long-range power-law positive correlations (statistical persistence). We expect that our methodological approach can be adopted as a way to understand persistence and strategy-planning during visual search. PMID:26864680

  13. Eye movements of flatfish for the changes of gravity (II).

    PubMed

    Iwata, Kaori; Takabayashi, Akira; Miyachi, Ei-ichi

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we analysed the eye movements of flatfish for body tilting and compared with that of goldfish. The fish was fixed on the tilting table controlled by computer. The eye movements for body tilting along the different body axis were video-recorded. The vertical and torsional eye rotations were analysed frame by frame. In normal flatfish, vertical eye movement of left eye to leftward tilting was larger than that to rightward tilting. For head up or head down tilting, clear vertical eye movements were observed. On the other hand, torsional eye movements showed similar characteristics as goldfish. These results suggested that sacculus and lagena were important for otolith-ocular eye movements in flatfish.

  14. Readers’ Eye Movements Distinguish Anomalies of Form and Content

    PubMed Central

    Braze, David; Shankweiler, Donald; Ni, Weijia; Palumbo, Laura Conway

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is presented that eye-movement patterns during reading distinguish costs associated with the syntactic processing of sentences from costs associated with relating sentence meaning to real world probabilities. Participants (N=30) read matching sets of sentences that differed by a single word, making the sentence syntactically anomalous (but understandable), pragmatically anomalous, or non-anomalous. Syntactic and pragmatic anomaly each caused perturbations in eye-movements. Subsequent to the anomaly, the patterns diverged. Syntactic anomaly generated many regressions initially, with rapid return to baseline. Pragmatic anomaly resulted in lengthened reading times, followed by a gradual increase in regressions that reached a maximum at the end of the sentence. Evidence of rapid sensitivity to pragmatic information supports the use of timing data in resolving the debate over the autonomy of linguistic processing. The divergent patterns of eye-movements support indications from neuro-cognitive studies of a principled distinction between syntactic and pragmatic processing procedures within the language processing mechanism. PMID:11924838

  15. Binocular eye movements in health and disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Christopher W.

    2013-03-01

    Binocular eye movements form a finely-tuned system that requires accurate coordination of the oculomotor dynamics and supports the vergence movements for tracking the fine binocular disparities required for 3D vision, and are particularly susceptible to disruption by brain injury and other neural dysfunctions. Saccadic dynamics for a population of 84 diverse participants show tight coefficients of variation of 2-10% of the mean value of each parameter. Significantly slower dynamics were seen for vertical upward saccades. Binocular coordination of saccades was accurate to within 1-4%, implying the operation of brainstem coordination mechanisms rather than independent cortical control of the two eyes. A new principle of oculomotor control - reciprocal binocular inhibition - is introduced to complement Sherrington's and Hering's Laws. This new law accounts for the fact that symmetrical vergence responses are about five times slower than saccades of the same amplitude, although a comprehensive analysis of asymmetrical vergence responses revealed unexpected variety in vergence dynamics. This analysis of the variety of human vergence responses thus contributes substantially to the understanding of the oculomotor control mechanisms underlying the generation of vergence movements and of the deficits in the oculomotor control resulting from mild traumatic brain injury.

  16. Eye Movements of Flatfish for Different Gravity Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Kaori; Takabayashi, Akira; Imada, Hideki; Miyachi, Ei-Ichi

    On Earth, gravity sensation plays a basic role for all of physiological phenomena in every creature. In microgravity, loss of gravity input causes many functional disorders in animals and humans. During adaptation to microgravity, otolith-mediated response such as eye movements would alter. Flatfish provide a natural model for the study of adaptive changes in the vestibuloocular reflex. During metamorphosis, vestibular and oculomotor coordinate of flatfish displaced 90 degrees about the longitudinal body axis. Therefore, it is expected that microgravity induce the sensory mismatch in adult flatfish. In this study, we analyzed the eye movements of normal and otolith removed flatfish for body tilting and the eye movements of normal flatfish during microgravity produced by parabolic aircraft flight. The fish was fixed on the tilting table controlled by computer. The eye movements for body tilting along the different body axis were video-recorded. The vertical and torsional eye rotations were analyzed frame by frame. In normal flatfish, torsional eye movements were larger for head up or head down tilting than leftward or rightward tilting. On the other hand, vertical eye movements were larger for leftward or rightward tilting than head up or head down tilting. After removal of left side utlicular otolith, the vertical eye movement for 180 degrees body tilting disappeared. For the changes of gravity, vertical eye movements were observed. These results suggested that eye movements of flatfish adapted to Earth's gravity condition and sacculus and lagena might play important role for otolith-ocular eye movements.

  17. Fixational eye movements during viewing of dynamic natural scenes

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, James A.; Wallis, Guy; Breakspear, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Even during periods of fixation our eyes undergo small amplitude movements. These movements are thought to be essential to the visual system because neural responses rapidly fade when images are stabilized on the retina. The considerable recent interest in fixational eye movements (FEMs) has thus far concentrated on idealized experimental conditions with artificial stimuli and restrained head movements, which are not necessarily a suitable model for natural vision. Natural dynamic stimuli, such as movies, offer the potential to move beyond restrictive experimental settings to probe the visual system with greater ecological validity. Here, we study FEMs recorded in humans during the unconstrained viewing of a dynamic and realistic visual environment, revealing that drift trajectories exhibit the properties of a random walk with memory. Drifts are correlated at short time scales such that the gaze position diverges from the initial fixation more quickly than would be expected for an uncorrelated random walk. We propose a simple model based on the premise that the eye tends to avoid retracing its recent steps to prevent photoreceptor adaptation. The model reproduces key features of the observed dynamics and enables estimation of parameters from data. Our findings show that FEM correlations thought to prevent perceptual fading exist even in highly dynamic real-world conditions. PMID:24194727

  18. Quantitative Linking Hypotheses for Infant Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Yurovsky, Daniel; Hidaka, Shohei; Wu, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The study of cognitive development hinges, largely, on the analysis of infant looking. But analyses of eye gaze data require the adoption of linking hypotheses: assumptions about the relationship between observed eye movements and underlying cognitive processes. We develop a general framework for constructing, testing, and comparing these hypotheses, and thus for producing new insights into early cognitive development. We first introduce the general framework – applicable to any infant gaze experiment – and then demonstrate its utility by analyzing data from a set of experiments investigating the role of attentional cues in infant learning. The new analysis uncovers significantly more structure in these data, finding evidence of learning that was not found in standard analyses and showing an unexpected relationship between cue use and learning rate. Finally, we discuss general implications for the construction and testing of quantitative linking hypotheses. MATLAB code for sample linking hypotheses can be found on the first author's website. PMID:23110071

  19. An accurate and portable eye movement detector for studying sleep in small animals.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, Álvaro; Escudero, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Although eye movements are a highly valuable variable in attempts to precisely identify different periods of the sleep-wake cycle, their indirect measurement by electrooculography is not good enough. The present article describes an accurate and portable scleral search coil that allows the detection of tonic and phasic characteristics of eye movements in free-moving animals. Six adult Wistar rats were prepared for chronic recording of electroencephalography, electromyography and eye movements using the scleral search coil technique. We developed a miniature magnetic field generator made with two coils, consisting of 35 turns and 15 mm diameter of insulated 0.2 mm cooper wire, mounted in a frame of carbon fibre. This portable scleral search coil was fixed on the head of the animal, with each magnetic coil parallel to the eye coil and at 5 mm from each eye. Eye movements detected by the portable scleral search coil were compared with those measured by a commercial scleral search coil requiring immobilizing the head of the animal. No qualitative differences were found between the two scleral search coil systems in their capabilities to detect eye movements. This innovative portable scleral search coil system is an essential tool to detect slow changes in eye position and miniature rapid eye movements during sleep. The portable scleral search coil is much more suitable for detecting eye movements than any previously available system because of its precision and simplicity, and because it does not require immobilization of the animal's head.

  20. Eye movement-invariant representations in the human visual system

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Shinji; Huth, Alexander G.; Bilenko, Natalia Y.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2017-01-01

    During natural vision, humans make frequent eye movements but perceive a stable visual world. It is therefore likely that the human visual system contains representations of the visual world that are invariant to eye movements. Here we present an experiment designed to identify visual areas that might contain eye-movement-invariant representations. We used functional MRI to record brain activity from four human subjects who watched natural movies. In one condition subjects were required to fixate steadily, and in the other they were allowed to freely make voluntary eye movements. The movies used in each condition were identical. We reasoned that the brain activity recorded in a visual area that is invariant to eye movement should be similar under fixation and free viewing conditions. In contrast, activity in a visual area that is sensitive to eye movement should differ between fixation and free viewing. We therefore measured the similarity of brain activity across repeated presentations of the same movie within the fixation condition, and separately between the fixation and free viewing conditions. The ratio of these measures was used to determine which brain areas are most likely to contain eye movement-invariant representations. We found that voxels located in early visual areas are strongly affected by eye movements, while voxels in ventral temporal areas are only weakly affected by eye movements. These results suggest that the ventral temporal visual areas contain a stable representation of the visual world that is invariant to eye movements made during natural vision. PMID:28114479

  1. Eye movement-invariant representations in the human visual system.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Shinji; Huth, Alexander G; Bilenko, Natalia Y; Gallant, Jack L

    2017-01-01

    During natural vision, humans make frequent eye movements but perceive a stable visual world. It is therefore likely that the human visual system contains representations of the visual world that are invariant to eye movements. Here we present an experiment designed to identify visual areas that might contain eye-movement-invariant representations. We used functional MRI to record brain activity from four human subjects who watched natural movies. In one condition subjects were required to fixate steadily, and in the other they were allowed to freely make voluntary eye movements. The movies used in each condition were identical. We reasoned that the brain activity recorded in a visual area that is invariant to eye movement should be similar under fixation and free viewing conditions. In contrast, activity in a visual area that is sensitive to eye movement should differ between fixation and free viewing. We therefore measured the similarity of brain activity across repeated presentations of the same movie within the fixation condition, and separately between the fixation and free viewing conditions. The ratio of these measures was used to determine which brain areas are most likely to contain eye movement-invariant representations. We found that voxels located in early visual areas are strongly affected by eye movements, while voxels in ventral temporal areas are only weakly affected by eye movements. These results suggest that the ventral temporal visual areas contain a stable representation of the visual world that is invariant to eye movements made during natural vision.

  2. Listening to music reduces eye movements.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Thomas; Fachner, Jörg

    2015-02-01

    Listening to music can change the way that people visually experience the environment, probably as a result of an inwardly directed shift of attention. We investigated whether this attentional shift can be demonstrated by reduced eye movement activity, and if so, whether that reduction depends on absorption. Participants listened to their preferred music, to unknown neutral music, or to no music while viewing a visual stimulus (a picture or a film clip). Preference and absorption were significantly higher for the preferred music than for the unknown music. Participants exhibited longer fixations, fewer saccades, and more blinks when they listened to music than when they sat in silence. However, no differences emerged between the preferred music condition and the neutral music condition. Thus, music significantly reduces eye movement activity, but an attentional shift from the outer to the inner world (i.e., to the emotions and memories evoked by the music) emerged as only one potential explanation. Other explanations, such as a shift of attention from visual to auditory input, are discussed.

  3. Saccadic Eye Movements in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Phillipou, Andrea; Rossell, Susan Lee; Gurvich, Caroline; Hughes, Matthew Edward; Castle, David Jonathan; Nibbs, Richard Grant; Abel, Larry Allen

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has a mortality rate among the highest of any mental illness, though the factors involved in the condition remain unclear. Recently, the potential neurobiological underpinnings of the condition have become of increasing interest. Saccadic eye movement tasks have proven useful in our understanding of the neurobiology of some other psychiatric illnesses as they utilise known brain regions, but to date have not been examined in AN. The aim of this study was to investigate whether individuals with AN differ from healthy individuals in performance on a range of saccadic eye movements tasks. Methods 24 females with AN and 25 healthy individuals matched for age, gender and premorbid intelligence participated in the study. Participants were required to undergo memory-guided and self-paced saccade tasks, and an interleaved prosaccade/antisaccade/no-go saccade task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results AN participants were found to make prosaccades of significantly shorter latency than healthy controls. AN participants also made an increased number of inhibitory errors on the memory-guided saccade task. Groups did not significantly differ in antisaccade, no-go saccade or self-paced saccade performance, or fMRI findings. Discussion The results suggest a potential role of GABA in the superior colliculus in the psychopathology of AN. PMID:27010196

  4. Identification of cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons in the pons expressing phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein as a function of rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Datta, S; Siwek, D F; Stack, E C

    2009-09-29

    Recent studies have shown that in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT), increased neuronal activity and kainate receptor-mediated activation of intracellular protein kinase A (PKA) are important physiological and molecular steps for the generation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In the present study performed on rats, phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) immunostaining was used as a marker for increased intracellular PKA activation and as a reflection of increased neuronal activity. To identify whether activated cells were either cholinergic or noncholinergic, the PPT and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) cells were immunostained for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in combination with pCREB or c-Fos. The results demonstrated that during high rapid eye movement sleep (HR, approximately 27%), significantly higher numbers of cells expressed pCREB and c-Fos in the PPT, of which 95% of pCREB-expressing cells were ChAT-positive. With HR, the numbers of pCREB-positive cells were also significantly higher in the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF), pontine reticular nucleus oral (PnO), and dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus (SubCD) but very few in the locus coeruleus (LC) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Conversely, with low rapid eye movement sleep (LR, approximately 2%), the numbers of pCREB expressing cells were very few in the PPT, mPRF, PnO, and SubCD but significantly higher in the LC and DRN. The results of regression analyses revealed significant positive relationships between the total percentages of REM sleep and numbers of ChAT+/pCREB+ (Rsqr=0.98) cells in the PPT and pCREB+ cells in the mPRF (Rsqr=0.88), PnO (Rsqr=0.87), and SubCD (Rsqr=0.84); whereas significantly negative relationships were associated with the pCREB+ cells in the LC (Rsqr=0.70) and DRN (Rsqr=0.60). These results provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that during REM sleep, the PPT cholinergic neurons are active, whereas the LC and DRN neurons are

  5. Cognitive processes involved in smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G R

    2008-12-01

    Ocular pursuit movements allow moving objects to be tracked with a combination of smooth movements and saccades. The principal objective is to maintain smooth eye velocity close to object velocity, thus minimising retinal image motion and maintaining acuity. Saccadic movements serve to realign the image if it falls outside the fovea, the area of highest acuity. Pursuit movements are often portrayed as voluntary but their basis lies in processes that sense retinal motion and can induce eye movements without active participation. The factor distinguishing pursuit from such reflexive movements is the ability to select and track a single object when presented with multiple stimuli. The selective process requires attention, which appears to raise the gain for the selected object and/or suppress that associated with other stimuli, the resulting competition often reducing pursuit velocity. Although pursuit is essentially a feedback process, delays in motion processing create problems of stability and speed of response. This is countered by predictive processes, probably operating through internal efference copy (extra-retinal) mechanisms using short-term memory to store velocity and timing information from prior stimulation. In response to constant velocity motion, the initial response is visually driven, but extra-retinal mechanisms rapidly take over and sustain pursuit. The same extra-retinal mechanisms may also be responsible for generating anticipatory smooth pursuit movements when past experience creates expectancy of impending object motion. Similar, but more complex, processes appear to operate during periodic pursuit, where partial trajectory information is stored and released in anticipation of expected future motion, thus minimising phase errors associated with motion processing delays.

  6. Saccadic Eye Movement Speed and Motor Response Execution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Helfrich, Janet

    1977-01-01

    Evidence was found to indicate that training to improve the speed of saccadic eye movement (movement from one fixation point to another) also resulted in observable changes in batting performance among a sample group of high school girls. (MJB)

  7. Using the eye-movement system to control the head.

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, I D; Brown, V; Findlay, J M; Clarke, M P

    1998-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that A.I., a subject who has total ophthalmoplegia, resulting in a lack of eye movements, used her head to orientate in a qualitatively similar way to eye-based orientating of control subjects. We used four classic eye-movement paradigms and measured A.I.'s head movements while she performed the tasks. These paradigms were (i) the gap paradigm, (ii) the remote-distractor effect, (iii) the anti-saccade paradigm, and (iv) tests of saccadic suppression. In all cases, A.I.'s head saccades were qualitatively similar to previously reported eye-movement data. We conclude that A.I.'s head movements are probably controlled by the same neural mechanisms that control eye movements in unimpaired subjects. PMID:9802239

  8. Smooth pursuit eye movements improve temporal resolution for color perception.

    PubMed

    Terao, Masahiko; Watanabe, Junji; Yagi, Akihiro; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2010-06-21

    Human observers see a single mixed color (yellow) when different colors (red and green) rapidly alternate. Accumulating evidence suggests that the critical temporal frequency beyond which chromatic fusion occurs does not simply reflect the temporal limit of peripheral encoding. However, it remains poorly understood how the central processing controls the fusion frequency. Here we show that the fusion frequency can be elevated by extra-retinal signals during smooth pursuit. This eye movement can keep the image of a moving target in the fovea, but it also introduces a backward retinal sweep of the stationary background pattern. We found that the fusion frequency was higher when retinal color changes were generated by pursuit-induced background motions than when the same retinal color changes were generated by object motions during eye fixation. This temporal improvement cannot be ascribed to a general increase in contrast gain of specific neural mechanisms during pursuit, since the improvement was not observed with a pattern flickering without changing position on the retina or with a pattern moving in the direction opposite to the background motion during pursuit. Our findings indicate that chromatic fusion is controlled by a cortical mechanism that suppresses motion blur. A plausible mechanism is that eye-movement signals change spatiotemporal trajectories along which color signals are integrated so as to reduce chromatic integration at the same locations (i.e., along stationary trajectories) on the retina that normally causes retinal blur during fixation.

  9. Distinct eye movement patterns enhance dynamic visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Palidis, Dimitrios J.; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A.; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics—eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error—and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns—minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades—were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA. PMID:28187157

  10. Eye Movement as an Indicator of Sensory Components in Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated Neuro-Linguistic Programming eye movement model's claim that specific eye movements are indicative of specific sensory components in thought. Agreement between students' (N=48) self-reports and trained observers' records support visual and auditory portions of model; do not support kinesthetic portion. Interrater agreement supports…

  11. The Role of Eye Movements in Subitizing and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Derrick G.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.; Bruce, Lucy A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that eye movements may be necessary for accurate enumeration beyond the subitization range of about 4 items. This study determined the frequency of eye movements normally made during enumeration, their relationship to response times, and whether they are required for accurate performance. This was achieved by monitoring…

  12. Acting without seeing: eye movements reveal visual processing without awareness.

    PubMed

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-04-01

    Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. Here, we review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movement. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to particular visual features that fail to modulate perceptual reports. We also discuss neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and clinical studies supporting the role of subcortical pathways for visual processing without awareness. Our review links awareness to perceptual-eye movement dissociations and furthers our understanding of the brain pathways underlying vision and movement with and without awareness.

  13. Cue predictability changes scaling in eye-movement fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Wallot, Sebastian; Coey, Charles A; Richardson, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has provided evidence for scaling-relations in eye-movement fluctuations, but not much is known about what these scaling relations imply about cognition or eye-movement control. Generally, scaling relations in behavioral and neurophysiological data have been interpreted as an indicator for the coordination of neurophysiological and cognitive processes. In this study, we investigated the effect of predictability in timing and gaze-direction on eye-movement fluctuations. Participants performed a simple eye-movement task, in which a visual cue prompted their gaze to different locations on a spatial layout, and the predictability about temporal and directional aspects of the cue were manipulated. The results showed that scaling exponents in eye-movements decreased with predictability and were related to the participants' perceived effort during the task. In relation to past research, these findings suggest that scaling exponents reflect a relative demand for voluntary control during task performance.

  14. An Analysis of Eye Movements with Helmet Mounted Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    method for off-boresight targeting on fighter aircraft (7). Advancements in HMD capabilities have expanded their use into many application areas, such...a high resolution IR sensitive camera will be used to image these LEDs. This imagery will be used to determine absolute head position in the x and z...movements to develop a method to understand the source of the unintended eye movements. Through the use of Electro-Oculography (EOG) eye movements were

  15. Eye movement during retrieval of emotional autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Antoine, Pascal; Boucart, Muriel; Lenoble, Quentin

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed whether specific eye movement patterns are observed during emotional autobiographical retrieval. Participants were asked to retrieve positive, negative and neutral memories while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Results showed that positive and negative emotional memories triggered more fixations and saccades but shorter fixation duration than neutral memories. No significant differences were observed between emotional and neutral memories for duration and amplitude of saccades. Positive and negative retrieval triggered similar eye movement (i.e., similar number of fixations and saccades, fixation duration, duration of saccades, and amplitude of saccades). Interestingly, the participants reported higher visual imagery for emotional memories than for neutral memories. The findings demonstrate similarities and differences in eye movement during retrieval of neutral and emotional memories. Eye movement during autobiographical retrieval seems to be triggered by the creation of visual mental images as the latter are indexed by autobiographical reconstruction.

  16. A Study of Eye Movement in Television Viewing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Willavene; And Others

    An analysis of the types of eye movements of subjects viewing motion picture films and telelessons revealed a continuum of movements. Two of the intervals of this continuum (No Observable Movements and Minimovements) were found to be related to intelligence. The factors of age and learning did not correlate with any of the indices. Subjects in the…

  17. Cognitive Processes Involved in Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, G. R.

    2008-01-01

    Ocular pursuit movements allow moving objects to be tracked with a combination of smooth movements and saccades. The principal objective is to maintain smooth eye velocity close to object velocity, thus minimising retinal image motion and maintaining acuity. Saccadic movements serve to realign the image if it falls outside the fovea, the area of…

  18. Eye movements modulate the spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing.

    PubMed

    Temereanca, Simona; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kuperberg, Gina R; Stufflebeam, Steve M; Halgren, Eric; Brown, Emery N

    2012-03-28

    Active reading requires coordination between frequent eye movements (saccades) and short fixations in text. Yet, the impact of saccades on word processing remains unknown, as neuroimaging studies typically employ constant eye fixation. Here we investigate eye-movement effects on word recognition processes in healthy human subjects using anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography, psychophysical measurements, and saccade detection in real time. Word recognition was slower and brain responses were reduced to words presented early versus late after saccades, suggesting an overall transient impairment of word processing after eye movements. Response reductions occurred early in visual cortices and later in language regions, where they colocalized with repetition priming effects. Qualitatively similar effects occurred when words appeared early versus late after background movement that mimicked saccades, suggesting that retinal motion contributes to postsaccadic inhibition. Further, differences in postsaccadic and background-movement effects suggest that central mechanisms also contribute to postsaccadic modulation. Together, these results suggest a complex interplay between visual and central saccadic mechanisms during reading.

  19. Worth a Glance: Using Eye Movements to Investigate the Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Althoff, Robert R.; Warren, David E.; Riggs, Lily; Cohen, Neal J.; Ryan, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    Results of several investigations indicate that eye movements can reveal memory for elements of previous experience. These effects of memory on eye movement behavior can emerge very rapidly, changing the efficiency and even the nature of visual processing without appealing to verbal reports and without requiring conscious recollection. This aspect of eye movement based memory investigations is particularly useful when eye movement methods are used with special populations (e.g., young children, elderly individuals, and patients with severe amnesia), and also permits use of comparable paradigms in animals and humans, helping to bridge different memory literatures and permitting cross-species generalizations. Unique characteristics of eye movement methods have produced findings that challenge long-held views about the nature of memory, its organization in the brain, and its failures in special populations. Recently, eye movement methods have been successfully combined with neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI, single-unit recording, and magnetoencephalography, permitting more sophisticated investigations of memory. Ultimately, combined use of eye-tracking with neuropsychological and neuroimaging methods promises to provide a more comprehensive account of brain–behavior relationships and adheres to the “converging evidence” approach to cognitive neuroscience. PMID:21151363

  20. Worth a glance: using eye movements to investigate the cognitive neuroscience of memory.

    PubMed

    Hannula, Deborah E; Althoff, Robert R; Warren, David E; Riggs, Lily; Cohen, Neal J; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2010-01-01

    Results of several investigations indicate that eye movements can reveal memory for elements of previous experience. These effects of memory on eye movement behavior can emerge very rapidly, changing the efficiency and even the nature of visual processing without appealing to verbal reports and without requiring conscious recollection. This aspect of eye movement based memory investigations is particularly useful when eye movement methods are used with special populations (e.g., young children, elderly individuals, and patients with severe amnesia), and also permits use of comparable paradigms in animals and humans, helping to bridge different memory literatures and permitting cross-species generalizations. Unique characteristics of eye movement methods have produced findings that challenge long-held views about the nature of memory, its organization in the brain, and its failures in special populations. Recently, eye movement methods have been successfully combined with neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI, single-unit recording, and magnetoencephalography, permitting more sophisticated investigations of memory. Ultimately, combined use of eye-tracking with neuropsychological and neuroimaging methods promises to provide a more comprehensive account of brain-behavior relationships and adheres to the "converging evidence" approach to cognitive neuroscience.

  1. Eye movements reveal epistemic curiosity in human observers.

    PubMed

    Baranes, Adrien; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2015-12-01

    Saccadic (rapid) eye movements are primary means by which humans and non-human primates sample visual information. However, while saccadic decisions are intensively investigated in instrumental contexts where saccades guide subsequent actions, it is largely unknown how they may be influenced by curiosity - the intrinsic desire to learn. While saccades are sensitive to visual novelty and visual surprise, no study has examined their relation to epistemic curiosity - interest in symbolic, semantic information. To investigate this question, we tracked the eye movements of human observers while they read trivia questions and, after a brief delay, were visually given the answer. We show that higher curiosity was associated with earlier anticipatory orienting of gaze toward the answer location without changes in other metrics of saccades or fixations, and that these influences were distinct from those produced by variations in confidence and surprise. Across subjects, the enhancement of anticipatory gaze was correlated with measures of trait curiosity from personality questionnaires. Finally, a machine learning algorithm could predict curiosity in a cross-subject manner, relying primarily on statistical features of the gaze position before the answer onset and independently of covariations in confidence or surprise, suggesting potential practical applications for educational technologies, recommender systems and research in cognitive sciences. With this article, we provide full access to the annotated database allowing readers to reproduce the results. Epistemic curiosity produces specific effects on oculomotor anticipation that can be used to read out curiosity states.

  2. Eye Movements and Abducens Motoneuron Behavior During Cholinergically Induced REM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Marquez-Ruiz, Javier; Escudero, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Study objectives: The injection of cholinergic drugs in the pons has been largely used to induce REM sleep as a useful model to study different processes during this period. In the present study, microinjections of carbachol in the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis (NRPO) were performed to test the hypothesis that eye movements and the behavior of extraocular motoneurons during induced REM sleep do not differ from those during spontaneous REM sleep. Methods: Six female adult cats were prepared for chronic recording of eye movements (by means of the search-coil technique) and electroencephalography, electromyography, ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves at the lateral geniculate nucleus, and identified abducens motoneuron activities after microinjections of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into the NRPO. Results: Unilateral microinjections (n = 13) of carbachol in the NRPO induced REM sleep-like periods in which the eyes performed a convergence and downward rotation interrupted by phasic complex rapid eye movements associated to PGO waves. During induced-REM sleep abducens motoneurons lost their tonic activity and eye position codification, but continued codifying eye velocity during the burst of eye movements. Conclusion: The present results show that eye movements and the underlying behavior of abducens motoneurons are very similar to those present during natural REM sleep. Thus, microinjection of carbachol seems to activate the structures responsible for the exclusive oculomotor behavior observed during REM sleep, validating this pharmacological model and enabling a more efficient exploration of phasic and tonic phenomena underlying eye movements during REM sleep. Citation: Marquez-Ruiz J; Escudero M. Eye movements and abducens motoneuron behavior during cholinergically induced REM sleep. SLEEP 2009;32(4):471–481. PMID:19413141

  3. Eye Movements in Darkness Modulate Self-Motion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Pomante, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Abstract During self-motion, humans typically move the eyes to maintain fixation on the stationary environment around them. These eye movements could in principle be used to estimate self-motion, but their impact on perception is unknown. We had participants judge self-motion during different eye-movement conditions in the absence of full-field optic flow. In a two-alternative forced choice task, participants indicated whether the second of two successive passive lateral whole-body translations was longer or shorter than the first. This task was used in two experiments. In the first (n = 8), eye movements were constrained differently in the two translation intervals by presenting either a world-fixed or body-fixed fixation point or no fixation point at all (allowing free gaze). Results show that perceived translations were shorter with a body-fixed than a world-fixed fixation point. A linear model indicated that eye-movement signals received a weight of ∼25% for the self-motion percept. This model was independently validated in the trials without a fixation point (free gaze). In the second experiment (n = 10), gaze was free during both translation intervals. Results show that the translation with the larger eye-movement excursion was judged more often to be larger than chance, based on an oculomotor choice probability analysis. We conclude that eye-movement signals influence self-motion perception, even in the absence of visual stimulation. PMID:28144623

  4. Eye Movements in Darkness Modulate Self-Motion Perception.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Ivar Adrianus H; Selen, Luc P J; Pomante, Antonella; MacNeilage, Paul R; Medendorp, W Pieter

    2017-01-01

    During self-motion, humans typically move the eyes to maintain fixation on the stationary environment around them. These eye movements could in principle be used to estimate self-motion, but their impact on perception is unknown. We had participants judge self-motion during different eye-movement conditions in the absence of full-field optic flow. In a two-alternative forced choice task, participants indicated whether the second of two successive passive lateral whole-body translations was longer or shorter than the first. This task was used in two experiments. In the first (n = 8), eye movements were constrained differently in the two translation intervals by presenting either a world-fixed or body-fixed fixation point or no fixation point at all (allowing free gaze). Results show that perceived translations were shorter with a body-fixed than a world-fixed fixation point. A linear model indicated that eye-movement signals received a weight of ∼25% for the self-motion percept. This model was independently validated in the trials without a fixation point (free gaze). In the second experiment (n = 10), gaze was free during both translation intervals. Results show that the translation with the larger eye-movement excursion was judged more often to be larger than chance, based on an oculomotor choice probability analysis. We conclude that eye-movement signals influence self-motion perception, even in the absence of visual stimulation.

  5. Premotor neurons encode torsional eye velocity during smooth-pursuit eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, Dora E.; Dickman, J. David

    2003-01-01

    Responses to horizontal and vertical ocular pursuit and head and body rotation in multiple planes were recorded in eye movement-sensitive neurons in the rostral vestibular nuclei (VN) of two rhesus monkeys. When tested during pursuit through primary eye position, the majority of the cells preferred either horizontal or vertical target motion. During pursuit of targets that moved horizontally at different vertical eccentricities or vertically at different horizontal eccentricities, eye angular velocity has been shown to include a torsional component the amplitude of which is proportional to half the gaze angle ("half-angle rule" of Listing's law). Approximately half of the neurons, the majority of which were characterized as "vertical" during pursuit through primary position, exhibited significant changes in their response gain and/or phase as a function of gaze eccentricity during pursuit, as if they were also sensitive to torsional eye velocity. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant contribution of torsional eye movement sensitivity to the responsiveness of the cells. These findings suggest that many VN neurons encode three-dimensional angular velocity, rather than the two-dimensional derivative of eye position, during smooth-pursuit eye movements. Although no clear clustering of pursuit preferred-direction vectors along the semicircular canal axes was observed, the sensitivity of VN neurons to torsional eye movements might reflect a preservation of similar premotor coding of visual and vestibular-driven slow eye movements for both lateral-eyed and foveate species.

  6. Underlying Changes in Repeated Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Tori E.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    conclusive evidence as to the mechanisms through which RR takes effect. Eye movement studies allow for precise examination of intervention effects. The current study examined underlying changes in elementary students' ("N" = 43) reading behavior…

  7. Understanding eye movements in face recognition using hidden Markov models.

    PubMed

    Chuk, Tim; Chan, Antoni B; Hsiao, Janet H

    2014-09-16

    We use a hidden Markov model (HMM) based approach to analyze eye movement data in face recognition. HMMs are statistical models that are specialized in handling time-series data. We conducted a face recognition task with Asian participants, and model each participant's eye movement pattern with an HMM, which summarized the participant's scan paths in face recognition with both regions of interest and the transition probabilities among them. By clustering these HMMs, we showed that participants' eye movements could be categorized into holistic or analytic patterns, demonstrating significant individual differences even within the same culture. Participants with the analytic pattern had longer response times, but did not differ significantly in recognition accuracy from those with the holistic pattern. We also found that correct and wrong recognitions were associated with distinctive eye movement patterns; the difference between the two patterns lies in the transitions rather than locations of the fixations alone.

  8. Eye Movements in Reading as Rational Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicknell, Klinton

    2011-01-01

    Moving one's eyes while reading is one of the most complex everyday tasks humans face. To perform efficiently, readers must make decisions about when and where to move their eyes every 200-300ms. Over the past decades, it has been demonstrated that these fine-grained decisions are influenced by a range of linguistic properties of the text, and…

  9. Neuronal control of fixation and fixational eye movements

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Ocular fixation is a dynamic process that is actively controlled by many of the same brain structures involved in the control of eye movements, including the superior colliculus, cerebellum and reticular formation. In this article, we review several aspects of this active control. First, the decision to move the eyes not only depends on target-related signals from the peripheral visual field, but also on signals from the currently fixated target at the fovea, and involves mechanisms that are shared between saccades and smooth pursuit. Second, eye position during fixation is actively controlled and depends on bilateral activity in the superior colliculi and medio-posterior cerebellum; disruption of activity in these circuits causes systematic deviations in eye position during both fixation and smooth pursuit eye movements. Third, the eyes are not completely still during fixation but make continuous miniature movements, including ocular drift and microsaccades, which are controlled by the same neuronal mechanisms that generate larger saccades. Finally, fixational eye movements have large effects on visual perception. Ocular drift transforms the visual input in ways that increase spatial acuity; microsaccades not only improve vision by relocating the fovea but also cause momentary changes in vision analogous to those caused by larger saccades. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Movement suppression: brain mechanisms for stopping and stillness’. PMID:28242738

  10. Eye Movement Monitoring in the Study of Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConkie, George W.

    Eye movement monitoring is useful both in the control of experiments on reading and as a source of data. Experiments using eye monitoring techniques have helped develop the following conclusions about the reading process: the region of text read during a fixation is quite small and asymmetric to the right of the center of vision, successive…

  11. Visual Short-Term Memory During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerzel, Dirk; Ziegler, Nathalie E.

    2005-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) was probed while observers performed smooth pursuit eye movements. Smooth pursuit keeps a moving object stabilized in the fovea. VSTM capacity for position was reduced during smooth pursuit compared with a condition with eye fixation. There was no difference between a condition in which the items were approximately…

  12. Human vertical eye movement responses to earth horizontal pitch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, C. 3rd; Petropoulos, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    The vertical eye movements in humans produced in response to head-over-heels constant velocity pitch rotation about a horizontal axis resemble those from other species. At 60 degrees/s these are persistent and tend to have non-reversing slow components that are compensatory to the direction of rotation. In most, but not all subjects, the slow component velocity was well characterized by a rapid build-up followed by an exponential decay to a non-zero baseline. Super-imposed was a cyclic or modulation component whose frequency corresponded to the time for one revolution and whose maximum amplitude occurred during a specific head orientation. All response components (exponential decay, baseline and modulation) were larger during pitch backward compared to pitch forward runs. Decay time constants were shorter during the backward runs, thus, unlike left to right yaw axis rotation, pitch responses display significant asymmetries between paired forward and backward runs.

  13. Predicting the Valence of a Scene from Observers’ Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    R.-Tavakoli, Hamed; Atyabi, Adham; Rantanen, Antti; Laukka, Seppo J.; Nefti-Meziani, Samia; Heikkilä, Janne

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia analysis benefits from understanding the emotional content of a scene in a variety of tasks such as video genre classification and content-based image retrieval. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in applying human bio-signals, particularly eye movements, to recognize the emotional gist of a scene such as its valence. In order to determine the emotional category of images using eye movements, the existing methods often learn a classifier using several features that are extracted from eye movements. Although it has been shown that eye movement is potentially useful for recognition of scene valence, the contribution of each feature is not well-studied. To address the issue, we study the contribution of features extracted from eye movements in the classification of images into pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant categories. We assess ten features and their fusion. The features are histogram of saccade orientation, histogram of saccade slope, histogram of saccade length, histogram of saccade duration, histogram of saccade velocity, histogram of fixation duration, fixation histogram, top-ten salient coordinates, and saliency map. We utilize machine learning approach to analyze the performance of features by learning a support vector machine and exploiting various feature fusion schemes. The experiments reveal that ‘saliency map’, ‘fixation histogram’, ‘histogram of fixation duration’, and ‘histogram of saccade slope’ are the most contributing features. The selected features signify the influence of fixation information and angular behavior of eye movements in the recognition of the valence of images. PMID:26407322

  14. Grammatical number processing and anticipatory eye movements are not tightly coordinated in English spoken language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Brian; Dye, Melody; Jones, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of eye movements in world-situated language comprehension have demonstrated that rapid processing of morphosyntactic information - e.g., grammatical gender and number marking - can produce anticipatory eye movements to referents in the visual scene. We investigated how type of morphosyntactic information and the goals of language users in comprehension affected eye movements, focusing on the processing of grammatical number morphology in English-speaking adults. Participants' eye movements were recorded as they listened to simple English declarative (There are the lions.) and interrogative (Where are the lions?) sentences. In Experiment 1, no differences were observed in speed to fixate target referents when grammatical number information was informative relative to when it was not. The same result was obtained in a speeded task (Experiment 2) and in a task using mixed sentence types (Experiment 3). We conclude that grammatical number processing in English and eye movements to potential referents are not tightly coordinated. These results suggest limits on the role of predictive eye movements in concurrent linguistic and scene processing. We discuss how these results can inform and constrain predictive approaches to language processing.

  15. Grammatical number processing and anticipatory eye movements are not tightly coordinated in English spoken language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, Brian; Dye, Melody; Jones, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of eye movements in world-situated language comprehension have demonstrated that rapid processing of morphosyntactic information – e.g., grammatical gender and number marking – can produce anticipatory eye movements to referents in the visual scene. We investigated how type of morphosyntactic information and the goals of language users in comprehension affected eye movements, focusing on the processing of grammatical number morphology in English-speaking adults. Participants’ eye movements were recorded as they listened to simple English declarative (There are the lions.) and interrogative (Where are the lions?) sentences. In Experiment 1, no differences were observed in speed to fixate target referents when grammatical number information was informative relative to when it was not. The same result was obtained in a speeded task (Experiment 2) and in a task using mixed sentence types (Experiment 3). We conclude that grammatical number processing in English and eye movements to potential referents are not tightly coordinated. These results suggest limits on the role of predictive eye movements in concurrent linguistic and scene processing. We discuss how these results can inform and constrain predictive approaches to language processing. PMID:25999900

  16. Eye Movements and Abducens Motoneuron Behavior after Cholinergic Activation of the Nucleus Reticularis Pontis Caudalis

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Escudero, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: The aim of this work was to characterize eye movements and abducens (ABD) motoneuron behavior after cholinergic activation of the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (NRPC). Methods: Six female adult cats were prepared for chronic recording of eye movements (using the scleral search-coil technique), electroencephalography, electromyography, ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves in the lateral geniculate nucleus, and ABD motoneuron activities after microinjections of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into the NRPC. Results: Unilateral microinjections of carbachol in the NRPC induced tonic and phasic phenomena in the oculomotor system. Tonic effects consisted of ipsiversive rotation to the injected side, convergence, and downward rotation of the eyes. Phasic effects consisted of bursts of rhythmic rapid eye movements directed contralaterally to the injected side along with PGO-like waves in the lateral geniculate and ABD nuclei. Although tonic effects were dependent on the level of drowsiness, phasic effects were always present and appeared along with normal saccades when the animal was vigilant. ABD motoneurons showed phasic activities associated with ABD PGO-like waves during bursts of rapid eye movements, and tonic and phasic activities related to eye position and velocity during alertness. Conclusion The cholinergic activation of the NRPC induces oculomotor phenomena that are somewhat similar to those described during REM sleep. A precise comparison of the dynamics and timing of the eye movements further suggests that a temporal organization of both NRPCs is needed to reproduce the complexity of the oculomotor behavior during REM sleep. Citation: Márquez-Ruiz J; Escudero M. Eye movements and abducens motoneuron behavior after cholinergic activation of the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis. SLEEP 2010;33(11):1517-1527. PMID:21102994

  17. Eye-movement recording in freely moving animals.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, F; Salas, C; Vargas, J P; Torres, B

    2001-03-01

    A new method is described for precise recording of eye movements in freely moving animals using Hall-effect devices. This inexpensive system, of small size and low weight, allows the analysis of horizontal and vertical components of saccadic eye movements, optokinetic nystagmus, slow tracking movements, eye vergence, etc., in unrestrained animals. A set of Hall-effect devices mounted in the skull is used to sense variations in the position of high-power miniature magnets fixed to the eye sclera. The output of the Hall-effect devices is amplified by operational amplifiers and collected through an analog-to-digital converter to be displayed on-line in a personal computer and stored for later analysis by specific software. Some examples of simultaneous body- and eye-movement recordings obtained in freely moving goldfish in different experimental situations are presented. This method would be useful in the recording of eye and gaze movements under natural conditions and for behavioural studies in freely moving animals.

  18. Blurring emotional memories using eye movements: individual differences and speed of eye movements

    PubMed Central

    van Schie, Kevin; van Veen, Suzanne C.; Engelhard, Iris M.; Klugkist, Irene; van den Hout, Marcel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), patients make eye movements (EM) while recalling traumatic memories. Making EM taxes working memory (WM), which leaves less resources available for imagery of the memory. This reduces memory vividness and emotionality during future recalls. WM theory predicts that individuals with small working memory capacities (WMCs) benefit more from low levels of taxing (i.e., slow EM) whereas individuals with large WMC benefit more from high levels of taxing (i.e., fast EM). Objective We experimentally examined and tested four prespecified hypotheses regarding the role of WMC and EM speed in reducing emotionality and vividness ratings: 1) EM—regardless of WMC and EM speed—are more effective compared to no dual task, 2) increasing EM speed only affects the decrease in memory ratings irrespective of WMC, 3) low-WMC individuals—compared to high-WMC individuals—benefit more from making either type of EM, 4) the EM intervention is most effective when—as predicted by WM theory—EM are adjusted to WMC. Method Undergraduates with low (n=31) or high (n=35) WMC recalled three emotional memories and rated vividness and emotionality before and after each condition (recall only, recall + slow EM, and recall + fast EM). Results Contrary to the theory, the data do not support the hypothesis that EM speed should be adjusted to WMC (hypothesis 4). However, the data show that a dual task in general is more effective in reducing memory ratings than no dual task (hypothesis 1), and that a more cognitively demanding dual task increases the intervention's effectiveness (hypothesis 2). Conclusions Although adjusting EM speed to an individual's WMC seems a straightforward clinical implication, the data do not show any indication that such a titration is helpful. PMID:27387843

  19. Efficient Avoidance of the Penalty Zone in Human Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Theeuwes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    People use eye movements extremely effectively to find objects of interest in a cluttered visual scene. Distracting, task-irrelevant attention capturing regions in the visual field should be avoided as they jeopardize the efficiency of search. In the current study, we used eye tracking to determine whether people are able to avoid making saccades to a predetermined visual area associated with a financial penalty, while making fast and accurate saccades towards stimuli placed near the penalty area. We found that in comparison to the same task without a penalty area, the introduction of a penalty area immediately affected eye movement behaviour: the proportion of saccades to the penalty area was immediately reduced. Also, saccadic latencies increased, but quite modestly, and mainly for saccades towards stimuli near the penalty area. We conclude that eye movement behaviour is under efficient cognitive control and thus quite flexible: it can immediately be adapted to changing environmental conditions to improve reward outcome. PMID:27930724

  20. Anticipatory Eye Movements in Interleaving Templates of Human Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matessa, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Performance modeling has been made easier by architectures which package psychological theory for reuse at useful levels of abstraction. CPM-GOMS uses templates of behavior to package at a task level (e.g., mouse move-click, typing) predictions of lower-level cognitive, perceptual, and motor resource use. CPM-GOMS also has a theory for interleaving resource use between templates. One example of interleaving is anticipatory eye movements. This paper describes the use of ACT-Stitch, a framework for translating CPM-GOMS templates and interleaving theory into ACT-R, to model anticipatory eye movements in skilled behavior. The anticipatory eye movements explain performance in a well-practiced perceptual/motor task, and the interleaving theory is supported with results from an eye-tracking experiment.

  1. Visual straight-ahead preference in saccadic eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Camors, Damien; Trotter, Yves; Pouget, Pierre; Gilardeau, Sophie; Durand, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    Ocular saccades bringing the gaze toward the straight-ahead direction (centripetal) exhibit higher dynamics than those steering the gaze away (centrifugal). This is generally explained by oculomotor determinants: centripetal saccades are more efficient because they pull the eyes back toward their primary orbital position. However, visual determinants might also be invoked: elements located straight-ahead trigger saccades more efficiently because they receive a privileged visual processing. Here, we addressed this issue by using both pro- and anti-saccade tasks in order to dissociate the centripetal/centrifugal directions of the saccades, from the straight-ahead/eccentric locations of the visual elements triggering those saccades. Twenty participants underwent alternating blocks of pro- and anti-saccades during which eye movements were recorded binocularly at 1 kHz. The results confirm that centripetal saccades are always executed faster than centrifugal ones, irrespective of whether the visual elements have straight-ahead or eccentric locations. However, by contrast, saccades triggered by elements located straight-ahead are consistently initiated more rapidly than those evoked by eccentric elements, irrespective of their centripetal or centrifugal direction. Importantly, this double dissociation reveals that the higher dynamics of centripetal pro-saccades stem from both oculomotor and visual determinants, which act respectively on the execution and initiation of ocular saccades. PMID:26975598

  2. Visual search and eye movements in novel and familiar contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Kyle; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Bebis, George; Webster, Michael A.

    2006-02-01

    Adapting to the visual characteristics of a specific environment may facilitate detecting novel stimuli within that environment. We monitored eye movements while subjects searched for a color target on familiar or unfamiliar color backgrounds, in order to test for these performance changes and to explore whether they reflect changes in salience from adaptation vs. changes in search strategies or perceptual learning. The target was an ellipse of variable color presented at a random location on a dense background of ellipses. In one condition, the colors of the background varied along either the LvsM or SvsLM cardinal axes. Observers adapted by viewing a rapid succession of backgrounds drawn from one color axis, and then searched for a target on a background from the same or different color axis. Searches were monitored with a Cambridge Research Systems Video Eyetracker. Targets were located more quickly on the background axis that observers were pre-exposed to, confirming that this exposure can improve search efficiency for stimuli that differ from the background. However, eye movement patterns (e.g. fixation durations and saccade magnitudes) did not clearly differ across the two backgrounds, suggesting that how the novel and familiar backgrounds were sampled remained similar. In a second condition, we compared search on a nonselective color background drawn from a circle of hues at fixed contrast. Prior exposure to this background did not facilitate search compared to an achromatic adapting field, suggesting that subjects were not simply learning the specific colors defining the background distributions. Instead, results for both conditions are consistent with a selective adaptation effect that enhances the salience of novel stimuli by partially discounting the background.

  3. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation Associated Increase in Na-K ATPase Activity in the Rat Brain is Due to Noradrenaline Induced α1-Adrenoceptor Mediated Increased α-Subunit of the Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Amar, Megha; Mallick, Birendra Nath

    2015-08-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) modulates Na-K ATPase activity and maintains brain excitability. REMS deprivation (REMSD)-associated increased Na-K ATPase activity is mediated by noradrenaline (NA) acting on α1-adrenoceptor (AR) in the brain. It was shown that NA-induced increased Na-K ATPase activity was due to allosteric modulation as well as increased turnover of the enzyme. Although the former has been studied in detail, our understanding on the latter was lacking, which we have studied. Male Wistar rats were REMS deprived for 4-days by classical flower-pot method; suitable control experiments were conducted. In another set, α1-AR antagonist prazosin (PRZ) was i.p. injected 48 h REMSD onward. At the end of experiments rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and brains were removed. Synaptosomes prepared from the brains were used to estimate Na-K ATPase activity as well as protein expressions of different isoforms of the enzyme subunits using western blot. REMSD significantly increased synaptosomal Na-K ATPase activity and that was due to differential increase in the expressions of α1-, α2- and α3-isoforms, but not that of β1- and β2-isoforms. PRZ reduced the REMSD-induced increased Na-K ATPase activity and protein expressions. We also observed that the increased Na-K ATPase subunit expression was not due to enhanced mRNA synthesis, which suggests the possibility of post-transcriptional regulation. Thus, the findings suggest that REMSD-associated increased Na-K ATPase activity is due to elevated level of α-subunit of the enzyme and that is induced by NA acting on α1-AR mediated mRNA-stabilization.

  4. Do common systems control eye movements and motion extrapolation?

    PubMed

    Makin, Alexis D J; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2011-07-01

    People are able to judge the current position of occluded moving objects. This operation is known as motion extrapolation. It has previously been suggested that motion extrapolation is independent of the oculomotor system. Here we revisited this question by measuring eye position while participants completed two types of motion extrapolation task. In one task, a moving visual target travelled rightwards, disappeared, then reappeared further along its trajectory. Participants discriminated correct reappearance times from incorrect (too early or too late) with a two-alternative forced-choice button press. In the second task, the target travelled rightwards behind a visible, rectangular occluder, and participants pressed a button at the time when they judged it should reappear. In both tasks, performance was significantly different under fixation as compared to free eye movement conditions. When eye movements were permitted, eye movements during occlusion were related to participants' judgements. Finally, even when participants were required to fixate, small changes in eye position around fixation (<2°) were influenced by occluded target motion. These results all indicate that overlapping systems control eye movements and judgements on motion extrapolation tasks. This has implications for understanding the mechanism underlying motion extrapolation.

  5. Hawk Eyes I: Diurnal Raptors Differ in Visual Fields and Degree of Eye Movement

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Colleen T.; Hall, Margaret I.; Pitlik, Todd; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Background Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. Methodology/Principal Findings We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33°) and wide blind areas (∼82°), but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°), which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°), small blind areas (∼60°), and high degree of eye movement (∼8°), which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1°) may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. Conclusions We conclude that: (a) there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b) these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats); (c) variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d) the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence behavioral

  6. Fixational eye movements in the earliest stage of metazoan evolution.

    PubMed

    Bielecki, Jan; Høeg, Jens T; Garm, Anders

    2013-01-01

    All known photoreceptor cells adapt to constant light stimuli, fading the retinal image when exposed to an immobile visual scene. Counter strategies are therefore necessary to prevent blindness, and in mammals this is accomplished by fixational eye movements. Cubomedusae occupy a key position for understanding the evolution of complex visual systems and their eyes are assumedly subject to the same adaptive problems as the vertebrate eye, but lack motor control of their visual system. The morphology of the visual system of cubomedusae ensures a constant orientation of the eyes and a clear division of the visual field, but thereby also a constant retinal image when exposed to stationary visual scenes. Here we show that bell contractions used for swimming in the medusae refresh the retinal image in the upper lens eye of Tripedalia cystophora. This strongly suggests that strategies comparable to fixational eye movements have evolved at the earliest metazoan stage to compensate for the intrinsic property of the photoreceptors. Since the timing and amplitude of the rhopalial movements concur with the spatial and temporal resolution of the eye it circumvents the need for post processing in the central nervous system to remove image blur.

  7. Adaptive Acceleration of Visually Evoked Smooth Eye Movements in Mice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The optokinetic response (OKR) consists of smooth eye movements following global motion of the visual surround, which suppress image slip on the retina for visual acuity. The effective performance of the OKR is limited to rather slow and low-frequency visual stimuli, although it can be adaptably improved by cerebellum-dependent mechanisms. To better understand circuit mechanisms constraining OKR performance, we monitored how distinct kinematic features of the OKR change over the course of OKR adaptation, and found that eye acceleration at stimulus onset primarily limited OKR performance but could be dramatically potentiated by visual experience. Eye acceleration in the temporal-to-nasal direction depended more on the ipsilateral floccular complex of the cerebellum than did that in the nasal-to-temporal direction. Gaze-holding following the OKR was also modified in parallel with eye-acceleration potentiation. Optogenetic manipulation revealed that synchronous excitation and inhibition of floccular complex Purkinje cells could effectively accelerate eye movements in the nasotemporal and temporonasal directions, respectively. These results collectively delineate multiple motor pathways subserving distinct aspects of the OKR in mice and constrain hypotheses regarding cellular mechanisms of the cerebellum-dependent tuning of movement acceleration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although visually evoked smooth eye movements, known as the optokinetic response (OKR), have been studied in various species for decades, circuit mechanisms of oculomotor control and adaptation remain elusive. In the present study, we assessed kinematics of the mouse OKR through the course of adaptation training. Our analyses revealed that eye acceleration at visual-stimulus onset primarily limited working velocity and frequency range of the OKR, yet could be dramatically potentiated during OKR adaptation. Potentiation of eye acceleration exhibited different properties between the nasotemporal and

  8. Spoken language and the decision to move the eyes: to what extent are language-mediated eye movements automatic?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ramesh K; Olivers, Christian N L; Huettig, Falk

    2013-01-01

    Recent eye-tracking research has revealed that spoken language can guide eye gaze very rapidly (and closely time-locked to the unfolding speech) toward referents in the visual world. We discuss whether, and to what extent, such language-mediated eye movements are automatic rather than subject to conscious and controlled decision-making. We consider whether language-mediated eye movements adhere to four main criteria of automatic behavior, namely, whether they are fast and efficient, unintentional, unconscious, and overlearned (i.e., arrived at through extensive practice). Current evidence indicates that language-driven oculomotor behavior is fast but not necessarily always efficient. It seems largely unintentional though there is also some evidence that participants can actively use the information in working memory to avoid distraction in search. Language-mediated eye movements appear to be for the most part unconscious and have all the hallmarks of an overlearned behavior. These data are suggestive of automatic mechanisms linking language to potentially referred-to visual objects, but more comprehensive and rigorous testing of this hypothesis is needed.

  9. Eye movements during the Rorschach test in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hori, Yasuko; Fukuzako, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Yoko; Takigawa, Morikuni

    2002-08-01

    In order to understand relationships between scanning behaviors, characteristics of visual stimuli and the clinical symptoms in schizophrenia, eye movements of 37 schizophrenic patients and 36 controls were recorded using an eye-mark recorder during a free-response period in a Rorschach test. Four cards (I, II, V and VIII) were used. Data were analyzed during 15 s from the presentation of each card. For all cards, the number of eye fixations and the number of eye fixation areas were fewer, and total scanning length and mean scanning length were shorter for schizophrenic patients than for controls. For card II, in the non-popular response group, eye fixation frequency upon area 5 + 6 (red) was higher for schizophrenic patients. For card VIII, in the popular response group, eye fixation frequency upon area 5 + 6 (pink) was lower for schizophrenic patients. For cards II and VIII, the number of eye fixations was inversely correlated with negative symptoms. For card II, total scanning length tended to be inversely correlated with negative symptoms, and mean eye fixation time was correlated with negative symptoms. The number of eye fixation areas was inversely correlated with positive symptoms. For card VIII, eye fixation frequency in a stimulative area tended to be correlated with positive symptoms. Scanning behaviors in schizophrenic patients are affected by characteristics of visual stimuli, and partially by clinical symptoms.

  10. Eye movements reveal mechanisms underlying attentional biases towards threat.

    PubMed

    Sagliano, Laura; D'Olimpio, Francesca; Taglialatela Scafati, Ilaria; Trojano, Luigi

    2016-11-01

    Mechanisms underlying attentional biases towards threat (ABTs), such as attentional avoidance and difficulty of disengagement, are still unclear. To address this issue, we recorded participants' eye movements during a dot detection task in which threatening or neutral stimuli served as peripheral cues. We evaluated response times (RTs) in trials where participants looked at the central fixation cross (not at the cues), as they were required, and number and duration of (unwanted) fixations towards threatening or neutral cues; in all analyses trait anxiety was treated as a covariate. Difficulty in attentional disengagement (longer RTs) was found when peripheral threatening stimuli were presented for 100 ms. Moreover, we observed significantly shorter (unwanted) fixations on threatening than on neutral peripheral stimuli, compatible with an avoidance bias, for longer presentation times. These findings demonstrate that, independent of trait anxiety levels, disengagement bias occurs without eye movements, whereas eye movements are implied in threat avoidance.

  11. Eye movements and conservation acceleration in mildly retarded children.

    PubMed

    Boersma, F J; Wilton, K M

    1976-05-01

    Thirty mildly retarded elementary-school children, 15 of whom had received perceptual/attentional training, were tested on four Piagetian conservation tasks (number, length, and continuous quantity solid/liquid) presented on 16 mm movie film with taped instructions. Eye movements were recorded during the response period for each task. Subsequent analyses of eye-movement patterns showed clear differences between the training and control groups. Trained conservers showed more visual exploratory activity and less perceptual centration than control group subjects. Moreover the eye-movement patterns of trained conservers closely approximated those shown by natural (i.e., untrained) retarded conservers in a previous study. The findings were discussed in terms of possible cognitive structural changes resulting from training and possible cognitive structural differences between mildly retarded and nonretarded children.

  12. Abnormal eye movements in three types of chorea.

    PubMed

    Attoni, Tiago; Beato, Rogério; Pinto, Serge; Cardoso, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Chorea is an abnormal movement characterized by a continuous flow of random muscle contractions. This phenomenon has several causes, such as infectious and degenerative processes. Chorea results from basal ganglia dysfunction. As the control of the eye movements is related to the basal ganglia, it is expected, therefore, that is altered in diseases related to chorea. Sydenham's chorea, Huntington's disease and neuroacanthocytosis are described in this review as basal ganglia illnesses that can present with abnormal eye movements. Ocular changes resulting from dysfunction of the basal ganglia are apparent in saccade tasks, slow pursuit, setting a target and anti-saccade tasks. The purpose of this article is to review the main characteristics of eye motion in these three forms of chorea.

  13. Eye movement targets are released from visual crowding.

    PubMed

    Harrison, William J; Mattingley, Jason B; Remington, Roger W

    2013-02-13

    Our ability to recognize objects in peripheral vision is impaired when other objects are nearby (Bouma, 1970). This phenomenon, known as crowding, is often linked to interactions in early visual processing that depend primarily on the retinal position of visual stimuli (Pelli, 2008; Pelli and Tillman, 2008). Here we tested a new account that suggests crowding is influenced by spatial information derived from an extraretinal signal involved in eye movement preparation. We had human observers execute eye movements to crowded targets and measured their ability to identify those targets just before the eyes began to move. Beginning ∼50 ms before a saccade toward a crowded object, we found that not only was there a dramatic reduction in the magnitude of crowding, but the spatial area within which crowding occurred was almost halved. These changes in crowding occurred despite no change in the retinal position of target or flanking stimuli. Contrary to the notion that crowding depends on retinal signals alone, our findings reveal an important role for eye movement signals. Eye movement preparation effectively enhances object discrimination in peripheral vision at the goal of the intended saccade. These presaccadic changes may enable enhanced recognition of visual objects in the periphery during active search of visually cluttered environments.

  14. Eye movement analysis for activity recognition using electrooculography.

    PubMed

    Bulling, Andreas; Ward, Jamie A; Gellersen, Hans; Tröster, Gerhard

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we investigate eye movement analysis as a new sensing modality for activity recognition. Eye movement data were recorded using an electrooculography (EOG) system. We first describe and evaluate algorithms for detecting three eye movement characteristics from EOG signals-saccades, fixations, and blinks-and propose a method for assessing repetitive patterns of eye movements. We then devise 90 different features based on these characteristics and select a subset of them using minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) feature selection. We validate the method using an eight participant study in an office environment using an example set of five activity classes: copying a text, reading a printed paper, taking handwritten notes, watching a video, and browsing the Web. We also include periods with no specific activity (the NULL class). Using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier and person-independent (leave-one-person-out) training, we obtain an average precision of 76.1 percent and recall of 70.5 percent over all classes and participants. The work demonstrates the promise of eye-based activity recognition (EAR) and opens up discussion on the wider applicability of EAR to other activities that are difficult, or even impossible, to detect using common sensing modalities.

  15. Longitudinal Evaluation of Eye Misalignment and Eye Movements Following Surgical Correction of Strabismus in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Pullela, Mythri; Degler, Brittany A.; Coats, David K.; Das, Vallabh E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Strabismus correction surgery is well documented in both the literature and practice with varying levels of success and permanence. Our goal was to characterize longitudinal changes in eye alignment and eye movements following strabismus correction surgery in a monkey model for developmental strabismus. Methods We studied two juvenile rhesus monkeys with exotropia previously induced via an optical prism-rearing paradigm in infancy. Eye misalignment was corrected via a resection–recession surgery of the horizontal rectus muscles of one eye. Binocular search coils were used to collect eye movement data during smooth-pursuit, saccades, and fixation tasks before surgical treatment, immediately after surgery, and through 6 months after treatment. Results Both animals showed an immediate ∼70% reduction in misalignment as a consequence of surgery that regressed to a 20%–40% improvement by 6 months after treatment. Significant changes were observed in saccade and smooth-pursuit gain of the nonviewing eye after surgery, which also reverted to presurgical values by 6 months. A temporary improvement in fixation stability of the nonviewing eye was observed after surgery; naso-temporal (N/T) asymmetry of monocular smooth-pursuit remained unchanged. Conclusions Surgical realignment is followed by plastic changes that often lead to reversal of surgery effects. Immediate improvement in misalignment and changes in eye movement gains are likely a result of contractility changes at the level of the extraocular muscle, whereas longer-term effects are likely a combination of neural and muscle adaptation. PMID:27820877

  16. Eye Movements Modulate the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Temereanca, Simona; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Kuperberg, Gina; Stufflebeam, Steve M.; Halgren, Eric; Brown, Emery N.

    2012-01-01

    Active reading requires coordination between frequent eye-movements (saccades) and short fixations in text. Yet, the impact of saccades on word processing remains unknown, as neuroimaging studies typically employ constant eye fixation. Here we investigate eye-movement effects on word recognition processes in healthy human subjects using anatomically-constrained magnetoencephalography, psychophysical measurements, and saccade detection in real-time. Word recognition was slower and brain responses were reduced to words presented early vs. late after saccades, suggesting an overall transient impairment of word processing after eye-movements. Response reductions occurred early in visual cortices and later in language regions, where they co-localized with repetition priming effects. Qualitatively similar effects occurred when words appeared early vs. late after background-movement that mimicked saccades, suggesting that retinal motion contributes to postsaccadic inhibition. Further, differences in postsaccadic and background-movement effects suggest that central mechanisms also contribute to postsaccadic modulation. Together, these results suggest a complex interplay between visual and central saccadic mechanisms during reading. PMID:22457496

  17. Minimal dynamical description of eye movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specht, Juan I.; Dimieri, Leonardo; Urdapilleta, Eugenio; Gasaneo, Gustavo

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we have addressed the question of whether a simple set of functions being the solution of a model, namely the damped harmonic oscillator with a general driving force, can satisfactorily describe data corresponding to ocular movements produced during a visual search task. Taking advantage of its mathematical tractability, we first focused on the simplest driving force compatible to the experimental data, a step-like activation. Under this hypothesis we were able to further simplify the system, once data from several experiments were fitted, producing an essentially parameter-free model that we plan to use in future applications. To increase the quality of the description of individual movements, we expanded the complexity in the forcing term and solved the inverse problem by using a proper mathematical formalism. Furthermore, additional terms, those arising from ocular drift and tremor, may be included within the same mathematical approach.

  18. Effects of aging on eye movements in the real world

    PubMed Central

    Dowiasch, Stefan; Marx, Svenja; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Bremmer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on eye movements are well studied in the laboratory. Increased saccade latencies or decreased smooth-pursuit gain are well established findings. The question remains whether these findings are influenced by the rather untypical environment of a laboratory; that is, whether or not they transfer to the real world. We measured 34 healthy participants between the age of 25 and 85 during two everyday tasks in the real world: (I) walking down a hallway with free gaze, (II) visual tracking of an earth-fixed object while walking straight-ahead. Eye movements were recorded with a mobile light-weight eye tracker, the EyeSeeCam (ESC). We find that age significantly influences saccade parameters. With increasing age, saccade frequency, amplitude, peak velocity, and mean velocity are reduced and the velocity/amplitude distribution as well as the velocity profile become less skewed. In contrast to laboratory results on smooth pursuit, we did not find a significant effect of age on tracking eye-movements in the real world. Taken together, age-related eye-movement changes as measured in the laboratory only partly resemble those in the real world. It is well-conceivable that in the real world additional sensory cues, such as head-movement or vestibular signals, may partially compensate for age-related effects, which, according to this view, would be specific to early motion processing. In any case, our results highlight the importance of validity for natural situations when studying the impact of aging on real-life performance. PMID:25713524

  19. Effects of aging on eye movements in the real world.

    PubMed

    Dowiasch, Stefan; Marx, Svenja; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Bremmer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on eye movements are well studied in the laboratory. Increased saccade latencies or decreased smooth-pursuit gain are well established findings. The question remains whether these findings are influenced by the rather untypical environment of a laboratory; that is, whether or not they transfer to the real world. We measured 34 healthy participants between the age of 25 and 85 during two everyday tasks in the real world: (I) walking down a hallway with free gaze, (II) visual tracking of an earth-fixed object while walking straight-ahead. Eye movements were recorded with a mobile light-weight eye tracker, the EyeSeeCam (ESC). We find that age significantly influences saccade parameters. With increasing age, saccade frequency, amplitude, peak velocity, and mean velocity are reduced and the velocity/amplitude distribution as well as the velocity profile become less skewed. In contrast to laboratory results on smooth pursuit, we did not find a significant effect of age on tracking eye-movements in the real world. Taken together, age-related eye-movement changes as measured in the laboratory only partly resemble those in the real world. It is well-conceivable that in the real world additional sensory cues, such as head-movement or vestibular signals, may partially compensate for age-related effects, which, according to this view, would be specific to early motion processing. In any case, our results highlight the importance of validity for natural situations when studying the impact of aging on real-life performance.

  20. Eye Movement Measurement in Diagnostic Assessment of Disorders of Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Windsor Kwan-Chun; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    We review the literature to appraise the evidence supporting or disputing the use of eye movement measurement in disorders of consciousness (DOC) with low levels of arousal or awareness, such as minimally conscious state (MCS), vegetative state (VS), and coma for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. We will focus on the effectiveness of each technique in the diagnostic classification of these patients and the gradual trend in research from manual to computerized tracking methods. New tools have become available at clinicians’ disposal to assess eye movements with high spatial and temporal fidelity. The close relationship between eye movement generation and organic dysfunction in the brain allows these tools to be applied to the assessment of severe DOC as a unique supplementary toolset. We posit that eye tracking can improve clinical diagnostic precision for DOC, a key component of assessment that often dictates the course of clinical care in DOC patients. We see the emergence of long-term eye-tracking studies with seamless integration of technology in the future to improve the performance of clinical assessment in DOC. PMID:25120529

  1. Eye Movements Blink the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamienkowski, Juan E.; Navajas, Joaquin; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    When presented with a sequence of visual stimuli in rapid succession, participants often fail to detect a second salient target, a phenomenon referred as the attentional blink (AB; Raymond, Shapiro, & Arnell, 1992; Shapiro, Raymond, & Arnell, 1997). On the basis of a vast corpus of experiments, several cognitive theories suggest that the blink…

  2. The Eyes Know: Eye Movements as a Veridical Index of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Baym, Carol L.; Warren, David E.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined whether observers’ eye movements distinguish studied faces from highly similar novel faces. Participants’ eye movements were monitored while they viewed three-face displays. Target-present displays contained a studied face and two morphed faces that were visually similar to it; target-absent displays contained three morphed faces that were visually similar to a studied, but not tested, face. On each trial in a test session, participants were instructed to choose the studied face if it was present or a random face if it was not and then to indicate whether the chosen face was studied. Whereas manipulating visual similarity in target-absent displays influenced the rate of false endorsements of nonstudied items as studied, eye movements proved impervious to this manipulation. Studied faces were viewed disproportionately from 1,000 to 2,000 ms after display onset and from 1,000 to 500 ms before explicit identification. Early viewing also distinguished studied faces from faces incorrectly endorsed as studied. Our findings show that eye movements provide a relatively pure index of past experience that is uninfluenced by explicit response strategies, and suggest that eye movement measures may be of practical use in applied settings. PMID:22327015

  3. The eyes know: eye movements as a veridical index of memory.

    PubMed

    Hannula, Deborah E; Baym, Carol L; Warren, David E; Cohen, Neal J

    2012-03-01

    In two experiments, we examined whether observers' eye movements distinguish studied faces from highly similar novel faces. Participants' eye movements were monitored while they viewed three-face displays. Target-present displays contained a studied face and two morphed faces that were visually similar to it; target-absent displays contained three morphed faces that were visually similar to a studied, but not tested, face. On each trial in a test session, participants were instructed to choose the studied face if it was present or a random face if it was not and then to indicate whether the chosen face was studied. Whereas manipulating visual similarity in target-absent displays influenced the rate of false endorsements of nonstudied items as studied, eye movements proved impervious to this manipulation. Studied faces were viewed disproportionately from 1,000 to 2,000 ms after display onset and from 1,000 to 500 ms before explicit identification. Early viewing also distinguished studied faces from faces incorrectly endorsed as studied. Our findings show that eye movements provide a relatively pure index of past experience that is uninfluenced by explicit response strategies, and suggest that eye movement measures may be of practical use in applied settings.

  4. Eye Movements Reveal How Task Difficulty Moulds Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Angela H.; Hulleman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments we investigated the relationship between eye movements and performance in visual search tasks of varying difficulty. Experiment 1 provided evidence that a single process is used for search among static and moving items. Moreover, we estimated the functional visual field (FVF) from the gaze coordinates and found that its size…

  5. Defense Mechanisms, Psychosomatic Symptomatology, and Conjugate Lateral Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects were classified into left movers, right movers, and bidirectionals according to the characteristic direction of their eye movements in response to questions. The three groups were compared on their preferential use of defense mechanisms and on the number of psychosomatic complaints. (Author)

  6. Integration of retinal and extraretinal information across eye movements.

    PubMed

    Ostendorf, Florian; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception is burdened with a highly discontinuous input stream arising from saccadic eye movements. For successful integration into a coherent representation, the visuomotor system needs to deal with these self-induced perceptual changes and distinguish them from external motion. Forward models are one way to solve this problem where the brain uses internal monitoring signals associated with oculomotor commands to predict the visual consequences of corresponding eye movements during active exploration. Visual scenes typically contain a rich structure of spatial relational information, providing additional cues that may help disambiguate self-induced from external changes of perceptual input. We reasoned that a weighted integration of these two inherently noisy sources of information should lead to better perceptual estimates. Volunteer subjects performed a simple perceptual decision on the apparent displacement of a visual target, jumping unpredictably in sync with a saccadic eye movement. In a critical test condition, the target was presented together with a flanker object, where perceptual decisions could take into account the spatial distance between target and flanker object. Here, precision was better compared to control conditions in which target displacements could only be estimated from either extraretinal or visual relational information alone. Our findings suggest that under natural conditions, integration of visual space across eye movements is based upon close to optimal integration of both retinal and extraretinal pieces of information.

  7. Depth from motion parallax scales with eye movement gain.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, Mark

    2003-12-18

    Recent findings suggest that the slow eye movement system, the optokinetic response (OKR) in particular, provides the extra-retinal signal required for the perception of depth from motion parallax (Nawrot, 2003). Considering that both the perception of depth from motion parallax (Ono, Rivest & Ono, 1986; Rivest, Ono & Saida, 1989) and the eye movements made in response to head translations (Schwarz & Miles 1991; Paige, Telford, Seidmen, & Barnes, 1998) appear to scale with viewing distance, changes in perceived depth from motion parallax were studied as a function of viewing distance. If OKR is used in the perception of depth from motion parallax, a change in the OKR signal, caused by a change in viewing distance, should accompany a change in perceived depth from motion parallax. Over a range of viewing distances, binocular stereopsis was used to index perceived depth from motion parallax. At these viewing distances the gain of the OKR portion of the compensatory eye movement was also determined. The results show that the change in OKR gain is mirrored by the change in perceived depth from motion parallax as viewing distance increases. This suggests that the OKR eye movement signal serves an important function in the perception of depth from motion.

  8. Eye Movement Analysis of Information Processing under Different Testing Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Ronna F.

    1985-01-01

    Undergraduates were given complex figural analogies items, and eye movements were observed under three types of feedback: (1) elaborate feedback; (2) subjects verbalized their thinking and application of rules; and (3) no feedback. Both feedback conditions enhanced the rule-governed information processing during inductive reasoning. (Author/GDC)

  9. Eye Movements of Monkey Observers Viewing Vocalizing Conspecifics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazanfar, Asif A.; Nielsen, Kristina; Logothetis, Nikos K.

    2006-01-01

    Primates, including humans, communicate using facial expressions, vocalizations and often a combination of the two modalities. For humans, such bimodal integration is best exemplified by speech-reading--humans readily use facial cues to enhance speech comprehension, particularly in noisy environments. Studies of the eye movement patterns of human…

  10. Physiological correlates of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing.

    PubMed

    Elofsson, Ulf O E; von Schèele, Bo; Theorell, Töres; Söndergaard, Hans Peter

    2008-05-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an established treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, its working mechanism remains unclear. This study explored physiological correlates of eye movements during EMDR in relation to current hypotheses; distraction, conditioning, orienting response activation, and REM-like mechanisms. During EMDR therapy, fingertip temperature, heart rate, skin conductance, expiratory carbon dioxide level, and blood pulse oximeter oxygen saturation, were measured in male subjects with PTSD. The ratio between the low and high frequency components of the heart rate power spectrum (LF/HF) were computed as measures of autonomic balance. Respiratory rate was calculated from the carbon dioxide trace. Stimulation shifted the autonomic balance as indicated by decreases in heart rate, skin conductance and LF/HF-ratio, and an increased finger temperature. The breathing frequency and end-tidal carbon dioxide increased; oxygen saturation decreased during eye movements. In conclusion, eye movements during EMDR activate cholinergic and inhibit sympathetic systems. The reactivity has similarities with the pattern during REM-sleep.

  11. Perceptual Specificity Effects in Rereading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M.

    2012-01-01

    The present experiments examined perceptual specificity effects using a rereading paradigm. Eye movements were monitored while participants read the same target word twice, in two different low-constraint sentence frames. The congruency of perceptual processing was manipulated by either presenting the target word in the same distortion typography…

  12. Individual differences in impulsivity predict anticipatory eye movements.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Laetitia; de Timary, Philippe; Lefèvre, Phillipe; Missal, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity is the tendency to act without forethought. It is a personality trait commonly used in the diagnosis of many psychiatric diseases. In clinical practice, impulsivity is estimated using written questionnaires. However, answers to questions might be subject to personal biases and misinterpretations. In order to alleviate this problem, eye movements could be used to study differences in decision processes related to impulsivity. Therefore, we investigated correlations between impulsivity scores obtained with a questionnaire in healthy subjects and characteristics of their anticipatory eye movements in a simple smooth pursuit task. Healthy subjects were asked to answer the UPPS questionnaire (Urgency Premeditation Perseverance and Sensation seeking Impulsive Behavior scale), which distinguishes four independent dimensions of impulsivity: Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, and Sensation seeking. The same subjects took part in an oculomotor task that consisted of pursuing a target that moved in a predictable direction. This task reliably evoked anticipatory saccades and smooth eye movements. We found that eye movement characteristics such as latency and velocity were significantly correlated with UPPS scores. The specific correlations between distinct UPPS factors and oculomotor anticipation parameters support the validity of the UPPS construct and corroborate neurobiological explanations for impulsivity. We suggest that the oculomotor approach of impulsivity put forth in the present study could help bridge the gap between psychiatry and physiology.

  13. Representing Syllable Information during Silent Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Jane; Rayner, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Two eye movement experiments investigated the nature of the phonological representations used in reading English. Each tested whether sublexical, syllable information is part of that representation. Target words with CV-initial syllables (DE.MAND) or CVC-initial syllables (LAN.TERN) were preceded by primes that exactly matched or mismatched their…

  14. Processing of Written Irony: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaakinen, Johanna K.; Olkoniemi, Henri; Kinnari, Taina; Hyönä, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    We examined processing of written irony by recording readers' eye movements while they read target phrases embedded either in ironic or non-ironic story context. After reading each story, participants responded to a text memory question and an inference question tapping into the understanding of the meaning of the target phrase. The results of…

  15. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: A Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Terry McVannel

    Since Shapiro's introduction of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in 1989, it has been a highly controversial therapeutic technique. Critical reviews of Shapiro's initial study have highlighted many methodological shortcomings in her work. And early empirical research that followed Shapiro's original study has been criticized…

  16. The role of eye movements in a contour detection task.

    PubMed

    Van Humbeeck, Nathalie; Schmitt, Nadine; Hermens, Frouke; Wagemans, Johan; Ernst, Udo A

    2013-12-04

    Vision combines local feature integration with active viewing processes, such as eye movements, to perceive complex visual scenes. However, it is still unclear how these processes interact and support each other. Here, we investigated how the dynamics of saccadic eye movements interact with contour integration, focusing on situations in which contours are difficult to find or even absent. We recorded observers' eye movements while they searched for a contour embedded in a background of randomly oriented elements. Task difficulty was manipulated by varying the contour's path angle. An association field model of contour integration was employed to predict potential saccade targets by identifying stimulus locations with high contour salience. We found that the number and duration of fixations increased with the increasing path angle of the contour. In addition, fixation duration increased over the course of a trial, and the time course of saccade amplitude depended on the percept of observers. Model fitting revealed that saccades fully compensate for the reduced saliency of peripheral contour targets. Importantly, our model predicted fixation locations to a considerable degree, indicating that observers fixated collinear elements. These results show that contour integration actively guides eye movements and determines their spatial and temporal parameters.

  17. Children's Eye Movements in Reading: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Keith; Ardoin, Scott P.; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    are discussed. Specifically, the following topics are addressed: (1) basic methodological issues, (2) prior research findings on children's reading, (3) research that is missing in the literature regarding children's eye movements during reading, (4) applied…

  18. The Emergence of Frequency Effects in Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanyukov, Polina M.; Warren, Tessa; Wheeler, Mark E.; Reichle, Erik D.

    2012-01-01

    A visual search experiment employed strings of Landolt "C"s to examine how the gap size of and frequency of exposure to distractor strings affected eye movements. Increases in gap size were associated with shorter first-fixation durations, gaze durations, and total times, as well as fewer fixations. Importantly, both the number and duration of…

  19. Eye-Movement Analysis Demonstrates Strategic Influences on Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigneau, Francois; Caissie, Andre F.; Bors, Douglas A.

    2006-01-01

    Taking into account various models and findings pertaining to the nature of analogical reasoning, this study explored quantitative and qualitative individual differences in intelligence using latency and eye-movement data. Fifty-five university students were administered 14 selected items of the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices test. Results…

  20. Reduced Misinformation Effects Following Saccadic Bilateral Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Andrew; Buckley, Sharon; Dagnall, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on memory for a visual event narrative were investigated. In the study phase, participants were exposed to a set of pictures accompanied by a verbal commentary describing the events depicted in the pictures. Next, the participants were asked either misleading or control questions about…

  1. Aetiological Factors in Dyslexia: I. Saccadic Eye Movement Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisman, Gerald; Schwartz, Joddy

    1978-01-01

    A study examined the character of saccadic eye movement (as reflected by duration/amplitude and velocity/amplitude functions) in 20 dyslexic and 20 normal children (mean age 8.2 years) and 28 normal adults (mean age 26.2 years). (Author/PHR)

  2. Conceptual Change, Text Comprehension and Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Anto, Erkki; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2013-01-01

    In the two studies presented in this article, we examine the interplay of conceptual change, text comprehension, and eye-movements during reading and develop and test methods suitable for such explorations. In studies 1 and 2, university students (N = 15 and 23) read a text on photosynthesis, explained their reading processes retrospectively cued…

  3. Abnormal Spontaneous Eye Movements as Initial Presentation of Organophosphate Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    De Lima Teixeira, Igor; Bazan, Silméia Garcia Zanati; Schelp, Arthur Oscar; Luvizutto, Gustavo José; De Lima, Fabrício Diniz; Bazan, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Background Atypical ocular bobbing may result from an intentional poisoning from an organophosphate compound. Phenomenology Shown The patient exhibited conjugated, slow, arrhythmic, unpredictable eye movements in all directions, diagnosed as atypical ocular bobbing. Educational Value This is a rare, well‐documented, clinically relevant case for medical students for correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of organophosphate intoxication. PMID:28243486

  4. Anticipatory Eye Movements Reveal Infants' Auditory and Visual Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Bob; Aslin, Richard N.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for the assessment of auditory and visual categories in 6-month-old infants using a 2-alternative anticipatory eye-movement response. Infants were trained by 2 different methods to anticipate the location of a visual reinforcer at 1 of 2 spatial locations (right or left) based on the identity of 2 cuing stimuli. After a…

  5. Motion perception correlates with volitional but not reflexive eye movements.

    PubMed

    Price, N S C; Blum, J

    2014-09-26

    Visually-driven actions and perception are traditionally ascribed to the dorsal and ventral visual streams of the cortical processing hierarchy. However, motion perception and the control of tracking eye movements both depend on sensory motion analysis by neurons in the dorsal stream, suggesting that the same sensory circuits may underlie both action and perception. Previous studies have suggested that multiple sensory modules may be responsible for the perception of low- and high-level motion, or the detection versus identification of motion direction. However, it remains unclear whether the sensory processing systems that contribute to direction perception and the control of eye movements have the same neuronal constraints. To address this, we examined inter-individual variability across 36 observers, using two tasks that simultaneously assessed the precision of eye movements and direction perception: in the smooth pursuit task, observers volitionally tracked a small moving target and reported its direction; in the ocular following task, observers reflexively tracked a large moving stimulus and reported its direction. We determined perceptual-oculomotor correlations across observers, defined as the correlation between each observer's mean perceptual precision and mean oculomotor precision. Across observers, we found that: (i) mean perceptual precision was correlated between the two tasks; (ii) mean oculomotor precision was correlated between the tasks, and (iii) oculomotor and perceptual precision were correlated for volitional smooth pursuit, but not reflexive ocular following. Collectively, these results demonstrate that sensory circuits with common neuronal constraints subserve motion perception and volitional, but not reflexive eye movements.

  6. Semantic Evaluation of Syntactic Structure: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn; Carminati, Maria Nella; Cook, Anne E.; Majewski, Helen; Rayner, Keith

    2006-01-01

    An eye movement study of temporarily ambiguous closure sentences confirmed that the early closure penalty in a sentence like "While John hunted the frightened deer escaped" is larger for a simple past verb ("hunted") than for a past progressive verb ("was hunting"). The results can be explained by the observation that simple past tense verbs…

  7. Development of Text Reading in Japanese: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jincho, Nobuyuki; Feng, Gary; Mazuka, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    This study examined age-group differences in eye movements among third-grade, fifth-grade, and adult Japanese readers. In Experiment 1, Japanese children, but not adults, showed a longer fixation time on logographic kanji words than on phonologically transparent hiragana words. Further, an age-group difference was found in the first fixation…

  8. Eye movement evidence for an immediate Ganong effect.

    PubMed

    Kingston, John; Levy, Joshua; Rysling, Amanda; Staub, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    Listeners tend to categorize an ambiguous speech sound so that it forms a word with its context (Ganong, 1980). This effect could reflect feedback from the lexicon to phonemic activation (McClelland & Elman, 1986), or the operation of a task-specific phonemic decision system (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2000). Because the former account involves feedback between lexical and phonemic levels, it predicts that the lexicon's influence on phonemic decisions should be delayed and should gradually increase in strength. Previous response time experiments have not delivered a clear verdict as to whether this is the case, however. In 2 experiments, listeners' eye movements were tracked as they categorized phonemes using visually displayed response options. Lexically relevant information in the signal, the timing of which was confirmed by separate gating experiments, immediately increased eye movements toward the lexically supported response. This effect on eye movements then diminished over the course of the trial rather than continuing to increase. These results challenge the lexical feedback account. The present work also introduces a novel method for analyzing data from 'visual-world' type tasks, designed to assess when an experimental manipulation influences the probability of an eye movement toward the target. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Eye movements during visual search in patients with glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Glaucoma has been shown to lead to disability in many daily tasks including visual search. This study aims to determine whether the saccadic eye movements of people with glaucoma differ from those of people with normal vision, and to investigate the association between eye movements and impaired visual search. Methods Forty patients (mean age: 67 [SD: 9] years) with a range of glaucomatous visual field (VF) defects in both eyes (mean best eye mean deviation [MD]: –5.9 (SD: 5.4) dB) and 40 age-related people with normal vision (mean age: 66 [SD: 10] years) were timed as they searched for a series of target objects in computer displayed photographs of real world scenes. Eye movements were simultaneously recorded using an eye tracker. Average number of saccades per second, average saccade amplitude and average search duration across trials were recorded. These response variables were compared with measurements of VF and contrast sensitivity. Results The average rate of saccades made by the patient group was significantly smaller than the number made by controls during the visual search task (P = 0.02; mean reduction of 5.6% (95% CI: 0.1 to 10.4%). There was no difference in average saccade amplitude between the patients and the controls (P = 0.09). Average number of saccades was weakly correlated with aspects of visual function, with patients with worse contrast sensitivity (PR logCS; Spearman’s rho: 0.42; P = 0.006) and more severe VF defects (best eye MD; Spearman’s rho: 0.34; P = 0.037) tending to make less eye movements during the task. Average detection time in the search task was associated with the average rate of saccades in the patient group (Spearman’s rho = −0.65; P < 0.001) but this was not apparent in the controls. Conclusions The average rate of saccades made during visual search by this group of patients was fewer than those made by people with normal vision of a similar average age. There was wide

  10. Eye movements during mental time travel follow a diagonal line.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Matthias; Martarelli, Corinna S; Mast, Fred W; Stocker, Kurt

    2014-11-01

    Recent research showed that past events are associated with the back and left side, whereas future events are associated with the front and right side of space. These spatial-temporal associations have an impact on our sensorimotor system: thinking about one's past and future leads to subtle body sways in the sagittal dimension of space (Miles, Nind, & Macrae, 2010). In this study we investigated whether mental time travel leads to sensorimotor correlates in the horizontal dimension of space. Participants were asked to mentally displace themselves into the past or future while measuring their spontaneous eye movements on a blank screen. Eye gaze was directed more rightward and upward when thinking about the future than when thinking about the past. Our results provide further insight into the spatial nature of temporal thoughts, and show that not only body, but also eye movements follow a (diagonal) "time line" during mental time travel.

  11. Interaction between the premotor processes of eye and hand movements: possible mechanism underlying eye-hand coordination.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Kurata, Naoatsu; Sakaguchi, Masato; Nonaka, Kengo; Matsumoto, Naoto

    2014-03-01

    Interaction between the execution process of eye movement and that of hand movement must be indispensable for eye-hand coordination. The present study investigated corticospinal excitability in the hand muscles during the premotor processes of eye and/or hand movement to elucidate interaction between these processes. Healthy humans performed a precued reaction task of eye and/or finger movement and motor-evoked potentials in the hand muscles were evoked in the reaction time. Leftward eye movement suppressed corticospinal excitability in the right abductor digiti minimi muscle only when little finger abduction was simultaneously executed. Corticospinal excitability in the first dorsal interosseous muscle was not suppressed by eye movement regardless of whether or not it was accompanied by finger movement. Suppression of corticospinal excitability in the hand muscles induced by eye movement in the premotor period depends on the direction of eye movement, the muscle tested, and the premotor process of the tested muscle. The suppression may reflect interaction between the motor process of eye movement and that of hand movement particularly active during eye-hand coordination tasks during which both processes proceed.

  12. Template aging in eye movement-driven biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Holland, Corey D.; Karpov, Alex

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a template aging study of eye movement biometrics, considering three distinct biometric techniques on multiple stimuli and eye tracking systems. Short-to-midterm aging effects are examined over two-weeks, on a highresolution eye tracking system, and seven-months, on a low-resolution eye tracking system. We find that, in all cases, aging effects are evident as early as two weeks after initial template collection, with an average 28% (±19%) increase in equal error rates and 34% (±12%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. At seven months, we observe an average 18% (±8%) increase in equal error rates and 44% (±20%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. The comparative results at two-weeks and seven-months suggests that there is little difference in aging effects between the two intervals; however, whether the rate of decay increases more drastically in the long-term remains to be seen.

  13. CUE: counterfeit-resistant usable eye movement-based authentication via oculomotor plant characteristics and complex eye movement patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Karpov, Alexey; Holland, Corey D.

    2012-06-01

    The widespread use of computers throughout modern society introduces the necessity for usable and counterfeit-resistant authentication methods to ensure secure access to personal resources such as bank accounts, e-mail, and social media. Current authentication methods require tedious memorization of lengthy pass phrases, are often prone to shouldersurfing, and may be easily replicated (either by counterfeiting parts of the human body or by guessing an authentication token based on readily available information). This paper describes preliminary work toward a counterfeit-resistant usable eye movement-based (CUE) authentication method. CUE does not require any passwords (improving the memorability aspect of the authentication system), and aims to provide high resistance to spoofing and shoulder-surfing by employing the combined biometric capabilities of two behavioral biometric traits: 1) oculomotor plant characteristics (OPC) which represent the internal, non-visible, anatomical structure of the eye; 2) complex eye movement patterns (CEM) which represent the strategies employed by the brain to guide visual attention. Both OPC and CEM are extracted from the eye movement signal provided by an eye tracking system. Preliminary results indicate that the fusion of OPC and CEM traits is capable of providing a 30% reduction in authentication error when compared to the authentication accuracy of individual traits.

  14. Eye movement abnormalities in essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Plinta, Klaudia; Krzak-Kubica, Agnieszka; Zajdel, Katarzyna; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Dylak, Jacek; Ober, Jan; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Rudzińska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder, characterized mainly by an action tremor of the arms. Only a few studies published as yet have assessed oculomotor abnormalities in ET and their results are unequivocal. The aim of this study was to assess the oculomotor abnormalities in ET patients compared with the control group and to find the relationship between oculomotor abnormalities and clinical features of ET patients. We studied 50 ET patients and 42 matched by age and gender healthy controls. Saccadometer Advanced (Ober Consulting, Poland) was used to investigate reflexive, pace-induced and cued saccades and conventional electrooculography for evaluation of smooth pursuit and fixation. The severity of the tremor was assessed by the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor. Significant differences between ET patients and controls were found for the incidence of reflexive saccades dysmetria and deficit of smooth pursuit. Reflexive saccades dysmetria was more frequent in patients in the second and third phase of ET compared to the first phase. The reflexive saccades latency increase was correlated with severity of the tremor. In conclusion, oculomotor abnormalities were significantly more common in ET patients than in healthy subjects. The most common oculomotor disturbances in ET were reflexive saccades dysmetria and slowing of smooth pursuit. The frequency of reflexive saccades dysmetria increased with progression of ET. The reflexive saccades latency increase was related to the severity of tremor. PMID:28149393

  15. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil M.; Bampouras, Theodoros M.; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions. PMID:27695412

  16. Visual fields and eye movements in herons (Ardeidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, G R; Katzir, G

    1994-01-01

    The visual fields and eye movements of three heron species (Ardeidae; Ciconiiformes): the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), the squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides), the western reef heron (Egretta gularis schistacea) were determined in alert, restrained birds using an ophthalmoscopic technique. All three species can gain panoramic visual coverage of the frontal field around the bill, and a bird standing with its bill horizontal can view its own feet binocularly. The region in which binocular overlap is possible is long (approximately 170 degrees) and narrow (maximum width approximately 20 degrees). Monocular field width in a horizontal plane is approximately 170 degrees. Retinal binocular overlap can be abolished by eye movements at all elevations in the frontal field. At the frontal margins of the monocular fields the retinal and optical field margins do not coincide; the retinal field margin lies between 9 degrees and 12.5 degrees inside the optical field margin. This results in a blind sector at the margin of each eye's optical field. Consequently the visually functional retinal binocular field widths are significantly narrower than the optical binocular fields. When retinal binocularity is abolished by eye movements, optical binocular fields are still retained. Thus, estimates of binocular overlap based only upon the appearance of the pupils will be erroneous. The comprehensive nature of vision beneath the bill is probably closely associated with the herons' visually guided, stealthy, foraging techniques, which result in the single-strike capture of mobile, highly evasive prey.

  17. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  18. Driving experience and special skills reflected in eye movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paeglis, Roberts; Bluss, Kristaps; Atvars, Aigars

    2011-10-01

    When driving a vehicle, people use the central vision both to plan ahead and monitor their performance feedback (research by Donges, 1978 [1], and after). Discussion is ongoing if making eye movements do more than gathering information. Moving eyes may also prepare the following body movements like steering. Different paradigms exist to explore vision in driving. Our perspective was to quantify eye movements and fixation patterns of different proficiency individuals, a driving learner, a novice, an experienced driver and a European level car racer. Thus for safety reasons we started by asking them to follow a video tour through a known city, remote from an infrared eye tracker sampling at 250 Hz. We report that gaze strategy of an experienced driver differs qualitatively from that of an automobile sports master. Quantitative differences only were found between the latter and a driving learner or a novice driver. Experience in a motor action provides skills different from sports training. We are aiming at testing this finding in real world driving.

  19. Eye and head movements are complementary in visual selection

    PubMed Central

    Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-01-01

    In the natural environment, visual selection is accomplished by a system of nested effectors, moving the head and body within space and the eyes within the visual field. However, it is not yet known if the principles of selection for these different effectors are the same or different. We used a novel gaze-contingent display in which an asymmetric window of visibility (a horizontal or vertical slot) was yoked to either head or eye position. Participants showed highly systematic changes in behaviour, revealing clear differences in the principles underlying selection by eye and head. Eye movements were more likely to move in the direction of visible information—horizontally when viewing with a horizontal slot, and vertically with a vertical slot. Head movements showed the opposite and complementary pattern, moving to reveal new information (e.g. vertically with a horizontal slot and vice versa). These results are consistent with a nested system in which the head favours exploration of unknown regions, while the eye exploits what can be seen with finer-scale saccades. PMID:28280554

  20. Enhancing eye-movement-based biometric identification method by using voting classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprowski, Pawel; Ober, Jozef

    2005-03-01

    Eye movements contain a lot of information about human being. The way the eyes are moving is very complicated and eye movement patterns has been subject of studies for over 100 years. However, surprisingly, eye movement based identification is a quite new idea presented for the first time during the Biometrics'2003 Conference in London [17]. The method has several significant advantages: compiles behavioral and physiological properties of human body, it is difficult to forge and it is affordable-with a number of ready-to-use eye registering devices (so called eye trackers). The paper introduces the methodology and presents results of the first eye movement based authorization tests.

  1. Effects of individual differences in verbal skills on eye-movement patterns during sentence reading

    PubMed Central

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a large-scale exploration of the influence that individual reading skills exert on eye-movement behavior in sentence reading. Seventy one non-college-bound 16–24 year-old speakers of English completed a battery of 18 verbal and cognitive skill assessments, and read a series of sentences as their eye movements were monitored. Statistical analyses were performed to establish what tests of reading abilities were predictive of eye-movement patterns across this population and how strong the effects were. We found that individual scores in rapid automatized naming and word identification tests (i) were the only participant variables with reliable predictivity throughout the time-course of reading; (ii) elicited effects that superceded in magnitude the effects of established predictors like word length or frequency; and (iii) strongly modulated the influence of word length and frequency on fixation times. We discuss implications of our findings for testing reading ability, as well as for research of eye-movements in reading. PMID:21709808

  2. Dynamic modulation of ocular orientation during visually guided saccades and smooth-pursuit eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Bernhard J M.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2003-01-01

    Rotational disturbances of the head about an off-vertical yaw axis induce a complex vestibuloocular reflex pattern that reflects the brain's estimate of head angular velocity as well as its estimate of instantaneous head orientation (at a reduced scale) in space coordinates. We show that semicircular canal and otolith inputs modulate torsional and, to a certain extent, also vertical ocular orientation of visually guided saccades and smooth-pursuit eye movements in a similar manner as during off-vertical axis rotations in complete darkness. It is suggested that this graviceptive control of eye orientation facilitates rapid visual spatial orientation during motion.

  3. The Uses and Limitations of Eye-Movement Studies of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Miles A.

    Uses and limitations of eye-movement records as measures of reading performance are discussed. Research studies and findings are cited, standards for reliability and validity are given, and types of eye-movement measures are described. Research has demonstrated that eye movements are not causes but symptoms of reading proficiency; therefore,…

  4. A Review on Eye Movement Studies in Childhood and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The neural substrates of eye movement measures are largely known. Therefore, measurement of eye movements in psychiatric disorders may provide insight into the underlying neuropathology of these disorders. Visually guided saccades, antisaccades, memory guided saccades, and smooth pursuit eye movements will be reviewed in various childhood…

  5. Eye movements of patients with schizophrenia in a natural environment.

    PubMed

    Dowiasch, Stefan; Backasch, Bianca; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Leube, Dirk; Kircher, Tilo; Bremmer, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Alterations of eye movements in schizophrenia patients have been widely described for laboratory settings. For example, gain during smooth tracking is reduced, and fixation patterns differ between patients and healthy controls. The question remains, whether such results are related to the specifics of the experimental environment, or whether they transfer to natural settings. Twenty ICD-10 diagnosed schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study, each performing four different oculomotor tasks corresponding to natural everyday behavior in an indoor environment: (I) fixating stationary targets, (II) sitting in a hallway with free gaze, (III) walking down the hallway, and (IV) visually tracking a target on the floor while walking straight-ahead. In all conditions, eye movements were continuously recorded binocularly by a mobile lightweight eye tracker (EyeSeeCam). When patients looked at predefined targets, they showed more fixations with reduced durations than controls. The opposite was true when participants were sitting in a hallway with free gaze. During visual tracking, patients showed a significantly greater root-mean-square error (representing the mean deviation from optimal) of retinal target velocity. Different from previous results on smooth-pursuit eye movements obtained in laboratory settings, no such difference was found for velocity gain. Taken together, we have identified significant differences in fundamental oculomotor parameters between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during natural behavior in a real environment. Moreover, our data provide evidence that in natural settings, patients overcome some impairments, which might be present only in laboratory studies, by as of now unknown compensatory mechanisms or strategies.

  6. A complex choreography of cell movements shapes the vertebrate eye.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Kristen M; Otsuna, Hideo; Kidokoro, Hinako; Carney, Keith R; Saijoh, Yukio; Chien, Chi-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Optic cup morphogenesis (OCM) generates the basic structure of the vertebrate eye. Although it is commonly depicted as a series of epithelial sheet folding events, this does not represent an empirically supported model. Here, we combine four-dimensional imaging with custom cell tracking software and photoactivatable fluorophore labeling to determine the cellular dynamics underlying OCM in zebrafish. Although cell division contributes to growth, we find it dispensable for eye formation. OCM depends instead on a complex set of cell movements coordinated between the prospective neural retina, retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and lens. Optic vesicle evagination persists for longer than expected; cells move in a pinwheel pattern during optic vesicle elongation and retinal precursors involute around the rim of the invaginating optic cup. We identify unanticipated movements, particularly of central and peripheral retina, RPE and lens. From cell tracking data, we generate retina, RPE and lens subdomain fate maps, which reveal novel adjacencies that might determine corresponding developmental signaling events. Finally, we find that similar movements also occur during chick eye morphogenesis, suggesting that the underlying choreography is conserved among vertebrates.

  7. Eye movements during listening reveal spontaneous grammatical processing

    PubMed Central

    Huette, Stephanie; Winter, Bodo; Matlock, Teenie; Ardell, David H.; Spivey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent research using eye-tracking typically relies on constrained visual contexts in particular goal-oriented contexts, viewing a small array of objects on a computer screen and performing some overt decision or identification. Eyetracking paradigms that use pictures as a measure of word or sentence comprehension are sometimes touted as ecologically invalid because pictures and explicit tasks are not always present during language comprehension. This study compared the comprehension of sentences with two different grammatical forms: the past progressive (e.g., was walking), which emphasizes the ongoing nature of actions, and the simple past (e.g., walked), which emphasizes the end-state of an action. The results showed that the distribution and timing of eye movements mirrors the underlying conceptual structure of this linguistic difference in the absence of any visual stimuli or task constraint: Fixations were shorter and saccades were more dispersed across the screen, as if thinking about more dynamic events when listening to the past progressive stories. Thus, eye movement data suggest that visual inputs or an explicit task are unnecessary to solicit analog representations of features such as movement, that could be a key perceptual component to grammatical comprehension. PMID:24904450

  8. Eye movements during object recognition in visual agnosia.

    PubMed

    Charles Leek, E; Patterson, Candy; Paul, Matthew A; Rafal, Robert; Cristino, Filipe

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports the first ever detailed study about eye movement patterns during single object recognition in visual agnosia. Eye movements were recorded in a patient with an integrative agnosic deficit during two recognition tasks: common object naming and novel object recognition memory. The patient showed normal directional biases in saccades and fixation dwell times in both tasks and was as likely as controls to fixate within object bounding contour regardless of recognition accuracy. In contrast, following initial saccades of similar amplitude to controls, the patient showed a bias for short saccades. In object naming, but not in recognition memory, the similarity of the spatial distributions of patient and control fixations was modulated by recognition accuracy. The study provides new evidence about how eye movements can be used to elucidate the functional impairments underlying object recognition deficits. We argue that the results reflect a breakdown in normal functional processes involved in the integration of shape information across object structure during the visual perception of shape.

  9. Word length effects on novel words: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Randy; Morris, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of word length on eye movement behavior during initial processing of novel words while reading. Adult skilled readers' eye movements were monitored as they read novel or known target words in sentence frames with neutral context preceding the target word. Comparable word length effects on all single-fixation measures for novel and known words suggested that both types of words were subject to similar initial encoding strategies. The impact of the absence of an existing lexical entry emerged in multiple first-pass fixation measures in the form of interactions between word length (long and short) and word type (novel and known). Specifically, readers spent significantly more first-pass time refixating long novel targets than short novel targets; however, the first-pass time spent refixating known controls did not differ as a function of length. Implications of these findings for models of eye movement control while reading, as well as for vocabulary acquisition in reading, are discussed.

  10. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P R; Parker, K C

    2001-04-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a controversial treatment suggested for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other conditions, was evaluated in a meta-analysis of 34 studies that examined EMDR with a variety of populations and measures. Process and outcome measures were examined separately. and EMDR showed an effect on both when compared with no treatment and with therapies not using exposure to anxiety-provoking stimuli and in pre post EMDR comparisons. However, no significant effect was found when EMDR was compared with other exposure techniques. No incremental effect of eye movements was noted when EMDR was compared with the same procedure without them. R. J. DeRubeis and P. Crits-Christoph (1998) noted that EMDR is a potentially effective treatment for noncombat PTSD. but studies that examined such patient groups did not give clear support to this. In sum, EMDR appears to be no more effective than other exposure techniques, and evidence suggests that the eye movements integral to the treatment, and to its name, are unnecessary.

  11. Laying eyes on headlights: eye movements suggest facial features in cars.

    PubMed

    Windhager, Sonja; Hutzler, Florian; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Schaefer, Katrin; Thorstensen, Truls; Leder, Helmut; Grammer, Karl

    2010-09-01

    Humans' proneness to see faces even in inanimate structures such as cars has long been noticed, yet empirical evidence is scarce. To examine this tendency of anthropomorphism, participants were asked to compare specific features (such as the eyes) of a face and a car front presented next to each other. Eye movement patterns indicated on which visual information participants relied to solve the task and clearly revealed the perception of facial features in cars, such as headlights as eyes or grille as nose. Most importantly, a predominance of headlights was found in attracting and guiding people's gaze irrespective of the feature they were asked to compare--equivalent to the role of the eyes during face perception. This response to abstract configurations is interpreted as an adaptive bias of the respective inherent mechanism for face perception and is evolutionarily reasonable with regard to a "better safe than sorry" strategy.

  12. Effects of voluntary eye movement and convergence on the binocular appreciation of depth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, J. M.; Richards, W.

    1972-01-01

    Scaling techniques were employed to establish the relation between perceived distance ratio and physical distance ratio. Measurements were made both with and without free eye movement and under two states of convergence. The results were confirmed using a matching technique. With free eye movement, the perceived ratio is a monotonic increasing function of the physical ratio. Without eye movement, the perceived ratio generally increases, then decreases, as the physical ratio increases. For a given physical ratio, perceived distance ratio is less in the absence of voluntary eye movements. Convergence produces depth micropsia when eye movements are permitted, but not in their absence.

  13. NASA supporting studies for microgravity research on eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the work on this project was to provide support for ground-based studies on the effects of gravity on eye movements. The effects of microgravity on the optokinetic eye movements of humans are investigated. OKN was induced by having subjects watch 3.3 deg stripes moving at 35 deg/s for 45 s in a binocular, head-fixed apparatus. The field (hor., 88 deg; vert., 72 deg), was rotated about axes that were upright or tilted 45 deg or 90 deg. The head was upright or tilted 45 deg on the body. Head-horizontal (yaw axis) and head-vertical (pitch axis) components of OKN were recorded with electro-oculography (EOG). Slow phase velocity vectors were determined relative to gravity. With the head upright, the axis of eye rotation during yaw axis OKN was coincident with the stimulus axis and the spatial vertical. With the head tilted 45 deg on the body, a persistent vertical component of eye velocity developed during yaw axis stimulation, and there was an average shift of the axis of eye rotation toward the spatial vertical of approximately 18 deg in six subjects. During oblique optokinetic stimulation with the head upright, the axis of eye rotation shifted 12 deg toward the spatial vertical. When the head was tilted, the axis of eye rotation rotated to the other side of the spatial vertical by 5.4 deg during the same oblique stimulation. This counter-rotation of the axis of eye rotation is similar to the 'Muller (E) effect', in which the perception of the upright counter-rotates to the opposite side of the spatial vertical when subjects are tilted in darkness. The data were simulated by a model of OKN. Despite the short OKAN time constants, strong horizontal to vertical cross-coupling was produced if the horizontal and vertical time constants were in proper ratio, and there was no suppression of nystagmus orthogonal to the stimulus direction. This shows that the spatial orientation of OKN can be due to a restructuring of the system matrix of velocity storage as a

  14. Eye Movement Latencies to Direction Change for Different Classes of Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    In the analysis of visual motion, local features such as orientation are analyzed early in the cortical processing stream (V1), while integration across orientation and space is thought to occur in higher cortical areas such as MT, MST, etc. If all areas provide inputs to eye movement control centers, we would expect that local properties would drive eye movements with relatively short latencies, while global properties would require longer latencies. When such latencies are observed, they can provide information about when (and where?) various stimulus properties are analyzed. To this end, a stimulus was employed in which local and global properties determining perceived direction-of-motion could be manipulated independently: an elliptical Gabor patch with a drifting carrier, with variable orientation of the carrier grating and the contrast window. We have previously demonstrated that the directional percepts evoked by this stimulus vary between the "grating direction" (the normal to the grating's orientation) and the "window direction" (ARVO 91, 94), and that similar effects can be observed in reflexive eye movements (ARVO 95). Subjects viewed such a stimulus while attempting to maintain steady fixation on the center of the pattern, and the small reflexive eye movements ("stare OKN") were recorded. In the middle of the trial, the orientation of either the grating or the window was rotated smoothly by 30 degrees. Responses to the shift of both grating orientation and window orientation are seen in the average OKN slow phase velocity. Grating rotations produce a rapid OKN rotation to the grating direction (100 ms latency, 300 ms time constant), followed by a slower rebound to the steady state perceived direction midway between the grating and window directions. Window rotations, on the other hand, evoke a slower response (200 ms latency, 500 ms time constant). The results demonstrate multiple cortical inputs to eye movement control: a taste early input driven by

  15. Rapid micromotor-based naked-eye immunoassay.

    PubMed

    de Ávila, Berta Esteban-Fernández; Zhao, Mingjiao; Campuzano, Susana; Ricci, Francesco; Pingarrón, José M; Mascini, Marcello; Wang, Joseph

    2017-05-15

    A dynamic micromotor-based immunoassay, exemplified by cortisol detection, based on the use of tubular micromotors functionalized with a specific antibody is described. The use of antibody-functionalized micromotors offers huge acceleration of both direct and competitive cortisol immunoassays, along with greatly enhanced sensitivity of direct and competitive immunoassays. The dramatically improved speed and sensitivity reflect the greatly increased likelihood of antibody-cortisol contacts and fluid mixing associated with the dynamic movement of these microtube motors and corresponding bubble generation that lead to a highly efficient and rapid recognition process. Rapid naked-eye detection of cortisol in the sample is achieved in connection to use of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tag and TMB/H2O2 system. Key parameters of the competitive immunoassay (e.g., incubation time and reaction volume) were optimized. This fast visual micromotor-based sensing approach enables "on the move" specific detection of the target cortisol down to 0.1μgmL(-1) in just 2min, using ultrasmall (50µL) sample volumes.

  16. Destabilizing effects of visual environment motions simulating eye movements or head movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Keith D.; Shuman, D.; Krantz, J. H.; Woods, C. B.; Kuntz, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    In the present paper, we explore effects on the human of exposure to a visual virtual environment which has been enslaved to simulate the human user's head movements or eye movements. Specifically, we have studied the capacity of our experimental subjects to maintain stable spatial orientation in the context of moving their entire visible surroundings by using the parameters of the subjects' natural movements. Our index of the subjects' spatial orientation was the extent of involuntary sways of the body while attempting to stand still, as measured by translations and rotations of the head. We also observed, informally, their symptoms of motion sickness.

  17. The eye of the beholder: Can patterns in eye movement reveal aptitudes for spatial reasoning?

    PubMed

    Roach, Victoria A; Fraser, Graham M; Kryklywy, James H; Mitchell, Derek G V; Wilson, Timothy D

    2016-07-08

    Mental rotation ability (MRA) is linked to academic success in the spatially complex Science, Technology, Engineering, Medicine, and Mathematics (STEMM) disciplines, and anatomical sciences. Mental rotation literature suggests that MRA may manifest in the movement of the eyes. Quantification of eye movement data may serve to distinguish MRA across individuals, and serve as a consideration when designing visualizations for instruction. It is hypothesized that high-MRA individuals will demonstrate fewer eye fixations, conduct shorter average fixation durations (AFD), and demonstrate shorter response times, than low-MRA individuals. Additionally, individuals with different levels of MRA will attend to different features of the block-figures presented in the electronic mental rotations test (EMRT). All participants (n = 23) completed the EMRT while metrics of eye movement were collected. The test required participants view pairs of three-dimensional (3D) shapes, and identify if the pair is rotated but identical, or two different structures. Temporal analysis revealed no significant correlations between response time, average fixation durations, or number of fixations and mental rotation ability. Further analysis of within-participant variability yielded a significant correlation for response time variability, but no correlation between AFD variability and variability in the number of fixations. Additional analysis of salience revealed that during problem solving, individuals of differing MRA attended to different features of the block images; suggesting that eye movements directed at salient features may contribute to differences in mental rotations ability, and may ultimately serve to predict success in anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 357-366. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. What's on TV? Detecting age-related neurodegenerative eye disease using eye movement scanpaths

    PubMed Central

    Crabb, David P.; Smith, Nicholas D.; Zhu, Haogang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We test the hypothesis that age-related neurodegenerative eye disease can be detected by examining patterns of eye movement recorded whilst a person naturally watches a movie. Methods: Thirty-two elderly people with healthy vision (median age: 70, interquartile range [IQR] 64–75 years) and 44 patients with a clinical diagnosis of glaucoma (median age: 69, IQR 63–77 years) had standard vision examinations including automated perimetry. Disease severity was measured using a standard clinical measure (visual field mean deviation; MD). All study participants viewed three unmodified TV and film clips on a computer set up incorporating the Eyelink 1000 eyetracker (SR Research, Ontario, Canada). Eye movement scanpaths were plotted using novel methods that first filtered the data and then generated saccade density maps. Maps were then subjected to a feature extraction analysis using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). Features from the KPCA were then classified using a standard machine based classifier trained and tested by a 10-fold cross validation which was repeated 100 times to estimate the confidence interval (CI) of classification sensitivity and specificity. Results: Patients had a range of disease severity from early to advanced (median [IQR] right eye and left eye MD was −7 [−13 to −5] dB and −9 [−15 to −4] dB, respectively). Average sensitivity for correctly identifying a glaucoma patient at a fixed specificity of 90% was 79% (95% CI: 58–86%). The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.82–0.87). Conclusions: Huge data from scanpaths of eye movements recorded whilst people freely watch TV type films can be processed into maps that contain a signature of vision loss. In this proof of principle study we have demonstrated that a group of patients with age-related neurodegenerative eye disease can be reasonably well separated from a group of healthy peers by considering these eye movement

  19. Precision of speed discrimination and smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Rasche, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2009-03-01

    Several studies have shown that the precision of smooth pursuit eye speed can match perceptual speed discrimination thresholds during the steady-state phase of pursuit [Kowler, E., & McKee, S. (1987). Sensitivity of smooth eye movement to small differences in target velocity. Vision Research, 27, 993-1015; Gegenfurtner, K., Xing, D., Scott, B., & Hawken, M. (2003). A comparison of pursuit eye movement and perceptual performance in speed discrimination. Journal of Vision, 3, 865-876]. Recently, Osborne et al. [Osborne, L. C., Lisberger, S. G., & Bialek, W. (2005). A sensory source for motor variation. Nature, 437, 412-416; Osborne, L. C., Hohl, S. S., Bialek, W., & Lisberger S. G. (2007). Time course of precision in smooth-pursuit eye movements of monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 2987-2998] claimed that pursuit precision during the initiation phase of pursuit also matches the sensory variability, implying that there is no motor noise added during pursuit initiation. However, these results were derived from a comparison of monkey pursuit data to human perceptual data from the literature, which were obtained with different stimuli. To directly compare precision for perception and pursuit, we measured pursuit and perceptual variability in the same human observers using the same stimuli. Subjects had to pursue a Gaussian blob in a step-ramp paradigm and give speed judgments on the same or in different trials. Speed discrimination thresholds were determined for different presentation durations. The analysis of pursuit precision was performed for short intervals containing the initiation period only and also for longer intervals including steady-state pursuit. In agreement with published studies, we found that the Weber fractions for psychophysical speed discrimination were fairly constant for different presentation durations, even for the shortest presentation duration of 150ms. Pursuit variability was 3-4 times as high for the analysis interval (300ms) containing

  20. Eye Movements Index Implicit Memory Expression in Fear Conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Lauren S; Schultz, Douglas H; Hannula, Deborah E; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2015-01-01

    The role of contingency awareness in simple associative learning experiments with human participants is currently debated. Since prior work suggests that eye movements can index mnemonic processes that occur without awareness, we used eye tracking to better understand the role of awareness in learning aversive Pavlovian conditioning. A complex real-world scene containing four embedded household items was presented to participants while skin conductance, eye movements, and pupil size were recorded. One item embedded in the scene served as the conditional stimulus (CS). One exemplar of that item (e.g. a white pot) was paired with shock 100 percent of the time (CS+) while a second exemplar (e.g. a gray pot) was never paired with shock (CS-). The remaining items were paired with shock on half of the trials. Participants rated their expectation of receiving a shock during each trial, and these expectancy ratings were used to identify when (i.e. on what trial) each participant became aware of the programmed contingencies. Disproportionate viewing of the CS was found both before and after explicit contingency awareness, and patterns of viewing distinguished the CS+ from the CS-. These observations are consistent with "dual process" models of fear conditioning, as they indicate that learning can be expressed in patterns of viewing prior to explicit contingency awareness.

  1. Eye Movements Index Implicit Memory Expression in Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Lauren S.; Schultz, Douglas H.; Hannula, Deborah E.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2015-01-01

    The role of contingency awareness in simple associative learning experiments with human participants is currently debated. Since prior work suggests that eye movements can index mnemonic processes that occur without awareness, we used eye tracking to better understand the role of awareness in learning aversive Pavlovian conditioning. A complex real-world scene containing four embedded household items was presented to participants while skin conductance, eye movements, and pupil size were recorded. One item embedded in the scene served as the conditional stimulus (CS). One exemplar of that item (e.g. a white pot) was paired with shock 100 percent of the time (CS+) while a second exemplar (e.g. a gray pot) was never paired with shock (CS-). The remaining items were paired with shock on half of the trials. Participants rated their expectation of receiving a shock during each trial, and these expectancy ratings were used to identify when (i.e. on what trial) each participant became aware of the programmed contingencies. Disproportionate viewing of the CS was found both before and after explicit contingency awareness, and patterns of viewing distinguished the CS+ from the CS-. These observations are consistent with “dual process” models of fear conditioning, as they indicate that learning can be expressed in patterns of viewing prior to explicit contingency awareness. PMID:26562298

  2. Saccadic eye movements are impaired in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Lui, F; Fonda, S; Merlini, L; Corazza, R

    2001-11-01

    Extraocular muscles are generally considered to be spared in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). However, this assumption is based mainly on clinical observations, as systematic eye movement recordings have been performed in a very limited number of cases. Our goal was to analyze several saccade parameters in a higher number of cases, in order to reveal a possible ocular-motor impairment in DMD. Data were collected from a population of 9 subjects with DMD and 9 healthy male subjects of comparable age as controls. We used the electrooculographic (EOG) technique coupled with advanced digital signal processing; saccade duration, amplitude, mean velocity, peak velocity and K factor (ratio mean/peak velocity) were measured. The DMD group showed saccades with significantly longer duration and lower velocity, with respect to controls; these differences were accounted for mainly by the largest movements, whereas there were no significant differences at the smallest eccentricity tested (3 deg). Neither amplitude nor K factor were significantly different from controls for any of the eccentricities tested. To our knowledge. this is the first study to suggest significant impairment of eye movements in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  3. Inhibitory Control Processes and the Strategies That Support Them during Hand and Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Lauren M.; Ankeny, Lisa D.; Sweeney, John A.; Mosconi, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Adaptive behavior depends on the ability to voluntarily suppress context-inappropriate behaviors, a process referred to as response inhibition. Stop Signal tests (SSTs) are the most frequently studied paradigm used to assess response inhibition. Previous studies of SSTs have indicated that inhibitory control behavior can be explained using a common model in which GO and STOP processes are initiated independent from one and another, and the process that is completed first determines whether the behavior is elicited (GO process) or terminated (STOP process). Consistent with this model, studies have indicated that individuals strategically delay their behaviors during SSTs in order to increase their stopping abilities. Despite being controlled by distinct neural systems, prior studies have largely documented similar inhibitory control performance across eye and hand movements. Though, no existing studies have compared the extent to which individuals strategically delay behavior across different effectors is not yet clear. Here, we compared the extent to which inhibitory control processes and the cognitive strategies that support them during oculomotor and manual motor behaviors. Methods: We examined 29 healthy individuals who performed parallel oculomotor and manual motor SSTs. Participants also completed a separate block of GO trials administered prior to the Stop Signal tests to assess baseline reaction times for each effector and reaction time increases during interleaved GO trials of the SST. Results: Our results showed that stopping errors increased for both effectors as the interval between GO and STOP cues was increased (i.e., stop signal delay), but performance deteriorated more rapidly for eye compared to hand movements with increases in stop signal delay. During GO trials, participants delayed the initiation of their responses for each effector, and greater slowing of reaction times on GO trials was associated with increased accuracy on

  4. A torsional eye movement calculation algorithm for low contrast images in video-oculography.

    PubMed

    Jansen, S H; Kingma, H; Peeters, R M; Westra, R L

    2010-01-01

    Video-oculography (VOG) is a frequently used clinical technique to detect eye movements. In this research, head mounted small video-cameras and IR-illumination are employed to image the eye. Many algorithms have been developed to extract horizontal and vertical eye movements from the video images. Designing a method to determine torsional eye movements is a more complex task. The use of IR-wavelengths required for illumination in certain clinical tests results in a very low image contrast. In such images, iris textures are almost invisible, making them unsuited for direct application of standard matching algorithms, which are used to calculate torsional eye movements. This research presents the design and implementation of a robust torsional eye movement detection algorithm for VOG. This algorithm uses a new approach to measure the torsional eye movement and is suitable for low contrast videos. The algorithm is implemented in a clinical device and its performance is compared to that of alternative techniques.

  5. Sexual violence: psychiatric healing with eye movement reprocessing and desensitization.

    PubMed

    Posmontier, Bobbie; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; Lipman, Kenneth

    2010-08-01

    Sexual violence, which affects one in three women worldwide, can result in significant psychiatric morbidity and suicide. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) offers health care providers the option of a brief psychiatric intervention that can result in psychiatric healing in as few as four sessions. Because health care providers often hear stories of sexual violence from their patients, they are in an ideal position to make recommendations for treatment. The purpose of this article is to introduce health care providers to the technique of EMDR, review safety and appropriateness, and discuss clinical and research implications.

  6. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Menon, Sukanya B; Jayan, C

    2010-07-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a method which was initially used for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. But it is now being used in different therapeutic situations. EMDR is an eight-phase treatment method. History taking, client preparation, assessment, desensitization, installation, body scan, closure and reevaluation of treatment effect are the eight phases of this treatment which are briefly described. A case report is also depicted which indicates the efficacy of EMDR. The areas where EMDR is used and the possible ways through which it is working are also described.

  7. CEFR and Eye Movement Characteristics during EFL Reading: The Case of Intermediate Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolgunsöz, Emrah; Sariçoban, Arif

    2016-01-01

    This study primarily aims to (1) examine the relationship between foreign language reading proficiency and eye movements during reading, and (2) to describe eye movement differences between two CEFR proficiency groups (B1 and B2) by using eye tracking technique. 57 learners of EFL were tested under two experimental conditions: Natural L2 reading…

  8. RapidEye satellite based geo-information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischke, M.; Niemeyer, W.; Scherer, S.

    2000-03-01

    It has been found that the ability to offer a guaranteed delivery of information products is the key for any successful commercial Earth observation service. This understanding led to the definition of the RapidEye system and the foundation of the RapidEye AG. RapidEye is a satellite based remote sensing system which permits to have from any point on Earth, at least daily a multispectral (and optionally stereo) imaging capability with a resolution of 5-7 m. It is aimed at establishing an efficient operation for the rapid and accurate reception and processing of thematic information of the Earth's surface and to establish a reliable and sustained service for customers. RapidEye is set up in several steps. The individual steps can be realised according to the system's acceptance on the market. Four satellites are planned already for the first step which permits a revisiting rate of 1/day. In its final configuration, RapidEye consists of a chain of Earth observation satellites which optionally communicate with one another via communication links.

  9. A Theory of Eye Movements during Target Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Zelinsky, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The gaze movements accompanying target localization were examined via human observers and a computational model (Target Acquisition Model, TAM). Search contexts ranged from fully realistic scenes, to toys in a crib, to Os and Qs, and manipulations included set size, target eccentricity, and target-distractor similarity. Observers and the model always previewed the same targets and searched the identical displays. Behavioral and simulated eye movements were analyzed for acquisition accuracy, efficiency, and target guidance. TAM's behavior generally fell within the behavioral mean's 95% confidence interval for all measures in each experiment/condition. This agreement suggests that a fixed-parameter model using spatio-chromatic filters and a simulated retina, when driven by the correct visual routines, can be a good general purpose predictor of human target acquisition behavior. PMID:18954205

  10. Neurological Basis for Eye Movements of the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Rosalyn M.; Thurtell, Matthew J.; Eisele, Sylvia; Lincoff, Norah; Bala, Elisa; Leigh, R. John

    2013-01-01

    When normal subjects fix their eyes upon a stationary target, their gaze is not perfectly still, due to small movements that prevent visual fading. Visual loss is known to cause greater instability of gaze, but reported comparisons with normal subjects using reliable measurement techniques are few. We measured binocular gaze using the magnetic search coil technique during attempted fixation (monocular or binocular viewing) of 4 individuals with childhood-onset of monocular visual loss, 2 individuals with late-onset monocular visual loss due to age-related macular degeneration, 2 individuals with bilateral visual loss, and 20 healthy control subjects. We also measured saccades to visual or somatosensory cues. We tested the hypothesis that gaze instability following visual impairment is caused by loss of inputs that normally optimize the performance of the neural network (integrator), which ensures both monocular and conjugate gaze stability. During binocular viewing, patients with early-onset monocular loss of vision showed greater instability of vertical gaze in the eye with visual loss and, to a lesser extent, in the normal eye, compared with control subjects. These vertical eye drifts were much more disjunctive than upward saccades. In individuals with late monocular visual loss, gaze stability was more similar to control subjects. Bilateral visual loss caused eye drifts that were larger than following monocular visual loss or in control subjects. Accurate saccades could be made to somatosensory cues by an individual with acquired blindness, but voluntary saccades were absent in an individual with congenital blindness. We conclude that the neural gaze-stabilizing network, which contains neurons with both binocular and monocular discharge preferences, is under adaptive visual control. Whereas monocular visual loss causes disjunctive gaze instability, binocular blindness causes both disjunctive and conjugate gaze instability (drifts and nystagmus). Inputs that

  11. Heightened beta EEG activity during nonrapid eye movement sleep in primary insomnia patients with reports of childhood maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Bader, Klaus; Schäfer, Valérie; Nissen, Lukas; Schenkel, Maya

    2013-04-01

    The present study explores the relationship between childhood maltreatment experiences and spectral power in high-frequency EEG activity during sleep in a sample of adults experiencing primary insomnia. Forty-five nontreated patients with primary insomnia spent three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory, during which polysomnographic recordings were carried out. Nonrapid eye movement and rapid eye movement EEG data were analyzed using spectral analysis. In addition, each participant completed several self-report questionnaires assessing maltreatment in childhood and adolescence, current level of stress, and current depressivity. Insomnia patients with self-reported history of moderate to severe childhood maltreatment (MAL group; n = 25), as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, were compared with insomnia patients without such a history (non-MAL group; n = 20). The MAL group exhibited more absolute and relative beta 1 and beta 2 power in nonrapid eye movement sleep and more absolute beta 1 and beta 2 activity in rapid eye movement sleep than the non-MAL group. Contrary to hypothesis, no group differences were found in gamma frequency band. The results suggest an association between history of childhood maltreatment and increased beta EEG activity particularly during nonrapid eye movement sleep in adult insomnia, what may reflect heightened psychophysiologic arousal during sleep.

  12. EMDR: eye movements superior to beeps in taxing working memory and reducing vividness of recollections.

    PubMed

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M; Rijkeboer, Marleen M; Koekebakker, Jutte; Hornsveld, Hellen; Leer, Arne; Toffolo, Marieke B J; Akse, Nienke

    2011-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is effectively treated with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with patients making eye movements during recall of traumatic memories. Many therapists have replaced eye movements with bilateral beeps, but there are no data on the effects of beeps. Experimental studies suggest that eye movements may be beneficial because they tax working memory, especially the central executive component, but the presence/degree of taxation has not been assessed directly. Using discrimination Reaction Time (RT) tasks, we found that eye movements slow down RTs to auditive cues (experiment I), but binaural beeps do not slow down RTs to visual cues (experiment II). In an arguably more sensitive "Random Interval Repetition" task using tactile stimulation, working memory taxation of beeps and eye movements were directly compared. RTs slowed down during beeps, but the effects were much stronger for eye movements (experiment III). The same pattern was observed in a memory experiment with healthy volunteers (experiment IV): vividness of negative memories was reduced after both beeps and eye movements, but effects were larger for eye movements. Findings support a working memory account of EMDR and suggest that effects of beeps on negative memories are inferior to those of eye movements.

  13. Short-term habituation of eye-movement responses induced by galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in the alert guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juno

    2009-04-06

    In a recent study, we showed that primary afferent neurons innervating all vestibular end organs were sensitive to galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in guinea pigs. In order to determine the three-dimensional character of eye movements induced by GVS, changes in eye position were recorded using digital video oculography during delivery of bilateral GVS ranging in intensity between 20 and 80 microA. Pulses were delivered in repetitive trains in order to also ascertain the involvement of vestibular habituation. At low intensities of GVS (up to 40 microA), maintained changes in eye position were induced toward the anode and away from the cathode. These eye movements were predominantly vertical with some horizontal eye movement and very little or no torsion. At higher intensities of GVS (>40 microA), horizontal nystagmus was initially observed, as well as an overall deviation of the beating field toward the anode. Nystagmus was found to habituate rapidly over successive presentations of GVS, whereas the tonic deviation of the eye remained consistent without any detectable habituation. The direction of eye movements induced by GVS was similar to that observed in humans during trans-mastoidal GVS, and the threshold differences between tonic and phasic components for GVS were also similar to previous human GVS studies. The observed habituation appears to be more specific to the phasic VOR component in quadrupedal animals such as guinea pigs, and this may reflect a considerable emphasis placed on otolithic stimulation in these animals during complex locomotor activities.

  14. Smooth pursuit eye movements in patients with macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shanidze, Natela; Fusco, Giovanni; Potapchuk, Elena; Heinen, Stephen; Verghese, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are no quantitative studies of smooth pursuit, a behavior attributed to the fovea, in individuals with macular degeneration (MD). We hypothesize that pursuit in MD patients depends on the relative positions of the scotoma and target trajectory. We tested this hypothesis with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO), which allows for direct visualization of the target on the damaged retina. Monocular microperimetry and eye movements were assessed in eleven individuals with differing degrees of MD. Observers were asked to visually track a 1.7° target that moved in one of eight radial directions at 5°/s–6°/s. Consistent with our hypothesis, pursuit metrics depended on whether the target moved into or out of scotoma. Pursuit gains decreased with increasing scotoma extent in the target's heading direction (p = 0.017). Latencies were higher when the scotoma was present along the target trajectory (in either starting or heading directions, p < 0.001). Furthermore, an analysis of retinal position shows that targets fell on the fixational locus nearly 50% of the time. The results suggest that MD patients are capable of smooth pursuit eye movements, but are limited by target trajectory and scotoma characteristics. PMID:26830707

  15. Eye movements when reading sentences with handwritten words.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Marcet, Ana; Uixera, Beatriz; Vergara-Martínez, Marta

    2016-10-17

    The examination of how we read handwritten words (i.e., the original form of writing) has typically been disregarded in the literature on reading. Previous research using word recognition tasks has shown that lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) are magnified when reading difficult handwritten words. To examine this issue in a more ecological scenario, we registered the participants' eye movements when reading handwritten sentences that varied in the degree of legibility (i.e., sentences composed of words in easy vs. difficult handwritten style). For comparison purposes, we included a condition with printed sentences. Results showed a larger reading cost for sentences with difficult handwritten words than for sentences with easy handwritten words, which in turn showed a reading cost relative to the sentences with printed words. Critically, the effect of word frequency was greater for difficult handwritten words than for easy handwritten words or printed words in the total times on a target word, but not on first-fixation durations or gaze durations. We examine the implications of these findings for models of eye movement control in reading.

  16. Spontaneous rereading within sentences: Eye movement control and visual sampling.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah J; Lantz, Laura M T; Paterson, Kevin B

    2017-02-01

    Three experiments examine the role of previously read text in sentence comprehension and the control of eye movements during spontaneous rereading. Spontaneous rereading begins with a regressive saccade and involves reinspection of previously read text. All 3 experiments employed the gaze-contingent change technique to modulate the availability of previously read text. In Experiment 1, previously read text was permanently masked either immediately to the left of the fixated word (beyond wordn) or more than 1 word to the left (beyond wordn-1). The results of Experiment 1 indicate that the availability of the word immediately to the left (wordn-1) is important for comprehension. Experiments 2 and 3 further explored the role of previously read text beyond wordn-1. In these studies, text beyond wordn-1 was replaced, retaining only word length information, or word length and shape information. Following a regression back within a sentence, meaningful text either reappeared or remained unavailable during rereading. The experiments show that the visual format of text beyond wordn-1 (the parafoveal postview) is important for triggering regressions. The results also indicate that, as least for more complex sentences, the availability of meaningful text is important in driving eye movement control during rereading. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Eye movements during recall of aversive memory decreases conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Leer, Arne; Engelhard, Iris M; Altink, Annemarie; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders typically involves exposure to the conditioned stimulus (CS). Despite its status as an effective and primary treatment, many patients do not show clinical improvement or relapse. Contemporary learning theory suggests that treatment may be optimized by adding techniques that aim at revaluating the aversive consequence (US) of the feared stimulus. This study tested whether US devaluation via a dual task--imagining the US while making eye movements--decreases conditioned fear. Following fear acquisition one group recalled the US while making eye movements (EM) and one group merely recalled the US (RO). Next, during a test phase, all participants were re-presented the CSs. Dual tasking, relative to the control condition, decreased memory vividness and emotionality. Moreover, only in the dual task condition reductions were observed in self-reported fear, US expectancy, and CS unpleasantness, but not in skin conductance responses. Findings provide the first evidence that the dual task decreases conditioned fear and suggest it may be a valuable addition to exposure therapy.

  18. Universality in eye movements and reading: A trilingual investigation.

    PubMed

    Liversedge, Simon P; Drieghe, Denis; Li, Xin; Yan, Guoli; Bai, Xuejun; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-02-01

    Universality in language has been a core issue in the fields of linguistics and psycholinguistics for many years (e.g., Chomsky, 1965). Recently, Frost (2012) has argued that establishing universals of process is critical to the development of meaningful, theoretically motivated, cross-linguistic models of reading. In contrast, other researchers argue that there is no such thing as universals of reading (e.g., Coltheart & Crain, 2012). Reading is a complex, visually mediated psychological process, and eye movements are the behavioural means by which we encode the visual information required for linguistic processing. To investigate universality of representation and process across languages we examined eye movement behaviour during reading of very comparable stimuli in three languages, Chinese, English and Finnish. These languages differ in numerous respects (character based vs. alphabetic, visual density, informational density, word spacing, orthographic depth, agglutination, etc.). We used linear mixed modelling techniques to identify variables that captured common variance across languages. Despite fundamental visual and linguistic differences in the orthographies, statistical models of reading behaviour were strikingly similar in a number of respects, and thus, we argue that their composition might reflect universality of representation and process in reading.

  19. Three dimensional eye movements of squirrel monkeys following postrotatory tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merfeld, D. M.; Young, L. R.; Paige, G. D.; Tomko, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional squirrel monkey eye movements were recorded during and immediately following rotation around an earth-vertical yaw axis (160 degrees/s steady state, 100 degrees/s2 acceleration and deceleration). To study interactions between the horizontal angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and head orientation, postrotatory VOR alignment was changed relative to gravity by tilting the head out of the horizontal plane (pitch or roll tilt between 15 degrees and 90 degrees) immediately after cessation of motion. Results showed that in addition to post rotatory horizontal nystagmus, vertical nystagmus followed tilts to the left or right (roll), and torsional nystagmus followed forward or backward (pitch) tilts. When the time course and spatial orientation of eye velocity were considered in three dimensions, the axis of eye rotation always shifted toward alignment with gravity, and the postrotatory horizontal VOR decay was accelerated by the tilts. These phenomena may reflect a neural process that resolves the sensory conflict induced by this postrotatory tilt paradigm.

  20. Compensation for equiluminant color motion during smooth pursuit eye movement.

    PubMed

    Terao, Masahiko; Murakami, Ikuya

    2011-05-20

    Motion perception is compromised at equiluminance. Because previous investigations have been primarily carried out under fixation conditions, it remains unknown whether and how equiluminant color motion comes into play in the velocity compensation for retinal image motion due to smooth pursuit eye movement. We measured the retinal image velocity required to reach subjective stationarity for a horizontally drifting sinusoidal grating in the presence of horizontal smooth pursuit. The grating was defined by luminance or chromatic modulation. When the subjective stationarity of the color motion was shifted toward environmental stationarity, compared with the subjective stationarity of luminance motion, that of color motion was farther from retinal stationarity, indicating that a slowing of color motion occurred before this factor contributed to the process by which retinal motion was integrated with a biological estimate of eye velocity during pursuit. The gain in the estimate of eye velocity per se was unchanged irrespective of whether the stimulus was defined by luminance or by color. Indeed, the subjective reduction in the speed of color motion during fixation was accounted for by the same amount of deterioration in speed. From these results, we conclude that the motion deterioration at equiluminance takes place prior to the velocity comparison.

  1. Covert tracking: a combined ERP and fixational eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Makin, Alexis D J; Poliakoff, Ellen; Ackerley, Rochelle; El-Deredy, Wael

    2012-01-01

    Attention can be directed to particular spatial locations, or to objects that appear at anticipated points in time. While most work has focused on spatial or temporal attention in isolation, we investigated covert tracking of smoothly moving objects, which requires continuous coordination of both. We tested two propositions about the neural and cognitive basis of this operation: first that covert tracking is a right hemisphere function, and second that pre-motor components of the oculomotor system are responsible for driving covert spatial attention during tracking. We simultaneously recorded event related potentials (ERPs) and eye position while participants covertly tracked dots that moved leftward or rightward at 12 or 20°/s. ERPs were sensitive to the direction of target motion. Topographic development in the leftward motion was a mirror image of the rightward motion, suggesting that both hemispheres contribute equally to covert tracking. Small shifts in eye position were also lateralized according to the direction of target motion, implying covert activation of the oculomotor system. The data addresses two outstanding questions about the nature of visuospatial tracking. First, covert tracking is reliant upon a symmetrical frontoparietal attentional system, rather than being right lateralized. Second, this same system controls both pursuit eye movements and covert tracking.

  2. Covert Tracking: A Combined ERP and Fixational Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Makin, Alexis D. J.; Poliakoff, Ellen; Ackerley, Rochelle; El-Deredy, Wael

    2012-01-01

    Attention can be directed to particular spatial locations, or to objects that appear at anticipated points in time. While most work has focused on spatial or temporal attention in isolation, we investigated covert tracking of smoothly moving objects, which requires continuous coordination of both. We tested two propositions about the neural and cognitive basis of this operation: first that covert tracking is a right hemisphere function, and second that pre-motor components of the oculomotor system are responsible for driving covert spatial attention during tracking. We simultaneously recorded event related potentials (ERPs) and eye position while participants covertly tracked dots that moved leftward or rightward at 12 or 20°/s. ERPs were sensitive to the direction of target motion. Topographic development in the leftward motion was a mirror image of the rightward motion, suggesting that both hemispheres contribute equally to covert tracking. Small shifts in eye position were also lateralized according to the direction of target motion, implying covert activation of the oculomotor system. The data addresses two outstanding questions about the nature of visuospatial tracking. First, covert tracking is reliant upon a symmetrical frontoparietal attentional system, rather than being right lateralized. Second, this same system controls both pursuit eye movements and covert tracking. PMID:22719893

  3. Eye and head movements in reading-disabled and normal children.

    PubMed

    Petri, J L; Anderson, M E

    1980-12-01

    Coordination of eye and head movements on nonreading tasks was investigated in 16 reading-disabled and 18 normal children aged 6 to 11 years. Types of eye movements are described and mechanisms controlling eye and head movement are reviewed. Significant differences were found between the two groups in sequencing of eye and head movements that were made in response to the appearance of visual stimuli at unexpected times and positions. Some reading-disabled children also were found to require more eye movements to achieve fixation on targets at known positions. It is suggested that the vestibular system may be implicated as a factor in the results obtained from the reading-disabled children and that the atypical eye-head movement patterns observed may did in stabilizing their visual world.

  4. Keep your eyes on the ball: smooth pursuit eye movements enhance prediction of visual motion.

    PubMed

    Spering, Miriam; Schütz, Alexander C; Braun, Doris I; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-04-01

    Success of motor behavior often depends on the ability to predict the path of moving objects. Here we asked whether tracking a visual object with smooth pursuit eye movements helps to predict its motion direction. We developed a paradigm, "eye soccer," in which observers had to either track or fixate a visual target (ball) and judge whether it would have hit or missed a stationary vertical line segment (goal). Ball and goal were presented briefly for 100-500 ms and disappeared from the screen together before the perceptual judgment was prompted. In pursuit conditions, the ball moved towards the goal; in fixation conditions, the goal moved towards the stationary ball, resulting in similar retinal stimulation during pursuit and fixation. We also tested the condition in which the goal was fixated and the ball moved. Motion direction prediction was significantly better in pursuit than in fixation trials, regardless of whether ball or goal served as fixation target. In both fixation and pursuit trials, prediction performance was better when eye movements were accurate. Performance also increased with shorter ball-goal distance and longer presentation duration. A longer trajectory did not affect performance. During pursuit, an efference copy signal might provide additional motion information, leading to the advantage in motion prediction.

  5. Incremental comprehension of pitch relationships in written music: Evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Lauren V; Sturt, Patrick; Eerola, Tuomas; Pickering, Martin J

    2017-03-17

    To investigate how proficient pianists comprehend pitch relationships in written music when they first encounter it we conducted two experiments in which proficient pianists' eyes were tracked while they read and played single-line melodies. In Experiment 1, participants played at their own speed; in Experiment 2 they played with an external metronome. The melodies were either congruent or anomalous, with the anomaly involving one bar being shifted in pitch to alter the implied harmonic structure (e.g., non-resolution of a dominant). In both experiments, anomaly led to rapid disruption in participants' eye-movements in terms of regressions from the target bar, indicating that pianists process written pitch relationships online. This is particularly striking because in musical sight-reading eye movement behaviour is constrained by the concurrent performance. Both experiments also showed that anomaly induced pupil dilation. Together these results indicate that proficient pianists rapidly integrate the music that they read into the prior context, and that anomalies in terms of pitch relationships lead to processing difficulty. These findings parallel those of text reading, suggesting that structural processing involves similar constraints across domains.

  6. Eye tracking detects disconjugate eye movements associated with structural traumatic brain injury and concussion.

    PubMed

    Samadani, Uzma; Ritlop, Robert; Reyes, Marleen; Nehrbass, Elena; Li, Meng; Lamm, Elizabeth; Schneider, Julia; Shimunov, David; Sava, Maria; Kolecki, Radek; Burris, Paige; Altomare, Lindsey; Mehmood, Talha; Smith, Theodore; Huang, Jason H; McStay, Christopher; Todd, S Rob; Qian, Meng; Kondziolka, Douglas; Wall, Stephen; Huang, Paul

    2015-04-15

    Disconjugate eye movements have been associated with traumatic brain injury since ancient times. Ocular motility dysfunction may be present in up to 90% of patients with concussion or blast injury. We developed an algorithm for eye tracking in which the Cartesian coordinates of the right and left pupils are tracked over 200 sec and compared to each other as a subject watches a short film clip moving inside an aperture on a computer screen. We prospectively eye tracked 64 normal healthy noninjured control subjects and compared findings to 75 trauma subjects with either a positive head computed tomography (CT) scan (n=13), negative head CT (n=39), or nonhead injury (n=23) to determine whether eye tracking would reveal the disconjugate gaze associated with both structural brain injury and concussion. Tracking metrics were then correlated to the clinical concussion measure Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) in trauma patients. Five out of five measures of horizontal disconjugacy were increased in positive and negative head CT patients relative to noninjured control subjects. Only one of five vertical disconjugacy measures was significantly increased in brain-injured patients relative to controls. Linear regression analysis of all 75 trauma patients demonstrated that three metrics for horizontal disconjugacy negatively correlated with SCAT3 symptom severity score and positively correlated with total Standardized Assessment of Concussion score. Abnormal eye-tracking metrics improved over time toward baseline in brain-injured subjects observed in follow-up. Eye tracking may help quantify the severity of ocular motility disruption associated with concussion and structural brain injury.

  7. Eye Tracking Detects Disconjugate Eye Movements Associated with Structural Traumatic Brain Injury and Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Ritlop, Robert; Reyes, Marleen; Nehrbass, Elena; Li, Meng; Lamm, Elizabeth; Schneider, Julia; Shimunov, David; Sava, Maria; Kolecki, Radek; Burris, Paige; Altomare, Lindsey; Mehmood, Talha; Smith, Theodore; Huang, Jason H.; McStay, Christopher; Todd, S. Rob; Qian, Meng; Kondziolka, Douglas; Wall, Stephen; Huang, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Disconjugate eye movements have been associated with traumatic brain injury since ancient times. Ocular motility dysfunction may be present in up to 90% of patients with concussion or blast injury. We developed an algorithm for eye tracking in which the Cartesian coordinates of the right and left pupils are tracked over 200 sec and compared to each other as a subject watches a short film clip moving inside an aperture on a computer screen. We prospectively eye tracked 64 normal healthy noninjured control subjects and compared findings to 75 trauma subjects with either a positive head computed tomography (CT) scan (n=13), negative head CT (n=39), or nonhead injury (n=23) to determine whether eye tracking would reveal the disconjugate gaze associated with both structural brain injury and concussion. Tracking metrics were then correlated to the clinical concussion measure Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) in trauma patients. Five out of five measures of horizontal disconjugacy were increased in positive and negative head CT patients relative to noninjured control subjects. Only one of five vertical disconjugacy measures was significantly increased in brain-injured patients relative to controls. Linear regression analysis of all 75 trauma patients demonstrated that three metrics for horizontal disconjugacy negatively correlated with SCAT3 symptom severity score and positively correlated with total Standardized Assessment of Concussion score. Abnormal eye-tracking metrics improved over time toward baseline in brain-injured subjects observed in follow-up. Eye tracking may help quantify the severity of ocular motility disruption associated with concussion and structural brain injury. PMID:25582436

  8. Identification of Fixations in Noisy Eye Movements via Recursive Subdivision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Kalar, Donald J.

    2016-01-01

    When solving problems, multi-person airline crews can choose whether to work together, or to address different aspects of a situation with a divide and conquer strategy. Knowing which of these strategies is most effective may help airlines develop better procedures and training. This paper concentrates on joint attention as a measure of crew coordination. We report results obtained by applying cross recurrence analysis to eye movement data from two-person crews, collected in a flight simulator experiment. The analysis shows that crews exhibit coordinated gaze roughly one sixth of the time, with a tendency for the captain to lead the first officers visual attention. The degree to which crews coordinate their gaze is not significantly correlated with performance ratings assigned by instructors; further research questions and approaches are discussed.

  9. Lexical control of within-word eye movements.

    PubMed

    Pynte, J

    1996-08-01

    Eye movements were recorded during the reading of long words, which were presented in isolation at their optimal viewing position. Refixations were found to be preferentially directed toward the region of the word that contained the critical letters for distinguishing it from its competitors. In Experiments 1 and 2, low-frequency stimulus words sharing all letters except the initial ones with a high-frequency stimulus word (critical letters at the beginning of the word) elicited more left refixations than low-frequency stimulus words sharing all letters except the final ones with a high-frequency stimulus word (critical letters at the end of the word). A similar result was found in Experiments 3 and 4, using an orthographic priming paradigm. These results suggest that refixations are linked to the selection stage of lexical access, aimed at isolating a single lexical entry among a set of candidates activated during the first fixation.

  10. Abnormal Eye Movements in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael P.; Cohen, Mark; Petersen, Robert B.; Halmagyi, G. Michael; McDougall, Alan; Tusa, Ronald J.; Leigh, R. John

    1993-01-01

    We report 3 patients with autopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease who, early in their course, developed abnormal eye movements that included periodic alternating nystagmus and slow vertical saccades. These findings suggested involvement of the cerebellar nodulus and uvula, and the brainstem reticular formation, respectively. Cerebellar ataxia was also an early manifestation and, in one patient, a frontal lobe brain biopsy was normal at a time when ocular motor and cerebellar signs were conspicuous. As the disease progressed, all saccades and quick phases of nystagmus were lost, but periodic alternating gaze deviation persisted. At autopsy, 2 of the 3 patients had pronounced involvement of the cerebellum, especially of the midline structures. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease should be considered in patients with subacute progressive neurological disease when cognitive changes are overshadowed by ocular motor findings or ataxia.

  11. The effects of flicker on eye movement control.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, A; Murray, W S

    1991-02-01

    Groups of typists with extensive experience of screen-based editing and groups of students with no such experience carried out a reading task under three conditions of illumination (50-Hz flicker, 100-Hz flicker, and steady illumination). Subjects read a sentence, which was followed by the presentation of a single stimulus word on the same line to the right-hand side of the display. The task was to decide whether or not the stimulus was present in the sentence. Subjects were free to re-inspect the sentence when making the decision. Eye movements were measured as subjects completed the task. In comparison with students, typists adopted a more cautious reading style, making more right-to-left saccades, shorter saccades, and more corrective eye movements. Flicker affected the performance of both groups of subjects in the first pass, leading to shorter saccades. In the second pass, its effect for students was to shorten the extent of large saccades made to check the presence of the stimulus word. In the group of typists, flicker led to an increase in the variability of saccade extent and a doubling in the number of small corrective saccades. The results are consistent with the view that flicker has two distinct effects on reading, both of which are potentially disruptive. The first relates to an increase in the number of prematurely triggered saccades, which are, as a result, less accurate. The second is an increase in the number of saccades perturbed in flight, which land short of their intended target. These two mechanisms may have different consequences for readers, depending on their reading style.

  12. Conceptual Change, Text Comprehension and Eye Movements During Reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Anto, Erkki; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2013-08-01

    In the two studies presented in this article, we examine the interplay of conceptual change, text comprehension, and eye-movements during reading and develop and test methods suitable for such explorations. In studies 1 and 2, university students (N = 15 and 23) read a text on photosynthesis, explained their reading processes retrospectively cued with their own gaze videos, and answered written pre- and posttests. In Study 1, a case study demonstrated connections between re-readings and high-level cognitive processing. Out of all of the participants' retrospective reports, categories were formed based on the expressions referring to either situation model or textbase construction during reading. In Study 2, conceptual change learners differed from other learner groups in terms of prolonged overall reading time and a relatively high amount of expressing textbase construction at the beginning of the retrospective reporting. The results emphasise the importance of careful construction of the textbase in conceptual change and point to the benefits of complementing the eye tracking with cued retrospective reporting when examining high-level cognitive processes during reading.

  13. Predicting rhesus monkey eye movements during natural-image search.

    PubMed

    Segraves, Mark A; Kuo, Emory; Caddigan, Sara; Berthiaume, Emily A; Kording, Konrad P

    2017-03-01

    There are three prominent factors that can predict human visual-search behavior in natural scenes: the distinctiveness of a location (salience), similarity to the target (relevance), and features of the environment that predict where the object might be (context). We do not currently know how well these factors are able to predict macaque visual search, which matters because it is arguably the most popular model for asking how the brain controls eye movements. Here we trained monkeys to perform the pedestrian search task previously used for human subjects. Salience, relevance, and context models were all predictive of monkey eye fixations and jointly about as precise as for humans. We attempted to disrupt the influence of scene context on search by testing the monkeys with an inverted set of the same images. Surprisingly, the monkeys were able to locate the pedestrian at a rate similar to that for upright images. The best predictions of monkey fixations in searching inverted images were obtained by rotating the results of the model predictions for the original image. The fact that the same models can predict human and monkey search behavior suggests that the monkey can be used as a good model for understanding how the human brain enables natural-scene search.

  14. Predicting rhesus monkey eye movements during natural-image search

    PubMed Central

    Segraves, Mark A.; Kuo, Emory; Caddigan, Sara; Berthiaume, Emily A.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2017-01-01

    There are three prominent factors that can predict human visual-search behavior in natural scenes: the distinctiveness of a location (salience), similarity to the target (relevance), and features of the environment that predict where the object might be (context). We do not currently know how well these factors are able to predict macaque visual search, which matters because it is arguably the most popular model for asking how the brain controls eye movements. Here we trained monkeys to perform the pedestrian search task previously used for human subjects. Salience, relevance, and context models were all predictive of monkey eye fixations and jointly about as precise as for humans. We attempted to disrupt the influence of scene context on search by testing the monkeys with an inverted set of the same images. Surprisingly, the monkeys were able to locate the pedestrian at a rate similar to that for upright images. The best predictions of monkey fixations in searching inverted images were obtained by rotating the results of the model predictions for the original image. The fact that the same models can predict human and monkey search behavior suggests that the monkey can be used as a good model for understanding how the human brain enables natural-scene search. PMID:28355625

  15. Vibrating Makes for Better Seeing: From the Fly's Micro-Eye Movements to Hyperacute Visual Sensors.

    PubMed

    Viollet, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Active vision means that visual perception not only depends closely on the subject's own movements, but that these movements actually contribute to the visual perceptual processes. Vertebrates' and invertebrates' eye movements are probably part of an active visual process, but their exact role still remains to be determined. In this paper, studies on the retinal micro-movements occurring in the compound eye of the fly are reviewed. Several authors have located and identified the muscles involved in these small retinal movements. Others have established that these retinal micro-movements occur in walking and flying flies, but their exact functional role still remains to be determined. Many robotic studies have been performed in which animals' (flies' and spiders') miniature eye movements have been modeled, simulated, and even implemented mechanically. Several robotic platforms have been endowed with artificial visual sensors performing periodic micro-scanning movements. Artificial eyes performing these active retinal micro-movements have some extremely interesting properties, such as hyperacuity and the ability to detect very slow movements (motion hyperacuity). The fundamental role of miniature eye movements still remains to be described in detail, but several studies on natural and artificial eyes have advanced considerably toward this goal.

  16. Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elich, Matthew; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…

  17. Dissociable Stages of Problem Solving (I): Temporal Characteristics Revealed by Eye-Movement Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitschke, Kai; Ruh, Nina; Kappler, Sonja; Stahl, Christoph; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the functional neuroanatomy of planning and problem solving may substantially benefit from better insight into the chronology of the cognitive processes involved. Based on the assumption that regularities in cognitive processing are reflected in overtly observable eye-movement patterns, here we recorded eye movements while…

  18. Attention Switching during Scene Perception: How Goals Influence the Time Course of Eye Movements across Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedel, Michel; Pieters, Rik; Liechty, John

    2008-01-01

    Eye movements across advertisements express a temporal pattern of bursts of respectively relatively short and long saccades, and this pattern is systematically influenced by activated scene perception goals. This was revealed by a continuous-time hidden Markov model applied to eye movements of 220 participants exposed to 17 ads under a…

  19. Exploring Cultural Variation in Eye Movements on a Web Page between Americans and Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Changwoo

    2009-01-01

    This study explored differences in eye movement on a Web page between members of two different cultures to provide insight and guidelines for implementation of global Web site development. More specifically, the research examines whether differences of eye movement exist between the two cultures (American vs. Korean) when viewing a Web page, and…

  20. Influence of Eye Movements, Auditory Perception, and Phonemic Awareness in the Reading Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megino-Elvira, Laura; Martín-Lobo, Pilar; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to analyze the relationship of eye movements, auditory perception, and phonemic awareness with the reading process. The instruments used were the King-Devick Test (saccade eye movements), the PAF test (auditory perception), the PFC (phonemic awareness), the PROLEC-R (lexical process), the Canals reading speed test, and the…

  1. Horizontal Saccadic Eye Movements Enhance the Retrieval of Landmark Shape and Location Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Augustyn, Jason S.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that horizontal saccadic eye movements enhance verbal episodic memory retrieval, particularly in strongly right-handed individuals. The present experiments test three primary assumptions derived from this research. First, horizontal eye movements should facilitate episodic memory for both verbal and non-verbal…

  2. Secondary-Task Effects on Learning with Multimedia: An Investigation through Eye-Movement Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acarturk, Cengiz; Ozcelik, Erol

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates secondary-task interference on eye movements through learning with multimedia. We focus on the relationship between the influence of the secondary task on the eye movements of learners, and the learning outcomes as measured by retention, matching, and transfer. Half of the participants performed a spatial tapping task while…

  3. Learning to See: Guiding Students' Attention via a Model's Eye Movements Fosters Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarodzka, Halszka; van Gog, Tamara; Dorr, Michael; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how to teach perceptual tasks, that is, classifying fish locomotion, through eye movement modeling examples (EMME). EMME consisted of a replay of eye movements of a didactically behaving domain expert (model), which had been recorded while he executed the task, superimposed onto the video stimulus. Seventy-five students…

  4. Effects of Bilateral Eye Movements on Gist Based False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on gist based false recognition was investigated. Following exposure to lists of words related to a critical but non-studied word participants were asked to engage in 30s of bilateral vs. vertical vs. no eye movements. Subsequent testing of recognition memory revealed that those who…

  5. The Neural Basis of Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in the Rhesus Monkey Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilg, Uwe J.; Thier, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are performed in order to prevent retinal image blur of a moving object. Rhesus monkeys are able to perform smooth pursuit eye movements quite similar as humans, even if the pursuit target does not consist in a simple moving dot. Therefore, the study of the neuronal responses as well as the consequences of…

  6. Eye Movement Preferences As Individual Differences in Learning From Color and Non-Color Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caban, Juan Pedro

    An experiment compared the effectiveness of color and non-color (black-and-white) pictures in a paired associate learning task. The study also used individual eye movement quantifications as a predictor of preference for color and non-color pictures. Specifically, eye movement fixation patterns were used as indices of preference for color and…

  7. Computational Model-Based Prediction of Human Episodic Memory Performance Based on Eye Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    Subjects' episodic memory performance is not simply reflected by eye movements. We use a ‘theta phase coding’ model of the hippocampus to predict subjects' memory performance from their eye movements. Results demonstrate the ability of the model to predict subjects' memory performance. These studies provide a novel approach to computational modeling in the human-machine interface.

  8. One-Step "Change" and "Compare" Word Problems: Focusing on Eye-Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutsios-Rentzos, Andreas; Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In this study, we focus on the relationship between the students' mathematical thinking and their non-mechanically identified eye-movements with the purpose to gain deeper understanding about the students' reasoning processes and to investigate the feasibility of incorporating eye-movement information in everyday pedagogy. Method.…

  9. Eye-Movement Control in Newborns in Darkness and in Unstructured Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haith, Marshall M.; Goodman, Gail S.

    1982-01-01

    Infrared television recordings were made of newborns' visual activity under monocular and binocular viewing conditions. Out-of-control eye movements were substantially more frequent in the presence of uniform light fields than in darkness for both groups. A distinction between exogenous and endogenous control of eye movements in newborns is…

  10. On-line classification and prediction of eye movements by multiple-model Kalman filtering.

    PubMed

    Kohlbecher, Stefan; Schneider, Erich

    2009-05-01

    An extensible multiple-model Kalman filter framework for eye tracking and video-oculography (VOG) applications is proposed. The Kalman filter predicts future states of a system on the basis of a mathematical model and previous measurements. The predicted values are then compared against the current measurements. In a correcting step, the predicted state is enhanced by the measurements. In this work, the Kalman filter is used for smoothing the VOG data, for on-line classification of eye movements, as well as for predictive real-time control of a gaze-driven head-mounted camera (EyeSeeCam). With multiple models running in parallel, it was possible to distinguish between fixations, slow-phase eye movements, and saccades. Under the assumption that each class of eye movement follows a distinct model, one can decide which types of eye movement occurred by evaluating the probability for each model.

  11. Eye movement during facial affect recognition by patients with schizophrenia, using Japanese pictures of facial affect.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Yuko; Ando, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Sayaka; Norikane, Kazuya; Kurayama, Shigeki; Abe, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yasushi

    2011-10-01

    A possible relationship between recognition of facial affect and aberrant eye movement was examined in patients with schizophrenia. A Japanese version of standard pictures of facial affect was prepared. These pictures of basic emotions (surprise, anger, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness) were shown to 19 schizophrenic patients and 20 healthy controls who identified emotions while their eye movements were measured. The proportion of correct identifications of 'disgust' was significantly lower for schizophrenic patients, their eye fixation time was significantly longer for all pictures of facial affect, and their eye movement speed was slower for some facial affects (surprise, fear, and sadness). One index, eye fixation time for "happiness," showed a significant difference between the high- and low-dosage antipsychotic drug groups. Some expected facial affect recognition disorder was seen in schizophrenic patients responding to the Japanese version of affect pictures, but there was no correlation between facial affect recognition disorder and aberrant eye movement.

  12. Eye-Movement Patterns Are Associated with Communicative Competence in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Brock, Jon; Cragg, Lucy; Einav, Shiri; Griffiths, Helen; Nation, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background: Investigations using eye-tracking have reported reduced fixations to salient social cues such as eyes when participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) view social scenes. However, these studies have not distinguished different cognitive phenotypes. Methods: The eye-movements of 28 teenagers with ASD and 18 typically developing…

  13. Eye Movement Control during Scene Viewing: Immediate Effects of Scene Luminance on Fixation Durations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, John M.; Nuthmann, Antje; Luke, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on eye movements during scene viewing has primarily focused on where the eyes fixate. But eye fixations also differ in their durations. Here we investigated whether fixation durations in scene viewing are under the direct and immediate control of the current visual input. Subjects freely viewed photographs of scenes in preparation…

  14. Breaking Object Correspondence Across Saccadic Eye Movements Deteriorates Object Recognition.

    PubMed

    Poth, Christian H; Herwig, Arvid; Schneider, Werner X

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask). Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object's contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013). Postsaccadic object recognition is

  15. Geometric adjustments to account for eye eccentricity in processing horizontal and vertical eye and head movement data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, W. P.; Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Neglecting the eccentric position of the eyes in the head can lead to erroneous interpretation of ocular motor data, particularly for near targets. We discuss the geometric effects that eye eccentricity has on the processing of target-directed eye and head movement data, and we highlight two approaches to processing and interpreting such data. The first approach involves determining the true position of the target with respect to the location of the eyes in space for evaluating the efficacy of gaze, and it allows calculation of retinal error directly from measured eye, head, and target data. The second approach effectively eliminates eye eccentricity effects by adjusting measured eye movement data to yield equivalent responses relative to a specified reference location (such as the center of head rotation). This latter technique can be used to standardize measured eye movement signals, enabling waveforms collected under different experimental conditions to be directly compared, both with the measured target signals and with each other. Mathematical relationships describing these approaches are presented for horizontal and vertical rotations, for both tangential and circumferential display screens, and efforts are made to describe the sensitivity of parameter variations on the calculated results.

  16. Experimental and computational analysis of monkey smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Churchland, M M; Lisberger, S G

    2001-08-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are guided by visual feedback and are surprisingly accurate despite the time delay between visual input and motor output. Previous models have reproduced the accuracy of pursuit either by using elaborate visual signals or by adding sources of motor feedback. Our goal was to constrain what types of signals drive pursuit by obtaining data that would discriminate between these two modeling approaches, represented by the "image motion model" and the "tachometer feedback" model. Our first set of experiments probed the visual properties of pursuit with brief square-pulse and sine-wave perturbations of target velocity. Responses to pulse perturbations increased almost linearly with pulse amplitude, while responses to sine wave perturbations showed strong saturation with increasing stimulus amplitude. The response to sine wave perturbations was strongly dependent on the baseline image velocity at the time of the perturbation. Responses were much smaller if baseline image velocity was naturally large, or was artificially increased by superimposing sine waves on pulse perturbations. The image motion model, but not the tachometer feedback model, could reproduce these features of pursuit. We used a revision of the image motion model that was, like the original, sensitive to both image velocity and image acceleration. Due to a saturating nonlinearity, the sensitivity to image acceleration declined with increasing image velocity. Inclusion of this nonlinearity was motivated by our experimental results, was critical in accounting for the responses to perturbations, and provided an explanation for the unexpected stability of pursuit in the presence of perturbations near the resonant frequency. As an emergent property, the revised image motion model was able to reproduce the frequency and damping of oscillations recorded during artificial feedback delays. Our second set of experiments replicated prior recordings of pursuit responses to multiple

  17. Eye-Voice Span during Rapid Automatized Naming of Digits and Dice in Chinese Normal and Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    We measured Chinese dyslexic and control children's eye movements during rapid automatized naming (RAN) with alphanumeric (digits) and symbolic (dice surfaces) stimuli. Both types of stimuli required identical oral responses, controlling for effects associated with speech production. Results showed that naming dice was much slower than naming…

  18. The Eyes Have It: Hippocampal Activity Predicts Expression of Memory in Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Ranganath, Charan

    2009-01-01

    Although there is widespread agreement that the hippocampus is critical for explicit episodic memory retrieval, it is controversial whether this region can also support indirect expressions of relational memory when explicit retrieval fails. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with concurrent indirect, eye-movement-based memory measures, we obtained evidence that hippocampal activity predicted expressions of relational memory in subsequent patterns of viewing, even when explicit, conscious retrieval failed. Additionally, activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, and functional connectivity between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was greater for correct than for incorrect trials. Together, these results suggest that hippocampal activity can support the expression of relational memory even when explicit retrieval fails, and that recruitment of a broader cortical network may be required to support explicit associative recognition. PMID:19755103

  19. The eyes have it: hippocampal activity predicts expression of memory in eye movements.

    PubMed

    Hannula, Deborah E; Ranganath, Charan

    2009-09-10

    Although there is widespread agreement that the hippocampus is critical for explicit episodic memory retrieval, it is controversial whether this region can also support indirect expressions of relational memory when explicit retrieval fails. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with concurrent indirect, eye-movement-based memory measures, we obtained evidence that hippocampal activity predicted expressions of relational memory in subsequent patterns of viewing, even when explicit, conscious retrieval failed. Additionally, activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex and functional connectivity between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were greater for correct than for incorrect trials. Together, these results suggest that hippocampal activity can support the expression of relational memory even when explicit retrieval fails and that recruitment of a broader cortical network may be required to support explicit associative recognition.

  20. Exploring the Relationship Between Eye Movements and Electrocardiogram Interpretation Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Alan; Brown, Gavin; Vigo, Markel; Harper, Simon; Horseman, Laura; Splendiani, Bruno; Hill, Elspeth; Jay, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    Interpretation of electrocardiograms (ECGs) is a complex task involving visual inspection. This paper aims to improve understanding of how practitioners perceive ECGs, and determine whether visual behaviour can indicate differences in interpretation accuracy. A group of healthcare practitioners (n = 31) who interpret ECGs as part of their clinical role were shown 11 commonly encountered ECGs on a computer screen. The participants’ eye movement data were recorded as they viewed the ECGs and attempted interpretation. The Jensen-Shannon distance was computed for the distance between two Markov chains, constructed from the transition matrices (visual shifts from and to ECG leads) of the correct and incorrect interpretation groups for each ECG. A permutation test was then used to compare this distance against 10,000 randomly shuffled groups made up of the same participants. The results demonstrated a statistically significant (α  0.05) result in 5 of the 11 stimuli demonstrating that the gaze shift between the ECG leads is different between the groups making correct and incorrect interpretations and therefore a factor in interpretation accuracy. The results shed further light on the relationship between visual behaviour and ECG interpretation accuracy, providing information that can be used to improve both human and automated interpretation approaches.

  1. Newness, Givenness and Discourse Updating: Evidence from Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Benatar, Ashley; Clifton, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effect of contextual givenness on eye movements in reading, following Schwarzschild’s (1999) analysis of givenness and focus-marking in which relations among entities as well as the entities themselves can be given. In each study, a context question was followed by an answer in which a critical word was either given, new, or contrastively (correctively) focused. Target words were read faster when the critical word provided given information than when it provided new information, and faster when it provided new information than when it corrected prior information. Repetition of target words was controlled in two ways: by mentioning a non-given target word in the context in a relation other than that in which it occurred as a target, and by using a synonym or subordinate of a given target to refer to it in the context question. Verbatim repetition was not responsible for the observed effects of givenness and contrastiveness. Besides clarifying previous inconsistent results of the effects of focus and givenness on reading speed, these results indicate that reading speed can be influenced essentially immediately by a reader’s discourse representation, and that the extent of the influence is graded, with corrections to a representation having a larger effect than simple additions PMID:24376304

  2. Exploring the Relationship Between Eye Movements and Electrocardiogram Interpretation Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Alan; Brown, Gavin; Vigo, Markel; Harper, Simon; Horseman, Laura; Splendiani, Bruno; Hill, Elspeth; Jay, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of electrocardiograms (ECGs) is a complex task involving visual inspection. This paper aims to improve understanding of how practitioners perceive ECGs, and determine whether visual behaviour can indicate differences in interpretation accuracy. A group of healthcare practitioners (n = 31) who interpret ECGs as part of their clinical role were shown 11 commonly encountered ECGs on a computer screen. The participants’ eye movement data were recorded as they viewed the ECGs and attempted interpretation. The Jensen-Shannon distance was computed for the distance between two Markov chains, constructed from the transition matrices (visual shifts from and to ECG leads) of the correct and incorrect interpretation groups for each ECG. A permutation test was then used to compare this distance against 10,000 randomly shuffled groups made up of the same participants. The results demonstrated a statistically significant (α  0.05) result in 5 of the 11 stimuli demonstrating that the gaze shift between the ECG leads is different between the groups making correct and incorrect interpretations and therefore a factor in interpretation accuracy. The results shed further light on the relationship between visual behaviour and ECG interpretation accuracy, providing information that can be used to improve both human and automated interpretation approaches. PMID:27917921

  3. The Existence of a Hypnotic State Revealed by Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Sakari; Hyönä, Jukka; Revonsuo, Antti; Sikka, Pilleriin; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    Hypnosis has had a long and controversial history in psychology, psychiatry and neurology, but the basic nature of hypnotic phenomena still remains unclear. Different theoretical approaches disagree as to whether or not hypnosis may involve an altered mental state. So far, a hypnotic state has never been convincingly demonstrated, if the criteria for the state are that it involves some objectively measurable and replicable behavioural or physiological phenomena that cannot be faked or simulated by non-hypnotized control subjects. We present a detailed case study of a highly hypnotizable subject who reliably shows a range of changes in both automatic and volitional eye movements when given a hypnotic induction. These changes correspond well with the phenomenon referred to as the “trance stare” in the hypnosis literature. Our results show that this ‘trance stare’ is associated with large and objective changes in the optokinetic reflex, the pupillary reflex and programming a saccade to a single target. Control subjects could not imitate these changes voluntarily. For the majority of people, hypnotic induction brings about states resembling normal focused attention or mental imagery. Our data nevertheless highlight that in some cases hypnosis may involve a special state, which qualitatively differs from the normal state of consciousness. PMID:22039474

  4. Newness, Givenness and Discourse Updating: Evidence from Eye Movements.

    PubMed

    Benatar, Ashley; Clifton, Charles

    2014-02-01

    Three experiments examined the effect of contextual givenness on eye movements in reading, following Schwarzschild's (1999) analysis of givenness and focus-marking in which relations among entities as well as the entities themselves can be given. In each study, a context question was followed by an answer in which a critical word was either given, new, or contrastively (correctively) focused. Target words were read faster when the critical word provided given information than when it provided new information, and faster when it provided new information than when it corrected prior information. Repetition of target words was controlled in two ways: by mentioning a non-given target word in the context in a relation other than that in which it occurred as a target, and by using a synonym or subordinate of a given target to refer to it in the context question. Verbatim repetition was not responsible for the observed effects of givenness and contrastiveness. Besides clarifying previous inconsistent results of the effects of focus and givenness on reading speed, these results indicate that reading speed can be influenced essentially immediately by a reader's discourse representation, and that the extent of the influence is graded, with corrections to a representation having a larger effect than simple additions.

  5. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon

    2008-03-01

    While cognitive behavior therapy is considered to be the first-line therapy for adolescent depression, there are limited data on whether other psychotherapeutic techniques are also effective in treating adolescents with depression. This report suggests the potential application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for treatment of depressive disorder related, not to trauma, but to stressful life events. At present, EMDR has only been empirically validated for only trauma-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Two teenagers with major depressive disorder (MDD) underwent three and seven sessions of EMDR aimed at memories of stressful life events. After treatment, their depressive symptoms decreased to the level of full remission, and the therapeutic gains were maintained after two and three months of follow up. The effectiveness of EMDR for depression is explained by the model of adaptive information processing. Given the powerful effects observed within a brief period of time, the authors suggest that further investigation of EMDR for depressive disorders is warranted.

  6. Constraining eye movement in individuals with Parkinson's disease during walking turns.

    PubMed

    Ambati, V N Pradeep; Saucedo, Fabricio; Murray, Nicholas G; Powell, Douglas W; Reed-Jones, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    Walking and turning is a movement that places individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) at increased risk for fall-related injury. However, turning is an essential movement in activities of daily living, making up to 45 % of the total steps taken in a given day. Hypotheses regarding how turning is controlled suggest an essential role of anticipatory eye movements to provide feedforward information for body coordination. However, little research has investigated control of turning in individuals with PD with specific consideration for eye movements. The purpose of this study was to examine eye movement behavior and body segment coordination in individuals with PD during walking turns. Three experimental groups, a group of individuals with PD, a group of healthy young adults (YAC), and a group of healthy older adults (OAC), performed walking and turning tasks under two visual conditions: free gaze and fixed gaze. Whole-body motion capture and eye tracking characterized body segment coordination and eye movement behavior during walking trials. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of group (PD, YAC, and OAC) and visual condition (free and fixed gaze) on timing of segment rotation and horizontal eye movement. Within group comparisons, revealed timing of eye and head movement was significantly different between the free and fixed gaze conditions for YAC (p < 0.001) and OAC (p < 0.05), but not for the PD group (p > 0.05). In addition, while intersegment timings (reflecting segment coordination) were significantly different for YAC and OAC during free gaze (p < 0.05), they were not significantly different in PD. These results suggest individuals with PD do not make anticipatory eye and head movements ahead of turning and that this may result in altered segment coordination during turning. As such, eye movements may be an important addition to training programs for those with PD, possibly promoting better coordination during turning and

  7. Eye Movements Reveal the Influence of Event Structure on Reading Behavior.

    PubMed

    Swets, Benjamin; Kurby, Christopher A

    2016-03-01

    When we read narrative texts such as novels and newspaper articles, we segment information presented in such texts into discrete events, with distinct boundaries between those events. But do our eyes reflect this event structure while reading? This study examines whether eye movements during the reading of discourse reveal how readers respond online to event structure. Participants read narrative passages as we monitored their eye movements. Several measures revealed that event structure predicted eye movements. In two experiments, we found that both early and overall reading times were longer for event boundaries. We also found that regressive saccades were more likely to land on event boundaries, but that readers were less likely to regress out of an event boundary. Experiment 2 also demonstrated that tracking event structure carries a working memory load. Eye movements provide a rich set of online data to test the cognitive reality of event segmentation during reading.

  8. Differences in Sequential Eye Movement Behavior between Taiwanese and American Viewers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yen-Ju; Greene, Harold H.; Tsai, Chia W.; Chou, Yu J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of how information is sought in the visual world is useful for predicting and simulating human behavior. Taiwanese participants and American participants were instructed to judge the facial expression of a focal face that was flanked horizontally by other faces while their eye movements were monitored. The Taiwanese participants distributed their eye fixations more widely than American participants, started to look away from the focal face earlier than American participants, and spent a higher percentage of time looking at the flanking faces. Eye movement transition matrices also provided evidence that Taiwanese participants continually, and systematically shifted gaze between focal and flanking faces. Eye movement patterns were less systematic and less prevalent in American participants. This suggests that both cultures utilized different attention allocation strategies. The results highlight the importance of determining sequential eye movement statistics in cross-cultural research on the utilization of visual context. PMID:27242610

  9. Infant and Adult Perceptions of Possible and Impossible Body Movements: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Tomoyo; Slaughter, Virginia; Katayama, Nobuko; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Itakura, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how infants perceive and interpret human body movement. We recorded the eye movements and pupil sizes of 9- and 12-month-old infants and of adults (N = 14 per group) as they observed animation clips of biomechanically possible and impossible arm movements performed by a human and by a humanoid robot. Both 12-month-old…

  10. Eye Gaze Metrics Reflect a Shared Motor Representation for Action Observation and Movement Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Sheree A.; Causer, Joe; Holmes, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Action observation (AO) and movement imagery (MI) have been reported to share similar neural networks. This study investigated the congruency between AO and MI using the eye gaze metrics, dwell time and fixation number. A simple reach-grasp-place arm movement was observed and, in a second condition, imagined where the movement was presented from…

  11. Post-saccadic oscillations in eye movement data recorded with pupil-based eye trackers reflect motion of the pupil inside the iris.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Marcus; Hooge, Ignace; Holmqvist, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    Current video eye trackers use information about the pupil center to estimate orientation and movement of the eye. While dual Purkinje eye trackers suffer from lens wobble and scleral search coils may be influenced by contact lens slippage directly after saccades, it is not known whether pupil-based eye trackers produces similar artifacts in the data. We recorded eye movements from participants making repetitive, horizontal saccades and compared the movement in the data with pupil- and iris movements extracted from the eye images. Results showed that post-saccadic instabilities clearly exist in data recorded with a pupil-based eye tracker. They also exhibit a high degree of reproducibility across saccades and within participants. While the recorded eye movement data correlated well with the movement of the pupil center, the iris center showed only little post-saccadic movement. This means that the pupil moves relative to the iris during post-saccadic eye movements, and that the eye movement data reflect pupil movement rather than eyeball rotation. Besides introducing inaccuracies and additional variability in the data, the pupil movement inside the eyeball influences the decision of when a saccade should end and the subsequent fixation should begin, and consequently higher order analyses based on fixations and saccades.

  12. Chromobility: the rapid movement of chromosomes in interphase nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Joanna M

    2011-12-01

    There are an increasing number of studies reporting the movement of gene loci and whole chromosomes to new compartments within interphase nuclei. Some of the movements can be rapid, with relocation of parts of the genome within less than 15 min over a number of microns. Some of these studies have also revealed that the activity of motor proteins such as actin and myosin are responsible for these long-range movements of chromatin. Within the nuclear biology field, there remains some controversy over the presence of an active nuclear acto-myosin motor in interphase nuclei. However, both actin and myosin isoforms are localized to the nucleus, and there is a requirement for rapid and directed movements of genes and whole chromosomes and evidence for the involvement of motor proteins in this relocation. The presence of nuclear motors for chromatin movement is thus an important and timely debate to have.

  13. A rapid, precise, reciprocating-movement color filter system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillipps, P. G.; Epstein, P.; Donovan, G.; Lawhite, E.

    1972-01-01

    Unit was designed for moving color filters in and out of position in less than 46 ms. System may be used to record previously derived colors on photorecorder or to scan different color or wavelength components of rapidly passing scene, as in aerial reconnaissance. Rapid, precise reciprocating movement may be useful in purely mechanical and chemical applications.

  14. Zinc-containing yeast extract promotes nonrapid eye movement sleep in mice.

    PubMed

    Cherasse, Yoan; Saito, Hitomi; Nagata, Nanae; Aritake, Kosuke; Lazarus, Michael; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2015-10-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for humans and animals, being located, among other places, in the synaptic vesicles of cortical glutamatergic neurons and hippocampal mossy fibers in the brain. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate and GABA receptors. Because of the central role of these neurotransmitters in brain activity, we examined in this study the sleep-promoting activity of zinc by monitoring locomotor activity and electroencephalogram after its administration to mice. Zinc-containing yeast extract (40 and 80 mg/kg) dose dependently increased the total amount of nonrapid eye movement sleep and decreased the locomotor activity. However, this preparation did not change the amount of rapid eye movement sleep or show any adverse effects such as rebound of insomnia during a period of 24 h following the induction of sleep; whereas the extracts containing other divalent cations (manganese, iron, and copper) did not decrease the locomotor activity. This is the first evidence that zinc can induce sleep. Our data open the way to new types of food supplements designed to improve sleep.

  15. Classification of iRBD and Parkinson's disease patients based on eye movements during sleep.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julie A E; Koch, Henriette; Frandsen, Rune; Kempfner, Jacob; Arvastson, Lars; Christensen, Soren R; Sorensen, Helge B D; Jennum, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Patients suffering from the sleep disorder idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) have been observed to be in high risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). This makes it essential to analyze them in the search for PD biomarkers. This study aims at classifying patients suffering from iRBD or PD based on features reflecting eye movements (EMs) during sleep. A Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic model was developed based on features extracted from two electrooculographic (EOG) signals measured as parts in full night polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from ten control subjects. The trained model was tested on ten other control subjects, ten iRBD patients and ten PD patients, obtaining a EM topic mixture diagram for each subject in the test dataset. Three features were extracted from the topic mixture diagrams, reflecting "certainty", "fragmentation" and "stability" in the timely distribution of the EM topics. Using a Naive Bayes (NB) classifier and the features "certainty" and "stability" yielded the best classification result and the subjects were classified with a sensitivity of 95 %, a specificity of 80% and an accuracy of 90 %. This study demonstrates in a data-driven approach, that iRBD and PD patients may exhibit abnorm form and/or timely distribution of EMs during sleep.

  16. Attention switching during scene perception: how goals influence the time course of eye movements across advertisements.

    PubMed

    Wedel, Michel; Pieters, Rik; Liechty, John

    2008-06-01

    Eye movements across advertisements express a temporal pattern of bursts of respectively relatively short and long saccades, and this pattern is systematically influenced by activated scene perception goals. This was revealed by a continuous-time hidden Markov model applied to eye movements of 220 participants exposed to 17 ads under a free-viewing condition, and a scene-learning goal (ad memorization), a scene-evaluation goal (ad appreciation), a target-learning goal (product learning), or a target-evaluation goal (product evaluation). The model reflects how attention switches between two states--local and global--expressed in saccades of shorter and longer amplitude on a spatial grid with 48 cells overlaid on the ads. During the 5- to 6-s duration of self-controlled exposure to ads in the magazine context, attention predominantly started in the local state and ended in the global state, and rapidly switched about 5 times between states. The duration of the local attention state was much longer than the duration of the global state. Goals affected the frequency of switching between attention states and the duration of the local, but not of the global, state.

  17. Using E-Z Reader to Simulate Eye Movements in Nonreading Tasks: A Unified Framework for Understanding the Eye-Mind Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichle, Erik D.; Pollatsek, Alexander; Rayner, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Nonreading tasks that share some (but not all) of the task demands of reading have often been used to make inferences about how cognition influences when the eyes move during reading. In this article, we use variants of the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control in reading to simulate eye-movement behavior in several of these tasks, including…

  18. The effects of crowding on eye movement patterns in reading.

    PubMed

    Bricolo, Emanuela; Salvi, Carola; Martelli, Marialuisa; Arduino, Lisa S; Daini, Roberta

    2015-09-01

    Crowding is a phenomenon that characterizes normal periphery limiting letter identification when other letters surround the signal. We investigated the nature of the reading limitation of crowding by analyzing eye-movement patterns. The stimuli consisted of two items varying across trials for letter spacing (spaced, unspaced and increased size), lexicality (words or pseudowords), number of letters (4, 6, 8), and reading modality (oral and silent). In Experiments 1 and 2 (oral and silent reading, respectively) the results show that an increase in letter spacing induced an increase in the number of fixations and in gaze duration, but a reduction in the first fixation duration. More importantly, increasing letter size (Experiment 3) produced the same first fixation duration advantage as empty spacing, indicating that, as predicted by crowding, only center-to-center letter distance, and not spacing per se, matters. Moreover, when the letter size was enlarged the number of fixations did not increase as much as in the previous experiments, suggesting that this measure depends on visual acuity rather than on crowding. Finally, gaze duration, a measure of word recognition, did not change with the letter size enlargement. No qualitative differences were found between oral and silent reading experiments (1 and 2), indicating that the articulatory process did not influence the outcome. Finally, a facilitatory effect of lexicality was found in all conditions, indicating an interaction between perceptual and lexical processing. Overall, our results indicate that crowding influences normal word reading by means of an increase in first fixation duration, a measure of word encoding, which we interpret as a modulatory effect of attention on critical spacing.

  19. The utility of modeling word identification from visual input within models of eye movements in reading.

    PubMed

    Bicknell, Klinton; Levy, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Decades of empirical work have shown that a range of eye movement phenomena in reading are sensitive to the details of the process of word identification. Despite this, major models of eye movement control in reading do not explicitly model word identification from visual input. This paper presents a argument for developing models of eye movements that do include detailed models of word identification. Specifically, we argue that insights into eye movement behavior can be gained by understanding which phenomena naturally arise from an account in which the eyes move for efficient word identification, and that one important use of such models is to test which eye movement phenomena can be understood this way. As an extended case study, we present evidence from an extension of a previous model of eye movement control in reading that does explicitly model word identification from visual input, Mr. Chips (Legge, Klitz, & Tjan, 1997), to test two proposals for the effect of using linguistic context on reading efficiency.

  20. Cat and mouse search: the influence of scene and object analysis on eye movements when targets change locations during search.

    PubMed

    Hillstrom, Anne P; Segabinazi, Joice D; Godwin, Hayward J; Liversedge, Simon P; Benson, Valerie

    2017-02-19

    We explored the influence of early scene analysis and visible object characteristics on eye movements when searching for objects in photographs of scenes. On each trial, participants were shown sequentially either a scene preview or a uniform grey screen (250 ms), a visual mask, the name of the target and the scene, now including the target at a likely location. During the participant's first saccade during search, the target location was changed to: (i) a different likely location, (ii) an unlikely but possible location or (iii) a very implausible location. The results showed that the first saccade landed more often on the likely location in which the target re-appeared than on unlikely or implausible locations, and overall the first saccade landed nearer the first target location with a preview than without. Hence, rapid scene analysis influenced initial eye movement planning, but availability of the target rapidly modified that plan. After the target moved, it was found more quickly when it appeared in a likely location than when it appeared in an unlikely or implausible location. The findings show that both scene gist and object properties are extracted rapidly, and are used in conjunction to guide saccadic eye movements during visual search.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  1. A relationship between eye movement patterns and performance in a precognitive tracking task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repperger, D. W.; Hartzell, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    Eye movements made by various subjects in the performance of a precognitive tracking task are studied. The tracking task persented by an antiaircraft artillery (AAA) simulator has an input forcing function represented by a deterministic aircraft fly-by. The performance of subjects is ranked by two metrics. Good, mediocre, and poor trackers are selected for analysis based on performance during the difficult segment of the tracking task and over replications. Using phase planes to characterize both the eye movement patterns and the displayed error signal, a simple metric is developed to study these patterns. Two characterizations of eye movement strategies are defined and quantified. Using these two types of eye strategies, two conclusions are obtained about good, mediocre, and poor trackers. First, the eye tracker who used a fixed strategy will consistently perform better. Secondly, the best fixed strategy is defined as a Crosshair Fixator.

  2. Retinal image smear as a source of information about magnitude of eye movement.

    PubMed

    Festinger, L; Holtzman, J D

    1978-11-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to determine to what extent retinal image smearing during saccades provides information about the eye movement magnitude to the perceptual system. The technique involved obtaining measures of perceived movement when the total visual field was displaced in conjunction with saccadic eye movements. Trials with normal retinal smear were compared with trials on which smearing was greatly reduced or eliminated. The results are interpreted as showing that the absence of normal retinal smear during a saccade increases the uncertainty in the information available to the perceptual system and that this uncertainty results in a tendency to perceive smaller than veridical amounts of movement.

  3. Eye Movements, Prosody, and Word Frequency among Average- and High-Skilled Second-Grade Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Araceli; Binder, Katherine S.; Walsh, Caitlin B.; Nemier, Carolyn; Bangs, Katheryn E.

    2013-01-01

    readers (as identified by their Woodcock-Johnson III Test of Academic Achievement Broad Reading scores) differed on behavioral measures of reading related to comprehension: eye movements during silent reading and prosody during oral reading. Results from silent reading implicate…

  4. Phonemic Awareness Contributes to Text Reading Fluency: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Jane; Dix, Heather; Bontrager, Morgan; Dey, Rajarshi; Archer, Ana

    2013-01-01

    awareness and text reading fluency. This longitudinal study is the first to investigate this relationship by measuring eye movements during picture matching tasks and during silent sentence reading. Time spent…

  5. Preclinical assessment of CNS drug action using eye movements in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Hugh; Rattner, Amir; Nathans, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The drug development process for CNS indications is hampered by a paucity of preclinical tests that accurately predict drug efficacy in humans. Here, we show that a wide variety of CNS-active drugs induce characteristic alterations in visual stimulus–induced and/or spontaneous eye movements in mice. Active compounds included sedatives and antipsychotic, antidepressant, and antiseizure drugs as well as drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, morphine, and phencyclidine. The use of quantitative eye-movement analysis was demonstrated by comparing it with the commonly used rotarod test of motor coordination and by using eye movements to monitor pharmacokinetics, blood-brain barrier penetration, drug-receptor interactions, heavy metal toxicity, pharmacologic treatment in a model of schizophrenia, and degenerative CNS disease. We conclude that eye-movement analysis could complement existing animal tests to improve preclinical drug development. PMID:21821912

  6. Using Eye Movements to Investigate Word Frequency Effects in Children's Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Holly S. S. L.; Nation, Kate; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    skilled adult readers process written language, relatively little research has used this methodology with children. This is unfortunate as, as we discuss here, eye-movement studies have significant potential to inform our understanding of children's reading development. We consider…

  7. A novel method for analyzing sequential eye movements reveals strategic influence on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Taylor R; Petrov, Alexander A; Sederberg, Per B

    2011-09-16

    Eye movements are an important data source in vision science. However, the vast majority of eye movement studies ignore sequential information in the data and utilize only first-order statistics. Here, we present a novel application of a temporal-difference learning algorithm to construct a scanpath successor representation (SR; P. Dayan, 1993) that captures statistical regularities in temporally extended eye movement sequences. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the scanpath SR on eye movement data from participants solving items from Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices Test. Analysis of the SRs revealed individual differences in scanning patterns captured by two principal components that predicted individual Raven scores much better than existing methods. These scanpath SR components were highly interpretable and provided new insight into the role of strategic processing on the Raven test. The success of the scanpath SR in terms of prediction and interpretability suggests that this method could prove useful in a much broader context.

  8. Compensating For Movement Of Eye In Laser Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual system for laser surgery of retina includes subsystem that tracks position of retina. Tracking signal used to control galvanometer-driven mirrors keeping laser aimed at desired spot on retina as eye moves. Alternatively or additionally, indication of position used to prevent firing of laser when eye moved too far from proper aiming position.

  9. Effects of Individual Differences in Verbal Skills on Eye-Movement Patterns during Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a large-scale exploration of the influence that individual reading skills exert on eye-movement behavior in sentence reading. Seventy-one non-college-bound 16-24 year-old speakers of English completed a battery of 18 verbal and cognitive skill assessments, and read a series of sentences as their eye-movements were monitored.…

  10. The efficacy and psychophysiological correlates of dual-attention tasks in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR).

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sarah J; Lee, Christopher W; Drummond, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the psychophysiological correlates and the effectiveness of different dual-attention tasks used during eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Sixty-two non-clinical participants with negative autobiographical memories received a single session of EMDR without eye movements, or EMDR that included eye movements of either varied or fixed rate of speed. Subjective units of distress and vividness of the memory were recorded at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 1 week follow-up. EMDR-with eye movements led to greater reduction in distress than EMDR-without eye movements. Heart rate decreased significantly when eye movements began; skin conductance decreased during eye movement sets; heart rate variability and respiration rate increased significantly as eye movements continued; and orienting responses were more frequent in the eye movement than no-eye movement condition at the start of exposure. Findings indicate that the eye movement component in EMDR is beneficial, and is coupled with distinct psychophysiological changes that may aid in processing negative memories.

  11. The Use of Eye Movements in the Study of Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyona, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    This commentary focuses on the use of the eye-tracking methodology to study cognitive processes during multimedia learning. First, some general remarks are made about how the method is applied to investigate visual information processing, followed by a reflection on the eye movement measures employed in the studies published in this special issue.…

  12. An Examination of Cognitive Processing of Multimedia Information Based on Viewers' Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Han-Chin; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua

    2011-01-01

    This study utilized qualitative and quantitative designs and eye-tracking technology to understand how viewers process multimedia information. Eye movement data were collected from eight college students (non-science majors) while they were viewing web pages containing different types of text and illustrations depicting the mechanism of…

  13. Rotation vector analysis of eye movement in three dimensions with an infrared CCD camera.

    PubMed

    Imai, T; Takeda, N; Morita, M; Koizuka, I; Kubo, T; Miura, K; Nakamae, K; Fujioka, H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a new technique for analyzing the rotation vector of eye movement in three dimensions with an infrared CCD camera based on the following four assumptions; i) the eye rotates on a point; ii) the pupil edge is a circle; iii) the distance from the center of eye rotation to pupil circle remains unchanged despite the rotation; iv) the image of the eye by the CCD camera is projected onto a plane which is perpendicular to the camera axis. After taking digital images of voluntary circular eye movements, we first constructed a three-dimensional frame of reference fixed on the orbita of the subject wearing a goggle equipped with an infrared CCD camera, and determined the space coordinates of the center of eye rotation, the center of the pupil, and an iris freckle. We then took digital images of the eye movements during a saccade or vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and analyzed the axis and angle of the eye movements by the trajectories of the center of the pupil and the iris freckle. Finally, Listing's plane of saccade and the gain and the phase of VOR were obtained. The suitability of this technique is examined.

  14. Eye Movement Suppression Interferes with Construction of Object-Centered Spatial Reference Frames in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Kristensen, Line Burholt; Olsen, Jacob Hedeager; Nielsen, Andreas Hojlund

    2011-01-01

    The brain's frontal eye fields (FEF), responsible for eye movement control, are known to be involved in spatial working memory (WM). In a previous fMRI experiment (Wallentin, Roepstorff & Burgess, Neuropsychologia, 2008) it was found that FEF activation was primarily related to the formation of an object-centered, rather than egocentric, spatial…

  15. Eye Movements Reveal the Influence of Event Structure on Reading Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swets, Benjamin; Kurby, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    When we read narrative texts such as novels and newspaper articles, we segment information presented in such texts into discrete events, with distinct boundaries between those events. But do our eyes reflect this event structure while reading? This study examines whether eye movements during the reading of discourse reveal how readers respond…

  16. Visual Data Mining: An Exploratory Approach to Analyzing Temporal Patterns of Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chen; Yurovsky, Daniel; Xu, Tian

    2012-01-01

    Infant eye movements are an important behavioral resource to understand early human development and learning. But the complexity and amount of gaze data recorded from state-of-the-art eye-tracking systems also pose a challenge: how does one make sense of such dense data? Toward this goal, this article describes an interactive approach based on…

  17. Looking for Answers: Eye Movements in Non-Visual Cognitive Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlichman, Howard; Micic, Dragana; Sousa, Amber; Zhu, John

    2007-01-01

    It is not known why people move their eyes when engaged in non-visual cognition. The current study tested the hypothesis that differences in saccadic eye movement rate (EMR) during non-visual cognitive tasks reflect different requirements for searching long-term memory. Participants performed non-visual tasks requiring relatively low or high…

  18. Removing the Interdependency between Horizontal and Vertical Eye-Movement Components in Electrooculograms

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Won-Du; Cha, Ho-Seung; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a method to remove the unwanted interdependency between vertical and horizontal eye-movement components in electrooculograms (EOGs). EOGs have been widely used to estimate eye movements without a camera in a variety of human-computer interaction (HCI) applications using pairs of electrodes generally attached either above and below the eye (vertical EOG) or to the left and right of the eyes (horizontal EOG). It has been well documented that the vertical EOG component has less stability than the horizontal EOG one, making accurate estimation of the vertical location of the eyes difficult. To address this issue, an experiment was designed in which ten subjects participated. Visual inspection of the recorded EOG signals showed that the vertical EOG component is highly influenced by horizontal eye movements, whereas the horizontal EOG is rarely affected by vertical eye movements. Moreover, the results showed that this interdependency could be effectively removed by introducing an individual constant value. It is therefore expected that the proposed method can enhance the overall performance of practical EOG-based eye-tracking systems. PMID:26907271

  19. Tracking Eye Movements Proves Informative for the Study of Gaze Direction Detection in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Considerable research effort has been dedicated to exploring how well children with autistic spectrum disorders infer eye gaze direction from the face of an actor. Here we combine task performance (accuracy to correctly label a target item) and eye movement information ("where" the participant fixates when completing the task) to understand more…

  20. Paying attention through eye movements: a computational investigation of the premotor theory of spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Casarotti, Marco; Lisi, Matteo; Umiltà, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Growing evidence indicates that planning eye movements and orienting visuospatial attention share overlapping brain mechanisms. A tight link between endogenous attention and eye movements is maintained by the premotor theory, in contrast to other accounts that postulate the existence of specific attention mechanisms that modulate the activity of information processing systems. The strong assumption of equivalence between attention and eye movements, however, is challenged by demonstrations that human observers are able to keep attention on a specific location while moving the eyes elsewhere. Here we investigate whether a recurrent model of saccadic planning can account for attentional effects without requiring additional or specific mechanisms separate from the circuits that perform sensorimotor transformations for eye movements. The model builds on the basis function approach and includes a circuit that performs spatial remapping using an "internal forward model" of how visual inputs are modified as a result of saccadic movements. Simulations show that the latter circuit is crucial to account for dissociations between attention and eye movements that may be invoked to disprove the premotor theory. The model provides new insights into how spatial remapping may be implemented in parietal cortex and offers a computational framework for recent proposals that link visual stability with remapping of attention pointers.

  1. Eye movements of goldfish evoked by body tilting and linear acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, K.; Takabayashi, A.; Mori, S.

    An otolith organ on ground behave as a detector of both gravity and linear acceleration, and play an important role in controlling posture and eye movement for tilt of the head or translational motion. On the other hand, a gravitational acceleration ingredient to an otolith organ disappears in microgravity environment. However, linear acceleration can be received by otolith organ and produce a sensation that is different from that on Earth. In this study, we examined function of otolith organ in goldfish revealed from analysis of eye movement induced by linear acceleration and/or the tilt of body. We analyzed both torsional and vertical eye movements from video images frame by frame. For tilting stimulation, torsional eye movements induced by head down was larger than that induced by head up. For acceleration stimulation, torsional eye movements induced during head down was larger than that induced during head up. These results suggest that otolith organ system has directional dependence and that body tilt and linear acceleration may not be with equivalent stimulation to cause eye movement on Earth.

  2. Methodological Aspects of Cognitive Rehabilitation with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR).

    PubMed

    Zarghi, Afsaneh; Zali, Alireza; Tehranidost, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms. A series of systemic experiments have shown that the eyes' spontaneous movement is associated with emotional and cognitive changes and results in decreased excitement, flexibility in attention, memory processing, and enhanced semantic recalling. Eye movement also decreases the memory's image clarity and the accompanying excitement. By using EMDR, we can reach some parts of memory which were inaccessible before and also emotionally intolerable. Various researches emphasize on the effectiveness of EMDR in treating and curing phobias, pains, and dependent personality disorders. Consequently, due to the involvement of multiple neural system components, this palliative method of treatment can also help to rehabilitate the neuro-cognitive system.

  3. Processing Rhythmic Pattern during Chinese Sentence Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yingyi; Duan, Yunyan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O) combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010). Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2 + 1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively) and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1 + 1] or [2 + 2]). This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader's eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed), less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis processing at the

  4. Processing Rhythmic Pattern during Chinese Sentence Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yingyi; Duan, Yunyan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O) combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010). Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2 + 1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively) and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1 + 1] or [2 + 2]). This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader's eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed), less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis processing at the

  5. Effects of eye movement with functional electrical stimulation on balance in stroke patients with neglect syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine whether eye movement in conjunction with functional electrical stimulation (FES) could improve balance ability in stroke patients with neglect syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 15 stroke patients with neglect syndrome. The intervention was eye movement in conjunction with FES. The program was conducted 5 times per week, for 6 weeks. Static balance (eyes-open and eyes-closed) and dynamic balance were measured before and after testing. [Results] In measurement of static balance, subjects showed significant differences in sway length and sway area when examined in the eyes-open condition, but not the eyes-closed condition. In measurement of dynamic balance, the subjects showed significant differences in limit of stability (forward/backward and left/right). [Conclusion] These results indicate that eye movement in conjunction with FES had a positive effect on the static and dynamic balance in the eyes-open condition, but not in the eyes-closed condition of stroke patients with neglect syndrome. Further studies should therefore investigate various interventions in stroke patients with neglect syndrome. PMID:27313375

  6. What the Eyes Already "Know": Using Eye Movement Measurement to Tap into Children's Implicit Numerical Magnitude Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Angela; Thaler, Verena; Tamm, Sascha; Hawelka, Stefan; Schneider, Michael; Torbeyns, Joke; De Smedt, Bert; Verschaffel, Lieven; Stern, Elsbeth; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2010-01-01

    To date, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of mismatches between children's "implicit" and "explicit" knowledge at certain points in development that become manifest by their gestures and gaze orientation in different problem solving contexts. Stimulated by this research, we used eye movement measurement to…

  7. An Investigation of Horizontal Combined Eye-Head Tracking in Patients with Abnormal Vestibular and Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, William P.; Leigh, R. John; Seidman, Scott H.; Billian, Carl

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of smooth ocular pursuit (SP) and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during horizontal, combined eye-head tracking (CEHT) in patients with abnormalities of either the VOR or SP movements. Our strategy was to apply transient stimuli that capitalized on the different latencies to onset of SP and the VOR. During CEHT of a target moving at 15 deg/sec, normal subjects and patients with VOR deficits all tracked the target with a gain close to 1.O. When the heads of normal subjects were suddenly and unexpectedly braked to a halt during CEHT, the eye promptly began to move in the orbit to track the target, but eye-in-orbit velocity transiently fell to about 60-70% of target velocity. In patients with deficient labyrinthine function, following the onset of the head brake, eye movements to track the target were absent, and SP movements were not generated until about 100 msec later. In patients with deficient SP, CEHT was superior to SP tracking with the head stationary; after the onset of the head brake, tracking eye movements were initiated promptly, but eye velocity was less than 50% of target velocity and increased only slightly thereafter. These results indicate that at least two mechanisms operate to overcome the VOR and allow gaze to track the target during CEHT: (1) the SP system provides a signal to cancel a normally-operating VOR (this cancellation signal is not needed by labyrinthine-deficient patients who have no VOR to cancel), and (2) a reduction of the gain of the VOR is achieved, an ability that is preserved even in patients with cerebral lesions that impair SP.

  8. Use of a genetic algorithm for the analysis of eye movements from the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, M.

    2001-01-01

    It is common in vestibular and oculomotor testing to use a single-frequency (sine) or combination of frequencies [sum-of-sines (SOS)] stimulus for head or target motion. The resulting eye movements typically contain a smooth tracking component, which follows the stimulus, in which are interspersed rapid eye movements (saccades or fast phases). The parameters of the smooth tracking--the amplitude and phase of each component frequency--are of interest; many methods have been devised that attempt to identify and remove the fast eye movements from the smooth. We describe a new approach to this problem, tailored to both single-frequency and sum-of-sines stimulation of the human linear vestibulo-ocular reflex. An approximate derivative is used to identify fast movements, which are then omitted from further analysis. The remaining points form a series of smooth tracking segments. A genetic algorithm is used to fit these segments together to form a smooth (but disconnected) wave form, by iteratively removing biases due to the missing fast phases. A genetic algorithm is an iterative optimization procedure; it provides a basis for extending this approach to more complex stimulus-response situations. In the SOS case, the genetic algorithm estimates the amplitude and phase values of the component frequencies as well as removing biases.

  9. Eye movements in patients with schizophrenia: visual stimuli, semantic content and psychiatric symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, K; Kashiwakura, M; Oiji, A

    1998-05-01

    In order to explore a possible association between psychiatric symptoms and eye movements, 32 patients with schizophrenia were examined using an eye mark recorder in combination with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and were compared with 32 controls. Four types of figures were presented to the subjects: geometrical figures, drawings, story drawings, and sentences. Mean eye fixation time was significantly longer and mean eye scanning length was significantly shorter for the patients than for controls, not only in response to the geometric figures, but also in response to the story drawings. Eye fixation time and scanning velocity were positively correlated with degrees of thought disturbance. The number of eye fixations, eye fixation time and scanning velocity were negatively correlated with degree of depressive tendency.

  10. Scanning technique for tracking small eye-movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, D. H.; Crane, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    Scanning technique images spot of blue light on fundus, measures variations in reflectance of spot and compares reflectance pattern with a stored reference pattern. Method then converts the difference from stored pattern into infrared eye motion.

  11. Characteristics of Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia: Limitations on Fixation Stability and Acuity?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Girish; Li, Roger W.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    Persons with amblyopia, especially those with strabismus, are known to exhibit abnormal fixational eye movements. In this paper, we compared six characteristics of fixational eye movements among normal control eyes (n=16), the non-amblyopic fellow eyes and the amblyopic eyes of anisometropic (n=14) and strabismic amblyopes (n=14). These characteristics include the frequency, magnitude of landing errors, amplitude and speed of microsaccades, and the amplitude and speed of slow drifts. Fixational eye movements were recorded using retinal imaging while observers monocularly fixated a 1° cross. Eye position data were recovered using a cross-correlation procedure. We found that in general, the characteristics of fixational eye movements are not significantly different between the fellow eyes of amblyopes and controls, and that the strabismic amblyopic eyes are always different from the other groups. Next, we determined the primary factors that limit fixation stability and visual acuity in amblyopic eyes by examining the relative importance of the different oculomotor characteristics, adding acuity (for fixation stability) or fixation stability (for acuity), and the type of amblyopia, as predictive factors in a multiple linear regression model. We show for the first time that the error magnitude of microsaccades, acuity, amplitude and frequency of microsaccades are primary factors limiting fixation stability; while the error magnitude, fixation stability, amplitude of drifts and amplitude of microsaccades are the primary factors limiting acuity. A mediation analysis showed that the effects of error magnitude and amplitude of microsaccades on acuity could be explained, at least in part, by their effects on fixation stability. PMID:25668775

  12. [Diagnostic exercise for the medical school student: how to analyze an abnormality of eye movements?].

    PubMed

    Moonen, V; Phan Ba, R; Rikir, E; Andris, C; Moonen, G

    2010-01-01

    Eye movements abnormalities are common symptoms in neurology. We report a clinical observation of ischemic unilateral internuclear ophtalmoplegia to illustrate how much anatomical diagnosis is based on 1) a detailed neurological examination and 2) a deep knowledge and understanding of the anatomy and physiology of ocular movements. We also take this opportunity to review ocular symptoms and signs encountered in neurological practice.

  13. Magnifying visual target information and the role of eye movements in motor sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Massing, Matthias; Blandin, Yannick; Panzer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    An experiment investigated the influence of eye movements on learning a simple motor sequence task when the visual display was magnified. The task was to reproduce a 1300 ms spatial-temporal pattern of elbow flexions and extensions. The spatial-temporal pattern was displayed in front of the participants. Participants were randomly assigned to four groups differing on eye movements (free to use their eyes/instructed to fixate) and the visual display (small/magnified). All participants had to perform a pre-test, an acquisition phase, a delayed retention test, and a transfer test. The results indicated that participants in each practice condition increased their performance during acquisition. The participants who were permitted to use their eyes in the magnified visual display outperformed those who were instructed to fixate on the magnified visual display. When a small visual display was used, the instruction to fixate induced no performance decrements compared to participants who were permitted to use their eyes during acquisition. The findings demonstrated that a spatial-temporal pattern can be learned without eye movements, but being permitting to use eye movements facilitates the response production when the visual angle is increased.

  14. Disk space and load time requirements for eye movement biometric databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprowski, Pawel; Harezlak, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Biometric identification is a very popular area of interest nowadays. Problems with the so-called physiological methods like fingerprints or iris recognition resulted in increased attention paid to methods measuring behavioral patterns. Eye movement based biometric (EMB) identification is one of the interesting behavioral methods and due to the intensive development of eye tracking devices it has become possible to define new methods for the eye movement signal processing. Such method should be supported by an efficient storage used to collect eye movement data and provide it for further analysis. The aim of the research was to check various setups enabling such a storage choice. There were various aspects taken into consideration, like disk space usage, time required for loading and saving whole data set or its chosen parts.

  15. Methodological Aspects of Cognitive Rehabilitation with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

    PubMed Central

    Zarghi, Afsaneh; Zali, Alireza; Tehranidost, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms. A series of systemic experiments have shown that the eyes’ spontaneous movement is associated with emotional and cognitive changes and results in decreased excitement, flexibility in attention, memory processing, and enhanced semantic recalling. Eye movement also decreases the memory's image clarity and the accompanying excitement. By using EMDR, we can reach some parts of memory which were inaccessible before and also emotionally intolerable. Various researches emphasize on the effectiveness of EMDR in treating and curing phobias, pains, and dependent personality disorders. Consequently, due to the involvement of multiple neural system components, this palliative method of treatment can also help to rehabilitate the neuro-cognitive system. PMID:25337334

  16. Real-time monitoring of eye movements using infrared video-oculography during functional magnetic resonance imaging of the frontal eye fields.

    PubMed

    Gitelman, D R; Parrish, T B; LaBar, K S; Mesulam, M M

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring eye movements is a critical aspect of experimental design for studies of spatial attention and visual perception. However, obtaining online eye-movement recordings has been technologically difficult during functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies. Previous approaches to monitoring eye movements either have distorted the MR images or have shown MR-related interference in the recordings. We report a technique using long-range infrared video-oculography to record eye movements without causing artifacts in the MR images. Analysis of the MR signal from a phantom obtained with the eye-movement equipment turned on or off confirmed the absence of significant additional noise in the MR time series. Eye movements of three subjects were monitored while they performed tasks of covert and overt shifts of spatial attention. Activation of the frontal eye fields during the covert task was seen even when the eye-movement recordings demonstrated no significant difference in saccadic eye movements between the baseline and the active conditions.

  17. Use of Eye Movement Monitoring to Examine Item and Relational Memory in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Ranganath, Charan; Ramsay, Ian S.; Solomon, Marjorie; Yoon, Jong; Niendam, Tara A.; Carter, Cameron S.; Ragland, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia may be impaired at remembering inter-item and item-context relationships (relational memory), even when memory for items is intact. Here, we applied the novel approach of using eye movements to assess integrity of item and relational memory in schizophrenia. This method does not rely on introspection and may be more readily translated to animal models than traditional behavioral methods. Methods Sixteen healthy controls and sixteen patients were administered a scene memory task while eye movements were monitored. During testing, participants indicated whether the scenes were unchanged, contained a new item (item manipulation), had a change in item location (relational manipulation), or were new. It was predicted that memory would be disproportionately impaired when relational changes were made. Results Results confirmed that tasks were equally difficult, and showed that patients were impaired identifying all scene types. These behavioral impairments were associated with more severe disorganization and negative symptoms. Eye movement results were more specific. Both groups looked disproportionately at critical regions of repeated versus novel scenes – an effect of scene repetition. However, in contrast to predictions, patients showed equivalent eye-movement-based memory impairment whether changes were relational or item-based. Conclusions This is the first experiment to demonstrate that eye movements can be used to investigate item and relational memory in schizophrenia. The eye movement procedure was well tolerated and was more specific than behavioral measures with respect to memory impairment. Results suggest that eye movements may be of use in clinical trials and translational studies employing animal models. PMID:20673874

  18. Development and learning of saccadic eye movements in 7- to 42-month-old children.

    PubMed

    Alahyane, Nadia; Lemoine-Lardennois, Christelle; Tailhefer, Coline; Collins, Thérèse; Fagard, Jacqueline; Doré-Mazars, Karine

    2016-01-01

    From birth, infants move their eyes to explore their environment, interact with it, and progressively develop a multitude of motor and cognitive abilities. The characteristics and development of oculomotor control in early childhood remain poorly understood today. Here, we examined reaction time and amplitude of saccadic eye movements in 93 7- to 42-month-old children while they oriented toward visual animated cartoon characters appearing at unpredictable locations on a computer screen over 140 trials. Results revealed that saccade performance is immature in children compared to a group of adults: Saccade reaction times were longer, and saccade amplitude relative to target location (10° eccentricity) was shorter. Results also indicated that performance is flexible in children. Although saccade reaction time decreased as age increased, suggesting developmental improvements in saccade control, saccade amplitude gradually improved over trials. Moreover, similar to adults, children were able to modify saccade amplitude based on the visual error made in the previous trial. This second set of results suggests that short visual experience and/or rapid sensorimotor learning are functional in children and can also affect saccade performance.

  19. Dissociated vertical deviation: an exaggerated normal eye movement used to damp cyclovertical latent nystagmus.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, D L; Cheeseman, E W; Ellis, F J; Straumann, D; Zee, D S

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) has eluded explanation for more than a century. The purpose of this study has been to elucidate the etiology and mechanism of DVD. METHODS: Eye movement recordings of six young adults with DVD were made with dual-coil scleral search coils under various conditions of fixation, illumination, and head tilt. Horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements were recorded for both eyes simultaneously. Analyses of the simultaneous vertical and torsional movements occurring during the DVD response were used to separate and identify the component vergence and version eye movements involved. RESULTS: Typically, both horizontal and cyclovertical latent nystagmus developed upon occlusion of either eye. A cycloversion then occurred, with the fixing eye intorting and tending to depress, the covered eye extorting and elevating. Simultaneously, upward versions occurred for the maintenance of fixation, consisting variously of saccades and smooth eye movements, leading to further elevation of the eye behind the cover. The cyclovertical component of the latent nystagmus became partially damped as the DVD developed. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with an early-onset defect of binocular function, the occlusion of one eye, or even concentration on fixing with one eye, produces unbalanced input to the vestibular system. This results in latent nystagmus, sometimes seen only with magnification. The cyclovertical component of the latent nystagmus, when present, is similar to normal vestibular nystagmus induced by dynamic head tilting about an oblique axis. Such vestibular nystagmus characteristically produces a hyperdeviation of the eyes. In the case of cyclovertical latent nystagmus, the analogous hyperdeviation will persist unless corrected by a vertical vergence. A normal, oblique-muscle-mediated, cycloversion/vertical vergence is called into play. This occurs in the proper direction to correct the hyperdeviation, but it occurs in an exaggerated

  20. Preparing coordinated eye and hand movements: dual-task costs are not attentional.

    PubMed

    Jonikaitis, Donatas; Schubert, Torsten; Deubel, Heiner

    2010-12-20

    Dual-task costs are observed when people perform two tasks at the same time. It has been suggested that these costs arise from limitations of movement goal selection when multiple goal-directed movements are made simultaneously. To investigate this, we asked participants to reach and look at different locations while we varied the time between the cues to start the eye and the hand movement between 150 ms and 900 ms. In Experiment 1, participants executed the reach first, and the saccade second, in Experiment 2 the order of the movements was reversed. We observed dual-task costs-participants were slower to start the eye or hand movement if they were planning another movement at that time. In Experiment 3, we investigated whether these dual-task costs were due to limited attentional resources needed to select saccade and reach goal locations. We found that the discrimination of a probe improved at both saccade and reach locations, indicating that attention shifted to both movement goals. Importantly, while we again observed the expected dual-task costs as reflected in movement latencies, there was no apparent delay of the associated attention shifts. Our results rule out attentional goal selection as the causal factor leading to the dual-task costs occurring in eye-hand movements.

  1. Naked-eye sensor for rapid determination of mercury ion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Wu, Dapeng; Yan, Xiaohui; Guan, Yafeng

    2013-11-15

    A naked-eye paper sensor for rapid determination of trace mercury ion in water samples was designed and demonstrated. The mercury-sensing rhodamine B thiolactone was immobilized in silica matrices and the silica matrices were impregnated firmly and uniformly in the filter paper. As water samples flow through the filter paper, the membrane color will change from white to purple red, which could be observed obviously with naked eye, when concentration of mercury ions equals to or exceeds 10nM, the maximum residue level in drinking water recommended by U.S. EPA. The color change can also be recorded by a flatbed scanner and then digitized, reducing the detection limit of Hg(2+) down to 1.2 nM. Moreover, this method is extremely specific for Hg(2+) and shows a high tolerance ratio of interferent coexisting ions. The presence of Na(+) (2 mM), K(+) (2 mM), Fe(3+) (0.1 mM), Zn(2+) (0.1 mM), Mg(2+) (0.1 mM), Ni(2+) (50 μM), Co(2+) (50 μM), Cd(2+) (50 μM), Pb(2+) (50 μM), Cu(2+) (50 μM) and Ag(+) (3.5 μM) did not interfere with the detection of Hg(2+) (25 nM). Finally, the present method was applied in the detection of Hg(2+) in mineral water, tap water and pond water.

  2. Gaze position corrective eye movements in normal subjects and in patients with vestibular deficits.

    PubMed

    Peng, Grace C Y; Minor, Lloyd B; Zee, David S

    2005-04-01

    Eye movements in response to high-acceleration head rotations (thrusts) in the horizontal plane from patients with unilateral (UVD) or bilateral vestibular loss (BVD) were recorded. The rapid, gaze-position corrections (GPCs) that appeared when vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) slow phases were undercompensatory were characterized. For comparison, eye movements from normal subjects who were asked to generate saccades in the direction opposite head rotation (in the same direction as slow phases) were recorded. This normal-subject model produced responses with spatial and temporal characteristics similar to those from GPCs in patients as follows: When head rotations were generated actively, compared with passively, gaze-position errors and corresponding GPCs were smaller and occurred earlier. During passively generated head thrusts, GPCs still occurred when head rotations were made in total darkness, though their accuracy decreased as the requirement for maintaining gaze on a specific location in space was relaxed. Time of onset of GPCs was not rigidly tied to head kinematics (peak velocity or peak acceleration). Speeds of GPCs, however, were lower than speeds of similar-sized, head-fixed saccades. Finally, during passive and active head thrusts in patients, sustained, high-frequency (20 to 30 Hz) oscillations that appeared as tiny saccades were occasionally observed, one immediately following the other, resembling a compensatory slow-phase response. Taken together, the results suggest that one strategy for overcoming a VOR deficit is to enlist the saccadic system to produce an oculomotor response that is required to compensate for head rotation. This response may come in the form of high-velocity GPCs or smaller-amplitude oscillations.

  3. Eye Movements Reveal the Dynamic Simulation of Speed in Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speed, Laura J.; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how speed of motion is processed in language. In three eye-tracking experiments, participants were presented with visual scenes and spoken sentences describing fast or slow events (e.g., "The lion ambled/dashed to the balloon"). Results showed that looking time to relevant objects in the visual scene was affected…

  4. Eye Movements and Display Change Detection during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Timothy J.; Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2011-01-01

    In the boundary change paradigm (Rayner, 1975), when a reader's eyes cross an invisible boundary location, a preview word is replaced by a target word. Readers are generally unaware of such changes due to saccadic suppression. However, some readers detect changes on a few trials and a small percentage of them detect many changes. Two experiments…

  5. Anticipatory Effects of Intonation: Eye Movements during Instructed Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Kiwako; Speer, Shari R.

    2008-01-01

    Three eye-tracking experiments investigated the role of pitch accents during online discourse comprehension. Participants faced a grid with ornaments, and followed prerecorded instructions such as "Next, hang the blue ball" to decorate holiday trees. Experiment 1 demonstrated a processing advantage for felicitous as compared to infelicitous uses…

  6. Eye Movements during Auditory Attention Predict Individual Differences in Dorsal Attention Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Rodrigo M.; Fu, Richard Z.; Seemungal, Barry M.; Wise, Richard J. S.; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms supporting auditory attention are not fully understood. A dorsal frontoparietal network of brain regions is thought to mediate the spatial orienting of attention across all sensory modalities. Key parts of this network, the frontal eye fields (FEF) and the superior parietal lobes (SPL), contain retinotopic maps and elicit saccades when stimulated. This suggests that their recruitment during auditory attention might reflect crossmodal oculomotor processes; however this has not been confirmed experimentally. Here we investigate whether task-evoked eye movements during an auditory task can predict the magnitude of activity within the dorsal frontoparietal network. A spatial and non-spatial listening task was used with on-line eye-tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). No visual stimuli or cues were used. The auditory task elicited systematic eye movements, with saccade rate and gaze position predicting attentional engagement and the cued sound location, respectively. Activity associated with these separate aspects of evoked eye-movements dissociated between the SPL and FEF. However these observed eye movements could not account for all the activation in the frontoparietal network. Our results suggest that the recruitment of the SPL and FEF during attentive listening reflects, at least partly, overt crossmodal oculomotor processes during non-visual attention. Further work is needed to establish whether the network’s remaining contribution to auditory attention is through covert crossmodal processes, or is directly involved in the manipulation of auditory information. PMID:27242465

  7. Vestibulo-Cervico-Ocular Responses and Tracking Eye Movements after Prolonged Exposure to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Naumov, I. A.; Azarov, K. A.; Sagalovitch, S. V.; Reschke, Millard F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2007-01-01

    The vestibular function and tracking eye movements were investigated in 12 Russian crew members of ISS missions on days 1(2), 4(5-6), and 8(9-10) after prolonged exposure to microgravity (126 to 195 days). The spontaneous oculomotor activity, static torsional otolith-cervico-ocular reflex, dynamic vestibulo-cervico-ocular responses, vestibular reactivity, tracking eye movements, and gaze-holding were studied using videooculography (VOG) and electrooculography (EOG) for parallel eye movement recording. On post-flight days 1-2 (R+1-2) some cosmonauts demonstrated: - an increased spontaneous oculomotor activity (floating eye movements, spontaneous nystagmus of the typical and atypical form, square wave jerks, gaze nystagmus) with the head held in the vertical position; - suppressed otolith function (absent or reduced by one half amplitude of torsional compensatory eye counter-rolling) with the head inclined statically right- or leftward by 300; - increased vestibular reactivity (lowered threshold and increased intensity of the vestibular nystagmus) during head turns around the longitudinal body axis at 0.125 Hz; - a significant change in the accuracy, velocity, and temporal characteristics of the eye tracking. The pattern, depth, dynamics, and velocity of the vestibular function and tracking eye movements recovery varied with individual participants in the investigation. However, there were also regular responses during readaptation to the normal gravity: - suppression of the otolith function was typically accompanied by an exaggerated vestibular reactivity; - the structure of visual tracking (the accuracy of fixational eye rotations, smooth tracking, and gaze-holding) was disturbed (the appearance of correcting saccades, the transition of smooth tracking to saccadic tracking) only in those cosmonauts who, in parallel to an increased reactivity of the vestibular input, also had central changes in the oculomotor system (spontaneous nystagmus, gaze nystagmus).

  8. Eye movements are coordinated with pectoral fin beats during locomotion in a marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Mandecki, Joanna L; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-04-15

    Animals must simultaneously engage multiple functional systems in order to navigate, feed and survive in complex environments. Nearly all vertebrates perform rapid gaze-shifting eye movements called saccades, but we know little about the behaviour of saccades during rhythmic locomotion. This study examined how saccades are coordinated with locomotor movements in a pectoral-fin-propelled teleost fish, Cymatogaster aggregata, the shiner surfperch. Individual fish were filmed swimming in a flow tank at 10 cm s(-1), and timing data were analysed using circular statistics. The results reveal that C. aggregata generates saccades non-uniformly throughout the pectoral fin cycle. Saccades primarily occur during fin abduction, when a large amount of thrust is produced, and rarely occur during the thrust-free refractory phase. Because vision is known to be impaired during saccades, we hypothesize that C. aggregata synchronizes saccades with periods of high acceleration in order to stabilize retinal images during low-acceleration phases, which are nearly saccade-free.

  9. Effects of word length on eye movement control: The evidence from Arabic.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Kevin B; Almabruk, Abubaker A A; McGowan, Victoria A; White, Sarah J; Jordan, Timothy R

    2015-10-01

    The finding that word length plays a fundamental role in determining where and for how long readers fixate within a line of text has been central to the development of sophisticated models of eye movement control. However, research in this area is dominated by the use of Latinate languages (e.g., English, French, German), and little is known about eye movement control for alphabetic languages with very different visual characteristics. To address this issue, the present experiment undertook a novel investigation of the influence of word length on eye movement behavior when reading Arabic. Arabic is an alphabetic language that not only is read from right to left but has visual characteristics fundamentally different from Latinate languages, and so is ideally suited to testing the generality of mechanisms of eye movement control. The findings reveal that readers were more likely to fixate and refixate longer words, and also that longer words tended to be fixated for longer. In addition, word length influenced the landing positions of initial fixations on words, with the effect that readers fixated the center of short words and fixated closer to the beginning letters for longer words, and the location of landing positions affected both the duration of the first fixation and probability of refixating the word. The indication now, therefore, is that effects of word length are a widespread and fundamental component of reading and play a central role in guiding eye-movement behavior across a range of very different alphabetic systems.

  10. Individual Differences in Eye-Movements During Reading: Working Memory and Speed-of-Processing Effects.

    PubMed

    Traxler, Matthew J; Long, Debra L; Tooley, Kristen M; Johns, Clinton L; Zirnstein, Megan; Jonathan, Eunike

    Theories of eye-movement control in reading should ultimately describe how differences in knowledge and cognitive abilities affect reading and comprehension. Current mathematical models of eye-movement control do not yet incorporate individual differences as a source of variation in reading, although developmental and group-difference effects have been studied. These models nonetheless provide an excellent foundation for describing and explaining how and why patterns of eye-movements differ across readers (e.g., Rayner, Chace, & Ashby, 2006). Our focus in this article is on two aspects of individual variation: global processing speed (e.g., Salthouse, 1996) and working-memory capacity (e.g., Just & Carpenter, 1992). Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2001), we tested the extent to which overall reading speed and working-memory capacity moderate the degree to which syntactic and semantic information affect fixation times. Previous published data (Traxler et al., 2005) showed that working memory capacity and syntactic complexity interacted to determine fixation times in an eye-movement monitoring experiment. In a new set of models based on this same data set, we found that working-memory capacity interacted with sentence-characteristic variables only when processing speed was not included in the model. We interpret these findings with respect to current accounts of sentence processing and suggest how they might be incorporated into eye-movement control models.

  11. Individual Differences in Eye-Movements During Reading: Working Memory and Speed-of-Processing Effects

    PubMed Central

    Traxler, Matthew J.; Long, Debra L.; Tooley, Kristen M.; Johns, Clinton L.; Zirnstein, Megan; Jonathan, Eunike

    2015-01-01

    Theories of eye-movement control in reading should ultimately describe how differences in knowledge and cognitive abilities affect reading and comprehension. Current mathematical models of eye-movement control do not yet incorporate individual differences as a source of variation in reading, although developmental and group-difference effects have been studied. These models nonetheless provide an excellent foundation for describing and explaining how and why patterns of eye-movements differ across readers (e.g., Rayner, Chace, & Ashby, 2006). Our focus in this article is on two aspects of individual variation: global processing speed (e.g., Salthouse, 1996) and working-memory capacity (e.g., Just & Carpenter, 1992). Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2001), we tested the extent to which overall reading speed and working-memory capacity moderate the degree to which syntactic and semantic information affect fixation times. Previous published data (Traxler et al., 2005) showed that working memory capacity and syntactic complexity interacted to determine fixation times in an eye-movement monitoring experiment. In a new set of models based on this same data set, we found that working-memory capacity interacted with sentence-characteristic variables only when processing speed was not included in the model. We interpret these findings with respect to current accounts of sentence processing and suggest how they might be incorporated into eye-movement control models. PMID:26085919

  12. The role of eye movements in depth from motion parallax during infancy.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, Elizabeth; Nawrot, Mark

    2013-12-18

    Motion parallax is a motion-based, monocular depth cue that uses an object's relative motion and velocity as a cue to relative depth. In adults, and in monkeys, a smooth pursuit eye movement signal is used to disambiguate the depth-sign provided by these relative motion cues. The current study investigates infants' perception of depth from motion parallax and the development of two oculomotor functions, smooth pursuit and the ocular following response (OFR) eye movements. Infants 8 to 20 weeks of age were presented with three tasks in a single session: depth from motion parallax, smooth pursuit tracking, and OFR to translation. The development of smooth pursuit was significantly related to age, as was sensitivity to motion parallax. OFR eye movements also corresponded to both age and smooth pursuit gain, with groups of infants demonstrating asymmetric function in both types of eye movements. These results suggest that the development of the eye movement system may play a crucial role in the sensitivity to depth from motion parallax in infancy. Moreover, describing the development of these oculomotor functions in relation to depth perception may aid in the understanding of certain visual dysfunctions.

  13. Visual processing and social cognition in schizophrenia: relationships among eye movements, biological motion perception, and empathy.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukiko; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have impairments at several levels of cognition including visual attention (eye movements), perception, and social cognition. However, it remains unclear how lower-level cognitive deficits influence higher-level cognition. To elucidate the hierarchical path linking deficient cognitions, we focused on biological motion perception, which is involved in both the early stage of visual perception (attention) and higher social cognition, and is impaired in schizophrenia. Seventeen schizophrenia patients and 18 healthy controls participated in the study. Using point-light walker stimuli, we examined eye movements during biological motion perception in schizophrenia. We assessed relationships among eye movements, biological motion perception and empathy. In the biological motion detection task, schizophrenia patients showed lower accuracy and fixated longer than healthy controls. As opposed to controls, patients exhibiting longer fixation durations and fewer numbers of fixations demonstrated higher accuracy. Additionally, in the patient group, the correlations between accuracy and affective empathy index and between eye movement index and affective empathy index were significant. The altered gaze patterns in patients indicate that top-down attention compensates for impaired bottom-up attention. Furthermore, aberrant eye movements might lead to deficits in biological motion perception and finally link to social cognitive impairments. The current findings merit further investigation for understanding the mechanism of social cognitive training and its development.

  14. EALab (Eye Activity Lab): a MATLAB Toolbox for Variable Extraction, Multivariate Analysis and Classification of Eye-Movement Data.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Solnais, Celine; Sriskandarajah, Kumuthan

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the reliability of the eye-tracking methodology as well as the increasing availability of affordable non-intrusive technology have opened the door to new research opportunities in a variety of areas and applications. This has raised increasing interest within disciplines such as medicine, business and education for analysing human perceptual and psychological processes based on eye-tracking data. However, most of the currently available software requires programming skills and focuses on the analysis of a limited set of eye-movement measures (e.g., saccades and fixations), thus excluding other measures of interest to the classification of a determined state or condition. This paper describes 'EALab', a MATLAB toolbox aimed at easing the extraction, multivariate analysis and classification stages of eye-activity data collected from commercial and independent eye trackers. The processing implemented in this toolbox enables to evaluate variables extracted from a wide range of measures including saccades, fixations, blinks, pupil diameter and glissades. Using EALab does not require any programming and the analysis can be performed through a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) consisting of three processing modules: 1) eye-activity measure extraction interface, 2) variable selection and analysis interface, and 3) classification interface.

  15. An fMRI study of training voluntary smooth circular eye movements.

    PubMed

    Kleiser, Raimund; Stadler, Cornelia; Wimmer, Sibylle; Matyas, Thomas; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2017-03-01

    Despite a large number of recent studies, the promise of fMRI methods to produce valuable insights into motor skill learning has been restricted to sequence learning paradigms, or manual training paradigms where a relatively advanced capacity for sensory-motor integration and effector coordination already exists. We therefore obtained fMRIs from 16 healthy adults trained in a new paradigm that demanded voluntary smooth circular eye movements without a moving target. This aimed to monitor neural activation during two possible motor learning processes: (a) the smooth pursuit control system develops a new perceptual-motor relationship and successfully becomes involved in voluntary action in which it is not normally involved or (b) the saccadic system normally used for voluntary eye movement and which only exhibits linear action skill develops new dynamic coordinative control capable of smooth circular movement. Participants were able to improve within half an hour, typically demonstrating saccadic movement with progressively reduced amplitudes, which better approximated smooth circular movement. Activity in the inferior premotor cortex was significantly modulated and decreased during the progress of learning. In contrast, activations in dorsal premotor and parietal cortex along the intraparietal sulcus, the supplementary eye field and the anterior cerebellum did not change during training. Thus, the decrease of activity in inferior premotor cortex was critically related to the learning progress in visuospatial eye movement control.

  16. Trajectory prediction of saccadic eye movements using a compressed exponential model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Peng; Saunders, Daniel R.; Woods, Russell L.; Luo, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Gaze-contingent display paradigms play an important role in vision research. The time delay due to data transmission from eye tracker to monitor may lead to a misalignment between the gaze dire