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Sample records for rapid meta ii

  1. Vertebrate rhodopsin adaptation to dim light via rapid meta-II intermediate formation.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Tohru; Imai, Hiroo; Nikaido, Masato; Imamoto, Yasushi; Okada, Norihiro

    2010-03-01

    Rhodopsin is a photoreceptive protein present in vertebrate rod photoreceptor cells, which are responsible for scotopic vision. Recent molecular studies have shown that several aquatic vertebrate species have independently acquired rhodopsin containing Asp83Asn, Glu122Gln, and Ala292Ser substitutions, causing a blue shift in the rhodopsin absorption spectra for adaptation to the blue-green photic environment in deep water. Here, we provide new evidence for the evolutionary and functional relevance of the Asp83Asn substitution. Spectroscopic and kinetic analyses of rhodopsins in six cichlid fishes from the East African Great Lakes using charge-coupled device spectrophotometer revealed that the Asp83Asn substitution accelerated the formation of meta-II, a rhodopsin intermediate crucial for activation of the G-protein transducin. Because rapid formation of meta-II likely results in effective transduction of photic signals, it is reasonable to assume that deep-water cichlid species have acquired rhodopsin containing Asn83 to adapt to dim lighting. Remarkably, rhodopsin containing Asn83 has been identified in terrestrial vertebrates such as bats, and these rhodopsin variants also exhibit accelerated meta-II formation. Our results indicated that the Asp83Asn substitution observed in a variety of animal species was acquired independently in many different lineages during vertebrate evolution for adaptation to dimly lit environments.

  2. The 9-methyl group of retinal is essential for rapid Meta II decay and phototransduction quenching in red cones

    PubMed Central

    Kolesnikov, Alexander V.; Ala-Laurila, Petri; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Govardovskii, Victor I.; Cornwall, M. Carter

    2009-01-01

    Cone photoreceptors of the vertebrate retina terminate their response to light much faster than rod photoreceptors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this rapid response termination in cones are poorly understood. The experiments presented here tested two related hypotheses: first, that the rapid decay rate of metarhodopsin (Meta) II in red-sensitive cones depends on interactions between the 9-methyl group of retinal and the opsin part of the pigment molecule, and second, that rapid Meta II decay is critical for rapid recovery from saturation of red-sensitive cones after exposure to bright light. Microspectrophotometric measurements of pigment photolysis, microfluorometric measurements of retinol production, and single-cell electrophysiological recordings of flash responses of salamander cones were performed to test these hypotheses. In all cases, cones were bleached and their visual pigment was regenerated with either 11-cis retinal or with 11-cis 9-demethyl retinal, an analogue of retinal lacking the 9-methyl group. Meta II decay was four to five times slower and subsequent retinol production was three to four times slower in red-sensitive cones lacking the 9-methyl group of retinal. This was accompanied by a significant slowing of the recovery from saturation in cones lacking the 9-methyl group after exposure to bright (>0.1% visual pigment photoactivated) but not dim light. A mathematical model of the turn-off process of phototransduction revealed that the slower recovery of photoresponse can be explained by slower Meta decay of 9-demethyl visual pigment. These results demonstrate that the 9-methyl group of retinal is required for steric chromophore–opsin interactions that favor both the rapid decay of Meta II and the rapid response recovery after exposure to bright light in red-sensitive cones. PMID:19635855

  3. The 9-methyl group of retinal is essential for rapid Meta II decay and phototransduction quenching in red cones.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Maureen E; Kolesnikov, Alexander V; Ala-Laurila, Petri; Crouch, Rosalie K; Govardovskii, Victor I; Cornwall, M Carter

    2009-08-01

    Cone photoreceptors of the vertebrate retina terminate their response to light much faster than rod photoreceptors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this rapid response termination in cones are poorly understood. The experiments presented here tested two related hypotheses: first, that the rapid decay rate of metarhodopsin (Meta) II in red-sensitive cones depends on interactions between the 9-methyl group of retinal and the opsin part of the pigment molecule, and second, that rapid Meta II decay is critical for rapid recovery from saturation of red-sensitive cones after exposure to bright light. Microspectrophotometric measurements of pigment photolysis, microfluorometric measurements of retinol production, and single-cell electrophysiological recordings of flash responses of salamander cones were performed to test these hypotheses. In all cases, cones were bleached and their visual pigment was regenerated with either 11-cis retinal or with 11-cis 9-demethyl retinal, an analogue of retinal lacking the 9-methyl group. Meta II decay was four to five times slower and subsequent retinol production was three to four times slower in red-sensitive cones lacking the 9-methyl group of retinal. This was accompanied by a significant slowing of the recovery from saturation in cones lacking the 9-methyl group after exposure to bright (>0.1% visual pigment photoactivated) but not dim light. A mathematical model of the turn-off process of phototransduction revealed that the slower recovery of photoresponse can be explained by slower Meta decay of 9-demethyl visual pigment. These results demonstrate that the 9-methyl group of retinal is required for steric chromophore-opsin interactions that favor both the rapid decay of Meta II and the rapid response recovery after exposure to bright light in red-sensitive cones.

  4. Design of the new METAS watt balance experiment Mark II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, H.; Eichenberger, A.; Cosandier, F.; Jeckelmann, B.; Clavel, R.; Reber, D.; Tommasini, D.

    2013-06-01

    The kilogram is the last unit of the international system of units (SI) still based on a material artefact, the international prototype of the kilogram (IPK). The comparisons made in the last hundred years have clearly revealed a long-term relative drift between the IPK and the official copies kept under similar conditions at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. A promising route towards a new definition of the kilogram based on a fundamental constant is represented by the watt balance experiment which links the mass unit to the Planck constant h. For more than ten years, the Federal Institute of Metrology METAS has been actively working in the conception and development of a watt balance experiment. This paper describes the new design of the Mark II METAS watt balance. The metrological characteristics of the different components of the experiment are described and discussed.

  5. Prevalence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in Parkinson's disease: a meta and meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaona; Sun, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Junhong; Tang, Liou; Xie, Anmu

    2017-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is thought to be one of the most frequent preceding symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the prevalence of RBD in PD stated in the published studies is still inconsistent. We conducted a meta and meta-regression analysis in this paper to estimate the pooled prevalence. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE and EBSCO up to June 2016 for related articles. STATA 12.0 statistics software was used to calculate the available data from each research. The prevalence of RBD in PD patients in each study was combined to a pooled prevalence with a 95 % confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis were performed to search for the causes of the heterogeneity. A total of 28 studies with 6869 PD cases were deemed eligible and included in our meta-analysis based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of RBD in PD was 42.3 % (95 % CI 37.4-47.1 %). In subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis, we found that the important causes of heterogeneity were the diagnosis criteria of RBD and age of PD patients (P = 0.016, P = 0.019, respectively). The results indicate that nearly half of the PD patients are suffering from RBD. Older age and longer duration are risk factors for RBD in PD. We can use the minimal diagnosis criteria for RBD according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders to diagnose RBD patients in our daily work if polysomnography is not necessary.

  6. Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading Performance: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araújo, Susana; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Faísca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that rapid naming skill is associated with reading ability has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. However, there is considerable variation in the literature concerning the magnitude of this relationship. The objective of the present study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the evidence on the relationship between rapid…

  7. Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading Performance: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araújo, Susana; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Faísca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that rapid naming skill is associated with reading ability has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. However, there is considerable variation in the literature concerning the magnitude of this relationship. The objective of the present study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the evidence on the relationship between rapid…

  8. Rapid increase in Japanese life expectancy after World War II.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yasuo; Ju, Young-Su; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2010-02-01

    Japanese life expectancy increased by about 13.7 years during the first decade after World War II, despite the country's post-war poverty. Although it is known that medical progress explains part of this increase, roles of non-medical factors have not been systematically studied. This study hypothesizes that non-medical factors, in addition to medical factors, are associated with the rapid increase in life expectancy in Japan. We analyzed the time trends of potential explanatory factors and used regression analysis with historical data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications' Historical Statistics of Japan during the period between 1946 and 1983. Time trends analysis revealed that the rapid increase in life expectancy preceded the dramatic growth of per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 10 years. In education, the nearly universal enrollment in elementary schools and increased advancement to upper secondary schools for both sexes were associated with better health. Regarding legislation, 32 health laws were passed in the first decade after the war and these laws were associated with improved health. Using regression analysis, we found that the enrollment rate in elementary schools, the number of health laws, and expansion of community-based activity staff were significantly associated with the increased life expectancy during the first decade after World War II. To conclude, in addition to medical factors, non-medical factors applied across the country, particularly education, community-based activities and legislation were associated with the rapid increase in Japanese life expectancy after World War II.

  9. On the nature of rapidly fading Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Pruzhinskaya, Maria V.; Ergon, Mattias; Blinnikov, Sergei I.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that Type II supernovae with rapidly fading light curves (a.k.a. Type IIL supernovae) are explosions of progenitors with low-mass hydrogen-rich envelopes which are of the order of 1 M⊙. We investigate light-curve properties of supernovae from such progenitors. We confirm that such progenitors lead to rapidly fading Type II supernovae. We find that the luminosity of supernovae from such progenitors with the canonical explosion energy of 1051 erg and 56Ni mass of 0.05 M⊙ can increase temporarily shortly before all the hydrogen in the envelope recombines. As a result, a bump appears in their light curves. The bump appears because the heating from the nuclear decay of 56Ni can keep the bottom of hydrogen-rich layers in the ejecta ionized, and thus the photosphere can stay there for a while. We find that the light-curve bump becomes less significant when we make explosion energy larger (≳2 × 1051 erg), 56Ni mass smaller (≲0.01 M⊙), 56Ni mixed in the ejecta, or the progenitor radius larger. Helium mixing in hydrogen-rich layers makes the light-curve decline rates large but does not help reducing the light-curve bump. Because the light-curve bump we found in our light-curve models has not been observed in rapidly fading Type II supernovae, they may be characterized by not only low-mass hydrogen-rich envelopes but also higher explosion energy, larger degrees of 56Ni mixing, and/or larger progenitor radii than slowly fading Type II supernovae, so that the light-curve bump does not become significant.

  10. Rapid maxillary expansion and obstructive sleep apnea: A review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zancanella, Edilson; Crespo, Agrício-Nubiato

    2016-01-01

    Background OSAS during childhood leads to significant physical and neuropsychomotor impairment. Thus, it needs to be recognized and treated early in order to avoid or attenuate the chronic problems associated with OSAS, which are deleterious to a child’s development. Adenotonsillectomy and, in select cases, continuous positive airwaypressure (CPAP) have been the preferred treatments for OSAS in children, and yet they are ineffective at fully ameliorating the disease. Minimally invasive treatments have recently been proposed, comprising intra-oral and extra-oral devices as well as speech therapy. Objetive: to conduct a meta-analysis on studies from around the world that used rapid maxillary expansion (RME) to treat OSAS in children. Material and Methods We performed a meta-analysis of studies using RME for OSA treatment in children. A literature survey was conductedusing PubMed and Medline for English articles published up to December 2014 with the following descriptors: Sleep Apnea, Obstructive, Children, Treatment, Orthodontic, Othopaedic, Maxillaryexpansion. Studies were included in the meta-analysisif they were case-controlled studies, randomized, and involved non-syndromic children aged 0 to 12years old diagnosed with OSA by the polysomnography apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) before and after the intervention, submitted RME only. Results In all, 10 articles conformed to the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The total sample size across all these articles was 215 children, having a mean age of 6.7 years,of whom58.6%were male. The mean AHI during the follow-up was -6.86 (p <0.0001). Conclusions We concluded that rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in children with OSAS appears to be an effective treatment for this syndrome. Further randomized clinical studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of RME in adults. Key words:Rapid maxillary expansión, obstructive sleep apnea, meta-analysis. PMID:27031063

  11. TOPAZ II Anti-Criticality Device Rapid Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Donald R.; Otting, William D.

    1994-07-01

    The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) has been working on a Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Project (NEPSTP) using an existing Russian Topaz II reactor system to power the NEPSTP satellite. Safety investigations have shown that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the United States with some modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A ``fuel-out'' water subcriticality concept was selected by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as the baseline concept. A fuel-out anti-criticality device (ACD) conceptual design was developed by Rockwell. The concept functions to hold the fuel from the four centermost thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) outside the reactor during launch and reliably inserts the fuel into the reactor once the operational orbit is achieved. A four-tenths scale ACD rapid prototype model, fabricated from the CATIA solids design model, clearly shows in three dimensions the relative size and spatial relationship of the ACD components.

  12. Rapid versus Non-rapid Cycling Bipolar II Depression: Response to Venlafaxine and Lithium and Hypomanic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Soeller, Irene; DeRubeis, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the safety and effectiveness of antidepressant versus mood stabilizer monotherapy in rapid versus non-rapid cycling bipolar II disorder. Method Subjects ≥18 years old with bipolar II depression (n=129) were randomized to double-blind venlafaxine or lithium carbonate monotherapy for 12 weeks. Responders (n=59) received continuation monotherapy for 6 additional months. Results Rapid cycling did not affect frequency of response or change over time in depressive symptoms. Rapid cycling status did not affect frequency of depressive relapse or sustained treatment response. Rapid cyclers were more likely to experience hypomanic symptoms (p=0.005) during continuation monotherapy; however, rates were similar in venlafaxine (17.6%) and lithium (42.9%) (p=0.31). Conclusion Rapid cycling status may not be associated with an increased risk of diminished response or greater depressive relapse during venlafaxine, relative to lithium monotherapy, in bipolar II subjects. Additional randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26803764

  13. Rapid formation of the stable tyrosyl radical in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Faller, P; Debus, R J; Brettel, K; Sugiura, M; Rutherford, A W; Boussac, A

    2001-12-04

    Two symmetrically positioned redox active tyrosine residues are present in the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center. One of them, TyrZ, is oxidized in the ns-micros time scale by P680+ and reduced rapidly (micros to ms) by electrons from the Mn complex. The other one, TyrD, is stable in its oxidized form and seems to play no direct role in enzyme function. Here, we have studied electron donation from these tyrosines to the chlorophyll cation (P680+) in Mn-depleted PSII from plants and cyanobacteria. In particular, a mutant lacking TyrZ was used to investigate electron donation from TyrD. By using EPR and time-resolved absorption spectroscopy, we show that reduced TyrD is capable of donating an electron to P680+ with t1/2 approximately equal to 190 ns at pH 8.5 in approximately half of the centers. This rate is approximately 10(5) times faster than was previously thought and similar to the TyrZ donation rate in Mn-depleted wild-type PSII (pH 8.5). Some earlier arguments put forward to rationalize the supposedly slow electron donation from TyrD (compared with that from TyrZ) can be reassessed. At pH 6.5, TyrZ (t1/2 = 2-10 micros) donates much faster to P680+ than does TyrD (t1/2 > 150 micros). These different rates may reflect the different fates of the proton released from the respective tyrosines upon oxidation. The rapid rate of electron donation from TyrD requires at least partial localization of P680+ on the chlorophyll (PD2) that is located on the D2 side of the reaction center.

  14. Plasma exchange for renal vasculitis and idiopathic rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Michael; Catapano, Fausta; Szpirt, Wladimir; Thorlund, Kristian; Bruchfeld, Annette; Guillevin, Loic; Haubitz, Marion; Merkel, Peter A.; Peh, Chen Au; Pusey, Charles; Jayne, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Plasma exchange may be effective adjunctive treatment for renal vasculitis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials of plasma exchange for renal vasculitis. Study Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of manuscripts identified from electronic databases, bibliographies, and studies identified by experts. Data was abstracted in parallel by two reviewers. Setting & Population Adults with idiopathic renal vasculitis or rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis Selection Criteria for Studies Randomized controlled trials that compared standard care with standard care plus adjuvant plasma exchange in adult patients with either renal vasculitis or idiopathic rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Intervention Adjuvant plasma exchange Outcome Composite of end-stage renal disease or death. Results We identified 9 trials including 387 patients. In a fixed-effects model the pooled relative risk of end-stage renal disease or death was 0.80 for patients treated with adjunctive plasma exchange compared to standard care alone (95% confidence interval 0.65 to 0.99; p=0.04). No significant heterogeneity was detected (p=0.5; I2=0%). The effect of plasma exchange did not differ significantly across the range of baseline serum creatinine values (p=0.7) or number of plasma exchange treatments (p=0.8). The relative risk for end-stage renal disease was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.88; p=0.006) while the relative risk for death alone was 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.4; p=0.9). Limitations Although the primary result was statistically significant, there is insufficient statistical information to reliable determine if plasma exchange reduces the composite of end-stage renal disease or death. Conclusions Plasma exchange may reduce the composite endpoint of end-stage renal disease or death in renal vasculitis. Further trials are required given the limited data available. PMID:21194817

  15. How well Do Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Correlate with Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Georgiou, George K.; Su, Mengmeng; Hua, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading have been conducted primarily in English, an atypical alphabetic orthography. Here, we aimed to examine the association between phonological awareness, RAN, and word reading in a nonalphabetic language (Chinese). A random-effects…

  16. How well Do Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Correlate with Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Georgiou, George K.; Su, Mengmeng; Hua, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading have been conducted primarily in English, an atypical alphabetic orthography. Here, we aimed to examine the association between phonological awareness, RAN, and word reading in a nonalphabetic language (Chinese). A random-effects…

  17. Rapid versus non-rapid cycling bipolar II depression: response to venlafaxine and lithium and hypomanic risk.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Luaces, L; Amsterdam, J D; Soeller, I; DeRubeis, R J

    2016-06-01

    To examine the safety and effectiveness of antidepressant versus mood stabilizer monotherapy in rapid versus non-rapid cycling bipolar II disorder. Subjects ≥18 years old with bipolar II depression (n = 129) were randomized to double-blind venlafaxine or lithium carbonate monotherapy for 12 weeks. Responders (n = 59) received continuation monotherapy for six additional months. Rapid cycling did not affect frequency of response or change over time in depressive symptoms. Rapid cycling status did not affect frequency of depressive relapse or sustained treatment response. Rapid cyclers were more likely to experience hypomanic symptoms (P = 0.005) during continuation monotherapy; however, rates were similar in venlafaxine (17.6%) and lithium (42.9%) (P = 0.31). Rapid cycling status may not be associated with an increased risk of diminished response or greater depressive relapse during venlafaxine, relative to lithium monotherapy, in bipolar II subjects. Additional randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Rapid Palatal Expansion to Treat Nocturnal Enuretic Children: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Poorsattar-Bejeh Mir, Karim; Poorsattar-Bejeh Mir, Arash; Poorsattar-Bejeh Mir, Morvarid; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Balmeh, Pouya; Nosrati, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Refractory nocturnal enuresis possesses a heavy psychosocial burden for the affected child. Only a 15% spontaneous annual cure rate is reported. Purpose This patient-level meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy of rapid palatal expansion to treat nocturnal enuresis among children. Materials and Method A sensitive search of electronic databases of PubMed (since 1966), SCOPUS (containing EMBASE, since 1980), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL and EBSCO till Jan 2014 was performed. A set of regular terms was used for searching in data banks except for PubMed, for which medical subject headings (MeSH) keywords were used. Children aged at least six years old at the time of recruitment of either gender who underwent rapid palatal expansion and had attempted any type of pharmacotherapy prior to orthodontic intervention were included. Results Six non-randomized clinical trials were found relevant, of which five studies had no control group. Eighty children were investigated with the mean age of 118 (28.12) months ranged from 74 to 185 months. The median time to become completely dry was 2.87 months [confidence interval (CI) 95% 2.07-2.93 months]. After one year, the average rate of becoming complete dry was 31%. The presence of posterior cross bite [relative risk (RR): 0.31, CI 95%: 0.12-0.79] and signs of upper respiratory obstruction during sleep (RR: 5.1, CI 95%: 1.44-18.04) significantly decreased and increased the chance of improvement, respectively. Meanwhile, the other predictors did not significantly predict the outcome after simultaneous adjustment in Cox regression model. Conclusion Rapid palatal expansion may be considered when other treatment modalities have failed. The 31% rate of cure is promising when compared to the spontaneous cure rate. Though, high-level evidence from the rigorous randomized controlled trials is scarce (Level of evidence: C). PMID:26331141

  19. Rapid and wide-range determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) in fish tissues using light addressable potentiometric sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Xu, Yiwei; Tahir, Haroon E; Zou, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping

    2017-04-15

    A rapid and wide-range method, based on light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), is introduced into determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) in fish tissues. A compact LAPS module is prepared by integrating four LAPS chips specifically sensitive to target elements. Its responses in digestions from various settings are investigated to find suitable factors. Analytical properties of this method are evaluated in consequent experiments under optimized conditions. Measurement range for each target element exceeds 0.1 to 1000mgL(-1), and response time is less than 10s. Accuracy, precision and selectivity of the proposed method are also well defined in measurements. It is successively performed to detect the target elements in real fish samples from 4 species, and obtained results are consistent with certified method.

  20. MetaFam: a unified classification of protein families. II. Schema and query capabilities.

    PubMed

    Shoop, E; Silverstein, K A; Johnson, J E; Retzel, E F

    2001-03-01

    Protein sequence and family data is accumulating at such a rapid rate that state-of-the-art databases and interface tools are required to aid curators with their classifications. We have designed such a system, MetaFam, to facilitate the comparison and integration of public protein sequence and family data. This paper presents the global schema, integration issues, and query capabilities of MetaFam. MetaFam is an integrated data warehouse of information about protein families and their sequences. This data has been collected into a consistent global schema, and stored in an Oracle relational database. The warehouse implementation allows for quick removal of outdated data sets. In addition to the relational implementation of the primary schema, we have developed several derived tables that enable efficient access from data visualization and exploration tools. Through a series of straightforward SQL queries, we demonstrate the usefulness of this data warehouse for comparing protein family classifications and for functional assignment of new sequences.

  1. Rapid metabolism of exogenous angiotensin II by catecholaminergic neuronal cells in culture media.

    PubMed

    Basu, Urmi; Seravalli, Javier; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Adamec, Jiri; Case, Adam J; Zimmerman, Matthew C

    2015-02-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) acts on central neurons to increase neuronal firing and induce sympathoexcitation, which contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and heart failure. Numerous studies have examined the precise AngII-induced intraneuronal signaling mechanism in an attempt to identify new therapeutic targets for these diseases. Considering the technical challenges in studying specific intraneuronal signaling pathways in vivo, especially in the cardiovascular control brain regions, most studies have relied on neuronal cell culture models. However, there are numerous limitations in using cell culture models to study AngII intraneuronal signaling, including the lack of evidence indicating the stability of AngII in culture media. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous AngII is rapidly metabolized in neuronal cell culture media. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we measured levels of AngII and its metabolites, Ang III, Ang IV, and Ang-1-7, in neuronal cell culture media after administration of exogenous AngII (100 nmol/L) to a neuronal cell culture model (CATH.a neurons). AngII levels rapidly declined in the media, returning to near baseline levels within 3 h of administration. Additionally, levels of Ang III and Ang-1-7 acutely increased, while levels of Ang IV remained unchanged. Replenishing the media with exogenous AngII every 3 h for 24 h resulted in a consistent and significant increase in AngII levels for the duration of the treatment period. These data indicate that AngII is rapidly metabolized in neuronal cell culture media, and replenishing the media at least every 3 h is needed to sustain chronically elevated levels. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jichun; Ma, Yukui; Huang, Bin; Yuan, Ding; Yang, Yi; Zeng, Guojun; Xiong, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine the current evidence on risk factors for type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Materials and methods A systematic literature search was carried out for studies that evaluated the association of demographic, co-morbidity, and other patient-determined factors with the onset of type II endoleaks. Pooled prevalence of type II endoleaks after EVAR was updated. Results Among the 504 studies screened, 45 studies with a total of 36,588 participants were included in this review. The pooled prevalence of type II endoleaks after EVAR was 22% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19%–25%]. The main factors consistently associated with type II endoleaks included age [pooled odds ratio (OR), 0.37; 95% CI, 0.31–0.43; P<0.001], smoking (pooled OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55–0.92; P<0.001), patent inferior mesenteric artery (pooled OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.06–3.71; P = 0.012), maximum aneurysm diameter (pooled OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.17–0.30; P<0.001), and number of patent lumbar arteries (pooled OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.81–3.33; P<0.001). Sex, diabetes, hypertension, anticoagulants, antiplatelet, hyperlipidemia, chronic renal insufficiency, types of graft material, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) did not show any association with the onset of type II endoleaks. Conclusions Clinicians can use the identified risk factors to detect and manage patients at risk of developing type II endoleaks after EVAR. However, further studies are needed to analyze a number of potential risk factors. PMID:28182753

  3. The effectiveness of the Herbst appliance for patients with Class II malocclusion: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Zhu, Yafen; Long, Hu; Zhou, Yang; Jian, Fan; Ye, Niansong; Gao, Meiya

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective: To systematically investigate review in literature the effects of the Herbst appliance for patients with Class II malocclusion patients. Method: We performed a comprehensive literature survey on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CENTRAL, SIGLE, and ClinicalTrial.gov up to December 2014. The selection criteria: randomized controlled trials or clinical controlled trials; using any kind of Herbst appliances to correct Class II division 1 malocclusions; skeletal and/or dental changes evaluated through lateral cephalograms. And the exclusion criteria: syndromic patients; individual case reports and series of cases; surgical interventions. Article screening, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and evaluation of evidence quality through GRADE were conducted independently by two well-trained orthodontic doctors. Consensus was made via group discussion of all authors when there is inconsistent information from the two. After that, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were performed to evaluate the robustness of the meta-analysis. Results: Twelve clinical controlled trials meet the above-mentioned criteria, and were included in this analysis. All included studies have eleven measures taken during both active treatment effect and long term effect periods, including four angular ones (i.e., SNA, SNB, ANB, mandibular plane angle) and seven linear ones (i.e. Co-Go, Co-Gn, overjet, overbite, molar relationship, A point-OLp, Pg-OLp) during active treatment effect period were statistically pooled. Meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis demonstrated that all these measures showed consistent results except for SNA, ANB, and overbite. Subgroup analysis showed significant changes in SNA, overbite, and Pg-OLp. Publication bias was detected in SNB, mandibular plane angle, and A point-OLp. Conclusion: The Herbst appliance is effective for patients with Class II malocclusion in active treatment period. Especially, there are obvious changes on dental

  4. Energetic Radiation from Rapidly Spinning Pulsars. II. VELA and Crab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, K. S.; Ho, C.; Ruderman, M.

    1986-01-01

    The growth of charge-depleted regions (gaps) in the outer magnetosphere of rapidly spinning magnetized neutron stars is limited by e± production. In the Vela pulsar a pair of e+ and e- created within the gap (primaries) are accelerated in opposite directions to extreme relativistic energies. The primary e-/e+ produce primary γ-rays through inverse Compton scattering on IR photons. Primary γ-rays are sufficiently energetic to produce (secondary) e± pairs in collisions with this same IR photon flux. Secondary synchrotron radiation by these pairs gives crossed fan beams of γ-rays and weaker ones of X-rays. Collisions of the hard secondary γ-rays with the secondary crossed beam soft X-rays give a large flux of lower energy e± (tertiary) pairs which fill much of the outer magnetosphere. It is the (tertiary) IR synchrotron radiation from tertiary pairs through the outer gap which initiates the entire series of pair production processes. For Vela, the calculated observable consequences include (a) twin cusped γ-ray pulses with photon spectrum F(ω) ≍ ω-3/2 ln (3 GeV/hω) from 3 GeV to about 102 KeV; (b) total fan beam radiated power 10-2 the pulsar spin-down energy loss rate; (c) an X-ray spectrum F(ω) ≍ ω-2/3 below 102 KeV; (d) weak, more closely spaced twin optical pulses from the tertiary radiation with power 10-5 that of the secondary γ-rays; (e) and e± outflow of 1036 s-1; (f) a double pulse of 1012 - 1013 eV γ-rays with about 10-2 the γ-ray power. Model Crab pulsar emissions are considered with emphasis on differences from those of Vela. Crab primary outer gap e+/e- lose most of their energy to curvature γ-rays, which convert to e± pairs in collisions with X-rays. These X-rays come from the synchrotron (secondary) emission from such (secondary) pairs created beyond the gap boundary. Inverse Compton scattering of secondary e± on the secondary X-rays boosts a fraction to γ-rays. The combination of secondary synchrotron and inverse Compton

  5. Comparison of treatment outcome using two definitions of rapid cycling in subjects with bipolar II disorder.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Jay D; Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    We examined differences in treatment outcome between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-defined rapid cycling and average lifetime-defined rapid cycling in subjects with bipolar II disorder. We hypothesized that, compared with the DSM-IV definition, the average lifetime definition of rapid cycling may better identify subjects with a history of more mood lability and a greater likelihood of hypomanic symptom induction during long-term treatment. Subjects ≥18 years old with a bipolar II major depressive episode (n=129) were categorized into DSM-IV- and average lifetime-defined rapid cycling and prospectively treated with either venlafaxine or lithium monotherapy for 12 weeks. Responders (n=59) received continuation monotherapy for six additional months. These exploratory analyses found moderate agreement between the two rapid-cycling definitions (κ=0.56). The lifetime definition captured subjects with more chronic courses of bipolar II depression, whereas the DSM-IV definition captured subjects with more acute symptoms of hypomania. There was no difference between rapid-cycling definitions with respect to the response to acute venlafaxine or lithium monotherapy. However, the lifetime definition was slightly superior to the DSM-IV definition in identifying subjects who went on to experience hypomanic symptoms during continuation therapy. Although sample sizes were limited, the findings suggest that the lifetime definition of rapid cycling may identify individuals with a chronic rapid-cycling course and may also be slightly superior to the DSM-IV definition in identifying individuals with hypomania during relapse-prevention therapy. These findings are preliminary in nature and need replication in larger, prospective, bipolar II studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. GenoType MTBDRplus Assay for Rapid Detection of Multidrug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yueling; Shao, Chunhong; Hao, Yingying; Jin, Yan

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent demand for rapid and accurate drug-susceptibility testing for the detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The GenoType MTBDRplus assay is a promising molecular kit designed for rapid identification of resistance to first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs, isoniazid and rifampicin. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of GenoType MTBDRplus in detecting drug resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin in comparison with the conventional drug susceptibility tests. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases to identify studies according to predetermined criteria. A total of 40 studies were included in the meta-analysis. QUADAS-2 was used to assess the quality of included studies with RevMan 5.2. STATA 13.0 software was used to analyze the tests for sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio, and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves. Heterogeneity in accuracy measures was tested with Spearman correlation coefficient and Chi-square. Patient selection bias was observed in most studies. The pooled sensitivity (95% confidence intervals were 0.91 (0.88-0.94) for isoniazid, 0.96 (0.95-0.97) for rifampicin, and 0.91(0.86-0.94) for multidrug-resistance. The pooled specificity (95% CI) was 0.99 (0.98-0.99) for isoniazid, 0.98 (0.97-0.99) for rifampicin and 0.99 (0.99-1.00) for multidrug-resistance, respectively. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves ranged from 0.99 to 1.00. This meta-analysis determined that GenoType MTBDRplus had good accuracy for rapid detection of drug resistance to isoniazid and/or rifampicin of M. tuberculosis. MTBDRplus method might be a good alternative to conventional drug susceptibility tests in clinical practice.

  7. Are Treponema pallidum Specific Rapid and Point-of-Care Tests for Syphilis Accurate Enough for Screening in Resource Limited Settings? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Yalda; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Shivkumar, Sushmita; Claessens, Christiane; Joseph, Lawrence; Pai, Nitika Pant

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid and point-of-care (POC) tests for syphilis are an invaluable screening tool, yet inadequate evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy against best reference standards limits their widespread global uptake. To fill this gap, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid and POC tests in blood and serum samples against Treponema pallidum (TP) specific reference standards. Methods Five electronic databases (1980–2012) were searched, data was extracted from 33 articles, and Bayesian hierarchical models were fit. Results In serum samples, against a TP specific reference standard point estimates with 95% credible intervals (CrI) for the sensitivities of popular tests were: i) Determine, 90.04% (80.45, 95.21), ii) SD Bioline, 87.06% (75.67, 94.50), iii) VisiTect, 85.13% (72.83, 92.57), and iv) Syphicheck, 74.48% (56.85, 88.44), while specificities were: i) Syphicheck, 99.14% (96.37, 100), ii) Visitect, 96.45% (91.92, 99.29), iii) SD Bioline, 95.85% (89.89, 99.53), and iv) Determine, 94.15% (89.26, 97.66). In whole blood samples, sensitivities were: i) Determine, 86.32% (77.26, 91.70), ii) SD Bioline, 84.50% (78.81, 92.61), iii) Syphicheck, 74.47% (63.94, 82.13), and iv) VisiTect, 74.26% (53.62, 83.68), while specificities were: i) Syphicheck, 99.58% (98.91, 99.96), ii) VisiTect, 99.43% (98.22, 99.98), iii) SD Bioline, 97.95%(92.54, 99.33), and iv) Determine, 95.85% (92.42, 97.74). Conclusions Rapid and POC treponemal tests reported sensitivity and specificity estimates comparable to laboratory-based treponemal tests. In resource limited settings, where access to screening is limited and where risk of patients lost to follow up is high, the introduction of these tests has already been shown to improve access to screening and treatment to prevent stillbirths and neonatal mortality due to congenital syphilis. Based on the evidence, it is concluded that rapid and POC tests are useful in resource

  8. Are Treponema pallidum specific rapid and point-of-care tests for syphilis accurate enough for screening in resource limited settings? Evidence from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Yalda; Peeling, Rosanna W; Shivkumar, Sushmita; Claessens, Christiane; Joseph, Lawrence; Pai, Nitika Pant

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and point-of-care (POC) tests for syphilis are an invaluable screening tool, yet inadequate evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy against best reference standards limits their widespread global uptake. To fill this gap, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid and POC tests in blood and serum samples against Treponema pallidum (TP) specific reference standards. Five electronic databases (1980-2012) were searched, data was extracted from 33 articles, and Bayesian hierarchical models were fit. In serum samples, against a TP specific reference standard point estimates with 95% credible intervals (CrI) for the sensitivities of popular tests were: i) Determine, 90.04% (80.45, 95.21), ii) SD Bioline, 87.06% (75.67, 94.50), iii) VisiTect, 85.13% (72.83, 92.57), and iv) Syphicheck, 74.48% (56.85, 88.44), while specificities were: i) Syphicheck, 99.14% (96.37, 100), ii) Visitect, 96.45% (91.92, 99.29), iii) SD Bioline, 95.85% (89.89, 99.53), and iv) Determine, 94.15% (89.26, 97.66). In whole blood samples, sensitivities were: i) Determine, 86.32% (77.26, 91.70), ii) SD Bioline, 84.50% (78.81, 92.61), iii) Syphicheck, 74.47% (63.94, 82.13), and iv) VisiTect, 74.26% (53.62, 83.68), while specificities were: i) Syphicheck, 99.58% (98.91, 99.96), ii) VisiTect, 99.43% (98.22, 99.98), iii) SD Bioline, 97.95%(92.54, 99.33), and iv) Determine, 95.85% (92.42, 97.74). Rapid and POC treponemal tests reported sensitivity and specificity estimates comparable to laboratory-based treponemal tests. In resource limited settings, where access to screening is limited and where risk of patients lost to follow up is high, the introduction of these tests has already been shown to improve access to screening and treatment to prevent stillbirths and neonatal mortality due to congenital syphilis. Based on the evidence, it is concluded that rapid and POC tests are useful in resource limited settings with poor access to

  9. Diamagnetic anisotropy and orientation of alpha helix in frog rhodopsin and meta II intermediate.

    PubMed Central

    Chabre, M

    1978-01-01

    The diamagnetic anisotropy of retinal rod outer segments, and its variation upon bleaching, have been measured with a rotating field device. A large molar diamagnetic asymmetry is found for rhodopsin. This cannot be explained by an anisotropy of the aromatic side chains of the protein, nor by the orientation of the retinal chromophore. However, it can be accounted for by an orientation perpendicular to the disc membrane of a major proportion of the alpha-helical segments of the protein. Upon bleaching a decrease of 9 +/- 2% of the diamagnetic asymmetry is observed when going to the meta II intermediate. This change is not mainly due to a reorientation of the retinal, since it is practically insensitive to detachment of the chromophore by addition of NH2OH. Comparison with recent UV linear dichroism results indicate that it may be due to the rotation of a trytophan residue in the bleaching sequence. PMID:310121

  10. Quantitative analysis of topoisomerase II{alpha} to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Masashi; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Kano, Hideyuki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro; Katsuki, Takahisa; Shirahata, Mitsuaki; Ono, Makoto; Yamana, Norikazu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Takahashi, Jun A. . E-mail: jat@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-06-17

    Immunohistochemical cell proliferation analyses have come into wide use for evaluation of tumor malignancy. Topoisomerase II{alpha} (topo II{alpha}), an essential nuclear enzyme, has been known to have cell cycle coupled expression. We here show the usefulness of quantitative analysis of topo II{alpha} mRNA to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors. A protocol to quantify topo II{alpha} mRNA was developed with a real-time RT-PCR. It took only 3 h to quantify from a specimen. A total of 28 brain tumors were analyzed, and the level of topo II{alpha} mRNA was significantly correlated with its immuno-staining index (p < 0.0001, r = 0.9077). Furthermore, it sharply detected that topo II{alpha} mRNA decreased in growth-inhibited glioma cell. These results support that topo II{alpha} mRNA may be a good and rapid indicator to evaluate cell proliferate potential in brain tumors.

  11. Rapid removal and recovery of Pb(II) from wastewater by magnetic nanoadsorbents.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Nashaat N

    2010-12-15

    Iron oxide nanoadsorbents are cost-effective adsorbents that provide high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and simple separation and regeneration. In this study, Fe(3)O(4) nanoadsorbents have been employed for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions by a batch-adsorption technique. The effects of contact time, initial concentration of Pb(II) ions, temperature, solution pH and coexisting ions on the amount of Pb(II) adsorbed have been investigated. Pb(II) adsorption was fast, and equilibrium was achieved within 30 min. The amount of Pb(II) adsorbed increased as temperature increased, suggesting an endothermic adsorption. The optimal pH value for Pb(II) adsorption was around 5.5. Furthermore, the addition of coexisting cations such as Ca(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), and Cd(2+) has no remarkable influence on Pb(II) removal efficiency. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted very well to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The thermodynamics of Pb(II) adsorption onto the Fe(3)O(4) nanoadsorbents indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous, endothermic and physical in nature. The desorption and regeneration studies have proven that Fe(3)O(4) nanoadsorbents can be employed repeatedly without impacting its adsorption capacity.

  12. Ruthenium(II)-catalysed remote C-H alkylations as a versatile platform to meta-decorated arenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Korvorapun, Korkit; de Sarkar, Suman; Rogge, Torben; Burns, David J.; Warratz, Svenja; Ackermann, Lutz

    2017-06-01

    The full control of positional selectivity is of prime importance in C-H activation technology. Chelation assistance served as the stimulus for the development of a plethora of ortho-selective arene functionalizations. In sharp contrast, meta-selective C-H functionalizations continue to be scarce, with all ruthenium-catalysed transformations currently requiring difficult to remove or modify nitrogen-containing heterocycles. Herein, we describe a unifying concept to access a wealth of meta-decorated arenes by a unique arene ligand effect in proximity-induced ruthenium(II) C-H activation catalysis. The transformative nature of our strategy is mirrored by providing a step-economical entry to a range of meta-substituted arenes, including ketones, acids, amines and phenols--key structural motifs in crop protection, material sciences, medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical industries.

  13. META II: Formal Co-Verification of Correctness of Large-Scale Cyber-Physical Systems During Design (Mod 0006). Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Page Figure 1. Global PLM Market Size...functions provided in one 
 integrated tool chain • Integration with leading product lifecycle management ( PLM ) and computer- aided engineering (CAE...META and META-II programs fall under the category of Product Lifecycle Management ( PLM ) tools. The PLM term came into use about 15 years ago to

  14. Advanced methods of identification of the natural remanent magnetization carriers in meta-basites from Oscar II Land, Western Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burzyński, Mariusz; Michalski, Krzysztof; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Manby, Geoffrey; Domańska-Siuda, Justyna

    2017-04-01

    In this study, several rock-magnetic experiments were applied to gain a better understanding of composition and origin of Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) carriers in selected meta-dolerites and meta-volcanics of Oscar II Land (Western Spitsbergen). To rise the resolution of results, analyses were conducted on "Fe-containing" separated grains and they were combined with "whole-rock" mineralogical and rock-magnetic observations. Standard "whole- rock" magnetic studies were performed including: coercivity spectra measurements using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization) measurements, the three component IRM (Isothermal Remanent Magnetisation) procedures (Lowrie 1990). Additionally, the above experiments were supported by examination of the thin sections (optical/SEM/BSE). After that, investigated meta-basites were subjected to separation process during which seven different groups of grains has been distinguished. Six of them revealed shape and parameters of hysteresis loop characteristic for ferromagnetic phases. Separated magnetic phases were again subjected to rock-magnetic (SIRM/Micromag VSM) and mineralogical (optical/SEM/BSE) analyses. The results point to the presence of low coercivity magnetite/maghemite and pyrrhotite in the meta-dolerites while in the meta-volcanics the occurrence of magnetite/maghemite and hematite was recorded. The results indicated that late to post-Caledonian ferromagnetic minerals are dominant in the studied meta-basites. The investigations also confirmed that Caledonian metamorphic remineralization has completely replaced primary magmatic - Proterozoic/Lower Palaeozoic ferromagnetic carriers in the meta-dolerites. The present study was funded by Leading National Research Centre (KNOW) received by the Centre for Polar Studies for the period 2014-2018 and NSC (Polish National Science Centre) grant number 2011/03/D/ST10/05193.

  15. Stability of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy—a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives: To systematically search for scientific evidence concerning the stability of treatment (Tx) results achieved by means of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy and to assess possible differences between appliances. Search Methods: An electronic search of databases and orthodontic journals was carried out (until December 2013), with supplemental hand searching. In addition to the names of all identified appliances, the term fixed functional was used in combination with each of the following search terms: long-term, post-Tx, relapse, retention, stability. Selection Criteria: To be included in the review, the articles had to contain clear data on: Class II Tx with a fixed functional appliance (>5 patients), post-Tx period ≥ 1 year, assessment of ANB angle, Wits appraisal, molar relationship, soft-tissue profile convexity excluding the nose, overjet and/or overbite. Data Collection and Analysis: The literature search revealed 20 scientific investigations which corresponded to only two of the 76 identified appliances (Herbst and Twin Force Bite Corrector). As only one publication was found for the Twin Force Bite Corrector, a meta-analysis could only be performed for Herbst Tx. The data were extracted, pooled and weighted according to the number of patients in each study. Results: The mean values for post-Tx relapse (percentages relative to the Tx changes) were: ANB angle 0.2 degrees (12.4 per cent), Wits appraisal 0.5mm (19.5 per cent), sagittal molar relationship 1.2mm/0.1 cusp widths (21.8 per cent /6.5 per cent); soft-tissue profile convexity excluding nose less than 0.1 degrees (1.0 per cent), overjet 1.8mm (26.2 per cent), overbite Class II:1 1.4mm (44.7 per cent), overbite Class II:2 1.0mm (22.2 per cent). Conclusions: The scientific evidence concerning the stability of Tx results is inexistent for most fixed functional appliances for Class II correction except for Herbst appliance Tx. Even if the evidence level of most included studies

  16. Stability of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bock, Niko C; von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    To systematically search for scientific evidence concerning the stability of treatment (Tx) results achieved by means of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy and to assess possible differences between appliances. An electronic search of databases and orthodontic journals was carried out (until December 2013), with supplemental hand searching. In addition to the names of all identified appliances, the term fixed functional was used in combination with each of the following search terms: long-term, post-Tx, relapse, retention, stability. To be included in the review, the articles had to contain clear data on: Class II Tx with a fixed functional appliance (>5 patients), post-Tx period ≥ 1 year, assessment of ANB angle, Wits appraisal, molar relationship, soft-tissue profile convexity excluding the nose, overjet and/or overbite. The literature search revealed 20 scientific investigations which corresponded to only two of the 76 identified appliances (Herbst and Twin Force Bite Corrector). As only one publication was found for the Twin Force Bite Corrector, a meta-analysis could only be performed for Herbst Tx. The data were extracted, pooled and weighted according to the number of patients in each study. The mean values for post-Tx relapse (percentages relative to the Tx changes) were: ANB angle 0.2 degrees (12.4 per cent), Wits appraisal 0.5mm (19.5 per cent), sagittal molar relationship 1.2mm/0.1 cusp widths (21.8 per cent /6.5 per cent); soft-tissue profile convexity excluding nose less than 0.1 degrees (1.0 per cent), overjet 1.8mm (26.2 per cent), overbite Class II:1 1.4mm (44.7 per cent), overbite Class II:2 1.0mm (22.2 per cent). The scientific evidence concerning the stability of Tx results is inexistent for most fixed functional appliances for Class II correction except for Herbst appliance Tx. Even if the evidence level of most included studies is rather low, good dentoskeletal stability without clinically relevant changes was found for most

  17. Rapid palatal expander: an anchor unit for second molar distalization in Angle Class II treatment.

    PubMed

    Kolokitha, Olga-Elpis; Papadopoulou, Alexandra K

    2010-01-01

    Distal movement of maxillary molars is a common approach for nonextraction treatment of Angle Class II patients. Because of known difficulties involving moving the maxillary first molars distally in the presence of second molars, this article describes how the distally directed force is applied immediately to the second molars. A rapid palatal expander can be used as a reliable unit to facilitate the distal movement of the second maxillary molars.

  18. Rapid Photodegradation of Methyl Orange (MO) Assisted with Cu(II) and Tartaric Acid.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Chen, Xue; Shi, Ying; Lan, Yeqing; Qin, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Cu(II) and organic carboxylic acids, existing extensively in soil and aquatic environments, can form complexes that may play an important role in the photodegradation of organic contaminants. In this paper, the catalytic role of Cu(II) in the removal of methyl orange (MO) in the presence of tartaric acid with light was investigated through batch experiments. The results demonstrate that the introduction of Cu(II) could markedly enhance the photodegradation of MO. In addition, high initial concentrations of Cu(II) and tartaric acid benefited the decomposition of MO. The most rapid removal of MO assisted by Cu(II) was achieved at pH 3. The formation of Cu(II)-tartaric acid complexes was assumed to be the key factor, generating hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and other oxidizing free radicals under irradiation through a ligand-to-metal charge-transfer pathway that was responsible for the efficient degradation of MO. Some intermediates in the reaction system were also detected to support this reaction mechanism.

  19. Rapid Photodegradation of Methyl Orange (MO) Assisted with Cu(II) and Tartaric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Chen, Xue; Shi, Ying; Lan, Yeqing; Qin, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Cu(II) and organic carboxylic acids, existing extensively in soil and aquatic environments, can form complexes that may play an important role in the photodegradation of organic contaminants. In this paper, the catalytic role of Cu(II) in the removal of methyl orange (MO) in the presence of tartaric acid with light was investigated through batch experiments. The results demonstrate that the introduction of Cu(II) could markedly enhance the photodegradation of MO. In addition, high initial concentrations of Cu(II) and tartaric acid benefited the decomposition of MO. The most rapid removal of MO assisted by Cu(II) was achieved at pH 3. The formation of Cu(II)-tartaric acid complexes was assumed to be the key factor, generating hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and other oxidizing free radicals under irradiation through a ligand-to-metal charge-transfer pathway that was responsible for the efficient degradation of MO. Some intermediates in the reaction system were also detected to support this reaction mechanism. PMID:26241043

  20. Rapid response to eating disorder treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Linardon, Jake; Brennan, Leah; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl

    2016-10-01

    This review aimed to (a) examine the effects of rapid response on behavioral, cognitive, and weight-gain outcomes across the eating disorders, (b) determine whether diagnosis, treatment modality, the type of rapid response (changes in disordered eating cognitions or behaviors), or the type of behavioral outcome moderated this effect, and (c) identify factors that predict a rapid response. Thirty-four articles met inclusion criteria from six databases. End of treatment and follow-up outcomes were divided into three categories: Behavioral (binge eating/purging), cognitive (EDE global scores), and weight gain. Average weighted effect sizes(r) were calculated. Rapid response strongly predicted better end of treatment and follow-up cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Moderator analyses showed that the effect size for rapid response on behavioral outcomes was larger when studies included both binge eating and purging (as opposed to just binge eating) as a behavioral outcome. Diagnosis, treatment modality, and the type of rapid response experienced did not moderate the relationship between early response and outcome. The evidence for weight gain was mixed. None of the baseline variables analyzed (eating disorder psychopathology, demographics, BMI, and depression scores) predicted a rapid response. As there is a solid evidence base supporting the prognostic importance of rapid response, the focus should shift toward identifying the within-treatment mechanisms that predict a rapid response so that the effectiveness of eating disorder treatment can be improved. There is a need for future research to use theories of eating disorders as a guide to assess within-treatment predictors of rapid response. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:905-919. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Physiotherapy rehabilitation for whiplash associated disorder II: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Chris; Heneghan, Nicola; Eveleigh, Gillian; Calvert, Melanie; Freemantle, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate effectiveness of physiotherapy management in patients experiencing whiplash associated disorder II, on clinically relevant outcomes in the short and longer term. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently searched information sources, assessed studies for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias and extracted data. A third reviewer mediated disagreement. Assessment of risk of bias was tabulated across included trials. Quantitative synthesis was conducted on comparable outcomes across trials with similar interventions. Meta-analyses compared effect sizes, with random effects as primary analyses. Data sources Predefined terms were employed to search electronic databases. Additional studies were identified from key journals, reference lists, authors and experts. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English before 31 December 2010 evaluating physiotherapy management of patients (>16 years), experiencing whiplash associated disorder II. Any physiotherapy intervention was included, when compared with other types of management, placebo/sham, or no intervention. Measurements reported on ≥1 outcome from the domains within the international classification of function, disability and health, were included. Results 21 RCTs (2126 participants, 9 countries) were included. Interventions were categorised as active physiotherapy or a specific physiotherapy intervention. 20/21 trials were evaluated as high risk of bias and one as unclear. 1395 participants were incorporated in the meta-analyses on 12 trials. In evaluating short term outcome in the acute/sub-acute stage, there was some evidence that active physiotherapy intervention reduces pain and improves range of movement, and that a specific physiotherapy intervention may reduce pain. However, moderate/considerable heterogeneity suggested that treatments may differ in nature or effect in different trial patients. Differences

  2. Dynamics of keratin assembly: exogenous type I keratin rapidly associates with type II keratin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IF) are obligate heteropolymers containing equal amounts of type I and type II keratin. We have previously shown that microinjected biotinylated type I keratin is rapidly incorporated into endogenous bundles of keratin IF (tonofilaments) of PtK2 cells. In this study we show that the earliest steps in the assembly of keratin subunits into tonofilaments involve the extremely rapid formation of discrete aggregates of microinjected keratin. These are seen as fluorescent spots containing both type I and type II keratins within 1 min post-injection as determined by double label immunofluorescence. These observations suggest that endogenous type II keratin subunits can be rapidly mobilized from their endogenous state to form complexes with the injected type I protein. Furthermore, confocal microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy suggest that the type I-type II keratin spots from in close association with the endogenous keratin IF network. When the biotinylated protein is injected at concentrations of 0.3-0.5 mg/ml, the organization of the endogenous network of tonofilaments remains undisturbed during incorporation into tonofilaments. However, microinjection of 1.5-2.0 mg/ml of biotinylated type I results in significant alterations in the organization and assembly state of the endogenous keratin IF network soon after microinjection. The results of this study are consistent with the existence of a state of equilibrium between keratin subunits and polymerized keratin IF in epithelial cells, and provide further proof that IF are dynamic elements of the cytoskeleton of mammalian cells. PMID:7686161

  3. Rapid molecular evolution across amniotes of the IIS/TOR network.

    PubMed

    McGaugh, Suzanne E; Bronikowski, Anne M; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Reding, Dawn M; Addis, Elizabeth A; Flagel, Lex E; Janzen, Fredric J; Schwartz, Tonia S

    2015-06-02

    The insulin/insulin-like signaling and target of rapamycin (IIS/TOR) network regulates lifespan and reproduction, as well as metabolic diseases, cancer, and aging. Despite its vital role in health, comparative analyses of IIS/TOR have been limited to invertebrates and mammals. We conducted an extensive evolutionary analysis of the IIS/TOR network across 66 amniotes with 18 newly generated transcriptomes from nonavian reptiles and additional available genomes/transcriptomes. We uncovered rapid and extensive molecular evolution between reptiles (including birds) and mammals: (i) the IIS/TOR network, including the critical nodes insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), exhibit divergent evolutionary rates between reptiles and mammals; (ii) compared with a proxy for the rest of the genome, genes of the IIS/TOR extracellular network exhibit exceptionally fast evolutionary rates; and (iii) signatures of positive selection and coevolution of the extracellular network suggest reptile- and mammal-specific interactions between members of the network. In reptiles, positively selected sites cluster on the binding surfaces of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), and insulin receptor (INSR); whereas in mammals, positively selected sites clustered on the IGF2 binding surface, suggesting that these hormone-receptor binding affinities are targets of positive selection. Further, contrary to reports that IGF2R binds IGF2 only in marsupial and placental mammals, we found positively selected sites clustered on the hormone binding surface of reptile IGF2R that suggest that IGF2R binds to IGF hormones in diverse taxa and may have evolved in reptiles. These data suggest that key IIS/TOR paralogs have sub- or neofunctionalized between mammals and reptiles and that this network may underlie fundamental life history and physiological differences between these amniote sister clades.

  4. Rapid molecular evolution across amniotes of the IIS/TOR network

    PubMed Central

    McGaugh, Suzanne E.; Bronikowski, Anne M.; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Reding, Dawn M.; Addis, Elizabeth A.; Flagel, Lex E.; Janzen, Fredric J.

    2015-01-01

    The insulin/insulin-like signaling and target of rapamycin (IIS/TOR) network regulates lifespan and reproduction, as well as metabolic diseases, cancer, and aging. Despite its vital role in health, comparative analyses of IIS/TOR have been limited to invertebrates and mammals. We conducted an extensive evolutionary analysis of the IIS/TOR network across 66 amniotes with 18 newly generated transcriptomes from nonavian reptiles and additional available genomes/transcriptomes. We uncovered rapid and extensive molecular evolution between reptiles (including birds) and mammals: (i) the IIS/TOR network, including the critical nodes insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), exhibit divergent evolutionary rates between reptiles and mammals; (ii) compared with a proxy for the rest of the genome, genes of the IIS/TOR extracellular network exhibit exceptionally fast evolutionary rates; and (iii) signatures of positive selection and coevolution of the extracellular network suggest reptile- and mammal-specific interactions between members of the network. In reptiles, positively selected sites cluster on the binding surfaces of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), and insulin receptor (INSR); whereas in mammals, positively selected sites clustered on the IGF2 binding surface, suggesting that these hormone-receptor binding affinities are targets of positive selection. Further, contrary to reports that IGF2R binds IGF2 only in marsupial and placental mammals, we found positively selected sites clustered on the hormone binding surface of reptile IGF2R that suggest that IGF2R binds to IGF hormones in diverse taxa and may have evolved in reptiles. These data suggest that key IIS/TOR paralogs have sub- or neofunctionalized between mammals and reptiles and that this network may underlie fundamental life history and physiological differences between these amniote sister clades. PMID:25991861

  5. Tubal sterilization and breast cancer incidence: results from the cancer prevention study II nutrition cohort and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Mia M; Patel, Alpa V; Sun, Juzhong; Teras, Lauren R; Gapstur, Susan M

    2013-03-15

    Tubal sterilization is a common form of contraception in the United States and is hypothesized to be associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. However, prior observational studies have reported inconsistent results. We investigated the association between tubal sterilization and breast cancer risk among 77,249 postmenopausal, cancer-free women in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort, enrolled in 21 states in the United States during 1992-1993. During 15 years of follow-up through June 30, 2007, 4,084 invasive breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. A meta-analysis including the CPS-II Nutrition Cohort results with other published results from 4 case-control studies and 3 prospective studies was conducted to provide a summary estimate for the association between tubal sterilization and breast cancer risk. In the CPS-II Nutrition Cohort, tubal sterilization was not associated with breast cancer incidence (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio = 1.08, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.20). Associations stratified by year of tubal sterilization, age, and time since surgery were also null. The meta-analysis also found no association between tubal sterilization and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.09). Tubal sterilization does not appear to be associated with breast cancer risk.

  6. Hoarding Symptoms Respond to Treatment for Rapid Cycling Bipolar II Disorder.

    PubMed

    Laurito, Luana D; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Kahn, David A

    2016-01-01

    Although some studies have reported a relationship between hoarding and bipolar disorder, we are unaware of any previous description of how they may interact with each other and how they should be managed appropriately. A 48-year-old male depressed patient with hoarding symptoms and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was diagnosed with bipolar II disorder after 2 hypomanic episodes. The patient was treated unsuccessfully with different high-dose serotonin reuptake inhibitors and atypical antipsychotics, maintaining a pattern of 6 to 8 discrete, but severe, depressive episodes each year, always in association with a drastic worsening of his OCD and hoarding symptoms. T.he patient did not improve until the dose of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor was decreased and a combination of lamotrigine and methylphenidate was initiated. On this treatment regimen, the patient did not show clinically significant levels of depression or hoarding or other OCD symptoms. This case suggests that, in some patients, (1) hoarding-related cognitions and behaviors may be a part of bipolar depression, (2) the episodic nature of rapid cycling bipolar II disorder may protect against the development of severe clutter, and (3) treatment focusing on bipolar depression (eg, lamotrigine plus methylphenidate) may result in an improvement of hoarding symptoms when these are present in patients with rapid cycling bipolar II disorder.

  7. Exercise training for chronic heart failure (ExTraMATCH II): protocol for an individual participant data meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rod S; Piepoli, Massimo F; Smart, Neil; Coats, Andrew J S; Ellis, Stephen; Dalal, Hayes; O'Connor, Christopher M; Warren, Fiona C; Whellan, David; Ciani, Oriana

    2014-07-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) experience a marked reduction in their exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, and life expectancy. Despite substantive evidence supporting exercise training in HF, uncertainties remain in the interpretation and understanding of this evidence base. Clinicians and healthcare providers seek definitive estimates of impact on mortality, hospitalisation and health-related quality of life, and which HF patient subgroups are likely to most benefit. The original Exercise Training Meta-Analysis for Chronic Heart Failure (ExTraMATCH) individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis conducted in 2004 will be updated by the current collaboration (ExTraMATCH II), to investigate the effects of exercise training in HF. Randomised controlled trials have been identified from the updated 2014 Cochrane systematic review and the original ExTraMATCH IPD meta-analysis with exercise training of 3 weeks' duration or more compared with a non-exercise control and a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Particular outcomes of interest are mortality, hospitalisation and health-related quality of life plus key baseline patient demographic and clinical data. Original IPD will be requested from the authors of all eligible trials; we will check original data and compile a master dataset. IPD meta-analyses will be conducted using a one-step approach where the IPD from all studies are modelled simultaneously whilst accounting for the clustering of participants with studies. The information from ExTraMATCH II will help inform future national and international clinical and policy decision-making on the use of exercise-based interventions in HF and improve the quality, design and reporting of future trials in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pd(II)-catalysed meta-C-H functionalizations of benzoic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Shangda; Cai, Lei; Ji, Huafang; Yang, Long; Li, Gang

    2016-01-27

    Benzoic acids are highly important structural motifs in drug molecules and natural products. Selective C-H bond functionalization of benzoic acids will provide synthetically useful tools for step-economical organic synthesis. Although direct ortho-C-H functionalizations of benzoic acids or their derivatives have been intensely studied, the ability to activate meta-C-H bond of benzoic acids or their derivatives in a general manner via transition-metal catalysis has been largely unsuccessful. Although chelation-assisted meta-C-H functionalization of electron-rich arenes was reported, chelation-assisted meta-C-H activation of electron-poor arenes such as benzoic acid derivatives remains a formidable challenge. Herein, we report a general protocol for meta-C-H olefination of benzoic acid derivatives using a nitrile-based sulfonamide template. A broad range of benzoic acid derivatives are meta-selectively olefinated using molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant. The meta-C-H acetoxylation, product of which is further transformed at the meta-position, is also reported.

  9. Pd(II)-catalysed meta-C–H functionalizations of benzoic acid derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shangda; Cai, Lei; Ji, Huafang; Yang, Long; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acids are highly important structural motifs in drug molecules and natural products. Selective C–H bond functionalization of benzoic acids will provide synthetically useful tools for step-economical organic synthesis. Although direct ortho-C–H functionalizations of benzoic acids or their derivatives have been intensely studied, the ability to activate meta-C–H bond of benzoic acids or their derivatives in a general manner via transition-metal catalysis has been largely unsuccessful. Although chelation-assisted meta-C–H functionalization of electron-rich arenes was reported, chelation-assisted meta-C–H activation of electron-poor arenes such as benzoic acid derivatives remains a formidable challenge. Herein, we report a general protocol for meta-C–H olefination of benzoic acid derivatives using a nitrile-based sulfonamide template. A broad range of benzoic acid derivatives are meta-selectively olefinated using molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant. The meta-C–H acetoxylation, product of which is further transformed at the meta-position, is also reported. PMID:26813919

  10. Health workers' compliance to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to guide malaria treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kabaghe, Alinune N; Visser, Benjamin J; Spijker, Rene; Phiri, Kamija S; Grobusch, Martin P; van Vugt, Michèle

    2016-03-15

    The World Health Organization recommends malaria to be confirmed by either microscopy or a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before treatment. The correct use of RDTs in resource-limited settings facilitates basing treatment onto a confirmed diagnosis; contributes to speeding up considering a correct alternative diagnosis, and prevents overprescription of anti-malarial drugs, reduces costs and avoids unnecessary exposure to adverse drug effects. This review aims to evaluate health workers' compliance to RDT results and factors contributing to compliance. A PROSPERO-registered systematic review was conducted to evaluate health workers' compliance to RDTs in sub-Saharan Africa, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies published up to November 2015 were searched without language restrictions in Medline/Ovid, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACS, Biosis Previews and the African Index Medicus. The primary outcome was health workers treating patients according to the RDT results obtained. The literature search identified 474 reports; 14 studies were eligible and included in the quantitative analysis. From the meta-analysis, health workers' overall compliance in terms of initiating treatment or not in accordance with the respective RDT results was 83% (95% CI 80-86%). Compliance to positive and negative results was 97% (95% CI 94-99%) and 78% (95% CI 66-89%), respectively. Community health workers had higher compliance rates to negative test results than clinicians. Patient expectations, work experience, scepticism of results, health workers' cadres and perceived effectiveness of the test, influenced compliance. With regard to published data, compliance to RDT appears to be generally fair in sub-Saharan Africa; compliance to negative results will need to improve to prevent mismanagement of patients and overprescribing of anti-malarial drugs. Improving diagnostic capacity

  11. Rapid vs. slow antipsychotic initiation in schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Thiyanavadivel, Sadhana; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2017-08-22

    How antipsychotics should be initiated/titrated in patients with acute schizophrenia as well as patients undergoing an antipsychotic switch remains a question. MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials examining rapid vs. slow antipsychotic initiation in patients with schizophrenia were selected. Data on study discontinuation, psychopathology, extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were extracted and synthesized in studies including clinically different populations of acute patients and stable patients undergoing an antipsychotic switch. Among 11 studies that met eligibility criteria, 8 and 3 studies involving 809 and 777 patients were identified as acute patient studies and stable patient switching studies, respectively. Rapid antipsychotic initiation was not significantly different from slow antipsychotic initiation in acute patient studies for all-cause study discontinuation, while the former was significantly inferior to the latter in stable patient switching studies (N=3, n=777, RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.05-2.00, P=0.02). In contrast, rapid initiation was significantly superior to slow initiation for all psychopathology outcomes including the PANSS/BPRS total score (N=3, n=336, SMD=-0.28, 95% CI=-0.51--0.05, P=0.02) in acute patient studies, but not different in stable patient switching studies. Any other outcomes except for nausea did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Rapid initiation of antipsychotics may represent a reasonable option for the treatment of acute schizophrenia, while slower initiation may be a safer strategy when switching antipsychotics in stable schizophrenia. Because of the low to very low quality of evidence, findings should be considered preliminary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid discrimination of Acinetobacter baumannii international clone II lineage by pyrosequencing SNP analyses of bla(OXA-51-like) genes.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Mari; Suzuki, Satowa; Suzuki, Masato; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Shibayama, Keigo

    2013-08-01

    We found that Acinetobacter baumannii international clone II generally possesses unique GTA sequence at nucleotide positions 106-108 in the bla(OXA-51-like) genes. We exploited this to develop an easy and rapid method for discrimination of international clone II from other A. baumannii by employing pyrosequencing analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  13. Efficacy and mood conversion rate during long-term fluoxetine v. lithium monotherapy in rapid- and non-rapid-cycling bipolar II disorder†

    PubMed Central

    Amsterdam, Jay D.; Luo, Lola; Shults, Justine

    2013-01-01

    Background Controversy exists over antidepressant use in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. Aims Exploratory analysis of safety and efficacy of fluoxetine v. lithium monotherapy in individuals with rapid- v. non-rapid-cycling bipolar II disorder. Method Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of fluoxetine v. lithium monotherapy in patients initially stabilised on fluoxetine monotherapy (trial registration NCT00044616). Results The proportion of participants with depressive relapse was similar between the rapid- and non-rapid-cycling groups (P = 0.20). The odds of relapse were similar between groups (P = 0.36). The hazard of relapse was similar between groups (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.40–1.91). Change in mania rating scores was similar between groups (P = 0.86). There was no difference between groups in the rate of syndromal (P = 0.27) or subsyndromal (P = 0.82) hypomania. Conclusions Depressive relapse and treatment-emergent mood conversion episode rates were similar for lithium and fluoxetine monotherapy and placebo during long-term, relapse-prevention therapy of rapid- and non-rapid-cycling bipolar II disorder. PMID:23099447

  14. A Simple Paper-Based Colorimetric Device for Rapid Mercury(II) Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiwei; Fang, Xueen; Li, Hua; Cao, Hongmei; Kong, Jilie

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of the environment by mercury(II) ions (Hg2+) poses a serious threat to human health and ecosystems. Up to now, many reported Hg2+ sensors require complex procedures, long measurement times and sophisticated instrumentation. We have developed a simple, rapid, low cost and naked-eye quantitative method for Hg2+ environmental analysis using a paper-based colorimetric device (PCD). The sample solution to which platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) have been added is dispensed to the detection zone on the PCD, where the 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate has been pre-loaded. The PtNPs effect a rapid oxidization of TMB, inducing blue colorization on the PCD. However, Hg2+ in the solution rapidly interact with the PtNPs, suppressing the oxidation capacity and hence causing a decrease in blue intensity, which can be observed directly by the naked eye. Moreover, Hg2+ at concentrations as low as 0.01 uM, can be successfully monitored using a fiber optic device, which gives a digital readout proportional to the intensity of the blue color change. This paper-based colorimetric device (PCD) shows great potential for field measurement of Hg2+. PMID:27554633

  15. Quarantining women: venereal disease rapid treatment centers in World War II America.

    PubMed

    Parascandola, John

    2009-01-01

    Concern about the infection of servicemen and essential war workers with venereal disease led the U.S. Public Health Service, with the cooperation of state and local health officials, to set up a national program of venereal disease quarantine hospitals during World War II. Although some of the hospitals eventually accepted men, the initial purpose of these facilities was to detain and treat venereally affected prostitutes and "promiscuous women" who were considered a threat to the war effort. Using quarantine powers, officials forcibly detained venereally infected women and treated them for their disease. The hospitals were generally known as "rapid treatment centers" because of the methods employed to treat venereal disease. Health officials were especially concerned that prostitutes (and other women of "loose morals") would not comply with the traditional lengthy and arduous treatment for syphilis, which involved weekly injections of arsenical drugs for a year or more and unpleasant side effects. Therefore, the newly established quarantine hospitals used recently developed rapid treatment methods based on the administration of multiple injections or intravenous drips of arsenicals over a period of days. Although some objections were raised against these policies, which obviously discriminated against women, on the whole the rapid treatment centers were accepted as a necessary measure in the defense of national security. Some of the issues raised by these centers are still relevant to public health policy today.

  16. Aerobic oxidative cyclization of benzamides via meta-selective C-H tert-alkylation: rapid entry to 7-alkylated isoquinolinediones.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shi; Deng, You-Lin; Li, Jie; Wang, Wen-Xin; Wang, Ying-Chun; Li, Zeng-Zeng; Yuan, Li; Chen, Shi-Lu; Sheng, Rui-Long

    2016-03-25

    A novel copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative cyclization of benzamides via meta-selective C-H tert-alkylation using AIBN and analogues as radical precursors was described. This strategy provides an elusive and rapid means to 7-tert-alkylated isoquinolinediones, as well as the construction of tertiary alkyl-aryl C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) bonds with positional selectivity.

  17. Pd(II)-catalyzed ortho- or meta-C-H olefination of phenol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hui-Xiong; Li, Gang; Zhang, Xing-Guo; Stepan, Antonia F; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2013-05-22

    A combination of weakly coordinating auxiliaries and ligand acceleration allows for the development of both ortho- and meta-selective C-H olefination of phenol derivatives. These reactions demonstrate the feasibility of directing C-H functionalizations when functional groups are distal to target C-H bonds. The meta-C-H functionalization of electron-rich phenol derivatives is unprecedented and orthogonal to previous electrophilic substitution of phenols in terms of regioselectivity. These methods are also applied to functionalize α-phenoxyacetic acids, a fibrate class of drug scaffolds.

  18. A rapid immunoprecipitation assay for neomycin phosphotransferase II expression in transformed bacteria and plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Baszczynski, C L

    1990-06-01

    Anti-kanamycin antibodies produced in rabbits, following coupling of the antibiotic to bovine serum albumin, were used to immunoprecipitate radioactively labelled phosphorylated kanamycin from transformed bacterial or plant extracts in a novel assay system, for the detection of neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) activity. Radioactive counts in the immunoprecipitated pellet give a semiquantitative measure of the kanamycin phosphorylation and hence the amount of NPTII activity. This assay is sensitive, uses very small amounts of radioactivity, and is very rapid, allowing many samples to be processed within a few hours. Immunoprecipitated counts from reactions with bacteria carrying a kanamycin resistance gene or from tobacco and Brassica napus plants transformed with NPTII gene-containing vectors were consistently higher than counts from nontransformed controls. Results obtained with this assay correlate well with those from the previously described gel overlay and dot-blot assays, but can be obtained in an appreciably shorter time frame.

  19. A Meta-Analysis Summarizing the Effects of Pornography II: Aggression after Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines by meta-analysis the effect that exposure to pornography produces on aggressive behavior under laboratory conditions considering a variety of possible moderating conditions. Demonstrates a homogeneous set of results showing that pictorial nudity reduces subsequent violent behavior, but that depictions of nonviolent sexual behavior and…

  20. Bipolar I and II Disorders; A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Differences in Comorbid Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Amerio, Andrea; Stubbs, Brendon; Odone, Anna; Tonna, Matteo; Marchesi, Carlo; Nassir Ghaemi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Context More than half of the bipolar disorder (BD) cases have an additional diagnosis; one of the most difficult to manage is obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although some authors recently investigated the co-occurrence of anxiety and BD, the topic remains insufficiently studied. The current study aimed to investigate differences in comorbid OCD between BD-I and BD-II. Evidence Acquisition A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on the prevalence and predictors of comorbid BD-I/BD-II and OCD. Relevant papers published until June 30, 2015 were identified searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library. Results Fourteen articles met the inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of BD-I in OCD was 3.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.4 to 6.4, I2 = 83%, Q = 56) while that of BD-II in OCD was 13.5% (95% CI, 9.3 to 19.3, I2 = 89%, Q = 91). The pooled prevalence of OCD in BD-I was 21.7 (95% CI, 4.8 to 60.3, I2 = 84%, Q = 95). With regard to OCD-BD predictors, mean age and rate of males did not predict the prevalence of BD-I (β = 0.0731, 95% CI, -0.1097 to 0.256, z = 0.78; β = 0.035, 95% CI, -0.2356 to 0.1656, z = 0.34) and BD-II (β = 0.0577, 95% CI, -0.1942 to 0.0788, z = 0.83; β = -0.0317, 95% CI, -0.1483 to 0.085, z = 0.53) in OCD. The mean age explained some of the observed heterogeneity (R2 = 0.13; R2 = 0.08). Conclusions This first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence and predictors of comorbid BD-I/BD-II and OCD suggests that BD-OCD comorbidity is a common condition in psychiatry. However, the available evidence does not allow to assess whether BD-I or BD-II are more common in patients with OCD. PMID:27826323

  1. Efficacy of rapid-rate repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the literature pertaining to rapid-rate repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) compared with sham therapy for the treatment of a major depressive episode in order to arrive at qualitative and quantitative conclusions about the efficacy of rapid-rate rTMS. Methods MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials and abstracts from scientific meetings were searched for the years 1966 until July 2003. The search terms “transcranial magnetic stimulation” and “transcranial magnetic stimulation AND depression” were used. Eighty-seven randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of rTMS were referenced on MEDLINE. Nineteen of these involved treatment of a major depressive episode, and these were reviewed. Six met more specific inclusion criteria including the use of rapid-rate stimulation, application to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, evaluation with the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and use of an intent-to-treat analysis. Scores on the 21-item HAM-D after treatment and standard deviations were extracted from each article for treatment and control subjects. A random-effects model was chosen for the meta-analysis, and the weighted mean difference was used as a summary measure. Results Six studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified and included in the meta-analysis. Two of these reported a significantly greater improvement in mood symptoms in the treatment versus the sham group. When combined in the meta-analysis, the overall weighted mean difference was –1.1 (95% confidence interval –4.5 to 2.3), and the results of a test for heterogeneity were not significant (χ25 = 5.81, p = 0.33). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that rapid-rate rTMS is no different from sham treatment in major depression; however, the power within these studies to detect a difference was generally low. Randomized controlled trials with sufficient power to

  2. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies Evaluating Diagnostic Test Accuracy: A Practical Review for Clinical Researchers-Part II. Statistical Methods of Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Sang Hyun; Huh, Jimi

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies differs from the usual meta-analysis of therapeutic/interventional studies in that, it is required to simultaneously analyze a pair of two outcome measures such as sensitivity and specificity, instead of a single outcome. Since sensitivity and specificity are generally inversely correlated and could be affected by a threshold effect, more sophisticated statistical methods are required for the meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy. Hierarchical models including the bivariate model and the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic model are increasingly being accepted as standard methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. We provide a conceptual review of statistical methods currently used and recommended for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. This article could serve as a methodological reference for those who perform systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. PMID:26576107

  3. Rapid detection of Cr(VI) ions based on cobalt(II)-doped carbon dots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Yu; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Shan; Wang, Han; Wang, Ji-Hui; Feng, Liang

    2017-01-15

    A new type of cobalt(II)-doped carbon dots (CCDs) have been fabricated and used successfully for sensing Cr(VI) ions on the basis of photoluminescence quenching. The structural characterization of as-obtained CCDs was thoroughly performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy. The optical properties were also determined by absorption and fluorescence spectra. By recording 3D fluorescence spectrum, a unique intra-particle Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) system was investigated. In addition, fluorescence quenching of CCDs was observed in the presence of Cr(VI) ions due to inner filter effect. A good linear relationship between the concentration of Cr(VI) ions and fluorescent intensity was obtained in the range from 5μM to 125μM (R(2)=0.99), and the limit of detection was calculated as 1.17μM (0.12ppm for Cr(VI)). Importantly, this method was capable of rapidly detecting Cr(VI) ions in tap water and fish samples, which may be helpful in risk reduction of intake Cr(VI) contamination from water and seafood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid and Efficient Radiosyntheses of Meta-substituted [18F]Fluoroarenes from [18F]Fluoride Ion and Diaryliodonium Tosylates within a Microreactor

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Joong-Hyun; Lu, Shuiyu; Pike, Victor W.

    2011-01-01

    Effective methods for the introduction of the short-lived positron-emitter fluorine-18 (t1/2 = 109.7 min) at high specific radioactivity into fluoroarenes are valuable for the development of radiotracers for molecular imaging with positron emission tomography. Here we have explored the scope of the radiofluorination of diaryliodonium salts with no-carrier-added [18F]fluoride ion for the preparation of otherwise difficult to access meta-substituted [18F]fluoroarenes. A microfluidic reaction platform was used to establish optimal radiochemical yields. Rapid, high yielding and selective radiofluorinations were achieved in unsymmetrical diaryliodonium tosylates (ArI+Ar’TsO−) in which Ar carried either a meta electron-withdrawing (CN, NO2, CF3) or a meta electron-donating (Me or MeO) group, and in which the partner aryl group (Ar’) was relatively electron-rich, such as Ph, 3-Me-C6H4, 4-MeO-C6H4, 2-thienyl or 5-Me-2-thienyl. The radiofluorination of appropriate diaryliodonium tosylates is therefore a generally useful method for the preparation of simple [18F]m-fluoroarenes ([18F]ArF). PMID:22016665

  5. PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism method for rapid detection of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Bin; Jiang, Rui-Hai; Sha, Wei; Li, Ling; Xiao, He-Ping

    2010-10-01

    The reference standard methods for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, such as culture on Lowenstein-Jensen or Middlebrook 7H10/11 medium, are very slow to give results; and due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant M. tuberculosis, there is an urgent demand for new, rapid, and accurate drug susceptibility testing methods. PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis has been proposed as a rapid method for the detection of resistance to rifampin, but its accuracy has not been systematically evaluated. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of PCR-SSCP analysis for the detection of rifampin-resistant tuberculosis. We searched the Medline, Embase, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and LILACS databases and contacted authors if additional information was required. Ten studies met our inclusion criteria for rifampin resistance detection. We applied the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve to perform the meta-analysis and to summarize diagnostic accuracy. The sensitivity of PCR-SSCP analysis for the rapid detection of rifampin-resistant tuberculosis was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.82), the specificity was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.94 to 0.98), the positive likelihood ratio was 16.10 (95% CI, 5.87 to 44.13), the negative likelihood ratio was 0.20 (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.40), and the diagnostic odds ratio was 100.93 (95% CI, 31.95 to 318.83). PCR-SSCP analysis is a sensitive and specific test for the rapid detection of rifampin-resistant M. tuberculosis. Additional studies in countries with a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis and also cost-effectiveness analysis are required in order to obtain a complete picture on the utility of this method for rapid drug resistance detection in M. tuberculosis.

  6. VaxCelerate II: rapid development of a self-assembling vaccine for Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Pierre; Moise, Leonard; Luza, Cybelle; Chantaralawan, Kanawat; Lezeau, Lynchy; Yuan, Jianping; Field, Mary; Richer, Daniel; Boyle, Christine; Martin, William D; Fishman, Jordan B; Berg, Eric A; Baker, David; Zeigler, Brandon; Mais, Dale E; Taylor, William; Coleman, Russell; Warren, H Shaw; Gelfand, Jeffrey A; De Groot, Anne S; Brauns, Timothy; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Development of effective vaccines against emerging infectious diseases (EID) can take as much or more than a decade to progress from pathogen isolation/identification to clinical approval. As a result, conventional approaches fail to produce field-ready vaccines before the EID has spread extensively. Lassa is a prototypical emerging infectious disease endemic to West Africa for which no successful vaccine is available. We established the VaxCelerate Consortium to address the need for more rapid vaccine development by creating a platform capable of generating and pre-clinically testing a new vaccine against specific pathogen targets in less than 120 d A self-assembling vaccine is at the core of the approach. It consists of a fusion protein composed of the immunostimulatory Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein 70 (MtbHSP70) and the biotin binding protein, avidin. Mixing the resulting protein (MAV) with biotinylated pathogen-specific immunogenic peptides yields a self-assembled vaccine (SAV). To meet the time constraint imposed on this project, we used a distributed R&D model involving experts in the fields of protein engineering and production, bioinformatics, peptide synthesis/design and GMP/GLP manufacturing and testing standards. SAV immunogenicity was first tested using H1N1 influenza specific peptides and the entire VaxCelerate process was then tested in a mock live-fire exercise targeting Lassa fever virus. We demonstrated that the Lassa fever vaccine induced significantly increased class II peptide specific interferon-γ CD4(+) T cell responses in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice compared to peptide or MAV alone controls. We thereby demonstrated that our SAV in combination with a distributed development model may facilitate accelerated regulatory review by using an identical design for each vaccine and by applying safety and efficacy assessment tools that are more relevant to human vaccine responses than current animal models.

  7. Direct demonstration of rapid insulin-like growth factor II receptor internalization and recycling in rat adipocytes. Insulin stimulates SVI-insulin-like growth factor II degradation by modulating the IGF-II receptor recycling process

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Y.; Rozek, L.M.; Czech, M.P.

    1985-08-05

    The photoactive insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II analogue 4-azidobenzoyl- SVI-IGF-II was synthesized and used to label specifically and covalently the Mr = 250,000 Type II IGF receptor. When rat adipocytes are irradiated after a 10-min incubation with 4-azidobenzoyl- SVI-IGF-II at 10 degrees C and immediately homogenized, most of the labeled IGF-II receptors are associated with the plasma membrane fraction, indicating that receptors accessible to the labeling reagent at low temperature are on the cell surface. However, when the photolabeled cells are incubated at 37 degrees C for various times before homogenization, labeled IGF-II receptors are rapidly internalized with a half-time of 3.5 min as evidenced by a loss from the plasma membrane fraction and a concomitant appearance in the low density microsome fraction. The steady state level of cell surface IGF-II receptors in the presence or absence of IGF-II remains constant under these conditions, demonstrating that IGF-II receptors rapidly recycle back to the cell surface at the same rate as receptor internalization. Using the above methodology, it is shown that acute insulin action: 1) increases the steady state number of cell surface IGF-II receptors; 2) increases the number of ligand-bound IGF-II receptors that are internalized per unit of time; and 3) increases the rate of cellular SVI-IGF-II degradation by a process that is blocked by anti-IGF-II receptor antibody.

  8. Use of meta-analysis to combine candidate gene association studies: application to study the relationship between the ESR PvuII polymorphism and sow litter size

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, Leopoldo

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates the application of meta-analysis on livestock candidate gene effects. The PvuII polymorphism of the ESR gene is used as an example. The association among ESR PvuII alleles with the number of piglets born alive and total born in the first (NBA1, TNB1) and later parities (NBA, TNB) is reviewed by conducting a meta-analysis of 15 published studies including 9329 sows. Under a fixed effects model, litter size values were significantly lower in the "AA" genotype groups when compared with "AB" and "BB" homozygotes. Under the random effects model, the results were similar although differences between "AA" and "AB" genotype groups were not clearly significant for NBA and TNB. Nevertheless, the most noticeable result was the high and significant heterogeneity estimated among studies. This heterogeneity could be assigned to error sampling, genotype by environment interaction, linkage or epistasis, as referred to in the literature, but also to the hypothesis of population admixture/stratification. It is concluded that meta-analysis can be considered as a helpful analytical tool to synthesise and discuss livestock candidate gene effects. The main difficulty found was the insufficient information on the standard errors of the estimated genotype effects in several publications. Consequently, the convenience of publishing the standard errors or the concrete P-values instead of the test significance level should be recommended to guarantee the quality of candidate gene effect meta-analyses. PMID:15943920

  9. Rapid reaction of nanomolar Mn(II) with superoxide radical in seawater and simulated freshwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansard, S.P.; Easter, H.D.; Voelker, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Superoxide radical (O2-) has been proposed to be an important participant in oxidation-reduction reactions of metal ions in natural waters. Here, we studied the reaction of nanomolar Mn(II) with O 2- in seawater and simulated freshwater, using chemiluminescence detection of O2- to quantify the effect of Mn(II) on the decay kinetics of O2-. With 3-24 nM added [Mn(II)] and <0.7 nM [O2-], we observed effective second-order rate constants for the reaction of Mn(II) with O2- of 6 ?? 106 to 1 ?? 107 M -1???s-1 in various seawater samples. In simulated freshwater (pH 8.6), the effective rate constant of Mn(II) reaction with O 2- was somewhat lower, 1.6 ?? 106 M -1???s-1. With higher initial [O2-], in excess of added [Mn(II)], catalytic decay of O 2- by Mn was observed, implying that a Mn(II/III) redox cycle occurred. Our results show that reactions with nanomolar Mn(II) could be an important sink of O2- in natural waters. In addition, reaction of Mn(II) with superoxide could maintain a significant fraction of dissolved Mn in the +III oxidation state. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Estrogen receptor-alpha gene PvuII (T/C) and XbaI (A/G) polymorphisms and endometriosis risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Liu, Fei; Tan, Shi-Qiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Shang-Wei

    2012-10-15

    Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) polymorphisms have been hypothesized to be associated with the risk of endometriosis (EMT) development by many epidemiological studies, however, the available results were conflicting. To derive a more precise estimation of association between the ER-α PvuII (T/C) and XbaI (A/G) polymorphisms and risk of EMT, we performed a meta-analysis. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for ER-α polymorphisms and EMT were calculated in a fixed-effects model and a random-effects model when appropriate. This meta-analysis included 20 case-control studies with 1752 cases and 1742 controls for PvuII polymorphism and 15 case-control studies with 1349 cases and 1411 controls for XbaI polymorphism. For PvuII T/C polymorphism, no obvious associations were found for all genetic models when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. In the subgroup analyses by ethnicity, country, HWE in controls and study sample size, a significantly increased risk was observed among Caucasians (recessive model, OR=2.56, 95% CI=1.06-6.16) and among studies without the HWE (recessive model, OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.20-2.84). For XbaI A/G polymorphism, also no obvious associations were found for all genetic models. In the subgroup analyses by ethnicity, country, HWE in controls and study sample size, still no obvious associations were found. No publication bias was found in the present study. This meta-analysis suggests that ER-α gene PvuII (T/C) and XbaI (A/G) polymorphisms may not be associated with EMT risk, while the observed increase in risk of EMT may be due to small-study bias. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A rapid, semiempirical method of calculating the stability margins of superconductors cooled with subcooled He-II: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Dresner, L.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid, semiempirical method is presented for calculating the stability margins of superconductors cooled with subcooled He-II. Based on a model of Seyfert, the method takes into account both time-dependent Gorter-Mellink heat transport and the effects of interfacial Kapitza resistance. The method has been compared favorably with heat transfer data of Seyfert, stability data of Meuris, and stability data of Pfotenhauer and van Sciver. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Rapid Degradation of Auxin/Indoleacetic Acid Proteins Requires Conserved Amino Acids of Domain II and Is Proteasome Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Jason A.; Zenser, Nathan; Leyser, Ottoline; Callis, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Auxin rapidly induces auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcription. The proteins encoded are short-lived nucleus-localized transcriptional regulators that share four conserved domains. In a transient assay measuring protein accumulation, an Aux/IAA 13–amino acid domain II consensus sequence was sufficient to target firefly luciferase (LUC) for low protein accumulation equivalent to that observed previously for full-length PSIAA6. Single amino acid substitutions in these 13 amino acids, corresponding to known auxin response mutants, resulted in a sixfold to 20-fold increase in protein accumulation. Naturally occurring variant amino acids had no effect. Residues identified as essential by single alanine substitutions were not sufficient when all flanking amino acids were alanine, indicating the importance of flanking regions. Using direct protein degradation measurements in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings, full-length IAA1, PSIAA6, and the N-terminal 73 PSIAA6 amino acids targeted LUC for rapid degradation with 8-min half-lives. The C-terminal 109 amino acids did not affect LUC half-life. Smaller regions containing domain II also targeted LUC for rapid degradation, but the rates were not equivalent to those of the full-length protein. A single domain II substitution in the context of full-length PSIAA6 increased half-life 30-fold. Proteasome inhibitors affected Aux/IAA::LUC fusion protein accumulation, demonstrating the involvement of the proteasome. PMID:11595806

  13. Remember the Future II: Meta-analyses and Functional Overlap of Working Memory and Delay Discounting

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, Michael J.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously we showed that working memory training decreased the discounting of future rewards in stimulant addicts without affecting a Go/NoGo task. While a relationship between delay discounting and working memory is consistent with other studies, the unique brain regions of plausible causality between these two abilities have yet to be determined. Methods Activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses were performed on foci from studies of delay discounting (DD = 449), working memory (WM = 452), finger tapping (FT = 450), and response inhibition (RI = 450). Activity maps from relatively less (FT) and more (RI) demanding executive tasks were contrasted with maps of DD and WM. Overlap analysis identified unique functional coincidence between DD and WM. Results The anterior cingulate cortex was engaged by all tasks. FT largely engaged motor-related brain areas. In addition to motor-related areas, RI engaged frontal brain regions. The right lateral prefrontal cortex was engaged by RI, DD and WM and was contrasted out of overlap maps. A functional cluster in the posterior portion of the left lateral prefrontal cortex emerged as the largest location of unique overlap between DD and WM. Conclusions A portion of the left lateral prefrontal cortex is a unique location where delay discounting and working memory processes overlap in the brain. This area, therefore, represents a therapeutic target for improving behaviors that rely on the integration of the recent past with the foreseeable future. PMID:24041504

  14. N-Acyl Amino Acid Ligands for Ruthenium(II)-Catalyzed meta-C-H tert-Alkylation with Removable Auxiliaries.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Warratz, Svenja; Zell, Daniel; De Sarkar, Suman; Ishikawa, Eloisa Eriko; Ackermann, Lutz

    2015-11-04

    Acylated amino acid ligands enabled ruthenium(II)-catalyzed C-H functionalizations with excellent levels of meta-selectivity. The outstanding catalytic activity of the ruthenium(II) complexes derived from monoprotected amino acids (MPAA) set the stage for the first ruthenium-catalyzed meta-functionalizations with removable directing groups. Thereby, meta-alkylated anilines could be accessed, which are difficult to prepare by other means of direct aniline functionalizations. The robust nature of the versatile ruthenium(II)-MPAA was reflected by challenging remote C-H transformations with tertiary alkyl halides on aniline derivatives as well as on pyridyl-, pyrimidyl-, and pyrazolyl-substituted arenes. Detailed mechanistic studies provided strong support for an initial reversible C-H ruthenation, followed by a SET-type C-Hal activation through homolytic bond cleavage. Kinetic analyses confirmed this hypothesis through an unusual second-order dependence of the reaction rate on the ruthenium catalyst concentration. Overall, this report highlights the exceptional catalytic activity of ruthenium complexes derived from acylated amino acids, which should prove instrumental for C-H activation chemistry beyond remote functionalization.

  15. Meta-analysis reveals association between most common class II haplotype in full-heritage Native Americans and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Williams, R C; Jacobsson, L T; Knowler, W C; del Puente, A; Kostyu, D; McAuley, J E; Bennett, P H; Pettitt, D J

    1995-01-01

    The association of RA with the alleles at the HLA system was tested among Pima and Tohono O'odham Indians (Pimans) of the Gila River Indian Community of Arizona. Serologic class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) alleles were typed in 51 individuals with RA and in 302 without RA. Serologic class II (HLA-DR, DQ; DR52 DR53) alleles were typed in a subset of 47 with RA and 147 without RA. Molecular subtypes of DR3X6, DRB1*1402, and *1406 were determined in 29 individuals, 16 with RA and 13 without RA. Among the cases with RA, 46 of 47 had the serologic antigen HLA-DR3X6, as did 140 of 147 of those without the disease. However, this association was not statistically significant because of the high prevalence of the antigen in the controls. Data from Pimans were analyzed with similar results from the Tlingit and Yakima Indians. A meta-analysis employing the Mantel-Haenszel procedure, stratified by tribe, revealed a statistically significant association between the most common haplotype, DRB1*1402 DQA1*0501 DQB1*0301 DRB3*0101, and RA (summary odds ratio = 2.63, 95% confidence interval = 1.08, 6.46). There was also a statistically significant difference in the genotype distributions of one class I locus, HLA-C, between those with and without RA (chi 2 = 12.4, 5 df; p = 0.03). It is concluded that the association with the most common class II haplotype in full-heritage Native Americans might help explain their high prevalence of RA.

  16. Statistical Properties of the Disk Counterparts of Type II Spicules from Simultaneous Observations of Rapid Blueshifted Excursions in Ca II 8542 and Hα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekse, D. H.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; De Pontieu, B.

    2012-06-01

    Spicules were recently found to exist as two different types when a new class of so-called type II spicules was discovered at the solar limb with the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode spacecraft. These type II spicules have been linked with on-disk observations of rapid blueshifted excursions (RBEs) in the Hα and Ca II 8542 lines. Here we analyze observations optimized for the detection of RBEs in both Hα and Ca II 8542 lines simultaneously at a high temporal cadence taken with the Crisp Imaging Spectropolarimeter at the Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma. In this study, we used a high-quality time sequence for RBEs at different blueshifts and employed an automated detection routine to detect a large number of RBEs in order to expand on the statistics of RBEs. We find that the number of detected RBEs is strongly dependent on the associated Doppler velocity of the images on which the search is performed. Automatic detection of RBEs at lower velocities increases the estimated number of RBEs to the same order of magnitude expected from limb spicules. This shows that RBEs and type II spicules are indeed exponents of the same phenomenon. Furthermore, we provide solid evidence that Ca II 8542 RBEs are connected to Hα RBEs and are located closer to the network regions with the Hα RBEs being a continuation of the Ca II 8542 RBEs. Our results show that RBEs have an average lifetime of 83.9 s when observed in both spectral lines and that the Doppler velocities of RBEs range from 10 to 25 km s-1 in Ca II 8542 and 30 to 50 km s-1 in Hα. In addition, we automatically determine the transverse motion of a much larger sample of RBEs than previous studies, and find that, just like type II spicules, RBEs undergo significant transverse motions of the order of 5-10 km s-1. Finally, we find that the intergranular jets discovered at Big Bear Solar Observatory are a subset of RBEs.

  17. Rapid bonding and easy debonding of orthodontic appliances with 4-META/MMA-TBB resin using thermal heating.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    4-Methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride/methyl methacrylate-tri-n-butylborane (4-META/MMA-TBB) resin is widely used as a direct bonding adhesive for orthodontic appliances because of its strong bonding ability. However, its clinical disadvantages include long setting times and difficult debonding with subsequent residual adhesive left on the enamel surface. To resolve these problems, thermal heating was applied to orthodontic appliances. The setting time was dramatically reduced by thermal heating (160°C for 5 s), with the shear bond strength remaining the same as that stated in the manufacturer's instructions. Debonding of appliances following thermal heating (160°C for 20 s) could be easily performed, decreasing the amount of adhesive left on enamel. These conditions were not accompanied by an increase in the heat pain threshold of pulpal dentin. These results suggest that the use of thermal heating in the bonding/debonding of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin may resolve its clinical weaknesses, making its ease of use similar to light-cured resin.

  18. Viscous effects in rapidly rotating stars with application to white-dwarf models. I, II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durisen, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    A general approximate numerical technique is proposed for constructing evolutionary sequences of rapidly rotating axisymmetric barytropic equilibrium configurations, with allowance for angular momentum transfer by a nonconstant isotropic viscosity. The principal physical assumption involved is the constancy of the angular momentum per unit mass on cylinders about the axis of rotation. Rapidly rotating nonmagnetic white-dwarf models with a zero-temperature degenerate-electron equation of state are considered as a particular application. The viscosity used in the analysis is that of the degenerate electrons.

  19. Cervical (non-terminal) myelocystocele associated with rapidly progressive hydrocephalus and Chiari type II malformation--case report.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hidenobu; Kawano, Hirokazu; Miyaoka, Ryo; Nagano, Rie; Kohno, Keiichiro; Nishiguchi, Toshihiro; Shimao, Yoshiya

    2010-01-01

    An infant presented with a rare cervical (non-terminal) myelocystocele as a congenital skin-covered mass located in the midline of the posterior aspect of her neck. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography showed a cystic mass filled with cerebrospinal fluid in the midline of the posterior aspect of the neck, with a fibrous streak extending from the bottom of the sac to the dorsal surface of the cervical cord. Brain MR imaging also showed a dilated ventricular system and Chiari type II malformation. The patient underwent plastic repair of the lesion, which was diagnosed as myelocystocele. After the surgery, the patient experienced respiratory distress. Ultrasound tomography from the anterior fontanel revealed deterioration of hydrocephalus, so a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted, and the respiratory distress improved. The present case illustrates the possibility of rapidly worsening of hydrocephalus and Chari type II malformation after surgical repair of cervical (non-terminal) myelocystocele.

  20. Rapid and highly sensitive determination of trace proteins using dibromomethyl carboxyazo-Pb(II) complex as a spectroscopic reagent.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qin; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yan; Du, Bin; Duan, Cai-Hong

    2005-12-01

    The concentration of protein in body fluids is an important measure in disease diagnosis and in analytical biochemistry. Searching for a sensitive and rapid method for proteins is an ongoing subject of investigation. We describe the reaction of dibromomethyl carboxyazo-Pb(II) with proteins found in urine. In a buffer containing of HCl and KCl at pH 1.80, dibromomethyl carboxyazo-Pb(II) complex combined with proteins to form a colored compound. The reaction was completed in 2 min and remained stable for 80 min. Under optimum conditions, the product of reaction between protein and dibromomethyl carboxyazo-Pb(II) absorbed at 530 nm and was linear in the range of 0-50 microg/ml of BSA. Moreover, the maximum binding number was defined to express the binding ability of dibromomethyl carboxyazo-Pb(II) to protein under a given set of conditions. The method was applied to the determination of urine proteins. The recovery of protein from human urine was 97.6-103% and the precision was <4.8%. Results compared favorably to the Biuret and Bradford protein methods on 50 urine samples. This method had high sensitivity and specificity and may be applicable to clinical analysis.

  1. Nickel(II)-immobilized sulfhydryl cotton fiber for selective binding and rapid separation of histidine-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Lu, Wei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Wang, Hong; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-07-31

    In the current study, a novel nickel(II)-immobilized sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-Ni(2+)) was prepared in a simple way based on the coordination effect between Ni(2+) and thiol group on the surface of SCF. The composition and element mapping of SCF-Ni(2+) fibers were demonstrated by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Based on the high affinity of Ni(2+) to 6×His on histidine-tagged (His-tagged) proteins, SCF-Ni(2+) fibers were then further used as an immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) adsorbent for selective binding and rapid separation of His-tagged proteins using an in- pipette-tip SPE format. Our results showed that SCF-Ni(2+) adsorbent can selectively capture His-tagged proteins from protein mixture and Escherichia coli cell lysates. Taken together, the developed method provides a rapid, convenient and efficient approach for the purification of His-tagged proteins.

  2. A novel approach to rapid determination of betaS-globin haplotypes: sequencing of the Agamma-IVS-II region.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Amy E; Walker, Aisha; Elam, Dedrey; Glendenning, Michele; Kutlar, Ferdane; Clair, Betsy; Harbin, Jeanette; Kutlar, Abdullah

    2004-01-01

    beta-Globin gene cluster haplotypes were originally determined by restriction endonuclease mapping with Southern blots of polymorphic sites around the gene cluster. Over the years, haplotyping has been found to be useful, not only in population genetics but also in predicting the severity of hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease. The sickle mutation occurs on five distinct haplotypes. The hitherto used methods are cumbersome and time-consuming, making haplotype determination a tedious procedure. We report our experience with a novel, rapid approach to haplotyping based on sequence polymorphisms in the Agamma-IVS-II region. We provide an algorithm that allows rapid assignment of the four African haplotypes carrying the sickle mutation.

  3. Overcoming deep roots, fast rates, and short internodes to resolve the ancient rapid radiation of eupolypod II ferns.

    PubMed

    Rothfels, Carl J; Larsson, Anders; Kuo, Li-Yaung; Korall, Petra; Chiou, Wen-Liang; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2012-05-01

    Backbone relationships within the large eupolypod II clade, which includes nearly a third of extant fern species, have resisted elucidation by both molecular and morphological data. Earlier studies suggest that much of the phylogenetic intractability of this group is due to three factors: (i) a long root that reduces apparent levels of support in the ingroup; (ii) long ingroup branches subtended by a series of very short backbone internodes (the "ancient rapid radiation" model); and (iii) significantly heterogeneous lineage-specific rates of substitution. To resolve the eupolypod II phylogeny, with a particular emphasis on the backbone internodes, we assembled a data set of five plastid loci (atpA, atpB, matK, rbcL, and trnG-R) from a sample of 81 accessions selected to capture the deepest divergences in the clade. We then evaluated our phylogenetic hypothesis against potential confounding factors, including those induced by rooting, ancient rapid radiation, rate heterogeneity, and the Bayesian star-tree paradox artifact. While the strong support we inferred for the backbone relationships proved robust to these potential problems, their investigation revealed unexpected model-mediated impacts of outgroup composition, divergent effects of methods for countering the star-tree paradox artifact, and gave no support to concerns about the applicability of the unrooted model to data sets with heterogeneous lineage-specific rates of substitution. This study is among few to investigate these factors with empirical data, and the first to compare the performance of the two primary methods for overcoming the Bayesian star-tree paradox artifact. Among the significant phylogenetic results is the near-complete support along the eupolypod II backbone, the demonstrated paraphyly of Woodsiaceae as currently circumscribed, and the well-supported placement of the enigmatic genera Homalosorus, Diplaziopsis, and Woodsia.

  4. The RAPID-II Neuropsychological Test battery for subjects aged 20 to 49 years: Norms and cognitive profile.

    PubMed

    Binetruy, M; Mauny, F; Lavaux, M; Meyer, A; Sylvestre, G; Puyraveau, M; Berger, E; Magnin, E; Vandel, P; Galmiche, J; Chopard, G

    2017-06-30

    Cognitive evaluation of young subjects is now widely carried out for non-traumatic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, HIV, or sleep disorders. This evaluation requires normative data based on healthy adult samples. However, most clinicians use a set of tests that were normed in an isolated manner from different samples using different cutoff criteria. Thus, the score of an individual may be considered either normal or impaired according to the norms used. It is well established that healthy adults obtained low-test scores when a battery of tests is administered. Thus, the knowledge of low base rates is required so as to minimize false diagnosis of cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was twofold (1) to provide normative data for RAPID-II battery in healthy adults, and (2) estimate the proportion of healthy adults having low scores across this battery. Norms for the 44 test scores of the RAPID-II test battery were developed using the overall sample of 335 individuals based on three categories of age (20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 40 to 49 years) and two educational levels: Baccalaureate or higher educational degree (high educational level), lower than baccalaureate (low educational level). The 5th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles were calculated from the six age and education subsamples and used to define norms. The frequency of low scores on the RAPID-II battery was calculated by simultaneously examining the performance of 33 primary scores. A low score was defined as less than or equal to the 5th percentile drawn from the six age and education normative subsamples. In addition, the percentages of low scores were also determined when all possible combinations of two-test scores across the RAPID-II were considered in the overall normative sample. Our data showed that 59.4% subjects of the normative sample obtained at least one or more low score. With more than 9 test scores, this percentage was equal to 0% in the normative sample. Among all combinations of two

  5. Rapid detection of the hypertension-associated A1166C polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1).

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Aleksandra; Alavantic, Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Screening for polymorphisms in the human type 1 angiotensin II receptor locus (AGTR1) has led to the identification of an A1166C transversion in the 3'-untranslated region. This molecular variant, C(1166), has been linked to essential hypertension. We describe here a rapid method for the detection of this point mutation by a simple modification of PCR amplification with allele-specific oligonucleotides (ASO), so as to avoid a hybridization procedure involving either radioactive- or non-radioactive-labeled probes, labeled primers, or restriction typing. The procedure described is convenient for routine clinical laboratory use with manual sample processing and offers the potential for further automation, as well.

  6. Adaptation of pineal expressed teleost exo-rod opsin to non-image forming photoreception through enhanced Meta II decay.

    PubMed

    Tarttelin, Emma E; Fransen, Maikel P; Edwards, Patricia C; Hankins, Mark W; Schertler, Gebhard F X; Vogel, Reiner; Lucas, Robert J; Bellingham, James

    2011-11-01

    Photoreception by vertebrates enables both image-forming vision and non-image-forming responses such as circadian photoentrainment. Over the recent years, distinct non-rod non-cone photopigments have been found to support circadian photoreception in diverse species. By allowing specialization to this sensory task a selective advantage is implied, but the nature of that specialization remains elusive. We have used the presence of distinct rod opsin genes specialized to either image-forming (retinal rod opsin) or non-image-forming (pineal exo-rod opsin) photoreception in ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) to gain a unique insight into this problem. A comparison of biochemical features for these paralogous opsins in two model teleosts, Fugu pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), reveals striking differences. While spectral sensitivity is largely unaltered by specialization to the pineal environment, in other aspects exo-rod opsins exhibit a behavior that is quite distinct from the cardinal features of the rod opsin family. While they display a similar thermal stability, they show a greater than tenfold reduction in the lifetime of the signaling active Meta II photoproduct. We show that these features reflect structural changes in retinal association domains of helices 3 and 5 but, interestingly, not at either of the two residues known to define these characteristics in cone opsins. Our findings suggest that the requirements of non-image-forming photoreception have lead exo-rod opsin to adopt a characteristic that seemingly favors efficient bleach recovery but not at the expense of absolute sensitivity.

  7. Rapid Feedback Evaluation of the Career Education Incentive Act Program. Phase II Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    A rapid feedback evaluation of the federal career education incentive program was conducted to compile readily available information regarding the implementation of career education under the Career Education Incentive Act (PL 95-207). Attention was directed toward the activities and accomplishments of the four major actors in the career education…

  8. Rapid and direct electrochemical determination of Ni(II) in industrial discharge water.

    PubMed

    Ferancová, Adriana; Hattuniemi, Maarit K; Sesay, Adama M; Räty, Jarkko P; Virtanen, Vesa T

    2016-04-05

    Industrial water contains a number of contaminants, such as organic pollutants and heavy metals, which can significantly affect the quality of soil, ground and environmental waters. We have successfully optimized and tested an electrochemical method and sensor modified with dimethylglyoxime for monitoring of nickel(II). The detection limit was 0.03mg/L and determination limit was 0.09mg/L. Linear concentration range was observed from 0.06 to 0.5mg/L Ni(II) and it is suitable for the analysis of environmental waters. The effect of all parameters important for on-site measurements (such as interferences, presence of dissolved oxygen, temperature) was investigated and considered in the analysis of mine discharge water. Water samples were analyzed without any pretreatment or filtration. A low level of error (5.6%) was observed for analysis demonstrating the usability of the optimized sensor and method for on-site measurements.

  9. Rapid formation of N-Glycopeptides via Cu(II)-promoted glycosylative ligation.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Ryan; Dyer, Frank Brock; Garner, Philip

    2013-02-15

    Herein is described the chemoselective Cu(II)-HOBt promoted chemical ligation of glycosylamines and peptide thioacids to give N-glycosylated peptides. The method is distinguished from other chemical approaches to peptide N-glycosylation in that (1) it can be employed in the presence of unprotected N-terminal and Lys side chain amines; (2) it is remarkably fast, going to completion in under 30 min; and (3) it produces glycopeptides without attendant aspartimide formation.

  10. Clinical effectiveness of direct class II restorations - a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Heintze, Siegward D; Rousson, Valentin

    2012-08-01

    More than five hundred million direct dental restorations are placed each year worldwide. In about 55% of the cases, resin composites or compomers are used, and in 45% amalgam. The longevity of posterior resin restorations is well documented. However, data on resin composites that are placed without enamel/dentin conditioning and resin composites placed with self-etching adhesive systems are missing. The database SCOPUS was searched for clinical trials on posterior resin composites without restricting the search to the year of publication. The inclusion criteria were: (1) prospective clinical trial with at least 2 years of observation; (2) minimum number of restorations at last recall = 20; (3) report on dropout rate; (4) report of operative technique and materials used; (5) utilization of Ryge or modified Ryge evaluation criteria. For amalgam, only those studies were included that directly compared composite resin restorations with amalgam. For the statistical analysis, a linear mixed model was used with random effects to account for the heterogeneity between the studies. P-values under 0.05 were considered significant. Of the 373 clinical trials, 59 studies met the inclusion criteria. In 70% of the studies, Class II and Class I restorations had been placed. The overall success rate of composite resin restorations was about 90% after 10 years, which was not different from that of amalgam. Restorations with compomers had a significantly lower longevity. The main reason for replacement were bulk fractures and caries adjacent to restorations. Both of these incidents were infrequent in most studies and accounted only for about 6% of all replaced restorations after 10 years. Restorations with macrofilled composites and compomer suffered significantly more loss of anatomical form than restorations with other types of material. Restorations that were placed without enamel acid etching and a dentin bonding agent showed significantly more marginal staining and detectable

  11. Performance of the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II: a meta-analysis of 22 studies involving 145,592 cardiac surgery procedures.

    PubMed

    Guida, Pietro; Mastro, Florinda; Scrascia, Giuseppe; Whitlock, Richard; Paparella, Domenico

    2014-12-01

    A systematic review of the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (euroSCORE) II performance for prediction of operative mortality after cardiac surgery has not been performed. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies based on the predictive accuracy of the euroSCORE II. We searched the Embase and PubMed databases for all English-only articles reporting performance characteristics of the euroSCORE II. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, the observed/expected mortality ratio, and observed-expected mortality difference with their 95% confidence intervals were analyzed. Twenty-two articles were selected, including 145,592 procedures. Operative mortality occurred in 4293 (2.95%), whereas the expected events according to euroSCORE II were 4802 (3.30%). Meta-analysis of these studies provided an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.792 (95% confidence interval, 0.773-0.811), an estimated observed/expected ratio of 1.019 (95% confidence interval, 0.899-1.139), and observed-expected difference of 0.125 (95% confidence interval, -0.269 to 0.519). Statistical heterogeneity was detected among retrospective studies including less recent procedures. Subgroups analysis confirmed the robustness of combined estimates for isolated valve procedures and those combined with revascularization surgery. A significant overestimation of the euroSCORE II with an observed/expected ratio of 0.829 (95% confidence interval, 0.677-0.982) was observed in isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and a slight underestimation of predictions in high-risk patients (observed/expected ratio 1.253 and observed-expected difference 1.859). Despite the heterogeneity, the results from this meta-analysis show a good overall performance of the euroSCORE II in terms of discrimination and accuracy of model predictions for operative mortality. Validation of the euroSCORE II in prospective populations needs to be further studied for a continuous

  12. Epstein-Barr virus and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the cancer prevention study-II and a meta-analysis of serologic studies.

    PubMed

    Teras, Lauren R; Rollison, Dana E; Pawlita, Michael; Michel, Angelika; Brozy, Johannes; de Sanjose, Silvia; Blase, Jennifer L; Gapstur, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes rare, malignant lymphomas. The role of EBV in other non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) remains unclear, but mildly reduced immune function could lead to reactivation of EBV and subsequent NHL. We examined the association between prospectively-collected plasma EBV antibodies and NHL risk in the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort and conducted a meta-analysis of our and published results. The CPS-II study included 225 NHL cases and 2:1 matched controls. No associations were observed between EBV serostatus or antibody levels and risk of NHL overall. However, when including only the three most common types of NHL (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma), high compared to low early antigen (EA-D) diffuse and BZLF1-encoded replication activator antibodies were associated with approximately 60% higher risk of NHL. Odds ratios (ORs) for EBV nuclear antigen-1 and viral capsid antigen (VCA)-p18 were elevated but not statistically significant. In the meta-analysis, both EA (summary OR = 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-2.00) and VCA (summary OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.00-1.44) were positively associated with NHL risk. These results suggest EBV may be associated with a wider spectrum of NHL subtypes, but further study is needed to confirm and fully understand these associations.

  13. Accuracy of Rapid Point-of-Care Diagnostic Tests for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen—A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khuroo, Mehnaaz S.; Khuroo, Naira S.; Khuroo, Mohammad S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid point-of-care tests provide plausible diagnostic strategy for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in low resource areas. However, their utility depends upon their overall performance. Our objective was to meta-analyze the diagnostic accuracy of rapid point-of-care tests for HBsAg. Methods Literature search was done with the help of a metasearch engine Mettā, a query interface for retrieving articles from five leading medical databases. Studies that employed rapid point-of-care tests for detection of HBsAg and compared the results with reference test were included. Two reviewers performed quality assessment of the studies and extracted data for estimating test accuracy. Twenty-seven studies were meta-analyzed and stratified by multiple parameters. Results Twenty-seven studies had evaluated 49 test brands and generated 76 data points. Sensitivity of individual tests varied widely and were heterogeneous (range 43.5%–99.8%); while specificity estimates were more robust and close to 100% (range 90%–100%). Overall pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR), negative LR and diagnostic odds ratio for all tests were 97.1% (95% CI, 96.1%–97.9%), 99.9% (CI, 99.8%–100%), 118.4 (CI, 84.7–165.5), 0.032 (CI, 0.023–0.045) and 4094.7 (CI, 2504.1–6600.8) respectively. This suggested high pooled accuracy for all studies. We found substantial heterogeneity between studies. Three factors (study location, reference standard and study score) appeared most strongly associated with test estimates and observed heterogeneity. The Determine test showed consistency in performance in studies done across developed and developing countries and the Determine and the BinaxNOW tests had significantly higher estimates than pooled estimates of remaining tests. Tests revealed analytical sensitivity of 4 IU/ml against manufacturer's claim of 0.5 IU/ml; reduced sensitivity with HBsAg mutants and poor performance in seroconversion panels. Conclusions

  14. Correction of a skeletal Class II malocclusion with severe crowding by a specially designed rapid maxillary expander.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honghong; Feng, Jing; Lu, Peijun; Shen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    To correct an Angle Class II malocclusion or to create spaces in the maxillary arch by nonextraction treatment, distal movement of the maxillary molars is required. Various modalities for distalizing the buccal segment have been reported. Conventional extraoral appliances can be used to obtain maximum anchorage. However, many patients reject headgear wear because of social and esthetic concerns, and the success of this treatment depends on patient compliance. Intraoral appliances, such as repelling magnets, nickel-titanium coils, pendulum appliance, Jones jig appliance, distal jet appliance, and modified Nance appliance, have been introduced to distalize the molars with little or no patient cooperation. However, intraoral appliances can result in anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the maxillary molars. In this case report, we introduce a diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance that was custom designed and fabricated for the treatment of a growing girl with a skeletal Class II malocclusion and severe crowding from a totally lingually positioned lateral incisor. The appliance concomitantly expanded the maxilla transversely and retracted the buccal segment sagittally, distalizing the maxillary molars to reach a Class I relationship and creating the spaces to displace the malpositioned lateral incisor. The uniqueness of this special diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance was highlighted by a series of reconstructions and modifications at different stages of the treatment to reinforce the anchorage.

  15. Human leukocyte antigen class II DQB1*0301, DRB1*1101 alleles and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus infection: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xin; Yu, Rong-Bin; Sun, Nan-Xiong; Wang, Bin; Xu, Yao-Chu; Wu, Guan-Ling

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the associations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQB1*0301 and/or DRB1*1101 allele with spontaneous hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance by meta-analysis of individual dataset from all studies published till date. METHODS: To clarify the impact of HLA class II polymorphisms on viral clearance, we performed a meta-analysis of the published data from 11 studies comparing the frequencies of DQB1*0301 and DRB1*1101 alleles in individuals with spontaneous resolution to those with persistent infection. As we identified the heterogeneity between studies, summary statistical data were calculated based on a random-effect model. RESULTS: Meta-analyses yielded summary estimates-odds ratio (OR) of 2.36 [95%CI (1.62, 3.43), P<0.00001] and 2.02 [95%CI (1.56, 2.62), P<0.00001] for the effects of DQB1*0301 and DRB1*1101 alleles on spontaneous clearance of HCV, respectively. CONCLUSION: These results support the hypothesis that specific HLA class II alleles might influence the susceptibility or resistance to persistent HCV infection. Both DQB1*0301 and DRB1*1101 are protective alleles and present HCV epitopes more effectively to CD4+T lymphocytes than others, and subjects with these two alleles are at a lower risk of developing chronic HCV infection. Large, multi-ethnic confirmatory and well-designed studies are needed to determine the host genetic determinants of HCV infection. PMID:16437632

  16. Equilibria, Kinetics, and Mechanism for Rapid Substitution Reactions Trans to Triphenylsilyl in Platinum(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Ola F.; Elding, Lars I.

    1997-12-17

    Fast substitution of chloride for bromide and iodide trans to triphenylsilyl in trans-PtCl(SiPh(3))(PMe(2)Ph)(2) has been studied by stopped-flow spectrophotometry in acetonitrile solution. Substitution is reversible with an observable solvent path via the solvento complex trans-[Pt(SiPh(3))(MeCN)(PMe(2)Ph)(2)](+), which has also been synthesized and characterized in solution. Rate constants for the forward and reverse direct substitution pathways are 2900 +/- 100 and 7500 +/- 300 for bromide and 14300 +/- 1100 and 81000 +/- 11000 M(-)(1) s(-)(1) for iodide as nucleophile. The solvento complex reacts ca. 10(3) times faster with iodide than the parent chloride complex, and its reactivity is some 2 orders of magnitude higher than the most reactive solvento species of platinum(II) studied so far. Halide substitution occurs with negative volumes and entropies of activation, but the nucleophilic discrimination is low, and the leaving ligand plays the most important role in the activation process, indicating an I(d) mechanism. Triphenylsilyl has a very high trans effect, comparable to that of ethene and methylisocyanide, due to extensive bond-weakening in the ground state, probably enforced by pi-acception in the transition state. Due to electronic and solvational effects the platinum(II) silyl moiety acts as a hard or borderline metal center in acetonitrile, the thermodynamic stability sequence of its halide complexes being Cl > Br > I, i.e. the reverse of what is usually observed for platinum(II) complexes.

  17. A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Slaughter and Processing Interventions to Control Non-Typhoidal Salmonella in Beef and Pork.

    PubMed

    Young, Ian; Wilhelm, Barbara J; Cahill, Sarah; Nakagawa, Rei; Desmarchelier, Patricia; Rajić, Andrijana

    2016-12-01

    Pork is one of the major food sources of human salmonellosis worldwide, while beef products have been implicated in numerous foodborne outbreaks. As a result, effective interventions to reduce Salmonella contamination during beef and pork processing are of interest to both regulators and industry. We conducted a rapid systematic review and meta-analysis of literature investigating the efficacy of slaughter and processing interventions to control Salmonella in beef and pork. Review steps included: a comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; relevance confirmation of articles; data extraction; risk-of-bias assessment; meta-analysis (where appropriate); and a weight-of-evidence assessment. A total of 191 relevant experimental studies were identified. Two controlled trials indicated that hot water and steam treatments are effective at reducing the prevalence of Salmonella on beef carcasses (relative risk [RR] = 0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 0.58), while four trials found that pre-chill organic acid washes are effective at reducing Salmonella on pork carcasses (RR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.78), with high confidence in the estimates of effect. Four quasi-experimental studies found that post-exsanguination chemical washes were effective to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella on cattle hides, with low confidence in the specific estimate of effect; moderate confidence was found for the effect estimates of scalding (RR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.29) and singeing (RR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.52) of pork carcasses. The overall evidence supported enhanced reductions of Salmonella through a multiple-hurdle approach. In conclusion, various slaughter and processing interventions can contribute to reducing Salmonella on beef and pork carcasses, depending on the context of application; an appropriate combination should be selected, validated, and verified by establishment operators within their local conditions.

  18. Changes in skeletal and dental relationship in Class II Division I malocclusion after rapid maxillary expansion: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Baratieri, Carolina; Alves Jr, Matheus; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Nojima, Matilde C. G.; Nojima, Lincoln I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess skeletal and dental changes immediately after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in Class II Division 1 malocclusion patients and after a retention period, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Methods Seventeen children with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and maxillary skeletal transverse deficiency underwent RME following the Haas protocol. CBCT were taken before treatment (T1), at the end of the active expansion phase (T2) and after a retention period of 6 months (T3). The scanned images were measured anteroposteriorly (SNA, SNB, ANB, overjet and MR) and vertically (N-ANS, ANS-Me, N-Me and overbite). Results Significant differences were identified immediately after RME as the maxilla moved forward, the mandible moved downward, overjet increased and overbite decreased. During the retention period, the maxilla relapsed backwards and the mandible was displaced forward, leaving patients with an overall increase in anterior facial height. Conclusion RME treatment allowed more anterior than inferior positioning of the mandible during the retention period, thus significantly improving Class II dental relationship in 75% of the patients evaluated. PMID:25162569

  19. Changes in skeletal and dental relationship in Class II Division I malocclusion after rapid maxillary expansion: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Baratieri, Carolina; Alves, Matheus; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Nojima, Matilde C G; Nojima, Lincoln I

    2014-01-01

    To assess skeletal and dental changes immediately after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in Class II Division 1 malocclusion patients and after a retention period, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Seventeen children with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and maxillary skeletal transverse deficiency underwent RME following the Haas protocol. CBCT were taken before treatment (T1), at the end of the active expansion phase (T2) and after a retention period of 6 months (T3). The scanned images were measured anteroposteriorly (SNA, SNB, ANB, overjet and MR) and vertically (N-ANS, ANS-Me, N-Me and overbite). Significant differences were identified immediately after RME as the maxilla moved forward, the mandible moved downward, overjet increased and overbite decreased. During the retention period, the maxilla relapsed backwards and the mandible was displaced forward, leaving patients with an overall increase in anterior facial height. RME treatment allowed more anterior than inferior positioning of the mandible during the retention period, thus significantly improving Class II dental relationship in 75% of the patients evaluated.

  20. [The direction of rapid eye movements as an indication of hemispheric asymmetry during REM sleep. II].

    PubMed

    De Gennaro, L; Violani, C; Capogna, M

    1984-08-31

    The hypothesis of right hemisphere predominance in REM sleep and of an increase in left activity throughout the night have been tested by analyzing the distribution of vertical and of horizontal rapid eye movements (REMs) to the right and to the left during the first and the last REM periods in 5 right-handed subjects. Neither the expected superiority of REMs to the left nor variations along the REM periods were found. For vertical eye movements our data suggest a superiority of upward movements during REM. In waking some empirical evidences suggest a relationship between upward eye movements and right hemisphere functioning although to date no hemispheric model can explain it.

  1. Postoperative radiotherapy and tumor recurrence after complete resection of stage II/III thymic tumor: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jietao; Sun, Xin; Huang, Letian; Xiong, Zhicheng; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Shuling; Han, Cheng-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) is effective for reducing the recurrence risk in patients who received complete resection of the stage II or III thymic tumors has not been determined. A meta-analysis was performed by combining the results of all available controlled trials. Methods PubMed, Cochrane’s Library, and the Embase databases were searched for studies which compared the recurrence data for patients with complete resection of the stage II or III thymic tumors assigned to an observing group, or a PORT group. A random effect model was applied to combine the results. Results Nineteen studies, all designed as retrospective cohort studies were included. These studies included 663 patients of PORT group and 617 patients of observing group. The recurrence rate for the patients in PORT group and observing group were 12.4% and 11.5%, respectively. Results of our study indicated that PORT has no significant influence on recurrent risk in patients with stage II or III thymic tumor after complete resection (odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.55–1.90, P=0.96). When stratified by stages, our meta-analyses did not indicate any significant effects of PORT on recurrent outcomes in either the stage II or the stage III patients. Moreover, subsequent analysis limited to studies only including patients with thymoma or thymic carcinoma also did not support the benefits of PORT on recurrent outcomes. Conclusion Although derived from retrospective cohort studies, current evidence did not support any benefit of PORT on recurrent risk in patients with complete resection of the stage II or III thymic tumors. PMID:27524907

  2. Simulating the Formation of Molecular Clouds. II. Rapid Formation from Turbulent Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Simon C. O.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present results from a large set of numerical simulations that demonstrate that H2 formation occurs rapidly in turbulent gas. Starting with purely atomic hydrogen, large quantities of molecular hydrogen can be produced on timescales of 1-2 Myr, given turbulent velocity dispersions and magnetic field strengths consistent with observations. Moreover, as our simulations underestimate the effectiveness of H2 self-shielding and dust absorption, we can be confident that the molecular fractions that we compute are strong lower limits on the true values. The formation of large quantities of molecular gas on the timescale required by rapid cloud formation models therefore appears to be entirely plausible. We also investigate the density and temperature distributions of gas in our model clouds. We show that the density probability distribution function is approximately lognormal, with a dispersion that agrees well with the prediction of Padoan and coworkers. The temperature distribution is similar to that of a polytrope, with an effective polytropic index γeff~=0.8, although at low gas densities, the scatter of the actual gas temperature around this mean value is considerable, and the polytropic approximation does not capture the full range of behavior of the gas.

  3. Rapid endodontic management of type II dens invaginatus using an MTA plug: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fayazi, Sara; Bayat-Movahed, Saeed; White, Shane N

    2013-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is an anomaly characterized by an infolding of enamel and dentin that can lead to caries and pulpal death while the tooth is still immature, and present difficulties with diagnosis and treatment. Generally such open apices are managed by long term apexifaction procedures. This article demonstrated rapid management of a maxillary lateral incisor having a type 2 dens invaginatus, necrotic pulp, open apex and very large periradicular lesion using calcium hydroxide for one week prior to placement of a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) plug. After setting of the MTA, the remaining canal space was obturated using a warm vertical gutta percha technique. At 6 months follow-up the patient was asymptomatic, the lesion had almost entirely resolved, and, the root was already completely surrounded by bone.

  4. Rapid analysis of hay attributes using NIRS. Final report, Task II alfalfa supply system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-24

    This final report provides technical information on the development of a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) system for the analysis of alfalfa hay. The purpose of the system is to provide consistent quality for processing alfalfa stems for fuel and alfalfa leaf meal products for livestock feed. Project tasks were to: (1) develop an NIRS driven analytical system for analysis of alfalfa hay and processed alfalfa products; (2) assist in hiring a qualified NIRS technician and recommend changes in testing equipment necessary to provide accurate analysis; (3) calibrate the NIRS instrument for accurate analyses; and (4) develop prototype equipment and sampling procedures as a first step towards development of a totally automated sampling system that would rapidly sample and record incoming feedstock and outbound product. An accurate hay testing program was developed, along with calibration equations for analyzing alfalfa hay and sun-cured alfalfa pellets. A preliminary leaf steam calibration protocol was also developed. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Rapid Urban Malaria Appraisal (RUMA) II: epidemiology of urban malaria in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shr-Jie; Lengeler, Christian; Mtasiwa, Deodatus; Mshana, Thomas; Manane, Lusinge; Maro, Godson; Tanner, Marcel

    2006-04-04

    The thinking behind malaria research and control strategies stems largely from experience gained in rural areas and needs to be adapted to the urban environment. A rapid assessment of urban malaria was conducted in Dar es Salaam in June-August, 2003 using a standard Rapid Urban Malaria Appraisal (RUMA) methodology. This study was part of a multi-site study in sub-Saharan Africa supported by the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. Overall, around one million cases of malaria are reported every year by health facilities. However, school surveys in Dar es Salaam during a dry spell in 2003 showed that the prevalence of malaria parasites was low: 0.8%, 1.4%, 2.7% and 3.7% in the centre, intermediate, periphery and surrounding rural areas, respectively. Health facilities surveys showed that only 37/717 (5.2%) of presenting fever cases and 22/781 (2.8%) of non-fever cases were positive by blood slide. As a result, malaria-attributable fractions for fever episodes were low in all age groups and there was an important over-reporting of malaria cases. Increased malarial infection rates were seen in persons who travelled to rural areas within the past three months. A remarkably high coverage of insecticide-treated nets and a corresponding reduction in malarial infection risk were found. The number of clinical malaria cases was much lower than routine reporting suggested. Improved malaria diagnosis and re-defined clinical guidelines are urgently required to avoid over-treatment with antimalarials.

  6. Trazodone, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (an hallucinogenic drug and trazodone metabolite), and the hallucinogen trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine cross-react with the EMIT®II ecstasy immunoassay in urine.

    PubMed

    Logan, Barry K; Costantino, Anthony G; Rieders, Eric F; Sanders, David

    2010-11-01

    A series of patients whose urine screened positive for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) using a commercial enzyme immunoassay test (Ecstasy EMIT II assay), failed to confirm by substance-specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry tests for MDMA. Further evaluation of these urine specimens indicates that they were positive for trazodone and its metabolite meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP). Independent tests of standards showed significant crossreactivity on the Ecstasy EMIT II assay with trazodone, m-CPP, and the related recreational drug trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP). This is of further forensic significance because m-CPP is emerging as an illicit recreational drug in its own right or as an adulterant in illicit cocaine and MDMA. The hallucinogen benzylpiperazine was also assessed but found not to cross-react significantly with this assay. Patients taking trazodone may get false-positive results on the urine EMIT test for MDMA.

  7. Rapid and selective lead (II) colorimetric sensor based on azacrown ether-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, A.; Khodaei, M. M.; Karami, Ch; Workentin, M. S.; Shamsipur, M.; Sadeghi, M.

    2010-08-01

    A gold nanoparticle (AuNPs)-based simple and fast colorimetric sensor for selective detecting of Pb(II) in aqueous solution has been developed. Monodisperse AuNPs (approx. 2.0 nm diameter) has been prepared facilely and further modified with an alkanethiol-bearing monoazacrown ether terminus. These AuNPs are shown to selectively sense Pb2 + through color change, which is visually discernible by an appearance of the surface plasmon band (SPB) at 520 nm. The recognition mechanism is attributed to the unique structure of the monoazacrown ether attached to AuNPs and metal sandwich coordination between two azacrown ether moieties that are attached to separate nanoparticles. This inter-particle cross-linking results in an aggregation and apparent color change from brown to purple. Additionally, TEM experiments support the optical absorption data proving the aggregation between azacrown ether-capped gold nanoparticles. This AuNP-based colorimetric assay is a facile and robust method and allows fast detection of Pb2 + at ambient temperatures. More importantly, the developed technique does not utilize enzymatic reactions, light-sensitive dye molecules, lengthy protocols or sophisticated instrumentation.

  8. Pulsations of rapidly rotating stars. II. Realistic modelling for intermediate-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouazzani, R.-M.; Roxburgh, I. W.; Dupret, M.-A.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Very high precision seismic space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler provide the means for testing the modelling of transport processes in stellar interiors. For some stars, such as δ Scuti, γ Doradus, and Be stars, the observed pulsation spectra are modified by rotation to such an extent that it prevents any fruitful interpretation. Aims: Our aim is to characterise acoustic pulsation spectra of realistic stellar models in order to be able to interpret asteroseismic data from such stars. Methods: The 2D oscillation code ACOR, which treats rotation in a non-perturbative manner, is used to study pulsation spectra of highly distorted evolved models of stars. Two-dimensional models of stars are obtained by a self-consistent method that distorts spherically averaged stellar models a posteriori, at any stage of evolution, and for any type of rotation law. Results: Four types of modes are calculated in a very dense frequency spectrum, among which are island modes. The regularity of the island modes spectrum is confirmed and yields a new set of quantum numbers, with which an échelle diagram can be built. Mixed gravito-acoustic modes are calculated in rapidly rotating models for the first time.

  9. Accretion and canal impacts in a rapidly subsiding wetland II: Feldspar marker horizon technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Turner, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Recent (6-12 months) marsh sediment accretion and accumulation rates were measured with feldspar marker horizons in the vicinity of natural waterways and man-made canals with spoil banks in the rapidly subsiding environment of coastal Louisiana. Annual accretion rates in a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh in the Mississippi deltaic plain averaged 6 mm in marsh adjacent to canals compared to 10 mm in marsh adjacent to natural waterways. The rates, however, were not statistically significantly different. The average rate of sediment accretion in the same salt marsh region for a transect perpendicular to a canal (13 mm yr-1) was significantly greater than the rate measured for a transect perpendicular to a natural waterway (7 mm yr-1). Measurements of soil bulk density and organic matter content from the two transects were also different. This spatial variability in accretion rates is probably related to (1) spoil bank influences on local hydrology; and (2) a locally high rate of sediment input from lateral erosion associated with pond enlargement. In a brackish Spatina patens marsh on Louisiana's chenier plain, vertical accretion rates were the same along natural and canal waterways (3-4 mm yr-1) in a hydrologically restricted marsh region. However, the accretion rates for both waterways were significantly lower than the rates along a nonhydrologically restricted natural waterway nearby (11 mm yr-1). The vertical accretion of matter displayed semi-annual differences in the brackish marsh environment.

  10. Moving Difference (MDIFF) Non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) EPR of copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, James S.; Bennett, Brian; Kittell, Aaron W.; Kowalski, Jason M.; Sidabras, Jason W.

    2014-01-01

    Non Adiabatic Rapid Sweep (NARS) EPR spectroscopy has been introduced for application to nitroxide-labeled biological samples (AW Kittell et al, (2011)). Displays are pure absorption, and are built up by acquiring data in spectral segments that are concatenated. In this paper we extend the method to frozen solutions of copper-imidazole, a square planar copper complex with four in-plane nitrogen ligands. Pure absorption spectra are created from concatenation of 170 5-gauss segments spanning 850 G at 1.9 GHz. These spectra, however, are not directly useful since nitrogen superhyperfine couplings are barely visible. Application of the moving difference (MDIFF) algorithm to the digitized NARS pure absorption spectrum is used to produce spectra that are analogous to the first harmonic EPR. The signal intensity is about 4 times higher than when using conventional 100 kHz field modulation, depending on line shape. MDIFF not only filters the spectrum, but also the noise, resulting in further improvement of the SNR for the same signal acquisition time. The MDIFF amplitude can be optimized retrospectively, different spectral regions can be examined at different amplitudes, and an amplitude can be used that is substantially greater than the upper limit of the field modulation amplitude of a conventional EPR spectrometer, which improves the signal-to-noise ratio of broad lines. PMID:24036469

  11. Postural adjustments associated with rapid voluntary arm movements. II. Biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Friedli, W G; Cohen, L; Hallett, M; Stanhope, S; Simon, S R

    1988-01-01

    Normal subjects performed bilaterally symmetric rapid elbow flexions or extensions ("focal movements") while standing. Specific patterns of electromyographic activity in leg and trunk muscles ("associated postural adjustments") were seen for each type of movement. The biomechanical significance of these postural adjustments was analysed by means of the ground reaction forces and motion of the various body segments. Experimental data were compared with that from a theoretical model of the body consisting of a six segment kinetic chain with rigid links. Distinct patterns of the ground reaction forces with elbow flexion were opposite in direction to those seen with elbow extension. Movements of the various body segments were small and specific for a certain focal movement. Dynamic perturbations arising from the arm movement in an anteroposterior direction were found to be compensated by postural adjustments, whereas vertical perturbations were not compensated. The muscular activity acting about different joints in the different movements was found to correlate with the predictions of activity needed to compensate for net joint reaction moments arising from the focal movement. Motion of the various body segments could be understood as resulting from the interplay of the net reaction moments and the net muscular moments at the different joints. Dynamic postural requirements are accomplished by a precise active compensation initiated before the focal movement. PMID:3346688

  12. Insulated Isothermal Reverse Transcriptase PCR (iiRT-PCR) for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Classical Swine Fever Virus.

    PubMed

    Lung, O; Pasick, J; Fisher, M; Buchanan, C; Erickson, A; Ambagala, A

    2016-10-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an OIE-listed disease that can have a severe impact on the swine industry. User-friendly, sensitive, rapid diagnostic tests that utilize low-cost field-deployable instruments for CSF diagnosis can be useful for disease surveillance and outbreak monitoring. In this study, we describe validation of a new probe-based insulated isothermal reverse transcriptase PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay for rapid detection of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) on a compact, user-friendly device (POCKIT(™) Nucleic Acid Analyzer) that does not need data interpretation by the user. The assay accurately detected CSFV RNA from a diverse panel of 33 CSFV strains representing all three genotypes plus an additional in vitro-transcribed RNA from cloned sequences representing a vaccine strain. No cross-reactivity was observed with a panel of 18 viruses associated with livestock including eight other pestivirus strains (bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 and type 2, border disease virus, HoBi atypical pestivirus), African swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, swine influenza virus, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, porcine circovirus 1, porcine circovirus 2, porcine respiratory coronavirus, vesicular exanthema of swine virus, bovine herpes virus type 1 and vesicular stomatitis virus. The iiRT-PCR assay accurately detected CSFV as early as 2 days post-inoculation in RNA extracted from serum samples of experimentally infected pigs, before appearance of clinical signs. The limit of detection (LOD95% ) calculated by probit regression analysis was 23 copies per reaction. The assay has a sample to answer turnaround time of less than an hour using extracted RNA or diluted or low volume of neat serum. The user-friendly, compact device that automatically analyses and displays results could potentially be a useful tool for surveillance and monitoring of CSF in a disease outbreak.

  13. Differential Interactions between Comorbid Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use Disorder in Rapid Cycling Bipolar I or II Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Keming; Tolliver, Bryan; Kemp, David E.; Verduin, Marcia L.; Ganocy, Stephen J.; Bilali, Sarah; Brady, Kathleen; Shim, Seong S.; Findling, Robert; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Anxiety disorders (AD) and substance use disorders (SUD) commonly co-occur with bipolar disorder. This study was undertaken to assess AD-SUD-bipolar subtype interactions. Methods Extensive clinical interview and MINI were used to ascertain DSM-IV diagnoses of rapid cycling bipolar I (RCBPDI) or II (RCBPDII) disorder, SUDs, and ADs including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Data at the initial assessment of four studies was used to compare the prevalence differences in ADs between RCBPDI and RCBPDII by using protocol-defined SUD categories, “Never,” “Lifetime, but not recent,” or “Recent.” Results Five-hundred sixty-six of 568 patients (RCBPDI n=320, RCBPDII n=246) were eligible for analyses. In the “Never” group (n=191), patients with RCBPDI and RCBPDII had similar risk for ADs. In the “Lifetime, but not recent” group (n=195), RCBPDI patients had significantly higher risks for GAD (OR=3.29), PD (OR=2.95), but not OCD, compared with their RCBPDII counterparts. Similarly, in the “Recent” group (n=180), RCBPDI patients also had significantly higher risks for GAD (OR=3.6), PD (OR=3.8), but not OCD, compared with their RCBPDII counterparts. Limitations Data were cross-sectional and not all ADs were included. Conclusion In this large cohort of patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder, risk for having GAD, PD, but not OCD increased significantly in patients with bipolar I disorder compared to their bipolar II counterparts when a history of SUD was present. However, there were no significant differences in the risk for GAD, PD, or OCD between the subtypes among patients without a history of SUD. PMID:18234350

  14. The RABiT: a rapid automated biodosimetry tool for radiological triage. II. Technological developments.

    PubMed

    Garty, Guy; Chen, Youhua; Turner, Helen C; Zhang, Jian; Lyulko, Oleksandra V; Bertucci, Antonella; Xu, Yanping; Wang, Hongliang; Simaan, Nabil; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Lawrence Yao, Y; Brenner, David J

    2011-08-01

    Over the past five years the Center for Minimally Invasive Radiation Biodosimetry at Columbia University has developed the Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool (RABiT), a completely automated, ultra-high throughput biodosimetry workstation. This paper describes recent upgrades and reliability testing of the RABiT. The RABiT analyses fingerstick-derived blood samples to estimate past radiation exposure or to identify individuals exposed above or below a cut-off dose. Through automated robotics, lymphocytes are extracted from fingerstick blood samples into filter-bottomed multi-well plates. Depending on the time since exposure, the RABiT scores either micronuclei or phosphorylation of the histone H2AX, in an automated robotic system, using filter-bottomed multi-well plates. Following lymphocyte culturing, fixation and staining, the filter bottoms are removed from the multi-well plates and sealed prior to automated high-speed imaging. Image analysis is performed online using dedicated image processing hardware. Both the sealed filters and the images are archived. We have developed a new robotic system for lymphocyte processing, making use of an upgraded laser power and parallel processing of four capillaries at once. This system has allowed acceleration of lymphocyte isolation, the main bottleneck of the RABiT operation, from 12 to 2 sec/sample. Reliability tests have been performed on all robotic subsystems. Parallel handling of multiple samples through the use of dedicated, purpose-built, robotics and high speed imaging allows analysis of up to 30,000 samples per day.

  15. The RABiT: A Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool For Radiological Triage. II. Technological Developments

    PubMed Central

    Garty, Guy; Chen, Youhua; Turner, Helen; Zhang, Jian; Lyulko, Oleksandra; Bertucci, Antonella; Xu, Yanping; Wang, Hongliang; Simaan, Nabil; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Yao, Y. Lawrence; Brenner, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Over the past five years the Center for Minimally Invasive Radiation Biodosimetry at Columbia University has developed the Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool (RABiT), a completely automated, ultra-high throughput biodosimetry workstation. This paper describes recent upgrades and reliability testing of the RABiT. Materials and methods The RABiT analyzes fingerstick-derived blood samples to estimate past radiation exposure or to identify individuals exposed above or below a cutoff dose. Through automated robotics, lymphocytes are extracted from fingerstick blood samples into filter-bottomed multi-well plates. Depending on the time since exposure, the RABiT scores either micronuclei or phosphorylation of the histone H2AX, in an automated robotic system, using filter-bottomed multi-well plates. Following lymphocyte culturing, fixation and staining, the filter bottoms are removed from the multi-well plates and sealed prior to automated high-speed imaging. Image analysis is performed online using dedicated image processing hardware. Both the sealed filters and the images are archived. Results We have developed a new robotic system for lymphocyte processing, making use of an upgraded laser power and parallel processing of four capillaries at once. This system has allowed acceleration of lymphocyte isolation, the main bottleneck of the RABiT operation, from 12 to 2 sec/sample. Reliability tests have been performed on all robotic subsystems. Conclusions Parallel handling of multiple samples through the use of dedicated, purpose-built, robotics and high speed imaging allows analysis of up to 30,000 samples per day. PMID:21557703

  16. Sex differences in the risk of rapid cycling and other indicators of adverse illness course in patients with bipolar I and II disorder.

    PubMed

    Erol, Almila; Winham, Stacey J; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Prieto, Miguel L; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Fuentes, Manuel; Geske, Jennifer; Mori, Nicole; Biernacka, Joanna M; Bobo, William V

    2015-09-01

    To examine the independent effects of sex on the risk of rapid cycling and other indicators of adverse illness course in patients with bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II). We analyzed data from the first 1,225 patients enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Individualized Medicine Biobank for Bipolar Disorder. Demographic and clinical variables were ascertained using standardized questionnaires; height and weight were assessed to determine body mass index (BMI). Rates of rapid cycling, cycle acceleration, and increased severity of mood episodes over time were compared between women and men overall and within subgroups defined by bipolar disorder subtype (BP-I or BP-II). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent effect of sex on the risk of these indicators of adverse illness course. Women had significantly higher rates of rapid cycling than men. Overall rates of rapid cycling were higher in patients with BP-II than BP-I; and sex differences in the rate of rapid cycling were more pronounced in patients with BP-II than BP-I, although the power to detect statistically significant differences was reduced due to the lower sample size of subjects with BP-II. Female sex was a significant predictor of rapid cycling, cycle acceleration, and increased severity of mood episodes over time after adjusting for age, bipolar disorder subtype, BMI, having any comorbid psychiatric disorder, and current antidepressant use. Female sex was associated with significantly higher risk of rapid cycling, cycle acceleration, and increased severity of mood episodes over time in a sample of 1,225 patients with bipolar disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Effects of Maxillary Protraction with or without Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Age Factors in Treating Class III Malocclusion: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Qu, Hong-Chen; Yu, Mo; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 12 studies to examine whether maxillary protraction face mask associated with rapid maxillary expansion (FM/RME) could be an effective treatment for Class III malocclusion and to evaluate the effect of timing on treatment response. Patients with a maxillary deficiency who were treated with FM with or without RME were compared with those who had an untreated Class III malocclusion. In both treatment groups, forward displacement of the maxilla and skeletal changes were found to be statistically significant. In addition, posterior rotation of the mandible and increased facial height were more evident in the FM group compared with the control group. However, no significant differences were observed between the early treatment groups and late treatment groups. The results indicated that both FM/RME and FM therapy produced favorable skeletal changes for correcting anterior crossbite, and the curative time was not affected by the presence of deciduous teeth, early mixed dentition or late mixed dentition in the patient. PMID:26068221

  18. Effects of rapid versus standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing on receipt rate of HIV test results: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Lu, Wenli

    2015-03-01

    Rapid HIV voluntary counselling and testing (RVCT) is an alternative method of standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing (SVCT). Less is known about whether RVCT improves the receipt rate of HIV test results among clients who seek HIV counselling and testing. We aimed to evaluate effectiveness of RVCT on result receipt rate. We conducted a comprehensive search of databases containing Medline, EBSCO, Web of science, and Cochrane library to identify studies published up to August 2012. Reviewers extracted information independently. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing study quality. Five randomised controlled trials were included and analysed for the result receipt rate using a random-effects model. The pooled receipt rate of HIV test results in the RVCT was significantly higher than in the SVCT (RR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.47-2.07). Our results suggest RVCT as a favourable method to increase the receipt of HIV test results. Only two included studies assessed the modification of risk behaviour after HIV-CT in a different manner; also, the sample size was small in the current meta-analysis. In future research, it is necessary to confirm the effect of RVCT on disinhibition of post-test risk behaviour.

  19. Efficacy of ketamine in the rapid treatment of major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu; Chen, Jianjun; Zou, Dezhi; Zheng, Peng; Li, Qi; Wang, Haiyang; Li, Pengfei; Zhou, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuqing; Liu, Yiyun; Xie, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of studies are reporting that ketamine could be treated as a novel antidepressant for major depressive disorder (MDD). Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to comprehensively and systematically assess the efficacy of ketamine for treating patients with MDD. Method Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies on ketamine versus placebo for treating MDD were searched up to April 2016 in medical databases (PubMed, CCTR, Web of Science, Embase, CBM-disc, and CNKI). Three treatment time points (24 and 72 h, and day 7) were chosen. Response and remission rates were the main outcomes. The random effects model was used. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results Nine high-quality studies that included 368 patients were selected to compare the efficacy of ketamine to placebo. The therapeutic effects of ketamine at 24 and 72 h, and day 7 were found to be significantly better than placebo. Response and remission rates in the ketamine group at 24 and 72 h, and day 7 were 52.2% and 20.6%; 47.9% and 23.8%; and 39.8% and 26.2%, respectively. No significant heterogeneity existed, and the Egger’s test showed no publication bias. Conclusion These results indicated that ketamine could yield a good efficacy in the rapid treatment of MDD. Future large-scale clinical studies are needed to confirm our results and investigate the mid- and long-term efficacy of ketamine in treating MDD. PMID:27843321

  20. Meta-Analysis Comparing Established Risk Prediction Models (EuroSCORE II, STS Score, and ACEF Score) for Perioperative Mortality During Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Patrick G; Wallach, Joshua D; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-11-15

    A wide variety of multivariable risk models have been developed to predict mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery; however, the relative utility of these models is unknown. This study investigated the literature related to comparisons made between established risk prediction models for perioperative mortality used in the setting of cardiac surgery. A systematic review was conducted to capture studies in cardiac surgery comparing the relative performance of at least 2 prediction models cited in recent guidelines (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation [EuroSCORE II], Society for Thoracic Surgeons 2008 Cardiac Surgery Risk Models [STS] score, and Age, Creatinine, Ejection Fraction [ACEF] score) for the outcomes of 1-month or inhospital mortality. For articles that met inclusion criteria, we extracted information on study design, predictive performance of risk models, and potential for bias. Meta-analyses were conducted to calculate a summary estimate of the difference in AUCs between models. We identified 22 eligible studies that contained 33 comparisons among the above models. Meta-analysis of differences in AUCs revealed that the EuroSCORE II and STS score performed similarly (with a summary difference in AUC = 0.00), while outperforming the ACEF score (with summary differences in AUC of 0.10 and 0.08, respectively, p <0.05). Other metrics of discrimination and calibration were presented less consistently, and no study presented any metric of reclassification. Small sample size and absent descriptions of missing data were common in these studies. In conclusion, the EuroSCORE II and STS score outperform the ACEF score on discrimination. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Applications of RIGAKU Dmax Rapid II micro-X-ray diffractometer in the analysis of archaeological metal objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozgai, Viktória; Szabó, Máté; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Weiszburg, Tamás G.; Fórizs, István; Mráv, Zsolt; Tóth, Mária

    2017-04-01

    During material analysis of archaeological metal objects, especially their inlays or corrosion products, not only microstructure and chemical composition, but mineralogical composition is necessary to be determined. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is a widely-used method to specify the mineralogical composition. However, when sampling is not or limitedly allowed due to e.g. the high value of the object, the conventional XRD analysis can hardly be used. Laboratory micro-XRD instruments provide good alternatives, like the RIGAKU Dmax Rapid II micro-X-ray diffractometer, which is a unique combination of a MicroMax-003 third generation microfocus, sealed tube X-ray generator and a curved 'image plate' detector. With this instrument it is possible to measure as small as 10 µm area in diameter on the object. Here we present case studies for the application of the micro-XRD technique in the study of archaeological metal objects. In the first case niello inlay of a Late Roman silver augur staff was analysed. Due to the high value of the object, since it is the only piece known from the Roman Empire, only non-destructive analyses were allowed. To reconstruct the preparation of the niello, SEM-EDX analysis was performed on the niello inlays to characterise their chemical composition and microstructure. Two types of niello are present: a homogeneous, silver sulphide niello (acanthite) and an inhomogeneous silver-copper sulphide niello (exsolution of acanthite and jalpaite or jalpaite and stromeyerite). The micro-X-ray diffractometer was used to verify the mineralogical composition of the niello, supposed on the base of SEM results. In the second case corrosion products of a Late Roman copper cauldron with uncertain provenance were examined, since they may hold clues about the burial conditions (pH, Eh, etc.) of the object. A layer by layer analysis was performed in cross sections of small metal samples by using electron microprobe and micro-X-ray diffractometer. The results

  2. The relation between the bolometric flux and the blackbody temperature at the peak of type II bursts from the Rapid Burster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, Lori M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Dotani, Tadayasu; Oosterbroek, Tim; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Magnier, Eugene; Van Paradijs, Jan; Van Der Klis, Michiel

    1992-01-01

    During about 6 hr of Ginga observations of the Rapid Burster in August 1988, the source emitted type II bursts with durations between about 3 and about 35 s and with peak fluxes which varied by factors of about 5. The Rapid Burster was active in two bursting modes as defined by Marshall et al. (1979): mode I characterize by a burst energy distribution which is 'double-peaked' and mode II by a distribution which is 'single-peaked'. A study of the relationship between the maximum bolometric burst flux, F(max), and the associated blackbody temperature, Tc, shows that mode I bursts consistently show higher Tc values than bursts of mode II. These results, together with previous work, suggest that the relation between F(max) and Tc is dependent on mode. In mode I the color temperature is approximately independent of the burst peak flux, whereas in mode II the two properties are correlated.

  3. The relation between the bolometric flux and the blackbody temperature at the peak of type II bursts from the Rapid Burster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, Lori M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Dotani, Tadayasu; Oosterbroek, Tim; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Magnier, Eugene; Van Paradijs, Jan; Van Der Klis, Michiel

    1992-01-01

    During about 6 hr of Ginga observations of the Rapid Burster in August 1988, the source emitted type II bursts with durations between about 3 and about 35 s and with peak fluxes which varied by factors of about 5. The Rapid Burster was active in two bursting modes as defined by Marshall et al. (1979): mode I characterize by a burst energy distribution which is 'double-peaked' and mode II by a distribution which is 'single-peaked'. A study of the relationship between the maximum bolometric burst flux, F(max), and the associated blackbody temperature, Tc, shows that mode I bursts consistently show higher Tc values than bursts of mode II. These results, together with previous work, suggest that the relation between F(max) and Tc is dependent on mode. In mode I the color temperature is approximately independent of the burst peak flux, whereas in mode II the two properties are correlated.

  4. Rapid acceleration of ferrous iron/peroxymonosulfate oxidation of organic pollutants by promoting Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycle with hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Ma, Jun; Chen, Liwei; Li, Xuchun; Guan, Yinghong; Xie, Pengchao; Pan, Chao

    2013-10-15

    The reaction between ferrous iron (Fe(II)) with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) generates reactive oxidants capable of degrading refractory organic contaminants. However, the slow transformation from ferric iron (Fe(III)) back to Fe(II) limits its widespread application. Here, we added hydroxylamine (HA), a common reducing agent, into Fe(II)/PMS process to accelerate the transformation from Fe(III) to Fe(II). With benzoic acid (BA) as probe compound, the addition of HA into Fe(II)/PMS process accelerated the degradation of BA rapidly in the pH range of 2.0-6.0 by accelerating the key reactions, including the redox cycle of Fe(III)/Fe(II) and the generation of reactive oxidants. Both sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals were considered as the primary reactive oxidants for the degradation of BA in HA/Fe(II)/PMS process with the experiments of electron spin resonance and alcohols quenching. Moreover, HA was gradually degraded to N2, N2O, NO2 (−), and NO3 (−), while the environmentally friendly gas of N2 was considered as its major end product in the process. The present study might provide a promising idea based on Fe(II)/PMS process for the rapid degradation of refractory organic contaminants in water treatment.

  5. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  6. Systematic review and meta-analysis: rapid diagnostic tests versus placental histology, microscopy and PCR for malaria in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During pregnancy, malaria infection with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax is related to adverse maternal health and poor birth outcomes. Diagnosis of malaria, during pregnancy, is complicated by the absence or low parasite densities in peripheral blood. Diagnostic methods, other than microscopy, are needed for detection of placental malaria. Therefore, the diagnostic accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), detecting antigen, and molecular techniques (PCR), detecting DNA, for the diagnosis of Plasmodium infections in pregnancy was systematically reviewed. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched for studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of RDTs, PCR, microscopy of peripheral and placental blood and placental histology for the detection of malaria infection (all species) in pregnant women. Results The results of 49 studies were analysed in metandi (Stata), of which the majority described P. falciparum infections. Although both placental and peripheral blood microscopy cannot reliably replace histology as a reference standard for placental P. falciparum infection, many studies compared RDTs and PCR to these tests. The proportion of microscopy positives in placental blood (sensitivity) detected by peripheral blood microscopy, RDTs and PCR are respectively 72% [95% CI 62-80], 81% [95% CI 55-93] and 94% [95% CI 86-98]. The proportion of placental blood microscopy negative women that were negative in peripheral blood microscopy, RDTs and PCR (specificity) are 98% [95% CI 95-99], 94% [95% CI 76-99] and 77% [95% CI 71-82]. Based on the current data, it was not possible to determine if the false positives in RDTs and PCR are caused by sequestered parasites in the placenta that are not detected by placental microscopy. Conclusion The findings suggest that RDTs and PCR may have good performance characteristics to serve as alternatives for the diagnosis of malaria in pregnancy, besides any other limitations and practical considerations

  7. Mechanical Testing of PMCs under Simulated Rapid Heat-Up Propulsion Environments. II; In-Plane Compressive Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Eric H.; Shin, E. Eugene; Sutter, James K.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon fiber thermoset polymer matrix composites (PMC) with high temperature polyimide based in-situ polymerized monomer reactant (PMR) resin has been used for some time in applications which can see temperatures up to 550 F. Currently, graphite fiber PMR based composites are used in several aircraft engine components including the outer bypass duct for the GE F-404, exit flaps for the P&W F-100-229, and the core cowl for the GE/Snecma CF6-80A3. Newer formulations, including PMR-II-50 are being investigated as potential weight reduction replacements of various metallic components in next generation high performance propulsion rocket engines that can see temperatures which exceed 550 F. Extensive FEM thermal modeling indicates that these components are exposed to rapid heat-up rates (up to -200 F/sec) and to a maximum temperature of around 600 F. Even though the predicted maximum part temperatures were within the capability of PW-II-50, the rapid heat-up causes significant through-thickness thermal gradients in the composite part and even more unstable states when combined with moisture. Designing composite parts for such extreme service environments will require accurate measurement of intrinsic and transient mechanical properties and the hygrothermal performance of these materials under more realistic use conditions. The mechanical properties of polymers degrade when exposed to elevated temperatures even in the absence of gaseous oxygen. Accurate mechanical characterization of the material is necessary in order to reduce system weight while providing sufficient factors of safety. Historically, the testing of PMCs at elevated temperatures has been plagued by the antagonism between two factors. First, moisture has been shown to profoundly affect the mechanical response of these materials at temperatures above their glass transition temperature while concurrently lowering the material's Tg. Moisture phenomena is due to one or a combination of three effects, i

  8. Optimizing a multi-product closed-loop supply chain using NSGA-II, MOSA, and MOPSO meta-heuristic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaveisi, Vahid; Paydar, Mohammad Mahdi; Safaei, Abdul Sattar

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to discuss the solution methodology for a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) network that includes the collection of used products as well as distribution of the new products. This supply chain is presented on behalf of the problems that can be solved by the proposed meta-heuristic algorithms. A mathematical model is designed for a CLSC that involves three objective functions of maximizing the profit, minimizing the total risk and shortages of products. Since three objective functions are considered, a multi-objective solution methodology can be advantageous. Therefore, several approaches have been studied and an NSGA-II algorithm is first utilized, and then the results are validated using an MOSA and MOPSO algorithms. Priority-based encoding, which is used in all the algorithms, is the core of the solution computations. To compare the performance of the meta-heuristics, random numerical instances are evaluated by four criteria involving mean ideal distance, spread of non-dominance solution, the number of Pareto solutions, and CPU time. In order to enhance the performance of the algorithms, Taguchi method is used for parameter tuning. Finally, sensitivity analyses are performed and the computational results are presented based on the sensitivity analyses in parameter tuning.

  9. Use of Strep-tag II for rapid detection and purification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis recombinant antigens secreted by Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Julio C; Pimienta, Elsa; Rodríguez, Caridad; Anné, Jozef; Vallín, Carlos; Milanés, María T; King-Batsios, Emmanuel; Huygen, Kris; Van Mellaert, Lieve

    2013-09-01

    Recent results with respect to the secretory production of bio-active Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins in Streptomyces have stimulated the further exploitation of this host as a bacterial cell factory. However, the rapid isolation of a recombinant protein by conventional procedures can be a restrictive step. A previous attempt to isolate recombinant antigens fused to the widely used 6His-tag was found to be relatively incompatible with secretory production in the Streptomyces host. As an alternative, the eight-residue Strep-tag® II (WSHPQFEK), displaying intrinsic binding affinity towards streptavidin, was evaluated for the secretory production of two M. tuberculosis immunodominant antigens in Streptomyces lividans and their subsequent downstream processing. Therefore, the genes ag85A (Rv3804c, encoding the mycolyl-transferase Ag85A) and Rv2626c (encoding hypoxic response protein 1), were equipped with a 3'-Strep-tag® II-encoding sequence and placed under control of the Streptomyces venezuelae CBS762.70 subtilisin inhibitor (vsi) transcriptional, translational and signal sequences. Strep-tagged Ag85A and Rv2626c proteins were detected in the spent medium of recombinant S. lividans cultures at 48h of growth, and purified using a Strep-Tactin Superflow® matrix. Recombinant Ag85A appeared as a 30-kDa protein of which the N-terminal amino acid sequence was identical to the expected one. Rv2626c was produced in two forms of 17 and 37kDa respectively, both with the same predicted N-terminal sequence, suggesting that the 37-kDa product is an Rv2626c dimer. The obtained results indicate that the Strep-tagII is proteolytically stable in Streptomyces and does not interfere with the membrane translocation of Ag85A and Rv2626c. A comparison of reactivity of serum from tuberculosis patients versus healthy persons by ELISA showed that both S. lividans-derived antigens were recognized by sera of individuals infected with M. tuberculosis, indicating that they remained

  10. MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting facilitates rapid discrimination of phylotypes I, II and III of Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Elisabeth; Urbán, Edit; Becker, Simone; Kostrzewa, Markus; Vörös, Andrea; Hunyadkürti, Judit; Nagy, István

    2013-04-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is widely used today for species determination of bacteria and fungi in routine microbiological laboratories, and can also be used for subtyping of bacteria, such as Bacteroides fragilis. Propionibacterium acnes is frequently referred to as an anaerobic skin commensal of relatively low pathogenicity. In addition to its accepted pathogenic role in acne, P. acnes is now emerging as an important opportunistic pathogen in many other clinical situations, including late-stage prosthetic joint infections, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, endophthalmitis, post-neurosurgical infections and possibly prostate cancer. At the population genetic level, P. acnes can be differentiated into a number of distinct phylogroups, known as types IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II and III, which may be associated with different types of infections and clinical conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate MS-based typing for resolution of these genetic groups after routine identification by MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker MALDI Biotyper). The software package ClinProTools 2.2 was used to analyze the protein based mass spectra of reference strains belonging to types IA, IB, IC, II and III. Phylogroup-specific peaks and peak shifts were then identified visually. In addition, peak variations between the different types of P. acnes were investigated by using FlexAnalysis 3.3 software (Bruker). A differentiating library was created, which was used to type further 48 clinical isolates of P. acnes. Typing data obtained by MALDI-TOF MS were then compared with the results from Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). Most of the clinical isolates (n = 19) belonged to the type IA grouping according to MALDI-TOF MS. By MLST, all isolates were identified as type IA1. Twenty-one clinical isolates belonged to the type IB cluster based on both MALDI-TOF MS and MLST typing. Eight clinical isolates were identified as type II strains

  11. Systematic literature review and network meta-analysis in highly active relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis and rapidly evolving severe multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Huisman, Eline; Papadimitropoulou, Katerina; Jarrett, James; Bending, Matthew; Firth, Zoe; Allen, Felicity; Adlard, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, neurodegenerative autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system. Relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) is the most common clinical form of MS and affects ∼85% of cases at onset. Highly active (HA) and rapidly evolving severe (RES) RRMS are 2 forms of RRMS amenable to disease-modifying therapies (DMT). This study explored the efficacy of fingolimod relative to other DMTs for the treatment of HA and RES RRMS. Methods A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted to identify published randomised controlled trials in HA and RES RRMS. Identified evidence was vetted, and a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed to evaluate the relative efficacy of fingolimod versus dimethyl fumarate (DMF) in HA RRMS and versus natalizumab in RES RRMS. Results For HA RRMS, the SLR identified 2 studies with relevant patient subgroup data: 1 comparing fingolimod with placebo and the other comparing DMF with placebo. 3 studies were found for RES RRMS: 1 comparing fingolimod with placebo and 2 studies comparing natalizumab with placebo. NMA results in the HA population showed a favourable numerical trend of fingolimod versus DMF assessed for annualised relapse rate (ARR) and 3-month confirmed disability progression. For the RES population, the results identified an increase of ARR and 3-month confirmed disability progression for fingolimod versus natalizumab (not statistically significant). Sparse study data and the consequently high uncertainty around the estimates restricted our ability to demonstrate statistical significance in the studied subgroups. Conclusions Data limitations are apparent when conducting an informative indirect comparison for the HA and RES RRMS subgroups as the subgroups analyses were retrospective analyses of studies powered to indicate differences across entire study populations. Comparisons across treatments in HA or RES RRMS will be associated with high levels of uncertainty until new data are

  12. Reactivity of a Nickel(II) Bis(amidate) Complex with meta-Chloroperbenzoic Acid: Formation of a Potent Oxidizing Species.

    PubMed

    Corona, Teresa; Pfaff, Florian F; Acuña-Parés, Ferran; Draksharapu, Apparao; Whiteoak, Christopher J; Martin-Diaconescu, Vlad; Lloret-Fillol, Julio; Browne, Wesley R; Ray, Kallol; Company, Anna

    2015-10-12

    Herein, we report the formation of a highly reactive nickel-oxygen species that has been trapped following reaction of a Ni(II) precursor bearing a macrocyclic bis(amidate) ligand with meta-chloroperbenzoic acid (HmCPBA). This compound is only detectable at temperatures below 250 K and is much more reactive toward organic substrates (i.e., C-H bonds, C=C bonds, and sulfides) than previously reported well-defined nickel-oxygen species. Remarkably, this species is formed by heterolytic O-O bond cleavage of a Ni-HmCPBA precursor, which is concluded from experimental and computational data. On the basis of spectroscopy and DFT calculations, this reactive species is proposed to be a Ni(III) -oxyl compound.

  13. Polyacrylamide-phytic acid-polydopamine conducting porous hydrogel for rapid detection and removal of copper (II) ions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen; Chen, Hongda; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Lina; Wang, Zhenxin

    2017-05-15

    In this work, a conducting porous polymer hydrogel-based electrochemical sensor has been developed for rapid detection of copper (II) ions (Cu(2+)). The polymer (termed as PAAM/PA/PDA) hydrogel is prepared through multi-interactions of the monomers dopamine (DA), acrylamide (AAM) and phytic acid (PA) under mild ambient conditions: the AAM polymerizes through free-radical polymerization, DA occurs poly coupling reaction, and PA crosslinks polydopamine (PDA) and polyacrylamide (PAAM) by hydrogen bonds. The three dimensional (3D) network nanostructured PAAM/PA/PDA hydrogel not only provides a large surface area for increasing the amount of immobilized molecules/ions, but also exhibits a good conductivity. The PAAM/PA/PDA hydrogel-based electrochemical sensor exhibits a low detection limit (1nmolL(-)(1), S/N=3) and wide linear range (from 1nmolL(-)(1) to 1µmolL(-1)) for Cu(2+) detection in aqueous samples. Furthermore, the Cu(2+) can be sensitively detected by the electrochemical sensor in different sample matrices, indicating that the electrochemical sensor could be used to monitor Cu(2+) with reasonable assay performance in practical samples. The PAAM/PA/PDA hydrogel also exhibits a good capacity to remove Cu(2+)(231.36±4.70mgg(-1)), which is superior to those of other adsorption materials reported in the literature. The facile synthesized PAAM/PA/PDA hydrogel provides a novel and regenerable platform for monitoring and removing Cu(2+) in real samples.

  14. A Multifunctional Mn(II) Phosphonate for Rapid Separation of Methyl Orange and Electron-Transfer Photochromism.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao-Ying; Yang, Yang; Ai, Jing; Tian, Hong-Rui; Li, Lei-Jiao; Yang, Weiting; Dang, Song; Sun, Zhong-Ming

    2016-08-08

    A Mn(II) phosphonate of the general formula [Mn(H2 L)2 (H2 O)2 (H2 bibp)] adopts a layered motif with protonated H2 bibp(2+) cations embedded in the channels (H4 L=thiophene-2-phosphonic acid; bibp=4,4'-bis(1-imidazolyl)biphenyl). The title compound exhibits excellent adsorptive removal of methyl orange (MO) dye from aqueous solution. Its advantageous features include fast adsorption, high uptake capacity, selective removal, and reusability, which are of great significance for practical application in wastewater treatment. Meanwhile, the compound displays rapid photochromism upon irradiation with visible light at room temperature. Extensive research has demonstrated that such behavior is based on a ligand-to-ligand charge-transfer (LLCT) mechanism. The irradiated sample possesses an ultra-long-lived charge-separated state. Moreover, not only is the compound the first Mn-based photochromic MOF, but it is also one of the very few examples showing LLCT with non-photochromic components. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Alteration of a Single Hydrogen Bond between Class II Molecules and Peptide Results in Rapid Degradation of Class II Molecules after Invariant Chain Removal

    PubMed Central

    Ceman, Stephanie; Wu, Shenhong; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; Sant, Andrea J.

    1998-01-01

    To characterize the importance of a highly conserved region of the class II β chain, we introduced an amino acid substitution that is predicted to eliminate a hydrogen bond formed between the class II molecule and peptide. We expressed the mutated β chain with a wild-type α chain in a murine L cell by gene transfection. The mutant class II molecule (81βH−) assembles normally in the endoplasmic reticulum and transits the Golgi complex. When invariant chain (Ii) is coexpressed with 81βH−, the class II–Ii complex is degraded in the endosomes. Expression of 81βH− in the absence of Ii results in a cell surface expressed molecule that is susceptible to proteolysis, a condition reversed by incubation with a peptide known to associate with 81βH−. We propose that 81βH− is protease sensitive because it is unable to productively associate with most peptides, including classII–associated invariant chain peptides. This model is supported by our data demonstrating protease sensitivity of peptide-free wild-type I-Ad molecules. Collectively, our results suggest both that the hydrogen bonds formed between the class II molecule and peptide are important for the integrity and stability of the complex, and that empty class II molecules are protease sensitive and degraded in endosomes. One function of DM may be to insure continuous groove occupancy of the class II molecule. PMID:9841927

  16. The estrogen receptor α gene (XbaI, PvuII) polymorphisms and susceptibility to idiopathic scoliosis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingyuan; Li, Chao; Li, Ming

    2014-09-01

    A genetic association meta-analysis of estrogen receptor α gene (ERα) polymorphisms with idiopathic scoliosis. To determine whether the ERα gene polymorphisms correlate with idiopathic scoliosis. Idiopathic scoliosis represents a complex genetic trait under the influence of multiple predisposition genes. Several studies showed that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in ERα was associated with idiopathic scoliosis, but the results from some studies were conflicting. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases from January 1994 to January 2014. All the case-control studies included should mainly study the relationship between XbaI A/G, PvuII T/C polymorphisms and the susceptibility of idiopathic scoliosis. A total of 299 articles were found, six of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria after being assessed by two reviewers. A pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated to assess the associations. Subgroup meta-analyses were performed according to ethnicity. Overall, ERα Xbal A/G polymorphism was not associated with risk of idiopathic scoliosis (G versus A, OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.88-1.30, P = 0.51; AG versus AA, OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.89-1.21, P = 0.67; GG versus AA, OR 1.12, 95% CI 0.72-1.73, P = 0.61; AG/GG versus AA, OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.91-1.22, P = 0.49; GG versus AG/AA, OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.75-1.63, P = 0.62). ERα PvuII T/C polymorphism was also not associated with risk of idiopathic scoliosis under five models (C versus T, OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.75-1.14, P = 0.48; TC versus TT, OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.80-1.23, P = 0.93; CC versus TT, OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.80-1.39, P = 0.72; TC/CC versus TT, OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.83-1.23, P = 0.93; CC versus TC/TT, OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.82-1.33, P = 0.72). ERα Xbal and ERα PvuII polymorphisms are not obviously associated with risk of idiopathic scoliosis.

  17. Rapid adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) by rice straw/Fe₃O₄ nanocomposite: optimization, equilibrium isotherms, and adsorption kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Khandanlou, Roshanak; Ahmad, Mansor B; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Shameli, Kamyar; Basri, Mahiran; Kalantari, Katayoon

    2015-01-01

    Rice straw/magnetic nanocomposites (RS/Fe3O4-NCs) were prepared via co-precipitation method for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to find the optimum conditions for removal of ions. The effects of three independent variables including initial ion concentration, removal time, and adsorbent dosage were investigated on the maximum adsorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II). The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained (100 and 60 mg/L) of initial ion concentration, (41.96 and 59.35 s) of removal time and 0.13 g of adsorbent for both ions, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained 96.25% and 75.54%, respectively. In the equilibrium isotherm study, the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was best depicted by the pseudo-second order model. Desorption experiments showed adsorbent can be reused successfully for three adsorption-desorption cycles.

  18. Rapid Adsorption of Copper(II) and Lead(II) by Rice Straw/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite: Optimization, Equilibrium Isotherms, and Adsorption Kinetics Study

    PubMed Central

    Khandanlou, Roshanak; Ahmad, Mansor B.; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Shameli, Kamyar; Basri, Mahiran; Kalantari, Katayoon

    2015-01-01

    Rice straw/magnetic nanocomposites (RS/Fe3O4-NCs) were prepared via co-precipitation method for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to find the optimum conditions for removal of ions. The effects of three independent variables including initial ion concentration, removal time, and adsorbent dosage were investigated on the maximum adsorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II). The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained (100 and 60 mg/L) of initial ion concentration, (41.96 and 59.35 s) of removal time and 0.13 g of adsorbent for both ions, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained 96.25% and 75.54%, respectively. In the equilibrium isotherm study, the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was best depicted by the pseudo-second order model. Desorption experiments showed adsorbent can be reused successfully for three adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:25815470

  19. Interleukin-6 and risk of colorectal cancer: results from the CLUE II cohort and a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Kakourou, Artemisia; Koutsioumpa, Charalampia; Lopez, David S; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Bradwin, Gary; Rifai, Nader; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Platz, Elizabeth A; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K

    2015-10-01

    The association between prediagnostic interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations and risk of colorectal cancer was evaluated in a nested case-control study and a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Colorectal cancer cases (n = 173) and matched controls (n = 345) were identified between 1989 and 2000 among participants in the CLUE II cohort of Washington Country, Maryland. Matched odds ratios and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Participants in the highest third of plasma IL-6 concentration had a 2.48 times higher risk of colon cancer compared to participants in the bottom third (95 % CI 1.26-4.87; p-trend 0.02) after multivariate adjustment. This association did not differ according to the stage of disease, age, sex, or other potential modifying variables and remained statistically significant after adjustment for C-reactive protein concentrations. No statistically significant association was observed for rectal cancer risk. The meta-analysis of six prospective studies yielded an increased but borderline statistically significant risk of colon cancer per 1 U increase in naturally logarithm-transformed IL-6 (summary RR 1.22; 95 % CI 1.00-1.49; I (2) 46 %). An inverse association was noted for rectal cancer (RR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.54-0.88; I (2) 0 %), but there was evidence for small-study effects (p 0.02). Our findings provide support for a modest positive association between IL-6 concentrations and colon cancer risk. More work is needed to determine whether IL-6 is a valid marker of colorectal inflammation and whether such inflammation contributes to colon and rectal cancer risk.

  20. Individual patient data meta-analysis of organ failure in acute pancreatitis: protocol of the PANCREA II study.

    PubMed

    Das, Stephanie L M; Papachristou, George I; De Campos, Tercio; Panek, Jozefa; Poves Prim, Ignasi; Serrablo, Alejandro; Parks, Rowan W; Uomo, Generoso; Windsor, John A; Petrov, Maxim S

    2013-09-10

    Organ failure is a major determinant of mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis. These patients usually require admission to high dependency or intensive care units and consume considerable health care resources. Given a low incidence rate of organ failure and a lack of large non-interventional studies in the field of acute pancreatitis, the characteristics of organ failure that influence outcomes of patients with acute pancreatitis remain largely unknown. Therefore, the Pancreatitis Across Nations Clinical Research and Education Alliance (PANCREA) aims to conduct a meta-analysis of individual patient data from prospective non-interventional studies to determine the influence of timing, duration, sequence, and combination of different organ failures on mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis. Pancreatologists currently active with acute pancreatitis clinical research will be invited to contribute. To be eligible for inclusion patients will have to meet the criteria of acute pancreatitis, develop at least one organ failure during the first week of hospitalization, and not be enrolled into an intervention study. Raw data will then be collated and checked. Individual patient data analysis based on a logistic regression model with adjustment for confounding variables will be done. For all analyses, corresponding 95% confidence intervals and P values will be reported. This collaborative individual patient data meta-analysis will answer important clinical questions regarding patients with acute pancreatitis that develop organ failure. Information derived from this study will be used to optimize routine clinical management and improve care strategies. It can also help validate outcome definitions, allow comparability of results and form a more accurate basis for patient allocation in further clinical studies.

  1. Hydrolysis of a Model for the 5'-Cap of mRNA by Dinuclear Copper(II) and Zinc(II) Complexes. Rapid Hydrolysis by Four Copper(II) Ions.

    PubMed

    McCue, Kevin P.; Morrow, Janet R.

    1999-12-27

    Two bis(triazacyclononane) ligands, 1,3-bis(1,4,7-triaza-1-cyclononyl)-p-xylene (pXTD) and 1,3-bis(1,4,7-triaza-1-cyclononyl)-m-xylene (mXTD), form stable dinuclear Cu(II) complexes (Cu(2)L). At pH 7.3, the predominant species are bis(hydroxide) complexes (Cu(2)L(OH)(2)(2+)) as determined by equilibrium modeling of pH-potentiometric measurements. Several dinuclear and mononuclear Cu(II) complexes and a dinuclear Zn(II) complex promote the hydrolysis of GpppG, a model for the 5'-cap of mRNA. At 0.125 mM complex, both Cu(2)(pXTD) and Cu(2)(mXTD) promote hydrolysis of GpppG approximately 100-fold more rapidly than does the monomeric Cu(TACN) complex (0.250 mM) at pH 7.3 and 37 degrees C (TACN = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane). The dependence of the rate constant on dinuclear Cu(II) complex concentration suggests that Cu(2)(pXTD) promotes hydrolysis through both a 1:1 complex (Cu(2)L-GpppG) and a 2:1 complex ((Cu(2)L)(2)-GpppG). The 2:1 complex is 20-fold more reactive than the 1:1 complex; a first-order rate constant of 1.1 x 10(-)(4) s(-)(1) is determined for hydrolysis of the 2:1 complex. Cu(2)(mXTD) effectively promotes the hydrolysis of GpppG only through a 2:1 complex which hydrolyzes with a first-order rate constant of 4.3 x 10 (-)(5) s(-)(1). Cu(2)(pXTD) binds as a 1:1 complex to m(7)GpppG with a binding constant of 27 000 M(-)(1) as determined by use of fluorescence spectroscopy. Two Cu(2)(mXTD) complexes bind stepwise to m(7)GpppG with binding constants of 5300 and 12 000 M(-)(1) for the first complex and second complex, respectively.

  2. PTGS2 (prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2) expression in term human amnion in vivo involves rapid mRNA turnover, polymerase-II 5'-pausing, and glucocorticoid transrepression.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Carolyn; Johnson, Renee; Bisits, Andrew; Hirst, Jonathan; Zakar, Tamas

    2011-05-01

    The in vivo role of glucocorticoids in controlling prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2) expression in the human amnion is unclear despite extensive studies using in vitro models. We addressed this issue by determining PTGS2 mRNA levels and gene transcriptional activity, RNA polymerase-II (pol-II) binding, pol-II C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation, histone acetylation, and histone methylation at the PTGS2 gene in fresh amnion and in amnion explants incubated with dexamethasone for 24 h after delivery, when adaptation from in vivo to in vitro conditions occurred. PTGS2 mRNA turnover changed during incubation involving the initial rapid decrease and subsequent rebound of the transcription rate and stabilization of mRNA. pol-II accumulated in the 5'-region of the gene, which indicated postinitiation pausing. pol-II binding, 5'-accumulation, C-terminal domain Ser-5 and Ser-2 phosphorylation, and histone acetylation decreased rapidly and did not reverse during the transcriptional rebound, suggesting that the transcriptional mechanism altered in vitro. Dexamethasone decreased PTGS2 gene activity and mRNA levels. Glucocorticoid receptor-α (GRα) was bound to the PTGS2 promoter but did not affect pol-II recruitment, pausing, or the epigenetic marks. GRα binding, however, decreased initiating (Ser-5) and elongating (Ser-2) pol-II phosphorylation. The ability of the PTGS2 promoter to bind GRα in response to dexamethasone diminished during incubation. We conclude that PTGS2 mRNA turnover is accelerated in vivo, but the underlying mechanisms are not sustained beyond 24 h in explants. Glucocorticoids chronically transrepress PTGS2 gene activity in vivo in part by interfering with transcription initiation and elongation. Glucocorticoid transrepression of PTGS2 may be important for pregnancy maintenance and the timing of parturition.

  3. Rapid assignment of the swine major histocompatibility complex (SLA) class I and II genotypes in Clawn miniature swine using PCR-SSP and PCR-RFLP methods.

    PubMed

    Ando, Asako; Ota, Masao; Sada, Masaharu; Katsuyama, Yoshihiko; Goto, Rieko; Shigenari, Atsuko; Kawata, Hisako; Anzai, Tatsuya; Iwanaga, Takahiro; Miyoshi, Yukari; Fujimura, Nobuyuki; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2005-03-01

    Inbred miniature swine with defined novel SLA haplotypes will be useful in allo- and xeno-transplantation studies, which can be carried out representing variable combinations of SLA haplotypes. In Clawn miniature swine, two haplotypes (c1 and c2) and one crossover haplotype (c3) have been assigned by nucleotide sequence determination of RT-PCR products of the three SLA classical class I genes and two SLA class II genes. To select SLA class I and II homozygotes in Clawn miniature swine individuals, we developed a rapid and simple SLA-class I- and II-DNA typing method by a combination of polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques. Seven allele specific primer pairs were designed for amplification of the second exons of three SLA class I genes, SLA-1, SLA-2, and SLA-3, and one SLA class II gene, DRB1. Furthermore, based on PCR-RFLP patterns in the SLA-DQB1 gene, two allelic variants were recognized in the second exon in the Clawn miniature swine. Three haplotypes, c1, c2 and c3, were simply identified by the combination of PCR-SSP and PCR-RFLP methods in 22 samples from five families. A single allele at each of the class I and II genes was also observed in seven samples as SLA class I and II homozygotes with either the c1 or c2 haplotype. The combination of PCR-SSP and PCR-RFLP methods facilitate the rapid identification of the three haplotypes and SLA class I and II homozygotes in individual Clawn miniature swine.

  4. Vibrational study of new Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes with functionalized nitrogen-containing tertiary phosphine oxides. Ab initio study of ortho-, meta- and para-dimethylphosphinylmethyleneoxyaniline.

    PubMed

    Trendafilova, N; Bauer, G; Georgieva, I; Tosheva, T; Varbanov, S

    2003-01-01

    Vibrational study of new Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes of functionalized nitrogen-containing tertiary phosphine oxides, namely ortho-, meta- and para-dimethylphosphinylmethyleneoxyaniline (o-, m- and p-dpmoa), (CH3)2P(O)CH2OC6H4NH2, have been presented. Geometry optimization of the ligands was performed at HF/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-31G* levels of the theory. Harmonic frequencies were calculated at HF/6-31G* optimized geometries. Relative gas-phase and solution-phase (H2O and CH3CN) basicities of o-, m- and p-dpmoa ligands have been determined by ab initio calculations at STO-3G level with the Onsager reaction field model. On the basis of the vibrational study, physical and analytical data it was suggested that the ligands in the complexes studied coordinate through the amino group and form square-planar platinum and palladium complexes of the general formula ML2Cl2 (M = Pt, Pd, L = o-, m- and p-dpmoa).

  5. Vibrational study of new Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes with functionalized nitrogen-containing tertiary phosphine oxides. Ab initio study of ortho-, meta- and para-dimethylphosphinylmethyleneoxyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafilova, N.; Bauer, G.; Georgieva, I.; Tosheva, T.; Varbanov, S.

    2003-01-01

    Vibrational study of new Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes of functionalized nitrogen-containing tertiary phosphine oxides, namely ortho-, meta- and para-dimethylphosphinylmethyleneoxyaniline ( o-, m- and p-dpmoa), (CH 3) 2P(O)CH 2OC 6H 4NH 2, have been presented. Geometry optimization of the ligands was performed at HF/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-31G* levels of the theory. Harmonic frequencies were calculated at HF/6-31G* optimized geometries. Relative gas-phase and solution-phase (H 2O and CH 3CN) basicities of o-, m- and p-dpmoa ligands have been determined by ab initio calculations at STO-3G level with the Onsager reaction field model. On the basis of the vibrational study, physical and analytical data it was suggested that the ligands in the complexes studied coordinate through the amino group and form square-planar platinum and palladium complexes of the general formula ML 2Cl 2 (M=Pt, Pd, L= o-, m- and p-dpmoa).

  6. A meta-analysis of prehospital airway control techniques part II: alternative airway devices and cricothyrotomy success rates.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Michael W; Wilfong, Denise A; Brown, Lawrence H; Hertelendy, Attila; Benner, Randall W

    2010-01-01

    Airway management is a key component of prehospital care for seriously ill and injured patients. Oral endotracheal intubation (OETI) is the definitive airway of choice in most emergency medical services (EMS) systems. However, OETI may not be an approved skill for some clinicians or may prove problematic in certain patients because of anatomic abnormalities, trauma, or inadequate relaxation. In these situations alternative airways are frequently employed. However, the reported success rates for these devices vary widely, and established benchmarks are lacking. We sought to determine pooled estimates of the success rates of alternative airway devices (AADs) and needle cricothyrotomy (NCRIC) and surgical cricothyrotomy (SCRIC) placement through a meta-analysis of the literature. We performed a systematic literature search for all English-language articles reporting success rates for AADs, SCRIC, and NCRIC. Studies of field procedures performed by prehospital personnel from any nation were included. All titles were reviewed independently by two authors using prespecified inclusion criteria. Pooled estimates of success rates for each airway technique were calculated using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Of 2,005 prehospital airway titles identified, 35 unique studies were retained for analysis of AAD success rates, encompassing a total of 10,172 prehospital patients. The success rates for SCRIC and NCRIC were analyzed across an additional 21 studies totaling 512 patients. The pooled estimates (and 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for intervention success across all clinicians and patients were as follows: esophageal obturator airway-esophageal gastric tube airway (EOA-EGTA) 92.6% (90.1%-94.5%); pharyngeotracheal lumen airway (PTLA) 82.1% (74.0%-88.0%); esophageal-tracheal Combitube (ETC) 85.4% (77.3%-91.0%); laryngeal mask airway (LMA) 87.4% (79.0%-92.8%); King Laryngeal Tube airway (King LT) 96.5% (71.2%-99.7%); NCRIC 65.8% (42.3%-83.59%); and SCRIC 90.5% (84

  7. Safety of ovarian preservation in women with stage I and II cervical adenocarcinoma: a retrospective study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Xingguang; Wei, Juncheng; Jia, Yao; Yin, Ye; Ye, Shuangmei; Zhu, Tao; Chen, Gang; Yuan, Yongxun; Lu, Weiguo; Li, Kezhen

    2016-10-01

    The safety of ovarian preservation remains uncertain in women with cervical adenocarcinoma and significant risk factors for ovarian metastases vary among different studies. We sought to evaluate the impact of ovarian preservation on prognosis in women with cervical adenocarcinoma and to assess clinical factors associated with ovarian metastases. A retrospective study of 194 women with cervical adenocarcinoma was conducted and 159 women were followed up until the end of the study. To compare the impact of ovarian preservation on prognosis, women with successful follow-up were studied, including 33 women with ovarian preservation and 126 women who underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. For women who underwent radical hysterectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, the risk factors for ovarian metastases were identified. A meta-analysis of the literature was carried out to further validate the findings. There was no significant difference in survival between women with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and ovarian preservation (P = .423 for disease-free survival; P = .330 for overall survival). Tumor size (>4 cm), deep cervical stromal invasion, and lymph node metastasis were significant independent prognostic factors related to poor disease-free survival, and lymph node metastasis was significantly associated with overall survival. Of 153 women with cervical adenocarcinoma who underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, a significant difference was found in the relationship between ovarian metastasis and deep cervical stromal invasion, lymph node metastasis, and parametrial invasion. The meta-analysis showed that clinical stage IIB vs I-IIA (odds ratio, 4.64; 95% confidence interval, 2.11-10.23), deep stromal invasion (odds ratio, 10.63; 95% confidence interval, 3.12-36.02), lymph node metastasis (odds ratio, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 4.15-17.57), corpus uteri invasion (odds ratio, 7.39; 95% confidence interval, 3.69-14.78), and

  8. Changes in airway dimensions following functional appliances in growing patients with skeletal class II malocclusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, MingLi; Hu, Bo; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jicheng; Song, Jinlin

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the treatment effects of functional appliances (FAs) on upper airway dimensions in growing Class II patients with mandibular retrognathism. Five databases and the references of identified articles were electronically searched for relevant studies that met our eligibility criteria. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The effects of FAs on airway dimensions were combined by meta-analysis using the RevMan and STATA software. Seven studies (177 treated patients with mean age: 11.48 years and 153 untreated controls with mean age: 11.20 years) were included in this review. Compared to the control group, the oropharyngeal dimensions in the treatment group subjects were significantly increased at the superior pharyngeal space (MD = 1.73 mm/year, 95% CI, 1.13-2.32 mm, P < 0.00001), middle pharyngeal space (MD = 1.68 mm/year, 95% CI, 1.13-2.23 mm, P < 0.00001) and inferior pharyngeal space (MD = 1.21 mm/year, 95% CI, 0.48-1.95 mm, P = 0.001). No significant differences were found in nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal dimensions and the position of hyoid bone (P > 0.05). Soft palate length and soft palate inclination were improved significantly in the treatment group (P < 0.05). The results showed that FAs can enlarge the upper airway dimensions, specifically in the oropharyngeal region, in growing subjects with skeletal Class II malocclusion. The early intervention for mandibular retrognathism with FAs may help enlarge the airway dimensions and decrease potential risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome for growing patients in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of hydrogen bonding on internal conversion of GFP-like chromophores. II. The meta-amino systems.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chi-Wen; Huang, Guan-Jhih; Hsu, Hung-Yu; Prabhakar, Ch; Lee, Yuan-Pern; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Yang, Jye-Shane

    2013-03-07

    To rationalize the efficient quenching of the fluorescence and the Z → E photoisomerization of m-ABDI, the meta-amino analogue of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore, in protic solvents, the femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence and transient infrared (TRIR) spectra of m-ABDI in CD3CN, CH3OH, and CD3OD are determined. For solutions in CD3CN, the fluorescence decay lifetime is ∼7.9 ns and IR absorption lines near 1513, 1531, 1557, and 1613 cm(-1) of m-ABDI in its electronically excited state were observed with a decay time >5 ns. For solutions in CH3OH, the fluorescence decay is double exponential with time constants of ∼16 and 62 ps. In addition to IR absorption lines of m-ABDI in its electronically excited state with a decay time of ∼16 ps, new features near 1513, 1532, 1554, and 1592 cm(-1) were observed to have a rise time of ∼19 ps and a decay constant of ∼58 ps, indicating formation of an intermediate. The assignments for the IR spectra of the ground and excited states were assisted with DFT and TDDFT calculations, respectively. We conclude that the torsion of the exocyclic C═C bond (the τ torsion) is responsible for the nonradiative decay of electronically excited m-ABDI in CD3CN. However, in CH3OH and CD3OD, the solute-solvent hydrogen bonding (SSHB) interactions diminish significantly the barrier of the τ torsion and induce a new pathway that competes successfully with the τ torsion, consistent with the efficient fluorescence quenching and the diminished yield for Z → E photoisomerization. The new pathway is likely associated with excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) from the solvent to m-ABDI, particularly the carbonyl group, and generates an intermediate (ESPT*) that is weakly fluorescent.

  10. Role of yoga for patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Jagannathan, Aarti; Philip, Mariamma; Thulasi, Arun; Angadi, Praveen; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2016-04-01

    To understand the role and efficacy of yoga in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, this meta-analysis was conducted. Electronic data bases searched were PubMed/Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO, IndMED, CENTRAL, Cochrane library, CamQuest and CamBase till December 17, 2014. Eligible outcomes were fasting blood sugar (FBS), post prandial blood sugar (PPBS) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HBA1C). Randomized controlled trials and controlled trials were eligible. Studies focussing only on relaxation or meditation or multimodal intervention were not included. A total of 17 RCTs were included for review. Data from research articles on patients, methods, interventions- control and results were extracted. Mean and standard deviations were utilized for calculating standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval. Heterogeneity was assessed with the help of I(2) statistics. χ(2) was used to rule out the effects of heterogeneity due to chance alone. Beneficial effects of yoga as an add-on intervention to standard treatment in comparison to standard treatment were observed for FBS [Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) -1.40, 95%CI -1.90 to -0.90, p˂0.00001]; PPBS [SMD -0.91, 95%CI -1.34 to -0.48, p˂0.0001] as well as HBA1C [SMD -0.64, 95%CI -0.97 to -0.30, p˂0.0002]. But risk of bias was overall high for included studies. With this available evidence, yoga can be considered as add-on intervention for management of diabetes.

  11. Oxidized or acetylated low density lipoproteins are rapidly cleared by the liver in mice with disruption of the scavenger receptor class A type I/II gene.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, W; Lougheed, M; Suzuki, H; Buchan, A; Kodama, T; Steinbrecher, U P

    1997-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) and acetyl LDL are recognized by the scavenger receptor class A type I/II (SR-AI/II) on macrophages and liver endothelial cells. Several investigators have suggested that there are additional receptors specific for oxidized LDL, but characterization of these alternate receptors for oxidized LDL and evaluation of their quantitative importance in uptake of oxidized LDL has been difficult because of overlapping ligand specificity with SR-AI/II. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of SR-AI/II in the removal of modified LDL from the bloodstream in vivo. The clearance rate of oxidized LDL from plasma in normal mice was very rapid, and > 90% of injected dose was removed from the blood within 5 min. Clearance rates of oxidized LDL were equally high in SR-AI/II knockout mice, indicating that this receptor is not required for removal of oxidized LDL from plasma. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the clearance rate of acetyl LDL in wild-type and SR-AI/II knockout animals. The plasma clearance of radioiodinated acetyl LDL was almost fully blocked by a 50-fold excess of unlabeled acetyl LDL, but the latter only inhibited oxidized LDL clearance by approximately 5%. Both modified LDLs were cleared mostly by the liver, and there was no difference in the tissue distribution of modified LDL in control and knockout mice. Studies in isolated nonparenchymal liver cells showed that Kupffer cells accounted for most of the uptake of oxidized LDL. Extensively oxidized LDL and LDL modified by exposure to fatty acid peroxidation products were efficient competitors for the uptake of labeled oxidized LDL by SR-AI/II-deficient Kupffer cells, while acetyl LDL and malondialdehyde-modified LDL were relatively poor competitors. PMID:9218499

  12. Rapid, synergistic extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) by using sensitive chromogenic reagent N″,N″‧-bis[(E)-(4-fluorophenyl) methylidene]thiocarbonohydrazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalawade, Rekha A.; Nalawade, Avinash M.; Kamble, Ganesh S.; Anuse, Mansing A.

    2015-07-01

    A rapid and simple spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of copper(II) by using newly synthesized chromogenic reagent, N″,N″‧-bis[(E)-(4-fluorophenyl)methylidene]thiocarbonohydrazide [bis(4-fluoroPM)TCH]. The reagent is highly sensitive and it forms yellow colored ternary complex with copper(II) in presence pyridine having composition 1:1:2 (M:L:Py) in the acidic pH range. Absorption of colored complex in amyl acetate is measured with reagent as a blank at λmax 375 nm. The synergistic effect is observed due to pyridine forming adduct with reagent in the organic phase. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range from 2.0 to 14 μg mL-1 for copper(II)-[bis(4-fluoroPM)TCH]-Py complex. Molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity values for Cu(II)-bis(4-fluoroPM)TCH]-Py complex are 0.42545 × 105 and 0.0014 μg/cm2, respectively. The selectivity of the developed method was checked in the presence of various foreign ions. The developed method showed relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 0.13% for n = 10. The composition of Cu(II)-[bis(4-fluoroPM)TCH]-Py complex was determined by known methods such as Job's method of continuous variation, mole ratio method and slope ratio method. It is found that the ternary complex is stable for more than 24 h. Various factors influencing on the degree of complexation, such as, effect of pH, reagent concentration, synergent concentration, solvent etc. were studied. The accuracy and reliability of method was verified by AAS. This method is found to be simple, rapid and reproducible.

  13. Comparison of the accuracy of Hybrid Capture II and polymerase chain reaction in detecting clinically important cervical dysplasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Hung N; Dahlstrom, Kristina R; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; VonVille, Helena M; Scheurer, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of screening programs for cervical cancer has benefited from the inclusion of Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA assays; which assay to choose, however, is not clear based on previous reviews. Our review addressed test accuracy of Hybrid Capture II (HCII) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on studies with stronger designs and with more clinically relevant outcomes. We searched OvidMedline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for English language studies comparing both tests, published 1985–2012, with cervical dysplasia defined by the Bethesda classification. Meta-analysis provided pooled sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs); meta-regression identified sources of heterogeneity. From 29 reports, we found that the pooled sensitivity and specificity to detect high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) was higher for HCII than PCR (0.89 [CI: 0.89–0.90] and 0.85 [CI: 0.84–0.86] vs. 0.73 [CI: 0.73–0.74] and 0.62 [CI: 0.62–0.64]). Both assays had higher accuracy to detect cervical dysplasia in Europe than in Asia-Pacific or North America (diagnostic odd ratio – dOR = 4.08 [CI: 1.39–11.91] and 4.56 [CI: 1.86–11.17] for HCII vs. 2.66 [CI: 1.16–6.53] and 3.78 [CI: 1.50–9.51] for PCR) and accuracy to detect HSIL than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)/ low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (HCII-dOR = 9.04 [CI: 4.12–19.86] and PCR-dOR = 5.60 [CI: 2.87–10.94]). For HCII, using histology as a gold standard results in higher accuracy than using cytology (dOR = 2.87 [CI: 1.31–6.29]). Based on higher test accuracy, our results support the use of HCII in cervical cancer screening programs. The role of HPV type distribution should be explored to determine the worldwide comparability of HPV test accuracy. PMID:23930214

  14. Treatment Effects of Removable Functional Appliances in Pre-Pubertal and Pubertal Class II Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies

    PubMed Central

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Primožič, Jasmina; Franchi, Lorenzo; Contardo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment effects of removable functional appliances in Class II malocclusion patients according to the pre-pubertal or pubertal growth phase has yet to be clarified. Objectives To assess and compare skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of removable functional appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment between pre-pubertal and pubertal patients. Search methods Literature survey using the Medline, SCOPUS, LILACS and SciELO databases, the Cochrane Library from inception to May 31, 2015. A manual search was also performed. Selection criteria Randomised (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials with a matched untreated control group. No restrictions were set regarding the type of removable appliance whenever used alone. Data collection and analysis For the meta-analysis, cephalometric parameters on the supplementary mandibular growth were the main outcomes, with other cephalometric parameters considered as secondary outcomes. Risk of bias in individual and across studies were evaluated along with sensitivity analysis for low quality studies. Mean differences and 95% confidence intervals for annualised changes were computed according to a random model. Differences between pre-pubertal and pubertal patients were assessed by subgroup analyses. GRADE assessment was performed for the main outcomes. Results Twelve articles (but only 3 RCTs) were included accounting for 8 pre-pubertal and 7 pubertal groups. Overall supplementary total mandibular length and mandibular ramus height were 0.95 mm (0.38, 1.51) and 0.00 mm (-0.52, 0.53) for pre-pubertal patients and 2.91 mm (2.04, 3.79) and 2.18 mm (1.51, 2.86) for pubertal patients, respectively. The subgroup difference was significant for both parameters (p<0.001). No maxillary growth restrain or increase in facial divergence was seen in either subgroup. The GRADE assessment was low for the pre-pubertal patients, and generally moderate for the pubertal patients. Conclusions Taking into account the limited quality and

  15. A rapid and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) in pharmaceutical and environmental samples using benzildithiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B K; Kumar, J R; Reddy, K J; Sarma, L S; Reddy, A V

    2003-03-01

    Benzildithiosemicarbazone (BDTSC) is proposed as a sensitive and selective analytical reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II). BDTSC reacts with copper(II) in the pH range 1.0-7.0 to form a yellowish complex. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 0.5-0.4 microg cm(-3). The yellowish Cu(II)-BDTSC complex in chloroform shows a maximum absorbance at 380 nm, with molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity values of 1.63 x 10(4) dm3 mol(-1) cm(-1) and 0.00389 microg cm(-2), respectively. A repetition of the method is checked by finding the relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 10), which is 0.6%. The composition of the Cu(II)-BDTSC complex is established as 1:1 by slope analysis, molar ratio and Asmus' methods. An excellent linearity with a correlation coefficient value of 0.98 is obtained for the Cu(II)-BDTSC complex. The instability constant of the complex calculated from Edmond and Birnbaum's method is 7.70 x 10(-4) and that of Asmus' method is 7.66 x 10(-4), at room temperature. The method is successfully employed for the determination copper(II) in pharmaceutical and environmental samples. The reliability of the method is assured by analyzing the standard alloys (BCS 5g, 10g, 19e, 78, 32a, 207 and 179) and by inter-comparison of experimental values, using an atomic absorption spectrometer.

  16. The Effectiveness of Conservative Management for Acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) II: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, Sayeed; Madi, Mohammad; Rushton, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of conservative management (except drug therapy) for acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) II. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) using a pre-defined protocol. Two independent reviewers searched information sources, decided eligibility of studies, and assessed risk of bias (RoB) of included trials. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by the other. A third reviewer mediated any disagreements throughout. Qualitative trial and RoB data were summarised descriptively. Quantitative syntheses were conducted across trials for comparable interventions, outcome measures and assessment points. Meta-analyses compared effect sizes with random effects, using STATA version 12. Data Sources PEDro, Medline, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library with manual searching in key journals, reference lists, British National Bibliography for Report Literature, Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information & Exchange, and National Technical Information Service were searched from inception to 15th April 2015. Active researchers in the field were contacted to determine relevant studies. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies RCTs evaluating acute (<4 weeks) WADII, any conservative intervention, with outcome measures important to the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health. Results Fifteen RCTs all assessed as high RoB (n=1676 participants) across 9 countries were included. Meta-analyses enabled 4 intervention comparisons: conservative versus standard/control, active versus passive, behavioural versus standard/control, and early versus late. Conservative intervention was more effective for pain reduction at 6 months (95%CI: -20.14 to -3.38) and 1-3 years (-25.44 to -3.19), and improvement in cervical mobility in the horizontal plane at <3 months (0.43 to 5.60) compared with standard/control intervention. Active intervention was effective

  17. A rapid vectorial back reaction at the reaction centers of photosystem II in tris-washed chloroplasts induced by repetitive flash excitation.

    PubMed

    Renger, G

    1979-07-10

    In Tris-washed chloroplasts, completely lacking the oxygen-evolving capacity, absorption changes in the range of 420--560 nm induced by repetitive flash excitation have been measured in the presence and absence of electron donors. It was found: (1) At 520 nm flash-induced absorption changes are observed, which predominantly decay via a 100--200-mus exponential kinetics corresponding to that of the back reaction between the primary electron donor and acceptor of Photosystem II (Haveman, J. and Mathis, P. (1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 440, 346--355; Renger, G. and Wolff, Ch. (1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 423, 610--614). In the presence of hydroquinone/ascorbate as donor couple the amplitude is nearly doubled and the decay becomes significantly slowed down. (2) The difference spectrum of the absorption changes obtained in the presence of hydroquinone/ascorbate, which are sensitive to ionophores, is nearly identical with that of normal chloroplasts in the range of 460--560 nm (Emrich, H.M., Junge, W. and Witt, H.T. (1969) Z. Naturforsch. 24b, 114--1146). In the absence of hydroquinone/ascorbate the difference spectrum of the absorption changes, characterized by a 100--200-mus decay kinetics, differs in the range of 460--500 nm and by a hump in the range of 530--560 nm. The hump is shown to be attributable to the socalled C550 absorption change, which reflects the turnover of the primary acceptor of Photosystem II (van Gorkom, H.J.(1976) Thesis, Leiden), while the deviations in the range of 460--500 nm are understandable as to be due to the overlapping absorption changes of chlorphyll alpha II+. The problems arising with the latter explanation are discussed. (3) The electron transfer due to the rapid turnover at Photosystem II, which can be induced by flash groups with a short dark time between the flashes, is not able to energize the ATPase and to drive photophosphorylation. On the basis of the present results it is inferred, that in Tris-washed chloroplasts under

  18. Phosphorylation of rat kidney Na-K pump at Ser938 is required for rapid angiotensin II-dependent stimulation of activity and trafficking in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Massey, Katherine J; Li, Quanwen; Rossi, Noreen F; Keezer, Susan M; Mattingly, Raymond R; Yingst, Douglas R

    2016-02-01

    How angiotensin (ANG) II acutely stimulates the Na-K pump in proximal tubules is only partially understood, limiting insight into how ANG II increases blood pressure. First, we tested whether ANG II increases the number of pumps in plasma membranes of native rat proximal tubules under conditions of rapid activation. We found that exposure to 100 pM ANG II for 2 min, which was previously shown to increase affinity of the Na-K pump for Na and stimulate activity threefold, increased the amount of the Na-K pump in plasma membranes of native tubules by 33%. Second, we tested whether previously observed increases in phosphorylation of the Na-K pump at Ser(938) were part of the stimulatory mechanism. These experiments were carried out in opossum kidney cells, cultured proximal tubules stably coexpressing the ANG type 1 (AT1) receptor, and either wild-type or a S938A mutant of rat kidney Na-K pump under conditions found by others to stimulate activity. We found that 10 min of incubation in 10 pM ANG II stimulated activity of wild-type pumps from 2.3 to 3.5 nmol K · mg protein(-1) · min(-1) and increased the amount of the pump in the plasma membrane by 80% but had no effect on cells expressing the S938A mutant. We conclude that acute stimulation of Na-K pump activity in native rat proximal tubules includes increased trafficking to the plasma membrane and that phosphorylation at Ser(938) is part of the mechanism by which ANG II directly stimulates activity and trafficking of the rat kidney Na-K pump in opossum kidney cells.

  19. Phosphorylation of rat kidney Na-K pump at Ser938 is required for rapid angiotensin II-dependent stimulation of activity and trafficking in proximal tubule cells

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Katherine J.; Li, Quanwen; Rossi, Noreen F.; Keezer, Susan M.; Mattingly, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    How angiotensin (ANG) II acutely stimulates the Na-K pump in proximal tubules is only partially understood, limiting insight into how ANG II increases blood pressure. First, we tested whether ANG II increases the number of pumps in plasma membranes of native rat proximal tubules under conditions of rapid activation. We found that exposure to 100 pM ANG II for 2 min, which was previously shown to increase affinity of the Na-K pump for Na and stimulate activity threefold, increased the amount of the Na-K pump in plasma membranes of native tubules by 33%. Second, we tested whether previously observed increases in phosphorylation of the Na-K pump at Ser938 were part of the stimulatory mechanism. These experiments were carried out in opossum kidney cells, cultured proximal tubules stably coexpressing the ANG type 1 (AT1) receptor, and either wild-type or a S938A mutant of rat kidney Na-K pump under conditions found by others to stimulate activity. We found that 10 min of incubation in 10 pM ANG II stimulated activity of wild-type pumps from 2.3 to 3.5 nmol K·mg protein−1·min−1 and increased the amount of the pump in the plasma membrane by 80% but had no effect on cells expressing the S938A mutant. We conclude that acute stimulation of Na-K pump activity in native rat proximal tubules includes increased trafficking to the plasma membrane and that phosphorylation at Ser938 is part of the mechanism by which ANG II directly stimulates activity and trafficking of the rat kidney Na-K pump in opossum kidney cells. PMID:26582472

  20. Rapid removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions using thiol-functionalized Zn-doped biomagnetite particles.

    PubMed

    He, Feng; Wang, Wei; Moon, Ji-Won; Howe, Jane; Pierce, Eric M; Liang, Liyuan

    2012-08-01

    The surfaces of Zn-doped biomagnetite nanostructured particles were functionalized with (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and used as a high-capacity and collectable adsorbent for the removal of Hg(II) from water. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the attachment of MPTMS on the particle surface. The crystallite size of the Zn-doped biomagnetite was ∼17 nm, and the thickness of the MPTMS coating was ∼5 nm. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analyses revealed that the particles formed aggregates in aqueous solution with an average hydrodynamic size of 826 ± 32 nm. Elemental analyses indicate that the chemical composition of the biomagnetite is Zn(0.46)Fe(2.54)O(4), and the loading of sulfur is 3.6 mmol/g. The MPTMS-modified biomagnetite has a calculated saturation magnetization of 37.9 emu/g and can be separated from water within a minute using a magnet. Sorption of Hg(II) to the nanostructured particles was much faster than other commercial sorbents, and the Hg(II) sorption isotherm in an industrial wastewater follows the Langmuir model with a maximum capacity of ∼416 mg/g, indicating two -SH groups bonded to one Hg. This new Hg(II) sorbent was stable in a range of solutions, from contaminated water to 0.5 M acid solutions, with low leaching of Fe, Zn, Si, and S (<10%).

  1. Rapid and efficient removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions using biomass-derived activated carbon with humic acid in-situ modification.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zizhang; Zhang, Jian; Kang, Yan; Liu, Hai

    2017-11-01

    This study developed an humic acid (HA) in-situ modified activated carbon adsorbent (AC-HA) for the rapid and efficient removal of Pb(II) from aqueous media, and adsorption mechanisms are discussed. The physicochemical characteristics of activated carbons (AC) were investigated via N2 adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Boehm's titration method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). AC-HA exhibited richer oxygen-containing functional groups than the original AC. In addition, the removal performance of AC-HA (250.0mg/g) toward Pb(II) was greatly improved compared with the original AC (166.7mg/g). The batch adsorption study results revealed that the Pb(II) adsorption data were best fit by the pseudo-second-order model of kinetics and Langmuir isotherm of isothermals, and therefore, the effect of the solution pH was studied. The superior performance of AC-HA was attributed to the HA modification, which contains numbers of groups and has a strong π-π interaction binding energy with AC and Pb(II) species. The adsorption mechanisms were confirmed via the XPS study. More importantly, the modified method is simple and has a low cost of production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemoradiotherapy Versus Radiotherapy Alone in Stage II Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Systemic Review and Meta-analysis of 2138 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cheng; Zhang, Li-He; Chen, Yu-Pei; Liu, Xu; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background: To explore the value of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in stage II nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) compared to radiotherapy (RT) alone which includes two-dimensional radiotherapy (2D-RT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods:All topic-related comparative articles were identified by a comprehensive search of public databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and CBMdisc). The primary outcomes were overall survival (OS), loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Secondary outcomes were grade 3-4 acute toxicity events. We performed subgroup analysis of CRT versus 2D-RT/IMRT alone to investigate the optimal modality. Sensitivity analysis focused on CRT versus IMRT alone was used to assess stability of the study results. Results:Eleven comparative studies (2138 patients) were eligible. CRT had significantly higher OS (HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45-0.98, P = 0.04) and LRRFS (HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.46-0.80, P = 0.0003) than RT alone, but no significant difference was observed in DMFS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.52-1.31, P = 0.41). Meanwhile, CRT was associated with higher frequencies of grade 3-4 leukopenia, mucositis and nausea (P = 0.005, 0.03, < 0.0001, respectively). Subgroup analysis showed that IMRT alone could achieve equivalent OS, LRRFS and DMFS compared to CRT (P = 0.14, 0.06, 0.89, respectively). Significant value was only observed in LRRFS for CRT compared to 2D-RT alone (P = 0.01). Sensitivity analysis for the comparison of CRT and IMRT alone demonstrated generally stable outcomes, in support of the final conclusions. Conclusions:In the treatment of patients with stage II NPC, CRT was better than 2D-RT alone with significant benefit in LRRFS. IMRT alone was superior to CRT with equivalent survival outcomes and fewer grade 3-4 acute toxicities. PMID:28243333

  3. Testing the association of novel meta-analysis-derived diabetes risk genes with type II diabetes and related metabolic traits in Asian Indian Sikhs.

    PubMed

    Sanghera, Dharambir K; Been, Latonya; Ortega, Lyda; Wander, Gurpreet S; Mehra, Narinder K; Aston, Christopher E; Mulvihill, John J; Ralhan, Sarju

    2009-03-01

    A recent meta-analysis on three genome-wide association (GWA) scans identified six loci (NOTCH2, THADA, ADAMTS9, JAZF1, CDC123/CAMKID and TSPAN8/LGRS) highly associated with type II diabetes (T2D) in Caucasians. This investigation seeks to confirm this association with diabetes and related metabolic traits in Khatri Sikh diabetics of North India. We genotyped highly significant variants from each locus in a case-control cohort consisting of 680 T2D cases and 637 normoglycemic (NG) controls. Only CDC123/CAMKID (rs12779790) replicated earlier evidence of association with T2D under a dominant model (odds ratio (OR): 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.57; P=0.031) during initial testing. However, we could not confirm this association using multiple testing corrections. In a multiple linear-regression analysis, the same variant in the CDC123/CAMKID revealed a marked decrease in fasting insulin levels among 'G' (risk) allele carriers independently in NG controls (P=0.030) and in T2D cases (P=0.009), as well as in the combined sample (P=0.003) after adjusting for covariates. Evidence of impaired beta-cell function was also observed among 'G' (risk) allele carriers in T2D cases (P=0.008) and in a combined cohort (P=0.026). Our data could not confirm the role of the remaining variants with risk either for T2D or quantitative phenotypes measuring insulin secretion or insulin resistance. These findings suggest that CDC123/CAMKID could be a major risk factor for the development of T2D in Sikhs by affecting beta-cell function. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the role of recently emerging loci in this high-risk population from the South Asian subcontinent.

  4. Rapid assessment of human amylin aggregation and its inhibition by copper(II) ions by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with ion mobility separation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hang; Ha, Emmeline; Donaldson, Robert P.; Jeremic, Aleksandar M.; Vertes, Akos

    2015-09-09

    Native electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is often used to monitor noncovalent complex formation between peptides and ligands. The relatively low throughput of this technique, however, is not compatible with extensive screening. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) MS combined with ion mobility separation (IMS) can analyze complex formation and provide conformation information within a matter of seconds. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) or amylin, a 37-amino acid residue peptide, is produced in pancreatic beta-cells through proteolytic cleavage of its prohormone. Both amylin and its precursor can aggregate and produce toxic oligomers and fibrils leading to cell death in the pancreas that can eventually contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The inhibitory effect of the copper(II) ion on amylin aggregation has been recently discovered, but details of the interaction remain unknown. Finding other more physiologically tolerated approaches requires large scale screening of potential inhibitors. In this paper, we demonstrate that LAESI-IMS-MS can reveal the binding stoichiometry, copper oxidation state, and the dissociation constant of human amylin–copper(II) complex. The conformations of hIAPP in the presence of copper(II) ions were also analyzed by IMS, and preferential association between the β-hairpin amylin monomer and the metal ion was found. The copper(II) ion exhibited strong association with the —HSSNN– residues of the amylin. In the absence of copper(II), amylin dimers were detected with collision cross sections consistent with monomers of β-hairpin conformation. When copper(II) was present in the solution, no dimers were detected. Thus, the copper(II) ions disrupt the association pathway to the formation of β-sheet rich amylin fibrils. Using LAESI-IMS-MS for the assessment of amylin–copper(II) interactions demonstrates the utility of this technique for the high-throughput screening of potential

  5. Rapid assessment of human amylin aggregation and its inhibition by copper(II) ions by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with ion mobility separation

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Hang; Ha, Emmeline; Donaldson, Robert P.; ...

    2015-09-09

    Native electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is often used to monitor noncovalent complex formation between peptides and ligands. The relatively low throughput of this technique, however, is not compatible with extensive screening. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) MS combined with ion mobility separation (IMS) can analyze complex formation and provide conformation information within a matter of seconds. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) or amylin, a 37-amino acid residue peptide, is produced in pancreatic beta-cells through proteolytic cleavage of its prohormone. Both amylin and its precursor can aggregate and produce toxic oligomers and fibrils leading to cell death in the pancreasmore » that can eventually contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The inhibitory effect of the copper(II) ion on amylin aggregation has been recently discovered, but details of the interaction remain unknown. Finding other more physiologically tolerated approaches requires large scale screening of potential inhibitors. In this paper, we demonstrate that LAESI-IMS-MS can reveal the binding stoichiometry, copper oxidation state, and the dissociation constant of human amylin–copper(II) complex. The conformations of hIAPP in the presence of copper(II) ions were also analyzed by IMS, and preferential association between the β-hairpin amylin monomer and the metal ion was found. The copper(II) ion exhibited strong association with the —HSSNN– residues of the amylin. In the absence of copper(II), amylin dimers were detected with collision cross sections consistent with monomers of β-hairpin conformation. When copper(II) was present in the solution, no dimers were detected. Thus, the copper(II) ions disrupt the association pathway to the formation of β-sheet rich amylin fibrils. Using LAESI-IMS-MS for the assessment of amylin–copper(II) interactions demonstrates the utility of this technique for the high-throughput screening of

  6. Rapid assessment of human amylin aggregation and its inhibition by copper(II) ions by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with ion mobility separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hang; Ha, Emmeline; Donaldson, Robert P; Jeremic, Aleksandar M; Vertes, Akos

    2015-10-06

    Native electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is often used to monitor noncovalent complex formation between peptides and ligands. The relatively low throughput of this technique, however, is not compatible with extensive screening. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) MS combined with ion mobility separation (IMS) can analyze complex formation and provide conformation information within a matter of seconds. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) or amylin, a 37-amino acid residue peptide, is produced in pancreatic beta-cells through proteolytic cleavage of its prohormone. Both amylin and its precursor can aggregate and produce toxic oligomers and fibrils leading to cell death in the pancreas that can eventually contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The inhibitory effect of the copper(II) ion on amylin aggregation has been recently discovered, but details of the interaction remain unknown. Finding other more physiologically tolerated approaches requires large scale screening of potential inhibitors. Here, we demonstrate that LAESI-IMS-MS can reveal the binding stoichiometry, copper oxidation state, and the dissociation constant of human amylin-copper(II) complex. The conformations of hIAPP in the presence of copper(II) ions were also analyzed by IMS, and preferential association between the β-hairpin amylin monomer and the metal ion was found. The copper(II) ion exhibited strong association with the -HSSNN- residues of the amylin. In the absence of copper(II), amylin dimers were detected with collision cross sections consistent with monomers of β-hairpin conformation. When copper(II) was present in the solution, no dimers were detected. Thus, the copper(II) ions disrupt the association pathway to the formation of β-sheet rich amylin fibrils. Using LAESI-IMS-MS for the assessment of amylin-copper(II) interactions demonstrates the utility of this technique for the high-throughput screening of potential inhibitors of amylin

  7. Meta-Analyst: software for meta-analysis of binary, continuous and diagnostic data.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Byron C; Schmid, Christopher H; Lau, Joseph; Trikalinos, Thomas A

    2009-12-04

    Meta-analysis is increasingly used as a key source of evidence synthesis to inform clinical practice. The theory and statistical foundations of meta-analysis continually evolve, providing solutions to many new and challenging problems. In practice, most meta-analyses are performed in general statistical packages or dedicated meta-analysis programs. Herein, we introduce Meta-Analyst, a novel, powerful, intuitive, and free meta-analysis program for the meta-analysis of a variety of problems. Meta-Analyst is implemented in C# atop of the Microsoft .NET framework, and features a graphical user interface. The software performs several meta-analysis and meta-regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, as well as analyses for diagnostic and prognostic test studies in the frequentist and Bayesian frameworks. Moreover, Meta-Analyst includes a flexible tool to edit and customize generated meta-analysis graphs (e.g., forest plots) and provides output in many formats (images, Adobe PDF, Microsoft Word-ready RTF). The software architecture employed allows for rapid changes to be made to either the Graphical User Interface (GUI) or to the analytic modules.We verified the numerical precision of Meta-Analyst by comparing its output with that from standard meta-analysis routines in Stata over a large database of 11,803 meta-analyses of binary outcome data, and 6,881 meta-analyses of continuous outcome data from the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews. Results from analyses of diagnostic and prognostic test studies have been verified in a limited number of meta-analyses versus MetaDisc and MetaTest. Bayesian statistical analyses use the OpenBUGS calculation engine (and are thus as accurate as the standalone OpenBUGS software). We have developed and validated a new program for conducting meta-analyses that combines the advantages of existing software for this task.

  8. Rapid tooth movement and orthodontic treatment using dentoalveolar distraction (DAD). Long-term (5 years) follow-up of a Class II case.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Gökmen; Işeri, Haluk; Kişnişci, Reha

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the dentoalveolar distraction (DAD) technique and to present its effects on the surrounding structures by presenting a Class II case. A 15-year-old skeletal and dental Class II female patient with an overjet of 9 mm was treated by DAD osteogenesis. A custom-made, rigid, tooth-borne intraoral distraction device was used for rapid canine retraction. Osteotomies surrounding the canines were made to achieve rapid movement of the canines within the dentoalveolar segment, in compliance with distraction osteogenesis principles. The amount of canine retraction was 7.5 mm in 12 days at a rate of 0.625 mm per day, with no posterior anchorage loss. The canine teeth showed 1.6 mm extrusion and 11 degrees inclination change (distal tipping) during the same period. Orthodontic treatment continued for 6 months with no clinical and radiographic evidence of complications such as root fracture, root resorption, ankylosis, and soft tissue dehiscence. The DAD technique is an innovative method, because it reduces overall orthodontic treatment time by about 50%, with no unfavorable effects on periodontal tissues and surrounding structures and with no need to use any intraoral or extraoral anchorage appliances.

  9. Rapid systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence for effectiveness of primary production interventions to control Salmonella in beef and pork.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Barbara J; Young, Ian; Cahill, Sarah; Nakagawa, Rei; Desmarchelier, Patricia; Rajić, Andrijana

    2016-12-06

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. (hereafter referred to as Salmonella) on beef and pork is an important cause of foodborne illness and death globally. A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce Salmonella prevalence or concentration in beef and pork was undertaken. A broad search was conducted in Scopus and CAB abstracts. Each citation was appraised using screening tools tested a priori. Level 1 relevance screening excluded irrelevant citations; level 2 confirmed relevance and categorized studies. Data were then extracted, and intervention categories were descriptively summarized. Meta-analysis was performed to provide a summary estimate of treatment effect where two or more studies investigated the same intervention in comparable populations. The Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the confidence in the estimated measures of intervention effect for data subgroups. Copyright © 2017 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid Discrimination of Malignant Breast Lesions from Normal Tissues Utilizing Raman Spectroscopy System: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Hongyuan; Wei, Zhigong; Xiao, Yue; Xu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Raman spectroscopy system in the detection of malignant breast lesions through a systemic review and meta-analysis of published studies. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature search of PubMed and Embase from 2000 to June 2015. Published studies that evaluated the diagnostic performance of Raman spectroscopy in distinguishing malignant breast lesions from benign lesions and normal tissues were included in our study. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, and the area under the curve of summary receiver-operating characteristic curves was derived. A Revised Tool for the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies guidelines was used to assess the quality of included studies. Results The initial search produced a total of 157 articles after removing duplicates. Nine studies (8 in vitro and 1 in vivo) were eligible in this meta-analysis. We analyzed the eight in vitro studies with 1756 lesions, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of Raman spectroscopy system for the diagnosis of malignant breast lesions were 0.92 (95% CI 0.86–0.96) and 0.97 (97% CI 0.93–0.98), respectively. Diagnostic odds ratio was 266.70 (95% CI 89.38–795.79), and the area under the curve of summary receiver-operating characteristic curves was 0.98 (95% CI 0.97–0.99). Significant heterogeneity was found between studies. There was no evidence of considerable publication bias. Conclusions Raman spectroscopy system is an optical diagnostic technology with great value for detecting malignant breast lesions. At the same time, it has advantages of being non-invasive, real-time, and easy to use. Thus it deserves to be further explored for intra-operatory breast tumor margin detection. PMID:27459193

  11. Rapid Discrimination of Malignant Breast Lesions from Normal Tissues Utilizing Raman Spectroscopy System: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of In Vitro Studies.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ke; Zhu, Chenjing; Ma, Xuelei; Jia, Hongyuan; Wei, Zhigong; Xiao, Yue; Xu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Raman spectroscopy system in the detection of malignant breast lesions through a systemic review and meta-analysis of published studies. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of PubMed and Embase from 2000 to June 2015. Published studies that evaluated the diagnostic performance of Raman spectroscopy in distinguishing malignant breast lesions from benign lesions and normal tissues were included in our study. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, and the area under the curve of summary receiver-operating characteristic curves was derived. A Revised Tool for the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies guidelines was used to assess the quality of included studies. The initial search produced a total of 157 articles after removing duplicates. Nine studies (8 in vitro and 1 in vivo) were eligible in this meta-analysis. We analyzed the eight in vitro studies with 1756 lesions, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of Raman spectroscopy system for the diagnosis of malignant breast lesions were 0.92 (95% CI 0.86-0.96) and 0.97 (97% CI 0.93-0.98), respectively. Diagnostic odds ratio was 266.70 (95% CI 89.38-795.79), and the area under the curve of summary receiver-operating characteristic curves was 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-0.99). Significant heterogeneity was found between studies. There was no evidence of considerable publication bias. Raman spectroscopy system is an optical diagnostic technology with great value for detecting malignant breast lesions. At the same time, it has advantages of being non-invasive, real-time, and easy to use. Thus it deserves to be further explored for intra-operatory breast tumor margin detection.

  12. Combining a Ru(II) "Building Block" and Rapid Screening Approach to Identify DNA Structure-Selective "Light Switch" Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Erin; Moyá, Diego; Glazer, Edith C

    2017-02-13

    A chemically reactive Ru(II) "building block", able to undergo condensation reactions with substituted diamines, was utilized to create a small library of luminescent "light switch" dipyrido-[3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenazine (dppz) complexes. The impact of substituent identity, position, and the number of substituents on the light switch effect was investigated. An unbiased, parallel screening approach was used to evaluate the selectivity of the compounds for a variety of different biomolecules, including protein, nucleosides, single stranded DNA, duplex DNA, triplex DNA, and G-quadruplex DNA. Combining these two approaches allowed for the identification of hit molecules that showed different selectivities for biologically relevant DNA structures, particularly triplex and quadruplex DNA.

  13. Surface functionalized magnetic PVA microspheres for rapid naked-eye recognizing of copper(II) ions in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Zulin; Yang, Bei; Chen, Wei; Bai, Xue; Xu, Quanjun; Gu, Haixin

    2014-10-01

    We proposed a robust method for surface-functionalizing magnetic polyvinyl alcohol microspheres to detect heavy metal ions in aqueous solutions. The prepared chemosensor (PAR-MPVA) was characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). In neutral solutions, PAR-MPVA selectively recognized diatomic heavy metal ions, as indicated with a color change from earth yellow to red; in strong acidic solutions, the chemosensor only selectively detected Cu2+. PAR-MPVA microspheres had a detection limit as low as 0.5 μM by naked-eye and 0.16 μM by UV-vis spectrometer for Cu2+. Moreover, the sensor possessed magnetism for effective recovery, could easily be regenerated by a solution of EDTA, and also displayed perferable stability. The PAR-MPVA microspheres possessed preeminent properties of detecting copper (II) ions in aqueous solutions.

  14. Rapid CKD progression in a new mouse kidney remnant model: strain-dependent resistance is overcome by angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Yan, Qin; Hu, Xuzhen; Eisner, Christoph; Huang, Yuning; Chen, Richard; Mizel, Diane; Zhou, Hua; Wright, Elizabeth C.; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Schnermann, Jürgen; Yuen, Peter S.T.; Star, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The remnant kidney model in C57BL6 mice does not develop progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study we modified the model to mimic features of human CKD and to define accelerants of disease progression using three strains of mice. Following the procedure there was a progressive increase in albuminuria, progressive loss in renal function, severe glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis, hypertension, cardiac fibrosis, and anemia by 4 weeks in CD-1 mice and by 12 weeks in 129S3 mice. In contrast, even after 16 weeks, the C57BL/6 mice with a remnant kidney had modestly increased albuminuria without increased blood pressure and without developing CKD or cardiac fibrosis. The baseline blood pressure, determined by radiotelemetry in conscious animals, correlated with CKD progression rates in each strain. Administering angiotensin II overcame the resistance of C57BL/6 mice to CKD following renal mass reduction displaying high blood pressure and albuminuria, severe glomerulosclerosis, and loss of renal function by 4 weeks. Decreasing blood pressure with olmesartan but not hydralazine in CD-1 mice with a remnant kidney reduced CKD progression and cardiac fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice with a remnant kidney and DOCA-salt hypertension developed modest CKD. Each strain had similar degrees of interstitial fibrosis in three different normotensive models of renal fibrosis. Thus reducing renal mass in CD-1 or 129S3 mice mimics many features of human CKD. Angiotensin II can convert the C57BL/6 strain from CKD-resistant to susceptible in this disease model. PMID:20736988

  15. Living systematic reviews: 3. Statistical methods for updating meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Mark; Salanti, Georgia; McKenzie, Joanne; Elliott, Julian

    2017-09-11

    A living systematic review (LSR) should keep the review current as new research evidence emerges. Any meta-analyses included in the review will also need updating as new material is identified. If the aim of the review is solely to present the best current evidence standard meta-analysis may be sufficient, provided reviewers are aware that results may change at later updates. If the review is used in a decision-making context, more caution may be needed. When using standard meta-analysis methods, the chance of incorrectly concluding that any updated meta-analysis is statistically significant when there is no effect (the type I error) increases rapidly as more updates are performed. Inaccurate estimation of any heterogeneity across studies may also lead to inappropriate conclusions. This paper considers four methods to avoid some of these statistical problems when updating meta-analyses: two methods, that is, law of the iterated logarithm and the Shuster method control primarily for inflation of type I error and two other methods, that is, trial sequential analysis and sequential meta-analysis control for type I and II errors (failing to detect a genuine effect) and take account of heterogeneity. This paper compares the methods and considers how they could be applied to LSRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid detection of equine influenza virus H3N8 subtype by insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay using the POCKIT™ Nucleic Acid Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Lee, Pei-Yu Alison; Tiwari, Ashish; Skillman, Ashley; Nam, Bora; Chambers, Thomas M; Tsai, Yun-Long; Ma, Li-Juan; Yang, Pai-Chun; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory disease of equids. Currently, equine influenza virus (EIV) subtype H3N8 continues to be the most important respiratory pathogen of horses in many countries around the world. The need to achieve a rapid diagnosis and to implement effective quarantine and movement restrictions is critical in controlling the spread of EIV. In this study, a novel, inexpensive and user-friendly assay based on an insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) method on the POCKIT™, a field-deployable device, was described and validated for point-of-need detection of EIV-H3N8 in clinical samples. The newly established iiRT-PCR assay targeting the EIV HA3 gene was evaluated for its sensitivity using in vitro transcribed (IVT) RNA, as well as ten-fold serial dilutions of RNA extracted from the prototype H3N8 strain A/equine/Miami/1/63. Inclusivity and exclusivity panels were tested for specificity evaluation. Published real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays targeting the NP and HA3 genes were used as the reference standards for comparison of RNA extracted from field strains and from nasal swab samples collected from experimentally infected horses, respectively. Limit of detection with a 95% probability (LoD95%) was estimated to be 11copies of IVT RNA. Clinical sensitivity analysis using RNA prepared from serial dilutions of a prototype EIV (Miami 1/63/H3N8) showed that the iiRT-PCR assay was about 100-fold more sensitive than the rRT-PCR assay targeting the NP gene of EIV subtype H3N8. The iiRT-PCR assay identified accurately fifteen EIV H3N8 strains and two canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 strains, and did not cross-react with H6N2, H7N7, H1N1 subtypes or any other equine respiratory viral pathogens. Finally, 100% agreement was found between the iiRT-PCR assay and the universal influenza virus type A rRT-PCR assay in detecting the EIV A/equine/Kentucky/7/07 strain in 56 nasal swab samples collected from experimentally inoculated

  17. Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  18. Diverse mechanisms for photoprotection in photosynthesis. Dynamic regulation of photosystem II excitation in response to rapid environmental change.

    PubMed

    Derks, Allen; Schaven, Kristin; Bruce, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) of photosynthesis catalyzes one of the most challenging reactions in nature, the light driven oxidation of water and release of molecular oxygen. PSII couples the sequential four step oxidation of water and two step reduction of plastoquinone to single photon photochemistry with charge accumulation centers on both its electron donor and acceptor sides. Photon capture, excitation energy transfer, and trapping occur on a much faster time scale than the subsequent electron transfer and charge accumulation steps. A balance between excitation of PSII and the use of the absorbed energy to drive electron transport is essential. If the absorption of light energy increases and/or the sink capacity for photosynthetically derived electrons decreases, potentially deleterious side reactions may occur, including the production of reactive oxygen species. In response, a myriad of fast (second to minutes timescale) and reversible photoprotective mechanisms are observed to regulate PSII excitation when the environment changes more quickly than can be acclimated to by gene expression. This review compares the diverse photoprotective mechanisms that are used to dissipate (quench) PSII excitation within the antenna systems of higher land plants, green algae, diatoms, and cyanobacteria. The molecular bases of how PSII excitation pressure is sensed by the antenna system and how the antenna then reconfigures itself from a light harvesting to an energy dissipative mode are discussed.

  19. Ligand-induced type II interleukin-4 receptor dimers are sustained by rapid re-association within plasma membrane microcompartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, David; Moraga, Ignacio; Winkelmann, Hauke; Birkholz, Oliver; Wilmes, Stephan; Schulte, Markos; Kraich, Michael; Kenneweg, Hella; Beutel, Oliver; Selenschik, Philipp; Paterok, Dirk; Gavutis, Martynas; Schmidt, Thomas; Garcia, K. Christopher; Müller, Thomas D.; Piehler, Jacob

    2017-07-01

    The spatiotemporal organization of cytokine receptors in the plasma membrane is still debated with models ranging from ligand-independent receptor pre-dimerization to ligand-induced receptor dimerization occurring only after receptor uptake into endosomes. Here, we explore the molecular and cellular determinants governing the assembly of the type II interleukin-4 receptor, taking advantage of various agonists binding the receptor subunits with different affinities and rate constants. Quantitative kinetic studies using artificial membranes confirm that receptor dimerization is governed by the two-dimensional ligand-receptor interactions and identify a critical role of the transmembrane domain in receptor dimerization. Single molecule localization microscopy at physiological cell surface expression levels, however, reveals efficient ligand-induced receptor dimerization by all ligands, largely independent of receptor binding affinities, in line with the similar STAT6 activation potencies observed for all IL-4 variants. Detailed spatiotemporal analyses suggest that kinetic trapping of receptor dimers in actin-dependent microcompartments sustains robust receptor dimerization and signalling.

  20. A fast integrated mobility spectrometer for rapid measurement of sub-micrometer aerosol size distribution, Part II: Experimental characterization

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jian; Pikridas, Michael; Pinterich, Tamara; ...

    2017-06-08

    A Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer (FIMS) with a wide dynamic size range has been developed for rapid aerosol size distribution measurements. The design and model evaluation of the FIMS are presented in the preceding paper (Paper I), and this paper focuses on the experimental characterization of the FIMS. Monodisperse aerosol with diameter ranging from 8 to 600 nm was generated using Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA), and was measured by the FIMS in parallel with a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The mean particle diameter measured by the FIMS is in good agreement with the DMA centroid diameter. Comparison of the particlemore » concentrations measured by the FIMS and CPC indicates the FIMS detection efficiency is essentially 100% for particles with diameters of 8 nm or larger. For particles smaller than 20 nm or larger than 200 nm, FIMS transfer function and resolution can be well represented by the calculated ones based on simulated particle trajectories in the FIMS. For particles between 20 and 200 nm, the FIMS transfer function is boarder than the calculated, likely due to non-ideality of the electric field, including edge effects near the end of the electrode, which are not represented by the 2-D electric field used to simulate particle trajectories.« less

  1. The use of the rapid exchange grip test in detecting sincerity of effort, Part II: validity of the test.

    PubMed

    Shechtman, O; Taylor, C

    2000-01-01

    The rapid exchange grip (REG) test was developed to identify patients exerting insincere effort. The premise of the REG test is that a maximal, sincere effort yields a "negative REG," in which peak static grip (SG) scores are greater than peak REG scores, and that a submaximal, insincere effort yields a "positive REG," in which REG scores are greater than SG scores. There is disagreement in the literature concerning what constitutes a positive REG test, suggesting that the REG may not be a valid measure of sincerity of effort. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of the REG test by examining its premise as well as its sensitivity and specificity values. The 146 uninjured subjects performed a series of randomized grip strength tests, exerting both maximal and submaximal efforts. The tests included the REG at hand switch rates of 45 rpm (REG-45) and 60 rpm (REG-60), the maximal static grip test (MSGT), and the five-rung test (5R). Our findings supported the concept of a "negative REG" for both REG maneuvers and both comparative SG tests. The concept of a "positive REG," however, was supported only when peak REG scores were compared with peak 5R scores. The authors found relatively low sensitivity and specificity values, suggesting that the REG test may not be sensitive or specific enough to effectively detect sincerity of effort. The authors discuss the likelihood that mistakes will be made when the REG test is used to diagnose sincerity of effort and the possible consequences of making such mistakes.

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy of Novel and Traditional Rapid Tests for Influenza Infection Compared With Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Merckx, Joanna; Wali, Rehab; Schiller, Ian; Caya, Chelsea; Gore, Genevieve C; Chartrand, Caroline; Dendukuri, Nandini; Papenburg, Jesse

    2017-09-05

    Rapid and accurate influenza diagnostics can improve patient care. To summarize and compare accuracy of traditional rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs), digital immunoassays (DIAs), and rapid nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in children and adults with suspected influenza. 6 databases from their inception through May 2017. Studies in English, French, or Spanish comparing commercialized rapid tests (that is, providing results in <30 minutes) with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction reference standard for influenza diagnosis. Data were extracted using a standardized form; quality was assessed using QUADAS-2 (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2) criteria. 162 studies were included (130 of RIDTs, 19 of DIAs, and 13 of NAATs). Pooled sensitivities for detecting influenza A from Bayesian bivariate random-effects models were 54.4% (95% credible interval [CrI], 48.9% to 59.8%) for RIDTs, 80.0% (CrI, 73.4% to 85.6%) for DIAs, and 91.6% (CrI, 84.9% to 95.9%) for NAATs. Those for detecting influenza B were 53.2% (CrI, 41.7% to 64.4%) for RIDTs, 76.8% (CrI, 65.4% to 85.4%) for DIAs, and 95.4% (CrI, 87.3% to 98.7%) for NAATs. Pooled specificities were uniformly high (>98%). Forty-six influenza A and 24 influenza B studies presented pediatric-specific data; 35 influenza A and 16 influenza B studies presented adult-specific data. Pooled sensitivities were higher in children by 12.1 to 31.8 percentage points, except for influenza A by rapid NAATs (2.7 percentage points). Pooled sensitivities favored industry-sponsored studies by 6.2 to 34.0 percentage points. Incomplete reporting frequently led to unclear risk of bias. Underreporting of clinical variables limited exploration of heterogeneity. Few NAAT studies reported adult-specific data, and none evaluated point-of-care testing. Many studies had unclear risk of bias. Novel DIAs and rapid NAATs had markedly higher sensitivities for influenza A and B in both children and adults than did

  3. META II Complexity and Adaptability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    looks for the highest peaks, Robust Design looks for the highest mesas – regions where the performance does not fall off due to small variations in...ATA 23 (Communications), ATA 24(Electrical Power), ATA 27(Flight Controls), ATA 29(Hydraulics), ATA 30(Ice and Rain Protection ),ATA 31(Indicating...though a degree of adaptation may be required. 4.5. Experimentation The experiments we have performed in the program fall into two broad categories

  4. A rapid and visual turn-off sensor for detecting copper (II) ion based on DNAzyme coupled with HCR-based HRP concatemers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wentao; Tian, Jingjing; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Longjiao; Huang, Kunlun

    2017-01-01

    To solve the requirement of on-site, rapid, and visual detection of copper (II) (Cu2+) in aqueous solution, a turn-off sensor for detecting copper (II) ion was developed based on Cu2+-dependent DNAzyme as the recognition element and hybridization chain reaction (HCR)-based horseradish peroxidase (HRP) concatemers as the signal amplifier and the signal report element. The detection unit, which was composed of the immobilized Cu2+-dependent DNAzyme coupled with HCR-based HRP concatemers via Waston-Crick base pairing, could catalyze hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) via TMB, generating obvious green color and turning yellow after sulfuric acid termination with optical absorption at 450 nm. Upon Cu2+ addition, the substrate strand of the Cu2+-dependent DNAzyme concatenated with the HCR-based HRP complex was irreversibly cleaved, efficiently causing dramatic reduction of the detection signal. Under optimal conditions, the detection signal decreased with the concentration of Cu2+ in 5 min, exhibiting a linear calibration from 0.05 to 3 μM with a detection limit of 8 nM. The sensor also displayed a high selectivity for Cu2+ given the specificity and anti-interference of the detection unit, and this system was applicable for monitoring Cu2+ in real water samples. Generally speaking, the proposed sensor exhibits good potential in environment surveys. PMID:28266536

  5. A rapid and visual turn-off sensor for detecting copper (II) ion based on DNAzyme coupled with HCR-based HRP concatemers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Tian, Jingjing; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Longjiao; Huang, Kunlun

    2017-03-07

    To solve the requirement of on-site, rapid, and visual detection of copper (II) (Cu(2+)) in aqueous solution, a turn-off sensor for detecting copper (II) ion was developed based on Cu(2+)-dependent DNAzyme as the recognition element and hybridization chain reaction (HCR)-based horseradish peroxidase (HRP) concatemers as the signal amplifier and the signal report element. The detection unit, which was composed of the immobilized Cu(2+)-dependent DNAzyme coupled with HCR-based HRP concatemers via Waston-Crick base pairing, could catalyze hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) via TMB, generating obvious green color and turning yellow after sulfuric acid termination with optical absorption at 450 nm. Upon Cu(2+) addition, the substrate strand of the Cu(2+)-dependent DNAzyme concatenated with the HCR-based HRP complex was irreversibly cleaved, efficiently causing dramatic reduction of the detection signal. Under optimal conditions, the detection signal decreased with the concentration of Cu(2+) in 5 min, exhibiting a linear calibration from 0.05 to 3 μM with a detection limit of 8 nM. The sensor also displayed a high selectivity for Cu(2+) given the specificity and anti-interference of the detection unit, and this system was applicable for monitoring Cu(2+) in real water samples. Generally speaking, the proposed sensor exhibits good potential in environment surveys.

  6. A Quantitative Review and Meta-models of the Variability and Factors Affecting Oral Drug Absorption-Part II: Gastrointestinal Transit Time.

    PubMed

    Abuhelwa, Ahmad Y; Foster, David J R; Upton, Richard N

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to conduct a quantitative meta-analysis for the values of, and variability in, gastrointestinal (GI) transit times of non-disintegrating single-unit ("tablet") and multiple-unit ("pellets/multi-unit tablet") solid dosage forms, characterize the effect of food on the values and variability in these parameters and present quantitative meta-models of the distributions of GI transit times in the respective GI regions to help inform models of oral drug absorption. The literature was systemically reviewed for the values of, and the variability in, gastric, small intestinal and colonic transit times under fed and fasted conditions. Meta-analysis used the "metafor" package of the R language. Meta-models of GI transit were assumed to be log-normally distributed between the studied populations. Twenty-nine studies including 125 reported means and standard deviations were used in the meta-analysis. Caloric content of administered food increased variability and delayed the gastric transit of both pellets and tablets. Conversely, food caloric content reduced the variability but had no significant influence on the mean small intestinal transit time (SITT). Food had no significant effect on the transit time through the colon. The transit of pellets through the colon was significantly slower than that of single-unit tablets which is most likely related to their smaller size. GI transit times may influence the dissolution and absorption of oral drugs. The meta-models of GI transit times may be used as part of semi-physiological absorption models to characterize the influence of transit time on the dissolution, absorption and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of oral drugs.

  7. An immuno-wall microdevice exhibits rapid and sensitive detection of IDH1-R132H mutation specific to grade II and III gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Yamamichi, Akane; Kasama, Toshihiro; Ohka, Fumiharu; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Kato, Akira; Motomura, Kazuya; Hirano, Masaki; Ranjit, Melissa; Chalise, Lushun; Kurimoto, Michihiro; Kondo, Goro; Aoki, Kosuke; Kaji, Noritada; Tokeshi, Manabu; Matsubara, Toshio; Senga, Takeshi; Kaneko, Mika K.; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hara, Masahito; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Baba, Yoshinobu; Kato, Yukinari; Natsume, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas most frequently occur in the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Gliomas are not circumscribed; tumor edges are irregular and consist of tumor cells, normal brain tissue, and hyperplastic reactive glial cells. Therefore, the tumors are not fully resectable, resulting in recurrence, malignant progression, and eventual death. Approximately 69–80% of grade II and III gliomas harbor mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1), of which 83–90% are found to be the IDH1-R132H mutation. Detection of the IDH1-R132H mutation should help in the differential diagnosis of grade II and III gliomas from other types of CNS tumors and help determine the boundary between the tumor and normal brain tissue. In this study, we established a highly sensitive antibody-based device, referred to as the immuno-wall, to detect the IDH1-R132H mutation in gliomas. The immuno-wall causes an immunoreaction in microchannels fabricated using a photo-polymerizing polymer. This microdevice enables the analysis of the IDH1 status with a small sample within 15 min with substantially high sensitivity. Our results suggested that 10% content of the IDH1-R132H mutation in a sample of 0.33 μl volume, with 500 ng protein, or from 500 cells is theoretically sufficient for the analysis. The immuno-wall device will enable the rapid and highly sensitive detection of the IDH1-R132H mutation in routine clinical practice. PMID:27877908

  8. A suspending-droplet mode paper-based microfluidic platform for low-cost, rapid, and convenient detection of lead(II) ions in liquid solution.

    PubMed

    Sun, Han; Li, Wanbo; Dong, Zhen-Zhen; Hu, Chong; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Ren, Kangning

    2018-01-15

    A paper-based microfluidic device based on unconventional principle was developed and used to detect lead ions through a two-step process including heated incubation and subsequent mixing. The device was made by generating a superhydrophobic pattern, which defines channel and reservoir barriers, on a water-impermeable paper substrate, followed by loading and drying the reagents in the defined reservoirs. Different from the conventional paper-based devices that are made of water-permeable paper, the as-prepared device holds water drops in discrete reservoirs, and the water drops will not move unless the device is titled along the direction of the predefined channels. In this way, the liquid samples applied onto the device are handled as individual drops and could be stored, transported, and mixed on demand. Different from the conventional paper-based devices that use capillary force to drive liquid, our new device uses wetting and gravity as driving force. We name this operation principle suspending-droplet mode paper-based device (SD-μPAD). The use of a Teflon contact-printing stamp makes the production of such devices rapid, cost efficient, and mass productive. Utilizing a G-quadruplex-based luminescence switch-on assay, we demonstrated rapid, convenient, highly sensitive, and low cost detection of lead(II) ions in water samples, using a custom made battery-powered portable device, and a smart phone as the detector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychopharmacology and Aggression: II. A Meta-Analysis of Nonstimulant Medication Effects on Overt Aggression-Related Behaviors in Youth with SED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Daniel R.; Boone, R. Thomas; Steingard, Ronald J.; Lopez, Ivan D.; Melloni, Richard H., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 33 studies examined effect size for nonstimulant medications on symptoms of overt aggression-related behaviors in children and adolescents with serious emotional and behavioral disturbances. Thirty-seven independent effects were found for neuroleptic, atypical antipsychotic, mood stabilizer, antidepressant, and adrenergic agents…

  10. MetaMHCpan, A Meta Approach for Pan-Specific MHC Peptide Binding Prediction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yichang; Luo, Cheng; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Zhu, Shanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Recent computational approaches in bioinformatics can achieve high performance, by which they can be a powerful support for performing real biological experiments, making biologists pay more attention to bioinformatics than before. In immunology, predicting peptides which can bind to MHC alleles is an important task, being tackled by many computational approaches. However, this situation causes a serious problem for immunologists to select the appropriate method to be used in bioinformatics. To overcome this problem, we develop an ensemble prediction-based Web server, which we call MetaMHCpan, consisting of two parts: MetaMHCIpan and MetaMHCIIpan, for predicting peptides which can bind MHC-I and MHC-II, respectively. MetaMHCIpan and MetaMHCIIpan use two (MHC2SKpan and LApan) and four (TEPITOPEpan, MHC2SKpan, LApan, and MHC2MIL) existing predictors, respectively. MetaMHCpan is available at http://datamining-iip.fudan.edu.cn/MetaMHCpan/index.php/pages/view/info .

  11. Characterization of a rapid climate shift at the MIS 8/7 transition in central Spain (Valdocarros II, Autonomous Region of Madrid) by means of the herpetological assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Panera, Joaquin; Uribelarrea, David; Rubio-Jara, Susana; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2012-07-01

    Climate instability with high-amplitude and rapid shifts during the Middle Pleistocene is well known from pollen records and deep-ocean sediment cores. Although poorly correlatable with such long climate/environment records, the successive fossil amphibian and reptile assemblages from the Middle Pleistocene site of Valdocarros II (Autonomous Region of Madrid, central Spain) provide a unique opportunity to characterize the climatic and environmental features of such rapid (certainly less than 1000 years) shifts from cold to warm conditions in a terrestrial sequence. As the amphibians and reptiles do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods are applied to the herpetofaunistic assemblages in order to estimate quantitative data. The difference in mean annual temperature between "cold" and "warm" periods is estimated at 3.2 °C, with a greater increase in temperature during winter (+3 °C) than during summer (+1 °C). During "cold" periods the climate was more Oceanic (although preserving some dryness during the summers), whereas during "warm" periods the climate became Mediterranean (with mild winters and a long period of dryness in the summer and early autumn). Though higher during cold periods, the continentality (or atmospheric temperature range) remained roughly similar, in accordance with the geographical location of the site in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. A greater amount of open landscape occurred during "cold" periods, whereas during "warm" periods the wooded areas expanded from 20% to 40% of the landscape surface. Such climatic/environmental changes, together with the numeric datings of the site, suggest that this shift may correspond to the transition from MIS 8 to MIS 7, also called Termination III.

  12. A Powerful Procedure for Pathway-Based Meta-analysis Using Summary Statistics Identifies 43 Pathways Associated with Type II Diabetes in European Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Han; Wheeler, William; Hyland, Paula L.; Yang, Yifan; Shi, Jianxin; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Yu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analysis of multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has become an effective approach for detecting single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with complex traits. However, it is difficult to integrate the readily accessible SNP-level summary statistics from a meta-analysis into more powerful multi-marker testing procedures, which generally require individual-level genetic data. We developed a general procedure called Summary based Adaptive Rank Truncated Product (sARTP) for conducting gene and pathway meta-analysis that uses only SNP-level summary statistics in combination with genotype correlation estimated from a panel of individual-level genetic data. We demonstrated the validity and power advantage of sARTP through empirical and simulated data. We conducted a comprehensive pathway-based meta-analysis with sARTP on type 2 diabetes (T2D) by integrating SNP-level summary statistics from two large studies consisting of 19,809 T2D cases and 111,181 controls with European ancestry. Among 4,713 candidate pathways from which genes in neighborhoods of 170 GWAS established T2D loci were excluded, we detected 43 T2D globally significant pathways (with Bonferroni corrected p-values < 0.05), which included the insulin signaling pathway and T2D pathway defined by KEGG, as well as the pathways defined according to specific gene expression patterns on pancreatic adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and bladder carcinoma. Using summary data from 8 eastern Asian T2D GWAS with 6,952 cases and 11,865 controls, we showed 7 out of the 43 pathways identified in European populations remained to be significant in eastern Asians at the false discovery rate of 0.1. We created an R package and a web-based tool for sARTP with the capability to analyze pathways with thousands of genes and tens of thousands of SNPs. PMID:27362418

  13. Trifunctional molecular beacon-mediated quadratic amplification for highly sensitive and rapid detection of mercury(II) ion with tunable dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Liu, Huaqing; Chen, Feng; Bai, Min; Zhao, Junwu; Zhao, Yongxi

    2016-12-15

    Analyses of target with low abundance or concentration varying over many orders of magnitude are severe challenges faced by numerous assay methods due to their modest sensitivity and limited dynamic range. Here, we introduce a homogeneous and rapid quadratic polynomial amplification strategy through rational design of a trifunctional molecular beacon, which serves as not only a reporter molecule but also a bridge to couple two stage amplification modules without adding any reaction components or process other than basic linear amplification. As a test bed for our studies, we took mercury(II) ion as an example and obtained a high sensitivity with detection limit down to 200 pM within 30min. In order to create a tunable dynamic range, homotropic allostery is employed to modulate the target specific binding. When the number of metal binding site varies from 1 to 3, signal response is programmed accordingly with useful dynamic range spanning 50, 25 and 10 folds, respectively. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed method in river water and biological samples are successfully verified with good recovery and reproducibility, indicating considerable potential for its practicality in complex real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A unique restriction site in the flaA gene allows rapid differentiation of group I and group II Clostridium botulinum strains by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Paul, Catherine J; Tran, Shulin; Tam, Kevin J; Austin, John W

    2007-09-01

    Clostridium botulinum produces the potent botulinum neurotoxin, the causative agent of botulism. Based on distinctive physiological traits, strains of C. botulinum can be divided into four groups: however, only groups I and II are associated with human illness. Alignment of the flaA gene sequences from 40 group I and 40 group II strains identified a single BsrG1 restriction cut site that was present at base pair 283 in all group II flaA sequences and was not found in any group I sequence. The flaA gene was amplified by rapid colony PCR from 22 group I strains and 18 group II strains and digested with BsrGI restriction enzyme. Standard agarose gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide staining showed two fragments, following restriction digestion of group II flaA gene amplicons with BsrGI, but only a single band of uncut flaA from group I strains. Combining rapid colony PCR with BsrGI restriction digest of the flaA gene at 60 degrees C is a significant improvement over current methods, such as meat digestion or amplified fragment length polymorphism, as a strain can be identified as either group I or group II in under 5 h when starting with a visible plated C. botulinum colony.

  15. A novel P700 redox kinetics probe for rapid, non-intrusive and whole-tissue determination of photosystem II functionality, and the stoichiometry of the two photosystems in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Husen; Dwyer, Simon A; Fan, Da-Yong; Han, Yaqin; Badger, Murray R; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Chow, Wah Soon

    2014-11-01

    We sought a rapid, non-intrusive, whole-tissue measure of the functional photosystem II (PS II) content in leaves. Summation of electrons, delivered by a single-turnover flash to P700(+) (oxidized PS I primary donor) in continuous background far-red light, gave a parameter S in absorbance units after taking into account an experimentally determined basal electron flux that affects P700 redox kinetics. S was linearly correlated with the functional PS II content measured by the O(2) yield per single-turnover repetitive flash in Arabidopsis thaliana expressing an antisense construct to the PsbO (manganese-stabilizing protein in PS II) proteins of PS II (PsbO mutants). The ratio of S to z(max) (total PS I content in absorbance units) was comparable to the PS II/PS I reaction-center ratio in wild-type A. thaliana and in control Spinacea oleracea. Both S and S/z(max) decreased in photoinhibited spinach leaf discs. The whole-tissue functional PS II content and the PS II/photosystem I (PS I) ratio can be non-intrusively monitored by S and S/z(max), respectively, using a quick P700 absorbance protocol compatible with modern P700 instruments.

  16. How did Japanese rural dwellers become rapidly healthier in the two decades following World War II?: Examining the diverse policy interventions that improved the population's health.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Motoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Objective During the two decades following Japan's World War II surrender in 1945, tremendous improvement in the population's health was observed, particularly in infant mortality and life expectancy. How did Japanese rural dwellers achieve such remarkable health improvement during this relatively short time span while its economy remained heavily damaged following the war? While the efforts from government-driven public health strategies and programs are well known, relatively little is known about the contributions of policies in non-health sectors. Therefore, the main aim is to verify, using literature based sources, whether non-health sectors contributed to the betterment of the population's health in addition to the public health sector policies.Hypotheses Synergistic efforts of diverse interventions from different policies and programs likely catalyzed the drastic health improvement observed in the Japanese population in the two decades after World War II. The Ministry of Health and Welfare, for example, implemented programs to provide health care services. These are thought to have contributed directly to reducing maternal and child mortality, as well as tuberculosis-related mortality. Additionally, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry carried out a nationwide livelihood improvement program to enhance individual and family lifestyles, improve indoor and outdoor environments, and strengthen social solidarity. The ministry also attempted to generate income stability for farmers through an agricultural improvement program to ensure allocation of household income to family health. The Ministry of Education also had an initiative to disseminate the concepts of democracy and rational thought to the Japanese population through a social education program. Through these efforts, superstition and pre-modern customs were reduced, and subsequently health awareness increased, leading to an improvement in the population's health.Conclusion The public health

  17. Safety and efficacy of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist added to basal insulin therapy versus basal insulin with or without a rapid-acting insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes: results of a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wysham, Carol H; Lin, Jay; Kuritzky, Louis

    2017-05-01

    To consolidate the evidence from randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) as add-on to basal insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We searched the EMBASE® and NCBI PubMed (Medline) databases and relevant congress abstracts for randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of GLP-1 RAs as add-on to basal insulin compared with basal insulin with or without rapid-acting insulin (RAI) through 23 May 2016. The pooled data were analyzed using a random-effects meta-analysis model. A subanalysis was performed for trials investigating basal insulin plus GLP-1 RAs versus basal insulin plus RAI. Of the 2617 retrieved records, 19 randomized controlled trials enrolling 7,053 patients with T2D were included. Compared with basal insulin ± RAI, reduction in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline (difference in means: -0.48% [95% confidence interval (CI), -0.67 to -0.30]; p < 0.0001) and weight loss (-2.60 kg [95% CI, -3.32 to -1.89]; p < 0.0001) were significantly greater with basal insulin plus GLP-1 RA. The subanalysis similarly showed significant results for change in HbA1c from baseline and for weight loss, as well as a significantly lower risk of symptomatic hypoglycemia in patients treated with basal insulin plus GLP-1 RA versus basal insulin plus RAI (odds ratio, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.42 to 0.64]; p < 0.0001). Addition of GLP-1 RA to basal insulin provided improved glycemic control, led to weight reduction and similar hypoglycemia rates versus an intensified insulin strategy; however, symptomatic hypoglycemia rates were significantly lower when compared with a basal insulin plus RAI.

  18. The Impact of Massage Therapy on Function in Pain Populations-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials: Part II, Cancer Pain Populations.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Courtney; Crawford, Cindy; Paat, Charmagne F; Price, Ashley; Xenakis, Lea; Zhang, Weimin

    2016-08-01

    Pain is multi-dimensional and may be better addressed through a holistic, biopsychosocial approach. Massage therapy is commonly practiced among patients seeking pain management; however, its efficacy is unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to rigorously assess the quality of massage therapy research and evidence for its efficacy in treating pain, function-related and health-related quality of life in cancer populations. Key databases were searched from inception through February 2014. Eligible randomized controlled trials were assessed for methodological quality using the SIGN 50 Checklist. Meta-analysis was applied at the outcome level. A diverse steering committee interpreted the results to develop recommendations. Twelve high quality and four low quality studies were subsequently included in the review. Results demonstrate massage therapy is effective for treating pain compared to no treatment [standardized mean difference (SMD)  = -.20] and active (SMD = -0.55) comparators. Compared to active comparators, massage therapy was also found to be beneficial for treating fatigue (SMD = -1.06) and anxiety (SMD = -1.24). Based on the evidence, weak recommendations are suggested for massage therapy, compared to an active comparator, for the treatment of pain, fatigue, and anxiety. No recommendations were suggested for massage therapy compared to no treatment or sham control based on the available literature to date. This review addresses massage therapy safety, research challenges, how to address identified research gaps, and necessary next steps for implementing massage therapy as a viable pain management option for cancer pain populations. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine.

  19. The Impact of Massage Therapy on Function in Pain Populations—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials: Part II, Cancer Pain Populations

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Cindy; Paat, Charmagne F.; Price, Ashley; Xenakis, Lea; Zhang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Pain is multi-dimensional and may be better addressed through a holistic, biopsychosocial approach. Massage therapy is commonly practiced among patients seeking pain management; however, its efficacy is unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to rigorously assess the quality of massage therapy research and evidence for its efficacy in treating pain, function-related and health-related quality of life in cancer populations. Methods. Key databases were searched from inception through February 2014. Eligible randomized controlled trials were assessed for methodological quality using the SIGN 50 Checklist. Meta-analysis was applied at the outcome level. A diverse steering committee interpreted the results to develop recommendations. Results. Twelve high quality and four low quality studies were subsequently included in the review. Results demonstrate massage therapy is effective for treating pain compared to no treatment [standardized mean difference (SMD)  = −.20] and active (SMD = −0.55) comparators. Compared to active comparators, massage therapy was also found to be beneficial for treating fatigue (SMD = −1.06) and anxiety (SMD = −1.24). Conclusion. Based on the evidence, weak recommendations are suggested for massage therapy, compared to an active comparator, for the treatment of pain, fatigue, and anxiety. No recommendations were suggested for massage therapy compared to no treatment or sham control based on the available literature to date. This review addresses massage therapy safety, research challenges, how to address identified research gaps, and necessary next steps for implementing massage therapy as a viable pain management option for cancer pain populations. PMID:27165967

  20. The development and features of the Spanish prehospital advanced triage method (META) for mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Garijo Gonzalo, Gracia; Martinez Monzon, Carlos; Pelaez Corres, Nieves; Rodriguez Soler, Alberto; Turegano Fuentes, Fernando

    2016-04-29

    This text describes the process of development of the new Spanish Prehospital Advanced Triage Method (META) and explain its main features and contribution to prehospital triage systems in mass casualty incidents. The triage META is based in the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols, patient's anatomical injuries and mechanism of injury. It is a triage method with four stages including early identification of patients with severe trauma that would benefit from a rapid evacuation to a surgical facility and introduces a new patient flow by-passing the advanced medical post to improve evacuation. The stages of triage META are: I) Stabilization triage that classifies patients according to severity to set priorities for initial emergency treatment; II) Identifying patients requiring urgent surgical treatment, this is done at the same time than stage I and creates a new flow of patients with high priority for evacuation; III) Implementation of Advanced Trauma Life Support protocols to patients previously classified according to stablished priority; and IV) Evacuation triage, stablishing evacuation priorities in case of lacks of appropriate transport resources. The triage META is to be applied only by prehospital providers with advanced knowledge and training in advanced trauma life support care and has been designed to be implemented as prehospital procedure in mass casualty incidents (MCI).

  1. Transthoracic versus abdominal-transhiatal resection for treating Siewert type II/III adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhi; Cai, Jun; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Zhong-Tao; Wang, Kang-Li

    2015-01-01

    Our study aimed to explore the differences in short and long-term outcomes about the transthoracic (TH) and abdominal-transhiatal (TH) approaches for treating esophagogastric junction (AEG). A systematic review of PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and CBMdisc was performed. All original articles comparing TH with TA were included in the study. Meta-analysis was conducted using odd ratios (OR) and weighted mean differences (WMDs).Thirteen studies including 2489 patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction, with 1050 patients underwent TA and 1437 patients underwent TH were pooled for this study. There were no significant difference between two approaches concerning duration of operation, blood loss, anastomotic leakage and positive of proximal incisal margin. Lymph node excised also showed no significant differences between two procedures in RCTs while in TA group of Non-RCTs, the number of lymph node dissection is higher. TH approach was associated with a longer length of hospital stay and had higher incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular complications and early postoperative mortality. Overall analysis of 1, 3, 5-year survival showed no significant difference between two approaches. Based on the study, TA approach had a positive impact than TH for AEG with respect to respiratory and cardiovascular complications, hospital stay and early mortality rates. There were no significant differences between the two approaches for long-term survival. Therefore, two surgical approaches are acceptable, and the elders with poor cardiopulmonary function, we recommended TA approach for treating it. PMID:26770310

  2. Recent meta-analyses neglect previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses about the same topic: a systematic examination.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Bartosz; Prosser, Aaron; Samara, Myrto T; Geddes, John R; Cipriani, Andrea; Davis, John M; Mavridis, Dimitris; Salanti, Georgia; Leucht, Stefan

    2015-04-14

    As the number of systematic reviews is growing rapidly, we systematically investigate whether meta-analyses published in leading medical journals present an outline of available evidence by referring to previous meta-analyses and systematic reviews. We searched PubMed for recent meta-analyses of pharmacological treatments published in high impact factor journals. Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses were identified with electronic searches of keywords and by searching reference sections. We analyzed the number of meta-analyses and systematic reviews that were cited, described and discussed in each recent meta-analysis. Moreover, we investigated publication characteristics that potentially influence the referencing practices. We identified 52 recent meta-analyses and 242 previous meta-analyses on the same topics. Of these, 66% of identified previous meta-analyses were cited, 36% described, and only 20% discussed by recent meta-analyses. The probability of citing a previous meta-analysis was positively associated with its publication in a journal with a higher impact factor (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 2.10) and more recent publication year (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.37). Additionally, the probability of a previous study being described by the recent meta-analysis was inversely associated with the concordance of results (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.17 to 0.88), and the probability of being discussed was increased for previous studies that employed meta-analytic methods (odds ratio, 32.36; 95% confidence interval, 2.00 to 522.85). Meta-analyses on pharmacological treatments do not consistently refer to and discuss findings of previous meta-analyses on the same topic. Such neglect can lead to research waste and be confusing for readers. Journals should make the discussion of related meta-analyses mandatory.

  3. Can Alberta infant motor scale and milani comparetti motor development screening test be rapid alternatives to bayley scales of infant development-II at high-risk infants

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Zeynep Hoşbay; Aydınlı, Nur; Ekici, Barış; Tatlı, Burak; Çalişkan, Mine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main object of the present study is to assess neuromotor development of high-risk infants by using three tests, and to determine inter-test concordance and the feasibility of these tests. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and nine patients aged between 0 and 6 months and identified as “high-risk infant” according to the Kliegman's criteria were enrolled to the study. Three different tests were used to assess neuromotor development of the patients: Bayley scales of infant development-II (BSID-II), Alberta infant motor scale (AIMS), and Milani Comparetti Motor Development Screening Test (MCMDST). Results: Correlation analysis was performed between pure scores of BSID-II motor scale and total scores of AIMS. These two tests were highly correlated (r:0.92). Moderate concordance was found between BSID-II and AIMS (k:0.35). Slight concordance was found between BSID-II and MCMDST; and the concordance was slight again for AIMS and MCMDST (k:0.11 and k:0.16, respectively) too. Conclusion: AIMS has a high correlation and consistency with BSID-II and can be used with routine neurological examination as it is based on observations, has few items, and requires less time to complete. PMID:22919192

  4. MALDI-TOF MS is more accurate than VITEK II ANC card and API Rapid ID 32 A system for the identification of Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Si Hyun; Park, Hyun-Jung; Park, Hae-Geun; Park, Dongchul; Song, Sae Am; Lee, Hee Joo; Yong, Dongeun; Choi, Jun Yong; Kook, Joong-Ki; Kim, Hye Ran; Shin, Jeong Hwan

    2016-08-01

    All 50 Clostridium difficile strains were definitely identified by Vitek2 system, Rapid ID 32A system, and MALDI-TOF. For 18 non-difficile Clostridium strains, the identification results were correct in 0, 2, and 17 strains by Vitek2, Rapid ID 32A, and MALDI-TOF, respectively. MALDI-TOF could be used as the primary tool for identification of Clostridium species.

  5. Screening and case-finding tools for the detection of dementia. Part II: evidence-based meta-analysis of single-domain tests.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Alex J; Malladi, Srinivasa

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic validity of single-domain cognitive tests for detecting dementia. These methods were defined as those that focus mainly on one domain of cognitive function such as orientation, memory, or executive function. A meta-analysis of robust studies was conducted. There were 15 categories of single-domain methods assessed in 45 analyses, including 27 performed head-to-head against the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Thirteen studies took place in community settings, 9 in primary care, and 23 in specialist settings. In community settings, single-domain cognitive tests helped detect 64.2% of all dementias. In this setting, specificity (Sp) was 84.9%, positive predictive value (PPV) was 57.1%, and negative predictive value (NPV) was 88.3%. This was significantly less accurate than the MMSE itself. The optimal individual method was the memory impairment screen (MIS). In primary care, the sensitivity (Se) and specificity of single-domain tests were 69.5% and 82.5%, respectively. The PPV and NPV were 36.5% and 95.8%. Considered together, these methods were less specific but equally sensitive as the MMSE when applied in primary care. Here, the most successful methods were the selective reminding test (SRT) and clock drawing test, the latter having data from independent samples. In specialist settings, single-domain methods had a Se of 76.6%, a Sp of 81.9%, a PPV 80.8%, and a NPV 74.9%. This represented almost equivalent accuracy to the MMSE. The optimal method for specialist settings (based on accuracy alone) was the memory alteration test. Brief single-domain methods offer diagnostic performance for detection of dementia that is surprisingly close to that offered by cognitive batteries such as the MMSE. As a method of screening or as part of a diagnostic algorithm, brief single-domain tests may be an efficient first step in identifying cognitive impairment.

  6. A high repetition rate TEA CO II laser operating at λ=9.3-μm for the rapid and conservative ablation and modification of dental hard tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kenneth; Fried, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    TEA CO II lasers tuned to the strong mineral absorption of hydroxyapatite near λ=9-μm are ideally suited for the efficient ablation of dental hard tissues if the laser-pulse is stretched to greater than 5-10-μs to avoid plasma shielding phenomena. Such CO II lasers are capable of operating at high repetition rates for the rapid removal of dental hard tissues. An Impact 2500 TEA CO II laser system from GSI Lumonics (Rugby, UK) custom modified by LightMachinery (Ottawa, Canada) with a repetition rate of 0-500 Hz was used for rapid tissue removal. The single pulse ablation rates through enamel were determined for incident fluence ranging from (1-160 J/cm2). Lateral incisions using a computer controlled scanning stage and water spray were produced and the crater morphology and chemical composition were measured using optical microscopy and high-resolution synchrotron radiation infrared spectromicroscopy. The transmission through 2-meter length 300, 500, 750 and 1000-μm silica hollow waveguides was measured and 80% transmission was achieved with 40-mJ per pulse. The λ=9.3-μm laser pulses efficiently removed dental enamel at rates exceeding 15-μm per pulses with minimal heat accumulation. The residual energy remaining in tooth samples was measured to be 30-40% without water cooling, significantly lower than for longer CO II laser pulses. These results suggest that high repetition rate TEA CO II laser systems operating at λ=9.3-μm with pulse durations of 10-20-μs are ideally suited for dental application.

  7. The Pore Size of Non-Graminaceous Plant Cell Walls Is Rapidly Decreased by Borate Ester Cross-Linking of the Pectic Polysaccharide Rhamnogalacturonan II1

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Axel; O'Neill, Malcolm A.; Ehwald, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    The walls of suspension-cultured Chenopodium album L. cells grown continually for more than 1 year on B-deficient medium contained monomeric rhamnogalacturonan II (mRG-II) but not the borate ester cross-linked RG II dimer (dRG-II-B). The walls of these cells had an increased size limit for dextran permeation, which is a measure of wall pore size. Adding boric acid to growing B-deficient cells resulted in B binding to the wall, the formation of dRG-II-B from mRG-II, and a reduction in wall pore size within 10 min. The wall pore size of denatured B-grown cells was increased by treatment at pH ≤ 2.0 or by treatment with Ca2+-chelating agents. The acid-mediated increase in wall pore size was prevented by boric acid alone at pH 2.0 and by boric acid together with Ca2+, but not by Na+ or Mg2+ ions at pH 1.5. The Ca2+-chelator-mediated increase in pore size was partially reduced by boric acid. Our results suggest that B-mediated cross-linking of RG-II in the walls of living plant cells generates a pectin network with a decreased size exclusion limit for polymers. The formation, stability, and possible functions of a borate ester cross-linked pectic network in the primary walls of nongraminaceous plant cells are discussed. PMID:10557231

  8. A sensitive, selective and rapid determination of lead(II) ions in real-life samples using an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-graphite reinforced carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Hamsawahini, Kunashegaran; Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Ahamad, Rahmalan; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a sensitive and cost-effective electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ErGO) on graphite reinforced carbon (GRC) was developed for the detection of lead (Pb(II)) ions present in the real-life samples. A film of graphene oxide (GO) was drop-casted on GRC and their electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), amperometry and square wave voltammetry (SWV). Factors influencing the detection of Pb(II) ions, such as grades of GRC, constant applied cathodic potential (CACP), concentration of hydrochloric acid and drop-casting drying time were optimised. GO is irreversibly reduced in the range of -0.7 V to -1.6 V vs Ag/AgCl (3 M) in acidic condition. The results showed that the reduction behaviour of GO contributed to the high sensitivity of Pb(II) ions detection even at nanomolar level. The ErGO-GRC showed the detection limit of 0.5 nM and linear range of 3-15 nM in HCl (1 M). The developed electrode has potential to be a good candidate for the determination of Pb(II) ions in different aqueous system. The proposed method gives a good recovery rate of Pb(II) ions in real-life water samples such as tap water and river water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The pore size of non-graminaceous plant cell walls is rapidly decreased by borate ester cross-linking of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, A.; O'Neill, M.A.; Ehwald, R.

    1999-11-01

    The walls of suspension-cultured Chenopodium album L. cells grown continually for more than 1 year on B-deficient medium contained monomeric rhamnogalacturonan (mRG-II) but not the borate ester cross-linked RG II dimer (dRG-II-B). The walls of these cells had an increased size limit for dextran permeation, which is a measure of wall pore size. Adding boric acid to growing B-deficient cells resulted in B binding to the wall, the formation of dRG-II-B from mRG-II, and a reduction in wall pore size within 10 min. The wall pore size of denatured B-grown cells was increased by treatment at pH {le} 2.0 or by treatment with Ca{sup 2+}-chelating agents. The acid-mediated increase in wall pore size was prevented by boric acid alone at pH 2.0 and by boric acid together with Ca{sup 2+}, but not by Na{sup +} or Mg{sup 2+} ions at pH 1.5. The Ca{sup 2+}-chelator-mediated increase in pore size was partially reduced by boric acid. Their results suggest that B-mediated cross-linking of RG-II in the walls of living plant cells generates a pectin network with a decreased size exclusion limit for polymers. The formation, stability, and possible functions of a borate ester cross-linked pectic network in the primary walls of nongraminaceous plant cells are discussed.

  10. Rapid three-step cleavage of RNA and DNA model systems promoted by a dinuclear Cu(II) complex in methanol. energetic origins of the catalytic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhong-Lin; Liu, C Tony; Neverov, Alexei A; Brown, R Stan

    2007-09-19

    A dinuclear Cu(II) complex of 1,3-bis-N(1)-(1,5,9-triazacyclododecyl)propane with an associated methoxide (2-Cu(II)(2):(-OCH(3))) was prepared, and its kinetics of reaction with an RNA model (2-hydroxypropyl-p-nitrophenyl phosphate (1, HPNPP)) and two DNA models (methyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate (3) and iso-butyl p-chlorophenyl phosphate (4)) were studied in methanol solution at (s)(s)pH 7.2 +/- 0.2. X-ray diffraction structures of 2-Cu(II)(2):(-OH)(H(2)O)(CF(3)SO(3)-)(3):0.5CH(3)CH(2)OCH(2)CH(3) and 2-Cu(II)(2):(-OH)((C(6)H(5)CH(2)O)(2)PO(2)-)(CF(3)SO(3)-)2 show the mode of coordination of the bridging -OH and H(2)O between the two Cu(II) ions in the first complex and bridging -OH and phosphate groups in the second. The kinetic studies with 1 and 3 reveal some common preliminary steps prior to the chemical one of the catalyzed formation of p-nitrophenol. With 3, and also with the far less reactive substrate (4), two relatively fast events are cleanly observed via stopped-flow kinetics. The first of these is interpreted as a binding step which is linearly dependent on [catalyst] while the second is a unimolecular step independent of [catalyst] proposed to be a rearrangement that forms a doubly Cu(II)-coordinated phosphate. The catalysis of the cleavage of 1 and 3 is very strong, the first-order rate constants for formation of p-nitrophenol from the complex being approximately 0.7 s(-1) and 2.4 x 10(-3) s(-1), respectively. With substrate 3, 2-Cu(II)(2):(-OCH(3)) exhibits Michaelis-Mentin kinetics with a k(cat)/K(M) value of 30 M(-1) s(-1) which is 3.8 x 10(7)-fold greater than the methoxide promoted reaction of 3 (7.9 x 10(-7) M(-1) s(-1)). A free energy calculation indicates that the binding of 2-Cu(II)(2):(-OCH(3)) to the transition states for 1 and 3 cleavage stabilizes them by -21 and -24 kcal/mol, respectively, relative to that of the methoxide promoted reactions. The results are compared with a literature example where the cleavage of 1 in water is promoted by

  11. A novel, highly sensitive, selective, reversible and turn-on chemi-sensor based on Schiff base for rapid detection of Cu(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Sayed M.; Ali, Reham; Ali, Ibrahim A. I.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a novel optical fluoro-chemisensor was designed and synthesized for copper (II) ions detection. The sensor film is created by embedded N,N-Bis(2-hydroxo-5-bromobenzyl)ethylenediamine in poly vinyl chloride (PVC) film in presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as plasticizer. The receptor Schiff base reveals ;off-on; mode with high selectivity, significant sensitivity to Cu(II) ions. The selectivity of optical sensor for Cu(II) ions is the result of chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF). The optimal conditions of pH and response time at which higher efficiency of sensor film is performed was found to be 6.8 and 2.48 min. The possible interference of other metal ions in solution was examined in presence of different types of metal ions. This film shows high selectivity and ultra-sensitivity with low detection limit LOD (1.1 × 10- 8 M). Thus, these considerable properties make it viable to monitor copper metal ions within very low concentration range (0-15 × 10- 6 M Cu(II)) and highly selective even in the presence of different types of metal ions. The sensor reversibility was achieved by utilizing EDTA solution with concentration of 0.1 M solution.

  12. Rapid adsorption of toxic Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution using multiwall carbon nanotubes synthesized by microwave chemical vapor deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, Nabisab Mujawar; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Abdullah, Ezzat Chan; Jayakumar, Natesan Subramanian

    2016-07-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using a tubular microwave chemical vapor deposition technique, using acetylene and hydrogen as the precursor gases and ferrocene as catalyst. The novel MWCNT samples were tested for their performance in terms of Pb(II) binding. The synthesized MWCNT samples were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis, and the adsorption of Pb(II) was studied as a function of pH, initial Pb(II) concentration, MWCNT dosage, agitation speed, and adsorption time, and process parameters were optimized. The adsorption data followed both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. On the basis of the Langmuir model, Qmax was calculated to be 104.2mg/g for the microwave-synthesized MWCNTs. In order to investigate the dynamic behavior of MWCNTs as an adsorbent, the kinetic data were modeled using pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations. Different thermodynamic parameters, viz., ∆H(0), ∆S(0) and ∆G(0) were evaluated and it was found that the adsorption was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimum conditions for the highest removal (99.9%) of Pb(II) are at pH5, MWCNT dosage 0.1g, agitation speed 160r/min and time of 22.5min with the initial concentration of 10mg/L. Our results proved that microwave-synthesized MWCNTs can be used as an effective Pb(II) adsorbent due to their high adsorption capacity as well as the short adsorption time needed to achieve equilibrium.

  13. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular deaths, and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaohui; Han, Fei; Li, Xiayu; He, Xuelin; Li, Qun; Chen, Jianghua

    2014-05-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) may have different effects on cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). To conduct a meta-analysis to separately evaluate the effects of ACEIs and ARBs on all-cause mortality, CV deaths, and major CV events in patients with DM. DATA SOURCES Data sources included MEDLINE (1966-2012), EMBASE (1988-2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, conference proceedings, and article reference lists. We included randomized clinical trials reporting the effects of ACEI and ARB regimens for DM on all-cause mortality, CV deaths, and major CV events with an observation period of at least 12 months. Studies were excluded if they were crossover trials. Dichotomous outcome data from individual trials were analyzed using the risk ratio (RR) measure and its 95% CI with random-effects models. We estimated the difference between the estimates of the subgroups according to tests for interaction. We performed meta-regression analyses to identify sources of heterogeneity. Primary end points were all-cause mortality and death from CV causes. Secondary end points were the effects of ACEIs and ARBs on major CV events. Twenty-three of 35 identified trials compared ACEIs with placebo or active drugs (32,827 patients) and 13 compared ARBs with no therapy (controls) (23,867 patients). When compared with controls (placebo/active treatment), ACEIs significantly reduced the risk of all-cause mortality by 13% (RR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.98), CV deaths by 17% (0.83; 0.70-0.99), and major CV events by 14% (0.86; 0.77-0.95), including myocardial infarction by 21% (0.79; 0.65-0.95) and heart failure by 19% (0.81; 0.71-0.93). Treatment with ARBs did not significantly affect all-cause mortality (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.82-1.08), CV death rate (1.21; 0.81-1.80), and major CV events (0.94; 0.85-1.01) with the exception of heart failure (0.70; 0.59-0.82). Both ACEIs and ARBs were

  14. Release of the mucosal mast cell granule chymase, rat mast cell protease-II, during anaphylaxis is associated with the rapid development of paracellular permeability to macromolecules in rat jejunum

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    by Western blotting using monoclonal anti-RMCP-II antibody confirmed that there was a concomitant translocation of both the protease and EB-HSA into the gut lumen. Histological evaluation of the mucosa failed to reveal any significant morphological change in any of the experiments. The rapid development of macromolecular leak, its association with the translocation of RMCP-II, and the absence of gross epithelial lesions, suggest for the first time that a mast cell granule chymase increases epithelial permeability via a paracellular route and implies that the substrate may be a protein, or proteins, in the epithelial junctional complex. PMID:7500033

  15. In search of meta-knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Development of an Intelligent Information System (IIS) involves application of numerous artificial intelligence (AI) paradigms and advanced technologies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is interested in an IIS that can automatically collect, classify, store and retrieve data, as well as develop, manipulate and restructure knowledge regarding the data and its application (Campbell et al., 1987, p.3). This interest stems in part from a NASA initiative in support of the interagency Global Change Research program. NASA's space data problems are so large and varied that scientific researchers will find it almost impossible to access the most suitable information from a software system if meta-information (metadata and meta-knowledge) is not embedded in that system. Even if more, faster, larger hardware is used, new innovative software systems will be required to organize, link, maintain, and properly archive the Earth Observing System (EOS) data that is to be stored and distributed by the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) (Dozier, 1990). Although efforts are being made to specify the metadata that will be used in EOSDIS, meta-knowledge specification issues are not clear. With the expectation that EOSDIS might evolve into an IIS, this paper presents certain ideas on the concept of meta-knowledge and demonstrates how meta-knowledge might be represented in a pixel classification problem.

  16. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WHEAT TAKE-ALL DISEASE: IIRAPID SELECTION OF BACTERIA SUPPRESSIVE TO GAEUMANNOMYCES GRAMINIS VAR. TRITICI IN LABORATORY WITH GREENHOUSE AND FIELD CONFIRMATION TRIALS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screening large collections of bacteria for potential biological control activity on economically important diseases is often difficult. A quick test tube assay was developed to rapidly screen selected bacterial isolates for their ability to suppress take-all disease of wheat, caused by Gaeumannomyc...

  17. Rapid removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by chitosan-g-poly(acrylic acid)/attapulgite/ sodium humate composite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junping; Jin, Yeling; Wang, Aiqin

    2011-04-01

    A series of novel granular chitosan-g-poly(acrylic acid)/attapulgite/sodium humate (CTS-g-PAA/APT/SH) composite hydrogels were successfully prepared by one-step free radical graft polymerization and applied as adsorbents for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The effects of adsorbent composition (including the contents of APT, SH and CTS) on adsorption capacity and adsorption rate were investigated in detail. Results from kinetic experiments showed that the rate of Pb(II) adsorption on the composite hydrogels was quite fast, that more than 90% of the equilibrium adsorption capacity occurs within two minutes and that the adsorption equilibrium could be achieved within 10 minutes. The adsorption kinetics fit well with the pseudo-second order equation. The introduced SH is helpful for both adsorption capacity and adsorption rate. The -COOH and -COO of PAA, -NH2 of CTS, Ph-O and -COO- of SH, as well as cation exchange and Si-OH of APT, participate in adsorption of Pb(II). The synergistic effect of these groups is responsible for the high adsorption capacity and rate.

  18. A meta-heuristic approach supported by NSGA-II for the design and plan of supply chain networks considering new product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh Afrouzy, Zahra; Paydar, Mohammad Mahdi; Nasseri, Seyed Hadi; Mahdavi, Iraj

    2017-06-01

    There are many reasons for the growing interest in developing new product projects for any firm. The most embossed reason is surviving in a highly competitive industry which the customer tastes are changing rapidly. A well-managed supply chain network can provide the most profit for firms due to considering new product development. Along with profit, customer satisfaction and production of new products are goals which lead to a more efficient supply chain. As new products appear in the market, the old products could become obsolete, and then phased out. The most important parameter in a supply chain which considers new and developed products is the time that developed and new products are introduced and old products are phased out. With consideration of the factors noted above, this study proposes to design a tri-objective multi-echelon multi-product multi-period supply chain model, which incorporates product development and new product production and their effects on supply chain configuration. The supply chain under consideration is assumed to consist of suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and customer groups. In terms of overcoming NP-hardness of the proposed model and in order to solve the complicated problem, a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is employed. As there is no benchmark available in the literature, the non-dominated ranking genetic algorithm is developed to validate the results obtained and some test problems are provided to show the applicability of the proposed methodology and evaluate the performance of the algorithms.

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test of MRA versus MRI for detection superior labrum anterior to posterior lesions type II-VII.

    PubMed

    Arirachakaran, Alisara; Boonard, Manusak; Chaijenkij, Kornkit; Pituckanotai, Kwanchai; Prommahachai, Akom; Kongtharvonskul, Jatupon

    2017-02-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in superior labrum anterior to posterior lesions (type II-VII) of the shoulder. PubMed and Scopus search engines, an electronic search of articles was performed from inception to February 19, 2016. Diagnostic performance of index tests was compared by the summary area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC). In all, 117 of 493 studies were eligible and 32 studies (2,013 shoulders) and 11 studies (1,498 shoulders) were evaluated with MRA and MRI. The summary sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio (positive and negative) and AUROC were 0.87 (95 % confidence interval, CI: 0.82, 0.91), 0.92 (95 %CI: 0.85, 0.95), 10.28 (95 %CI: 5.84, 18.08), 0.14 (95 %CI: 0.10, 0.20) and 0.94 (95 %CI: 0.92, 0.96) respectively for MRA, and 0.76 (95 %CI: 0.61, 0.86), 0.87 (95 %CI: 0.71, 0.95), 5.89 (95 %CI: 2.5, 13.86), 0.28 (95 %CI: 0.17, 0.47) and 0.94 (95 %CI: 0.92, 0.96) respectively for MRI. The diagnostic performance of MRA was superior to MRI by both direct and indirect comparisons for the detection of SLAP lesions.

  20. Inorganic particulates in removal of heavy metal toxic ions IX. Rapid and efficient removal of Hg(II) by hydrous manganese and tin oxides.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shuddhodan P; Dubey, Som Shankar; Tiwari, Diwakar

    2004-11-01

    Batch studies have been carried out in the removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions by using well-synthesized and -characterized hydrous manganese oxide (HMO) and hydrous tin oxide (HTO) employing a radiotracer technique. Results obtained reveal that increased sorptive concentration (10(-8)-10(-2) mol dm(-3)), temperature (298-328 K), and pH (ca. 2.0-10.5) enhance the removal efficiency of these solids. First-order uptake of Hg(II) on HMO and HTO follows the Freundlich adsorption isotherm for entire concentration range. Positive values of DeltaH0 for the uptake process on both solids indicate endothermic uptake and desorption experiments point to irreversible uptake. Radiation stability of the adsorbents has also been assessed using a 300-mCi (Ra-Be) neutron source having an integral neutron flux of 3.85 x 10(6) N cm(-2) s(-1) and associated with a nominal gamma-dose of ca. 1.72 Gy/h.

  1. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wetterslev, Jørn; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian

    2017-03-06

    Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size. The results of the meta-analyses should relate the total number of randomised participants to the estimated required meta-analytic information size accounting for statistical diversity. When the number of participants and the corresponding number of trials in a meta-analysis are insufficient, the use of the traditional 95% confidence interval or the 5% statistical significance threshold will lead to too many false positive conclusions (type I errors) and too many false negative conclusions (type II errors). We developed a methodology for interpreting meta-analysis results, using generally accepted, valid evidence on how to adjust thresholds for significance in randomised clinical trials when the required sample size has not been reached. The Lan-DeMets trial sequential monitoring boundaries in Trial Sequential Analysis offer adjusted confidence intervals and restricted thresholds for statistical significance when the diversity-adjusted required information size and the corresponding number of required trials for the meta-analysis have not been reached. Trial Sequential Analysis provides a frequentistic approach to control both type I and type II errors. We define the required information size and the corresponding number of required trials in a meta-analysis and the diversity (D(2)) measure of heterogeneity. We explain the reasons for using Trial Sequential Analysis of meta-analysis when the actual information size fails to reach the required information size. We present examples drawn from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in systematic reviews with traditional meta-analyses can

  2. Circumstellar material around rapidly rotating B stars. II - On the nature of ultraviolet shell lines in the spectra of Be and shell stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, W. R.; Polidan, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Using high-resolution (FWHM approximately 0.05 A) ultraviolet spectral data obtained with Copernicus, the nature of shell lines in Be and shell stars. Scans were obtained for various excited fine-structure lines of Fe III, Si II, and O I. It is found that Be stars, in general, do not display shell lines in the ultraviolet, contrary to the findings of previous work at lower resolution. The only Be stars that display strong UV shell lines are the 'classical' shell stars, i.e., stars that also display shell lines in the optical region. Furthermore, it is found that the shell lines, when present, have essentially zero velocity shift with respect to the star. The resonance shell lines seen in the shell stars are generally asymmetric on the short-wavelength side, indicating that the lines are formed in a low-velocity outflowing region. The results presented here argue strongly in favor of a flattened disk structure for the shell line forming region, and against some recent scenarios involving spherical symmetry.

  3. Granulation of core particles suitable for film coating by agitation fluidized bed II. A proposal of a rapid dissolution test for evaluation of bitter taste of ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Hamashita, Tomohiro; Matsuzaki, Miwako; Ono, Tetsuo; Ono, Masaki; Tsunenari, Yoshinobu; Aketo, Takao; Watano, Satoru

    2008-07-01

    To prepare powdered drugs that do not have a bitter taste, a film coating covering the surfaces of the core particles is required. The dissolution rate of ibuprofen from the coated particles changes according to the physical properties of the core particles. In this study, the effects of the physical properties of granules prepared by using several scales of agitation fluidized beds on the drug dissolution rate were investigated. The dissolution rate of ibuprofen decreased when the apparent density and shape factor of the granules increased. In contrast, the dissolution rate of the drug increased with the friablility of the granules increased. Thus, the structures of the granules appear to affect the dissolution rate of the drug to a large degree. A rapid dissolution test that can be used to investigate the early dissolution rate of ibuprofen in vitro was proposed to evaluate the taste-masking level of the coated particles. The bitter taste-masking level of the coated particles was successfully confirmed by using this novel test method.

  4. Single skin exposure to visible polarized light induces rapid modification of entire circulating blood: II. Appearance of soluble factors restoring proliferation and chromosome structure in X-damag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilova, Kira A.; Zubanova, O. I.; Snopov, S. A.; Mukhuradze, N. A.; Mikhelson, V. M.

    1998-12-01

    Exposure of a small skin area (400 cm2) of volunteers to visible incoherent polarized (VIP) light (400 - 2000 nm) in therapeutic doses is accompanied by rapid appearance in the circulating blood of soluble factors able to restore proliferation of X-ray-damaged autologous lymphocytes and to decrease frequency of chromosome breaks. The appearance of a such activity in blood can also be induced without skin irradiation, by in vitro modeling of mixing in the circulation of a small amount of transcutaneously VIP- irradiated blood with the intact blood (one volume of the directly VIP-irradiated blood was added to 10 volumes of the intact blood). Hence, the blood (not the skin) is a major source of the active factors. The data obtained indicate a possibility of release of them from photomodified platelets; moreover, the activity restoring chromosome structure in X- damaged cells has been found in the platelet-derived growth factor and epidermal growth factor (which are known to be associated with platelets) when they were added to physiological concentrations to the culture medium. We assume that activation of cell proliferation based on the effective repair of DNA damaged in situ by endogenous and exogenous factors could be one of the mechanisms of photostimulation of wound healing.

  5. Evasion of the innate immune response: the Old World alphavirus nsP2 protein induces rapid degradation of Rpb1, a catalytic subunit of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Akhrymuk, Ivan; Kulemzin, Sergey V; Frolova, Elena I

    2012-07-01

    The Old World alphaviruses are emerging human pathogens with an ability to cause widespread epidemics. The latest epidemic of Chikungunya virus, from 2005 to 2007, affected over 40 countries in Africa, Asia, and Europe. The Old World alphaviruses are highly cytopathic and known to evade the cellular antiviral response by inducing global inhibition of transcription in vertebrate cells. This function was shown to be mediated by their nonstructural nsP2 protein; however, the detailed mechanism of this phenomenon has remained unknown. Here, we report that nsP2 proteins of Sindbis, Semliki Forest, and Chikungunya viruses inhibit cellular transcription by inducing rapid degradation of Rpb1, a catalytic subunit of the RNAPII complex. This degradation of Rpb1 is independent of the nsP2-associated protease activity, but, instead, it proceeds through nsP2-mediated Rpb1 ubiquitination. This function of nsP2 depends on the integrity of the helicase and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase-like domains, and point mutations in either of these domains abolish Rpb1 degradation. We go on to show that complete degradation of Rpb1 in alphavirus-infected cells occurs within 6 h postinfection, before other previously described virus-induced changes in cell physiology, such as apoptosis, autophagy, and inhibition of STAT1 phosphorylation, are detected. Since Rpb1 is a subunit that catalyzes the polymerase reaction during RNA transcription, degradation of Rpb1 plays an indispensable role in blocking the activation of cellular genes and downregulating cellular antiviral response. This indicates that the nsP2-induced degradation of Rpb1 is a critical mechanism utilized by the Old World alphaviruses to subvert the cellular antiviral response.

  6. Evasion of the Innate Immune Response: the Old World Alphavirus nsP2 Protein Induces Rapid Degradation of Rpb1, a Catalytic Subunit of RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Akhrymuk, Ivan; Kulemzin, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    The Old World alphaviruses are emerging human pathogens with an ability to cause widespread epidemics. The latest epidemic of Chikungunya virus, from 2005 to 2007, affected over 40 countries in Africa, Asia, and Europe. The Old World alphaviruses are highly cytopathic and known to evade the cellular antiviral response by inducing global inhibition of transcription in vertebrate cells. This function was shown to be mediated by their nonstructural nsP2 protein; however, the detailed mechanism of this phenomenon has remained unknown. Here, we report that nsP2 proteins of Sindbis, Semliki Forest, and Chikungunya viruses inhibit cellular transcription by inducing rapid degradation of Rpb1, a catalytic subunit of the RNAPII complex. This degradation of Rpb1 is independent of the nsP2-associated protease activity, but, instead, it proceeds through nsP2-mediated Rpb1 ubiquitination. This function of nsP2 depends on the integrity of the helicase and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase-like domains, and point mutations in either of these domains abolish Rpb1 degradation. We go on to show that complete degradation of Rpb1 in alphavirus-infected cells occurs within 6 h postinfection, before other previously described virus-induced changes in cell physiology, such as apoptosis, autophagy, and inhibition of STAT1 phosphorylation, are detected. Since Rpb1 is a subunit that catalyzes the polymerase reaction during RNA transcription, degradation of Rpb1 plays an indispensable role in blocking the activation of cellular genes and downregulating cellular antiviral response. This indicates that the nsP2-induced degradation of Rpb1 is a critical mechanism utilized by the Old World alphaviruses to subvert the cellular antiviral response. PMID:22514352

  7. Exon-specific northern analysis and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) reveal that the proximal promoter II (PII) is responsible for aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19) expression in human ovary.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, C; Michael, D; Mahendroo, M; Simpson, E

    1993-11-01

    Estrogens are synthesized from C19 steroids by a unique form of cytochrome P450, aromatase cytochrome P-450 (P-450AROM; the product of the CYP19 gene). We have shown that tissue-specific expression of human P-450AROM is determined, in part, by the use of alternative promoters. Previous methods of analysis for determining the specific 5'-termini of the different transcripts included S1 nuclease protection, primer extension, and Northern analysis. In the present study we have used the RACE procedure (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) to amplify and clone the 5' termini of P-450AROM transcripts expressed in human corpus luteum (CL). Sequencing of the resulting clones supports the results of the previously performed studies. Specifically, the proximal promoter, PII, is the predominant promoter utilized in CL, such that the start of transcription occurs 26 bp downstream of the putative TATA sequence. A minority of the clones possess an alternative 5'-end, namely I.3. Exon-specific Northern analysis confirms that the majority of the P-450AROM transcripts in CL tissue contain sequence specific for promoter II. Similarly, exon-specific Northern analysis indicates that transcripts in human follicles, as well as granulosa cells in culture, contain primarily sequence specific for promoter II.

  8. Rapid 1α,25(OH)₂D ₃ membrane-mediated activation of Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in growth plate chondrocytes requires Pdia3, PLAA and caveolae.

    PubMed

    Doroudi, Maryam; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2014-08-01

    1α,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3] regulates growth zone chondrocytes (GC) via classical steroid hormone receptor-mediated gene transcription and by initiating rapid membrane-mediated signaling pathways. 1α,25(OH)2D3 initiates its membrane effects via its specific membrane-associated receptor (Pdia3) in caveolae. 1α,25(OH)2D3 binding to Pdia3 leads to phospholipase-A2 (PLA2)-activating protein (PLAA) activation, stimulating PLA2, resulting in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release and protein kinase C activation. Recently, we reported that 1α,25(OH)2D3 rapidly activates Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in GC cells. However, the roles of Pdia3, PLAA and caveolae in 1α,25(OH)2D3-dependent rapid activation of CaMKII are not clear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the roles of Pdia3, PLAA and caveolae in 1α,25(OH)2D3 membrane-stimulated CaMKII activation. Pre-treating chondrocytes from the growth zone of the rat costochondral cartilage with antibodies against PLAA or Pdia3 blocked activation of CaMKII by 1α,25(OH)2D3. PLAA peptide rapidly activated CaMKII in GC cells. Caveolae disruption abolished CaMKII activation in response to 1α,25(OH)2D3 or PLAA peptide treatment. Immunoprecipitation studies showed increased CaM binding to PLAA in response to 1α,25(OH)2D3. The results indicated that Pdia3, PLAA and caveolae are required for rapid 1α,25(OH)2D3 membrane-mediated activation of CaMKII. 1α,25(OH)2D3 signaling via Pdia3 receptor triggered the interaction between PLAA and CaM suggesting that CaM may play a major role linking PLAA to CaMKII in membrane-mediated actions of 1α,25(OH)2D3.

  9. Hydrogen bonding changes of internal water molecules in rhodopsin during metarhodopsin I and metarhodopsin II formation.

    PubMed Central

    Rath, P; Delange, F; Degrip, W J; Rothschild, K J

    1998-01-01

    Rhodopsin is a 7-helix, integral membrane protein found in the rod outer segments, which serves as the light receptor in vision. Light absorption by the retinylidene chromophore of rhodopsin triggers an 11-cis-->all-trans isomerization, followed by a series of protein conformational changes, which culminate in the binding and activation of the G-protein transducin by the metarhodopsin II (Meta II) intermediate. Fourier transform IR difference spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structural changes that water, as well as other OH- and NH-containing groups, undergo during the formation of the metarhodopsin I (Meta I) and Meta II intermediates. Bands associated with the OH stretch modes of water are identified by characteristic downshifts upon substitution of H2(18)O for H2O. Compared with earlier work, several negative bands associated with water molecules in unphotolysed rhodopsin were detected, which shift to lower frequencies upon formation of the Meta I and Meta II intermediates. These data indicate that at least one water molecule undergoes an increase in hydrogen bonding upon formation of the Meta I intermediate, while at least one other increases its hydrogen bonding during Meta II formation. Amino acid residue Asp-83, which undergoes a change in its hydrogen bonding during Meta II formation, does not appear to interact with any of the structurally active water molecules. Several NH and/or OH groups, which are inaccessible to hydrogen/deuterium exchange, also undergo alterations during Meta I and Meta II formation. PMID:9445403

  10. Evaluation of a Rapid Point of Care Test for Detecting Acute and Established HIV Infection, and Examining the Role of Study Quality on Diagnostic Accuracy: A Bayesian Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Megan; Vijh, Rohit; Nauche, Bénédicte; Lebouché, Bertrand; Joseph, Lawrence; Pant Pai, Nitika

    2016-01-01

    Fourth generation (Ag/Ab combination) point of care HIV tests like the FDA-approved Determine HIV1/2 Ag/Ab Combo test offer the promise of timely detection of acute HIV infection, relevant in the context of HIV control. However, a synthesis of their performance has not yet been done. In this meta-analysis we not only assessed device performance but also evaluated the role of study quality on diagnostic accuracy. Two independent reviewers searched seven databases, including conferences and bibliographies, and independently extracted data from 17 studies. Study quality was assessed with QUADAS-2. Data on sensitivity and specificity (overall, antigen, and antibody) were pooled using a Bayesian hierarchical random effects meta-analysis model. Subgroups were analyzed by blood samples (serum/plasma vs. whole blood) and study designs (case-control vs. cross-sectional). The overall specificity of the Determine Combo test was 99.1%, 95% credible interval (CrI) [97.3-99.8]. The overall pooled sensitivity for the device was at 88.5%, 95% [80.1-93.4]. When the components of the test were analyzed separately, the pooled specificities were 99.7%, 95% CrI [96.8-100] and 99.6%, 95% CrI [99.0-99.8], for the antigen and antibody components, respectively. Pooled sensitivity of the antibody component was 97.3%, 95% CrI [60.7-99.9], and pooled sensitivity for the antigen component was found to be 12.3%, 95% (CrI) [1.1-44.2]. No significant differences were found between subgroups by blood sample or study design. However, it was noted that many studies restricted their study sample to p24 antigen or RNA positive specimens, which may have led to underestimation of overall test performance. Detection bias, selection (spectrum) bias, incorporation bias, and verification bias impaired study quality. Although the specificity of all test components was high, antigenic sensitivity will merit from an improvement. Besides the accuracy of the device itself, study quality, also impacts the

  11. Robust meta-analytic-predictive priors in clinical trials with historical control information.

    PubMed

    Schmidli, Heinz; Gsteiger, Sandro; Roychoudhury, Satrajit; O'Hagan, Anthony; Spiegelhalter, David; Neuenschwander, Beat

    2014-12-01

    Historical information is always relevant for clinical trial design. Additionally, if incorporated in the analysis of a new trial, historical data allow to reduce the number of subjects. This decreases costs and trial duration, facilitates recruitment, and may be more ethical. Yet, under prior-data conflict, a too optimistic use of historical data may be inappropriate. We address this challenge by deriving a Bayesian meta-analytic-predictive prior from historical data, which is then combined with the new data. This prospective approach is equivalent to a meta-analytic-combined analysis of historical and new data if parameters are exchangeable across trials. The prospective Bayesian version requires a good approximation of the meta-analytic-predictive prior, which is not available analytically. We propose two- or three-component mixtures of standard priors, which allow for good approximations and, for the one-parameter exponential family, straightforward posterior calculations. Moreover, since one of the mixture components is usually vague, mixture priors will often be heavy-tailed and therefore robust. Further robustness and a more rapid reaction to prior-data conflicts can be achieved by adding an extra weakly-informative mixture component. Use of historical prior information is particularly attractive for adaptive trials, as the randomization ratio can then be changed in case of prior-data conflict. Both frequentist operating characteristics and posterior summaries for various data scenarios show that these designs have desirable properties. We illustrate the methodology for a phase II proof-of-concept trial with historical controls from four studies. Robust meta-analytic-predictive priors alleviate prior-data conflicts ' they should encourage better and more frequent use of historical data in clinical trials. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  12. Meta-epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2014-01-01

    The concept of meta-epidemiology has been introduced with considering the methodological limitations of systematic review for intervention trials. The paradigm of meta-epidemiology has shifted from a statistical method into a new methodology to close gaps between evidence and practice. Main interest of meta-epidemiology is to control potential biases in previous quantitative systematic reviews and draw appropriate evidences for establishing evidence-base guidelines. Nowadays, the network meta-epidemiology was suggested in order to overcome some limitations of meta-epidemiology. To activate meta-epidemiologic studies, implementation of tools for risk of bias and reporting guidelines such as the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) should be done.

  13. Rapid detection of mutations by conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis: Application to the identification of three new mutations in the type II procollagen gene and a fourth family with the Arg{sub 519}{yields}Cys base substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.J.; Rock, M.; McCarron, S.

    1994-09-01

    Conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) detects differences as small as a single base mismatch in DNA heteroduplexes of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. The altered migration of heteroduplexes versus homoduplexes is resolved in a polyacrylamide-based gel electrophoresis system. The technique was used here to detect conformational changes in the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1) in patients with growth plate defects. PCR products which displayed heteroduplex species were directly sequenced and all revealed either base substitutions or base deletions. Three of the base substitutions resulted in the identification of new mutations. These include a Gly{sub 691}{yields}Arg substitution in a proband with hypochondrogenesis, a Gly{sub 975}{yields}Ser base substitution in a family with late-onset spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SEDT) and precocious osteoarthritis (POA), and a Gly{sub 988}{yields}Arg mutation in another patient with hypochondrogenesis. A fourth substitution was found to be the fourth example of an Arg{sub 519}{yields}Cys point mutation in a family with SEDT and POA. All mutations were confirmed by restriction site analysis. These results illustrate the utility of the CSGE method for the rapid detection of mutations in PCR products without the need for special equipment, primers or sample preparation.

  14. Systematic review and meta-analysis: techniques and a guide for the academic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Tian, David H; Cao, Christopher; Black, Deborah; Yan, Tristan D

    2015-03-01

    With the rapidly growing literature across the surgical disciplines, there is a corresponding need to critically appraise and summarize the currently available evidence so they can be applied appropriately to patient care. The interpretation of systematic reviews is particularly challenging in cases where few robust clinical trials have been performed to address a particular question. However, risk of bias can be minimized and potentially useful conclusions can be drawn if strict review methodology is adhered to, including an exhaustive literature search, quality appraisal of primary studies, appropriate statistical methodology, assessment of confidence in estimates and risk of bias. Therefore, the following article aims to: (I) summarize to the important features of a thorough and rigorous systematic review or meta-analysis for the surgical literature; (II) highlight several underused statistical approaches which may yield further interesting insights compared to conventional pair-wise data synthesis techniques; and (III) propose a guide for thorough analysis and presentation of results.

  15. Instructional authoring by direct manipulation of simulations: Exploratory applications of RAPIDS. RAPIDS 2 authoring manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    RAPIDS II is a simulation-based intelligent tutoring system environment. It is a system for producing computer-based training courses that are built on the foundation of graphical simulations. RAPIDS II simulations can be animated and they can have continuously updating elements.

  16. Rapid Target Locator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisbee, John

    1985-12-01

    Like beauty, "real time" is in the eye of the beholder. Airborne electro-optical (EO) reconnaissance systems can transmit an image in real time to a display in an imagery interpreter's (II) console, but it then takes around 15 min for the II to issue his report. Thus, while the II sees real-time imagery, the officer in the field who requested the coverage sees a report that is not real time and that may be rapidly losing its value. The greatest delay in issuing the report comes from having to determine where the target is. This is currently done on the Analytical Photogrammetric Positioning System (APPS) that uses stereophotomaps to determine the x, y, z coordinates of a point on the ground; it takes many minutes to measure the position of each target. Our goal is to reduce that portion of the recce cycle that uses Itek technology--from time over target to issuance of a report--to less than 2 min. A still shorter time would be desirable in the face of rapidly moving targets,, but there is little point in making the time negligible compared to that required for Oil to evaluate the report and issue orders, plus the time required to respond to the orders. It is clear that we can achieve this 2-min goal only if we can greatly reduce the time it now takes to determine the location of a target. The accuracy with which a target is located should not suffer while the time is reduced. There is a tradeoff to be made between timeliness and accuracy when the target is moving: neither short time with poor accuracy nor high accuracy with long time is desirable. We have arbitrarily adopted goals in which a target can be located to about 100 ft in less than half a minute. The experiments reported here investigated one concept, called Rapid Target Locator (RATL), for achieving this performance.

  17. An appraisal of meta-analysis guidelines: how do they relate to safety outcomes?

    PubMed

    Bennetts, Meg; Whalen, Ed; Ahadieh, Sima; Cappelleri, Joseph C

    2017-03-01

    Although well developed to assess efficacy questions, meta-analyses and, more generally, systematic reviews, have received less attention in application to safety-related questions. As a result, many open questions remain on how best to apply meta-analyses in the safety setting. This appraisal attempts to: (i) summarize the current guidelines for assessing individual studies, systematic reviews, and network meta-analyses; (ii) describe several publications on safety meta-analytic approaches; and (iii) present some of the questions and issues that arise with safety data. A number of gaps in the current quality guidelines are identified along with issues to consider when performing a safety meta-analysis. While some work is ongoing to provide guidance to improve the quality of safety meta-analyses, this review emphasizes the critical need for better reporting and increased transparency regarding safety data in the systematic review guidelines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. TH-C-12A-02: Comparison of Two RapidArc Delivery Strategies in Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy of Stage I and II Peripheral Lung Tumors with Unflattened Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B; Lu, J; Chen, J; Chen, C; Lin, P; Kuang, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The full arcs strategy used in SBRT with RapidArc and unflattened (FFF) beams in large and heterogeneous peripheral non-smallcell lung cancer (NSCLC) appears to be suboptimal as it increases the disadvantageous dose to the contralateral lung, which potentially increases the toxicity to surrounding tissues. In this study, we investigated, for the first time, the dose delivery strategies using partial arcs (PA) and the fully rotational arcs with avoidance sectors (FAAS) for SBRT with FFF beams in peripheral NSCLC patients. Methods: Eighteen patients with NSCLC (stage I and II) were selected for this study. Nine patients with a GTV <= 10cc were designated as the small tumor group. The remaining nine patients with a GTV between 10 cc and 44 cc were assigned to the large tumor group. The treatment plans were generated in eighteen patients using PA and FAAS, respectively, and delivered with a Varian TrueBeam Linac. Dosimetry of the target and organs at risk (OAR), total MU, out-of-field dose, and delivery time were analyzed. Delta4 and Portal dosimetry were employed to evaluate the delivery accuracy. Results: or the small tumor group, the FAAS plans significantly achieved a better conformity index, the lower total MU and out-of-field dose, a shorter treatment time, and the reduced doses to cord, heart, and lung (p < 0.05). But the target doses were slightly higher than that delivered by PA plans. For the large tumor group, the PA plans significantly attained a better conformity index and a shorter treatment time (p < 0.05). Furthermore, all plans achieved a high pass rate, with all the gamma indices greater than 97% at the Γ{sub 3mm,} {sub 3%} threshold. Conclusion: This study suggests that FAAS strategy is more beneficial for small tumor patients undergoing lung SBRT with FFF beams. However, for large tumor patients, PA strategy is recommended. NIH/NIGMS grant U54 GM104944, Lincy Endowed Assistant Professorship.

  19. Identification of ABO alleles on forensic-type specimens using rapid-ABO genotyping.

    PubMed

    Crouse, C; Vincek, V

    1995-03-01

    Historically, forensic and clinical laboratories utilize serological techniques to identify ABO blood types. These techniques rely on the detection of ABO-associated proteins and are sensitive with very accurate results. This laboratory has simplified the identification of ABO types by taking advantage of previously reported ABO DNA sequence differences. The Rapid-ABO technique involves a two-step process: (i) amplification of DNA samples using primer sets specific for the ABO alleles and (ii) electrophoresis and visualization of amplified ABO fragments on a 3% MetaPhor agarose gel. The major advantage of the Rapid-ABO technique is the identification of ABO genotypes compared to serological tests for ABO phenotypes. This two-step process identifies six possible ABO genotypes including AB, AA, BB, AO, BO and OO. The Rapid-ABO protocol works well with DNA extracted organically or using Chelex 100. Results can be obtained in less than a day utilizing 2 ng of DNA in the amplification reaction. Analysis of 23 animal species shows the Rapid-ABO primers amplify ABO alleles from only human, chimpanzee and gorilla DNA.

  20. A More Rapid, Rapid Response.

    PubMed

    Robison, Justin; Slamon, Nicholas B

    2016-09-01

    Critical care physicians' standard for arrival to a rapid response team activation is 10 minutes or less at this institution. This study proposes that a FaceTime (Apple, Cupertino, CA) video call between the staff at the bedside and the critical care physician will allow the implementation of potentially life-saving therapies earlier than the current average response (4.5 min). Prospective cohort study. Freestanding, tertiary-care children's hospital. Pediatric patients ages 0-17. Six units were chosen as matched pairs. In the telemedicine units, after notification of an rapid response team, the critical care intensivist established a FaceTime video call with the nurse at the bedside and gathered history, visually assessed the patient, and suggested interventions. Simultaneously, the rapid response nurse, respiratory therapist, and fellow were dispatched to respond to the bedside. After the video call, the intensivist also reported to the bedside. The control units followed the standard rapid response team protocol: the intensivist physically responded to the bedside. Differences in response time, number of interventions, Pediatric Early Warning System scores, and disposition were measured, and the PICU course of those transferred was evaluated. The telemedicine group's average time to establish FaceTime interface was 2.6 minutes and arrival at bedside was 3.7 minutes. The control group average arrival time was 3.6 minutes. The difference between FaceTime interface and physical arrival in the control group was statistically significant (p = 0.012). Physical arrival times between the telemedicine and control groups remained consistent. Fifty-eight percent of the telemedicine patients and 73% of the control patients were admitted to the PICU (p = 0.13). Of patients transferred to the PICU, there was no difference in rate of intubation, initiation of bilevel positive airway pressure, central line placement, or vasopressors. The study group averaged 1.4 interventions

  1. Bacterially enhanced dissolution of meta-autunite

    SciTech Connect

    Smeaton, C.M.; Weisener, C.G.; Burns, P.C.; Fryer, B.J.; Fowle, D.A.

    2008-12-15

    The release of U from the mineral meta-autunite {l_brace}Ca[(UO{sub 2})(PO{sub 2})](H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{r_brace} was evaluated using spectroscopy, aqueous geochemistry, and electron microscopy in a minimal media with the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens 200R. The onset of anaerobic conditions resulted in the rapid release of U and phosphate to solution followed by the reprecipitation of meta-autinite. Spectroscopy measurements (XANES) indicated that the U was not released via reduction during the bacterial incubations, but instead dissolution was promoted by uptake and immobilization of P by the bacterial cells. Our results suggest that U(VI) in 'refractory' P mineral phases may be mobilized from U mill tailings and/or U disposal sites and that the nutrient status (P) of the geologic setting may be a predictor for the lability of U in these environments.

  2. Direct Observation by Rapid-Scan FT-IR Spectroscopy of Two-Electron-Reduced Intermediate of Tetraaza Catalyst [Co(II)N4H(MeCN)](2+) Converting CO2 to CO.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Hua; Frei, Heinz

    2016-08-10

    In the search for the two-electron-reduced intermediate of the tetraaza catalyst [Co(II)N4H(MeCN)](2+) (N4H = 2,12-dimethyl-3,7,11,17-tetraazabicyclo[11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17),2,11,13,15-pentaene) for CO2 reduction and elementary steps that result in the formation of CO product, rapid-scan FT-IR spectroscopy of the visible-light-sensitized catalysis, using Ir(ppy)3 in wet acetonitrile (CD3CN) solution, led to the observation of two sequential intermediates. The initially formed one-electron-reduced [Co(I)N4H](+)-CO2 adduct was converted by the second electron to a transient [Co(I)N4H](+)-CO2(-) complex that spontaneously converted CO2 to CO in a rate-limiting step on the second time scale in the dark under regeneration of the catalyst (room temperature). The macrocycle IR spectra of the [Co(I)N4H](+)-CO2(-) complex and the preceding one-electron [Co(I)N4H](+)-CO2 intermediate show close similarity but distinct differences in the carboxylate modes, indicating that the second electron resides mainly on the CO2 ligand. Vibrational assignments are corroborated by (13)C isotopic labeling. The structure and stability of the two-electron-reduced intermediate derived from the time-resolved IR study are in good agreement with recent predictions by DFT electronic structure calculations. This is the first observation of an intermediate of a molecular catalyst for CO2 reduction during the bond-breaking step producing CO. The reaction pathway for the Co tetraaza catalyst uncovered here suggests that the competition between CO2 reduction and proton reduction of a macrocyclic multi-electron catalyst is steered toward CO2 activation if the second electron is directly captured by an adduct of CO2 and the one-electron-reduced catalyst intermediate.

  3. Rapid agonist-evoked coupling of type II Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor with human transient receptor potential (hTRPC1) channels in human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Brownlow, Sharon L; Sage, Stewart O

    2003-01-01

    Depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores results in the activation of SMCE (store-mediated Ca2+ entry) in many cells. The mechanism of activation of SMCE is poorly understood. In human platelets, a secretion-like coupling model may be involved. This proposes that store depletion results in trafficking of portions of the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane, enabling coupling between proteins in the two membranes. In support of this, we have shown that, in human platelets, agonist-evoked Ca2+ store depletion results in de novo and reversible coupling of the Ins P3RII [type II inositol (1,4,5)trisphosphate receptor] with the putative Ca2+ entry channel hTRPC1 [human canonical transient receptor potential 1 (protein); Rosado, Brownlow and Sage (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 42157-42163]. A crucial test of the hypothesis that this coupling activates SMCE is that it should occur rapidly enough to account for agonist-evoked Ca2+ entry. In the present study, we have used quenched- and stopped-flow approaches to determine the latencies of thrombin-evoked coupling of Ins P3RII with hTRPC1 and of thrombin-evoked bivalent cation entry using Mn2+ quenching of fura 2 fluorescence. Thrombin-evoked Mn2+ entry was detected with a latency of 0.81+/-0.07 s (S.E.M., n =7) or 1.36+/-0.09 s (S.E.M., n =7) at a concentration of 1.0 or 0.1 unit/ml respectively. Coupling between Ins P3RII and hTRPC1, assessed at 100 ms intervals, was first detected with a latency of 0.9 or 1.4 s after stimulation with thrombin at a concentration of 1.0 or 0.1 unit/ml respectively. These results support the hypothesis that de novo coupling of Ins P3RII with hTRPC1 could activate SMCE in human platelets. PMID:12908873

  4. Multivariate meta-analysis with an increasing number of parameters.

    PubMed

    Boca, Simina M; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Sampson, Joshua N

    2017-02-14

    Meta-analysis can average estimates of multiple parameters, such as a treatment's effect on multiple outcomes, across studies. Univariate meta-analysis (UVMA) considers each parameter individually, while multivariate meta-analysis (MVMA) considers the parameters jointly and accounts for the correlation between their estimates. The performance of MVMA and UVMA has been extensively compared in scenarios with two parameters. Our objective is to compare the performance of MVMA and UVMA as the number of parameters, p, increases. Specifically, we show that (i) for fixed-effect (FE) meta-analysis, the benefit from using MVMA can substantially increase as p increases; (ii) for random effects (RE) meta-analysis, the benefit from MVMA can increase as p increases, but the potential improvement is modest in the presence of high between-study variability and the actual improvement is further reduced by the need to estimate an increasingly large between study covariance matrix; and (iii) when there is little to no between-study variability, the loss of efficiency due to choosing RE MVMA over FE MVMA increases as p increases. We demonstrate these three features through theory, simulation, and a meta-analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  5. Meta-analytic methods for neuroimaging data explained.

    PubMed

    Radua, Joaquim; Mataix-Cols, David

    2012-03-08

    The number of neuroimaging studies has grown exponentially in recent years and their results are not always consistent. Meta-analyses are helpful to summarize this vast literature and also offer insights that are not apparent from the individual studies. In this review, we describe the main methods used for meta-analyzing neuroimaging data, with special emphasis on their relative advantages and disadvantages. We describe and discuss meta-analytical methods for global brain volumes, methods based on regions of interest, label-based reviews, voxel-based meta-analytic methods and online databases. Regions of interest-based methods allow for optimal statistical analyses but are affected by a limited and potentially biased inclusion of brain regions, whilst voxel-based methods benefit from a more exhaustive and unbiased inclusion of studies but are statistically more limited. There are also relevant differences between the different available voxel-based meta-analytic methods, and the field is rapidly evolving to develop more accurate and robust methods. We suggest that in any meta-analysis of neuroimaging data, authors should aim to: only include studies exploring the whole brain; ensure that the same threshold throughout the whole brain is used within each included study; and explore the robustness of the findings via complementary analyses to minimize the risk of false positives.

  6. Meta-analytic methods for neuroimaging data explained

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The number of neuroimaging studies has grown exponentially in recent years and their results are not always consistent. Meta-analyses are helpful to summarize this vast literature and also offer insights that are not apparent from the individual studies. In this review, we describe the main methods used for meta-analyzing neuroimaging data, with special emphasis on their relative advantages and disadvantages. We describe and discuss meta-analytical methods for global brain volumes, methods based on regions of interest, label-based reviews, voxel-based meta-analytic methods and online databases. Regions of interest-based methods allow for optimal statistical analyses but are affected by a limited and potentially biased inclusion of brain regions, whilst voxel-based methods benefit from a more exhaustive and unbiased inclusion of studies but are statistically more limited. There are also relevant differences between the different available voxel-based meta-analytic methods, and the field is rapidly evolving to develop more accurate and robust methods. We suggest that in any meta-analysis of neuroimaging data, authors should aim to: only include studies exploring the whole brain; ensure that the same threshold throughout the whole brain is used within each included study; and explore the robustness of the findings via complementary analyses to minimize the risk of false positives. PMID:22737993

  7. MetaBAT

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-01

    Assembling individual genomes from shotgun metagenomic sequences derived from complex microbial communities is so far one of the most challenging problems in bioinformatics. As it is impractical to directly assemble full-length genomes, a first step that groups contigs from the same organisms, called metagenome binning, has been developed to provide insights of individual organisms. However, current binning methods perform poorly in the context of large complex community, and as a result they fail to recover many novel genomes. To overcome this limitation, we developed integrated software, called MetaBAT, which automatically forms hundreds of individual genome bins from metagenome contigs. Probabilistic models of abundance and tetranucleotide frequency were trained by extensive empirical studies and integrated to decide the membership of contigs iteratively. To test the performance of MetaBAT, we applied MetaBAT to both synthetic and several large-scale real world metagenome datasets. By using two independent metrics, we demonstrate that in all the data sets tested MetaBAT achieves good sensitivity (16~87%) and very high specificity (56~99%) in forming genome bins. Further analyses of the novel genomes recovered from the human gut microbiome suggest a subset of these genomes are potentially associated with pathological conditions. In conclusion, we believe MetaBAT is a powerful tool

  8. Multi-spectral black meta-infrared detectors (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    There is an increased emphasis on obtaining imaging systems with on-demand spectro-polarimetric information at the pixel level. Meta-infrared detectors in which infrared detectors are combined with metamaterials are a promising way to realize this. The infrared region is appealing due to the low metallic loss, large penetration depth of the localized field and the larger feature sizes compared to the visible region. I will discuss approaches to realize multispectral detectors including our recent work on double metal meta-material design combined with Type II superlattices that have demonstrated enhanced quantum efficiency (collaboration with Padilla group at Duke University).

  9. Principles of Rapid Acquisition and Systems Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    PRINCIPLES OF RAPID ACQUISITION AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Jennifer...United States Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. ii PRINCIPLES OF RAPID ACQUISITION AND SYSTEMS...Major, USAF June 2012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED iii PRINCIPLES

  10. Project META: What have we found?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Paul

    1993-10-01

    A progress report on META (Megachannel Extraterrestrial Assay) is provided. For eight years, META has been monitoring the northern sky for Doppler-adjusted radio signals at 21 cm wavelength, and it's 'second harmonic' 10.5 cm, based on radio emission from neutral hydrogen, and surmised to be a likely transmission mode of extraterrestrial civilizations. Approximately one million strong signals have been recorded, which have been narrowed down by various criteria, particularly duration of 'event', to 74 candidate events. A complementary program, META II at the Argentine Institute of Radio Astronomy, has been monitoring the southern sky since 1990. Of the 74 candidate events, 37 have been unable to be explained by conventional means. However none has ever repeated, so the results are considerable negative. A new program, BETA (Billion-channel ExtraTerrestrial Assay) is described that is a joint venture of the Planetary Society, NASA, and the Bosack/Kruger Foundation. It is expected to be running within a year.

  11. META-GLARE: A meta-system for defining your own computer interpretable guideline system-Architecture and acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bottrighi, Alessio; Terenziani, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Several different computer-assisted management systems of computer interpretable guidelines (CIGs) have been developed by the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine community. Each CIG system is characterized by a specific formalism to represent CIGs, and usually provides a manager to acquire, consult and execute them. Though there are several commonalities between most formalisms in the literature, each formalism has its own peculiarities. The goal of our work is to provide a flexible support to the extension or definition of CIGs formalisms, and of their acquisition and execution engines. Instead of defining "yet another CIG formalism and its manager", we propose META-GLARE (META Guideline Acquisition, Representation, and Execution), a "meta"-system to define new CIG systems. In this paper, META-GLARE, a meta-system to define new CIG systems, is presented. We try to capture the commonalities among current CIG approaches, by providing (i) a general manager for the acquisition, consultation and execution of hierarchical graphs (representing the control flow of actions in CIGs), parameterized over the types of nodes and of arcs constituting it, and (ii) a library of different elementary components of guidelines nodes (actions) and arcs, in which each type definition involves the specification of how objects of this type can be acquired, consulted and executed. We provide generality and flexibility, by allowing free aggregations of such elementary components to define new primitive node and arc types. We have drawn several experiments, in which we have used META-GLARE to build a CIG system (Experiment 1 in Section 8), or to extend it (Experiments 2 and 3). Such experiments show that META-GLARE provides a useful and easy-to-use support to such tasks. For instance, re-building the Guideline Acquisition, Representation, and Execution (GLARE) system using META-GLARE required less than one day (Experiment 1). META-GLARE is a meta-system for CIGs supporting fast prototyping

  12. Meta-Creativity: Being Creative about Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runco, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of meta-creativity is defined and explored, with examples drawn from the long and productive career of Arthur Cropley. "Meta-creativity" may sound like jargon, but then again, given how meta is used in the sciences (e.g., "meta-analysis," "meta-cognition"), it is a perfectly apt term. It is the best label…

  13. Meta-Creativity: Being Creative about Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runco, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of meta-creativity is defined and explored, with examples drawn from the long and productive career of Arthur Cropley. "Meta-creativity" may sound like jargon, but then again, given how meta is used in the sciences (e.g., "meta-analysis," "meta-cognition"), it is a perfectly apt term. It is the best label…

  14. The Rapid Burster

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-31

    These four images show an artist's impression of gas accreting onto the neutron star in the binary system MXB 1730-335, also known as the "Rapid Burster." In such a binary system, the gravitational pull of the dense neutron star is stripping gas away from its stellar companion (a low-mass star, not shown in these images). The gas forms an accretion disk and spirals towards the neutron star. Observations of the Rapid Burster using three X-ray space telescopes -- NASA's NuSTAR and Swift, and ESA's XMM-Newton -- have revealed what happens around the neutron star before and during a so-called "type-II" burst. These bursts are sudden, erratic and extremely intense releases of X-rays that liberate enormous amounts of energy during periods when very little emission occurs otherwise. Before the burst, the fast-spinning magnetic field of the neutron star keeps the gas flowing from the companion star at bay, preventing it from reaching closer to the neutron star and effectively creating an inner edge at the center of the disk (Figure 1, panel 1). During this phase, only small amounts of gas leak towards the neutron star. However, as the gas continues to flow and accumulate near this edge, it spins faster and faster. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21418

  15. Meta-Analytic Derivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.; Marsh, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    The authors have over the years tried to revise meta-analysis because it's basic premise is to add apples and oranges together and analyze. In other words, various data on the same subject are chosen using different samples, research strategies, and number properties. The findings are then homogenized and a statistical analysis is used (Snell, J.…

  16. What's the Meta?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamiloglu, Edl; Fuks, Mikhail

    2010-11-01

    The term ``Metamaterial'' was first coined in 1999 by Rodger Walser, University of Texas [B. Munk, Metamaterials: Critique and Alternatives/ (John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 2009)]. His definition is as follows: Metamaterials are macroscopic composites having man-made, three-dimensional, periodic cellular architecture designed to produce an optimized combination, not available in nature, of two or more responses to specific excitation./ He chose ``meta'' as the prefix from the Greek work meta meaning beyond. The taxonomy of meta-materials is a problem. It seems that there is no one satisfactory definition that does not restrict a class of worthy meta-materials. This presentation reviews past work on the interaction of high power electromagnetic radiation with 1-D photonic crystals. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the use of a dielectric to focus the microwave wavebeam and to reflect it quasi-optically. In these experiments using a short pulse SINUS-6 accelerator-driven backward-wave oscillator (BWO) no deleterious effects of the high power electromagnetic fields were observed on the photonic crystal. In addition, planned experiments for an overmoded BWO whose slow wave structure is made from individual wires will be described. This latter has novel mode selection features, in addition to high power handling capability.

  17. Meta Modernism: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The author introduces Hegel. From the triad (Hegelian Dialect), he briefly gives an overview of the history of philosophy. In true Hegelian form, it is now time to reform "Postmodernism" and replace it with "Meta modernism." Postmodern had a short life from 1950 to now and has left few adherents. It is confusing and…

  18. Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Richard M

    2004-01-01

    Systematic reviews use explicit and reproducible criteria to assemble, appraise, and combine articles with a minimum of bias. Meta-analysis is a form of systematic review that uses statistical techniques to derive quantitative estimates of the magnitude of treatment effects and their associated precision. Valid meta-analyses address focused questions, use appropriate criteria to select articles, assess the quality and combinability of articles, provide graphic and numeric summaries, consider potential biases, and can be generalized to a meaningful target population. The rate difference, or absolute risk reduction, is the preferred measure of clinical effect size; the reciprocal tells the number needed to treat for one additional favorable outcome. The benefits of meta-analysis over individual trials include greater precision, increased statistical power, and the ability to identify and explore diversity among studies. Threats to validity include heterogeneity, citation bias, publication bias, language bias, and variations in study quality. Because meta-analysis defines rational treatment expectations at a population level, it is an adjunct to, not a substitute for, clinical judgment in the care of individual patients.

  19. Meta Modernism: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The author introduces Hegel. From the triad (Hegelian Dialect), he briefly gives an overview of the history of philosophy. In true Hegelian form, it is now time to reform "Postmodernism" and replace it with "Meta modernism." Postmodern had a short life from 1950 to now and has left few adherents. It is confusing and…

  20. Meta-Analytic Derivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.; Marsh, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    The authors have over the years tried to revise meta-analysis because it's basic premise is to add apples and oranges together and analyze. In other words, various data on the same subject are chosen using different samples, research strategies, and number properties. The findings are then homogenized and a statistical analysis is used (Snell, J.…

  1. Safety profile of combined therapy inhibiting EFGR and VEGF pathways in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: A meta-analysis of 15 phase II/III randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wang; Xu, Mingxin; Liu, Yiqian; Liu, Hao; Huang, Jiale; Zhu, Yanjie; Ji, Li-Juan; Qi, Xiaolong

    2015-07-15

    The efficacy of combined vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was well studied. However, few studies focused on the risk and adverse events (AEs) of combined targeted therapy. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the safety profile of combined targeted therapy against EFGR and VEGF in patients with advanced NSCLC. A comprehensive literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), ASCO Abstracts and ESMO Abstracts was conducted. Eligible studies were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared safety profile of combined therapy inhibiting EFGR and VEGF pathways with control groups (placebo, single EGFR or VEGF inhibition therapy, chemotherapy or a combination of them) in patients with advanced NSCLC. The endpoints included treatment discontinuation, treatment-related deaths and AEs. The search identified 15 RCTs involving 6,919 patients. The outcomes showed that three of four pairwise comparisons detected more discontinuation due to AEs in combined targeted therapy, with odds ratio (OR) compared with the control groups ranged from 1.97 to 2.29. Treatment with combined inhibition therapy was associated with several all-grade and grade 3 or 4 AEs (e.g. rash, diarrhea and hypertension). Also, there was a significantly higher incidence of treatment-related deaths in combined inhibition using vandetanib versus single EGFR inhibition therapy (OR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.19-3.28). In conclusion, combined inhibition therapy against EGFR and VEGF in patients with advanced NSCLC was associated with increased toxicity. Increased AEs hinder patient compliance and reduce their quality of life, leading to dose reduction or discontinuation. © 2014 UICC.

  2. The Mass Production of Redundant, Misleading, and Conflicted Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-09-01

    Currently, there is massive production of unnecessary, misleading, and conflicted systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Instead of promoting evidence-based medicine and health care, these instruments often serve mostly as easily produced publishable units or marketing tools. Suboptimal systematic reviews and meta-analyses can be harmful given the major prestige and influence these types of studies have acquired. The publication of systematic reviews and meta-analyses should be realigned to remove biases and vested interests and to integrate them better with the primary production of evidence. Currently, most systematic reviews and meta-analyses are done retrospectively with fragmented published information. This article aims to explore the growth of published systematic reviews and meta-analyses and to estimate how often they are redundant, misleading, or serving conflicted interests. Data included information from PubMed surveys and from empirical evaluations of meta-analyses. Publication of systematic reviews and meta-analyses has increased rapidly. In the period January 1, 1986, to December 4, 2015, PubMed tags 266,782 items as "systematic reviews" and 58,611 as "meta-analyses." Annual publications between 1991 and 2014 increased 2,728% for systematic reviews and 2,635% for meta-analyses versus only 153% for all PubMed-indexed items. Currently, probably more systematic reviews of trials than new randomized trials are published annually. Most topics addressed by meta-analyses of randomized trials have overlapping, redundant meta-analyses; same-topic meta-analyses may exceed 20 sometimes. Some fields produce massive numbers of meta-analyses; for example, 185 meta-analyses of antidepressants for depression were published between 2007 and 2014. These meta-analyses are often produced either by industry employees or by authors with industry ties and results are aligned with sponsor interests. China has rapidly become the most prolific producer of English-language, Pub

  3. Sequential methods for random-effects meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Julian P T; Whitehead, Anne; Simmonds, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Although meta-analyses are typically viewed as retrospective activities, they are increasingly being applied prospectively to provide up-to-date evidence on specific research questions. When meta-analyses are updated account should be taken of the possibility of false-positive findings due to repeated significance tests. We discuss the use of sequential methods for meta-analyses that incorporate random effects to allow for heterogeneity across studies. We propose a method that uses an approximate semi-Bayes procedure to update evidence on the among-study variance, starting with an informative prior distribution that might be based on findings from previous meta-analyses. We compare our methods with other approaches, including the traditional method of cumulative meta-analysis, in a simulation study and observe that it has Type I and Type II error rates close to the nominal level. We illustrate the method using an example in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21472757

  4. Inorganic particulates in removal of heavy metal toxic ions--part X: rapid and efficient removal of Hg(II) ions from aqueous solutions by hydrous ferric and hydrous tungsten oxides.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Suddhodan P; Vijaya

    2006-04-15

    A radiotracer technique has been used to study the removal of Hg(II) ions from aqueous solutions by synthesized and well-characterized hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) and hydrous tungsten oxide (HTO). Adsorptive concentration (10(-4)-10(-8) mol dm(-3)), pH (ca 4.0-10.0) and temperatures (303-333 K) were examined for assessing optimal conditions for removal of these ions. The uptake of Hg(II) ions, fitted well with the Freundlich isotherm, increased with increasing temperature. No significant desorption took place in the present temperature range. The presence of other anions and cations affected the uptake of Hg(II) markedly. Irradiation of hydrous ferric oxide and tungsten oxide by using a 11.1 x 10(9)Bq (Ra-Be) neutron source having a neutron flux of 3.9 x 10(6)cm(-2)s(-1) with the associated gamma-dose rate of 1.72 Gy h(-1) did not influence the extent of adsorption of Hg(II) significantly.

  5. A rapid synthesis of 2-substituted 1,2,3- triazole-1-oxide derivative starting from 4-(methyl)isonitrosoacetophenone and its Ni(II) complex: Characterization, DNA binding and cleavage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gup, Ramazan; Erer, Oktay; Dilek, Nefise

    2017-02-01

    An efficient route, not including any metal salt as a catalyst, for the synthesis of a new 2-substituted 1,2,3- triazole-1-oxide is reported in this paper. The title compound has been synthesized via reacting 4-(methyl)isonitrosoacetophenone with hydrazine hydrate and dipyridyl ketone in high yield under mild reaction condition. The structure of the new 1,2,3-triazole-1-oxide has been characterized via single crystal X-ray and spectral studies. The 1:1 ratio reaction of the 1,2,3-triazole 1-oxide ligand with nickel(II) chloride gives the mononuclear complex [Ni(L)(DMF)(Cl)2] which is hexa-coordinated within an octahedral geometry. Characterization of the 1,2,3-triazole compound and its Ni(II) complex with FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, UV-vis, TGA and elemental analysis also confirm the proposed structures for the compounds. The interactions of the compounds with Calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have been investigated via UV-visible spectra and viscosity measurements. The results suggested that both ligand and Ni(II) complex bind to DNA in electrostatic interaction and/or groove binding with a slight partial intercalation. DNA cleavage experiments have been also investigated by agarose gel electrophoresis in the presence and absence of an oxidative agent (H2O2). Both 1,2,3-triazole 1-oxide ligand and nickel(II) complex show nuclease activity, which significantly depends on concentrations of the compounds, both in the presence and absence of an oxidative agent. DNA binding and cleavage affinities of the Ni(II) complex is stronger than that of the 1,2,3-triazole 1-oxide ligand.

  6. The MetaCyc Database.

    PubMed

    Karp, Peter D; Riley, Monica; Paley, Suzanne M; Pellegrini-Toole, Alida

    2002-01-01

    MetaCyc is a metabolic-pathway database that describes 445 pathways and 1115 enzymes occurring in 158 organisms. MetaCyc is a review-level database in that a given entry in MetaCyc often integrates information from multiple literature sources. The pathways in MetaCyc were determined experimentally, and are labeled with the species in which they are known to occur based on literature references examined to date. MetaCyc contains extensive commentary and literature citations. Applications of MetaCyc include pathway analysis of genomes, metabolic engineering and biochemistry education. MetaCyc is queried using the Pathway Tools graphical user interface, which provides a wide variety of query operations and visualization tools. MetaCyc is available via the World Wide Web at http://ecocyc.org/ecocyc/metacyc.html, and is available for local installation as a binary program for the PC and the Sun workstation, and as a set of flatfiles. Contact metacyc-info@ai.sri.com for information on obtaining a local copy of MetaCyc.

  7. Biotransformation of Hg(II) by Cyanobacteria▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Daniel D.; Kelly, David; Budd, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The biotransformation of Hg(II) by cyanobacteria was investigated under aerobic and pH-controlled culture conditions. Mercury was supplied as HgCl2 in amounts emulating those found under heavily impacted environmental conditions where bioremediation would be appropriate. The analytical procedures used to measure mercury within the culture solution, including that in the cyanobacterial cells, used reduction under both acid and alkaline conditions in the presence of SnCl2. Acid reduction detected free Hg(II) ions and its complexes, whereas alkaline reduction revealed that meta-cinnabar (β-HgS) constituted the major biotransformed and cellularly associated mercury pool. This was true for all investigated species of cyanobacteria: Limnothrix planctonica (Lemm.), Synechococcus leopoldiensis (Racib.) Komarek, and Phormidium limnetica (Lemm.). From the outset of mercury exposure, there was rapid synthesis of β-HgS and Hg(0); however, the production rate for the latter decreased quickly. Inhibitory studies using dimethylfumarate and iodoacetamide to modify intra- and extracellular thiols, respectively, revealed that the former thiol pool was required for the conversion of Hg(II) into β-HgS. In addition, increasing the temperature enhanced the amount of β-HgS produced, with a concomitant decrease in Hg(0) volatilization. These findings suggest that in the environment, cyanobacteria at the air-water interface could act to convert substantial amounts of Hg(II) into β-HgS. Furthermore, the efficiency of conversion into β-HgS by cyanobacteria may lead to the development of applications in the bioremediation of mercury. PMID:17071784

  8. ISIS and META projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth; Cooper, Robert; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    The ISIS project has developed a new methodology, virtual synchony, for writing robust distributed software. High performance multicast, large scale applications, and wide area networks are the focus of interest. Several interesting applications that exploit the strengths of ISIS, including an NFS-compatible replicated file system, are being developed. The META project is distributed control in a soft real-time environment incorporating feedback. This domain encompasses examples as diverse as monitoring inventory and consumption on a factory floor, and performing load-balancing on a distributed computing system. One of the first uses of META is for distributed application management: the tasks of configuring a distributed program, dynamically adapting to failures, and monitoring its performance. Recent progress and current plans are reported.

  9. [Meta-synthesis].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Nursing science's body of knowledge is mainly composed of the results of qualitative studies which, since the 1970s, have contributed notably to improving understanding of patients' experiences. This abundant scientific literature enables reviews to be carried out with the aim of producing solid theories. Meta-synthesis is a methodology which was created for this purpose. The theories which it produces constitute reference frameworks for researchers wishing to develop innovative nursing procedures and to test them within the context of clinical studies.

  10. Meta-Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engheta, Nader

    2014-03-01

    As the fields of metamaterial and plasmonic nanophotonics reach certain levels of development, new directions and novel vistas appear in the horizon. Modularization, parameterization and functionalization of metamaterials may be exploited to provide new functionalities and applications stemming from such interesting platforms of ``meta-optics.'' Indeed, the metamaterial ``forms'' may lead to novel ``functions.'' These may include metamaterial ``bits'' and ``bytes'' as building blocks for digitizing metamaterials, ``optical metatronics'' - metamaterial-inspired optical nanocircuitry - formed by judicious arrangement of nanostructures capable of optical processing at the nanoscale, ``meta-systems'' formed by metamaterials and metasurfaces providing wave-based signal handling and processing, graphene metatronics as one-atom-thick mid IR circuits, and nonreciprocal metastructures for unusual control over flow of photons, to name a few. We are exploring various features and characteristics of these concepts, topics, and directions in the paradigms of meta-optics and are investigating new classes of potential applications such paradigms may provide. We will present an overview of our most recent results from a sample of these topics and will discuss future directions and potentials.

  11. ISIS and META projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth; Cooper, Robert; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    ISIS and META are two distributed systems projects at Cornell University. The ISIS project, has developed a new methodology, virtual synchrony, for writing robust distributed software. This approach is directly supported by the ISIS Toolkit, a programming system that is distributed to over 300 academic and industrial sites. Several interesting applications that exploit the strengths of ISIS, including an NFS-compatible replicated file system, are being developed. The META project, is about distributed control in a soft real time environment incorporating feedback. This domain encompasses examples as diverse as monitoring inventory and consumption on a factory floor and performing load-balancing on a distributed computing system. One of the first uses of META is for distributed application management: the tasks of configuring a distributed program, dynamically adapting to failures, and monitoring its performance. Recent progress and current plans are presented. This approach to distributed computing, a philosophy that is believed to significantly distinguish the work from that of others in the field, is explained.

  12. Monitoring and Meta-Reasoning in Multi-Agent Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-08

    Monitoring and Meta-Reasoning in Multi - Agent Systems 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Professor...reasoning in multi - agent systems will be analyzed; ii)approaches for knowledge acquisition will be investigated; iii) methods of knowledge analysis...EOARD, Multi Agent Systems , Agent Based Systems 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON JAMES GREENBERG a. REPORT UNCLAS

  13. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking ...

  14. Comparative effectiveness of combined therapy inhibiting EGFR and VEGF pathways in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of 16 phase II/III randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shangli; Wu, Tongwei; Yan, Guangyue; Cheng, Sijin; Cui, Kang; Xi, Ying; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims Combined therapy inhibiting EGFR and VEGF pathways is becoming a promising therapy in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, with controversy. The study aims to compare the efficacy of combined inhibition therapy versus control therapy (including placebo, single EGFR inhibition and single VEGF inhibition) in patients with advanced NSCLC. Materials and Methods An adequate literature search in EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) was conducted. Phase II or III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared effectiveness between combined inhibition therapy and control therapy in patients with advanced NSCLC were eligible. The endpoint was overall response rate (ORR), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Sixteen phase II or III RCTs involving a total of 7,109 patients were included. The results indicated that the combined inhibition therapy significantly increased the ORR (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.36-1.87, p<0.00001; I2 = 36%) when compared to control therapy. In the subgroup analysis, the combined inhibition therapy clearly increased the ORR (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.60-2.60, p<0.00001; I2 = 0%) and improved the PFS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.71-0.85, p<0.00001;I2 = 0%) when compared with the placebo, and similar results was detected when compared with the single EGFR inhibition in terms of ORR (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.12-1.74, p = 0.003; I2 = 30%) and PFS (HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.67-0.81, p<0.0001; I2 = 50%). No obvious difference was found between the combined inhibition therapy and single VEGF inhibition in term of ORR, however, combined inhibition therapy significantly decreased the PFS when compared to the single VEGF inhibition therapy (HR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.34-2.17, p<0.0001; I2 = 50%). Besides, no significant difference was observed between the combined inhibition therapy

  15. Photobilirubin II.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, R; Buckley, D G; Hamzetash, D; Hawkes, G E; Ioannou, S; Stoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    An improved preparation of photobilirubin II in ammoniacal methanol is described. Evidence is presented which distinguishes between the two structures proposed earlier for photobilirubin II in favour of the cycloheptadienyl structure. Nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement measurements with bilirubin IX alpha and photobilirubin II in dimethyl sulphoxide are complicated by the occurrence of negative and zero effects. The partition coefficient of photobilirubin II between chloroform and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) is 0.67. PMID:6743241

  16. Disturbed by Meta-Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachter, Kenneth W.

    1988-01-01

    Defines meta-analysis as statistical procedures for combining results from previous separate studies. Discusses four charges promoted by some skeptics as it relates to this statistical procedure. States that many of the trends making a place for meta-analysis are disturbing. (RT)

  17. The Tragedy of Meta Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlik, Denis; Schimak, Gerald

    2010-05-01

    Ten years after the Murrays' announcement, the sensors are indeed inexpensive and ubiquitous. Nevertheless, the vision of "electronic skin" is still a remote dream. Indeed, an operational world-wide Sensor Web is more than just a sum of its parts: all information has to be available in easily discoverable, retrievable, and understandable form. In reality, only a few observations are readily available on the web, and even fewer provide meta-information required for its discovery, understanding and automatic processing. The "tragedy" of meta information, as already identified by ORCHESTRA, an FP6-Integrated Project, is that the "appropriate" meta information depends on the intended use, which in turn can never be known in advance. For example, the set of meta-information required by a scientist interested in climate change may be very different from the meta-information required for automatic report generation in the context of "Clean Air For Europe" (CAFE) directive. The recently started FP7 "TaToo" project proposes an alternative to a fruitless quest for defining and maintaining an all-encompassing meta-information model. In this talk, we will present TaToo's approach for distributed generation and maintaining of multiple, semantically linked meta-information sets based on community input, and discuss the challenges, potential benefits and advantages (e.g. long-term sustainability) of a community-driven meta information generation.

  18. Improving Learning through Meta Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Betty

    2010-01-01

    Meta assessment goes beyond assessment in that it examines not only the elements of assessment but also the necessary and sufficient conditions as well as the needs of the assessment. Meta assessment in education tends to be the domain of course designers, planners and policy makers but rarely that of students. This article examines the role of…

  19. Negative Reflecting Meta-Mirrors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Li, Dong; Gao, Dongxing; Zhang, Aofang; Hu, Bowei; Yang, Pei; Lei, Zhenya; Li, Jiacheng

    2017-07-18

    Using the gradient phase discontinuities that meta-mirrors provide, we show that the incident wave can be reflected anomalously with a broad angle range of negative reflections. Such reversed behaviors promote the immediate applications for the planar meta-mirrors to steer the signals more arbitrarily and the convex meta-mirrors to focus and collimate electromagnetic fields. We practically implement these negative reflecting meta-mirrors through an arrangement of subwavelength ring patches and generate the desired phase distribution by also considering the incident angle. Finally, the experiments are carried out to verify the functionality of the convex meta-mirror firstly, and the performances of the planar meta-mirror are also tested by further building up a dual reflector system with the demonstration of obtaining the plane wave from the convex meta-mirror and then having the well collimated beam negative reflected by the planar meta-mirror. The proposed design should be readily applicable to a wide range of electromagnetic problems, especially for devising smart planar illusion devices, and highly directive antennas mounting on convex surfaces of various platforms.

  20. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    SAGE II Data and Information The goals of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment ( SAGE ) II are to determine the spatial distributions of stratospheric ... profiles and calculating monthly averages of each. The SAGE II sensor (a Sun Photometer) was launched into a 57-degree inclination ...

  1. Rapid and simple determination of polyphyllin I, II, VI, and VII in different harvest times of cultivated Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz by UPLC-MS/MS and FT-IR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe; Zhang, Ji; Xu, Furong; Wang, Yuanzhong; Zhang, Jinyu

    2017-01-01

    Paris Polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz ("Dian Chonglou" in Chinese) is a famous herbal medicine in China, which is usually well known for activities of anti-cancer, hemolysis, and cytotoxicity. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was applied to discriminate samples of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis harvested in different years and determine the content of polyphyllin I, II, VI, and VII in P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Meanwhile, ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used to study the dynamic changes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis harvested in different years (4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, and 13 years old). According to the UPLC-MS/MS result, the optimum harvest time of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis is 8 years, due to the highest yield of four active components. By the PCA model, P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis could be exactly discriminated, except that two 8-year-old samples were misclassified as 9-year-old samples. For the prediction of polyphyllin I, II, VI, and VII, the quantitative results are satisfactory, with a high value for the determination coefficient (R (2)) and low values for the root-mean-square error of estimation (RMSEE), root-mean-square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP). In conclusion, FT-IR combined with chemometrics is a promising method to accurately discriminate samples of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis harvested in different years and determine the content of polyphyllin I, II, VI, and VII in P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

  2. Meta-adaptation in the auditory midbrain under cortical influence

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Benjamin L.; Harper, Nicol S.; McAlpine, David

    2016-01-01

    Neural adaptation is central to sensation. Neurons in auditory midbrain, for example, rapidly adapt their firing rates to enhance coding precision of common sound intensities. However, it remains unknown whether this adaptation is fixed, or dynamic and dependent on experience. Here, using guinea pigs as animal models, we report that adaptation accelerates when an environment is re-encountered—in response to a sound environment that repeatedly switches between quiet and loud, midbrain neurons accrue experience to find an efficient code more rapidly. This phenomenon, which we term meta-adaptation, suggests a top–down influence on the midbrain. To test this, we inactivate auditory cortex and find acceleration of adaptation with experience is attenuated, indicating a role for cortex—and its little-understood projections to the midbrain—in modulating meta-adaptation. Given the prevalence of adaptation across organisms and senses, meta-adaptation might be similarly common, with extensive implications for understanding how neurons encode the rapidly changing environments of the real world. PMID:27883088

  3. Meta-Games in Information Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huvila, Isto

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Meta-games and meta-gaming refer to various second-order conceptions of games and gaming. The present article discusses the applicability of the notions of meta-game and meta-gaming in understanding the patterns of how people use, misuse, work and work-around information and information infrastructures. Method: Twenty-two qualitative…

  4. A Teacher's Guide to Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Devender R.; Therrien, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Technical terms such as "meta-analysis," research synthesis," and "effect size" may sound alien to practitioners in the field of education. Due to limited knowledge on meta-analysis among educators, the results of meta-analyses seldom translate from research to classroom practice--even though meta-analyses may provide valuable information on how…

  5. Uses and Misuses of Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, James A.

    Several developments in the use of the new method of meta-analysis give cause for optimism. First, different meta-analysts are doing work in the same areas, leading to increased confidence in meta-analytic results. Second, meta-analysts are beginning to include raw data in their reports, which helps readers pinpoint the exact studies that lead to…

  6. A Teacher's Guide to Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Devender R.; Therrien, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Technical terms such as "meta-analysis," research synthesis," and "effect size" may sound alien to practitioners in the field of education. Due to limited knowledge on meta-analysis among educators, the results of meta-analyses seldom translate from research to classroom practice--even though meta-analyses may provide valuable information on how…

  7. The use of rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction for the separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of Ni (II) ions from food and water samples coupling with flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination.

    PubMed

    Rahnama, Reyhaneh; Najafi, Marzieh

    2016-03-01

    A novel improved preconcentration method known as rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction (RS-CPE) was established for nickel preconcentration and determination prior to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In this work, the traditional CPE pattern was changed and greatly simplified in order to be applicable in metal extraction and detection. This method was accomplished in room temperature in 1 min. Non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 was used as extractant. Octanol worked as cloud point revulsant and synergic reagent. The various parameters affecting the extraction and preconcentration of nickel such as sample pH, 2,2'-Furildioxime concentration, amounts of octanol, amounts of Triton X-114, type of diluting solvent, extraction time, and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve showed an excellent linearity in the concentration range of 2-200 μg L(-1), and the limit of detection was 0.6 μg L(-1) for nickel. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of nickel in food and water samples. The results showed that, the proposed method can be used as a cheap, rapid, and efficient method for the extraction and preconcentration of nickel from real samples.

  8. Quality control and conduct of genome-wide association meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Thomas W; Day, Felix R; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Wood, Andrew R; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Ferreira, Teresa; Fall, Tove; Graff, Mariaelisa; Justice, Anne E; Luan, Jian'an; Gustafsson, Stefan; Randall, Joshua C; Vedantam, Sailaja; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Scherag, André; Esko, Tonu; Kutalik, Zoltán; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth J F

    2014-05-01

    Rigorous organization and quality control (QC) are necessary to facilitate successful genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMAs) of statistics aggregated across multiple genome-wide association studies. This protocol provides guidelines for (i) organizational aspects of GWAMAs, and for (ii) QC at the study file level, the meta-level across studies and the meta-analysis output level. Real-world examples highlight issues experienced and solutions developed by the GIANT Consortium that has conducted meta-analyses including data from 125 studies comprising more than 330,000 individuals. We provide a general protocol for conducting GWAMAs and carrying out QC to minimize errors and to guarantee maximum use of the data. We also include details for the use of a powerful and flexible software package called EasyQC. Precise timings will be greatly influenced by consortium size. For consortia of comparable size to the GIANT Consortium, this protocol takes a minimum of about 10 months to complete.

  9. Consequences of sequential sampling for meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Braschi, Lorenzo; Botella, Juan; Suero, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Sequential stopping rules allow hypotheses to be tested using smaller sample sizes than are possible under conventional methods, while controlling the Type I and II error rates. However, the consequences of using such procedures when combining studies in a meta-analysis have rarely been discussed. For a primary study to be included in a meta-analysis, it must provide an estimate of the effect size, and it must be possible to calculate the variance of this estimate, which is used for weighting the study. It is therefore crucial to know whether the use of sequential stopping rules introduces any bias in the estimate of the effect size and/or modifies the variance of the estimate. In the present research, both aspects were studied for the CLAST rule, as applied to testing the difference between two means from paired samples, in a variety of scenarios of sample size and population effect size. The results show that although the bias is small, but still larger than that for the fixed-sample rule, the variance of the estimate is much higher with the CLAST sequential stopping rule. The implications of these results for the incorporation of such studies into meta-analyses are discussed. It is recommended to incorporate such studies into meta-analyses by taking only the information conveyed in the initial sample. The authors of primary studies employing sequential rules should report that information when publishing their results.

  10. Activation of a Gq-coupled membrane estrogen receptor rapidly attenuates α2-adrenoceptor-induced antinociception via an ERK I/II-dependent, non-genomic mechanism in the female rat

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Subodh; Mokha, Sukhbir S.

    2014-01-01

    Though sex differences in pain and analgesia are known, underlying mechanisms remain elusive. This study addresses the selective contribution of membrane estrogen receptors (mER) and mER-initiated non-genomic signaling mechanisms in our previously reported estrogen-induced attenuation of α2- adrenoceptor-mediated antinociception. By selectively targeting spinal mERs in ovariectomized female rats using E2BSA (membrane impermeant estradiol analogue), and ERα selective agonist PPT, ERβ selective agonist DPN, GPR 30 agonist G1 and Gq-coupled mER (Gq-mER) agonist STX, we provide strong evidence that Gq-mER activation may solely contribute to suppressing clonidine (an α2- adrenoceptor agonist)-induced antinociception, using the nociceptive tail flick test. Increased tail flick latencies (TFL) by intrathecal (i.t.) clonidine were not significantly altered by i.t. PPT, DPN, or G1. In contrast, E2BSA or STX rapidly and dose-dependently attenuated clonidine-induced increase in TFL. ICI 182,780, the ER antagonist, blocked this effect. Consistent with findings with the lack of effect of ERα and ERβ agonists that modulate receptor-regulated transcription, inhibition of de novo protein synthesis using anisomycin also failed to alter the effect of E2BSA or STX, arguing against a contribution of genomic mechanisms. Immunoblotting of spinal tissue revealed that mER activation increased levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) but not of protein kinase A (PKA) or C (PKC). In vivo inhibition of ERK with U0126 blocked the effect of STX and restored clonidine antinociception. Although estrogen-induced delayed genomic mechanisms may still exist, data presented here indicate that Gq-mER may solely mediate estradiol-induced attenuation of clonidine antinociception via a rapid, reversible, and ERK-dependent, non-genomic mechanism, suggesting that Gq-mER blockade might provide improved analgesia in females. PMID:24613724

  11. PUBLISHER'S NOTE: Rapid Communications Rapid Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Tom

    2009-09-01

    As part of a general review of Superconductor Science and Technology, we have been examining the scope for Rapid Communications (RAPs). We recognize these articles make up an important part of the journal representing the latest state-of-the-art research in superconductivity. To reflect this, we have devised a new scope for this article type: 'Rapid Communications. The journal offers open access to outstanding short articles (no longer than 5 journal pages or 4500 words including figures) reporting new and timely developments in superconductivity and its applications. These articles should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity to the readers of Superconductor Science and Technology, but are not expected to meet any requirement of 'general interest'. RAPs will be processed quickly (average receipt to online publication for RAPs is around 60 days) and are permanently free to read in the electronic journal. Authors submitting a RAP should provide reasons why the work is urgent and requires rapid publication. Each RAP will be assessed for suitability by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor before full peer review takes place.' The essential points are: They should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity and its application; They must be no longer than 5 journal pages long (approx. 4500 words); Average publication time for a Rapid Communication is 60 days; They are free to read. As mentioned in the previous publisher's announcement (2009 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 22 010101), each submitted Rapid Communication must come with a letter justifying why it should be prioritized over regular papers and will be pre-assessed by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor. In addition, we will work with the authors of any Rapid Communication to promote and raise the visibility of the work presented in it. We will be making further changes to the journal in the near future and we write to you accordingly. Thank you for your kind

  12. Measuring coral reef decline through meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Côté, I.M; Gill, J.A; Gardner, T.A; Watkinson, A.R

    2005-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are in decline worldwide, owing to a variety of anthropogenic and natural causes. One of the most obvious signals of reef degradation is a reduction in live coral cover. Past and current rates of loss of coral are known for many individual reefs; however, until recently, no large-scale estimate was available. In this paper, we show how meta-analysis can be used to integrate existing small-scale estimates of change in coral and macroalgal cover, derived from in situ surveys of reefs, to generate a robust assessment of long-term patterns of large-scale ecological change. Using a large dataset from Caribbean reefs, we examine the possible biases inherent in meta-analytical studies and the sensitivity of the method to patchiness in data availability. Despite the fact that our meta-analysis included studies that used a variety of sampling methods, the regional estimate of change in coral cover we obtained is similar to that generated by a standardized survey programme that was implemented in 1991 in the Caribbean. We argue that for habitat types that are regularly and reasonably well surveyed in the course of ecological or conservation research, meta-analysis offers a cost-effective and rapid method for generating robust estimates of past and current states. PMID:15814352

  13. [Establishment and application of rapid assessment system of environment with high transmission risk of schistosomiasis in marshland and lake regions II establishment and application of measures for field survey].

    PubMed

    Cao, Chun-li; Bao, Zi-ping; Zhu, Hong-qing; Jia, Tie-wu; Yu, Qing; Qin, Zhi-qiang; Liang, You-sheng; Zhong, Bo; Ren, Guang-hui; Huang, Xi-bao; Lin, Dan-dan; Zhang, Shi-qing; Xu, Jing; Li, Shi-zhu; Guo, Jia-gang; Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2013-10-01

    To establish the measures of schistosomiasis field survey and evaluate the efficacy of their application according to the content of indexes of rapid assessment system to high transmission risks in schistosomiasis endemic areas of lake regions. In 2012, based on the analysis of Oncomelania hupensis snail situation, and schistosomiasis epidemic data of human and cattle from 2008-2010, 60 villages from Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces were selected and investigated, and the content of the investigation included the field feces, snail status, and epidemic situation of human and cattle. The systemic sampling was applied for snail investigation; the feces collected from snail investigation field were examined by the hatching test (3 bottles for 1 sample). A cluster random sampling was carried out with more than 300 people in each village. By using the hatching test (3 bottles for 1 sample) , the human stool examination was carried out for the identification of the infected persons who were positive in the immunity test screening. The hatching test was applied for cattle of all the villages (3 bottles for 1 sample). A total of 65 field feces spots were surveyed in 60 villages, field feces were found in 78.46% (51/65) of spots, and the positive rate of field feces was 1.07% (9/842). There were 73.33% (44,160)of villages with cattle, and the largest amount cattle with 329 was found in Wufeng Village, Jiangxi Province. The cattle infection rate was 1.5 1% (4,913,242) in 3242 investigated cattle. The highest cattle infection rate was 4% in Tongxin Village, Jiangxi Province. The population of 47 099 was surveyed, the infection rate was 0.77% (364/47 099), and the highest was 4.37% in Xumuchang Village, Hunan Province. The infection rate was 0 in 43.33% (26/60) of villages. No acute schistosomiasis cases were reported in all the villages in 2011 and 2012. Totally, 77 snail spots in 60 villages were investigated, and 51 spots were marshland and 26 spots were ditches

  14. Selective removal of ATP degradation products from food matrices II: Rapid screening of hypoxanthine and inosine by molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion for evaluation of fish freshness.

    PubMed

    Cela-Pérez, M C; Barbosa-Pereira, L; Vecino, X; Pérez-Ameneiro, M; Lasagabaster Latorre, Aurora; López-Vilariño, J M; González Rodríguez, M V; Moldes, A B; Cruz, J M

    2015-04-01

    A water compatible molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), synthesized using theophylline (TPH) as dummy-template and acrylamide (AM) as functional monomer, has been employed as supporting material in matrix solid-phase dispersion combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (MSPD-UPLC-PDA) for selective determination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) derivatives in fish samples. ATP degradation products are used as freshness index for assessment of fish quality. The solid sample was directly blended with MIP in MSPD procedure resulting in sample disruption and subsequent adsorption of the compounds on the MIP. By using n-hexane and ammonium hydroxide aqueous solution at pH 9 as the washing and elution solvent, respectively, satisfactory recoveries and clean chromatograms have been obtained. Good linearity for hypoxanthine (HYP) and inosine (INO) has been observed with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9987 and 0.9986, respectively. The recoveries of the two ATP derivatives at three different spiked levels ranged from 106.5% to 113.4% for HYP and from 103.1% to 111.2% for INO, with average relative standard deviations lower than 4.2% in both cases. This new method, which is rapid, simple and sensitive, can be used as an alternative tool to conventional tedious methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Minimally invasive versus open surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture: a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingbo; Wang, Chuanying; Huo, Yanqing; Jia, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiqian

    2016-06-06

    A number of meta-analyses have been carried out to evaluate the effects of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) versus open surgery (OS) for acute Achilles tendon rupture. However, discordant findings were seen in these meta-analyses. The present study, performing a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses regarding MIS versus OS of acute Achilles tendon rupture, aimed to assist decision-makers interpret and choose among conflicting meta-analyses, as well as to offer treatment recommendations based on current best evidence. The literature search was performed to identify systematic reviews comparing MIS with OS for Achilles tendon rupture. Meta-analyses only comprising randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Two authors individually evaluated the quality of meta-analysis and extracted data. The Jadad decision algorithm was conducted to ascertain which meta-analysis offered the best evidence. A total of four meta-analyses was included. All these meta-analyses comprised RCTs or quasi-RCTs and were determined as Level-II evidence. The scores of the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) ranged from 7 to 10 (median 9.5). The Jadad algorithm indicated that the best meta-analysis should be chosen according to the search strategies and application of selection. A high-quality meta-analysis with more RCTs was chosen, which suggested that there was no statistically significant difference between MIS and OS regarding rerupture rate, tissue adhesion, sural nerve injury, deep infection, and deep vein thrombosis. However, MIS could decrease superficial infection rate, and had a better patient satisfaction for good to excellent outcomes in comparison to OS. Based on the best available evidence, MIS may be superior to OS for treating acute Achilles tendon rupture. However, due to some limitations, this should be cautiously interpreted, and further high-quality studies are needed.

  16. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: an updated meta-analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    OBJECTIVE – To determine if meta-analysis of recent clinical studies of cinnamon intake by people with Type II diabetes and/or prediabetes resulted in significant changes in fasting blood glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -- Published clinical studies were identified using a literature search (P...

  17. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047576 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  18. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047582 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  19. Rapid Reading, Yes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frommer, Harvey

    1971-01-01

    Recommends instruction in rapid reading fo high school and college students and asserts that flexibility of speed and reasoning provide the foundation for effective rapid reading. Describes the components of rapid reading as orientation, selection, clarification, arrangement, review, and study. (RW)

  20. Meta-learning in reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Doya, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Meta-parameters in reinforcement learning should be tuned to the environmental dynamics and the animal performance. Here, we propose a biologically plausible meta-reinforcement learning algorithm for tuning these meta-parameters in a dynamic, adaptive manner. We tested our algorithm in both a simulation of a Markov decision task and in a non-linear control task. Our results show that the algorithm robustly finds appropriate meta-parameter values, and controls the meta-parameter time course, in both static and dynamic environments. We suggest that the phasic and tonic components of dopamine neuron firing can encode the signal required for meta-learning of reinforcement learning.

  1. Effects of climate-induced increases in summer drought on riparian plant species: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garssen, Annemarie G; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Soons, Merel B

    2014-01-01

    1. Frequency and duration of summer droughts are predicted to increase in the near future in many parts of the world, with considerable anticipated effects on riparian plant community composition and species richness. Riparian plant communities along lowland streams are characterised by high species richness due to their system-specific environmental gradients. As these streams and their hydrological gradients are mainly rain-fed, they are sensitive to precipitation changes. 2. We conducted a literature survey and meta-analysis to examine the effects of an increase in summer drought on: (i) riparian plant biomass; (ii) riparian seedling survival and (iii) riparian plant species composition and richness. We also aimed to determine whether hydrological thresholds related to drought tolerance can be distinguished for riparian plant species. 3. ISI Web of Knowledge was searched for relevant peer-reviewed studies, and 23 papers were found that met our criteria and contained quantitative study results. To detect overall responses of biomass and seedling survival, a random-effects model was applied using Comprehensive Meta-analysis™ software. Regression curves were then fitted to response ratio data relating the effects on drought-impacted groups to those on control groups. 4. Our results showed that a drought duration of approximately >30 days strongly reduces riparian plant biomass and that a duration of approximately >30–35 days and high drought intensities (starting from 3 to 4 cm water table decline per day) can be detrimental for riparian seedling survival. Especially Populus and Salix seedlings showed a reduced survival in response to drought, in contrast to Tamarix seedlings, which have the ability to rapidly and expansively elongate their roots. The data also revealed that an increase in drought conditions rapidly leads to a decline of riparian species richness and an increased presence of species adjusted to drier conditions. 5. Riparian groundwater level

  2. Thought disorder in the meta-structure of psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, K. M.; Eaton, N. R.; Krueger, R. F.; Skodol, A. E.; Wall, M. M.; Grant, B.; Siever, L. J.; Hasin, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dimensional models of co-morbidity have the potential to improve the conceptualization of mental disorders in research and clinical work, yet little is known about how relatively uncommon disorders may fit with more common disorders. The present study estimated the meta-structure of psychopathology in the US general population focusing on the placement of five under-studied disorders sharing features of thought disorder: paranoid, schizoid, avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders, and manic episodes as well as bipolar disorder. Method Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a face-to-face interview of 34 653 non-institutionalized adults in the US general population. The meta-structure of 16 DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders, as assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV version (AUDADIS-IV), was examined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results We document an empirically derived thought disorder factor that is a subdomain of the internalizing dimension, characterized by schizoid, paranoid, schizotypal and avoidant personality disorders as well as manic episodes. Manic episodes exhibit notable associations with both the distress subdomain of the internalizing dimension as well as the thought disorder subdomain. The structure was replicated for bipolar disorder (I or II) in place of manic episodes. Conclusions As our understanding of psychopathological meta-structure expands, incorporation of disorders characterized by detachment and psychoticism grows increasingly important. Disorders characterized by detachment and psychoticism may be well conceptualized, organized and measured as a subdimension of the internalizing spectrum of disorders. Manic episodes and bipolar disorder exhibit substantial co-morbidity across both distress and thought disorder domains of the internalizing dimension. Clinically, these results

  3. Meta-Transcriptomic Analysis of a Chromate-Reducing Aquifer Microbial Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.; Han, R.; Karaoz, U.

    2010-12-01

    A major challenge for microbial ecology that has become more tractable in the advent of new molecular techniques is characterizing gene expression in complex microbial communities. We are using meta-transcriptomic analysis to characterize functional changes in an aquifer-derived, chromate-reducing microbial community as it transitions through various electron-accepting conditions. We inoculated anaerobic microcosms with groundwater from the Cr-contaminated Hanford 100H site and supplemented them with lactate and electron acceptors present at the site, namely, nitrate, sulfate, and Fe(III). The microcosms progressed successively through various electron-accepting conditions (e.g., denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and ferric iron-reducing conditions, as well as nitrate-dependent, chemolithotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing conditions). Cr(VI) was rapidly reduced initially and again upon further Cr(VI) amendments. Extensive geochemical sampling and analysis (e.g., lactate, acetate, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, dissolved Cr(VI), total Fe(II)), RNA/DNA harvesting, and PhyloChip analyses were conducted. Methods were developed for removal of rRNA from total RNA in preparation for meta-transcriptome sequencing. To date, samples representing denitrifying and fermentative/sulfate-reducing conditions have been sequenced using 454 Titanium technology. Of the non-rRNA related reads for the denitrifying sample (which was also actively reducing chromate), ca. 8% were associated with denitrification and ca. 0.9% were associated with chromate resistance/transport, in contrast to the fermentative/sulfate-reducing sample (in which chromate had already been reduced), which had zero reads associated with either of these categories but many predicted proteins associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria. We observed sequences for key functional transcripts that were unique at the nucleotide level compared to the GenBank non-redundant database [such as L-lactate dehydrogenase (iron

  4. Better GGA and meta-GGA Functionals: VT84, meta-VMT, meta-VT84

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela, Alberto; Martin Del Campo, J.; Gazquez, J. L.; Trickey, S. B.

    2011-03-01

    The goal of fast DFT calculations on large families of highly complicated systems (e.g. large clusters, biomolecules) implicitly conflicts with the heavy emphasis of recent years on inclusion of exact exchange. In response we have worked on improving non-empirical GGA X functionals. Here we report extension of our VMT GGA functional (J. Chem. Phys. 130 244103 (2009)) to satisfy a relevant asymptotic constraint, yielding the VT{84} X functional. With the PBE C functional, VT{84} gives about 10% improvement over VMT in energetics on the G3 223 molecule set. At the meta-GGA level of complexity, we have both meta-VMT and meta-{84}. The former is about 10% better on the G3 set than the TPSS meta-GGA, while meta-VT{84} gives roughly 10% further improvement over meta-VMT. Details of these assessments, including improvements in chemical shifts, will be presented. SBT acknowledges US DOE Grant DE-SC0002139.

  5. Meta-evaluation of meta-analysis: ten appraisal questions for biologists.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Noble, Daniel W A; Senior, Alistair M; Lagisz, Malgorzata

    2017-03-03

    Meta-analysis is a statistical procedure for analyzing the combined data from different studies, and can be a major source of concise up-to-date information. The overall conclusions of a meta-analysis, however, depend heavily on the quality of the meta-analytic process, and an appropriate evaluation of the quality of meta-analysis (meta-evaluation) can be challenging. We outline ten questions biologists can ask to critically appraise a meta-analysis. These questions could also act as simple and accessible guidelines for the authors of meta-analyses. We focus on meta-analyses using non-human species, which we term 'biological' meta-analysis. Our ten questions are aimed at enabling a biologist to evaluate whether a biological meta-analysis embodies 'mega-enlightenment', a 'mega-mistake', or something in between.

  6. Adiabatic Betatron deceleration of ionospheric charged particles: a new explanation for (i) the rapid outflow of ionospheric O ions, and for (ii) the increase of plasma mass density observed in magnetospheric flux tubes during main phases of geomagnetic s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Joseph; Pierrard, Viviane; Darrouzet, Fabien

    2013-04-01

    Using European arrays of magnetometers and the cross-phase analysis to determine magnetic field line resonance frequencies, it has been found by Kale et al. (2009) that the plasma mass density within plasmaspheric flux tubes increased rapidly after the SSC of the Hallowe'en 2003 geomagnetic storms. These observations tend to confirm other independent experimental results, suggesting that heavy ion up-flow from the ionosphere is responsible for the observed plasma density increases during main phases of geomagnetic storms. The aim of our contribution is to point out that, during main phases, reversible Betatron effect induced by the increase of the southward Dst-magnetic field component (|Δ Bz|), diminishes slightly the perpendicular kinetic energy (W?) of charged particles spiraling along field lines. Furthermore, due to the conservation of the first adiabatic invariant (μ = Wm/ Bm) the mirror points of all ionospheric ions and electrons are lifted up to higher altitudes i.e. where the mirror point magnetic field (Bm) is slightly smaller. Note that the change of the mirror point altitude is given by: Δ hm = -1/3 (RE + hm) Δ Bm / Bm. It is independent of the ion species and it does not depend of their kinetic energy. The change of kinetic energy is determined by: Δ Wm = Wm Δ Bm / Bm. Both of these equations have been verified numerically by Lemaire et al. (2005; doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00099-1) using trajectory calculations in a simple time-dependant B-field model: i.e. the Earth's magnetic dipole, plus an increasing southward B-field component: i.e. the Dst magnetic field whose intensity becomes more and more negative during the main phase of magnetic storms. They showed that a variation of Bz (or Dst) by more than - 50 nT significantly increases the mirror point altitudes by more than 100 km which is about equal to scale height of the plasma density in the topside ionosphere where particles are almost collisionless (see Fig. 2 in Lemaire et al., 2005

  7. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  8. Delta II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Delta II expendable launch vehicle with the ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite), cooperative space X-ray astronomy mission between NASA, Germany and United Kingdom, was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on June 1, 1990.

  9. META II Complex Systems Design and Analysis (CODA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    58  Figure 36: Visualization of AEE Algorithm Trace Through Design Space Binary Tree... interface specification among sub-systems is of critical importance in this framework and Contract-Based Design (CBD) is a methodology that comes to help... algorithms , optimization and software development. A great deal of domain knowledge is also required and need to be considered as an orthogonal axis so

  10. Meta assembler enhancements and generalized linkage editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A meta Assembler for NASA was developed. The initial development of the Meta Assembler for the SUMC was performed. The capabilities included assembly for both main and micro level programs. A period of checkout and utilization to verify the performance of the Meta Assembler was undertaken. Additional enhancements were made to the Meta Assembler which expanded the target computer family to include architectures represented by the PDP-11, MODCOMP 2, and Raytheon 706 computers.

  11. Meta-Teaching: Meaning and Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaoduan

    2013-01-01

    Meta-teaching is the knowledge and reflection on teaching based on meta-ideas. It is the teaching about teaching, a teaching process with practice consciously guided by thinking, inspiring teachers to teach more effectively. Meta-teaching is related to the knowledge, inspection and amendment of teaching activities in terms of their design,…

  12. Concurrent Meta-Evaluation: A Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanssen, Carl E.; Lawrenz, Frances; Dunet, Diane O.

    2008-01-01

    Meta-evaluations reported in the literature, although rare, often have focused on retrospective assessment of completed evaluations. Conducting a meta-evaluation concurrently with the evaluation modifies this approach. This method provides the opportunity for the meta-evaluators to advise the evaluators and provides the basis for a summative…

  13. Concurrent Meta-Evaluation: A Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanssen, Carl E.; Lawrenz, Frances; Dunet, Diane O.

    2008-01-01

    Meta-evaluations reported in the literature, although rare, often have focused on retrospective assessment of completed evaluations. Conducting a meta-evaluation concurrently with the evaluation modifies this approach. This method provides the opportunity for the meta-evaluators to advise the evaluators and provides the basis for a summative…

  14. Meta-Teaching: Meaning and Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaoduan

    2013-01-01

    Meta-teaching is the knowledge and reflection on teaching based on meta-ideas. It is the teaching about teaching, a teaching process with practice consciously guided by thinking, inspiring teachers to teach more effectively. Meta-teaching is related to the knowledge, inspection and amendment of teaching activities in terms of their design,…

  15. Micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes of cancer patients: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Iarmarcovai, G; Ceppi, M; Botta, A; Orsière, T; Bonassi, S

    2008-01-01

    Micronuclei (MN) frequency is a biomarker of chromosomal damage, genome instability, and cancer risk that integrates acquired mutations and genetic susceptibility. To evaluate and summarize the evidence reporting association between cancer and MN formation, we performed a meta-analysis assessing the frequency of this biomarker in cancer patients. Findings from 37 publications were retrieved through an extensive search of the MedLine/PubMed database. Given the heterogeneity of the study design, all studies were re-classified into three groups: (i) baseline MN frequency of untreated cancer patients (25 studies), (ii) induced MN frequency in thyroid cancer patients undergoing radioiodine treatment (9 studies), and (iii) radiosensitivity of lymphocytes (12 studies) in untreated cancer patients. A meta-estimate of the frequency ratio (meta-FR) was computed in each group. A significant increase of MN frequency was found in untreated cancer patients (meta-FR=1.45; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 1.28-1.64) and in thyroid cancer patients after radioiodine treatment (meta-FR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.90-2.68). The third meta-analysis showed a negative trend of meta-FR's when plotted vs. the dose used to study patients' radiosensitivity, possibly associated to a high rate of apoptosis. The results of this review substantiate the existing evidence about a role of MN in various steps of carcinogenesis. The relatively small numbers of papers suitable for the meta-analysis call for new and larger studies, possibly based on high-throughput techniques, to further understand the role of MN formation in the occurrence of genetic instability and cancer.

  16. Trait and social anxiety in adults with chronic stuttering: conclusions following meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ashley; Tran, Yvonne

    2014-06-01

    The relationship between chronic stuttering and anxiety has been a matter of some debate over the past two decades, with a major emphasis of research focused on examining whether people who stutter have abnormally elevated levels of trait or social anxiety. The major goal of this paper was to perform a systematic literature review and perform meta-analyses on research that has assessed (i) trait anxiety and (ii) social anxiety, in adults who stutter. Only studies that met strict inclusion criteria were selected for the meta-analyses. Two meta-analyses were conducted, the first for trait anxiety, and the second for social anxiety. Meta-analysis combines statistically the results of selected studies that meet strict design criteria, thereby clarifying the size of differences in trait and social anxiety between adults who stutter and adults who do not stutter. Meta-analytic results confirmed that adults with chronic stuttering do have substantially elevated trait and social anxiety. The overall effect size for trait and social anxiety was calculated to be .57 and .82, respectively. Trait and social anxiety are definite problems for many adults who stutter. Clinical implications of these findings for the diagnosis and treatment of adult who stutter are discussed. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the process of conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis; (b) describe the possible impact of publication bias on meta-analysis results; (c) explain the impact of a chronic disorder like stuttering on levels of trait anxiety; (d) explain the impact of stuttering on levels of social anxiety; (e) interpret the results of meta-analysis when applied to differences in anxiety between adult people who stutter and those who do not stutter; and (f) describe implications for fluency enhancing treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapidly solidified materials, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.W.; Carbonara, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on phase transformations in metals. Topics considered at the conference included rapidly solidified titanium alloys, aging response of rapidly solidified titanium-tungsten alloys, silicon diffusion in amorphous alloys, crystalline transformation, structural relaxation, crystallization, surface oxidation, metallic glasses, magnetic properties, calorimetry, microscopy, nucleation, texture formation, austenitic steels, elevated temperature ductility loss, precipitation in a rapidly solidified alloy, energy savings through the use of amorphous steels in distribution transformers, and a review of the uses of rapidly quenched materials by the major industrial groups.

  18. Rh(III)-Catalyzed meta-C-H Olefination Directed by a Nitrile Template.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Jin; Lu, Yi; Farmer, Marcus E; Wang, Huai-Wei; Zhao, Dan; Kang, Yan-Shang; Sun, Wei-Yin; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2017-02-15

    A range of Rh(III)-catalyzed ortho-C-H functionalizations have been developed; however, extension of this reactivity to remote C-H functionalizations through large-ring rhodacyclic intermediates has yet to be demonstrated. Herein we report the first example of the use of a U-shaped nitrile template to direct Rh(III)-catalyzed remote meta-C-H activation via a postulated 12-membered macrocyclic intermediate. Because the ligands used for Rh(III) catalysts are significantly different from those of Pd(II) catalysts, this offers new opportunities for future development of ligand-promoted meta-C-H activation reactions.

  19. AGEX II: Technical quarterly, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.

    1995-03-01

    The AGEX II Technical Quarterly publishes short technical contributions on above ground experiments that use pulsed power and laser drivers. The Quarterly is intended to provide rapid exposure of timely technical ideas and results as well as a means for documenting AGEX II progress and scientific quality for the AGEX II community. Suitable topics include experimental results, diagnostic apparatus, theoretical design, and scaling, among others.

  20. Meta-PCR: a novel method for creating chimeric DNA molecules and increasing the productivity of mutation scanning techniques.

    PubMed

    Wallace, A J; Wu, C L; Elles, R G

    1999-01-01

    Many mutation scanning techniques are capable of locating mutations in DNA fragments much larger than the average exon. We have developed a system called Meta-PCR that can maximize the length of sequence scanned by these techniques, improving their productivity and realizing their full potential. Meta-PCR is a simple, versatile, and powerful method for generating chimeric DNA molecules. Currently, up to five PCR amplifiable fragments can be combined to form a single linear amplimer. The Meta-PCR reaction is self-assembling and takes place in two coupled stages carried out in a single reaction vessel. The order of fragments is reproducible and determined by primer design. We have developed two Meta-PCR assays, one comprising exons 6-10 of the Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) gene and the second exons 8-12 of the human mismatch repair gene, hMLH1. We verified by direct sequencing that the order and sequence of the component exons in the Meta-PCR products is as predicted. Meta-PCR products from seven previously ascertained heterozygotes for NF2 mutations were directly sequenced. All seven mutations were clearly visible as mixed bases at the expected nucleotide, confirming that Meta-PCR faithfully reproduces the original sample genotype. We have evaluated the downstream use of the NF2 Meta-PCR products in fluorescent solid-phase chemical cleavage of mismatches (CCM). Meta-PCR products from eleven NF2 mutant heterozygotes were screened retrospectively for piperidine cleavage after hydroxylamine or potassium permanganate modification of mismatched bases. Ten of the 11 mutants were detected by visible cleavage. One mutation predicted to be cleaved after potassium permanganate modification was not detected. However, we were able to attribute this false negative to a failure in the CCM method. Meta-PCR is likely to be useful to clinical molecular diagnostic laboratories, helping them to fulfill demand for rapid and accurate screening for point mutations in large multi

  1. Gifted Rapid Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schale, Florence

    A preliminary study is reported which attempted to define gifted rapid readers, authenticate the performances of three subjects who were designated as gifted rapid readers, and explore the relationship of a subject's ability to perceive print eidetically and to read and/or skim. Volunteer subjects were a 15-year-old girl from the Philippines, a…

  2. Modeling rapidly rotating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieutord, M.

    2006-06-01

    We review the quest of modeling rapidly rotating stars during the past 40 years and detail the challenges to be taken up by models facing new data from interferometry, seismology, spectroscopy... We then present the progress of the ESTER project aimed at giving a physically self-consistent model for the structure and evolution of rapidly rotating stars.

  3. Class Size Reduction or Rapid Formative Assessment?: A Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of class size reduction (CSR) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of rapid formative assessment, a promising alternative for raising student achievement. Drawing upon existing meta-analyses of the effects of student-teacher ratio, evaluations of CSR in Tennessee, California, and Wisconsin, and RAND cost estimates, CSR…

  4. Class Size Reduction or Rapid Formative Assessment?: A Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of class size reduction (CSR) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of rapid formative assessment, a promising alternative for raising student achievement. Drawing upon existing meta-analyses of the effects of student-teacher ratio, evaluations of CSR in Tennessee, California, and Wisconsin, and RAND cost estimates, CSR…

  5. [Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: different or equivalent?].

    PubMed

    Mounier-Vehier, C; Devos, P

    ARA-II: Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA-II) belong to a recent class of antihypertensive drugs whose mechanism of action is similar to converting enzyme inhibitors (CEI). ARA-II are particularly interesting due to the excellent clinical and biological tolerance, similar to placebo, and their antihypertensive efficacy, comparable with classical drug classes. PUBLISHED TRIALS: A meta-analysis, published by Conlin in the American Journal of Hypertension, suggests that ARA-II, specifically losartan, valsartan, irbesartan and candesartan, have an equipotent blood pressure lowering effect. The careful lecture of this meta-analysis however discloses a faulty methodology from which no valid conclusion can be drawn. Since this early publication, several other comparative studies have been published. These multicentric, randomized double-blind studies enrolled a sufficient number of patients and demonstrated a clinical difference between certain ARA-II at usual dosages. CLINICAL PRACTICE: These studies do have an impact on everyday practice. For the practitioner, the goal is to obtain and then maintain a long-term and optimal reduction in the blood pressure level (reduction or prevention of target-organ disorders and cardiovascular complications of high blood pressure). This reduction in the cardiovascular risk will also depend directly on tolerance and compliance to the antihypertensive treatment. This element must also be considered in assessing treatment efficacy, independent of the blood pressure lowering effect. The results of several other studies will be published in 2001-2003. These large-scale studies on ARA-II related morbidity and mortality will be most useful in determining the role of these drugs in different therapeutic strategies compared with other drug classes.

  6. Rapid improvement teams.

    PubMed

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  7. Parallel-META 3: Comprehensive taxonomical and functional analysis platform for efficient comparison of microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Gongchao; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Honglei; Gong, Yanhai; Huang, Shi; Ning, Kang; Xu, Jian; Su, Xiaoquan

    2017-01-01

    The number of metagenomes is increasing rapidly. However, current methods for metagenomic analysis are limited by their capability for in-depth data mining among a large number of microbiome each of which carries a complex community structure. Moreover, the complexity of configuring and operating computational pipeline also hinders efficient data processing for the end users. In this work we introduce Parallel-META 3, a comprehensive and fully automatic computational toolkit for rapid data mining among metagenomic datasets, with advanced features including 16S rRNA extraction for shotgun sequences, 16S rRNA copy number calibration, 16S rRNA based functional prediction, diversity statistics, bio-marker selection, interaction network construction, vector-graph-based visualization and parallel computing. Application of Parallel-META 3 on 5,337 samples with 1,117,555,208 sequences from diverse studies and platforms showed it could produce similar results as QIIME and PICRUSt with much faster speed and lower memory usage, which demonstrates its ability to unravel the taxonomical and functional dynamics patterns across large datasets and elucidate ecological links between microbiome and the environment. Parallel-META 3 is implemented in C/C++ and R, and integrated into an executive package for rapid installation and easy access under Linux and Mac OS X. Both binary and source code packages are available at http://bioinfo.single-cell.cn/parallel-meta.html. PMID:28079128

  8. Parallel-META 3: Comprehensive taxonomical and functional analysis platform for efficient comparison of microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Jing, Gongchao; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Honglei; Gong, Yanhai; Huang, Shi; Ning, Kang; Xu, Jian; Su, Xiaoquan

    2017-01-12

    The number of metagenomes is increasing rapidly. However, current methods for metagenomic analysis are limited by their capability for in-depth data mining among a large number of microbiome each of which carries a complex community structure. Moreover, the complexity of configuring and operating computational pipeline also hinders efficient data processing for the end users. In this work we introduce Parallel-META 3, a comprehensive and fully automatic computational toolkit for rapid data mining among metagenomic datasets, with advanced features including 16S rRNA extraction for shotgun sequences, 16S rRNA copy number calibration, 16S rRNA based functional prediction, diversity statistics, bio-marker selection, interaction network construction, vector-graph-based visualization and parallel computing. Application of Parallel-META 3 on 5,337 samples with 1,117,555,208 sequences from diverse studies and platforms showed it could produce similar results as QIIME and PICRUSt with much faster speed and lower memory usage, which demonstrates its ability to unravel the taxonomical and functional dynamics patterns across large datasets and elucidate ecological links between microbiome and the environment. Parallel-META 3 is implemented in C/C++ and R, and integrated into an executive package for rapid installation and easy access under Linux and Mac OS X. Both binary and source code packages are available at http://bioinfo.single-cell.cn/parallel-meta.html.

  9. Signaling states of rhodopsin: absorption of light in active metarhodopsin II generates an all-trans-retinal bound inactive state.

    PubMed

    Bartl, F J; Ritter, E; Hofmann, K P

    2001-08-10

    Absorption of light in rhodopsin leads through 11-cis- and all-trans-retinal isomerization, proton transfers, and structural changes to the active G-protein binding meta-II state. When meta-II is photolysed by blue light absorption, the activating pathway is apparently reverted, and rhodopsin is photoregenerated. However, the product formed, a P subspecies with A(max) = 500 nm (P(500)), is different from the ground state based on the following observations: (i) the ground state fingerprint of 11-cis-retinal does not appear in the infrared spectra, although the proton transfers and structural changes are reverted; (ii) extraction of the retinal from P(500) does not yield the expected stoichiometric amount of 11-cis-retinal but predominantly yields all-trans-retinal; (iii) the infrared spectrum of P(500) is similar to the classical meta-III intermediate, which arises from meta-II by thermal decay; and (iv) both P(500) and meta-III can be photoconverted to meta-II with the same changes in the infrared spectrum and without a significant change in the isomerization state of the extracted chromophore. The data indicate the presence of a "second switch" between active and inactive conformations that operates by photolysis but without isomerization around the C(11)-C(12) double bond. This emphasizes the exclusivity of the ground state, which is only accessible by the metabolic regeneration with 11-cis-retinal.

  10. Meta-case based realization of design rationale management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, G.

    1996-12-31

    System design is an iterative, creative, and cooperative process where informal ideas are transformed into a detailed definition of how a system can be implemented. Design rationale aims at capturing and preserving the why underlying the what, the argument behind the artifact in the design process. Recording deliberations of the design process therefore promises benefits for the overall system engineering life cycle. Providing adequate computer support for design rationale is an interesting issue and a real need for effective application. A design rationale management system (DRMS) supports the capturing, storing and retrieval of interaction rationale in a shared corporate knowledge base and allows organizational learning through long-term and inter-project reuse. The intent of meta-CASE systems is to capture the specification of a required CASE tool and then generate the tool for actual production from the specification. In this paper we identify the requirements for a DRMS and investigate the applicability of meta-CASE tools for the implementation of DRMS`s. Furthermore we describe the experiences gained in the development of two DRMS`s adopting the meta CASE tools MaestroII GED/TCI and Hardy.

  11. Multicenter comparative study of a new ELISA, PLATELIA RABIES II, for the detection and titration of anti-rabies glycoprotein antibodies and comparison with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) on human samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated people.

    PubMed

    Feyssaguet, M; Dacheux, L; Audry, L; Compoint, A; Morize, J L; Blanchard, I; Bourhy, H

    2007-03-08

    The envelope glycoprotein G of rabies virus induces the production of neutralising antibodies, which are important in protection against rabies. Therefore, titration of anti-envelope glycoprotein antibodies is a good indicator of the degree of immunity in people during anti-rabies treatment or after vaccination. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, a booster vaccine dose should be given if the rabies antibody titre falls below 0.5 IU/ml. Titration of anti-rabies antibodies is also useful for plasma centers in the preparation and standardization of human anti-rabies gamma-globulins for therapeutic use and to a lesser extent for the diagnosis of rabies in human sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This paper presents a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), PLATELIA RABIES II, developed for rabies envelope glycoprotein antibody detection or titration and its comparison to the current reference method (RFFIT). The data collected during validation of the test in a multicenter study are analysed to give a sound overall knowledge of the capabilities of the PLATELIA RABIES II, for instance specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, detection limit and quantitation limit. To this aim, human serum samples from a total of 1348 vaccinated or non-vaccinated people were tested in parallel using the new ELISA and the RFFIT for the presence of anti-rabies antibodies. Data generated indicate a linear relationship across the range of titration between the two methods. The sensitivity reaches 98.6% and the specificity 99.4%. This study indicates that this new ELISA test is as sensitive and specific as the current standardized reference method. The method is simple, safe, rapid and can be considered as a useful alternative to the neutralisation test.

  12. Program Logics for Homogeneous Meta-programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Martin; Tratt, Laurence

    A meta-program is a program that generates or manipulates another program; in homogeneous meta-programming, a program may generate new parts of, or manipulate, itself. Meta-programming has been used extensively since macros were introduced to Lisp, yet we have little idea how formally to reason about meta-programs. This paper provides the first program logics for homogeneous meta-programming - using a variant of MiniML_e^{square} by Davies and Pfenning as underlying meta-programming language. We show the applicability of our approach by reasoning about example meta-programs from the literature. We also demonstrate that our logics are relatively complete in the sense of Cook, enable the inductive derivation of characteristic formulae, and exactly capture the observational properties induced by the operational semantics.

  13. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  14. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  15. FAQs II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Frank, Vikki; Lester, Jaime; Yang, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    In their paper entitled "Why should postsecondary institutions consider partnering to offer (Individual Development Accounts (IDAs)?" the authors reviewed frequently asked questions they encountered from higher education professionals about IDAs, but as their research continued so did the questions. FAQ II has more in-depth questions and…

  16. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.; Shu, Huidy; Haman, Aissa; Sejvar, James J.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with more common dementing conditions that typically develop over years, rapidly progressive dementias can develop subacutely over months, weeks, or even days and be quickly fatal. Because many rapidly progressive dementias are treatable, it is paramount to evaluate and diagnose these patients quickly. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the major categories of RPD and outlines efficient approaches to the diagnosis of the various neurodegenerative, toxic-metabolic, infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and other conditions that may progress rapidly. PMID:18668637

  17. Rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christian; Wolff, Martin; Weitz, Michael; Bartlau, Thomas; Korth, Carsten; Zerr, Inga

    2011-09-01

    Different rates of progression have been observed among patients with Alzheimer disease. Risk factors that accelerate deterioration have been identified and some are being discussed, such as genetics, comorbidity, and the early appearance of Alzheimer disease motor signs. Progressive forms of Alzheimer disease have been reported with rapid cognitive decline and disease duration of only a few years. This short review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, we suggest that rapid, in this context, should be defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score decrease of 6 points per year.

  18. Gamma II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, M.; Cline, J.; Owen, L.; Boehme, J.; Rottler, L.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.

    2011-05-01

    GAMMA II is the Guide Star Automatic Measuring MAchine relocated from STScI to the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). GAMMA II is a multi-channel laser-scanning microdensitometer that was used to measure POSS and SERC plates to create the Guide Star Catalog and the Digital Sky Survey. The microdensitometer is designed with submicron accuracy in x and y measurements using a HP 5507 laser interferometer, 15 micron sampling, and the capability to measure plates as large as 0.5-m across. GAMMA II is a vital instrument for the success of digitizing the direct, objective prism, and spectra photographic plate collections in APDA for research. We plan several targeted projects. One is a collaboration with Drs. P.D. Hemenway and R. L. Duncombe who plan to scan 1000 plates of 34 minor planets to identify systematic errors in the Fundamental System of celestial coordinates. Another is a collaboration with Dr. R. Hudec (Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) who is working within the Gaia Variability Unit CU7 to digitize objective prism spectra on the Henize plates and Burrell-Schmidt plates located in APDA. These low dispersion spectral plates provide optical counterparts of celestial high-energy sources and cataclysmic variables enabling the simulation of Gaia BP/RP outputs. The astronomical community is invited to explore the more than 140,000 plates from 20 observatories now archived in APDA, and use GAMMA II. The process of relocating GAMMA to APDA, re-commissioning, and starting up the production scan programs will be described. Also, we will present planned research and future upgrades to GAMMA II.

  19. Genomewide meta-analysis identifies novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To perform a one-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility and explore functional consequences of new susceptibility loci. Methods We synthesized 7 MS GWAS. Each dataset was imputed using HapMap phase II and a per-SNP meta-analysis was performed across the 7 datasets. We explored RNA expression data using a quantitative trait analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 228 subjects with demyelinating disease. Results We meta-analyzed 2,529,394 unique SNPs in 5,545 cases and 12,153 controls. We identified three novel susceptibility alleles: rs170934T at 3p24.1 (OR=1.17, P = 1.6 × 10−8) near EOMES, rs2150702G in the second intron of MLANA on chromosome 9p24.1 (OR = 1.16, P = 3.3 × 10−8), and rs6718520A in an intergenic region on chromosome 2p21, with THADA as the nearest flanking gene (OR = 1.17, P = 3.4 × 10−8). The three new loci do not have a strong “cis” effect on RNA expression in PBMCs. Ten other susceptibility loci had a suggestive P<1×10−6, some of which have evidence of association in other inflammatory diseases, i.e. IL12B, TAGAP, PLEK, and ZMIZ1. Interpretation We have performed a meta-analysis of GWAS in MS that more than doubles the size of previous gene discovery efforts and highlights three novel MS susceptibility loci. These and additional loci with suggestive evidence of association are excellent candidates for further investigations to refine and validate their role in the genetic architecture of MS. PMID:22190364

  20. (Meta)Search like Google

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochkind, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The ability to search and receive results in more than one database through a single interface--or metasearch--is something many users want. Google Scholar--the search engine of specifically scholarly content--and library metasearch products like Ex Libris's MetaLib, Serials Solution's Central Search, WebFeat, and products based on MuseGlobal used…

  1. Hydropower RAPID Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    2016-12-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit including its capabilities, features, and benefits.

  2. ISS-RapidScat

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-22

    Artist rendering of NASA ISS-RapidScat instrument inset, which will launch to the International Space Station in 2014 to measure ocean surface wind speed and direction and help improve weather forecasts, including hurricane monitoring.

  3. RAPID and DDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utz, Hans Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    This talk gives an overview of the the Robot Applications Programmers Interface Delegate (RAPID) as well as the distributed systems middleware Data Distribution Service (DDS). DDS is an open software standard, RAPID is cleared for open-source release under NOSA. RAPID specifies data-structures and semantics for high-level telemetry published by NASA robotic software. These data-structures are supported by multiple robotic platforms at Johnson Space Center (JSC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Ames Research Center (ARC), providing high-level interoperability between those platforms. DDS is used as the middleware for data transfer. The feature set of the middleware heavily influences the design decision made in the RAPID specification. So it is appropriate to discuss both in this introductory talk.

  4. Deconstruction Rapid Assessment Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Deconstruction Rapid Assessment Tool (EPA 905-F-15-001) instructions, form and spreadsheet for assessing and triaging structures being considered for deconstruction. Promote environmental stewardship and economic revitalization through deconstruction.

  5. A new chelating resin for preconcentration and determination of Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maheswari, Mohan A; Subramanian, Mandakolathur S

    2003-01-01

    A new polychelatogen, AXAD-16-1,2-diphenylethanolamine, was developed by chemically modifying Amberlite XAD-16 with 1,2-diphenylethanolamine to produce an effective metal-chelating functionality for the preconcentration of Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Various physiochemical parameters that influence the quantitative preconcentration and recovery of metal were optimized by both static and dynamic techniques. The resin showed superior extraction efficiency with high-metal loading capacity values of 0.73, 0.80, 0.77, 0.87, 0.74, and 0.81 mmol/g for Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The system also showed rapid metal-ion extraction and stripping, with complete saturation in the sorbent phase within 15 min for all the metal ions. The optimum condition for effective metal-ion extraction was found to be a neutral pH, which is a great advantage in the preconcentration of trace metal ions from natural water samples without any chemical pretreatment of the sample. The resin also demonstrated exclusive ion selectivity toward targeted metal ions by showing greater resistivity to various complexing species and more common metal ions during analyte concentration, which ultimately led to high preconcentration factors of 700 for Cu(II); 600 for Mn(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II); and 500 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), arising from a larger sample breakthrough volume. The lower limits of metal-ion detection were 7 ng/mL for Mn(II) and Ni(II); 5 ng/mL for Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II), and 10 ng/mL for Pb(II). The developed resin was successful in preconcentrating metal ions from synthetic and real water samples, multivitamin-multimineral tablets, and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) with relative standard deviations of < or = 3.0% for all analytical measurements, which demonstrated its practical utility.

  6. USING THE AMSTAR CHECKLIST FOR RAPID REVIEWS: IS IT FEASIBLE?

    PubMed

    Mattivi, Jessica Tajana; Buchberger, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Rapid reviews can be conducted in a narrower time frame, as compared to systematic reviews, by featuring restrictions. To estimate the validity of the results, assessment of methodological quality is required. Our aim was to analyze the methodological restrictions of rapid reviews compared with systematic reviews using the AMSTAR checklist and assess its feasibility for rapid reviews. A systematic search for literature on rapid reviews of surgical interventions was conducted in three databases: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library. Additionally, health technology assessment (HTA) databases were searched. We analyzed reviews using AMSTAR and additionally compared the results with those of an overview of reviews on the same topic. Items found more frequently in rapid reviews were search for gray literature (65 percent versus 33 percent), listing of excluded studies (59 percent versus 37 percent), and provision of study characteristics (77 percent versus 44 percent), whereas consideration of study quality in formulating conclusions, conduct of meta-analysis, and statement of conflicts of interest were less frequent. Median time between search and publication was 8 months, with a range between 1 and 27. With some adjustments, AMSTAR can be used as a checklist for rapid reviews to describe methodological restrictions in comparison to systematic reviews and to roughly estimate the validity of the results. Strikingly, only 14.3 percent of rapid reviews were published within 3 months.

  7. Surgical Versus Conservative Intervention for Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: A PRISMA-Compliant Systematic Review of Overlapping Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Tang, Hao; He, Qianyun; Wei, Qiang; Tong, Dake; Wang, Chuangfeng; Wu, Dajiang; Wang, Guangchao; Zhang, Xin; Ding, Wenbin; Li, Di; Ding, Chen; Liu, Kang; Ji, Fang

    2015-11-01

    Although many meta-analyses comparing surgical intervention with conservative treatment have been conducted for acute Achilles tendon rupture, discordant conclusions are shown. This study systematically reviewed the overlapping meta-analyses relating to surgical versus conservative intervention of acute Achilles tendon rupture to assist decision makers select among conflicting meta-analyses, and to offer intervention recommendations based on the currently best evidence.Multiple databases were comprehensively searched for meta-analyses comparing surgical with conservative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. Meta-analyses only comprising randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Two authors independently evaluated the meta-analysis quality and extracted data. The Jadad decision algorithm was applied to ascertain which meta-analysis offered the best evidence.A total of 9 meta-analyses were included. Only RCTs were determined as Level-II evidence. The scores of Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) ranged from 5 to 10 (median 7). A high-quality meta-analysis with more RCTs was selected according to the Jadad decision algorithm. This study found that when functional rehabilitation was used, conservative intervention was equal to surgical treatment regarding the incidence of rerupture, range of motion, calf circumference, and functional outcomes, while reducing the incidence of other complications. Where functional rehabilitation was not performed, conservative intervention could significantly increase rerupture rate.Conservative intervention may be preferred for acute Achilles tendon rupture at centers offering functional rehabilitation, because it shows a similar rerupture rate with a lower risk of other complications when compared with surgical treatment. However, surgical treatment should be considered at centers without functional rehabilitation as this can reduce the incidence of rerupture.

  8. Multi-objective optimization of gear forging process based on adaptive surrogate meta-models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanjuan; Labergere, Carl; Lafon, Pascal; Daniel, Laurent

    2013-05-01

    In forging industry, net shape or near net shape forging of gears has been the subject of considerable research effort in the last few decades. So in this paper, a multi-objective optimization methodology of net shape gear forging process design has been discussed. The study is mainly done in four parts: building parametric CAD geometry model, simulating the forging process, fitting surrogate meta-models and optimizing the process by using an advanced algorithm. In order to maximally appropriate meta-models of the real response, an adaptive meta-model based design strategy has been applied. This is a continuous process: first, bui Id a preliminary version of the meta-models after the initial simulated calculations; second, improve the accuracy and update the meta-models by adding some new representative samplings. By using this iterative strategy, the number of the initial sample points for real numerical simulations is greatly decreased and the time for the forged gear design is significantly shortened. Finally, an optimal design for an industrial application of a 27-teeth gear forging process was introduced, which includes three optimization variables and two objective functions. A 3D FE nu merical simulation model is used to realize the process and an advanced thermo-elasto-visco-plastic constitutive equation is considered to represent the material behavior. The meta-model applied for this example is kriging and the optimization algorithm is NSGA-II. At last, a relatively better Pareto optimal front (POF) is gotten with gradually improving the obtained surrogate meta-models.

  9. Nonindependence and sensitivity analyses in ecological and evolutionary meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Noble, Daniel W A; Lagisz, Malgorzata; O'dea, Rose E; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2017-05-01

    Meta-analysis is an important tool for synthesizing research on a variety of topics in ecology and evolution, including molecular ecology, but can be susceptible to nonindependence. Nonindependence can affect two major interrelated components of a meta-analysis: (i) the calculation of effect size statistics and (ii) the estimation of overall meta-analytic estimates and their uncertainty. While some solutions to nonindependence exist at the statistical analysis stages, there is little advice on what to do when complex analyses are not possible, or when studies with nonindependent experimental designs exist in the data. Here we argue that exploring the effects of procedural decisions in a meta-analysis (e.g. inclusion of different quality data, choice of effect size) and statistical assumptions (e.g. assuming no phylogenetic covariance) using sensitivity analyses are extremely important in assessing the impact of nonindependence. Sensitivity analyses can provide greater confidence in results and highlight important limitations of empirical work (e.g. impact of study design on overall effects). Despite their importance, sensitivity analyses are seldom applied to problems of nonindependence. To encourage better practice for dealing with nonindependence in meta-analytic studies, we present accessible examples demonstrating the impact that ignoring nonindependence can have on meta-analytic estimates. We also provide pragmatic solutions for dealing with nonindependent study designs, and for analysing dependent effect sizes. Additionally, we offer reporting guidelines that will facilitate disclosure of the sources of nonindependence in meta-analyses, leading to greater transparency and more robust conclusions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Therapeutic benefits of glutamine: An umbrella review of meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    McRae, Marc P

    2017-05-01

    Glutamine may be an essential amino acid in patients with catabolic disease, as it has been demonstrated that circulating glutamine levels drop during critical illness and following major surgery; this may result in an increase in secondary infection risk, recovery time and mortality rates. However, there is much discrepancy in the literature with regards to randomized controlled studies, and therefore, the present study is an umbrella review of published meta-analyses, conducted to examine the effectiveness of glutamine's role as a therapeutic agent. A search using PubMed, Cochrane Library and CINAHL from January 1st, 1980 to December 31st, 2016 was conducted using the following strategy: 'Glutamine AND (meta-analysis OR systematic review)' and publications were retrieved, which provided quantitative statistical analysis of pooled treatment effects on the relative risks of infectious complications, mortality and length of stay in hospital. A total of 22 meta-analyses were entered into the current umbrella review. As displayed in Tables I, II and III, these analyses are split into three groups, based on different parameters. Of the 19 meta-analyses investigating the effects of infectious complications, 15 identified statistically significant reductions in complications, with relative risks ranging between 0.42 and 0.93. In addition, 12 of the 18 meta-analyses analyzing the length of hospital stays presented statistically significant reductions in the length of stay, with reductions ranging between 0.19 to 4.73 days. Only 4 of the 15 meta-analyses studying mortality effects identified statistically significant reductions in mortality with relative risks ranging between 0.64 and 1.28. Statistically significant heterogeneity was observed in 16 of 22 meta-analyses, and publication bias was observed in five of 11 meta-analyses. Glutamine supplementation for critically ill or surgical patients through parenteral or enteral routes appears to reduce the rate of hospital

  11. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  12. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  13. A meta-analysis investigating the prevalence and moderators of migraines among people with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Fornaro, Michele; Stubbs, Brendon

    2015-06-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the prevalence and moderators of migraine comorbidity among people with bipolar disorder (BD). We conducted a meta-analysis and meta-regression to investigate the prevalence and moderators of migraine among people with BD. Two authors independently searched major electronic databases from inception till 02/2015. Articles were included that reported the prevalence of migraine in people with BD with or without a control group. A random effects meta-analysis and exploratory meta-regression were conducted. Fourteen studies were included encompassing 3976 individuals with BD (mean age 35.5 years, SD 7.6, 29% male). The overall pooled prevalence of migraine was 34.8% (95% CI=25.54-44.69). The prevalence of migraine was higher among people with BD-II (54.17%, 95% CI=31.52-75.95, n=742) compared to BD-I (32.7%, 95% CI=18.16-49.19, n=2138, z=3.97, p<0.0001). The prevalence of migraine was 33.9% (95% CI=26.02-42.44), 39.5% (95% CI=18.81-62.39) and 47.11% (95% CI=22.24-72.77) in North America, Europe and South America respectively. The prevalence of migraine was higher when classified according to recognized criteria at 47.91% (95% CI=32.51-63.5) compared to non-recognized criteria (20.0%, 95% CI=12.44-29.06, z=-8.40, p<0.0001). Meta regression suggests mean age may be a potential moderator. Migraine is common and burdensome among people with BD. People with BD-II appear to be particularly affected. Nonetheless, future research is required to better understand these relationships, with a special emphasis toward the course specifiers of comorbid migraine cases of either BD-I vs. BD-II. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bayesian meta-analysis of diagnostic tests allowing for imperfect reference standards.

    PubMed

    Menten, J; Boelaert, M; Lesaffre, E

    2013-12-30

    There is an increasing interest in meta-analyses of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for infectious diseases. To avoid spectrum bias, these meta-analyses should focus on phase IV studies performed in the target population. For many infectious diseases, these target populations attend primary health care centers in resource-constrained settings where it is difficult to perform gold standard diagnostic tests. As a consequence, phase IV diagnostic studies often use imperfect reference standards, which may result in biased meta-analyses of the diagnostic accuracy of novel RDTs. We extend the standard bivariate model for the meta-analysis of diagnostic studies to correct for differing and imperfect reference standards in the primary studies and to accommodate data from studies that try to overcome the absence of a true gold standard through the use of latent class analysis. Using Bayesian methods, improved estimates of sensitivity and specificity are possible, especially when prior information is available on the diagnostic accuracy of the reference test. In this analysis, the deviance information criterion can be used to detect conflicts between the prior information and observed data. When applying the model to a dataset of the diagnostic accuracy of an RDT for visceral leishmaniasis, the standard meta-analytic methods appeared to underestimate the specificity of the RDT.

  15. MetaSpider: Meta-Searching and Categorization on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Fan, Haiyan; Chau, Michael; Zeng, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of locating relevant information on the Web and studies two approaches to addressing the low precision and poor presentation of search results: meta-search and document categorization. Introduces MetaSpider, a meta-search engine, and presents results of a user evaluation study that compared three search engines.…

  16. MetaSpider: Meta-Searching and Categorization on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Fan, Haiyan; Chau, Michael; Zeng, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of locating relevant information on the Web and studies two approaches to addressing the low precision and poor presentation of search results: meta-search and document categorization. Introduces MetaSpider, a meta-search engine, and presents results of a user evaluation study that compared three search engines.…

  17. Preoperative Inferior Mesenteric Artery Embolization: A Valid Method to Reduce the Rate of Type II Endoleak after EVAR?

    PubMed

    Manunga, Jesse M; Cragg, Andrew; Garberich, Ross; Urbach, Jonathan A; Skeik, Needa; Alexander, Jason; Titus, Jessica; Stephenson, Elliot; Alden, Peter; Sullivan, Timothy M

    2017-02-01

    Type II endoleak is the most commonly encountered endoleak after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). Some have advocated preoperative inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) embolization as a valid method for reducing the incidence of this endoleak, but controversies exist. We sought to demonstrate the impact of IMA embolization using a meta-analysis of currently available studies combined with our own experience. We conducted an institutional review board-approved, retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing IMA embolization before EVAR between the years 2010 and 2015 and used as a control a similar group of patients with patent IMA. We divided patients from our own experience and 5 other studies into 2 groups: those who did not undergo IMA embolization (control) before EVAR and those who did. Rates of type II endoleaks, aneurysm sac regression, and secondary interventions were analyzed. A total of 620 patients from 6 studies were analyzed, including 258 patients who underwent an attempted IMA embolization before EVAR with a cumulative success rate of 99.2% (range, 93.8% to 100%). There was 1 fatality associated with IMA embolization. A meta-analysis showed that preoperative IMA embolization protected against type II endoleaks compared to the control group (odds ratio [OR], 0.31 [0.17-0.57]; P < 0.001, I(2) = 43%). Furthermore, the rate of secondary intervention was significantly lower in the treatment group (OR, 0.12 [0.004-0.36]; P < 0.001, I(2) = 0%). After IMA embolization, type II endoleak resulted from patent lumbar arteries in all 62 patients with persistent endoleak. Preoperative embolization of the IMA protects against the development of type II endoleaks and secondary interventions and may potentially lead to a rapid aneurysm sac regression. The procedure can be performed with a high technical success rate and minimal complications and should be considered in patients with IMA >3 mm before EVAR. A randomized trial, however, is

  18. The Meta-Analytic Big Bang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R.; Lecy, Jesse D.

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at the impact of meta-analysis and then explores why meta-analysis was developed at the time and by the scholars it did in the social sciences in the 1970s. For the first problem, impact, it examines the impact of meta-analysis using citation network analysis. The impact is seen in the sciences, arts and humanities, and on such…

  19. The Meta-Analytic Big Bang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R.; Lecy, Jesse D.

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at the impact of meta-analysis and then explores why meta-analysis was developed at the time and by the scholars it did in the social sciences in the 1970s. For the first problem, impact, it examines the impact of meta-analysis using citation network analysis. The impact is seen in the sciences, arts and humanities, and on such…

  20. A User's Guide to the Meta-Analysis of Research Studies. Meta-Stat: Software To Aid in the Meta-Analysis of Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Glass Gene V.; Evartt, David L.; Emery, Patrick J.

    This manual and the accompanying software are intended to provide a step-by-step guide to conducting a meta-analytic study along with references for further reading and free high-quality software, "Meta-Stat.""Meta-Stat" is a comprehensive package designed to help in the meta-analysis of research studies in the social and behavioral sciences.…

  1. Rapid Damage Assessment. Volume II. Development and Testing of Rapid Damage Assessment System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    7,2830,-100 ENTER: APPARENT CRATER DIAMETER (FT) [DDDD.DD]: 40 71,2850,-43o7 ENTER: APPARENT CRATER DIAMETER (FT) [ DDDDDD ]: 20 71,3075,20 ENTER... DDDDDD ]: .75 76,3780,-140 ENTER: DIAMETER OF BURIED UXO ENTRANCE (FT) EDDD°DDD] .75 76,3810,-90 ENTER: DIAMETER OF BURIED UXO ENTRANCE (FT) EDDD.DDD...UXO ENTRANCE (FT) [ DDDDDD ]J .75 ?6,4570,13\\31\\-130 ENTER: DIAMETER OF BURIED UXO ENTRANCE (FT) EDDD.DDD) .75 ?6,4605,30 ENTER: DIAMETER OF BURIED UXO

  2. PESTICINS II. I and II

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Robert R.; Surgalla, Michael J.

    1962-01-01

    Brubaker, Robert R. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Michael J. Surgalla. Pesticins. II. Production of pesticin I and II. J. Bacteriol. 84:539–545. 1962.—Pesticin I was separated from pesticin I inhibitor by ion-exchange chromatography of cell-free culture supernatant fluids and by acid precipitation of soluble preparations obtained from mechanically disrupted cells. The latter procedure resulted in formation of an insoluble pesticin I complex which, upon removal by centrifugation and subsequent dissolution in neutral buffer, exhibited a 100- to 1,000-fold increase in antibacterial activity over that originally observed. However, activity returned to the former level upon addition of the acid-soluble fraction, which contained pesticin I inhibitor. Since the presence of pesticin I inhibitor leads to serious errors in the determination of pesticin I, an assay medium containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in excess Ca++ was developed; this medium eliminated the effect of the inhibitor. By use of the above medium, sufficient pesticin I was found to be contained within 500 nonirradiated cells to inhibit growth of a suitable indicator strain; at least 107 cells were required to effect a corresponding inhibition by pesticin II. Although both pesticins are located primarily within the cell during growth, pesticin I may arise extracellularly during storage of static cells. Slightly higher activity of pesticin I inhibitor was found in culture supernatant fluids than occurred in corresponding cell extracts of equal volume. The differences and similarities between pesticin I and some known bacteriocins are discussed. PMID:14016110

  3. Rapid road repair vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, L.M.

    1999-09-07

    Disclosed are improvements to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  4. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  5. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  6. [Introduction to the indirect meta-analyses].

    PubMed

    Bolaños Díaz, Rafael; Calderón Cahua, María

    2014-04-01

    Meta-analyses are studies that aim to compile all available information, grouping them according to an specific theme and evaluating it through methodological quality tools. When there are two specific comparisons of treatments based on randomized clinical trials, standard meta-analyses are the best option, but there are scenarios in which there is no available literature for those direct comparisons. In these cases, an alternative method to consider is indirect comparison or indirect meta-analyses. The aim of this review is to understand the conceptual foundations, the need, applications and limitations of indirect comparisons for further understanding of network meta-analyses.

  7. Meta-analysis and its problems.

    PubMed

    Eysenck, H J

    1994-09-24

    Including all relevant material--good, bad, and indifferent--in meta-analysis admits the subjective judgments that meta-analysis was designed to avoid. Several problems arise in meta-analysis: regressions are often non-linear; effects are often multivariate rather than univariate; coverage can be restricted; bad studies may be included; the data summarised may not be homogeneous; grouping different causal factors may lead to meaningless estimates of effects; and the theory-directed approach may obscure discrepancies. Meta-analysis may not be the one best method for studying the diversity of fields for which it has been used.

  8. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Disruptive Behavior: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbeil, David A.; Fischer, Aaron J.; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Bloomfield, Bradley S.; Polakoff, Ben; Willenbrink, Jessica B.; Copek, Rebecca A.; Chan, Kai Tai

    2017-01-01

    The popularity of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) is growing rapidly in schools. Decisions regarding the use of these interventions must be based on empirical evidence. There is robust evidence for the use of MBIs with adults, but research on MBIs with youth is nascent. The purpose of this meta-analytic review was to add to the literature…

  9. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be rapid, ultra-rapid or ultradian cycling. Biological rhythm disturbances: This theory proposes that people with rapid cycling have daily biological rhythms that are out of sync with typical “ ...

  10. METAS Time & Frequency Metrology Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    metrology standards, and for the delivery of calibration services to the industry. The TFL operates a hydrogen maser and four commercial cesium... maser . However, since June 2009, the link is driven directly by UTC (CH). METAS also operates two geodetic GPS receivers (Ashtech Z-XII-T and...are two redundant master clocks, MC-A and MC-B. MC- A is driven by a hydrogen maser , while MC-B is driven by a cesium frequency standard. A pair of

  11. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  12. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  13. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  14. AFRPL Rapid Indexing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alfred A.

    A modified Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) system was developed to gain rapid control over more than 8,000 scattered, unindexed documents. This was the first step in providing the technical information support required by Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory scientists and engineers. Implementation of the KWOC system, computer routines, and…

  15. Rapid response deluge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mille, J. R.

    1984-08-01

    The development of a rapid response deluge system by the Ammunition Equipment Directorate (AED) for use in suppressing propellant fires during demilitarization shows great promise. Prototype systems have been tested and data acquired on their efficiencies. Present system vs previous generations and lessons learned are discussed.

  16. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  17. AFRPL Rapid Indexing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alfred A.

    A modified Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) system was developed to gain rapid control over more than 8,000 scattered, unindexed documents. This was the first step in providing the technical information support required by Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory scientists and engineers. Implementation of the KWOC system, computer routines, and…

  18. Meta-cognitive student reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barquist, Britt; Stewart, Jim

    2009-05-01

    We have recently concluded a project testing the effectiveness of a weekly assignment designed to encourage awareness and improvement of meta-cognitive skills. The project is based on the idea that successful problem solvers implement a meta-cognitive process in which they identify the specific concept they are struggling with, and then identify what they understand, what they don't understand, and what they need to know in order to resolve their problem. The assignment required the students to write an email assessing the level of completion of a weekly workbook assignment and to examine in detail their experiences regarding a specific topic they struggled with. The assignment guidelines were designed to coach them through this meta-cognitive process. We responded to most emails with advice for next week's assignment. Our data follow 12 students through a quarter consisting of 11 email assignments which were scored using a rubric based on the assignment guidelines. We found no correlation between rubric scores and final grades. We do have anecdotal evidence that the assignment was beneficial.

  19. The collapse of the tyrosine Z*-Mn spin-spin interaction above approximately 100 K reveals the spectrum of tyrosine Z*. An application of rapid-scan EPR to the study of intermediates of the water splitting mechanism of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Zahariou, Georgia; Ioannidis, Nikolaos; Sioros, George; Petrouleas, Vasili

    2007-12-18

    Tyr Z of photosystem II mediates electron transfer from the water splitting site, a Mn4Ca cluster, to the specialized chlorophyll assembly P680. Due to its proton-limited redox properties and the proximity to the Mn cluster, it is thought to play a critical role in the proton-coupled electron transfer reactions that constitute the four-step oxidation mechanism (so-called S-state transitions) of water to molecular oxygen. Spectroscopic evidence for the Tyr Z radical has been scarce in intact preparations (it is difficult to probe it optically, and too short-lived for EPR characterization) until recently. Advances in recent years have allowed the trapping at liquid helium temperatures and EPR characterization of metalloradical intermediates, attributed to tyrosyl Z* magnetically interacting with the Mn cluster. We have extended these studies and examined the evolution of the spectra of five intermediates: S0YZ*, S0YZ* (with 5% MeOH), S1YZ*, S2YZ*, and S2YZ* (with 5% MeOH) in the temperature range of 11-230 K. A rapid-scan EPR method has been applied at elevated temperatures. The tyrosyl radical decouples progressively from Mn, as the Mn relaxation rate increases with an increase in temperature. Above approximately 100 K, the spectra collapse to the unperturbed spectrum of Tyr Z*, which is found to be somewhat broader than that of the stable Tyr D* radical. This study provides a simple means for recording the spectrum of Tyr Z* and extends earlier observations that link the photochemistry at liquid helium temperatures to the photochemistry at temperatures that support S-state transitions.

  20. Effects of Mg II and Ca II ionization on ab-initio solar chromosphere models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rammacher, W.; Cuntz, M.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustically heated solar chromosphere models are computed considering radiation damping by (non-LTE) emission from H(-) and by Mg II and Ca II emission lines. The radiative transfer equations for the Mg II k and Ca II K emission lines are solved using the core-saturation method with complete redistribution. The Mg II k and Ca II K cooling rates are compared with the VAL model C. Several substantial improvements over the work of Ulmschneider et al. (1987) are included. It is found that the rapid temperature rises caused by the ionization of Mg II are not formed in the middle chromosphere, but occur at larger atmospheric heights. These models represent the temperature structure of the 'real' solar chromosphere much better. This result is a major precondition for the study of ab-initio models for solar flux tubes based on MHD wave propagation and also for ab-initio models for the solar transition layer.

  1. Effects of Mg II and Ca II ionization on ab-initio solar chromosphere models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rammacher, W.; Cuntz, M.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustically heated solar chromosphere models are computed considering radiation damping by (non-LTE) emission from H(-) and by Mg II and Ca II emission lines. The radiative transfer equations for the Mg II k and Ca II K emission lines are solved using the core-saturation method with complete redistribution. The Mg II k and Ca II K cooling rates are compared with the VAL model C. Several substantial improvements over the work of Ulmschneider et al. (1987) are included. It is found that the rapid temperature rises caused by the ionization of Mg II are not formed in the middle chromosphere, but occur at larger atmospheric heights. These models represent the temperature structure of the 'real' solar chromosphere much better. This result is a major precondition for the study of ab-initio models for solar flux tubes based on MHD wave propagation and also for ab-initio models for the solar transition layer.

  2. Bayesian sequential meta-analysis design in evaluating cardiovascular risk in a new antidiabetic drug development program.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hui; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Amy Xia, H; Liu, Thomas; Hennessey, Violeta

    2014-04-30

    Recently, the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the Food and Drug Administration released a guidance that makes recommendations about how to demonstrate that a new antidiabetic therapy to treat type 2 diabetes is not associated with an unacceptable increase in cardiovascular risk. One of the recommendations from the guidance is that phases II and III trials should be appropriately designed and conducted so that a meta-analysis can be performed. In addition, the guidance implies that a sequential meta-analysis strategy could be adopted. That is, the initial meta-analysis could aim at demonstrating the upper bound of a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the estimated hazard ratio to be < 1.8 for the purpose of enabling a new drug application or a biologics license application. Subsequently after the marketing authorization, a final meta-analysis would need to show the upper bound to be < 1.3. In this context, we develop a new Bayesian sequential meta-analysis approach using survival regression models to assess whether the size of a clinical development program is adequate to evaluate a particular safety endpoint. We propose a Bayesian sample size determination methodology for sequential meta-analysis clinical trial design with a focus on controlling the familywise type I error rate and power. We use the partial borrowing power prior to incorporate the historical survival meta-data into the Bayesian design. We examine various properties of the proposed methodology, and simulation-based computational algorithms are developed to generate predictive data at various interim analyses, sample from the posterior distributions, and compute various quantities such as the power and the type I error in the Bayesian sequential meta-analysis trial design. We apply the proposed methodology to the design of a hypothetical antidiabetic drug development program for evaluating cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Model and Interoperability using Meta Data Annotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, O.

    2011-12-01

    Software frameworks and architectures are in need for meta data to efficiently support model integration. Modelers have to know the context of a model, often stepping into modeling semantics and auxiliary information usually not provided in a concise structure and universal format, consumable by a range of (modeling) tools. XML often seems the obvious solution for capturing meta data, but its wide adoption to facilitate model interoperability is limited by XML schema fragmentation, complexity, and verbosity outside of a data-automation process. Ontologies seem to overcome those shortcomings, however the practical significance of their use remains to be demonstrated. OMS version 3 took a different approach for meta data representation. The fundamental building block of a modular model in OMS is a software component representing a single physical process, calibration method, or data access approach. Here, programing language features known as Annotations or Attributes were adopted. Within other (non-modeling) frameworks it has been observed that annotations lead to cleaner and leaner application code. Framework-supported model integration, traditionally accomplished using Application Programming Interfaces (API) calls is now achieved using descriptive code annotations. Fully annotated components for various hydrological and Ag-system models now provide information directly for (i) model assembly and building, (ii) data flow analysis for implicit multi-threading or visualization, (iii) automated and comprehensive model documentation of component dependencies, physical data properties, (iv) automated model and component testing, calibration, and optimization, and (v) automated audit-traceability to account for all model resources leading to a particular simulation result. Such a non-invasive methodology leads to models and modeling components with only minimal dependencies on the modeling framework but a strong reference to its originating code. Since models and

  4. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  5. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  6. Meta-Analysis in Stata Using Gllamm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagos, Pantelis G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several user-written programs for performing meta-analysis in Stata (Stata Statistical Software: College Station, TX: Stata Corp LP). These include metan, metareg, mvmeta, and glst. However, there are several cases for which these programs do not suffice. For instance, there is no software for performing univariate meta-analysis with…

  7. Statistical Power in Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Statistical power is important in a meta-analysis study, although few studies have examined the performance of simulated power in meta-analysis. The purpose of this study is to inform researchers about statistical power estimation on two sample mean difference test under different situations: (1) the discrepancy between the analytical power and…

  8. Meta-Analysis in Stata Using Gllamm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagos, Pantelis G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several user-written programs for performing meta-analysis in Stata (Stata Statistical Software: College Station, TX: Stata Corp LP). These include metan, metareg, mvmeta, and glst. However, there are several cases for which these programs do not suffice. For instance, there is no software for performing univariate meta-analysis with…

  9. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  10. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  11. Statistical Power in Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Statistical power is important in a meta-analysis study, although few studies have examined the performance of simulated power in meta-analysis. The purpose of this study is to inform researchers about statistical power estimation on two sample mean difference test under different situations: (1) the discrepancy between the analytical power and…

  12. Hierarchical Dependence in Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John R.; Taylor, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a frequent tool among education and behavioral researchers to combine results from multiple experiments to arrive at a clear understanding of some effect of interest. One of the traditional assumptions in a meta-analysis is the independence of the effect sizes from the studies under consideration. This article presents a…

  13. Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The meta-analysis of coefficient alpha across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient alpha for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…

  14. Rapid wetting dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Andreas; Bellani, Gabriele; Amberg, Gustav

    2010-11-01

    Contact lines between solids and liquid or gas interfaces appear in very many instances of fluid flows. This could be coffee stains, water-oil mixtures in oil recovery, hydrophobic feet of insects or leaves in nature. In the present work we elucidate some of the wetting physics governing the very rapid wetting. Experimental and numerical results of spontaneously spreading droplets are presented, where focus is directed towards understanding the very rapid flow regime and highly dynamic initial wetting phase, where the contact line speed is limited by dissipative processes on a molecular scale occurring at the contact line. In particular we show the influence of the surface wettability and the liquid viscosity on the spreading dynamics, such as the contact line motion and dynamic contact angle in time.

  15. Rapid climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Morantine, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    Interactions between insolation changes due to orbital parameter variations, carbon dioxide concentration variations, the rate of deep water formation in the North Atlantic and the evolution of the northern hemisphere ice sheets during the most recent glacial cycle will be investigated. In order to investigate this period, a climate model is being developed to evaluate the physical mechanisms thought to be most significant during this period. The description of the model sub-components will be presented. The more one knows about the interactions between the sub-components of the climate system during periods of documented rapid climate change, the better equipped one will be to make rational decisions on issues related to impacts on the environment. This will be an effort to gauge the feedback processes thought to be instrumental in rapid climate shifts documented in the past, and their potential to influence the current climate. 53 refs.

  16. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  17. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  18. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  19. Rapidly refuelable fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Joy, R.W.

    1982-09-20

    A rapidly refuelable dual cell of an electrochemical type is described wherein a single anode cooperates with two cathodes and wherein the anode has a fixed position and the cathodes are urged toward opposite faces of the anodes at constant and uniform force. The associated cathodes are automatically retractable to permit the consumed anode remains to be removed from the housing and a new anode inserted between the two cathodes.

  20. Rapid Runway Repair Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report describes a series of tests to evaluate a system for rapidly repairing airfield pavement using polymer concrete (synthetic polymer plus...aggregate), thermally cured by microwave power. The technique, developed by the Syracuse University Research Corporation (SURC) for highway...maintenance, uses a truck-mounted 50-kilowatt microwave generator to irradiate areas patched with polymer concrete . Test results indicate that the polymer

  1. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation.

  2. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article presents a practical and informative approach to the evaluation of a patient with a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Recent Findings Prion diseases are the prototypical causes of RPD, but reversible causes of RPD might mimic prion disease and should always be considered in a differential diagnosis. Aside from prion diseases, the most common causes of RPD are atypical presentations of other neurodegenerative disorders, curable disorders including autoimmune encephalopathies, as well as some infections, and neoplasms. Numerous recent case reports suggest dural arterial venous fistulas sometimes cause RPDs. Summary RPDs, in which patients typically develop dementia over weeks to months, require an alternative differential than the slowly progressive dementias that occur over a few years. Because of their rapid decline, patients with RPDs necessitate urgent evaluation and often require an extensive workup, typically with multiple tests being sent or performed concurrently. Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, perhaps the prototypical RPD, is often the first diagnosis many neurologists consider when treating a patient with rapid cognitive decline. Many conditions other than prion disease, however, including numerous reversible or curable conditions, can present as an RPD. This chapter discusses some of the major etiologies for RPDs and offers an algorithm for diagnosis. PMID:27042906

  3. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  4. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  5. Determination of Fe(II)Fe(II) ratio in glass

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.

    1989-07-26

    The procedure was designed for the simple, rapid determination of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio in glass samples. The procedure consists of the following steps: dissolution of the pulverized glass sample in a sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid mixture, containing ammonium vanadate, which preserves the Fe(II) content; addition of boric acid to destroy iron-fluoride complexes, making the iron available for color formation with Ferrozine; addition of pH 5 buffer and Ferrozine reagent to form the magenta-colored ferrous-Ferrozine complex, with measurement of the absorbance for the determination of Fe(II) content; and, addition of ascorbic acid to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), with a second absorbance measurement that determines total Fe. Directions for the preparation of glass from non-radioactive sludge samples are provided. The analysis of this prepared glass for the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio is an indication of the ratio that would be in a plant batch of glass if made from this sludge.

  6. A meta-analysis of criterion effects for the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) in the clinical domain.

    PubMed

    Vahey, Nigel A; Nicholson, Emma; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2015-09-01

    The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) is a technique that is attracting a substantial body of research literature, particularly within the clinical domain. In response, the present paper outlines a meta-analysis of clinically-focused IRAP effects (N = 494) to provide the first estimate of how well such effects validate against their respective criterion variables in general. The meta-analysis incorporated clinically-focused IRAP effects from 15 studies yielding a large effect size, r¯ = .45, with a desirably narrow 95% credibility interval (.23, .67). The funnel plot and subsequent sensitivity analyses indicated that this meta-effect was not subject to publication bias. The present meta-effect is an estimate based upon an IRAP literature that is still evolving rapidly in the clinical domain, and so as per its accompanying credibility interval, all conclusions that follow are necessarily provisional even if bounded. Apart from the fact that the current meta-effect might be subject to inadvertent under- and/or over-estimations of the current literature, the present meta-effect might strengthen with further refinements of the IRAP. The current meta-effect provides the means to calculate what sample size would be required to achieve a statistical power of .80 when testing the criterion validity of clinically-focused IRAP effects using a given parametric statistic. For example, first-order Pearson correlations would hypothetically require an N of 29-37 for such purposes depending upon how conservatively over-estimation of the present meta-effect is controlled for. Overall, the IRAP compares favourably with alternative implicit measures in clinical psychology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel bi-level meta-analysis approach: applied to biological pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tin; Tagett, Rebecca; Donato, Michele; Mitrea, Cristina; Draghici, Sorin

    2016-02-01

    The accumulation of high-throughput data in public repositories creates a pressing need for integrative analysis of multiple datasets from independent experiments. However, study heterogeneity, study bias, outliers and the lack of power of available methods present real challenge in integrating genomic data. One practical drawback of many P-value-based meta-analysis methods, including Fisher's, Stouffer's, minP and maxP, is that they are sensitive to outliers. Another drawback is that, because they perform just one statistical test for each individual experiment, they may not fully exploit the potentially large number of samples within each study. We propose a novel bi-level meta-analysis approach that employs the additive method and the Central Limit Theorem within each individual experiment and also across multiple experiments. We prove that the bi-level framework is robust against bias, less sensitive to outliers than other methods, and more sensitive to small changes in signal. For comparative analysis, we demonstrate that the intra-experiment analysis has more power than the equivalent statistical test performed on a single large experiment. For pathway analysis, we compare the proposed framework versus classical meta-analysis approaches (Fisher's, Stouffer's and the additive method) as well as against a dedicated pathway meta-analysis package (MetaPath), using 1252 samples from 21 datasets related to three human diseases, acute myeloid leukemia (9 datasets), type II diabetes (5 datasets) and Alzheimer's disease (7 datasets). Our framework outperforms its competitors to correctly identify pathways relevant to the phenotypes. The framework is sufficiently general to be applied to any type of statistical meta-analysis. The R scripts are available on demand from the authors. sorin@wayne.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  8. A novel bi-level meta-analysis approach: applied to biological pathway analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tin; Tagett, Rebecca; Donato, Michele; Mitrea, Cristina; Draghici, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The accumulation of high-throughput data in public repositories creates a pressing need for integrative analysis of multiple datasets from independent experiments. However, study heterogeneity, study bias, outliers and the lack of power of available methods present real challenge in integrating genomic data. One practical drawback of many P-value-based meta-analysis methods, including Fisher’s, Stouffer’s, minP and maxP, is that they are sensitive to outliers. Another drawback is that, because they perform just one statistical test for each individual experiment, they may not fully exploit the potentially large number of samples within each study. Results: We propose a novel bi-level meta-analysis approach that employs the additive method and the Central Limit Theorem within each individual experiment and also across multiple experiments. We prove that the bi-level framework is robust against bias, less sensitive to outliers than other methods, and more sensitive to small changes in signal. For comparative analysis, we demonstrate that the intra-experiment analysis has more power than the equivalent statistical test performed on a single large experiment. For pathway analysis, we compare the proposed framework versus classical meta-analysis approaches (Fisher’s, Stouffer’s and the additive method) as well as against a dedicated pathway meta-analysis package (MetaPath), using 1252 samples from 21 datasets related to three human diseases, acute myeloid leukemia (9 datasets), type II diabetes (5 datasets) and Alzheimer’s disease (7 datasets). Our framework outperforms its competitors to correctly identify pathways relevant to the phenotypes. The framework is sufficiently general to be applied to any type of statistical meta-analysis. Availability and implementation: The R scripts are available on demand from the authors. Contact: sorin@wayne.edu Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26471455

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Changes in Brain Activity in Clinical Depression

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Susan M.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Carey, Leeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Insights into neurobiological mechanisms of depression are increasingly being sought via brain imaging studies. Our aim was to quantitatively summarize overlap and divergence in regions of altered brain activation associated with depression under emotionally valenced compared to cognitively demanding task conditions, and with reference to intrinsic functional connectivity. We hypothesized differences reflective of task demands. A co-ordinate-based meta-analysis technique, activation likelihood estimation, was used to analyze relevant imaging literature. These studies compared brain activity in depressed adults relative to healthy controls during three conditions: (i) emotionally valenced (cognitively easy) tasks (n = 29); (ii) cognitively demanding tasks (n = 15); and (iii) resting conditions (n = 21). The meta-analyses identified five, eight, and seven significant clusters of altered brain activity under emotion, cognition, and resting conditions, respectively, in depressed individuals compared to healthy controls. Regions of overlap and divergence between pairs of the three separate meta-analyses were quantified. There were no significant regions of overlap between emotion and cognition meta-analyses, but several divergent clusters were found. Cognitively demanding conditions were associated with greater activation of right medial frontal and insula regions while bilateral amygdala was more significantly altered during emotion (cognitively undemanding) conditions; consistent with task demands. Overlap was present in left amygdala and right subcallosal cingulate between emotion and resting meta-analyses, with no significant divergence. Our meta-analyses highlight alteration of common brain regions, during cognitively undemanding emotional tasks and resting conditions but divergence of regions between emotional and cognitively demanding tasks. Regions altered reflect current biological and system-level models of depression and highlight the relationship

  10. Formation of chlorocatechol meta cleavage products by a pseudomonad during metabolism of monochlorobiphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Arensdorf, J J; Focht, D D

    1994-01-01

    Pseudomonas cepacia P166 was able to metabolize all monochlorobiphenyls to the respective chlorobenzoates. Although they transiently accumulated, the chlorobenzoate degradation intermediates were further metabolized to chlorocatechols, which in turn were meta cleaved. 2- and 3-Chlorobiphenyl both produced 3-chlorocatechol, which was transformed to an acyl halide upon meta cleavage. 3-Chlorocatechol metabolism was toxic to the cells and impeded monochlorobiphenyl metabolism. In the case of 2-chlorobiphenyl, toxicity was manifested as a diminished growth rate, which nevertheless effected rapid substrate utilization. In the case of 3-chlorobiphenyl, which generates 3-chlorocatechol more rapidly than does 2-chlorobiphenyl, toxicity was manifested as a decrease in viable cells during substrate utilization. 4-Chlorobenzoate was transformed to 4-chlorocatechol, which was metabolized by a meta cleavage pathway leading to dehalogenation. Chloride release from 4-chlorocatechol metabolism, however, was slow and did not coincide with rapid 4-chlorocatechol turnover. Growth experiments with strain P166 on monochlorobiphenyls illustrated the difficulties of working with hydrophobic substrates that generate toxic intermediates. Turbidity could not be used to measure the growth of bacteria utilizing monochlorobiphenyls because high turbidities were routinely measured from cultures with very low viable-cell counts. PMID:7521996

  11. Meta-Analysis at Middle Age: A Personal History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.

    2015-01-01

    The 40-year history of meta-analysis is traced from the vantage point of one of its originators. Research syntheses leading to the first examples of meta-analysis are identified. Early meta-analyses of the literature on psychotherapy outcomes and school class size are recounted. The influence on the development of meta-analysis of several…

  12. Meta-Analysis at Middle Age: A Personal History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.

    2015-01-01

    The 40-year history of meta-analysis is traced from the vantage point of one of its originators. Research syntheses leading to the first examples of meta-analysis are identified. Early meta-analyses of the literature on psychotherapy outcomes and school class size are recounted. The influence on the development of meta-analysis of several…

  13. Understanding and evaluating meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Deborah V; Pihlstrom, Bruce L; Blanchette, Derek R

    2016-04-01

    Meta-analysis refers to statistical methodology used to combine data from many studies to obtain an overall assessment of disease risk or treatment outcomes. In this article, the authors review basic methods, interpretation, and limitations of meta-analysis. Investigators use meta-analysis approaches to combine data from available studies to obtain an answer to a specific question. An investigator uses a fixed model if there is homogeneity among the combined studies and a random-effects model if there is heterogeneity. The random-effects model results in wider confidence limits and more conservative estimates of overall results. A meta-analysis can be biased because studies with negative results (no differences in treatment outcomes) are less likely to be published (publication bias). A meta-analysis should include a well-specified and reproducible set of procedures, including description of data abstraction procedures, attempts to include unpublished studies, and appropriate statistical analysis that includes thorough consideration of heterogeneity and potential bias. Meta-analysis cannot correct shortcomings of existing studies or data. However, if potential pitfalls are recognized, meta-analysis can be a useful tool for summarizing existing studies, providing a means to address conflicting reports. Meta-analysis can lead to increased precision, providing greater power to detect existing relationships or treatment effects. Furthermore, meta-analysis may make it possible to address questions that cannot be answered by means of individual studies. Meta-analysis provides an objective, quantitative synthesis of available studies but needs to be understood and assessed critically by those who use it to assess risk or make treatment decisions. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An assessment of the methodological quality of published network meta-analyses: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chambers, James D; Naci, Huseyin; Wouters, Olivier J; Pyo, Junhee; Gunjal, Shalak; Kennedy, Ian R; Hoey, Mark G; Winn, Aaron; Neumann, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    To assess the methodological quality of published network meta-analysis. Systematic review. We searched the medical literature for network meta-analyses of pharmaceuticals. We assessed general study characteristics, study transparency and reproducibility, methodological approach, and reporting of findings. We compared studies published in journals with lower impact factors with those published in journals with higher impact factors, studies published prior to January 1st, 2013 with those published after that date, and studies supported financially by industry with those supported by non-profit institutions or that received no support. The systematic literature search identified 854 citations. Three hundred and eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria. The number of network meta-analyses has grown rapidly, with 48% of studies published since January 2013. The majority of network meta-analyses were supported by a non-profit institution or received no support (68%). We found considerable inconsistencies among reviewed studies. Eighty percent reported search terms, 61% a network diagram, 65% sufficient data to replicate the analysis, and 90% the characteristics of included trials. Seventy percent performed a risk of bias assessment of included trials, 40% an assessment of model fit, and 56% a sensitivity analysis. Among studies with a closed loop, 69% examined the consistency of direct and indirect evidence. Sixty-four percent of studies presented the full matrix of head-to-head treatment comparisons. For Bayesian studies, 41% reported the probability that each treatment was best, 31% reported treatment ranking, and 16% included the model code or referenced publicly-available code. Network meta-analyses published in higher impact factors journals and those that did not receive industry support performed better across the assessment criteria. We found few differences between older and newer studies. There is substantial variation in the network meta

  15. Interleukin-8 for Diagnosis of Neonatal Sepsis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Min; Cheng, Shupeng; Yu, Jialin; Lu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal sepsis (NS) is a life-threatening disorder and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Previous studies showed that interleukin 8 (IL-8) may effectively and rapidly diagnose NS. Objective We conducted the systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the diagnostic value of the IL-8 in NS. Methods The literature was searched in PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CNKI, VIP and other Chinese Medical Databases during October 1998 to January 2014 using set search criteria. Each included study was evaluated by quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool. Two investigators independently extracted the data and study characteristics, and disagreements, if any, were resolved by consensus. Meta-disc software was used to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity and summary diagnostic odds ratio (SDOR), I² or Cochrane Q to test heterogeneity, and meta-regression to investigate the source of heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to test the potential presence of publication bias. False-positive report probability (FPRP) was calculated to confirm the significance of the results. Results Eight studies (548 neonates) were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of IL-8 were 0.78 and 0.84, respectively, which had moderate accuracy in the diagnosis of NS. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under curve (AUC) was 21.64 and 0.8908 (Q*=0.8215), respectively. The diagnostic threshold analysis showed that there was no threshold effect. The meta-regression analysis showed the cut-off, QUADAS and onset time have no effect on the heterogeneity. The funnel plots showed the existence of publication bias. Conclusion Meta-analysis showed IL-8 had a moderate accuracy (AUC=0.8908) for the diagnosis of NS. IL-8 is a helpful biomarker for early diagnosis of NS. However, we should combine the results with clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory and microbial results. PMID:25996378

  16. Total disc replacement versus fusion for lumbar degenerative disc disease: a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fan; Jia, Zhiwei; Zhao, Zhigang; Xie, Lin; Gao, Xinfeng; Ma, Dezhang; Liu, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Although many meta-analyses have been performed to compare total disc replacement (TDR) and fusion for treating lumbar degenerative disc disease (LDDD), their findings are inconsistent. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses comparing TDR with fusion for treating LDDD, to assist decision makers in selection among conflicting meta-analyses, and to provide treatment recommendations based on the best available evidence. This study was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. Multiple databases were comprehensively searched for meta-analyses comparing TDR with fusion for treating LDDD. Meta-analyses only comprising randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Two authors independently assessed meta-analysis quality and extracted data. The Jadad decision algorithm was used to ascertain which meta-analyses represented the best evidence. A total of five meta-analyses were included. All these studies only included RCTs were determined as Level-II evidence. The scores of Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) ranged from 6 to 9 (median 7). A high-quality Cochrane review was chosen according to the Jadad algorithm. This best available evidence found that statistical significances were observed between TDR and fusion for LDDD regarding disability, pain relief, and pain in the short term, but it was not over clinically important differences. The prevent effects on adjacent segment and facet joint degeneration, as the primary goal of adopting TDR stated by the manufacturers, were not appropriately evaluated. There is discord in results from meta-analyses that assessed TDR and fusion for LDDD. According to this systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses comparing TDR and fusion for LDDD, the current best available evidence suggests that TDR may be an effective technique for the treatment of selected patients with LDDD, and is at least equal to lumbar

  17. Rapid cycling in bipolar disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, André F; Dimellis, Dimos; Gonda, Xenia; Vieta, Eduard; Mclntyre, Roger S; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N

    2014-06-01

    THE long-term course of bipolar disorder is typified by recurring mood episodes of opposite polarity as well as mixed states. Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder refers to the presence of at least 4 mood episodes in the previous 12 months that meet the criteria for manic, hypomanic, or major depressive episode. The purpose of this study was to synthesize data regarding prevalence, clinical correlates, and familial/genetic aspects related to rapid cycling in bipolar disorder. we searched the MEDLINE database through September 7, 2013 for articles regarding rapid cycling in bipolar disorder. Searches were performed using the keywords rapid cycling or rapid-cycling. The search strategy was augmented through the inspection of reference lists of relevant review articles. Eligible articles included original studies in English on rapid-cycling bipolar patients according to the criteria defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. This study followed the recommendations of the Preferred Items for Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. The initial search returned 2,715 articles; 2,594 were excluded for several reasons (not aligned with objectives, pertaining to bipolar disorder but not focusing on rapid cycling, case reports, and case series). The final review included 119 articles. Two investigators (K.N.F. and D.D.) independently reviewed articles for eligibility. Final decisions regarding eligibility were made by consensus following the full-text review. The literature suggests that rapid cycling affects a significant proportion of bipolar patients and is related to a longer course of illness, an earlier age at onset, and more illegal drug and alcohol abuse and increased suicidality. Year prevalence of rapid cycling among all bipolar patients ranges between 5%-33.3%, while lifetime prevalence ranges between 25.8%-43%.The etiology remains unclear, although a causal or triggering role for the use of antidepressants and

  18. Electrostatic properties of membrane lipids coupled to metarhodopsin II formation in visual transduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Botelho, Ana Vitória; Martinez, Gary V; Brown, Michael F

    2002-07-03

    Changes in lipid composition have recently been shown to exert appreciable influences on the activities of membrane-bound proteins and peptides. We tested the hypothesis that the conformational states of rhodopsin linked to visual signal transduction are related to biophysical properties of the membrane lipid bilayer. For bovine rhodopsin, the meta I-meta II conformational transition was studied in egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) recombinants versus the native rod outer segment (ROS) membranes by means of flash photolysis. Formation of metarhodopsin II was observed by the change in absorbance at 478 nm after a single actinic flash was delivered to the sample. The meta I/meta II ratio was investigated as a function of both temperature and pH. The data clearly demonstrated thermodynamic reversibility of the transition for both the egg PC recombinants and the native ROS membranes. A significant shift of the apparent pK(a) for the acid-base equilibrium to lower values was evident in the egg PC recombinant, with little meta II produced under physiological conditions. Calculations of the membrane surface pH using a Poisson-Boltzmann model suggested the free energies of the meta I and meta II states were significantly affected by electrostatic properties of the bilayer lipids. In the ROS membranes, phosphatidylserine (PS) is needed for full formation of meta II, in combination with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and polyunsaturated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6omega3) chains. We propose that the PS surface potential leads to an accumulation of hydronium ions, H(3)O(+), in the electrical double layer, which drive the reaction together with the large negative spontaneous curvature (H(0)) conferred by PE plus DHA chains. The elastic stress/strain of the bilayer arises from an interplay of the approximately zero H(0) from PS and the negative H(0) due to the PE headgroups and polyunsaturated chains. The lipid influences are further explained in terms of matching of the bilayer

  19. Dynamic non-reciprocal meta-surfaces with arbitrary phase reconfigurability based on photonic transition in meta-atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yu; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-01-11

    We introduce a distinct class of dynamic non-reciprocal meta-surfaces with arbitrary phase-reconfigurability. This meta-surface consists of an array of meta-atoms, each of which is subject to temporal refractive index modulation, which induces photonic transitions between the states of the meta-atom. We show that arbitrary phase profile for the outgoing wave can be achieved by controlling the phase of the modulation at each meta-atom. Moreover, such dynamic meta-surfaces exhibit non-reciprocal response without the need for magneto-optical effects. The use of photonic transition significantly enhances the tunability and the possible functionalities of meta-surfaces.

  20. Right-Rapid-Rough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  1. Pakistan RAPID III.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, M U

    1990-01-01

    The author describes the software called RAPID (Resources for the Awareness of Population Impact on Development), which was developed by the Futures Group, a U.S. company. The software is designed for IBM-PCs and compatibles, with a configuration that includes 640K RAM, a fixed disk drive, and DOS 2.0 or higher. The application in Pakistan of this software in an information, education, and communication program sponsored by the National Institute of Population Studies, including the translation of the software into Urdu, is briefly outlined.

  2. Models of Rapid Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmer, G. H.; Broughton, J. Q.

    1984-01-01

    Laser annealing studies provide much information on various consequences of rapid solidification, including the trapping of impurities in the crystal, the generation of vacancies and twins, and on the fundamental limits to the speed of the crystal-melt interface. Some results obtained by molecular dynamics methods of the solidification of a Lennard-Jones liquid are reviewed. An indication of the relationship of interface speed to undercooling for certain materials can be derived from this model. Ising model simulations of impurity trapping in silicon are compared with some of the laser annealing results. The consequences of interface segregation and atomic strain are discussed.

  3. Models of Rapid Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmer, G. H.; Broughton, J. Q.

    1984-01-01

    Laser annealing studies provide much information on various consequences of rapid solidification, including the trapping of impurities in the crystal, the generation of vacancies and twins, and on the fundamental limits to the speed of the crystal-melt interface. Some results obtained by molecular dynamics methods of the solidification of a Lennard-Jones liquid are reviewed. An indication of the relationship of interface speed to undercooling for certain materials can be derived from this model. Ising model simulations of impurity trapping in silicon are compared with some of the laser annealing results. The consequences of interface segregation and atomic strain are discussed.

  4. Rapid and Quiet Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

  5. FFAGS for rapid acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Carol J. Johnstone and Shane Koscielniak

    2002-09-30

    When large transverse and longitudinal emittances are to be transported through a circular machine, extremely rapid acceleration holds the advantage that the beam becomes immune to nonlinear resonances because there is insufficient time for amplitudes to build up. Uncooled muon beams exhibit large emittances and require fast acceleration to avoid decay losses and would benefit from this style of acceleration. The approach here employs a fixed-field alternating gradient or FFAG magnet structure and a fixed frequency acceleration system. Acceptance is enhanced by the use only of linear lattice elements, and fixed-frequency rf enables the use of cavities with large shunt resistance and quality factor.

  6. Rapid prototype and test

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  7. A note on generalized Genome Scan Meta-Analysis statistics.

    PubMed

    Koziol, James A; Feng, Anne C

    2005-02-17

    Wise et al. introduced a rank-based statistical technique for meta-analysis of genome scans, the Genome Scan Meta-Analysis (GSMA) method. Levinson et al. recently described two generalizations of the GSMA statistic: (i) a weighted version of the GSMA statistic, so that different studies could be ascribed different weights for analysis; and (ii) an order statistic approach, reflecting the fact that a GSMA statistic can be computed for each chromosomal region or bin width across the various genome scan studies. We provide an Edgeworth approximation to the null distribution of the weighted GSMA statistic, and, we examine the limiting distribution of the GSMA statistics under the order statistic formulation, and quantify the relevance of the pairwise correlations of the GSMA statistics across different bins on this limiting distribution. We also remark on aggregate criteria and multiple testing for determining significance of GSMA results. Theoretical considerations detailed herein can lead to clarification and simplification of testing criteria for generalizations of the GSMA statistic.

  8. Direct Observation by Rapid-Scan FT-IR Spectroscopy of Two-Electron-Reduced Intermediate of Tetraaza Catalyst [CoIIN4H(MeCN)]2+ Converting CO 2 to CO

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Hua; Frei, Heinz

    2016-07-15

    In the search for the two-electron-reduced intermediate of the tetraaza catalyst [CoIIN4H(MeCN)]2+ (N4H = 2,12-dimethyl-3,7,11,17-tetraazabicyclo[11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17),2,11,13,15-pentaene) for CO2 reduction and elementary steps that result in the formation of CO product, rapid-scan FT-IR spectroscopy of the visible-light-sensitized catalysis, using Ir(ppy)3 in wet acetonitrile (CD3CN) solution, led to the observation of two sequential intermediates. The initially formed one-electron-reduced [CoIN4H]+--CO2 adduct was converted by the second electron to a transient [CoIN4H]+--CO2 - complex that spontaneously converted CO2 to CO in a rate-limiting step on the second time scale in the dark under regeneration of the catalyst (room temperature). The macrocycle IR spectra of the [CoIN4H]+--CO2 - complex and the preceding one-electron [CoIN4H]+--CO2 intermediate show close similarity but distinct differences in the carboxylate modes, indicating that the second electron resides mainly on the CO2 ligand. Vibrational assignments are corroborated by 13C isotopic labeling. The structure and stability of the two-electron-reduced intermediate derived from the time-resolved IR study are in good agreement with recent predictions by DFT electronic structure calculations. This is the first observation of an intermediate of a molecular catalyst for CO2 reduction during the bond-breaking step producing CO. The reaction pathway for the Co tetraaza catalyst uncovered here suggests that the competition between CO2 reduction and proton reduction of a macrocyclic multi-electron catalyst is steered toward CO2 activation if the second electron is directly captured by an adduct

  9. The Influence of Judgment Calls on Meta-Analytic Findings.

    PubMed

    Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions.

  10. Rapid Decisions From Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zeigenfuse, Matthew D.; Pleskac, Timothy J.; Liu, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    In many everyday decisions, people quickly integrate noisy samples of information to form a preference among alternatives that offer uncertain rewards. Here, we investigated this decision process using the Flash Gambling Task (FGT), in which participants made a series of choices between a certain payoff and an uncertain alternative that produced a normal distribution of payoffs. For each choice, participants experienced the distribution of payoffs via rapid samples updated every 50 ms. We show that people can make these rapid decisions from experience and that the decision process is consistent with a sequential sampling process. Results also reveal a dissociation between these preferential decisions and equivalent perceptual decisions where participants had to determine which alternatives contained more dots on average. To account for this dissociation, we developed a sequential sampling rank-dependent utility model, which showed that participants in the FGT attended more to larger potential payoffs than participants in the perceptual task despite being given equivalent information. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of computational models of preferential choice and a more complete understanding of experience-based decision making. PMID:24549141

  11. Advances in rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, C. L.; McCarty, G. D.; Pardo, B. T.; Bryce, E. A.

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System's QuickCast(trademark) resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast(trademark) resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable first article and small lot size production parts. They use the selective laser sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  12. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  13. Decidability problems for meta-R-functions

    SciTech Connect

    Losovik, L.P.; Drobyshev, P.V.

    1995-09-01

    In this article we consider classes of functions defined by R-transformers, which are machines that sequentially process real numbers represented in the binary number system. The class of real functions defined by R-transformers includes all continuous and some discontinuous functions. The closure of this class under superposition produces the wider class of real meta-R-functions. Such functions are defined by finite sequences of R-transformers. Here we examine the class of meta-R-meta-R-functions. Such functions are defined by finite sequences of R-transformers. Here we examine the class of meta-R-functions and specifically the class of finite meta-R-functions. The latter are defined by finite sequences of finite R-transformers. Decidability of the equivalent problem in the class of functions defined by finite R-transformers, i.e., the class of finite R-functions, is proved elsewhere. Here we generalize this result to the class of finite meta-R-functions. We investigate not only the equivalence problem, but also the monotonicity and continuity problems. The proof is by reduction to the decidable nonemptiness problem for nondeterministic bounded-mode finite transformers with finite-turnaround counters on labeled trees. We also consider the general properties of the class of meta-R-functions.

  14. The decline and fall of Type II error rates

    Treesearch

    Steve Verrill; Mark Durst

    2005-01-01

    For general linear models with normally distributed random errors, the probability of a Type II error decreases exponentially as a function of sample size. This potentially rapid decline reemphasizes the importance of performing power calculations.

  15. Rapid isolation of intact chloroplasts from spinach leaves.

    PubMed

    Joly, David; Carpentier, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, a rapid method to isolate intact chloroplasts from spinach leaves is described. Intact chloroplasts are isolated using two short centrifugation steps and avoiding the use of percoll gradient. Intactness of chloroplast is evaluated by the inability of potassium ferricyanide to enter inside the chloroplasts and to act as an electron acceptor for photosystem II.

  16. Automating network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Valkenhoef, Gert; Lu, Guobing; de Brock, Bert; Hillege, Hans; Ades, A E; Welton, Nicky J

    2012-12-01

    Mixed treatment comparison (MTC) (also called network meta-analysis) is an extension of traditional meta-analysis to allow the simultaneous pooling of data from clinical trials comparing more than two treatment options. Typically, MTCs are performed using general-purpose Markov chain Monte Carlo software such as WinBUGS, requiring a model and data to be specified using a specific syntax. It would be preferable if, for the most common cases, both could be derived from a well-structured data file that can be easily checked for errors. Automation is particularly valuable for simulation studies in which the large number of MTCs that have to be estimated may preclude manual model specification and analysis. Moreover, automated model generation raises issues that provide additional insight into the nature of MTC. We present a method for the automated generation of Bayesian homogeneous variance random effects consistency models, including the choice of basic parameters and trial baselines, priors, and starting values for the Markov chain(s). We validate our method against the results of five published MTCs. The method is implemented in freely available open source software. This means that performing an MTC no longer requires manually writing a statistical model. This reduces time and effort, and facilitates error checking of the dataset. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Meta-analysis in medicine: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Mak, Anselm; Cheung, Mike W L; Fu, Erin H Y; Ho, Roger C M

    2010-05-01

    Meta-analysis, a complex statistical method which involves synthesis of data from relevant studies to devise an effect size or a conclusion, has increasingly been recognized and impacts on evidence-based medicine, especially in the field of health science. Thanks to the advent and unmet need of evidence-based medicine, since the first recordable publication of a meta-analysis in 1904 addressing the effectiveness of typhoid vaccine, both the number and quality of meta-analyses published relating to healthcare science have been on a steep rise. If properly conducted, based on answering relevant clinical questions, strict selection criteria of participating studies, appropriate analytical methods, and proper presentation of results, coupled with critical and faithful discussion on the strength and weakness of the analysis, meta-analysis will definitely be an invaluable tool for clinicians and researchers in understanding epidemiology, justifying and refining hypotheses of various diseases, for medical practitioners to implement sound management decisions based on evidence-based medicine, and ultimately, for policy-makers to formulate cost-efficient treatment strategies, guidelines and legislation. In this first paper of a mini-series, the current trend of meta-analysis publications in the medical literature, examples of important meta-analyses relevant to rheumatology and the pros and cons of meta-analysis, will be discussed. Important terminology related to meta-analysis, the systematic ways to critically appraise, and finally the preferred methodology of conducting meta-analysis will be covered in the subsequent three reviews of this mini-series.

  18. Identification of phenylalanine 3-hydroxylase for meta-tyrosine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Ames, Brian D; Walsh, Christopher T

    2011-06-21

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH) is an iron(II)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of aromatic amino acid l-phenylalanine (L-Phe) to l-tyrosine (L-Tyr). The enzymatic modification has been demonstrated to be highly regiospecific, forming proteinogenic para-Tyr (p-Tyr) exclusively. Here we biochemically characterized the first example of a phenylalanine 3-hydroxylase (Phe3H) that catalyzes the synthesis of meta-Tyr (m-Tyr) from Phe. Subsequent mutagenesis studies revealed that two residues in the active site of Phe3H (Cys187 and Thr202) contribute to C-3 rather than C-4 hydroxylation of the phenyl ring. This work sets the stage for the mechanistic and structural study of regiospecific control of the substrate hydroxylation by PheH.

  19. Risk factors for neuroendocrine neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, E; Carioli, G; La Vecchia, C; Boccia, S; Rindi, G

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are rare cancers mainly of lung and digestive tract. Little is known on risk factors. The aim of this work is to define the risk factors for NEN development by extensive review and meta-analysis of published data. The search was conducted on Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used for study quality. Meta-analyses were conducted by primary site. Odds ratio (OR), hazard ratio, risk ratio, standardized incidence ratio, and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were abstracted. Data were combined and analyses carried out for risk factors considered by at least two studies. Random-effects model was adopted for study variation. Of 1535 extracted articles, 24 were enrolled. Meta-analyses were possible for pancreas, small intestine, and rectum. Risk for NEN associated with: (i) family history of cancer at all investigated sites (lung, stomach, pancreas, small intestine, appendix, and colon; OR 2.12 [95% CI 1.40-3.22, I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.681] at meta-analysis in pancreas); (ii) body mass index (BMI) or diabetes (stomach, pancreas, and small intestine; OR of 2.76 [95% CI 1.65-4.64, I(2) = 58.5%, P = 0.090] for diabetes at meta-analysis in pancreas); (iii) cigarette smoking (lung, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine; OR of 1.34 [95% CI 1.10-1.63, I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.780] and of 1.59 [95% CI 1.07-2.37, I(2) = 32.9%, P = 0.225] for smokers versus never-smokers at meta-analysis for pancreas and small intestine); (iv) alcohol consumption (pancreas and rectum; OR of 2.44 [95% CI 1.07-5.59, I(2) = 65.8%, P = 0.054] and of 1.53 [95% CI 0.99-2.35, I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.630] for heavy drinkers versus never-drinkers at meta-analysis for pancreas and rectum). Family history of cancer is the most relevant risk factor for NEN development at all investigated sites, followed by BMI and diabetes. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are

  20. Case study of the comparison of data from conference abstracts and full-text articles in health technology assessment of rapidly evolving technologies: does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Dundar, Yenal; Dodd, Susanna; Williamson, Paula; Dickson, Rumona; Walley, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine (i) the consistency of reporting research findings presented in conference abstracts and presentations and subsequent full publications, (ii) the ability to judge methodological quality of trials from conference abstracts and presentations, and (iii) the effect of inclusion or exclusion of data from these sources on the pooled effect estimates in a meta-analysis. This report is a case study of a selected health technology assessment review (TAR) of a rapidly evolving technology that had identified and included a meta-analysis of trial data from conference abstracts and presentations. The overall quality of reporting in abstracts and presentations was poor, especially in abstracts. There was incomplete or inconsistent reporting of data in the abstract/presentations. Most often inconsistencies were between conference slide presentations and data reported in published full-text articles. Sensitivity analyses indicated that using data only from published papers would not have altered the direction of any of the results when compared with those using published and abstract data. However, the statistical significance of three of ten results would have changed. If conference abstracts and presentations were excluded from the early analysis, the direction of effect and statistical significance would have changed in one result. The overall conclusions of the original analysis would not have been altered. There are inconsistencies in data presented as conference abstracts/presentations and those reported in subsequent published reports. These inconsistencies could impact the final assessment results. Data discrepancies identified across sources included in TARs should be highlighted and their impact assessed and discussed. Sensitivity analyses should be carried out with and without abstract/presentation data included in the analysis. Incomplete reporting in conference abstracts and presentations limits the ability of reviewers to assess

  1. [Meta-synthesis: a research methodology].

    PubMed

    Carrillo-González, Gloria M; Gómez-Ramírez, Olga J; Vargas-Rosero, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This article resulted from a bibliographical review concerning meta-synthesis, considered to be a novel methodology in health science research. Meta-synthesis' importance lies in evaluating high complex scientific evidence from qualitative research and strengthening a discipline's body of knowledge when constructing, describing or explaining related theories. Several authors' definitions of meta-synthesis are presented. They coincide in stating that its purpose is to enhance interpreting an outcome by integrating the findings from qualitative research and thus have an impact on support, research and proposals in resolving problems regarding nursing practice. Some criteria to be born in mind when applying this methodology are also mentioned.

  2. Meta-analysis in neuropsychology: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Demakis, George J

    2006-02-01

    This special issue is an introduction to meta-analytic approaches, methods, and findings in neuropsychology. The six articles that comprise this issue include a review article, one article examining the statistical power of a specific research literature, and four new meta-analyses on neuropsychological topics. Together these articles provide a user-friendly introduction to meta-analysis in neuropsychology and are designed to assist the clinician in using and applying findings from these studies to their own research and/or clinical work.

  3. Widowhood and mortality: a meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Shor, Eran; Roelfs, David J; Curreli, Misty; Clemow, Lynn; Burg, Matthew M; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2012-05-01

    The study of spousal bereavement and mortality has long been a major topic of interest for social scientists, but much remains unknown with respect to important moderating factors, such as age, follow-up duration, and geographic region. The present study examines these factors using meta-analysis. Keyword searches were conducted in multiple electronic databases, supplemented by extensive iterative hand searches. We extracted 1,377 mortality risk estimates from 123 publications, providing data on more than 500 million persons. Compared with married people, widowers had a mean hazard ratio (HR) of 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-1.28) among HRs adjusted for age and additional covariates and a high subjective quality score. The mean HR was higher for men (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.35) than for women (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.08-1.22). A significant interaction effect was found between gender and mean age, with HRs decreasing more rapidly for men than for women as age increased. Other significant predictors of HR magnitude included sample size, geographic region, level of statistical adjustment, and study quality.

  4. Widowhood and Mortality: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regressiona

    PubMed Central

    Roelfs, David J.; Shor, Eran; Curreli, Misty; Clemow, Lynn; Burg, Matthew M.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    The study of spousal bereavement and mortality has long been a major topic of interest for social scientists, but much remains unknown with respect to important moderating factors such as age, follow-up duration, and geographic region. The present study examines these factors using meta-analysis. Keyword searches were conducted in multiple electronic databases, supplemented by extensive iterative hand searches. We extracted 1381 mortality risk estimates from 124 publications, providing data on more than 500 million persons. Compared to married people, widowers had a mean hazard ratio (HR) of 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19–1.28) among HRs adjusted for age and additional covariates and a high subjective quality score. The mean HR was higher for men (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19–1.35) than for women (HR, 1.15; 95% CI: 1.08–1.22). A significant interaction effect was found between gender and mean age, with HRs decreasing more rapidly for men than for women as age increased. Other significant predictors of HR magnitude included sample size, geographic region, level of statistical adjustment, and study quality. PMID:22427278

  5. MetaMetaDB: A Database and Analytic System for Investigating Microbial Habitability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ching-chia; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2014-01-01

    MetaMetaDB (http://mmdb.aori.u-tokyo.ac.jp/) is a database and analytic system for investigating microbial habitability, i.e., how a prokaryotic group can inhabit different environments. The interaction between prokaryotes and the environment is a key issue in microbiology because distinct prokaryotic communities maintain distinct ecosystems. Because 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences play pivotal roles in identifying prokaryotic species, a system that comprehensively links diverse environments to 16S rRNA sequences of the inhabitant prokaryotes is necessary for the systematic understanding of the microbial habitability. However, existing databases are biased to culturable prokaryotes and exhibit limitations in the comprehensiveness of the data because most prokaryotes are unculturable. Recently, metagenomic and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approaches have generated abundant 16S rRNA sequence data that encompass unculturable prokaryotes across diverse environments; however, these data are usually buried in large databases and are difficult to access. In this study, we developed MetaMetaDB (Meta-Metagenomic DataBase), which comprehensively and compactly covers 16S rRNA sequences retrieved from public datasets. Using MetaMetaDB, users can quickly generate hypotheses regarding the types of environments a prokaryotic group may be adapted to. We anticipate that MetaMetaDB will improve our understanding of the diversity and evolution of prokaryotes. PMID:24475242

  6. Meta-CART: A tool to identify interactions between moderators in meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinru; Dusseldorp, Elise; Meulman, Jacqueline J

    2017-02-01

    In the framework of meta-analysis, moderator analysis is usually performed only univariately. When several study characteristics are available that may account for treatment effect, standard meta-regression has difficulties in identifying interactions between them. To overcome this problem, meta-CART has been proposed: an approach that applies classification and regression trees (CART) to identify interactions, and then subgroup meta-analysis to test the significance of moderator effects. The previous version of meta-CART has its shortcomings: when applying CART, the sample sizes of studies are not taken into account, and the effect sizes are dichotomized around the median value. Therefore, this article proposes new meta-CART extensions, weighting study effect sizes by their accuracy, and using a regression tree to avoid dichotomization. In addition, new pruning rules are proposed. The performance of all versions of meta-CART was evaluated via a Monte Carlo simulation study. The simulation results revealed that meta-regression trees with random-effects weights and a 0.5-standard-error pruning rule perform best. The required sample size for meta-CART to achieve satisfactory performance depends on the number of study characteristics, the magnitude of the interactions, and the residual heterogeneity.

  7. Meta-analysis of Creatine for neuroprotection against Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Attia, Attia; Ahmed, Hussien; Gadelkarim, Mohamed; Morsi, Mahmoud; Awad, Kamal; Elnenny, Mohamed; Ghanem, Esraa; El-Jafaary, Shaimaa; Negida, Ahmed

    2016-11-04

    Background Creatine is an antioxidant agent that showed neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Creatine was selected by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke as a possible disease modifying agent for Parkinson's disease. Therefore, many clinical trials evaluated the efficacy of creatine for patients with PD. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to synthesize evidence from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the efficacy of Creatine for patients with PD. Methods We followed PRISMA statement guidelines during the preparation of this systematic review and meta-analysis. A computer literature search for PubMed, EBSCO, web of science and Ovid Midline was carried out. We included RCTs comparing creatine with placebo in terms of motor functions and quality of life. Outcomes of total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), UPDRS I, UPDRS II, and UPDRS III were pooled as mean difference (MD) between two groups from baseline to the endpoint. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of the forest plot and measured by chi-square and I square tests. Results Three RCTs (n=1935) were included in this study. The overall effect did not favor either of the two groups in terms of: UPDRS total score (MD 1.07, 95% CI [3.38 to 1.25], UPDRS III (MD 0.62, 95% CI [2.27 to 1.02]), UPDRS II (MD 0.03, 95% CI [0.81 to 0.86], or UPDRS I (MD 0.03, 95% CI [0.33 to 0.28]). Conclusion Current evidence does not support the use of creatine for neuroprotection against PD. Future well-designed, randomized controlled trials are needed.

  8. Comparison of 7 Surgical Interventions for Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Fan; Xu, Qianqian; Yan, Feifei; Xie, Yuanlong; Deng, Zhouming; Hu, Chao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Cai, Lin

    2017-09-01

    The number of interventions on intervertebral discs rapidly increased and the treatment options for lumbar disc surgery quickly evolved. It is important that the safety and efficacy of all new innovative procedures be compared with currently accepted forms of treatment; however, the previous pairwise meta-analyses could not develop the hierarchy of these treatments. The purpose of the study is to perform a network meta-analysis to evaluate the clinical results of 7 surgical interventions for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for multiple treatment comparisons of lumbar disc herniation. We performed a Bayesian-framework network meta-analysis of RCTs to compare 7 surgical interventions for people with lumbar disc herniation. The eligible RCTs were identified by searching Embase, Pubmed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Google scholar. Data from 3 outcomes (success, complications, and reoperation rate) were independently extracted by 2 authors. A total of 29 RCTs including 3,146 participants were finally included into this article. Our meta-analysis provides hierarchies of these 7 interventions. For the success rate the rank probability (from best to worst): percutaneous endoscopic lumber discectomy (PELD) > standard open discectomy (SOD) > standard open microsurgical discectomy (SOMD) > chemonucleolysis (CN) > microendoscopic discectomy (MED) > percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) > automated percutaneous lumber discectomy (APLD). For the complication rate the rank probability (from best to worst): PELD > SOMD > SOD > MED > PLDD > CN > APLD. For the reoperation rate the rank probability (from best to worst): SOMD > SOD > MED > PLDD > PELD > CN > APLD. The limitations of this network meta-analysis include the range of study populations and inconformity of the follow-up times and outcome measurements. This meta-analysis provides evidence that PELD might be the

  9. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  10. RAVE: Rapid Visualization Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Anderson, Kevin; Simoudis, Avangelos

    1994-01-01

    Visualization is used in the process of analyzing large, multidimensional data sets. However, the selection and creation of visualizations that are appropriate for the characteristics of a particular data set and the satisfaction of the analyst's goals is difficult. The process consists of three tasks that are performed iteratively: generate, test, and refine. The performance of these tasks requires the utilization of several types of domain knowledge that data analysts do not often have. Existing visualization systems and frameworks do not adequately support the performance of these tasks. In this paper we present the RApid Visualization Environment (RAVE), a knowledge-based system that interfaces with commercial visualization frameworks and assists a data analyst in quickly and easily generating, testing, and refining visualizations. RAVE was used for the visualization of in situ measurement data captured by spacecraft.

  11. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  12. Rapid Prototyping Roadmapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Kenneth G.

    1998-01-01

    Roadmapping has long been thought of as a process for getting from point A to point B within a single discipline. Roadmapping for Rapid Prototyping has multiple paths of which we will diagram in this meeting. When you consider the dynamic change that the computer has made in both developing as well as manufacturing products, we could only assume that further electronic medium matched with mechanical inventions will continue. This industry roadmap is intended to point and lead us to the promised manufacturing land. We hope to reduce the inherent risk associated with technology development by providing a clear goal of mapping to a manufacturing process. The work of DoE in 1994 was excellent and began a journey that would benefit the decision makers and allow for choices that would be good investment decisions. While this work included government agencies, this map is broader and includes industry and academia input.

  13. Rapid diagnosis of sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Bloos, Frank; Reinhart, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Fast and appropriate therapy is the cornerstone in the therapy of sepsis. However, the discrimination of sepsis from non-infectious causes of inflammation may be difficult. Biomarkers have been suggested to aid physicians in this decision. There is currently no biochemical technique available which alone allows a rapid and reliable discrimination between sepsis and non-infectious inflammation. Procalcitonin (PCT) is currently the most investigated biomarker for this purpose. C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 perform inferior to PCT in most studies and their value in diagnosing sepsis is not defined. All biomarkers including PCT are also released after various non-infectious inflammatory impacts. This shortcoming needs to be taken into account when biomarkers are used to aid the physician in the diagnosis of sepsis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based pathogen detection may improve time to adequate therapy but cannot rule out the presence of infection when negative. PMID:24335467

  14. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Mathew W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal or transverse direction at the tip, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip. Each measured change in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference signals, with each reference signal identified with a polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component. The tip preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  15. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in spine surgery, neurosurgery and orthopedics: guidelines for the surgeon scientist.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2015-12-01

    The research evidence in the realm of surgery is expanding at a rapid pace, and thus corresponds with an increasing need to critically appraise and synthesize the available literature. Particularly in fields such as spine surgery, neurosurgery and orthopedics which traditionally have little Class I randomized clinical data, reviews are important to pool the available evidence on clinical questions which are otherwise difficult to answer. Whilst systematic reviews and meta-analyses have the potential to provide critical and updated surgical evidence to guide clinical decisions, poorly performed analyses and misinterpretation of such reviews may have a detrimental effect on patient care and outcomes. We present a summary of the critical steps in performing a systematic review and meta-analysis, allowing the surgeon scientist to better interpret and perform their own systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

  16. The rapid transient surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, C.; Lu, J. R.; Wright, S. A.; Tonry, J.; Tully, R. B.; Szapudi, I.; Takamiya, M.; Hunter, L.; Riddle, R.; Chen, S.; Chun, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS) is a proposed rapid-response, high-cadence adaptive optics (AO) facility for the UH 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will uniquely address the need for high-acuity and sensitive near-infrared spectral follow-up observations of tens of thousands of objects in mere months by combining an excellent observing site, unmatched robotic observational efficiency, and an AO system that significantly increases both sensitivity and spatial resolving power. We will initially use RTS to obtain the infrared spectra of 4,000 Type Ia supernovae identified by the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System over a two year period that will be crucial to precisely measuring distances and mapping the distribution of dark matter in the z < 0.1 universe. RTS will comprise an upgraded version of the Robo-AO laser AO system and will respond quickly to target-of-opportunity events, minimizing the time between discovery and characterization. RTS will acquire simultaneous-multicolor images with an acuity of 0.07-0.10" across the entire visible spectrum (20% i'-band Strehl in median conditions) and <0.16" in the near infrared, and will detect companions at 0.5" at contrast ratio of 500. The system will include a high-efficiency prism integral field unit spectrograph: R = 70-140 over a total bandpass of 840-1830nm with an 8.7" by 6.0" field of view (0.15" spaxels). The AO correction boosts the infrared point-source sensitivity of the spectrograph against the sky background by a factor of seven for faint targets, giving the UH 2.2-m the H-band sensitivity of a 5.7-m telescope without AO.

  17. Advances in rapid prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System`s QuickCast{trademark} resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast{trademark} resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable firs article and small lots size production parts. They use the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  18. Is intramedullary fixation of displaced midshaft clavicle fracture superior to plate fixation? Evidence from a systematic review of discordant meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Lin, Yongsheng; Wang, Zhihong; Cao, Junming; Yang, Yipeng; Xia, Hehuan; Zhang, Yingze

    2017-07-01

    An increasing number of meta-analyses comparing intramedullary fixation (IF) with plate fixation (PF) for displaced midshaft clavicle fracture have been reported, but the inconsistent results obtained might confuse decision-making. We systematically reviewed discordant meta-analyses for assisting the decision-maker in interpreting and selecting amongst discordant meta-analyses and providing surgical recommendations for displaced midshaft clavicle fracture according to currently best available evidence. Meta-analyses on IF and PF for displaced midshaft clavicle fracture were identified by searching PubMed, Emabase and the Cochrane Library. A review of meta-analysis quality and data extraction was individually conducted by two reviewers. The meta-analysis providing the best available evidence was identified using the Jadad decision algorithm. Nine studies were included, five of which were of Level-II evidence and four of which were of Level-III evidence. These meta-analyses scored from 6 to 10 according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews instrument. With respect to the Jadad decision algorithm, the best meta-analysis was chosen depending upon publication characteristics and methodology of primary studies, language restrictions, and whether data on individual patients were analysed. A meta-analysis incorporating more randomised controlled trials was eventually selected. The best available evidence indicated that the differences between IF and PF were not significant in terms of shoulder function or the rate of treatment failure. However, IF significantly decreased the operative time and the rate of non-operative complications, especially the rate of infection. Based on the best available evidence, IF may be superior to PF for treating displaced midshaft clavicle fracture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Meta-analysis and meta-modelling for diagnostic problems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A proportional hazards measure is suggested in the context of analyzing SROC curves that arise in the meta–analysis of diagnostic studies. The measure can be motivated as a special model: the Lehmann model for ROC curves. The Lehmann model involves study–specific sensitivities and specificities and a diagnostic accuracy parameter which connects the two. Methods A study–specific model is estimated for each study, and the resulting study-specific estimate of diagnostic accuracy is taken as an outcome measure for a mixed model with a random study effect and other study-level covariates as fixed effects. The variance component model becomes estimable by deriving within-study variances, depending on the outcome measure of choice. In contrast to existing approaches – usually of bivariate nature for the outcome measures – the suggested approach is univariate and, hence, allows easily the application of conventional mixed modelling. Results Some simple modifications in the SAS procedure proc mixed allow the fitting of mixed models for meta-analytic data from diagnostic studies. The methodology is illustrated with several meta–analytic diagnostic data sets, including a meta–analysis of the Mini–Mental State Examination as a diagnostic device for dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Conclusions The proposed methodology allows us to embed the meta-analysis of diagnostic studies into the well–developed area of mixed modelling. Different outcome measures, specifically from the perspective of whether a local or a global measure of diagnostic accuracy should be applied, are discussed as well. In particular, variation in cut-off value is discussed together with recommendations on choosing the best cut-off value. We also show how this problem can be addressed with the proposed methodology. PMID:24758534

  20. A taxonomy of rapid reviews links report types and methods to specific decision-making contexts.

    PubMed

    Hartling, Lisa; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Kato, Elisabeth; Anderson, Johanna; Belinson, Suzanne; Berliner, Elise; Dryden, Donna M; Featherstone, Robin; Mitchell, Matthew D; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Noorani, Hussein; Paynter, Robin; Robinson, Karen A; Schoelles, Karen; Umscheid, Craig A; Whitlock, Evelyn

    2015-12-01

    Describe characteristics of rapid reviews and examine the impact of methodological variations on their reliability and validity. We conducted a literature review and interviews with organizations that produce rapid reviews or related products to identify methods, guidance, empiric evidence, and current practices. We identified 36 rapid products from 20 organizations (production time, 5 minutes to 8 months). Methods differed from systematic reviews at all stages. As time frames increased, methods became more rigorous; however, restrictions on database searching, inclusion criteria, data extracted, and independent dual review remained. We categorized rapid products based on extent of synthesis. "Inventories" list what evidence is available. "Rapid responses" present best available evidence with no formal synthesis. "Rapid reviews" synthesize the quality of and findings from the evidence. "Automated approaches" generate meta-analyses in response to user-defined queries. Rapid products rely on a close relationship with end users and support specific decisions in an identified time frame. Limited empiric evidence exists comparing rapid and systematic reviews. Rapid products have tremendous methodological variation; categorization based on time frame or type of synthesis reveals patterns. The similarity across rapid products lies in the close relationship with the end user to meet time-sensitive decision-making needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MetaSAMS--a novel software platform for taxonomic classification, functional annotation and comparative analysis of metagenome datasets.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Martha; Bekel, Thomas; Ander, Christina; Pühler, Alfred; Rupp, Oliver; Stoye, Jens; Schlüter, Andreas; Goesmann, Alexander

    2013-08-20

    Metagenomics aims at exploring microbial communities concerning their composition and functioning. Application of high-throughput sequencing technologies for the analysis of environmental DNA-preparations can generate large sets of metagenome sequence data which have to be analyzed by means of bioinformatics tools to unveil the taxonomic composition of the analyzed community as well as the repertoire of genes and gene functions. A bioinformatics software platform is required that allows the automated taxonomic and functional analysis and interpretation of metagenome datasets without manual effort. To address current demands in metagenome data analyses, the novel platform MetaSAMS was developed. MetaSAMS automatically accomplishes the tasks necessary for analyzing the composition and functional repertoire of a given microbial community from metagenome sequence data by implementing two software pipelines: (i) the first pipeline consists of three different classifiers performing the taxonomic profiling of metagenome sequences and (ii) the second functional pipeline accomplishes region predictions on assembled contigs and assigns functional information to predicted coding sequences. Moreover, MetaSAMS provides tools for statistical and comparative analyses based on the taxonomic and functional annotations. The capabilities of MetaSAMS are demonstrated for two metagenome datasets obtained from a biogas-producing microbial community of a production-scale biogas plant. The MetaSAMS web interface is available at https://metasams.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [How to read a meta-analysis?].

    PubMed

    Moulis, G; Sommet, A

    2014-04-01

    Meta-analysis is aimed at assessing an exhaustive, unbiased, reproducible, quantified and accurate synthesis of a research problem. It is sustained by a systematic review of the literature and has statistical particularities. Sources of error and bias are numerous. In this paper, we describe them following the methodology steps of a well-conducted meta-analysis. Causes of divergent conclusions of meta-analyses are described and illustrated with the example of cancer risk assessment in TNF inhibitor-treated rheumatoid arthritis patients. Eventually, this article provides key-points to help readers to detect sources of error and bias in meta-analyses. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Meta-analysis of incomplete microarray studies.

    PubMed

    Zollinger, Alix; Davison, Anthony C; Goldstein, Darlene R

    2015-10-01

    Meta-analysis of microarray studies to produce an overall gene list is relatively straightforward when complete data are available. When some studies lack information-providing only a ranked list of genes, for example-it is common to reduce all studies to ranked lists prior to combining them. Since this entails a loss of information, we consider a hierarchical Bayes approach to meta-analysis using different types of information from different studies: the full data matrix, summary statistics, or ranks. The model uses an informative prior for the parameter of interest to aid the detection of differentially expressed genes. Simulations show that the new approach can give substantial power gains compared with classical meta-analysis and list aggregation methods. A meta-analysis of 11 published studies with different data types identifies genes known to be involved in ovarian cancer and shows significant enrichment.

  4. Immobilization of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions on kaolinite and montmorillonite surfaces from aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Sen Gupta, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G

    2008-04-01

    The present study investigates the immobilization of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) on clays (kaolinite and montmorillonite) in aqueous medium through the process of adsorption under a set of variables (concentration of metal ion, amount of clay, pH, time and temperature of interaction). Increasing pH favours the removal of metal ions till they are precipitated as the insoluble hydroxides. The uptake is rapid with maximum adsorption being observed within 180 min for Pb(II) and Ni(II) and 240 min for Cd(II). A number of available models like the Lagergren pseudo first-order kinetics, second-order kinetics, Elovich equation, liquid film diffusion and intra-particle diffusion are utilized to evaluate the kinetics and the mechanism of the immobilization interactions. Two isotherm equations due to Langmuir and Freundlich showed good fits with the experimental data. Kaolinite and montmorillonite have considerable Langmuir monolayer capacity with respect to Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II), the values being in the range of 6.8-11.5mg/g (kaolinite) and 21.1-31.1mg/g (montmorillonite). The Freundlich adsorption capacity follows a similar order. The thermodynamics of the immobilization process indicates the same to be exothermic with Pb(II) and Ni(II), but endothermic with Cd(II). The interactions with Pb(II) and Ni(II) are accompanied by decrease in entropy and Gibbs energy while the endothermic immobilization of Cd(II) is supported by an increase in entropy and an appreciable decrease in Gibbs energy. The results have established good potentiality for kaolinite and montmorillonite to remove heavy metals like Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous medium through adsorption-mediated immobilization.

  5. Pro: Meta-analysis: the case for.

    PubMed

    Mudge, David W; Webster, Angela C; Johnson, David W

    2016-06-01

    With ever-accumulating medical evidence for treatment benefits and harms, it is vital that clinicians are able to access and use up-to-date, best evidence in specific clinical scenarios involving individual patients-the primary goal of evidence-based medicine. In this article, we propose that meta-analysis, when properly conducted and reported in the context of a rigorous systematic review, is an indispensable tool for synthesis and interpretation of clinical evidence for the purpose of informing clinical decision-making by clinicians, patients and health care policy makers. Meta-analysis provides many benefits, including enhanced precision and statistical power, greater transparency, identification of bias, exploration of heterogeneity of effects, enhanced generalizability, efficient integration of clinical knowledge, identification of evidence gaps, better informed future trial design and avoidance of unnecessary research duplication and potential patient harm. The overall standard, clinical value and reach of meta-analysis has been further enhanced by the development of standards for registration, conduct and reporting, as well as advanced meta-analytic techniques, such as network meta-analysis. Of course, meta-analysis can at times be limited by poor quality studies, trial heterogeneity, publication bias and non-rigorous review and analysis, although through appraisal these issues are often able to be identified and explored, such that valuable clinical information can still be obtained. Consequently, meta-analysis is now the most highly cited form of research and is considered by many leading organizations to represent the highest level of clinical evidence. However, to maximize their considerable value, it is essential that all clinicians have the skills to critically appraise, carefully interpret and judiciously apply meta-analyses in their practice.

  6. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, λ = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15″ spaxels, 8.7″×6.0″ FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07″ in visible wavelengths and < 0.16″ in the near infrared leading to an increase of the infrared point-source sensitivity against the sky background by a factor of ~9, crucial for efficient near-infrared spectroscopy.RTS will allow us to map the dark matter distribution in the z < 0.1 local universe with ten times better accuracy and precision than previous experiments. ATLAS will discover several thousand SNIae per year, measuring SNIa peak brightness, and decline rates, while RTS will measure reddening by dust, confirm SN type and

  7. Building a rapid response team.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  8. Influence of different mineral and Organic pesticide treatments on Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) contents determined by derivative potentiometric stripping analysis in Italian white and red wines.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Francesco; La Pera, Lara; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Nicotina, Mariano; Dugo, Giacomo

    2003-02-12

    This paper deals with the use of derivative potentiometric stripping analysis (dPSA) as a rapid and precise method to determine Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels in red and white wine samples from Sicily, Campania, and Tuscany and to investigate the possible connection between the content of these metals and the pesticide treatments used in vine-growing to control plant diseases and pests. dPSA allowed direct quantitation of heavy metals in acidified wines without any sample pretreatment. Mean recoveries of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) ranged from 95.5 to 99.2% for white wine samples and from 96.1 to 100.0% for red wine samples. The obtained results showed that Cd(II) was not found in any sample and that Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels were always lower than the toxicity limits in both fungicide- and water-treated wines. Nevertheless, the contents of metals were increased in samples from organic and inorganic pesticides treatment with respect to the water-treated samples. In particular, quinoxyfen, dinocap-penconazole, and dinocap applications considerably increased Cu(II) and Zn(II) contents in white and red wines. The levels of lead were significantly raised by azoxystrobin and sulfur treatments.

  9. The meta-analytic big bang.

    PubMed

    Shadish, William R; Lecy, Jesse D

    2015-09-01

    This article looks at the impact of meta-analysis and then explores why meta-analysis was developed at the time and by the scholars it did in the social sciences in the 1970s. For the first problem, impact, it examines the impact of meta-analysis using citation network analysis. The impact is seen in the sciences, arts and humanities, and on such contemporaneous developments as multilevel modeling, medical statistics, qualitative methods, program evaluation, and single-case design. Using a constrained snowball sample of citations, we highlight key articles that are either most highly cited or most central to the systematic review network. Then, the article examines why meta-analysis came to be in the 1970s in the social sciences through the work of Gene Glass, Robert Rosenthal, and Frank Schmidt, each of whom developed similar theories of meta-analysis at about the same time. The article ends by explaining how Simonton's chance configuration theory and Campbell's evolutionary epistemology can illuminate why meta-analysis occurred with these scholars when it did and not in medical sciences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Rapid Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Priyank; Bajaj, Sharad; Virk, Hartaj; Bikkina, Mahesh; Shamoon, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is chronic disease, the prevalence of which has increased steadily as the population ages. Vascular injury is believed to be critical initiating event in pathogenesis of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis has been classically described in patients undergoing heart transplantation, coronary artery bypass graft, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. In contrast to spontaneous atherosclerosis, denuding endothelial injury followed by thrombus formation and initial predominant smooth muscle cell proliferation is believed to be playing a significant role in accelerated atherosclerosis. There is no universal definition of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. However most studies describing the phenomenon have used the following definition: (i) > or = 10% diameter reduction of at least one preexisting stenosis > or = 50%, (ii) > or = 30% diameter reduction of a preexisting stenosis <50%, and (iii) progression of a lesion to total occlusion within few months. Recent studies have described the role of coronary vasospasm, human immunodeficiency virus, various inflammatory markers, and some genetic mutations as predictors of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. As research in the field of vascular biology continues, more factors are likely to be implicated in the pathogenesis of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26823982

  11. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  12. Rapid diagnosis in serology.

    PubMed

    García-Bermejo, Isabel; de Ory, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Serological diagnosis of acute phase infections implies the detection of IgM specific response, an effective marker of primary infection, but with less clinical significance in reactivations or reinfections. The aim of this article is to provide an updated view of the rapid diagnosis in serology by detecting the IgM isotype and reviewing its applications and limitations. Point-of-care (PoC) tests are analyzed. PoC tests are used in geographical areas where traditional tests are not available, as well as in other circumstances where their use brings the diagnosis directly to the target population. Likewise, their use reduces the response time between taking the sample and the diagnosis, making it easier to make clinical decisions. PoC assays have proven cost-effective, especially in preventing vertical transmission of syphilis and HIV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Problems of rapid growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  14. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  15. Meta-Analyses and Orthodontic Evidence-Based Clinical Practice in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Moschos A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Aim of this systematic review was to assess the orthodontic related issues which currently provide the best evidence as documented by meta-analyses, by critically evaluating and discussing the methodology used in these studies. Material and Methods: Several electronic databases were searched and handsearching was also performed in order to identify the corresponding meta-analyses investigating orthodontic related subjects. In total, 197 studies were retrieved initially. After applying specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, 27 articles were identified as meta-analyses treating orthodontic-related subjects. Results: Many of these 27 papers presented sufficient quality and followed appropriate meta-analytic approaches to quantitatively synthesize data and presented adequately supported evidence. However, the methodology used in some of them presented weaknesses, limitations or deficiencies. Consequently, the topics in orthodontics which currently provide the best evidence, include some issues related to Class II or Class III treatment, treatment of transverse problems, external apical root resorption, dental anomalies, such as congenital missing teeth and tooth transposition, frequency of severe occlusal problems, nickel hypersensitivity, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and computer-assisted learning in orthodontic education. Conclusions: Only a few orthodontic related issues have been so far investigated by means of MAs. In addition, for some of these issues investigated in the corresponding MAs no definite conclusions could be drawn, due to significant methodological deficiencies of these studies. According to this investigation, it can be concluded that at the begin of the 21st century there is evidence for only a few orthodontic related issues as documented by meta-analyses, and more well-conducted high quality research studies are needed to produce strong evidence in order to support evidence-based clinical practice in orthodontics. PMID

  16. Healthcare workers' willingness to work during an influenza pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Yumiko; Beck, Charles R; Dingwall, Robert; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2015-05-01

    To estimate the proportion of healthcare workers (HCWs) willing to work during an influenza pandemic and identify associated risk factors, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis compliant with PRISMA guidance. Databases and grey literature were searched to April 2013, and records were screened against protocol eligibility criteria. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were undertaken using a piloted form. Random-effects meta-analyses estimated (i) pooled proportion of HCWs willing to work and (ii) pooled odds ratios of risk factors associated with willingness to work. Heterogeneity was quantified using the I(2) statistic, and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger's test. Data were synthesized narratively where meta-analyses were not possible. Forty-three studies met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of the proportion of HCWs willing to work was abandoned due to excessive heterogeneity (I(2) = 99.2%). Narrative synthesis showed study estimates ranged from 23.1% to 95.8% willingness to work, depending on context. Meta-analyses of specific factors showed that male HCWs, physicians and nurses, full-time employment, perceived personal safety, awareness of pandemic risk and clinical knowledge of influenza pandemics, role-specific knowledge, pandemic response training, and confidence in personal skills were statistically significantly associated with increased willingness. Childcare obligations were significantly associated with decreased willingness. HCWs' willingness to work during an influenza pandemic was moderately high, albeit highly variable. Numerous risk factors showed a statistically significant association with willingness to work despite significant heterogeneity between studies. None of the included studies were based on appropriate theoretical constructs of population behaviour.

  17. The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Therapy on Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Adult Cancer Patients and Survivors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piet, Jacob; Wurtzen, Hanne; Zachariae, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) in oncology settings has become increasingly popular, and research in the field has rapidly expanded. The objective was by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the current evidence for the effect of MBT on symptoms of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients and…

  18. The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Therapy on Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Adult Cancer Patients and Survivors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piet, Jacob; Wurtzen, Hanne; Zachariae, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) in oncology settings has become increasingly popular, and research in the field has rapidly expanded. The objective was by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the current evidence for the effect of MBT on symptoms of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients and…

  19. metaSEM: an R package for meta-analysis using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Mike W-L

    2014-01-01

    The metaSEM package provides functions to conduct univariate, multivariate, and three-level meta-analyses using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach via the OpenMx package in the R statistical platform. It also implements the two-stage SEM approach to conducting fixed- and random-effects meta-analytic SEM on correlation or covariance matrices. This paper briefly outlines the theories and their implementations. It provides a summary on how meta-analyses can be formulated as structural equation models. The paper closes with a conclusion on several relevant topics to this SEM-based meta-analysis. Several examples are used to illustrate the procedures in the supplementary material.

  20. A refined method for multivariate meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Daniel; Riley, Richard D

    2014-02-20

    Making inferences about the average treatment effect using the random effects model for meta-analysis is problematic in the common situation where there is a small number of studies. This is because estimates of the between-study variance are not precise enough to accurately apply the conventional methods for testing and deriving a confidence interval for the average effect. We have found that a refined method for univariate meta-analysis, which applies a scaling factor to the estimated effects' standard error, provides more accurate inference. We explain how to extend this method to the multivariate scenario and show that our proposal for refined multivariate meta-analysis and meta-regression can provide more accurate inferences than the more conventional approach. We explain how our proposed approach can be implemented using standard output from multivariate meta-analysis software packages and apply our methodology to two real examples.

  1. A meta-analysis of human-system interfaces in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm management.

    PubMed

    Hocraffer, Amy; Nam, Chang S

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the current state of research on human-system interfaces for users controlling semi-autonomous swarms composed of groups of drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAV swarms pose several human factors challenges, such as high cognitive demands, non-intuitive behavior, and serious consequences for errors. This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 27 UAV swarm management papers focused on the human-system interface and human factors concerns, providing an overview of the advantages, challenges, and limitations of current UAV management interfaces, as well as information on how these interfaces are currently evaluated. In general allowing user and mission-specific customization to user interfaces and raising the swarm's level of autonomy to reduce operator cognitive workload are beneficial and improve situation awareness (SA). It is clear more research is needed in this rapidly evolving field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Utilization of defined microbial communities enables effective evaluation of meta-genomic assemblies.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, William W; Klitgord, Niels; Seguritan, Victor; Yooseph, Shibu; Venter, J Craig; Garner, Chad; Nelson, Karen E; Li, Weizhong

    2017-04-13

    Metagenomics is the study of the microbial genomes isolated from communities found on our bodies or in our environment. By correctly determining the relation between human health and the human associated microbial communities, novel mechanisms of health and disease can be found, thus enabling the development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics. Due to the diversity of the microbial communities, strategies developed for aligning human genomes cannot be utilized, and genomes of the microbial species in the community must be assembled de novo. However, in order to obtain the best metagenomic assemblies, it is important to choose the proper assembler. Due to the rapidly evolving nature of metagenomics, new assemblers are constantly created, and the field has not yet agreed on a standardized process. Furthermore, the truth sets used to compare these methods are either too simple (computationally derived diverse communities) or complex (microbial communities of unknown composition), yielding results that are hard to interpret. In this analysis, we interrogate the strengths and weaknesses of five popular assemblers through the use of defined biological samples of known genomic composition and abundance. We assessed the performance of each assembler on their ability to reassemble genomes, call taxonomic abundances, and recreate open reading frames (ORFs). We tested five metagenomic assemblers: Omega, metaSPAdes, IDBA-UD, metaVelvet and MEGAHIT on known and synthetic metagenomic data sets. MetaSPAdes excelled in diverse sets, IDBA-UD performed well all around, metaVelvet had high accuracy in high abundance organisms, and MEGAHIT was able to accurately differentiate similar organisms within a community. At the ORF level, metaSPAdes and MEGAHIT had the least number of missing ORFs within diverse and similar communities respectively. Depending on the metagenomics question asked, the correct assembler for the task at hand will differ. It is important to choose the appropriate

  3. Airborne Laser Hydrography II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philpot, W.; Wozencraft, J.

    2016-02-01

    In 1985, Dr. Gary Guenther assembled the text, "Airborne Laser Hydrography" which quickly became a heavily used manual and guide for any and all scientists and engineers involved with airborne lidar bathymetry (ALB). It was a remarkable book that captured a snapshot of the state of the art of ALB and included historical developments, theoretical and modeling efforts as well as design characteristics and constraints, ending with accuracy assessment and a discussion of design tradeoffs. Known familiarly as the "Blue Book" it served the community remarkably well for many years. At 30 years of age, it is still a valued reference, but unavoidably dated in a field that has developed rapidly and nonstop over the intervening years. It is time for an update. The new text is attempt by the ALB community to update and expand upon Guenther's text. Like the original, Blue Book II reviews the historical developments in ALB, extending them into the 21st century, considers basic environmental water optical properties, theoretical developments, data processing and performance evaluation. All have progressed dramatically in the past 30 years. This paper presents an outline of the new book, a description of the contents, with emphasis on the theoretical models of the lidar waveform and its propagation through, and interaction with the water.

  4. Spin control in ladderlike hexanuclear copper(II) complexes with metallacyclophane cores.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Emilio; Bernot, Kevin; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Cano, Joan; Ruiz-García, Rafael; Delgado, Fernando S; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Ottenwaelder, Xavier; Journaux, Yves

    2004-05-03

    Two new hexanuclear oxamatocopper(II) complexes 3 and 4 have been synthesized from the binuclear copper(II) complexes of the meta- and para-phenylenebis(oxamate) ligands, respectively. Complexes 3 and 4 possess an overall ladderlike structure made up of two oxamate-bridged linear trinuclear units ("rails") connected through two phenylenediamidate bridges ("rungs") between the central copper atoms to give metallacyclic cores of the meta- and para-cyclophane type, respectively. They show different ground spin states, S = 1 (3) or S = 0 (4), depending on the substitution pattern in the aromatic spacers. The triplet state molecule 3 containing two spin doublet Cu(II)3 units connected by two m-phenylenediamidate bridges represents a successful extension of the concept of "ferromagnetic coupling units" to metal complexes, which is a well-known approach toward high spin organic radicals.

  5. Implementing informative priors for heterogeneity in meta-analysis using meta-regression and pseudo data.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Kirsty M; Turner, Rebecca M; White, Ian R; Jackson, Dan; Spiegelhalter, David J; Higgins, Julian P T

    2016-12-20

    Many meta-analyses combine results from only a small number of studies, a situation in which the between-study variance is imprecisely estimated when standard methods are applied. Bayesian meta-analysis allows incorporation of external evidence on heterogeneity, providing the potential for more robust inference on the effect size of interest. We present a method for performing Bayesian meta-analysis using data augmentation, in which we represent an informative conjugate prior for between-study variance by pseudo data and use meta-regression for estimation. To assist in this, we derive predictive inverse-gamma distributions for the between-study variance expected in future meta-analyses. These may serve as priors for heterogeneity in new meta-analyses. In a simulation study, we compare approximate Bayesian methods using meta-regression and pseudo data against fully Bayesian approaches based on importance sampling techniques and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). We compare the frequentist properties of these Bayesian methods with those of the commonly used frequentist DerSimonian and Laird procedure. The method is implemented in standard statistical software and provides a less complex alternative to standard MCMC approaches. An importance sampling approach produces almost identical results to standard MCMC approaches, and results obtained through meta-regression and pseudo data are very similar. On average, data augmentation provides closer results to MCMC, if implemented using restricted maximum likelihood estimation rather than DerSimonian and Laird or maximum likelihood estimation. The methods are applied to real datasets, and an extension to network meta-analysis is described. The proposed method facilitates Bayesian meta-analysis in a way that is accessible to applied researchers. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. RAPID FORMATION OF SATURN AFTER JUPITER COMPLETION

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ormel, Chris W.; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: ormel@astro.berkeley.edu

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated Saturn's core formation at a radial pressure maximum in a protoplanetary disk, which is created by gap opening by Jupiter. A core formed via planetesimal accretion induces the fragmentation of surrounding planetesimals, which generally inhibits further growth of the core by removal of the resulting fragments due to radial drift caused by gas drag. However, the emergence of the pressure maximum halts the drift of the fragments, while their orbital eccentricities and inclinations are efficiently damped by gas drag. As a result, the core of Saturn rapidly grows via accretion of the fragments near the pressure maximum. We have found that in the minimum-mass solar nebula, kilometer-sized planetesimals can produce a core exceeding 10 Earth masses within two million years. Since Jupiter may not have undergone significant type II inward migration, it is likely that Jupiter's formation was completed when the local disk mass has already decayed to a value comparable to or less than Jovian mass. The expected rapid growth of Saturn's core on a timescale comparable to or shorter than the observationally inferred disk lifetime enables Saturn to acquire the current amount of envelope gas before the disk gas is completely depleted. The high heat energy release rate onto the core surface due to the rapid accretion of the fragments delays onset of runaway gas accretion until the core mass becomes somewhat larger than that of Jupiter, which is consistent with the estimate based on interior modeling. Therefore, the rapid formation of Saturn induced by gap opening of Jupiter can account for the formation of multiple gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn) without significant inward migration and larger core mass of Saturn than that of Jupiter.

  7. A Guide to Conducting a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Vijayakumar, Ranjith

    2016-06-01

    Meta-analysis is widely accepted as the preferred method to synthesize research findings in various disciplines. This paper provides an introduction to when and how to conduct a meta-analysis. Several practical questions, such as advantages of meta-analysis over conventional narrative review and the number of studies required for a meta-analysis, are addressed. Common meta-analytic models are then introduced. An artificial dataset is used to illustrate how a meta-analysis is conducted in several software packages. The paper concludes with some common pitfalls of meta-analysis and their solutions. The primary goal of this paper is to provide a summary background to readers who would like to conduct their first meta-analytic study.

  8. New Rh2(II,II) Architecture for the Catalytic Reduction of H⁺.

    PubMed

    White, Travis A; Witt, Suzanne E; Li, Zhanyong; Dunbar, Kim R; Turro, Claudia

    2015-10-19

    Formamidinate-bridged Rh2(II,II) complexes containing diimine ligands of the formula cis-[Rh2(II,II)(μ-DTolF)2(NN)2](2+) (Rh2-NN2), where DTolF = p-ditolylformamidinate and NN = dppn (benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-h]quinoxaline), dppz (dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine), and phen (1,10-phenanthroline), electrocatalytically reduce H(+) to H2 in DMF solutions containing CH3COOH at a glassy carbon electrode. Cathodic scans in the absence of acid display a Rh(III,II/II,II) reduction at -0.90 V vs Fc(+)/Fc followed by NN(0/-) reduction at -1.13, -1.36, and -1.65 V for Rh2-dppn2, Rh2-dppz2, and Rh2-phen2, respectively. Upon the addition of acid, Rh2-dppn2 and Rh2-dppz2 undergo reduction-protonation-reduction at each pyrazine-containing NN ligand prior to the Rh2(II,II/II,I) reduction. The Rh2(II,I) species is then protonated at one of the metal centers, resulting in the formation of the corresponding Rh2(II,III)-hydride. In the case of Rh2-phen2, the reduction of the phen ligand is followed by intramolecular electron transfer to the Rh2(II,II) core in the presence of protons to form a Rh2(II,III)-hydride species. Further reduction and protonation at the Rh2 core for all three complexes rapidly catalyzes H2 formation with varied calculated turnover frequencies (TOF) and overpotential values (η): 2.6 × 10(4) s(-1) and 0.56 V for Rh2-dppn, 2.8 × 10(4) s(-1) and 0.50 V for Rh2-dppz2, and 5.9 × 10(4) s(-1) and 0.64 V for Rh2-phen2. Bulk electrolysis confirmed H2 formation, and further CH3COOH addition regenerates H2 production, attesting to the robust nature of the architecture. The cis-[Rh2(II,II)(μ-DTolF)2(NN)2](2+) architecture benefits by combining electron-rich formamidinate bridges, a redox-active Rh2(II,II) core, and electron-accepting NN diimine ligands to allow for the electrocatalysis of H(+) substrate to H2 fuel.

  9. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A us