Science.gov

Sample records for rapid prototyping models

  1. Utilizing Rapid Prototyping for Architectural Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirton, E. F.; Lavoie, S. D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will discuss our approach to, success with and future direction in rapid prototyping for architectural modeling. The premise that this emerging technology has broad and exciting applications in the building design and construction industry will be supported by visual and physical evidence. This evidence will be presented in the form of…

  2. Rapid prototype modeling in a multimodality world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidaut, Luc; Madewell, John; Yasko, Alan

    2006-03-01

    Introduction: Rapid prototype modeling (RPM) has been used in medicine principally for bones - that are easily extracted from CT data sets - for planning orthopaedic, plastic or maxillo-facial interventions, and/or for designing custom prostheses and implants. Based on newly available technology, highly valuable multimodality approaches can now be applied to RPM, particularly for complex musculo-skeletal (MSK) tumors where multimodality often transcends CT alone. Methods: CT data sets are acquired for primary evaluation of MSK tumors in parallel with other modalities (e.g., MR, PET, SPECT). In our approach, CT is first segmented to provide bony anatomy for RPM and all other data sets are then registered to the CT reference. Parametric information relevant to the tumor's characterization is then extracted from the multimodality space and merged with the CT anatomy to produce a hybrid RPM-ready model. This model - that also accommodates digital multimodality visualization - is then produced on the latest generation of 3D printers, which permits both shapes and colors. Results: Multimodality models of complex MSK tumors have been physically produced on modern RPM equipment. This new approach has been found to be a clear improvement over the previously disconnected physical RPM and digital multimodality visualization. Conclusions: New technical developments keep opening doors to sophisticated medical applications that can directly impact the quality of patient care. Although this early work still deals with bones as base models for RPM, its use to encompass soft tissues is already envisioned for future approaches.

  3. Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  4. Rapid prototyping and AI programming environments applied to payload modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.; Mendler, Andrew P.

    1987-01-01

    This effort focused on using artificial intelligence (AI) programming environments and rapid prototyping to aid in both space flight manned and unmanned payload simulation and training. Significant problems addressed are the large amount of development time required to design and implement just one of these payload simulations and the relative inflexibility of the resulting model to accepting future modification. Results of this effort have suggested that both rapid prototyping and AI programming environments can significantly reduce development time and cost when applied to the domain of payload modeling for crew training. The techniques employed are applicable to a variety of domains where models or simulations are required.

  5. Femur Model Reconstruction Based on Reverse Engineering and Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tongming; Zhang, Zheng; Ni, Hongjun; Deng, Jiawen; Huang, Mingyu

    Precise reconstruction of 3D models is fundamental and crucial to the researches of human femur. In this paper we present our approach towards tackling this problem. The surface of a human femur was scanned using a hand-held 3D laser scanner. The data obtained, in the form of point cloud, was then processed using the reverse engineering software Geomagic and the CAD/CAM software CimatronE to reconstruct a digital 3D model. The digital model was then used by the rapid prototyping machine to build a physical model of human femur using 3D printing. The geometric characteristics of the obtained physical model matched that of the original femur. The process of "physical object - 3D data - digital 3D model - physical model" presented in this paper provides a foundation of precise modeling for the digital manufacturing, virtual assembly, stress analysis, and simulated surgery of artificial bionic femurs.

  6. Rapid Prototyping Instructional Design: Revisiting the ISD Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Jenny; Teng, Ya-Ting; Cornachione, Edgard

    2007-01-01

    An exploratory investigation, utilizing mixed methods, was used to examine the quality and usability of the product and the client's role within a rapid prototyping instructional design approach. Forty engineering and business undergraduates participating in a leadership training session and an instructional design team comprised the sample for…

  7. Procedural Modeling for Rapid-Prototyping of Multiple Building Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldana, M.; Johanson, C.

    2013-02-01

    RomeLab is a multidisciplinary working group at UCLA that uses the city of Rome as a laboratory for the exploration of research approaches and dissemination practices centered on the intersection of space and time in antiquity. In this paper we present a multiplatform workflow for the rapid-prototyping of historical cityscapes through the use of geographic information systems, procedural modeling, and interactive game development. Our workflow begins by aggregating archaeological data in a GIS database. Next, 3D building models are generated from the ArcMap shapefiles in Esri CityEngine using procedural modeling techniques. A GIS-based terrain model is also adjusted in CityEngine to fit the building elevations. Finally, the terrain and city models are combined in Unity, a game engine which we used to produce web-based interactive environments which are linked to the GIS data using keyhole markup language (KML). The goal of our workflow is to demonstrate that knowledge generated within a first-person virtual world experience can inform the evaluation of data derived from textual and archaeological sources, and vice versa.

  8. Vibrational testing of trabecular bone architectures using rapid prototype models.

    PubMed

    Mc Donnell, P; Liebschner, M A K; Tawackoli, Wafa; Mc Hugh, P E

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if standard analysis of the vibrational characteristics of trabecular architectures can be used to detect changes in the mechanical properties due to progressive bone loss. A cored trabecular specimen from a human lumbar vertebra was microCT scanned and a three-dimensional, virtual model in stereolithography (STL) format was generated. Uniform bone loss was simulated using a surface erosion algorithm. Rapid prototype (RP) replicas were manufactured from these virtualised models with 0%, 16% and 42% bone loss. Vibrational behaviour of the RP replicas was evaluated by performing a dynamic compression test through a frequency range using an electro-dynamic shaker. The acceleration and dynamic force responses were recorded and fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyses were performed to determine the response spectrum. Standard resonant frequency analysis and damping factor calculations were performed. The RP replicas were subsequently tested in compression beyond failure to determine their strength and modulus. It was found that the reductions in resonant frequency with increasing bone loss corresponded well with reductions in apparent stiffness and strength. This suggests that structural dynamics has the potential to be an alternative diagnostic technique for osteoporosis, although significant challenges must be overcome to determine the effect of the skin/soft tissue interface, the cortex and variabilities associated with in vivo testing.

  9. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  10. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  11. Aerodynamic Properties Analysis of Rapid Prototyped Models Versus Conventional Machined Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, A.; Cooper, K.

    1998-01-01

    Initial studies of the aerodynamic characteristics of proposed launch vehicles can be made more accurately if lower cost, high fidelity aerodynamic models are available for wind tunnel testing early in the design phase. This paper discusses the results of a study undertaken at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to determine if four rapid prototyping methods using a variety of materials are suitable for the design and manufacturing of high speed wind tunnel models in direct testing applications. It also gives an analysis of whether these materials and processes are of sufficient strength and fidelity to withstand the testing environment. In addition to test data, costs and turn-around times for the various models are given. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that rapid prototyping models show promise in limited direct application for preliminary aerodynamic development studies at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds.

  12. Advances in rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, C. L.; McCarty, G. D.; Pardo, B. T.; Bryce, E. A.

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System's QuickCast(trademark) resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast(trademark) resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable first article and small lot size production parts. They use the selective laser sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  13. Teaching Tip: Using Rapid Game Prototyping for Exploring Requirements Discovery and Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Nikunj

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of rapid game prototyping as a pedagogic technique to experientially explore and learn requirements discovery, modeling, and specification in systems analysis and design courses. Students have a natural interest in gaming that transcends age, gender, and background. Rapid digital game creation is used to build computer games…

  14. Advances in rapid prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System`s QuickCast{trademark} resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast{trademark} resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable firs article and small lots size production parts. They use the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  15. Anisotropic Tensile Failure Model of Rapid Prototyping Parts - Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sung Hoon; Baek, Changil; Lee, Sunyoung; Ahn, In Shup

    Stratasys' Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is a typical Rapid Prototyping (RP) process that can fabricate prototypes out of plastic materials, and the parts made from FDM were often used as load-carrying elements. Because FDM deposits materials in about 300 μm thin filament with designated orientation, parts made from FDM show anisotropic material behaviors. This paper proposes an analytic model to predict the tensile strength of FDM parts. Applying the Classical Lamination Theory and Tsai-Wu failure criterion, which were developed for laminated composite materials, a computer code was implemented to predict the failure of the FDM parts. The tensile strengths predicted by the analytic model were compared with those of the experimental data. The data and predicted values agreed reasonably well to prove the validity of the model.

  16. Aortic aneurysm: construction of a life-size model by rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Lermusiaux, P; Leroux, C; Tasse, J C; Castellani, L; Martinez, R

    2001-03-01

    Development of new endovascular techniques for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) requires the use of experimental models. Stereolithography is a rapid prototyping technique used in industry to prototype parts during the design phase. A stereolithography apparatus (STL) employs laser technology to build a digital model layer by layer with photopolymer resin. The purpose of this study was to use this technology to produce a life-size AAA model. Data were acquired by CT scan and stored in DICOM 3 format. Specifically designed software was used for 3-D imaging and conversion of data to a standard STL format. Two replicas were made: one to scale and the other 3 mm larger. The final model was made by pouring silicone rubber or polyurethane into the mold over the life-size model so as to obtain a sturdy, life-size, soft, transparent plastic casting. Arterial models made for living subjects with these rapid prototyping techniques can be used to simulate surgical procedures, calibrate imaging modalities, and design new stent grafts.

  17. Rapid prototyping modelling in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A two year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Stoor, Patricia; Mesimäki, Karri; Kontio, Risto K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of rapid prototyping (RP) models in medicine to construct bony models is increasing. Material and Methods The aim of the study was to evaluate retrospectively the indication for the use of RP models in oral and maxillofacial surgery at Helsinki University Central Hospital during 2009-2010. Also, the used computed tomography (CT) examination – multislice CT (MSCT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) - method was evaluated. Results In total 114 RP models were fabricated for 102 patients. The mean age of the patients at the time of the production of the model was 50.4 years. The indications for the modelling included malignant lesions (29%), secondary reconstruction (25%), prosthodontic treatment (22%), orthognathic surgery or asymmetry (13%), benign lesions (8%), and TMJ disorders (4%). MSCT examination was used in 92 and CBCT examination in 22 cases. Most of the models (75%) were conventional hard tissue models. Models with colored tumour or other structure(s) of interest were ordered in 24%. Two out of the 114 models were soft tissue models. Conclusions The main benefit of the models was in treatment planning and in connection with the production of pre-bent plates or custom made implants. The RP models both facilitate and improve treatment planning and intraoperative efficiency. Key words:Rapid prototyping, radiology, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography. PMID:26644837

  18. The use of a block diagram simulation language for rapid model prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.

    1995-01-01

    The research performed this summer focussed on the development of a predictive model for the loading of liquid oxygen (LO2) into the external tank (ET) of the shuttle prior to launch. A predictive model can greatly aid the operational personnel since instrumentation aboard the orbiter and ET is limited due to weight constraints. The model, which focuses primarily on the orbiter section of the system was developed using a block diagram based simulation language known as VisSim. Simulations were run on LO2 loading data for shuttle flights STS50 and STS55 and the model was demonstrated to accurately predict the sensor data recorded for these flights. As a consequence of the simulation results, it can be concluded that the software tool can be very useful for rapid prototyping of complex models.

  19. Rapid Prototyping of an Aircraft Model in an Object-Oriented Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, P. Sean

    2003-01-01

    A team was created to participate in the Mars Scout Opportunity. Trade studies determined that an aircraft provided the best opportunity to complete the science objectives of the team. A high fidelity six degree of freedom flight simulation was required to provide credible evidence that the aircraft design fulfilled mission objectives and to support the aircraft design process by providing performance evaluations. The team created the simulation using the Langley Standard Real-Time Simulation in C++ (LaSRS++) application framework. A rapid prototyping approach was necessary because the team had only three months to both develop the aircraft simulation model and evaluate aircraft performance as the design and mission parameters matured. The design of LaSRS++ enabled rapid-prototyping in several ways. First, the framework allowed component models to be designed, implemented, unit-tested, and integrated quickly. Next, the framework provides a highly reusable infrastructure that allowed developers to maximize code reuse while concentrating on aircraft and mission specific features. Finally, the framework reduces risk by providing reusable components that allow developers to build a quality product with a compressed testing cycle that relies heavily on unit testing of new components.

  20. Preliminary Component Integration Using Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Salvail, Pat; Gordon, Gail (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a very important tool that should be used by both design and manufacturing disciplines during the development of elements for the aerospace industry. It helps prevent lack of adequate communication between design and manufacturing engineers (which could lead to costly errors) through mutual consideration of functional models generated from drawings. Rapid prototyping techniques are used to test hardware for design and material compatibility at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. D Modelling and Rapid Prototyping for Cardiovascular Surgical Planning - Two Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocerino, E.; Remondino, F.; Uccheddu, F.; Gallo, M.; Gerosa, G.

    2016-06-01

    In the last years, cardiovascular diagnosis, surgical planning and intervention have taken advantages from 3D modelling and rapid prototyping techniques. The starting data for the whole process is represented by medical imagery, in particular, but not exclusively, computed tomography (CT) or multi-slice CT (MCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On the medical imagery, regions of interest, i.e. heart chambers, valves, aorta, coronary vessels, etc., are segmented and converted into 3D models, which can be finally converted in physical replicas through 3D printing procedure. In this work, an overview on modern approaches for automatic and semiautomatic segmentation of medical imagery for 3D surface model generation is provided. The issue of accuracy check of surface models is also addressed, together with the critical aspects of converting digital models into physical replicas through 3D printing techniques. A patient-specific 3D modelling and printing procedure (Figure 1), for surgical planning in case of complex heart diseases was developed. The procedure was applied to two case studies, for which MCT scans of the chest are available. In the article, a detailed description on the implemented patient-specific modelling procedure is provided, along with a general discussion on the potentiality and future developments of personalized 3D modelling and printing for surgical planning and surgeons practice.

  2. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  3. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-04-01

    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena.

  4. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S.; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-01-01

    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena. PMID:26015715

  5. Assessment of Mechanical Performance of Bone Architecture Using Rapid Prototyping Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saparin, Peter; Woesz, Alexander; Thomsen, Jasper S.; Fratzl, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this on-going research project is to assess the influence of bone microarchitecture on the mechanical performance of trabecular bone. A testing chain consist-ing of three steps was established: 1) micro computed tomography (μCT) imaging of human trabecular bone; 2) building of models of the bone from a light-sensitive polymer using Rapid Prototyping (RP); 3) mechanical testing of the models in a material testing machine. A direct resampling procedure was developed to convert μCT data into the format of the RP machine. Standardized parameters for production and testing of the plastic models were established by use of regular cellular structures. Next, normal, osteoporotic, and extreme osteoporotic vertebral trabecular bone architectures were re-produced by RP and compression tested. We found that normal architecture of vertebral trabecular bone exhibit behaviour characteristic of a cellular structure. In normal bone the fracture occurs at much higher strain values that in osteoporotic bone. After the fracture a normal trabecular architecture is able to carry much higher loads than an osteoporotic architecture. However, no statistically significant differences were found in maximal stress during uniaxial compression of the central part of normal, osteoporotic, and extreme osteoporotic vertebral trabecular bone. This supports the hypothesis that osteoporotic trabecular bone can compensate for a loss of trabeculae by thickening the remaining trabeculae in the loading direction (compensatory hypertrophy). The developed approach could be used for mechanical evaluation of structural data acquired non-invasively and assessment of changes in performance of bone architecture.

  6. Rapid prototyping applications for manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; Maguire, M.C.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System`s QuickCast{sup TM} resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast{sup TM} resin and software, we experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible using this technology to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable first article and small lot size production parts. We use the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This report will focus on our successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Parametric Modeling as a Technology of Rapid Prototyping in Light Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomilov, I. N.; Grudinin, S. N.; Frolovsky, V. D.; Alexandrov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the parametric modeling method of virtual mannequins for the purposes of design automation in clothing industry. The described approach includes the steps of generation of the basic model on the ground of the initial one (obtained in 3D-scanning process), its parameterization and deformation. The complex surfaces are presented by the wireframe model. The modeling results are evaluated with the set of similarity factors. Deformed models are compared with their virtual prototypes. The results of modeling are estimated by the standard deviation factor.

  8. UGV application modeling and sensor simulation using a rapid prototyping testbed environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falasco, James; O'Leary, Steve

    2009-05-01

    This paper reviews hardware and software solutions that allow for rapid prototyping of new or modified UGV sensor designs, mission payloads and functional sub assemblies. We define reconfigurable computing in the context of being able to place various PMC modules depending upon mission scenarios onto a base SBC (Single Board Computer) or multiprocessor architectures to achieve maximum scalability. Also addressed are the sensor and computing packaging aspects and how such payloads could be integrated with unattended acoustic sensor topologies providing a more complete fused "picture" to decision makers. We review how these modular payloads could be integrated with unattended ground sensors to collaborate on mission requirements

  9. Rapid prototyping applications at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1994-02-01

    In an effort to reduce the cycle time for producing prototypical mechanical and electro-mechanical components, Sandia National Laboratories has integrated rapid prototyping processes into the design and manufacturing process. The processes currently in operation within the Rapid Prototyping Laboratory are Stereolithography (SL), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), and Direct Shell Production Casting (DSPC). These emerging technologies have proven to be valuable tools for reducing lead times and fabrication costs. Sandia uses the SL and SLS processes to support internal product development efforts. Their primary use is to fabricate patterns for investment casting in support of a Sandia-managed program called FASTCAST that integrates computational technologies and experimental data into the investment casting process. These processes are also used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit-check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. The DSPC process is currently being developed as a method of fabricating ceramic investment casting molds directly from a CAD solid model. Sandia is an Alpha machine test site for this process. This presentation will provide an overview of the SL and SLS processes and an update of our experience and success in integrating these technologies into the product development cycle. It will also provide a lead-in for a tour of the Rapid Prototyping Laboratory, where these processes will be demonstrated.

  10. Growth of the chorioallantoic membrane into a rapid-prototyped model pore system: experiments and mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Lemon, Greg; Howard, Daniel; Yang, Hongyi; Ratchev, Svetan M; Segal, Joel I; Rose, Felicity R A J; Jensen, Oliver E; Waters, Sarah L; King, John R

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model to describe the growth of tissue into a rapid-prototyped porous scaffold when it is implanted onto the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The scaffold was designed to study the effects of the size and shape of pores on tissue growth into conventional tissue engineering scaffolds, and consists of an array of pores each having a pre-specified shape. The experimental observations revealed that the CAM grows through each pore as an intact layer of tissue, provided the width of the pore exceeds a threshold value. Based on these results a mathematical model is described to simulate the growth of the membrane, assuming that the growth is a function of the local isotropic membrane tension. The model predictions are compared against measurements of the extent of membrane growth through the pores as a function of time for pores with different dimensions.

  11. Aeroelastic characteristics of a rapid prototype multi-material wind tunnel model of a mechanically deployable aerodynamic decelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, Boris

    Scaled wind tunnel models are necessary for the development of aircraft and spacecraft to simulate aerodynamic behavior. This allows for testing multiple iterations of a design before more expensive full-scale aircraft and spacecraft are built. However, the cost of building wind tunnel models can still be high because they normally require costly subtractive manufacturing processes, such as machining, which can be time consuming and laborious due to the complex surfaces of aerodynamic models. Rapid prototyping, commonly known as 3D printing, can be utilized to save on wind tunnel model manufacturing costs. A rapid prototype multi-material wind tunnel model was manufactured for this thesis to investigate the possibility of using PolyJet 3D printing to create a model that exhibits aeroelastic behavior. The model is of NASA's Adaptable Deployable entry and Placement (ADEPT) aerodynamic decelerator, used to decelerate a spacecraft during reentry into a planet's atmosphere. It is a 60° cone with a spherically blunted nose that consists of a 12 flexible panels supported by a rigid structure of nose, ribs, and rim. The novel rapid prototype multi-material model was instrumented and tested in two flow conditions. Quantitative comparisons were made of the average forces and dynamic forces on the model, demonstrating that the model matched expected behavior for average drag, but not Strouhal number, indicating that there was no aeroelastic behavior in this particular case. It was also noted that the dynamic properties (e.g., resonant frequency) associated with the mounting scheme are very important and may dominate the measured dynamic response.

  12. Integration of rapid prototyping into product development

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is a vertically multi-disciplined research and development laboratory with a long history of designing and developing d electro-mechanical products in the national interest. Integrating new technologies into the prototyping phase of our development cycle is necessary to reduce the cycle time from initial design to finished product. The introduction of rapid prototyping machines into the marketplace promises to revolutionize the process of producing prototype parts with relative speed and production-like quality. Issues of accuracy, feature definition, and surface finish continue to drive research and development of these processes. Sandia uses Stereolithography (SL) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) capabilities to support internal product development efforts. The primary use of SL and SLS is to produce patterns for investment casting in support of a Sandia managed program called FASTCAST that integrates computational technologies and experimental data into the investment casting process. These processes are also used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit-check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. This presentation will provide an overview of the SL and SLS processes and an update of our experience and success in integrating these technologies into the product development cycle. Also presented will be several examples of prototype parts manufactured using SL and SLS with a focus on application, accuracy, surface and feature definition.

  13. Rapid Prototyping of Mobile Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federley, Maija; Sorsa, Timo; Paavilainen, Janne; Boissonnier, Kimo; Seisto, Anu

    2014-01-01

    This position paper presents the first results of an on-going project, in which we explore rapid prototyping method to efficiently produce digital learning solutions that are commercially viable. In this first phase, rapid game prototyping and an iterative approach was tested as a quick and efficient way to create learning games and to evaluate…

  14. Morphology of elastase-induced cerebral aneurysm model in rabbit and rapid prototyping of elastomeric transparent replicas.

    PubMed

    Seong, Jaehoon; Sadasivan, Chander; Onizuka, Masanari; Gounis, Matthew J; Christian, Fletcher; Miskolczi, Laszlo; Wakhloo, Ajay K; Lieber, Baruch B

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we describe a methodology to fabricate transparent elastomeric vascular replicas using rapid prototyping techniques. First, the three-dimensional morphology of an elastase-induced aneurysm model in rabbit is acquired. The morphology is reconstructed from in vivo rotational angiography and it is compared with three-dimensional reconstructions obtained by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of an intraluminal arterial cast that was obtained from the same animal at sacrifice. Results show that resolution of the imaging modality strongly influences the level of detail, such as small side branches, in the final reconstruction. We developed an average morphology model for elastase-induced aneurysms in rabbits including the surrounding vasculature and describe a method for rapid prototyping of vascular models from the three-dimensional morphology. Our replicas can be manufactured in a short period of time and the final product is optically clear. In addition, the elasticity of the models can be controlled to represent arterial elasticity, which makes them ideal for optical investigations of detailed flow dynamics using measurement tools such as particle image velocimetry.

  15. Architecture and design to support rapid prototyping and multiple dynamic models for the Virtual SpacePlane project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.; Rothermel, Scott A.; Johnson, Troy D.

    1998-08-01

    The advent of requirements for rapid and economical deployment of national space assets in support of Air Force operational missions has resulted in the need for a Manned SpacePlane (MSP) that can perform military missions with minimal preflight preparation and little if any in-orbit support from a mission control center. In this new approach to space operations, successful mission accomplishment will depend almost completely upon the MSP crew and upon the on- board capabilities of the spaceplane. In recognition of the challenges that will be faced by the MSP crew and to begin to address these challenges, the USAF Air Force Research Laboratory (Phillips Laboratory) initiated the Virtual SpacePlane (VSP) project. To support the MSP, the VSP must demonstrate a broad, functional subset of the anticipated missions and capabilities of the MSP throughout its entire flight regime, from takeoff through space operations and on through landing. Additionally, the VSP must execute the anticipated MSP missions in a realistic and tactically sound manner within a distributed virtual environment. Furthermore, the VSP project must also uncover, refine and validate MSP user interface requirements, design and demonstrate an intelligent user interface for the VSP, and design and implement a prototype VSP that can be used to demonstrate Manned SpacePlane missions. To enable us to make rapid progress on the project, we employed portions of the Virtual Cockpit and Solar System Modeler distributed virtual environment applications, and the Common Object Database (CODB) architecture tools developed in our labs. The Virtual Cockpit and Solar System Modeler supplied baseline interface components and tools, 3D graphical models, vehicle motion dynamics models, and VE communication capabilities. We use the CODB architecture to facilitate our use of Rapid Evolutionary and Exploratory Prototyping to uncover application requirements and evaluate solutions. The Information Pod provides the paradigm

  16. Web tools for rapid experimental visualization prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Jonathan W.; Livingstion, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Quite often a researcher finds themselves looking at spreadsheets of high-dimensional data generated by experimental models and user studies. We can use analysis to challenge or confirm hypothesis, but unexpected results can easily be lost in the shuffle. For this reason, it would be useful to visualize the results so we can explore our data and make new discoveries. Web browsers have become increasingly capable for creating complex, multi-view applications. Javascript is quickly becoming a de facto standard for scripting, online and offline. This work demonstrates the use of web technologies as a powerful tool for rapid visualization prototyping. We have developed two prototypes: One for high-dimensional results of the abELICIT - multi-agent version of the ELICIT platform tasked with collaborating to identify the parameters of a pending attack. Another prototype displays responses to a user study on the effectiveness of multi-layer visualization techniques. We created coordinated multiple views prototypes in the Google Chrome web browser written in Javascript, CSS and HTML. We will discuss the benefits and shortcomings of this approach.

  17. Preliminary Component Integration Utilizing Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K.; Salvail, P.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most costly errors committed during the development of an element to be used in the space industry is the lack of communication between design and manufacturing engineers. A very important tool that should be utilized in the development stages by both design and manufacturing disciplines is rapid prototyping. Communication levels are intensified with the injection of functional models that are generated from a drawing. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, this discipline is utilized on a more frequent basis as a manner by which hardware may be tested for design and material compatibility.

  18. Review on CNC-Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Z, M. Nafis O.; Y, Nafrizuan M.; A, Munira M.; J, Kartina

    2012-09-01

    This article reviewed developments of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology in rapid prototyping process. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be classified into three major groups; subtractive, additive and virtual. CNC rapid prototyping is grouped under the subtractive category which involves material removal from the workpiece that is larger than the final part. Richard Wysk established the use of CNC machines for rapid prototyping using sets of 2½-D tool paths from various orientations about a rotary axis to machine parts without refixturing. Since then, there are few developments on this process mainly aimed to optimized the operation and increase the process capabilities to stand equal with common additive type of RP. These developments include the integration between machining and deposition process (hybrid RP), adoption of RP to the conventional machine and optimization of the CNC rapid prototyping process based on controlled parameters. The article ended by concluding that the CNC rapid prototyping research area has a vast space for improvement as in the conventional machining processes. Further developments and findings will enhance the usage of this method and minimize the limitation of current approach in building a prototype.

  19. Simulink based behavioural modelling of a pulse oximeter for deployment in rapid development, prototyping and verification.

    PubMed

    Shokouhian, M; Morling, R C S; Kale, I

    2012-01-01

    The pulse oximeter is a well-known device for measuring the level of oxygen in blood. Since their invention, pulse oximeters have been under constant development in both aspects of hardware and software; however there are still unsolved problems that limit their performance [6], [7]. Many fresh algorithms and new design techniques are being suggested every year by industry and academic researchers which claim that they can improve accuracy of measurements [8], [9]. With the lack of an accurate computer-based behavioural model for pulse oximeters, the only way for evaluation of these newly developed systems and algorithms is through hardware implementation which can be both expensive and time consuming. This paper presents an accurate Simulink based behavioural model for a pulse oximeter that can be used by industry and academia alike working in this area, as an exploration as well as productivity enhancement tool during their research and development process. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new computer-based behavioural model which provides a simulation environment from which new ideas can be rapidly evaluated long before the real implementation.

  20. Rapid tooling by rapid prototyping: tools made by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macht, Michael; Breitinger, Frank

    1996-08-01

    In view of the competitive situation on the international market, companies are being forced to develop products more rapidly and with less likelihood of errors occurring. In the recent past, product development has been greatly speeded up, above all by computer-aided methods. However, these are not entirely sufficient to achieve a further reduction in product development times. New manufacturing methods such as 'rapid prototyping' (RP) now make it possible to obtain not only computer models but also actual physical patterns in a very early development stage. As RP technologies gained in strength, a demand arose for prototypes in the actual material which it was intended to use for the production article. Using suitable process chains, it is now possible to produce components from various near-series plastics (for example by vacuum casting) and also from metals (e.g. by lost-wax casting or sand casting). At the Augsburg User Center run by Institute for Machine Tools and Industrial Management of Munich Technical University, processes for the rapid production of prototype tools which unite machining methods, RP technologies and molding techniques have therefore been developed.

  1. The accuracy of solid model and rapid prototype of prostheses in comparison to the digital CT image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwandi, Agri; Kiswanto, Gandjar; Kusumaningsih, Widjajalaksmi; Soemardi, Tresna P.

    2017-02-01

    Prostheses are a derivative of biomedical products that have important things, which are: a design, size and bio compatible material. To produce optimum prostheses, safe and comfortable use, it would require design a model that fits the size of the patient's anatomy. In this paper describes the accuracy of solid model and rapid prototype of prostheses in comparison to the digital CT image data. Where the main parameters used as the reference measurement is digital CT image data. The data were analyzed using a statistical method to get the standard deviation of the comparison parameters of the data obtained, so that it can be known how the accuracy of the measurement results of each data.

  2. Lumped Parameter Modeling for Rapid Vibration Response Prototyping and Test Correlation for Electronic Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Present preliminary work using lumped parameter models to approximate dynamic response of electronic units to random vibration; Derive a general N-DOF model for application to electronic units; Illustrate parametric influence of model parameters; Implication of coupled dynamics for unit/board design; Demonstrate use of model to infer printed wiring board (PWB) dynamics from external chassis test measurement.

  3. Rapid Prototyping of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    1998-01-01

    This progress report for the project Rapid Production of Composite Structures covers the period from July 14, 1997 to June 30, 1998. It will present a short overview of the project, followed by the results to date and plans for the future. The goal of this research is to provide a minimum 100x reduction in the time required to produce arbitrary, laminated products without the need for a separate mold or an autoclave. It will accomplish this by developing the science underlying the rapid production of composite structures, specifically those of carbon fiber-epoxy materials. This scientific understanding will be reduced to practice in a demonstration device that will produce a part on the order of 12" by 12" by 6". Work in the past year has focussed on developing an understanding of the materials issues and of the machine design issues. Our initial goal was to use UV cureable resins to accomplish full cure on the machine. Therefore, we have centered our materials work around whether or not UV cureable resins will work. Currently, the answer seems to be that they will not work, because UV light cannot penetrate the carbon fibers, and because no "shadow" curing seems to occur. As a result, non-UV cureable resins are being investigated. This has resulted in a change in the machine design focus. We are now looking into a "dip and place" machine design, whereby a prepreg layer would have one side coated with a curing agent, and then would be placed onto the previous layer. This would lead to cure at the interface, but not to the top of the layer. The formulation of the resins to accomplish this task at room or slightly elevated temperatures is being investigated, as is the machine design needed to apply the curing agent and then cure or partially cure the part. A final, out-of-autoclave, post-cure may be needed with this strategy, as final cure on the machine may not be possible, as it was for the initial UV cure strategy. The remainder of this report details the progress

  4. Fluorescence Imaging and Streamline Visualization of Hypersonic Flow over Rapid Prototype Wind-Tunnel Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Berger, Karen T.; Buck, Gregory M.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Reentry models for use in hypersonic wind tunnel tests were fabricated using a stereolithography apparatus. These models were produced in one day or less, which is a significant time savings compared to the manufacture of ceramic or metal models. The models were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel. Only a few of the models survived repeated tests in the tunnel, and several failure modes of the models were identified. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of nitric oxide (NO) was used to visualize the flowfields in the wakes of these models. Pure NO was either seeded through tubes plumbed into the model or via a tube attached to the strut holding the model, which provided localized addition of NO into the model s wake through a porous metal cylinder attached to the end of the tube. Models included several 2- inch diameter Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) models and 5-inch diameter Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) models. Various model configurations and NO seeding methods were used, including a new streamwise visualization method based on PLIF. Virtual Diagnostics Interface (ViDI) technology, developed at NASA Langley Research Center, was used to visualize the data sets in post processing. The use of calibration "dotcards" was investigated to correct for camera perspective and lens distortions in the PLIF images.

  5. Fluorescence Visualization of Hypersonic Flow over Rapid Prototype Wind-Tunnel Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alderfer, D. W.; Danehy, P. M.; Inma, J. A.; Berger, K. T.; Buck, G. M.; Schwartz, R J.

    2007-01-01

    Reentry models for use in hypersonic wind tunnel tests were fabricated using a stereolithography apparatus. These models were produced in one day or less, which is a significant time savings compared to the manufacture of ceramic or metal models. The models were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel. Most of the models did not survive repeated tests in the tunnel, and several failure modes of the models were identified. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of nitric oxide (NO) was used to visualize the flowfields in the wakes of these models. Pure NO was either seeded through tubes plumbed into the model or via a tube attached to the strut holding the model, which provided localized addition of NO into the model s wake through a porous metal cylinder attached to the end of the tube. Models included several 2-inch diameter Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) models and 5-inch diameter Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) models. Various configurations were studied including different sting placements relative to the models, different model orientations and attachment angles, and different NO seeding methods. The angle of attack of the models was also varied and the location of the laser sheet was scanned to provide three-dimensional flowfield information. Virtual Diagnostics Interface technology, developed at NASA Langley, was used to visualize the data sets in post processing. The use of calibration "dotcards" was investigated to correct for camera perspective and lens distortions in the PLIF images. Lessons learned and recommendations for future experiments are discussed.

  6. Rapid Prototyping of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    1998-01-01

    This final report for the project Rapid Production of Composite Structures covers the period from July 14, 1997 to September 30, 1998. It will present a short overview of the project, followed by the results to date and plans for the future. The goal of this research is to provide a minimum 100x reduction in the time required to produce arbitrary, laminated products without the need for a separate mold or an autoclave. It will accomplish this by developing the science underlying the rapid production of composite structures, specifically those of carbon fiber-epoxy materials. This scientific understanding will be reduced to practice in a demonstration device that will produce a part on the order of 12in. by 12in. by 6in. Work in the past year has focussed on developing an understanding of the materials issues and of the machine design issues. Our initial goal was to use UV cureable resins to accomplish full cure on the machine. Therefore, we have centered our materials work around whether or not UV cureable resins will work. Currently, the answer seems to be that they will not work, because UV light cannot penetrate the carbon fibers, and because no "shadow" curing seems to occur. As a result, non-UV cureable resins are being investigated. This has resulted in a change in the machine design focus. We are now looking into a "dip and place" machine design, whereby a prepreg layer would have one side coated with a curing agent, and then would be placed onto the previous layer. This would lead to cure at the interface, but not to the top of the layer. The formulation of the resins to accomplish this task at room or slightly elevated temperatures is being investigated, as is the machine design needed to apply the curing agent and then cure or partially cure the part. A final, out-of-autoclave, post-cure may be needed with this strategy, as final cure on the machine may not be possible, as it was for the initial UV cure strategy. The remainder of this report details the

  7. Rapid prototyping in aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bangeas, Petros; Voulalas, Grigorios; Ktenidis, Kiriakos

    2016-04-01

    3D printing provides the sequential addition of material layers and, thus, the opportunity to print parts and components made of different materials with variable mechanical and physical properties. It helps us create 3D anatomical models for the better planning of surgical procedures when needed, since it can reveal any complex anatomical feature. Images of abdominal aortic aneurysms received by computed tomographic angiography were converted into 3D images using a Google SketchUp free software and saved in stereolithography format. Using a 3D printer (Makerbot), a model made of polylactic acid material (thermoplastic filament) was printed. A 3D model of an abdominal aorta aneurysm was created in 138 min, while the model was a precise copy of the aorta visualized in the computed tomographic images. The total cost (including the initial cost of the printer) reached 1303.00 euros. 3D imaging and modelling using different materials can be very useful in cases when anatomical difficulties are recognized through the computed tomographic images and a tactile approach is demanded preoperatively. In this way, major complications during abdominal aorta aneurysm management can be predicted and prevented. Furthermore, the model can be used as a mould; the development of new, more biocompatible, less antigenic and individualized can become a challenge in the future.

  8. The Use of a Block Diagram Simulation Language for Rapid Model Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Johnathan E.; Engrand, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The research performed this summer was a continuation of work performed during the 1995 NASA/ASEE Summer Fellowship. The focus of the work was to expand previously generated predictive models for liquid oxygen (LOX) loading into the external fuel tank of the shuttle. The models which were developed using a block diagram simulation language known as VisSim, were evaluated on numerous shuttle flights and found to well in most cases. Once the models were refined and validated, the predictive methods were integrated into the existing Rockwell software propulsion advisory tool (PAT). Although time was not sufficient to completely integrate the models developed into PAT, the ability to predict flows and pressures in the orbiter section and graphically display the results was accomplished.

  9. A user-centered model for web site design: needs assessment, user interface design, and rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Kinzie, Mable B; Cohn, Wendy F; Julian, Marti F; Knaus, William A

    2002-01-01

    As the Internet continues to grow as a delivery medium for health information, the design of effective Web sites becomes increasingly important. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of one effective model for Web site design, a user-centered process that includes techniques for needs assessment, goal/task analysis, user interface design, and rapid prototyping. They detail how this approach was employed to design a family health history Web site, Health Heritage . This Web site helps patients record and maintain their family health histories in a secure, confidential manner. It also supports primary care physicians through analysis of health histories, identification of potential risks, and provision of health care recommendations. Visual examples of the design process are provided to show how the use of this model resulted in an easy-to-use Web site that is likely to meet user needs. The model is effective across diverse content arenas and is appropriate for applications in varied media.

  10. Integrating Rapid Prototyping into Graphic Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Renmei; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Integrating different science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas can help students learn and leverage both the equipment and expertise at a single school. In comparing graphic communications classes with classes that involve rapid prototyping (RP) technologies like 3D printing, there are sufficient similarities between goals,…

  11. PyTrilinos Rapid Prototyping Package

    SciTech Connect

    Spotz, William F.

    2005-03-01

    PyTrilinos provides access to selected Trilinos packages from the python scripting language. This allows interactive and dynamic creation of Trilinos objects, rapid prototyping that does not require compilation, and "gluing" Trilinos scripts to other python modules, such as plotting, etc. The currently supported packages are Epetra, EpetraExt, and NOX.

  12. Review, Selection and Installation of a Rapid Prototype Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEndree, Caryl

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to impress upon the reader the benefits and advantages of investing in rapid prototyping (additive manufacturing) technology thru the procurement of one or two new rapid prototyping machines and the creation of a new Prototype and Model Lab at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This new resource will be available to all of United Space Alliance, LLC (USA), enabling engineers from around the company to pursue a more effective means of communication and design with our co-workers, and our customer, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Rapid Protoyping/3D printing industry mirrors the transition the CAD industry made several years ago, when companies were trying to justify the expenditure of converting to a 3D based system from a 2D based system. The advantages of using a 3D system seemed to be outweighed by the cost it would take to convert not only legacy 2D drawings into 3D models but the training of personnel to use the 3D CAD software. But the reality was that when a 3D CAD system is employed, it gives engineers a much greater ability to conceive new designs and the ability to engineer new tools and products much more effectively. Rapid Prototyping (RP) is the name given to a host of related technologies that are used to fabricate physical objects directly from Computer Aided Design (CAD) data sources. These methods are generally similar to each other in that they add and bond materials in a layer wise-fashion to form objects, instead of machining away material. The machines used in Rapid Prototyping are also sometimes referred to as Rapid Manufacturing machines due to the fact that some of the parts fabricated in a RP machine can be used as the finished product. The name "Rapid Prototyping" is really a misnomer. It is much more than prototypes and it is not always rapid.

  13. Relatively Inexpensive Rapid Prototyping of Small Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Parts with complex three-dimensional shapes and with dimensions up to 8 by 8 by 10 in. (20.3 by 20.3 by 25.4 cm) can be made as unitary pieces of a room-temperature-curing polymer, with relatively little investment in time and money, by a process now in use at Johnson Space Center. The process is one of a growing number of processes and techniques that are known collectively as the art of rapid prototyping. The main advantages of this process over other rapid-prototyping processes are greater speed and lower cost: There is no need to make paper drawings and take them to a shop for fabrication, and thus no need for the attendant paperwork and organizational delays. Instead, molds for desired parts are made automatically on a machine that is guided by data from a computer-aided design (CAD) system and can reside in an engineering office.

  14. Laser-assisted rapid prototyping in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathuria, Yash P.

    2002-04-01

    In the recent past years, developments in the rapid prototyping of various parts have taken new dynamic turns in manufacturing technology. Besides the use of new materials, unrelenting demands for the downsizing of miniature components in the micro-domain have expanded the application area of the rapid prototype product. Their requirements with reduced time lag have forced the manufacturers to adopt and develop innovative techniques which meet these demands. In order to overcome this problem, several techniques, predominantly laser stereolithography, have successfully been used in Japan for the past several years to generate a complex micro-/macro part of polymer resin based in two- or three-dimensional domains. The main disadvantage of this process is that they consist of two or more steps for producing metallic/metal-matrix composite microstructures. But recently developed new technologies of selective laser sintering/generating and ballistic particles manufacturing processes offer the possibility of the direct generation of these microstructures in a single step process. The last two processes actually have limitations on the feature size produced, due to the minimum size of the molten droplet. But the selective laser sintering technique can bind the particles by melting together at the interfacial grain contact area only and thus producing smaller feature sizes. Based upon these techniques, the present paper aims to review the current status and the future prospective of laser assisted rapid prototyping in Japan.

  15. Rapid prototyping of scaphoid and lunate bones.

    PubMed

    Gittard, Shaun D; Narayan, Roger J; Lusk, Jason; Morel, Pierre; Stockmans, Filip; Ramsey, Michael; Laverde, Claire; Phillips, Jack; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Chichkov, Boris N

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a novel rapid prototyping technology was used to fabricate scaphoid and lunate bone prostheses, two carpal bones that are prone to avascular necrosis. Carpal prostheses were fabricated with an Envisiontec Perfactory SXGA stereolithography system using Envisiontec eShell 200 photocurable polymer. Fabrication was guided using 3-D models, which were generated using Mimics software (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium) from patient computer tomography data. The prostheses were fabricated in a layer-by-layer manner; approximately 50-microm thick layers were observed in the prostheses. Hardness and Young's modulus values of polymerized eShell 200 material were 93.8 +/- 7.25 MPa and 3050 +/- 90 MPa, respectively. The minimum compressive force required for fracture was 1360 N for the scaphoid prosthesis and 1248 N for the lunate prosthesis. Polymerized Envisiontec eShell material exhibited high human neonatal epidermal keratinocyte cell viability rate in an MTT assay. The results of this study indicate that small bone prostheses fabricated by stereolithography using eShell 200 polymer may have suitable geometry, mechanical properties, and cytocompatibility properties for in vivo use.

  16. Rapid Prototyping in Orthopaedic Surgery: A User's Guide

    PubMed Central

    Frame, Mark; Huntley, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is applicable to orthopaedic problems involving three dimensions, particularly fractures, deformities, and reconstruction. In the past, RP has been hampered by cost and difficulties accessing the appropriate expertise. Here we outline the history of rapid prototyping and furthermore a process using open-source software to produce a high fidelity physical model from CT data. This greatly mitigates the expense associated with the technique, allowing surgeons to produce precise models for preoperative planning and procedure rehearsal. We describe the method with an illustrative case. PMID:22666160

  17. Rapid Prototyping Of Layered Composite Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Edwin D.

    1992-01-01

    Numerically controlled cutting accelerates fabrication of layers. Proposed method derived from stereoscopic lithography. CATIA or CAEDS computer program used to generate three-dimensional mathematical model of prototype part. In model, geometry of part specified in layers, as in stereoscopic lithography. Model data for each layer fed to computer-numerically-controlled ultrasonic cutting machine. Sheet of prepreg (uncured composite material) of specified layer thickness placed in machine and cut, under control of model data, to specified shape of layer.

  18. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-29

    conventional systems development techniques. It is not clear, however, exactly how rapid prototyping could be used in relation to conventional human...results show that a variety of task analysis approaches can be used to initiate rapid prototyping. Overall, it appears that rapid prototyping... It is not clear, however, that rapid prototyping could be used, or ts being used, in the same way as a mock-up. Williges and Hartson6

  19. Rapid Prototyping Integrated With Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.

    2001-01-01

    Most reverse engineering approaches involve imaging or digitizing an object then creating a computerized reconstruction that can be integrated, in three dimensions, into a particular design environment. Rapid prototyping (RP) refers to the practical ability to build high-quality physical prototypes directly from computer aided design (CAD) files. Using rapid prototyping, full-scale models or patterns can be built using a variety of materials in a fraction of the time required by more traditional prototyping techniques (refs. 1 and 2). Many software packages have been developed and are being designed to tackle the reverse engineering and rapid prototyping issues just mentioned. For example, image processing and three-dimensional reconstruction visualization software such as Velocity2 (ref. 3) are being used to carry out the construction process of three-dimensional volume models and the subsequent generation of a stereolithography file that is suitable for CAD applications. Producing three-dimensional models of objects from computed tomography (CT) scans is becoming a valuable nondestructive evaluation methodology (ref. 4). Real components can be rendered and subjected to temperature and stress tests using structural engineering software codes. For this to be achieved, accurate high-resolution images have to be obtained via CT scans and then processed, converted into a traditional file format, and translated into finite element models. Prototyping a three-dimensional volume of a composite structure by reading in a series of two-dimensional images generated via CT and by using and integrating commercial software (e.g. Velocity2, MSC/PATRAN (ref. 5), and Hypermesh (ref. 6)) is being applied successfully at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The building process from structural modeling to the analysis level is outlined in reference 7. Subsequently, a stress analysis of a composite cooling panel under combined thermomechanical loading conditions was performed to validate

  20. Integration of rapid prototyping into design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.

    1993-04-01

    The introduction of rapid prototyping machines into the market place promises to revolutionize the process of producing prototype parts with production-like quality. In the age of concurrent engineering and agile manufacturing, it is necessary to exploit applicable new technologies as soon as they become available. The driving force behind integrating these evolutionary processes into the design and manufacture of prototype parts is the need to reduce lead times and fabrication costs improve efficiency, and increase flexibility without sacrificing quality. Sandia Utilizes stereolithography and selective laser sintering capabilities to support internal design and manufacturing efforts. Stereolithography (SLA) is used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. Selective laser sintering (SLS) is used to produce wax patterns for the lost wax process of investment casting in support of an internal Sandia National Laboratories program called FASTCAST which integrates experimental and computational technologies into the investment casting process. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the SLA and SLS processes and address our experiences with these technologies from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and feature definition. Also presented will be several examples of prototype parts manufactured by the stereolithography and selective laser sintering rapid prototyping machines.

  1. Integration of rapid prototyping into design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-10-01

    The introduction of rapid prototyping machines into the marketplace promises to revolutionize the process of producing prototype parts with production-like quality. In the age of concurrent engineering and agile manufacturing, it is necessary to exploit applicable new technologies as soon as they become available. The driving force behind integrating these evolutionary processes into the design and manufacture of prototype parts is the need to reduce lead times and fabrication costs, improve efficiency, and increase flexibility without sacrificing quality. Sandia utilizes Stereolithography (SL) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) capabilities to support internal design and manufacturing efforts. SL is used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit-check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. SLS is used to produce wax patterns for the lost wax process of investment casting in support of an internal Sandia National Laboratories program called FASTCAST which integrates experimental and computational technologies into the investment casting process. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the SL and SLS processes and address our experiences with these technologies from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and feature definition. Also presented will be several examples of prototype parts manufactured by the Stereolithography and Selective Laser Sintering rapid prototyping machines.

  2. Rapid 2-axis scanning lidar prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartsell, Daryl; LaRocque, Paul E.; Tripp, Jeffrey

    2016-10-01

    The rapid 2-axis scanning lidar prototype was developed to demonstrate high-precision single-pixel linear-mode lidar performance. The lidar system is a combined integration of components from various commercial products allowing for future customization and performance enhancements. The intent of the prototype scanner is to demonstrate current stateof- the-art high-speed linear scanning technologies. The system consists of two pieces: the sensor head and control unit. The senor head can be installed up to 4 m from the control box and houses the lidar scanning components and a small RGB camera. The control unit houses the power supplies and ranging electronics necessary for operating the electronics housed inside the sensor head. This paper will discuss the benefits of a 2-axis scanning linear-mode lidar system, such as range performance and a userselectable FOV. Other features include real-time processing of 3D image frames consisting of up to 200,000 points per frame.

  3. The application of rapid prototyping in prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Zhang, Fu-Qiang

    2012-12-01

    Dentists have used rapid prototyping (RP) techniques in the fields of oral maxillofacial surgery simulation and implantology. With new research emerging for molding materials and the forming process of RP techniques, this method is becoming more attractive in dental prosthesis fabrication; however, few researchers have published material on the RP technology of prosthesis pattern fabrication. This article reviews and discusses the application of RP techniques for prosthodontics including: (1) fabrication of wax pattern for the dental prosthesis, (2) dental (facial) prosthesis mold (shell) fabrication, (3) dental metal prosthesis fabrication, and (4) zirconia prosthesis fabrication. Many people could benefit from this new technology through various forms of dental prosthesis production. Traditional prosthodontic practices could also be changed by RP techniques in the near future.

  4. Rapid prototyping of ossicular replacement prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsianikov, A.; Chichkov, B.; Adunka, O.; Pillsbury, H.; Doraiswamy, A.; Narayan, R. J.

    2007-05-01

    Materials used in ossicular replacement prostheses must demonstrate appropriate biological compatibility, acoustic transmission, stability, and stiffness properties. Prostheses prepared using Teflon ®, titanium, Ceravital and other conventional materials have demonstrated several problems, including migration, perforation of the tympanic membrane, difficulty in shaping the prostheses, and reactivity with the surrounding tissues. We have used two-photon polymerization for rapid prototyping of Ormocer ® middle-ear bone replacement prostheses. Ormocer ® surfaces fabricated using two-photon polymerization exhibited acceptable cell viability and cell growth profiles. The Ormocer ® prosthesis was able to be inserted and removed from the site of use in the frozen human head without fracture. Our results demonstrate that two-photon polymerization is able to create ossicular replacement prostheses and other medical devices with a larger range of sizes, shapes and materials than other microfabrication techniques.

  5. 3D measurement for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Optical 3-D measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the 3-D data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical 3-D measurement can realize both. Classical 3-D measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the 3-D coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated 3-D coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.

  6. The Mississippi Research Consortium Rapid Prototyping Capability Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, R.; Haupt, T.; Anantharaj, V.; O'Hara, C.; Aanstoos, J.

    2006-12-01

    Mississippi State University and the University of Mississippi, along with several partners, are exploiting a systems engineering approach to develop and deploy a computational Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC). This RPC will be used to evaluate research results, predominantly measurements and models, to determine appropriate capabilities by which societal benefits can be obtained via routine operational utilization. This RPC will facilitate science experiments that access, process, and assimilate terascale data from distributed and heterogeneous sources by using numerical models that scale from the desktop to high- performance platforms. The science experiments can be rapidly prototyped in order to evaluate the suitability of data, algorithms and models. The RPC experiments are designed to characterize uncertainties involved in the data, models, and decision making process while maintaining scientific rigor through the entire process. This approach helps identify scientific and logistical risks earlier in the process so that they can be appropriately addressed in a timely manner to minimize risk. This talk or poster will focus on (a) the architecture and cyber-infrastructure we are deploying under NASA, NOAA, and Navy funding for rapid prototyping capabilities to support applied research; (b) the integration of model and data frameworks; and (c) RPC concepts for the design and execution of science experiments.

  7. Rapid Prototyping of Patterned Multifunctional Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    FAN,HONGYOU; LU,YUNFENG; LOPEZ,GABRIEL P.; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY

    2000-07-18

    The ability to engineer ordered arrays of objects on multiple length scales has potential for applications such as microelectronics, sensors, wave guides, and photonic lattices with tunable band gaps. Since the invention of surfactant templated mesoporous sieves in 1992, great progress has been made in controlling different mesophases in the form of powders, particles, fibers, and films. To date, although there have been several reports of patterned mesostructures, materials prepared have been limited to metal oxides with no specific functionality. For many of the envisioned applications of hierarchical materials in micro-systems, sensors, waveguides, photonics, and electronics, it is necessary to define both form and function on several length scales. In addition, the patterning strategies utilized so far require hours or even days for completion. Such slow processes are inherently difficult to implement in commercial environments. The authors present a series of new methods of producing patterns within seconds. Combining sol-gel chemistry, Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly (EISA), and rapid prototyping techniques like pen lithography, ink-jet printing, and dip-coating on micro-contact printed substrates, they form hierarchically organized silica structures that exhibit order and function on multiple scales: on the molecular scale, functional organic moieties are positioned on pore surfaces, on the mesoscale, mono-sized pores are organized into 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional networks, providing size-selective accessibility from the gas or liquid phase, and on the macroscale, 2-dimensional arrays and fluidic or photonic systems may be defined. These rapid patterning techniques establish for the first time a link between computer-aided design and rapid processing of self-assembled nanostructures.

  8. Implementation of Additive Rapid Prototyping on Retrofit CNC Mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freeform fabrication techniques are gaining popularity as a means of making parts. Layered additive methods are associated with rapid prototyping. Many rapid prototyping methods are commercially proprietary and may cost thousands of dollars. Using a retrofit CNC mill for layered fabrication and C...

  9. Rapid Production of Composite Prototype Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, T. K.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research was to provide a mechanism to cost-effectively produce composite hardware prototypes. The task was to take a hands-on approach to developing new technologies that could benefit multiple future programs.

  10. Rapid prototyping of patterned functional nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    FAN,HONGYOU; LU,YUNFENG; STUMP,AARON; REED,SCOTT T.; BAER,THOMAS A.; SCHUNK,P. RANDALL; PEREZ-LUNA,VICTOR; LOPEZ,GABRIEL P.; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY

    2000-02-09

    Living systems exhibit form and function on multiple length scales, and the prospect of imparting life-like qualities to man-made materials has inspired many recent efforts to devise hierarchical materials assembly strategies. For example, Yang et al. grew surfactant-templated mesoporous silica on hydrophobic patterns prepared by micro-contact printing {micro}CP{sup 3}. Trau et al. formed oriented mesoporous silica patterns, using a micro-molding in capillaries MIMIC technique, and Yang et al. combined MIMIC, polystyrene sphere templating, and surfactant-templating to create oxides with three levels of structural order. Overall, great progress has been made to date in controlling structure on scales ranging from several nanometers to several micrometers. However, materials prepared have been limited to oxides with no specific functionality, whereas for many of the envisioned applications of hierarchical materials in micro-systems, sensors, waveguides, photonics, and electronics, it is necessary to define both form and function on several length scales. In addition, the patterning strategies employed thus far require hours or even days for completion. Such slow processes are inherently difficult to implement in commercial environments. The authors have combined evaporation-induced (silica/surfactant) self-assembly EISA with rapid prototyping techniques like pen lithography, ink-jet printing, and dip-coating on micro-contact printed substrates to form hierarchically organized structures in seconds. In addition, by co-condensation of tetrafunctional silanes (Si(OR){sub 4}) with tri-functional organosilanes ((RO){sub 3}SiR{prime}){sup 12--14} or by inclusion of organic additives, the authors have selectively derivatized the silica framework with functional R{prime} ligands or molecules. The resulting materials exhibit form and function on multiple length scales: on the molecular scale, functional organic moieties are positioned on pore surfaces, on the mesoscale

  11. 3D Rapid Prototyping for Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery: Applications in Image-Guidance, Surgical Simulation and Patient-Specific Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Harley H. L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Vescan, Allan; Daly, Michael J.; Prisman, Eitan; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of advanced fabrication technology across a broad spectrum of head and neck surgical procedures, including applications in endoscopic sinus surgery, skull base surgery, and maxillofacial reconstruction. The initial case studies demonstrated three applications of rapid prototyping technology are in head and neck surgery: i) a mono-material paranasal sinus phantom for endoscopy training ii) a multi-material skull base simulator and iii) 3D patient-specific mandible templates. Digital processing of these phantoms is based on real patient or cadaveric 3D images such as CT or MRI data. Three endoscopic sinus surgeons examined the realism of the endoscopist training phantom. One experienced endoscopic skull base surgeon conducted advanced sinus procedures on the high-fidelity multi-material skull base simulator. Ten patients participated in a prospective clinical study examining patient-specific modeling for mandibular reconstructive surgery. Qualitative feedback to assess the realism of the endoscopy training phantom and high-fidelity multi-material phantom was acquired. Conformance comparisons using assessments from the blinded reconstructive surgeons measured the geometric performance between intra-operative and pre-operative reconstruction mandible plates. Both the endoscopy training phantom and the high-fidelity multi-material phantom received positive feedback on the realistic structure of the phantom models. Results suggested further improvement on the soft tissue structure of the phantom models is necessary. In the patient-specific mandible template study, the pre-operative plates were judged by two blinded surgeons as providing optimal conformance in 7 out of 10 cases. No statistical differences were found in plate fabrication time and conformance, with pre-operative plating providing the advantage of reducing time spent in the operation room. The applicability of common model design and fabrication techniques

  12. 3D Rapid Prototyping for Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery: Applications in Image-Guidance, Surgical Simulation and Patient-Specific Modeling.

    PubMed

    Chan, Harley H L; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Vescan, Allan; Daly, Michael J; Prisman, Eitan; Irish, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of advanced fabrication technology across a broad spectrum of head and neck surgical procedures, including applications in endoscopic sinus surgery, skull base surgery, and maxillofacial reconstruction. The initial case studies demonstrated three applications of rapid prototyping technology are in head and neck surgery: i) a mono-material paranasal sinus phantom for endoscopy training ii) a multi-material skull base simulator and iii) 3D patient-specific mandible templates. Digital processing of these phantoms is based on real patient or cadaveric 3D images such as CT or MRI data. Three endoscopic sinus surgeons examined the realism of the endoscopist training phantom. One experienced endoscopic skull base surgeon conducted advanced sinus procedures on the high-fidelity multi-material skull base simulator. Ten patients participated in a prospective clinical study examining patient-specific modeling for mandibular reconstructive surgery. Qualitative feedback to assess the realism of the endoscopy training phantom and high-fidelity multi-material phantom was acquired. Conformance comparisons using assessments from the blinded reconstructive surgeons measured the geometric performance between intra-operative and pre-operative reconstruction mandible plates. Both the endoscopy training phantom and the high-fidelity multi-material phantom received positive feedback on the realistic structure of the phantom models. Results suggested further improvement on the soft tissue structure of the phantom models is necessary. In the patient-specific mandible template study, the pre-operative plates were judged by two blinded surgeons as providing optimal conformance in 7 out of 10 cases. No statistical differences were found in plate fabrication time and conformance, with pre-operative plating providing the advantage of reducing time spent in the operation room. The applicability of common model design and fabrication techniques

  13. Rapid prototyping for biomedical engineering: current capabilities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lantada, Andrés Díaz; Morgado, Pilar Lafont

    2012-01-01

    A new set of manufacturing technologies has emerged in the past decades to address market requirements in a customized way and to provide support for research tasks that require prototypes. These new techniques and technologies are usually referred to as rapid prototyping and manufacturing technologies, and they allow prototypes to be produced in a wide range of materials with remarkable precision in a couple of hours. Although they have been rapidly incorporated into product development methodologies, they are still under development, and their applications in bioengineering are continuously evolving. Rapid prototyping and manufacturing technologies can be of assistance in every stage of the development process of novel biodevices, to address various problems that can arise in the devices' interactions with biological systems and the fact that the design decisions must be tested carefully. This review focuses on the main fields of application for rapid prototyping in biomedical engineering and health sciences, as well as on the most remarkable challenges and research trends.

  14. Rapid Tooling via Investment Casting and Rapid Prototype Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Michael D.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this work to develop the materials processing and design technologies required to reduce the die development time for metal mold processes from 12 months to 3 months, using die casting of Al and Mg as the example process. Sandia demonstrated that investment casting, using rapid prototype patterns produced from Stereo lithography or Selective laser Sintering, was a viable alternative/supplement to the current technology of machining form wrought stock. A demonstration die insert (ejector halt) was investment cast and subsequently tested in the die casting environment. The stationary half of the die insert was machined from wrought material to benchmark the cast half. The two inserts were run in a die casting machine for 3,100 shots of aluminum and at the end of the run no visible difference could be detected between the cast and machined inserts. Inspection concluded that the cast insert performed identically to the machined insert. Both inserts had no indications of heat checking or degradation.

  15. How accurate are rapid prototyped (RP) final orthognathic surgical wafers? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shqaidef, Abedalrahman; Ayoub, Ashraf F; Khambay, Balvinder S

    2014-09-01

    Computer packages have been introduced to simulate the movements of the jaw in three dimensions to facilitate planning of treatment. After final 3-dimensional virtual planning, a rapid prototype wafer can be manufactured and used in theatre. Our aim was to assess the accuracy of rapid prototyping of virtual wafers derived from laser scanned dental models using CAD/CAM software. Upper and lower plaster models from 10 orthognathic patients, the articulated models, and the conventional wafers were scanned. The virtual wafers were made from CAD/CAM software, and printed on a stereolithographic printer. We also scanned the articulated models with rapid prototype wafers in place. The validity of the final rapid prototype wafer was measured by the accuracy with which upper and lower models related to one another. The absolute mean error of the rapid prototype wafer when aligned with the dental models was 0.94 (0.09) mm. The absolute distance of the 2 models articulated by conventional and rapid prototype wafers ranged from 0.04 - 1.73mm. The rapid prototype wafers were able to orientate the upper and lower dental models with an absolute mean error of 0.94 (0.09) mm, but it ranged from 0.04-1.73mm.

  16. Rapid prototyping of an advanced motion controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. S.

    This paper illustrates how, using existing research material, an advanced motion control system was developed both rapidly and economically. The paper emphasizes the approach used to put the system together, rather than the results of the evaluation (which is still under way). The system consists of a field-oriented controlled (FOC) induction motor, along with a pulse-population modulated current motor drive. Specific areas addressed in this paper include: a thorough overview of the technologies involved in the project (with emphasis on FOC theory); use of advanced simulation tools and models to aid in system design and debug; use of existing systems wherever possible to help speed up development; and developing the system in an environment suited to true development work.

  17. Comparison of laser-based rapid prototyping techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, Hugh; Wimpenny, David

    2002-04-01

    A diverse range of Rapid Prototyping, or layer manufacturing techniques have evolved since the introduction of the first process in the late 1980s. Many, although not all, rapid prototyping processes rely on lasers to provide a localised and controllable source of light for curing a liquid photopolymer or heat to fuse thermoplastic powders to form objects. This paper will provide an overview of laser based rapid prototyping methods and discuss the future direction of this technology in light of the threats posed by low cost 3D printing techniques and the opportunity for the direct manufacture of metal components.

  18. Materials Selection and Their Characteristics as Used in Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K.; Salvail, P.; Vesely, E.; Wells, D.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted a program to evaluate six technologies used in Rapid Prototyping (RP) to produce investment casting patterns. In this paper, RP refers to the collective additive fabrication technologies known as Solid Free-Form Fabrication. Such technologies are being used with increasing frequency in manufacturing applications, due in part to their rapidly expanding capabilities to fabricate models from many types of materials. This study used ABS plastic, polycarbonate, TrueForm PM6, epoxy resin, paper, starch, and wax. The baseline model was a semi-complex prototype fuel pump housing, intended for use in the X-33 reusable launch vehicle. All models were shelled in a production- grade colloidal silica ceramic. Primary coats were zircon-base flour with zircon backup, while secondary coats were silica grains with a tabular alumina backup. Each model was shelled in an identical manner, using the same atmospheric conditions and drying times, as well as the same number of layers. Bake-outs and firing cycles were consistent with the leach ability of each material. Preheat and bath temperatures were also kept consistent. All molds were cast in vacuum using a hydrogen-resistant superalloy (NASA- 23) that was developed in-house. The final technical evaluation included detailed measurements of the model and the final casting, in order to determine any dimensional changes caused by different pattern materials, as well as documentation of all defects and any obvious refractory/model reactions. Prototype production costs were estimated for each method and taken into consideration during trade-off analysis.

  19. Laser rapid prototyping of photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay A.; Levy, Miguel; Scarmozzino, Robert; Osgood, Richard M., Jr.

    1994-07-01

    In this paper, we will describe our work at Columbia in developing a laser prototyping system, in conjunction with computer simulation, to design, fabricate, and test novel waveguide circuits. The system is also useful for manufacturing small-run circuit designs. The fundamental technique uses a laser-induced photoelectrochemical process for etching GaAs and other III-V compounds. The technique is maskless and discretionary. The computer-controlled apparatus can be programmed with any desired circuit pattern, and prototype waveguide circuits can be produced within a day. The waveguides and passive components produced with this technique include linear waveguides, tapered waveguides, abrupt and smoothly curved bends, Y-branches, asymmetric splitters, directional couplers, and optical delay lines. The passive devices are single-mode and low-loss. The technique also has the ability to vary the effective index of refraction along the device by grading the etch depth. In addition to passive devices, we have recently shown that active switching components can be prototyped by combining passive structures with laser-patterned metal electrodes. These electrodes are produced masklessly using standard metal deposition techniques coupled with laser- patterning of photoresist. In addition, metal can be deposited directly using laser-induced selective metallorgainic CVD.

  20. Automated Rapid Prototyping of 3D Ceramic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, Scott G.; Griffin, Eugene A.; Griffin, Curtis W.; Coles, Peter W. H.; Engle, James D.

    2005-01-01

    An automated system of manufacturing equipment produces three-dimensional (3D) ceramic parts specified by computational models of the parts. The system implements an advanced, automated version of a generic rapid-prototyping process in which the fabrication of an object having a possibly complex 3D shape includes stacking of thin sheets, the outlines of which closely approximate the horizontal cross sections of the object at their respective heights. In this process, the thin sheets are made of a ceramic precursor material, and the stack is subsequently heated to transform it into a unitary ceramic object. In addition to the computer used to generate the computational model of the part to be fabricated, the equipment used in this process includes: 1) A commercially available laminated-object-manufacturing machine that was originally designed for building woodlike 3D objects from paper and was modified to accept sheets of ceramic precursor material, and 2) A machine designed specifically to feed single sheets of ceramic precursor material to the laminated-object-manufacturing machine. Like other rapid-prototyping processes that utilize stacking of thin sheets, this process begins with generation of the computational model of the part to be fabricated, followed by computational sectioning of the part into layers of predetermined thickness that collectively define the shape of the part. Information about each layer is transmitted to rapid-prototyping equipment, where the part is built layer by layer. What distinguishes this process from other rapid-prototyping processes that utilize stacking of thin sheets are the details of the machines and the actions that they perform. In this process, flexible sheets of ceramic precursor material (called "green" ceramic sheets) suitable for lamination are produced by tape casting. The binder used in the tape casting is specially formulated to enable lamination of layers with little or no applied heat or pressure. The tape is cut

  1. Characteristics of products generated by selective sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1993-01-01

    The trend in the modern global economy towards free market policies has motivated companies to use rapid prototyping technologies to not only reduce product development cycle time but also to maintain their competitive edge. A rapid prototyping technology is one which combines computer aided design with computer controlled tracking of focussed high energy source (eg. lasers, heat) on modern ceramic powders, metallic powders, plastics or photosensitive liquid resins in order to produce prototypes or models. At present, except for the process of shape melting, most rapid prototyping processes generate products that are only dimensionally similar to those of the desired end product. There is an urgent need, therefore, to enhance the understanding of the characteristics of these processes in order to realize their potential for production. Currently, the commercial market is dominated by four rapid prototyping processes, namely selective laser sintering, stereolithography, fused deposition modelling and laminated object manufacturing. This phase of the research has focussed on the selective laser sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes. A theoretical model for these processes is under development. Different rapid prototyping sites supplied test specimens (based on ASTM 638-84, Type I) that have been measured and tested to provide a data base on surface finish, dimensional variation and ultimate tensile strength. Further plans call for developing and verifying the theoretical models by carefully designed experiments. This will be a joint effort between NASA and other prototyping centers to generate a larger database, thus encouraging more widespread usage by product designers.

  2. The Development of a Programming Support System for Rapid Prototyping.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-20

    Harvard University and will include the tools provided by the PDS plus a number of new ones specifically supporting rapid prototyping. The goals of Task 1 were to improve two tools in the PDS - the authors needed to improve

  3. Rapid prototyping in maxillofacial surgery and traumatology: case report.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Everton Luis Santos; Oleskovicz, César Fernando; Aragão, Bruno Nogueira

    2004-01-01

    Review of the literature from 1991 to 2002 on the use of rapid prototyping in the biomedical area emphasizes the applicability of this technique to aid diagnosis and planning in Maxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology. A case report in which a TMJ ankylosis relapse was treated using rapid prototyping (selective laser sintering) for surgery planning is presented. After one year, the patient's buccal opening was 45 mm. Transitory paralysis of the facial nerve disappeared totally in six months.

  4. Rapid prototyping: A paradigm shift in investment casting

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; Maguire, M.C.; Baldwin, M.D.; Pardo, B.T.

    1996-09-01

    The quest for fabricating complex metal parts rapidly and with minimal cost has brought rapid prototyping (RP) processes to the forefront of the investment casting industry. Relatively recent advances in DTM Corporation`s selective laser sintering (SLS) and 3D Systems stereolithography (SL) processes have had a significant impact on the overall quality of patterns produced using these rapid prototyping processes. Sandia National Laboratories uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype and small lot production parts in support of a program called FASTCAST. The SLS process is used to fabricate patterns from materials such as investment casting wax, polycarbonate, and a new material called TrueForm PM{trademark}. With the timely introduction of each of these materials, the quality of patterns fabricated has improved. The development and implementation of SL QuickCast{trademark} software has enabled this process to produce highly accurate patterns for use in investment casting. This paper focuses on the successes with these new pattern materials and the infrastructure required to cast rapid prototyping patterns successfully. In addition, a brief overview of other applications of rapid prototyping at Sandia will be discussed.

  5. FROM REQUIREMENTS CAPTURE TO SILICON: A MODEL-DRIVEN SYSTEMS ENGINEERING APPROACH TO RAPID DESIGN, PROTOTYPING AND DEVELOPMENT USED IN THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY'S COGNITIVE RADIO PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, Mark A; Kaldenbach, Brian J; Nory, Nakhaee; Moore, Michael Roy; Bouldin, Donald; Mills, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The performance and complexity of the signal processing hardware accessible to SDR/CR/RADAR designers has quickly out-paced the available design tools. The advances in Digital Signal Processors (DSP) both fixed- and floating-point, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), and multicore processors have enabled rapid prototyping and deployment of platforms that can be dynamically reconfigured in the field to implement a variety of SDR/CR/RADAR waveforms. Until recently the process of creating waveforms meant starting with high-level mathematical models and simulations and then creating production quality code that can operate on this variety of specialized hardware using either hand coding or vendor specific tools, which are typically limited to single processor solutions. This paper discusses an integrated model-driven design process and tool-flow used in ORNL's Cognitive Radio Program. It describes how the process and tool-flow are used on a variety of SDR and CR projects and in the development of a software-defined RADAR environment simulator. It describes how, from a single Simulink model, a single deadlock free real-time multiprocessor application is created and executed on a network of heterogeneous processors. We also describe recent progress on extending the process/tool-flow to design digital ASICs and our plans for future extensions. We close by highlighting the benefits being realized from applying this design flow to SDR/CR/RADAR projects at ORNL: (1) a significant reduction in the time required to develop, prototype, implement and test SDR/CR/RADAR waveforms, (2) increased reusability/retargetabilty of SDR/CR/RADAR designs and signal processing library components, (3) the ability to quickly port SDR/CR/RADAR waveforms to different hardware systems and processor types, (4) improvements in documentation, and (5) traceability of system components back to original requirements.

  6. Accuracy and precision of polyurethane dental arch models fabricated using a three-dimensional subtractive rapid prototyping method with an intraoral scanning technique

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Ki-Baek; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of polyurethane (PUT) dental arch models fabricated using a three-dimensional (3D) subtractive rapid prototyping (RP) method with an intraoral scanning technique by comparing linear measurements obtained from PUT models and conventional plaster models. Methods Ten plaster models were duplicated using a selected standard master model and conventional impression, and 10 PUT models were duplicated using the 3D subtractive RP technique with an oral scanner. Six linear measurements were evaluated in terms of x, y, and z-axes using a non-contact white light scanner. Accuracy was assessed using mean differences between two measurements, and precision was examined using four quantitative methods and the Bland-Altman graphical method. Repeatability was evaluated in terms of intra-examiner variability, and reproducibility was assessed in terms of inter-examiner and inter-method variability. Results The mean difference between plaster models and PUT models ranged from 0.07 mm to 0.33 mm. Relative measurement errors ranged from 2.2% to 7.6% and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 to 0.96, when comparing plaster models and PUT models. The Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement. Conclusions The accuracy and precision of PUT dental models for evaluating the performance of oral scanner and subtractive RP technology was acceptable. Because of the recent improvements in block material and computerized numeric control milling machines, the subtractive RP method may be a good choice for dental arch models. PMID:24696823

  7. Rapid Prototyping of Application Specific Processors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    DataRequest 0 DataReq 1 DataValid 0 DataVal 1I~. NatDefined 0 % .\\, Al 157 % % APPENDIX E ASP Prototype Microcode .. begin: flop; the first section of...executed at this point DataReq; DataLdPads; load test data from datapads DataVal ;, RO RO RI DataDrA mov; put data in RI Ri 10 110 DataLdC mov; test...ability to put back into datareg DataVal ; output value Ri RO Ri incr; test ALU incr function and busses R1 RO 110 DataLdC mov; Ri RO Ri incr Data%’al; RI

  8. Three-dimensional model of the skull and the cranial bones reconstructed from CT scans designed for rapid prototyping process.

    PubMed

    Skrzat, Janusz; Spulber, Alexandru; Walocha, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of building mesh models of the human skull and the cranial bones from a series of CT-scans. With the aid of computer so ware, 3D reconstructions of the whole skull and segmented cranial bones were performed and visualized by surface rendering techniques. The article briefly discusses clinical and educational applications of 3D cranial models created using stereolitographic reproduction.

  9. Rapid prototyping of glass microfluidic chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotz, Frederik; Plewa, Klaus; Bauer, Werner; Hanemann, Thomas; Waldbaur, Ansgar; Wilhelm, Elisabeth; Neumann, Christiane; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2015-03-01

    In academia the rapid and flexible creation of microfluidic chips is of great importance for microfluidic research. Besides polymers glass is a very important material especially when high chemical and temperature resistance are required. However, glass structuring is a very hazardous process which is not accessible to most members of the microfluidic community. We therefore sought a new method for the rapid and simple creation of transparent microfluidic glass chips by structuring and sintering amorphous silica suspensions. The whole process from a digital mask layout to a microstructured glass sheet can be done within two days. In this paper we show the applicability of this process to fabricate capillary driven microfluidic systems.

  10. Inspection, 3D modelling, and rapid prototyping of cultural heritage by means of a 3D optical digitiser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docchio, F.; Sansoni, G.; Trebeschi, M.

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents the activity carried out to perform the three-dimensional acquisition of the "Vittoria Alata", a 2m-high, bronze statue, symbol of our City, located at the Civici Musei di Arte e Storia (S. Giulia) of Brescia. The acquisition of the statue has been performed by using a three-dimensional vision system based on active triangulation and on the projection of non-coherent light. This system, called OPL-3D, represents one of the research products of our Laboratory, which has been active for years in the development of techniques and systems for the contactless acquisition of free-form, complex shapes. The study, originally motivated by the need to explore a new hypothesis on the origin of the "Vittoria Alata", led to its complete digitization and description in terms of both polygonal and NURBS-based models. A suite of copies of the whole statue has been obtained in the framework of the collaboration between the City Museum and the EOS Electro Optical Systems GmbH, located in Munich, Germany. As a first step, one 30 cm-high replica of the whole statue has been produced using a low-resolution triangle model of the statue (3.5 millions of triangles). As a second step, two 1:1 scale copies of the statue have been produced. For them, the Laboratory has provided the high resolution STL file (16 millions of triangles). The paper discusses in detail the hardware and the software facilities used to implement the whole process, and gives a comprehensive description of the results.

  11. TOPAZ II Anti-Criticality Device Rapid Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Donald R.; Otting, William D.

    1994-07-01

    The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) has been working on a Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Project (NEPSTP) using an existing Russian Topaz II reactor system to power the NEPSTP satellite. Safety investigations have shown that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the United States with some modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A ``fuel-out'' water subcriticality concept was selected by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as the baseline concept. A fuel-out anti-criticality device (ACD) conceptual design was developed by Rockwell. The concept functions to hold the fuel from the four centermost thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) outside the reactor during launch and reliably inserts the fuel into the reactor once the operational orbit is achieved. A four-tenths scale ACD rapid prototype model, fabricated from the CATIA solids design model, clearly shows in three dimensions the relative size and spatial relationship of the ACD components.

  12. Thermal Modeling and Simulation of Electron Beam Melting for Rapid Prototyping on Ti6Al4V Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira Arce, Alderson

    To be a viable solution for contemporary engineering challenges, the use of titanium alloys in a wider range of applications requires the development of new techniques and processes that are able to decrease production cost and delivery times. As a result, the use of material consolidation in a near-net-shape fashion, using dynamic techniques like additive manufacturing by electron beam selective melting EBSM represents a promising method for part manufacturing. However, a new product material development can be cost prohibitive, requiring the use of computer modeling and simulation as a way to decrease turnaround time. To ensure a proper representation of the EBSM process, a thermophysical material characterization and comparison was first performed on two Ti6Al4V powder feedstock materials prepared by plasma (PREP) and gas atomized (GA) processes. This evaluation comprises an evaluation on particle size distribution, density and powder surface area, collectively with the temperature dependence on properties such as heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and surface emissivity. Multiple techniques were employed in this evaluation, including high temperature differential scanning calorimetry (HT-DSC), laser flash analysis (LFA), infrared remote temperature analysis (IR-Thermography), laser diffraction, liquid and gas pycnometry using mercury and krypton adsorption respectively. This study was followed by the review of complementary strategies to simulate the temperature evolution during the EBSM process, using a finite element analysis package called COMSOL Multiphysics. Two alternatives dedicated to representing a moving heat source (electron beam) and the powder bed were developed using a step-by-step approximation initiative. The first method consisted of the depiction of a powder bed discretized on an array of domains, each one representing a static melt pool, where the moving heat source was illustrated by a series of time dependant selective

  13. Rapid prototyping in the development of image processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Fecht, Arno; Kelm, Claus Thomas

    2004-08-01

    This contribution presents a rapid prototyping approach for the real-time demonstration of image processing algorithms. As an example EADS/LFK has developed a basic IR target tracking system implementing this approach. Traditionally in research and industry time-independent simulation of image processing algorithms on a host computer is processed. This method is good for demonstrating the algorithms' capabilities. Rarely done is a time-dependent simulation or even a real-time demonstration on a target platform to prove the real-time capabilities. In 1D signal processing applications time-dependent simulation and real-time demonstration has already been used for quite a while. For time-dependent simulation Simulink from The MathWorks has established as an industry standard. Combined with The MathWorks' Real-Time Workshop the simulation model can be transferred to a real-time target processor. The executable is generated automatically by the Real-Time Workshop directly out of the simulation model. In 2D signal processing applications like image processing The Mathworks' Matlab is commonly used for time-independent simulation. To achieve time-dependent simulation and real-time demonstration capabilities the algorithms can be transferred to Simulink, which in fact runs on top of Matlab. Additionally to increase the performance Simulink models or parts of them can be transferred to Xilinx FPGAs using Xilinx' System Generator. With a single model and the automatic workflow both, a time-dependant simulation and the real-time demonstration, are covered leading to an easy and flexible rapid prototyping approach. EADS/LFK is going to use this approach for a wider spectrum of IR image processing applications like automatic target recognition or image based navigation or imaging laser radar target recognition.

  14. Microgravity Manufacturing: Extending Rapid Prototyping Past the Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decade, rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have continued to advance in all aspects of operation and application. From continuously advanced materials and processes development to more hard-core manufacturing uses, the RP realm has stretched considerably past its original expectations as a prototyping capability. This paper discusses the unique applications for which NASA has chosen these manufacturing techniques to be utilized in outer space.

  15. Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, C.; Kiyan, R.; Passinger, S.; Stepanov, A. L.; Ostendorf, A.; Chichkov, B. N.

    2007-11-01

    Renewed and growing interest in the field of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) comes from a rapid advance of nanostructuring technologies. In this paper, we will report on the application of two-photon polymerization (2PP) technique for the fabrication of dielectric SPP-structures, which can be used for localization, guiding, and manipulation of SPPs on a subwavelength scale. This technology is based on nonlinear absorption of near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. Resolutions down to 100 nm (and even better) are already achievable. Characterization of these structures is performed by leakage radiation microscopy. 2PP allows the fabrication of dielectric waveguides, splitters, and couplers directly on metal surfaces. The dielectric structures on metal films are demonstrated to be very efficient for the excitation of SPPs. Using these structures, one can achieve excitation and focusing of the resulting plasmon field.

  16. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Donald W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco R.

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  17. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, Tracie

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  18. Joint Program on Rapid Prototyping. RaPIER (Rapid Prototyping to Investigate End-User Requirements).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-28

    Prototype System Description Language," ISSI Technical Report, unnumbered, January 30,198 6 ., . [JONES84] T. Capers Jones. "Reusability in Programming: A...Systems, Inc.. "PSDL: Prototype System * Description Language," ISSI Technical Report, unnumbered, January 30, 1986. T. Capers Jones. "Reusability in...Game Design," IEEE Software, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 1984, pp. 28-38. -[LISKOV5] -5. Barbara H. Liskov, Stephen N. Zilles. "Specification Techniques for j

  19. Rapid algorithm prototyping and implementation for power quality measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kołek, Krzysztof; Piątek, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    This article presents a Model-Based Design (MBD) approach to rapidly implement power quality (PQ) metering algorithms. Power supply quality is a very important aspect of modern power systems and will become even more important in future smart grids. In this case, maintaining the PQ parameters at the desired level will require efficient implementation methods of the metering algorithms. Currently, the development of new, advanced PQ metering algorithms requires new hardware with adequate computational capability and time intensive, cost-ineffective manual implementations. An alternative, considered here, is an MBD approach. The MBD approach focuses on the modelling and validation of the model by simulation, which is well-supported by a Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) packages. This paper presents two algorithms utilized in modern PQ meters: a phase-locked loop based on an Enhanced Phase Locked Loop (EPLL), and the flicker measurement according to the IEC 61000-4-15 standard. The algorithms were chosen because of their complexity and non-trivial development. They were first modelled in the MATLAB/Simulink package, then tested and validated in a simulation environment. The models, in the form of Simulink diagrams, were next used to automatically generate C code. The code was compiled and executed in real-time on the Zynq Xilinx platform that combines a reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with a dual-core processor. The MBD development of PQ algorithms, automatic code generation, and compilation form a rapid algorithm prototyping and implementation path for PQ measurements. The main advantage of this approach is the ability to focus on the design, validation, and testing stages while skipping over implementation issues. The code generation process renders production-ready code that can be easily used on the target hardware. This is especially important when standards for PQ measurement are in constant development, and the PQ issues in emerging smart

  20. Can MODIS Data Calibrate and Validate Coastal Sediment Transport Models? Rapid Prototyping Using 250 m Data and the ECOMSED Model for Lake Pontchartrain, LA USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard L.; Georgiou, Ioannis; Glorioso, Mark V.; McCorquodale, J. Alex; Crowder, Keely

    2006-01-01

    Field measurements from small boats and sparse arrays of instrumented buoys often do not provide sufficient data to capture the dynamic nature of biogeophysical parameters in may coastal aquatic environments. Several investigators have shown the MODIS 250 m images can provide daily synoptic views of suspended sediment concentration in coastal waters to determine sediment transport and fate. However, the use of MODIS for coastal environments can be limited due to a lack of cloud-free images. Sediment transport models are not constrained by sky conditions but often suffer from a lack of in situ observations for model calibration or validation. We demonstrate here the utility of MODIS 250 m to calibrate (set model parameters), validate output, and set or reset initial conditions of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model (ECOMSED) developed for Lake Pontchartrain, LA USA. We present our approach in the context of how to quickly assess of 'prototype' an application of NASA data to support environmental managers and decision makers. The combination of daily MODIS imagery and model simulations offer a more robust monitoring and prediction system of suspended sediments than available from either system alone.

  1. Patient specific ankle-foot orthoses using rapid prototyping

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prefabricated orthotic devices are currently designed to fit a range of patients and therefore they do not provide individualized comfort and function. Custom-fit orthoses are superior to prefabricated orthotic devices from both of the above-mentioned standpoints. However, creating a custom-fit orthosis is a laborious and time-intensive manual process performed by skilled orthotists. Besides, adjustments made to both prefabricated and custom-fit orthoses are carried out in a qualitative manner. So both comfort and function can potentially suffer considerably. A computerized technique for fabricating patient-specific orthotic devices has the potential to provide excellent comfort and allow for changes in the standard design to meet the specific needs of each patient. Methods In this paper, 3D laser scanning is combined with rapid prototyping to create patient-specific orthoses. A novel process was engineered to utilize patient-specific surface data of the patient anatomy as a digital input, manipulate the surface data to an optimal form using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, and then download the digital output from the CAD software to a rapid prototyping machine for fabrication. Results Two AFOs were rapidly prototyped to demonstrate the proposed process. Gait analysis data of a subject wearing the AFOs indicated that the rapid prototyped AFOs performed comparably to the prefabricated polypropylene design. Conclusions The rapidly prototyped orthoses fabricated in this study provided good fit of the subject's anatomy compared to a prefabricated AFO while delivering comparable function (i.e. mechanical effect on the biomechanics of gait). The rapid fabrication capability is of interest because it has potential for decreasing fabrication time and cost especially when a replacement of the orthosis is required. PMID:21226898

  2. Rapid Prototyping of NASA's Solar and Meteorological Data For Regional Level Modeling of Agricultural and Bio-fuel Crop Phenology and Yield Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, J. M.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Eckman, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    fluxes (4 to 7 day lag) produced via the NASA FLASHFlux (Fast Longwave and SHortwave radiative Fluxes) project. We will also discuss a Rapid Prototype Project designed to demonstrate the viability of using the resulting 1-degree resolution regional-to-global meteorological and solar radiation data products as inputs to agricultural based Decision Support Systems for improved production of food, feedstock and bio- fuel crops. The data requirements of these DSS's are discussed including the requirements for timeliness and spatial resolution. These have ramifications for future remote sensing, data analysis and modeling systems to support agricultural applications.

  3. The Requirements and Design of the Rapid Prototyping Capabilities System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, T. A.; Moorhead, R.; O'Hara, C.; Anantharaj, V.

    2006-12-01

    The Rapid Prototyping Capabilities (RPC) system will provide the capability to rapidly evaluate innovative methods of linking science observations. To this end, the RPC will provide the capability to integrate the software components and tools needed to evaluate the use of a wide variety of current and future NASA sensors, numerical models, and research results, model outputs, and knowledge, collectively referred to as "resources". It is assumed that the resources are geographically distributed, and thus RPC will provide the support for the location transparency of the resources. The RPC system requires providing support for: (1) discovery, semantic understanding, secure access and transport mechanisms for data products available from the known data provides; (2) data assimilation and geo- processing tools for all data transformations needed to match given data products to the model input requirements; (3) model management including catalogs of models and model metadata, and mechanisms for creation environments for model execution; and (4) tools for model output analysis and model benchmarking. The challenge involves developing a cyberinfrastructure for a coordinated aggregate of software, hardware and other technologies, necessary to facilitate RPC experiments, as well as human expertise to provide an integrated, "end-to-end" platform to support the RPC objectives. Such aggregation is to be achieved through a horizontal integration of loosely coupled services. The cyberinfrastructure comprises several software layers. At the bottom, the Grid fabric encompasses network protocols, optical networks, computational resources, storage devices, and sensors. At the top, applications use workload managers to coordinate their access to physical resources. Applications are not tightly bounded to a single physical resource. Instead, they bind dynamically to resources (i.e., they are provisioned) via a common grid infrastructure layer. For the RPC system, the

  4. Laser-Controlled Rapid Prototyping of Photonic Integrated Circuits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay A.

    1994-01-01

    Photonic integrated circuits offer important cost and environmental advantages over circuits composed of discrete components. However, the design and fabrication of complex, large-area photonic integrated circuits (PICs) is severely limited by the lack of prototyping tools as well as the appropriate device structures. This thesis describes the use of a novel laser fabrication process for the rapid prototyping of integrated optical circuits in compound semiconductor substrates. The fabrication is based on a type of laser direct photoelectrochemical etching process that uses a focused laser beam which is scanned under computer control to form micrometer-scale grooves, thereby patterning rib-like optical waveguide structures. The computer-controlled apparatus can be programmed with any desired circuit pattern, and prototype waveguide circuits can be produced within a day. The technique does not require the use of a mask; thus, the etching can be done in a single step. In the first part of this thesis, the technique of micrometer-scale photoelectrochemical etching of GaAs is described. The use of this technique for the fabrication of several passive integrated optical devices in GaAs is then presented. These "building block" devices include linear waveguides, bends, Y-branches, and tapers. From these, we were able to form simple passive devices such as splitters and directional couplers. These devices have low optical loss, are single-mode, and can be accurately modeled using effective index calculations. The usefulness of this technique as a prototyping tool is then demonstrated by its use in the fabrication of the first sub-Angstrom integrated channel-dropping filter. After the presentation of the passive devices results, the use of this technique to fabricate several active devices is discussed. These electrooptic devices include a polarization modulator, an integrated amplitude modulator consisting of a polarization modulator and an on-chip polarizer, and an

  5. Digital image capture and rapid prototyping of the maxillofacial defect.

    PubMed

    Sabol, Jennifer V; Grant, Gerald T; Liacouras, Peter; Rouse, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    In order to restore an extraoral maxillofacial defect, a moulage impression is commonly made with traditional impression materials. This technique has some disadvantages, including distortion of the site due to the weight of the impression material, changes in tissue location with modifications of the patient position, and the length of time and discomfort for the patient due to the impression procedure and materials used. The use of the commercially available 3dMDface™ System creates 3D images of soft tissues to form an anatomically accurate 3D surface image. Rapid prototyping converts the virtual designs from the 3dMDface™ System into a physical model by converting the data to a ZPrint (ZPR) CAD format file and a stereolithography (STL) file. The data, in conjunction with a Zprinter(®) 450 or a Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA), can be used to fabricate a model for prosthesis fabrication, without the disadvantages of the standard moulage technique. This article reviews this technique and how it can be applied to maxillofacial prosthetics.

  6. Rapid prototype fabrication processes for high-performance thrust cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, K.; Chwiedor, T.; Diab, J.; Williams, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Thrust Cell Technologies Program (Air Force Phillips Laboratory Contract No. F04611-92-C-0050) is currently being performed by Rocketdyne to demonstrate advanced materials and fabrication technologies which can be utilized to produce low-cost, high-performance thrust cells for launch and space transportation rocket engines. Under Phase 2 of the Thrust Cell Technologies Program (TCTP), rapid prototyping and investment casting techniques are being employed to fabricate a 12,000-lbf thrust class combustion chamber for delivery and hot-fire testing at Phillips Lab. The integrated process of investment casting directly from rapid prototype patterns dramatically reduces design-to-delivery cycle time, and greatly enhances design flexibility over conventionally processed cast or machined parts.

  7. NASA Applied Sciences Program Rapid Prototyping Results and Conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, E. L.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's Applied Sciences Program seeks to expand the use of Earth science research results to benefit current and future operational systems tasked with making policy and management decisions. The Earth Science Division within the Science Mission Directorate sponsors over 1000 research projects annually to answer the fundamental research question: How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth? As research results become available, largely from satellite observations and Earth system model outputs, the Applied Sciences Program works diligently with scientists and researchers (internal and external to NASA) , and other government agency officials (USDA, EPA, CDC, DOE, US Forest Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, DHS, USAID) to determine useful applications for these results in decision-making, ultimately benefiting society. The complexity of Earth science research results and the breadth of the Applied Sciences Program national priority areas dictate a broad scope and multiple approaches available to implement their use in decision-making. Over the past five years, the Applied Sciences Program has examined scientific and engineering practices and solicited the community for methods and steps that can lead to the enhancement of operational systems (Decision Support Systems - DSS) required for decision-making. In November 2006, the Applied Sciences Program launched an initiative aimed at demonstrating the applicability of NASA data (satellite observations, models, geophysical parameters from data archive centers) being incorporated into decision support systems and their related environments at a low cost and quick turnaround of results., i.e. designed rapid prototyping. Conceptually, an understanding of Earth science research (and results) coupled with decision-making requirements and needs leads to a demonstration (experiment) depicting enhancements or improvements to an operational decisions process through the use of NASA data. Five

  8. Rapid prototyping with the visual data environment of an OFDM WLAN system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Moises; Marti, Pere; Carrabina, Jordi

    2005-06-01

    In this paper a rapid prototyping design flow is presented and applied to a prototype of the base-band physical layer of a Hiperlan/2 WLAN transceiver. This physical layer is a high performance multi-rate system that contains computationally intensive algorithms. A new method for prototyping the design flow and verifying the process is to use the latest generation of system level design environments (visual data flow environment) for DSPs. The System Generator and Matlab/Simulink tools form a visual data flow environment for FPGA allow us to model DSP systems and explore algorithms. This environment also translates designs into hardware implementations that are faithful, synthesizable and efficient, which can be explored and refined in rapid prototyping platforms.

  9. Rapid Prototyping of High Performance Signal Processing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, Nimish

    Advances in embedded systems for digital signal processing (DSP) are enabling many scientific projects and commercial applications. At the same time, these applications are key to driving advances in many important kinds of computing platforms. In this region of high performance DSP, rapid prototyping is critical for faster time-to-market (e.g., in the wireless communications industry) or time-to-science (e.g., in radio astronomy). DSP system architectures have evolved from being based on application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to incorporate reconfigurable off-the-shelf field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), the latest multiprocessors such as graphics processing units (GPUs), or heterogeneous combinations of such devices. We, thus, have a vast design space to explore based on performance trade-offs, and expanded by the multitude of possibilities for target platforms. In order to allow systematic design space exploration, and develop scalable and portable prototypes, model based design tools are increasingly used in design and implementation of embedded systems. These tools allow scalable high-level representations, model based semantics for analysis and optimization, and portable implementations that can be verified at higher levels of abstractions and targeted toward multiple platforms for implementation. The designer can experiment using such tools at an early stage in the design cycle, and employ the latest hardware at later stages. In this thesis, we have focused on dataflow-based approaches for rapid DSP system prototyping. This thesis contributes to various aspects of dataflow-based design flows and tools as follows: 1. We have introduced the concept of topological patterns, which exploits commonly found repetitive patterns in DSP algorithms to allow scalable, concise, and parameterizable representations of large scale dataflow graphs in high-level languages. We have shown how an underlying design tool can systematically exploit a high

  10. Rapid prototyping of microstructures by soft lithography for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Daniel B; Qin, Dong; Whitesides, George M

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes the methods and specific procedures used to fabricate microstructures by soft lithography. These techniques are useful for the prototyping of devices useful for applications in biotechnology. Fabrication by soft lithography does not require specialized or expensive equipment; the materials and facilities necessary are found commonly in biological and chemical laboratories in both academia and industry. The combination of the fact that the materials are low-cost and that the time from design to prototype device can be short (< 24 h) makes it possible to use and to screen rapidly devices that also can be disposable. Here we describe the procedures for fabricating microstructures with lateral dimensions as small as 1 mum. These types of microstructures are useful for microfluidic devices, cell-based assays, and bioengineered surfaces.

  11. Design and optimization of the micro-engine turbine rotor manufacturing using the rapid prototyping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovin, R. A.; Smelov, V. G.

    2017-02-01

    This work describes the experience in manufacturing the turbine rotor for the micro-engine. It demonstrates the design principles for the complex investment casting process combining the use of the ProCast software and the rapid prototyping techniques. At the virtual modelling stage, in addition to optimized process parameters, the casting structure was improved to obtain the defect-free section. The real production stage allowed demonstrating the performance and fitness of rapid prototyping techniques for the manufacture of geometrically-complex engine-building parts.

  12. Extending NASA Research Results to Benefit Society: Rapid Prototyping for Coastal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glorioso, Mark V.; Miller, Richard L.; Hall, Callie M.; McPherson, Terry R.

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the NASA Applied Sciences Program is to expand and accelerate the use of NASA research results to benefit society in 12 application areas of national priority. ONe of the program's major challenges is to perform a quick, efficient, and detailed review (i.e., prototyping) of the large number of combinations of NASA observations and results from Earth system models that may be used by a wide range of decision support tools. A Rapid Prototyping Capacity (RPC) is being developed to accelerate the use of NASA research results. Here, we present the conceptual framework of the Rapid Prototyping Capacity within the context of quickly assessing the efficacy of NASA research results and technologies to support the Coastal Management application. An initial RPC project designed to quickly evaluate the utility of moderate-resolution MODIS products for calibrating/validating coastal sediment transport models is also presented.

  13. Rapid Prototyping of Nanofluidic Slits in a Silicone Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Kole, Thomas P.; Liao, Kuo-Tang; Schiffels, Daniel; Ilic, B. Robert; Strychalski, Elizabeth A.; Kralj, Jason G.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Stavis, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a process for rapidly prototyping nanofluidic devices, particularly those comprising slits with microscale widths and nanoscale depths, in silicone. This process consists of designing a nanofluidic device, fabricating a photomask, fabricating a device mold in epoxy photoresist, molding a device in silicone, cutting and punching a molded silicone device, bonding a silicone device to a glass substrate, and filling the device with aqueous solution. By using a bilayer of hard and soft silicone, we have formed and filled nanofluidic slits with depths of less than 400 nm and aspect ratios of width to depth exceeding 250 without collapse of the slits. An important attribute of this article is that the description of this rapid prototyping process is very comprehensive, presenting context and details which are highly relevant to the rational implementation and reliable repetition of the process. Moreover, this process makes use of equipment commonly found in nanofabrication facilities and research laboratories, facilitating the broad adaptation and application of the process. Therefore, while this article specifically informs users of the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), we anticipate that this information will be generally useful for the nanofabrication and nanofluidics research communities at large, and particularly useful for neophyte nanofabricators and nanofluidicists. PMID:26958449

  14. Rapid Prototyping of Nanofluidic Slits in a Silicone Bilayer.

    PubMed

    Kole, Thomas P; Liao, Kuo-Tang; Schiffels, Daniel; Ilic, B Robert; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Kralj, Jason G; Liddle, J Alexander; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Stavis, Samuel M

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a process for rapidly prototyping nanofluidic devices, particularly those comprising slits with microscale widths and nanoscale depths, in silicone. This process consists of designing a nanofluidic device, fabricating a photomask, fabricating a device mold in epoxy photoresist, molding a device in silicone, cutting and punching a molded silicone device, bonding a silicone device to a glass substrate, and filling the device with aqueous solution. By using a bilayer of hard and soft silicone, we have formed and filled nanofluidic slits with depths of less than 400 nm and aspect ratios of width to depth exceeding 250 without collapse of the slits. An important attribute of this article is that the description of this rapid prototyping process is very comprehensive, presenting context and details which are highly relevant to the rational implementation and reliable repetition of the process. Moreover, this process makes use of equipment commonly found in nanofabrication facilities and research laboratories, facilitating the broad adaptation and application of the process. Therefore, while this article specifically informs users of the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), we anticipate that this information will be generally useful for the nanofabrication and nanofluidics research communities at large, and particularly useful for neophyte nanofabricators and nanofluidicists.

  15. Application of Rapid Prototyping Methods to High-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken in MSFC's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel to determine if rapid prototyping methods could be used in the design and manufacturing of high speed wind tunnel models in direct testing applications, and if these methods would reduce model design/fabrication time and cost while providing models of high enough fidelity to provide adequate aerodynamic data, and of sufficient strength to survive the test environment. Rapid prototyping methods utilized to construct wind tunnel models in a wing-body-tail configuration were: fused deposition method using both ABS plastic and PEEK as building materials, stereolithography using the photopolymer SL-5170, selective laser sintering using glass reinforced nylon, and laminated object manufacturing using plastic reinforced with glass and 'paper'. This study revealed good agreement between the SLA model, the metal model with an FDM-ABS nose, an SLA nose, and the metal model for most operating conditions, while the FDM-ABS data diverged at higher loading conditions. Data from the initial SLS model showed poor agreement due to problems in post-processing, resulting in a different configuration. A second SLS model was tested and showed relatively good agreement. It can be concluded that rapid prototyping models show promise in preliminary aerodynamic development studies at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds.

  16. Rapid development of auricular prosthesis using CAD and rapid prototyping technologies.

    PubMed

    Subburaj, K; Nair, C; Rajesh, S; Meshram, S M; Ravi, B

    2007-10-01

    External ear defects can be corrected by surgery, but this may not be feasible for personal or medical reasons. Reconstructive solutions are a good alternative, but rely on the artistry and availability of the anaplastologist. A semi-automated methodology using computer-aided design (CAD) and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies was developed for auricular prosthesis development, and demonstrated in a real-life case. The correct geometry and position of the prosthesis were ensured by stacking the computed tomography scan images of the contralateral normal ear in reverse order, and joining them using a medical modelling software program. The CAD model of the remnant portion of the defective ear was subtracted from the model of the mirrored contralateral ear, using a haptic CAD system, to obtain the final geometry of the prosthesis. Polymer models were fabricated in RP systems, and used for making a corresponding mould. Medical grade silicone rubber of the appropriate colour was packed into the mould to fabricate the final ear prosthesis and fitted to the deficient side of the patient using medical grade adhesive. The computer-aided methodology gave a high level of accuracy in terms of shape, size and position of the prosthesis, and a significantly shorter lead time compared to the conventional (manual) technique.

  17. Rapid laser prototyping of valves for microfluidic autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, M. I.; Abraham, E.; Y Desmulliez, M. P.

    2013-03-01

    Capillary forces in microfluidics provide a simple yet elegant means to direct liquids through flow channel networks. The ability to manipulate the flow in a truly automated manner has proven more problematic. The majority of valves require some form of flow control devices, which are manually, mechanically or electrically driven. Most demonstrated capillary systems have been manufactured by photolithography, which, despite its high precision and repeatability, can be labour intensive, requires a clean room environment and the use of fixed photomasks, limiting thereby the agility of the manufacturing process to readily examine alternative designs. In this paper, we describe a robust and rapid CO2 laser manufacturing process and demonstrate a range of capillary-driven microfluidic valve structures embedded within a microfluidic network. The manufacturing process described allows for advanced control and manipulation of fluids such that flow can be halted, triggered and delayed based on simple geometrical alterations to a given microchannel. The rapid prototyping methodology has been employed with PMMA substrates and a complete device has been created, ready for use, within 2-3 h. We believe that this agile manufacturing process can be applied to produce a range of complex autonomous fluidic platforms and allows subsequent designs to be rapidly explored.

  18. Performance of a Micro-UAV lifting system built with the usage of rapid prototyping methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalewski, R. T.; Gumowski, K.; Barczak, T.; Godek, J.

    2014-08-01

    This article presents results of the aerodynamic testing of a micro unmanned aerial vehicle rotor efficiency. The rotors were prepared as a set of two rotors in a counter-rotating ducted drive. Prototypes of the drives were made using two rapid prototyping techniques - FDM - fused deposition modelling method and SLS - selective laser sintering. Rotors were made then treated by introducing additional finishing cyanoacrylate coating and abrasive processing. Main differences between those models were observed in fan shape, porosity, surface roughness and mechanical properties - stiffness. An influence of these factors was observed on an aerodynamic efficiency. For the obtained prototypes both simulations and experimental testing were conducted with thrust, power, torque measurements, as well as the measurement of velocity and pressure distribution at the outlet of the duct. The results show the possibility of using rapid prototyping techniques to produce prototypes of drives operating in the low and medium Reynolds numbers (6000-60000), and the aerodynamic shape relevant factors affecting the preparation and performance of such drives. In addition, simulation studies were performed using the Fluent environment where experimental results were confronted with the results of simulation studies.

  19. Advanced Propulsion and TPS for a Rapidly-Prototyped CEV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Gary C.

    2005-02-01

    Transformational Space Corporation (t/Space) is developing for NASA the initial designs for the Crew Exploration Vehicle family, focusing on a Launch CEV for transporting NASA and civilian passengers from Earth to orbit. The t/Space methodology is rapid prototyping of major vehicle systems, and deriving detailed specifications from the resulting hardware, avoiding "written-in-advance" specs that can force the costly invention of new capabilities simply to meet such specs. A key technology shared by the CEV family is Vapor Pressurized propulsion (Vapak) for simplicity and reliability, which provides electrical power, life support gas and a heat sink in addition to propulsion. The CEV family also features active transpiration cooling of re-entry surfaces (for reusability) backed up by passive thermal protection.

  20. Rapid, Reliable Shape Setting of Superelastic Nitinol for Prototyping Robots

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Hunter B.; Webster, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Shape setting Nitinol tubes and wires in a typical laboratory setting for use in superelastic robots is challenging. Obtaining samples that remain superelastic and exhibit desired precurvatures currently requires many iterations, which is time consuming and consumes a substantial amount of Nitinol. To provide a more accurate and reliable method of shape setting, in this paper we propose an electrical technique that uses Joule heating to attain the necessary shape setting temperatures. The resulting high power heating prevents unintended aging of the material and yields consistent and accurate results for the rapid creation of prototypes. We present a complete algorithm and system together with an experimental analysis of temperature regulation. We experimentally validate the approach on Nitinol tubes that are shape set into planar curves. We also demonstrate the feasibility of creating general space curves by shape setting a helical tube. The system demonstrates a mean absolute temperature error of 10°C. PMID:27648473

  1. An FPGA-based rapid prototyping platform for wavelet coprocessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Alonzo; Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Pattichis, Marios

    2007-04-01

    MatLab/Simulink-based design flows are being used by DSP designers to improve time-to-market of FPGA implementations. 1 Commonly, digital signal processing cores are integrated in an embedded system as coprocessors. Existing CAD tools do not fully address the integration of a DSP coprocessor into an embedded system design. This integration might prove to be time consuming and error prone. It also requires that the DSP designer has an excellent knowledge of embedded systems and computer architecture details. We present a prototyping platform and design flow that allows rapid integration of embedded systems with a wavelet coprocessor. The platform comprises of software and hardware modules that allow a DSP designer a painless integration of a coprocessor with a PowerPC-based embedded system. The platform has a wide range of applications, from industrial to educational environments.

  2. GAJAT A Rapid Prototyping Mission Architecture Tool with Embedded Costing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, Andrew J.; Crawford, John P.

    2004-01-01

    GAJAT is a Near Earth Mission Architecture (NEMA) Rapid Prototyping Analysis Tool. It Was designed to be operated by a single systems engineer to replicate the mission design output of JPL's Team X. GAJAT provides estimates for: (1) The overall design of an observatory with a defined payload [instrument(s)] (2) The spacecraft consumable resources required to support the mission over its specified operational period (3) The minimum launch vehicle capability requirement (4) The Ground Segment Requirements, and (5) The cost for developing and launching the observatory (mission development cost) and the cost to operate the system over the specified operational period (mission operations cost), the sum of these two being the total mission cost.

  3. Rapid, Reliable Shape Setting of Superelastic Nitinol for Prototyping Robots.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Hunter B; Webster, Robert J

    Shape setting Nitinol tubes and wires in a typical laboratory setting for use in superelastic robots is challenging. Obtaining samples that remain superelastic and exhibit desired precurvatures currently requires many iterations, which is time consuming and consumes a substantial amount of Nitinol. To provide a more accurate and reliable method of shape setting, in this paper we propose an electrical technique that uses Joule heating to attain the necessary shape setting temperatures. The resulting high power heating prevents unintended aging of the material and yields consistent and accurate results for the rapid creation of prototypes. We present a complete algorithm and system together with an experimental analysis of temperature regulation. We experimentally validate the approach on Nitinol tubes that are shape set into planar curves. We also demonstrate the feasibility of creating general space curves by shape setting a helical tube. The system demonstrates a mean absolute temperature error of 10°C.

  4. Modeling mechanical signals on the surface of µCT and CAD based rapid prototype scaffold models to predict (early stage) tissue development.

    PubMed

    Hendrikson, W J; van Blitterswijk, C A; Verdonschot, N; Moroni, L; Rouwkema, J

    2014-09-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, mechano-regulation theories have been applied to help predict tissue development in tissue engineering scaffolds in the past. For this, finite element models (FEMs) were used to predict the distribution of strains within a scaffold. However, the strains reported in these studies are volumetric strains of the material or strains developed in the extracellular matrix occupying the pore space. The initial phase of cell attachment and growth on the biomaterial surface has thus far been neglected. In this study, we present a model that determines the magnitude of biomechanical signals on the biomaterial surface, enabling us to predict cell differentiation stimulus values at this initial stage. Results showed that magnitudes of the 2D strain--termed surface strain--were lower when compared to the 3D volumetric strain or the conventional octahedral shear strain as used in current mechano-regulation theories. Results of both µCT and CAD derived FEMs from the same scaffold were compared. Strain and fluid shear stress distributions, and subsequently the cell differentiation stimulus, were highly dependent on the pore shape. CAD models were not able to capture the distributions seen in the µCT FEM. The calculated mechanical stimuli could be combined with current mechanobiological models resulting in a tool to predict cell differentiation in the initial phase of tissue engineering. Although experimental data is still necessary to properly link mechanical signals to cell behavior in this specific setting, this model is an important step towards optimizing scaffold architecture and/or stimulation regimes.

  5. Rapid Prototyping of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, R.; Green, C.; Phillips, T.; Cipriani, R.; Yarlagadda, S.; Gillespie, J.; Effinger, M.; Cooper, K. C.; Gordon, Gail (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For ceramics to be used as structural components in high temperature applications, their fracture toughness is improved by embedding continuous ceramic fibers. Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials allow increasing the overall operating temperature, raising the temperature safety margins, avoiding the need for cooling, and improving the damping capacity, while reducing the weight at the same time. They also need to be reliable and available in large quantities as well. In this paper, an innovative rapid prototyping technique to fabricate continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. The process is simple, robust and will be widely applicable to a number of high temperature material systems. This technique was originally developed at the University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM) for rapid fabrication of polymer matrix composites by a technique called automated tow placement or ATP. The results of mechanical properties and microstructural characterization are presented, together with examples of complex shapes and parts. It is believed that the process will be able to create complex shaped parts at an order of magnitude lower cost than current CVI and PIP processes.

  6. Rapid prototyping of PDMS devices using SU-8 lithography.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    This protocol describes the fabrication of single and multi-layer SU-8 microstructures for generating microfluidic devices via PDMS (polymethyldisiloxane) casting. SU-8 is a negative, thick-film, epoxy based photoresist that has become widespread in the MEMS industry for producing durable, high aspect ratio microstructures for a variety of applications. It has become especially popular with microfluidics researchers to produce molds for PDMS casting since such molds allow for the rapid replication of prototype microfluidic structures made from PDMS. Although SU-8 processing does allow for rapid and straightforward development of devices it is prone to numerous pitfalls which have gained it a reputation of being somewhat of a "black art." This protocol attempts to give as full an account as possible of all the tricks and tips the author has learned over the years for processing SU-8. It also describes the casting of PDMS and plasma bonding for the generation of complete microfluidic devices ready for use in the lab.

  7. Print your own membrane: direct rapid prototyping of polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Femmer, Tim; Kuehne, Alexander J C; Wessling, Matthias

    2014-08-07

    Polydimethylsiloxane is a translucent and biologically inert silicone material used in sealants, biomedical implants and microscale lab-on-a-chip devices. Furthermore, in membrane technology, polydimethylsiloxane represents a material for separation barriers as it has high permeabilities for various gases. The facile handling of two component formulations with a silicone base material, a catalyst and a small molecular weight crosslinker makes it widely applicable for soft-lithographic replication of two-dimensional device geometries, such as microfluidic chips or micro-contact stamps. Here, we develop a new technique to directly print polydimethylsiloxane in a rapid prototyping device, circumventing the need for masks or sacrificial mold production. We create a three-dimensional polydimethylsiloxane membrane for gas-liquid-contacting based on a Schwarz-P triple-periodic minimal-surface, which is inaccessible with common machining techniques. Direct 3D-printing of polydimethylsiloxane enables rapid production of novel chip geometries for a manifold of lab-on-a-chip applications.

  8. An Example of Economic Value in Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauer, R. L.; Braunscheidel, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    Today's modern machining projects are composed more and more of complicated and intricate structure due to a variety of reasons including the ability to computer model complex surfaces and forms. The cost of producing these forms can be extremely high not only in dollars but in time to complete. Changes are even more difficult to incorporate. The subject blade shown is an excellent example. Its complex form would have required hundreds of hours in fabrication for just a simple prototype. The procurement would have taken in the neighborhood of six weeks to complete. The actual fabrication would have been an equal amount of time to complete. An alternative to this process would have been a wood model. Although cheaper than a metal fabrication, it would be extremely time intensive and require in the neighborhood of a month to produce in-house.

  9. Preliminary work toward the development of a dimensional tolerance standard for rapid prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a new technology for building parts quickly from CAD models. It works by slicing a CAD model into layers, then by building a model of the part one layer at a time. Since most parts can be sliced, most parts can be modeled using rapid prototyping. The layers themselves are created in a number of different ways - by using a laser to cure a layer of an epoxy or a resin, by depositing a layer of plastic or wax upon a surface, by using a laser to sinter a layer of powder, or by using a laser to cut a layer of paper. Rapid prototyping (RP) is new, and a standard part for use in comparing dimensional tolerances has not yet been chosen and accepted by ASTM (the American Society for Testing Materials). Such a part is needed when RP is used to build parts for investment casting or for direct use. The objective of this project was to start the development of a standard part by using statistical techniques to choose the features of the part which show curl - the vertical deviation of a part from its intended horizontal plane.

  10. Airplane numerical simulation for the rapid prototyping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roysdon, Paul F.

    Airplane Numerical Simulation for the Rapid Prototyping Process is a comprehensive research investigation into the most up-to-date methods for airplane development and design. Uses of modern engineering software tools, like MatLab and Excel, are presented with examples of batch and optimization algorithms which combine the computing power of MatLab with robust aerodynamic tools like XFOIL and AVL. The resulting data is demonstrated in the development and use of a full non-linear six-degrees-of-freedom simulator. The applications for this numerical tool-box vary from un-manned aerial vehicles to first-order analysis of manned aircraft. A Blended-Wing-Body airplane is used for the analysis to demonstrate the flexibility of the code from classic wing-and-tail configurations to less common configurations like the blended-wing-body. This configuration has been shown to have superior aerodynamic performance -- in contrast to their classic wing-and-tube fuselage counterparts -- and have reduced sensitivity to aerodynamic flutter as well as potential for increased engine noise abatement. Of course without a classic tail elevator to damp the nose up pitching moment, and the vertical tail rudder to damp the yaw and possible rolling aerodynamics, the challenges in lateral roll and yaw stability, as well as pitching moment are not insignificant. This thesis work applies the tools necessary to perform the airplane development and optimization on a rapid basis, demonstrating the strength of this tool through examples and comparison of the results to similar airplane performance characteristics published in literature.

  11. Rapid prototyping of biomimetic vascular phantoms for hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Wang, Jianting; Melchiorri, Anthony J.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Mathews, Scott A.; Coburn, James C.; Sorg, Brian S.; Chen, Yu; Joshua Pfefer, T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The emerging technique of rapid prototyping with three-dimensional (3-D) printers provides a simple yet revolutionary method for fabricating objects with arbitrary geometry. The use of 3-D printing for generating morphologically biomimetic tissue phantoms based on medical images represents a potentially major advance over existing phantom approaches. Toward the goal of image-defined phantoms, we converted a segmented fundus image of the human retina into a matrix format and edited it to achieve a geometry suitable for printing. Phantoms with vessel-simulating channels were then printed using a photoreactive resin providing biologically relevant turbidity, as determined by spectrophotometry. The morphology of printed vessels was validated by x-ray microcomputed tomography. Channels were filled with hemoglobin (Hb) solutions undergoing desaturation, and phantoms were imaged with a near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. Additionally, a phantom was printed incorporating two disjoint vascular networks at different depths, each filled with Hb solutions at different saturation levels. Light propagation effects noted during these measurements—including the influence of vessel density and depth on Hb concentration and saturation estimates, and the effect of wavelength on vessel visualization depth—were evaluated. Overall, our findings indicated that 3-D-printed biomimetic phantoms hold significant potential as realistic and practical tools for elucidating light–tissue interactions and characterizing biophotonic system performance. PMID:26662064

  12. Rapid prototyping of biomimetic vascular phantoms for hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Wang, Jianting; Melchiorri, Anthony J.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Mathews, Scott A.; Coburn, James C.; Sorg, Brian S.; Chen, Yu; Joshua Pfefer, T.

    2015-12-01

    The emerging technique of rapid prototyping with three-dimensional (3-D) printers provides a simple yet revolutionary method for fabricating objects with arbitrary geometry. The use of 3-D printing for generating morphologically biomimetic tissue phantoms based on medical images represents a potentially major advance over existing phantom approaches. Toward the goal of image-defined phantoms, we converted a segmented fundus image of the human retina into a matrix format and edited it to achieve a geometry suitable for printing. Phantoms with vessel-simulating channels were then printed using a photoreactive resin providing biologically relevant turbidity, as determined by spectrophotometry. The morphology of printed vessels was validated by x-ray microcomputed tomography. Channels were filled with hemoglobin (Hb) solutions undergoing desaturation, and phantoms were imaged with a near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. Additionally, a phantom was printed incorporating two disjoint vascular networks at different depths, each filled with Hb solutions at different saturation levels. Light propagation effects noted during these measurements-including the influence of vessel density and depth on Hb concentration and saturation estimates, and the effect of wavelength on vessel visualization depth-were evaluated. Overall, our findings indicated that 3-D-printed biomimetic phantoms hold significant potential as realistic and practical tools for elucidating light-tissue interactions and characterizing biophotonic system performance.

  13. Integrated flexible manufacturing program for manufacturing automation and rapid prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, S. L.; Brown, C. W.; King, M. S.; Simons, W. R.; Zimmerman, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Inc., as part of the Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program (IFMP), is developing an integrated manufacturing environment. Several systems are being developed to produce standards and automation tools for specific activities within the manufacturing environment. The Advanced Manufacturing Development System (AMDS) is concentrating on information standards (STEP) and product data transfer; the Expert Cut Planner system (XCUT) is concentrating on machining operation process planning standards and automation capabilities; the Advanced Numerical Control system (ANC) is concentrating on NC data preparation standards and NC data generation tools; the Inspection Planning and Programming Expert system (IPPEX) is concentrating on inspection process planning, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection standards and CMM part program generation tools; and the Intelligent Scheduling and Planning System (ISAPS) is concentrating on planning and scheduling tools for a flexible manufacturing system environment. All of these projects are working together to address information exchange, standardization, and information sharing to support rapid prototyping in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment.

  14. Rapid prototyping for radio-frequency geolocation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Briles, S. C.; Arrowood, J. L.; Braun, T. R.; Turcotte, D.; Fiset, E.

    2004-01-01

    Previous space-to-ground, single-platform geolocation experiments exploiting time-difference-of arrival (TDOA) via interferometry were successful at separating and quantitatively characterizing interfering radio frequency (RF) signals from expected RF transmissions. Much of the success of these experiments rested on the use of embedded processors to perform the required signal processing. The experiments handled data in a 'snapshot' fashion: digitized data was collected, the data was processed via a digital signal processing (DSP) microprocessor to yield differential phase measurements, and these measurements were transmitted to the Earth for geolocation processing. With the utilization of FPGAs (field programmable gate arrays) for the intensive number-crunching algorithms, the processing of streaming real-time data is feasible for bandwidths on the order of 20 MHz. By partitioning the signal processing algorithm so there is a significant reduction in the data rate as data flows through the FPGA, a DSP microprocessor can now be employed to perform further decision-oriented processing on the FPGA output. This hybrid architecture, employing both FPGAs and DSPs, typically requires an expensive and lengthy development cycle. However, the use of graphical development environments with auto-code generation and hardware-in-the-loop testing can result in rapid prototyping for geolocation experiments, which enables adaptation to emerging signals of interest in a cost and time effective manner.

  15. Using Rapid Prototyping to Design a Smoking Cessation Website with End-Users.

    PubMed

    Ronquillo, Charlene; Currie, Leanne; Rowsell, Derek; Phillips, J Craig

    2016-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is an iterative approach to design involving cycles of prototype building, review by end-users and refinement, and can be a valuable tool in user-centered website design. Informed by various user-centered approaches, we used rapid prototyping as a tool to collaborate with users in building a peer-support focused smoking-cessation website for gay men living with HIV. Rapid prototyping was effective in eliciting feedback on the needs of this group of potential end-users from a smoking cessation website.

  16. Permeability of rapid prototyped artificial bone scaffold structures.

    PubMed

    Lipowiecki, Marcin; Ryvolová, Markéta; Töttösi, Ákos; Kolmer, Niels; Naher, Sumsun; Brennan, Stephen A; Vázquez, Mercedes; Brabazon, Dermot

    2014-11-01

    In this work, various three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds were produced via micro-stereolithography (µ-SLA) and 3D printing (3DP) techniques. This work demonstrates the advantages and disadvantages of these two different rapid prototyping methods for production of bone scaffolds. Compared to 3DP, SLA provides for smaller feature production with better dimensional resolution and accuracy. The permeability of these structures was evaluated experimentally and via numerical simulation utilizing a newly derived Kozeny-Carman based equation for intrinsic permeability. Both experimental and simulation studies took account of porosity percentage, pore size, and pore geometry. Porosity content was varied from 30% to 70%, pore size from 0.34 mm to 3 mm, and pore geometries of cubic and hexagonal closed packed were examined. Two different fluid viscosity levels of 1 mPa · s and 3.6 mPa · s were used. The experimental and theoretical results indicated that permeability increased when larger pore size, increased fluid viscosity, and higher percentage porosity were utilized, with highest to lowest degree of significance following the same order. Higher viscosity was found to result in permeabilities 2.2 to 3.3 times higher than for water. This latter result was found to be independent of pore morphology type. As well as demonstrating method for determining design parameters most beneficial for scaffold structure design, the results also illustrate how the variations in patient's blood viscosity can be extremely important in allowing for permeability through the bone and scaffold structures.

  17. An application generator for rapid prototyping of Ada real-time control software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jim; Biglari, Haik; Lehman, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The need to increase engineering productivity and decrease software life cycle costs in real-time system development establishes a motivation for a method of rapid prototyping. The design by iterative rapid prototyping technique is described. A tool which facilitates such a design methodology for the generation of embedded control software is described.

  18. Concept of using a benchmark part to evaluate rapid prototype processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual benchmark part for guiding manufacturers and users of rapid prototyping technologies is proposed. This is based on a need to have some tool to evaluate the development of this technology and to assist the user in judiciously selecting a process. The benchmark part is designed to have unique product details and features. The extent to which a rapid prototyping process can reproduce these features becomes a measure of the capability of the process. Since rapid prototyping is a dynamic technology, this benchmark part should be used to continuously monitor process capability of existing and developing technologies. Development of this benchmark part is, therefore, based on an understanding of the properties required from prototypes and characteristics of various rapid prototyping processes and measuring equipment that is used for evaluation.

  19. JTEC/WTEC panel report on rapid prototyping in Europe and Japan. Volume 1: Analytical chapters

    SciTech Connect

    Prinz, F.B.; Atwood, C.L.; Aubin, R.F.

    1997-03-01

    Mastering the art of rapidly prototyping parts and products is vital for any corporation in the race to launch new products. During the last decade, new methods and tools have emerged to facilitate and accelerate product creation. Physical prototyping, in particular, has gained popularity with the help of a concept called layered manufacturing or solid free form fabrication (SFF). The US pioneered development and commercialization of layered manufacturing systems; now, significant efforts in this area are underway in Europe and Japan, spurred by the obvious advantages of layered manufacturing`s ability to rapidly create physical models regardless of shape complexity. A major research focus is direct manufacture of objects from materials such as metals, ceramics, and plastics that have properties similar to their traditionally manufactured counterparts. In addition, layered manufacturing appears to have the potential to build objects with shape complexity and material variety that previously have been impossible. In 1995 the US government, encouraged by the Rapid Prototyping Association of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), initiated a study administered by the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center/World Technology Evaluation Center (JTEC/WTEC) to assess the capabilities of selected European countries and Japan in developing and implementing layered manufacturing technologies. The approach to this study was three-pronged: first, identify and study key foreign RP technologies and discover important new applications under development; second, evaluate and compare foreign competencies to those in the US; and third, critically examine related standards. Following are the major conclusions of JTEC/WTEC`s panel of experts concerning the current status of rapid prototyping in Europe and Japan compared to the US: (1) the US is ahead in technical innovations, materials, and manufacturing applications of layered manufacturing technology; (2) in the area of machine

  20. Rapid prototyping of electrochemical lateral flow devices: stencilled electrodes.

    PubMed

    Aller Pellitero, Miguel; Kitsara, Maria; Eibensteiner, Friedrich; del Campo, F Javier

    2016-04-21

    A straightforward and very cost effective method is proposed to prototype electrodes using pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) and a simple cutting technique. Two cutting methods, namely blade cutting and CO2 laser ablation, are compared and their respective merits are discussed. The proposed method consists of turning the protective liner on the adhesive into a stencil to apply screen-printing pastes. After the electrodes have been printed, the liner is removed and the PSA can be used as a backing material for standard lateral flow membranes. We present the fabrication of band electrodes down to 250 μm wide, and their characterization using microscopy techniques and cyclic voltammetry. The prototyping approach presented here facilitates the development of new electrochemical devices even if very limited fabrication resources are available. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a simple lateral-flow device capable of determining glucose in blood. The prototyping approach presented here is highly suitable for the development of novel electroanalytical tools.

  1. A pilot biomedical engineering course in rapid prototyping for mobile health.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Todd H; Venugopalan, Janani; Hubbard, Elena N; Wang, May D

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping of medically assistive mobile devices promises to fuel innovation and provides opportunity for hands-on engineering training in biomedical engineering curricula. This paper presents the design and outcomes of a course offered during a 16-week semester in Fall 2011 with 11 students enrolled. The syllabus covered a mobile health design process from end-to-end, including storyboarding, non-functional prototypes, integrated circuit programming, 3D modeling, 3D printing, cloud computing database programming, and developing patient engagement through animated videos describing the benefits of a new device. Most technologies presented in this class are open source and thus provide unlimited "hackability". They are also cost-effective and easily transferrable to other departments.

  2. Applications of stereolithography for rapid prototyping of biologically compatible chip-based physiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuad, Nurul Mohd; Zhu, Feng; Kaslin, Jan; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Despite the growing demand and numerous applications for the biomedical community, the developments in millifluidic devices for small model organisms are limited compared to other fields of biomicrofluidics. The main reasons for this stagnanation are difficulties in prototyping of millimeter scale and high aspect ratio devices needed for large metazoan organisms. Standard photolithography is in this context a time consuming procedure not easily adapted for fabrication of molds with vertical dimensions above 1 mm. Moreover, photolithography is still largely unattainable to a gross majority of biomedical laboratories willing to pursue custom development of their own chip-based platforms due to costs and need for dedicated clean room facilities. In this work, we present application of high-definition additive manufacturing systems for fabrication of 3D printed moulds used in soft lithography. Combination of 3D printing with PDMS replica molding appears to be an alternative for millifluidic systems that yields rapid and cost effective prototyping pipeline. We investigated the important aspects on both 3D printed moulds and PDMS replicas such as geometric accuracies and surface topology. Our results demonstrated that SLA technologies could be applied for rapid and accurate fabrication of millifluidic devices for trapping of millimetre-sized specimens such as living zebrafish larvae. We applied the new manufacturing method in a proof-of-concept prototype device capable of trapping and immobilizing living zebrafish larvae for recording heart rate variation in cardio-toxicity experiments.

  3. Characterization of 3D rapid prototyped polymeric material by ultrasonic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livings, Richard; Dayal, Vinay; Barnard, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Rapid prototyped parts are quickly becoming a viable alternative for manufacturers. Although the polymeric material is initially isotropic, the printing process introduces a level of anisotropy. This work characterizes the elastic and acoustic properties of the material, after printing, using ultrasonic methods. The elastic constants and the level of anisotropy are determined by measuring the ultrasonic wave velocities. It is shown that the material possesses less symmetry than the orthotropic material model. The dispersion and attenuation characteristics are also determined to provide a basis for ultrasonic flaw detection.

  4. CAD - CAM Procedures Used for Rapid Prototyping of Prosthetic Hip Joint Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Luminita I.; Popa, Vasile N.

    2016-11-01

    The article addresses the issue of rapid prototyping CAD/ CAM procedures, based on CT imaging, for custom implants dedicated to hip arthroplasty and the correlation study to be achieved between femoral canal shape, valued by modern imaging methods, and the prosthesis form. A set of CT images is transformed into a digital model using one of several software packages available for conversion. The purpose of research is to obtain prosthesis with compatible characteristics as close to the physiological, with an optimal adjustment of the prosthesis to the bone in which it is implanted, allowing the recovery of the patient physically, mentally and socially.

  5. Reconceiving ISD: Three Perspectives on Rapid Prototyping as a Paradigm Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbun, Gail A.; And Others

    Confronting recent design challenges, instructional designers have latched onto adaptive procedural techniques from outside the Instructional Systems Design (ISD) field. This discussion of rapid prototyping (RP) examines the perspectives of: (1) the prototype as the designer"s cognitive tool; (2) the designer as co-inquirer; and (3) the…

  6. Product Development and its Comparative Analysis by SLA, SLS and FDM Rapid Prototyping Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhari, C. M.; Patil, V. D.

    2016-09-01

    To grab market and meeting deadlines has increased the scope of new methods in product design and development. Industries continuously strive to optimize the development cycles with high quality and cost efficient products to maintain market competitiveness. Thus the need of Rapid Prototyping Techniques (RPT) has started to play pivotal role in rapid product development cycle for complex product. Dimensional accuracy and surface finish are the corner stone of Rapid Prototyping (RP) especially if they are used for mould development. The paper deals with the development of part made with the help of Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Stereo-lithography (SLA) and Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) processes to benchmark and investigate on various parameters like material shrinkage rate, dimensional accuracy, time, cost and surface finish. This helps to conclude which processes can be proved to be effective and efficient in mould development. In this research work the emphasis was also given to the design stage of a product development to obtain an optimum design solution for an existing product.

  7. Weapon identification using antemortem computed tomography with virtual 3D and rapid prototype modeling--a report in a case of blunt force head injury.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Krzysztof; Rzepecka-Woźniak, Ewa; Moskała, Artur; Pohl, Jerzy; Latacz, Katarzyna; Dybała, Bogdan

    2012-10-10

    A frequent request of a prosecutor referring to forensic autopsy is to determine the mechanism of an injury and to identify the weapons used to cause those injuries. This task could be problematic in many ways, including changes in the primary injury caused by medical intervention and the process of healing. To accomplish this task, the forensic pathologist has to gather all possible information during the post-mortem examination. The more data is collected, the easier it is to obtain an accurate answer to the prosecutor's question. The authors present a case of head injuries that the victim sustained under unknown circumstances. The patient underwent neurosurgical treatment which resulted in alteration of the bone fracture pattern. The only way to evaluate this injury was to analyze antemortem clinical data, especially CT scans, with virtual 3D reconstruction of the fractured skull. A physical model of a part of the broken skull was created with the use of 3D printing. These advanced techniques, applied for the first time in Poland for forensic purposes, allowed investigators to extract enough data to develop a hypothesis about the mechanism of injury and the weapon most likely used.

  8. Rapid Prototyping of Simulated VIIRS Data in the SERVIR Fire Rapid Response System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easson, G.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Yarbrough, L. D.; Irwin, D.; Cherrington, E.

    2006-12-01

    A rapid prototyping capability experiment has been established involving the application of the SERVIR (Sistema Regional de Visualización y Monitoreo) decision support tool, which is NASA's and its partner agencies' tool to monitor groundcover and climatic conditions in Mesoamerica. As an information system, the SERVIR tool processes data products from multiple sources and the outcome is visualized through interactive digital maps, standard view map outputs or 3D real-time visualization. The focus of this research is one of the SERVIR Fire Rapid Response products known as the MODIS SERVIR Fire Extent Product, which was developed to meet the requirements of the Guatemalan Park Service. The credibility of SERVIR's monitoring tools currently depends upon NASA's MODIS data, which is nearing the end of its availability. This will make it necessary to transition to the planned replacement sensor, VIIRS. The impact of this transition on the performance of SERVIR's fire detection tools is the current focus of our investigation. A quantitative assessment of fire conditions in Guatemala is made using MODIS data and is compared to the anticipated performance using simulated data that would have been produced by a VIIRS-like sensor. Using a low-density geospatial database, the comparison is made for a number of dates from the 2003 Guatemalan fire season, where ground validation data is available. A comparative assessment is also made using the kappa statistic applied to the land classifications resulting from both the MODIS- and VIIRS- based fire detection algorithms.

  9. [Application status of rapid prototyping technology in artificial bone based on reverse engineering].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ao; Zheng, Min; Fan, Ding

    2015-02-01

    Artificial bone replacement has made an important contribution to safeguard human health and improve the quality of life. The application requirements of rapid prototyping technology based on reverse engineering in individualized artificial bone with individual differences are particularly urgent. This paper reviewed the current research and applications of rapid prototyping and reverse engineering in artificial bone. The research developments and the outlook of bone kinematics and dynamics simulation are also introduced.

  10. Object-oriented framework for rapid game prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passos, Alexandre; Simpson, Richard P.

    2002-05-01

    Small game development groups and companies are faced with two important challenges in today's economy: creating a good game prototype as showcase for game publishers and meeting the time to market deadlines. These two challenges are sometimes the factors that will separate a successful group from one that is not. The learning curve in design and implementation is a significant component of these two challenges. If the learning curve is too steep then deadlines may not be met and the overall quality of the software is lowered. This study presents a new game- programming library called PGL that addresses the timing and learning factors that exist in game development.

  11. Rapid prototyping of compliant human aortic roots for assessment of valved stents.

    PubMed

    Kalejs, Martins; von Segesser, Ludwig Karl

    2009-02-01

    Adequate in-vitro training in valved stents deployment as well as testing of the latter devices requires compliant real-size models of the human aortic root. The casting methods utilized up to now are multi-step, time consuming and complicated. We pursued a goal of building a flexible 3D model in a single-step procedure. We created a precise 3D CAD model of a human aortic root using previously published anatomical and geometrical data and printed it using a novel rapid prototyping system developed by the Fab@Home project. As a material for 3D fabrication we used common house-hold silicone and afterwards dip-coated several models with dispersion silicone one or two times. To assess the production precision we compared the size of the final product with the CAD model. Compliance of the models was measured and compared with native porcine aortic root. Total fabrication time was 3 h and 20 min. Dip-coating one or two times with dispersion silicone if applied took one or two extra days, respectively. The error in dimensions of non-coated aortic root model compared to the CAD design was <3.0% along X, Y-axes and 4.1% along Z-axis. Compliance of a non-coated model as judged by the changes of radius values in the radial direction by 16.39% is significantly different (P<0.001) from native aortic tissue--23.54% at the pressure of 80-100 mmHg. Rapid prototyping of compliant, life-size anatomical models with the Fab@Home 3D printer is feasible--it is very quick compared to previous casting methods.

  12. The development of an autonomous rendezvous and docking simulation using rapid integration and prototyping technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, John H.; Saugen, John D.; Wurst, Michael J.; Adler, James

    1991-01-01

    A generic planar 3 degree of freedom simulation was developed that supports hardware in the loop simulations, guidance and control analysis, and can directly generate flight software. This simulation was developed in a small amount of time utilizing rapid prototyping techniques. The approach taken to develop this simulation tool, the benefits seen using this approach to development, and on-going efforts to improve and extend this capability are described. The simulation is composed of 3 major elements: (1) Docker dynamics model, (2) Dockee dynamics model, and (3) Docker Control System. The docker and dockee models are based on simple planar orbital dynamics equations using a spherical earth gravity model. The docker control system is based on a phase plane approach to error correction.

  13. A novel 3D template for mandible and maxilla reconstruction: Rapid prototyping using stereolithography

    PubMed Central

    Kumta, Samir; Kumta, Monica; Jain, Leena; Purohit, Shrirang; Ummul, Rani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Replication of the exact three-dimensional (3D) structure of the maxilla and mandible is now a priority whilst attempting reconstruction of these bones to attain a complete functional and aesthetic rehabilitation. We hereby present the process of rapid prototyping using stereolithography to produce templates for modelling bone grafts and implants for maxilla/mandible reconstructions, its applications in tumour/trauma, and outcomes for primary and secondary reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Stereolithographic template-assisted reconstruction was used on 11 patients for the reconstruction of the mandible/maxilla primarily following tumour excision and secondarily for the realignment of post-traumatic malunited fractures or deformity corrections. Data obtained from the computed tomography (CT) scans with 1-mm resolution were converted into a computer-aided design (CAD) using the CT Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data. Once a CAD model was constructed, it was converted into a stereolithographic format and then processed by the rapid prototyping technology to produce the physical anatomical model using a resin. This resin model replicates the native mandible, which can be thus used off table as a guide for modelling the bone grafts. Discussion: This conversion of two-dimensional (2D) data from CT scan into 3D models is a very precise guide to shaping the bone grafts. Further, this CAD can reconstruct the defective half of the mandible using the mirror image principle, and the normal anatomical model can be created to aid secondary reconstructions. Conclusion: This novel approach allows a precise translation of the treatment plan directly to the surgical field. It is also an important teaching tool for implant moulding and fixation, and helps in patient counselling. PMID:26933279

  14. Rapid Prototyping Technologies and their Applications in Prosthodontics, a Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Torabi, Kianoosh; Farjood, Ehsan; Hamedani, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The early computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems were relied exclusively on subtractive methods. In recent years, additive methods by employing rapid prototyping (RP) have progressed rapidly in various fields of dentistry as they have the potential to overcome known drawbacks of subtractive techniques such as fit problems. RP techniques have been exploited to build complex 3D models in medicine since the 1990s. RP has recently proposed successful applications in various dental fields, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns for the dental prosthesis, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, and maxillofacial prosthesis and finally, complete dentures. This paper aimed to offer a comprehensive literature review of various RP methods, particularly in dentistry, that are expected to bring many improvements to the field. A search was made through MEDLINE database and Google scholar search engine. The keywords; ‘rapid prototyping’ and ‘dentistry’ were searched in title/abstract of publications; limited to 2003 to 2013, concerning past decade. The inclusion criterion was the technical researches that predominately included laboratory procedures. The exclusion criterion was meticulous clinical and excessive technical procedures. A total of 106 articles were retrieved, recited by authors and only 50 met the specified inclusion criteria for this review. Selected articles had used rapid prototyping techniques in various fields in dentistry through different techniques. This review depicted the different laboratory procedures employed in this method and confirmed that RP technique have been substantially feasible in dentistry. With advancement in various RP systems, it is possible to benefit from this technique in different dental practices, particularly in implementing dental prostheses for different applications. PMID:25759851

  15. Rapid prototyping of multiphase microfluidics with robotic cutters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zidong; Zhao, Zhengtuo; Lo, Joe Fu-jiou

    2014-03-01

    Microfluidic devices offer novel techniques to address biological and biomedical issues. Standard microfluidic fabrication uses photolithography to pattern channels on silicon wafers with high resolution. Even the relatively straightforward SU8 and soft lithography in microfluidics require investing and training in photolithography, which is also time consuming due to complicated thick resist procedures, including sensitive substrate pretreatment, coating, soft bake, expose, post-exposure bake, and developing steps. However, for applications where low resolution (>200 μm) and high turn-around (> 4 designs/day) prototyping are met with little or no lithography infrastructure, robotic cutters [1] offer flexible options for making glass and PDMS microfluidics. We describe the use of robotics cutters for designing microfluidic geometries, and compliment it with safe glass etching, with depths down to 60 μm. Soft lithography patterning of 200 μm thick PDMS membrane was also explored. Without high equipment investment and lengthy student training, both glass and PDMS microfluidics can be achieved in small facilities using this technique.

  16. Reverse engineering--rapid prototyping of the skull in forensic trauma analysis.

    PubMed

    Kettner, Mattias; Schmidt, Peter; Potente, Stefan; Ramsthaler, Frank; Schrodt, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) comprises a variety of automated manufacturing techniques such as selective laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography, and three-dimensional printing (3DP), which use virtual 3D data sets to fabricate solid forms in a layer-by-layer technique. Despite a growing demand for (virtual) reconstruction models in daily forensic casework, maceration of the skull is frequently assigned to ensure haptic evidence presentation in the courtroom. Owing to the progress in the field of forensic radiology, 3D data sets of relevant cases are usually available to the forensic expert. Here, we present a first application of RP in forensic medicine using computed tomography scans for the fabrication of an SLS skull model in a case of fatal hammer impacts to the head. The report is intended to show that this method fully respects the dignity of the deceased and is consistent with medical ethics but nevertheless provides an excellent 3D impression of anatomical structures and injuries.

  17. Revision of complex acetabular defects using cages with the aid of rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiwu; Wang, Liao; Mao, Yuanqing; Wang, You; Dai, Kerong; Zhu, Zhenan

    2013-12-01

    This study details a method using rapid prototyping (RP) technique to assist in acetabular revision with complex bone defects. Hemi-pelvic RP models were built among 25 patients with complex acetabular bone defects. Each patient was scheduled to undergo revision using either commercially available or customized cages based on individualized RP models. Average follow-up was 4.4 years (range, 1 to 9 years). The average Harris hip score was 36.1 (range, 20 to 58) preoperatively and reached an average of 82.6 (range, 60-96) at the last follow-up. No mechanical failure or loosening was observed. One patient experienced hip dislocation 4 days postoperatively. The resultant findings of this study merit consideration of RP as a helpful clinical complement for dealing with some complex bone defect of acetabulum.

  18. Test Structures Applied to the Rapid Prototyping of Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M.; Chang, L-J.; Martin, D.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, test structures were used to aid in the rapid development of a gas sensor and pressure sensor. These sensors were fabricated using co-fired ceramic technology and a multiproject approach. This talk will describe results obtained from a ceramic substrate which contained 36 chips with six variants including the sensors, process control monitors, and an interconnect chip. As far as the authors know, this is the first implementation of multi-projects in co-fired ceramic substrate. The gas sensor is being developed for the Space Shuttle and the pressure gage is being developed as a Martian barometer.

  19. Photogrammetry for rapid prototyping: development of noncontact 3D reconstruction technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, Vladimir A.

    2002-04-01

    An important stage of rapid prototyping technology is generating computer 3D model of an object to be reproduced. Wide variety of techniques for 3D model generation exists beginning with manual 3D models generation and finishing with full-automated reverse engineering system. The progress in CCD sensors and computers provides the background for integration of photogrammetry as an accurate 3D data source with CAD/CAM. The paper presents the results of developing photogrammetric methods for non-contact spatial coordinates measurements and generation of computer 3D model of real objects. The technology is based on object convergent images processing for calculating its 3D coordinates and surface reconstruction. The hardware used for spatial coordinates measurements is based on PC as central processing unit and video camera as image acquisition device. The original software for Windows 9X realizes the complete technology of 3D reconstruction for rapid input of geometry data in CAD/CAM systems. Technical characteristics of developed systems are given along with the results of applying for various tasks of 3D reconstruction. The paper describes the techniques used for non-contact measurements and the methods providing metric characteristics of reconstructed 3D model. Also the results of system application for 3D reconstruction of complex industrial objects are presented.

  20. Rapid Laser Prototyping Of Polymer-Based Nanoplasmonic Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, A. L.; Kiyan, R.; Reinhardt, C.; Seidel, A.; Pas-Singer, S.; Chichkov, B. N.

    Renewed and growing interest in the field of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) comes from a rapid advance of nanostructuring technologies. The application of two-photon polymerization technique for the fabrication of dielectric and metallic SPP-structures, which can be used for localization, guiding, and manipulation of SPPs waves on a subwavelength scale, is studied. This technology is based on nonlinear absorption of near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. Excitation, propagation, and interaction of SPP waves with nanostructures are controlled and studied by leakage radiation imaging. It is demonstrated that created nanostructures on metal film are very efficient for the excitation and focusing of SPPs. Examples of passive and active SPP components are presented and discussed.

  1. CAD/CAM bilateral ear prostheses construction for Treacher Collins syndrome patients using laser scanning and rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Leonardo; De Crescenzio, Francesca; Fantini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    Ear defects in patients affected by Treacher Collins syndrome necessitate the replacement of the existing anatomic residuals of the ears with custom-made prostheses. This paper describes a multidisciplinary protocol involving both medicine and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing for manufacturing ear prostheses. Using innovative prototyping technologies together with conventional silicone processing procedures, a step-by-step procedure is presented. The complete workflow includes laser scanning of the defective regions of a patient's face, the use of 3D anatomic models from an ear digital library and rapid prototyping of both substructures for bar anchoring and moulds for silicone processing.

  2. Rapid Prototyping of Application Specific Signal Processors (RASSP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    abstraction in order to assess the cost, risk, and benefit of design upgrades and in order to 1. DL, AHDL , VHDL Programs design for model year. Ensuring...presence within the standards bodies to ensure success. The definition of AHDL is area. slower in proceeding but will be defined within I the RASSP...manufacturing data: Enterprise Integration. The Raytheon RASSP Design System concept relies on the existence of models at MHDL. AHDL . VHDL Programs

  3. Fabrication of a Cranial Prosthesis Combined with an Ocular Prosthesis Using Rapid Prototyping: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Gayatri; Dhirawani, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technique of manufacturing parts by the additive layer manufacturing technology; where, a three-dimensional (3D) model created in a computer aided design (CAD) system is sectioned into 2D profiles, which are further constructed by RP layer by layer. Its use is not limited to industrial or engineering fields and has extended to the medical field for the manufacturing of custom implants and prostheses, the study of anatomy and surgical planning. Nowadays, dentists are more frequently encountered with the individuals affected with craniofacial defects due to trauma. In such cases, the craniomaxillofacial rehabilitation is a real challenge to bring the patients back to society and promote their well-being. The conventional impression technique for facial prosthesis fabrication has the disadvantage of deforming the soft tissue and causing discomfort for the patient. Herein, we describe the fabrication of a cranial prosthesis combined with an ocular prosthesis with RP and stereolithography. PMID:27536331

  4. Motion Planning for a Direct Metal Deposition Rapid Prototyping System

    SciTech Connect

    AMES,ARLO L.; HENSINGER,DAVID M.; KUHLMANN,JOEL L.

    1999-10-18

    A motion planning strategy was developed and implemented to generate motion control instructions from solid model data for controlling a robotically driven solid free-form fabrication process. The planning strategy was tested using a PUMA type robot arm integrated into a LENS{trademark} (Laser Engineered Net Shape) system. Previous systems relied on a series of x, y, and z stages, to provide a minimal coordinated motion control capability. This limited the complexity of geometries that could be constructed. With the coordinated motion provided by a robotic arm, the system can produce three dimensional parts by ''writing'' material onto any face of existing material. The motion planning strategy relied on solid model geometry evaluation and exploited robotic positioning flexibility to allow the construction of geometrically complex parts. The integration of the robotic manipulator into the LENS{trademark} system was tested by producing metal parts directly from CAD models.

  5. A rapid prototyping/artificial intelligence approach to space station-era information management and access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.; Corey, Stephen M.; Snow, John B.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of rapid prototyping and Artificial Intelligence techniques to problems associated with Space Station-era information management systems are described. In particular, the work is centered on issues related to: (1) intelligent man-machine interfaces applied to scientific data user support, and (2) the requirement that intelligent information management systems (IIMS) be able to efficiently process metadata updates concerning types of data handled. The advanced IIMS represents functional capabilities driven almost entirely by the needs of potential users. Space Station-era scientific data projected to be generated is likely to be significantly greater than data currently processed and analyzed. Information about scientific data must be presented clearly, concisely, and with support features to allow users at all levels of expertise efficient and cost-effective data access. Additionally, mechanisms for allowing more efficient IIMS metadata update processes must be addressed. The work reported covers the following IIMS design aspects: IIMS data and metadata modeling, including the automatic updating of IIMS-contained metadata, IIMS user-system interface considerations, including significant problems associated with remote access, user profiles, and on-line tutorial capabilities, and development of an IIMS query and browse facility, including the capability to deal with spatial information. A working prototype has been developed and is being enhanced.

  6. Development of Experimental Setup of Metal Rapid Prototyping Machine using Selective Laser Sintering Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, S. N.; Mulay, A. V.; Ahuja, B. B.

    2016-08-01

    Unlike in the traditional manufacturing processes, additive manufacturing as rapid prototyping, allows designers to produce parts that were previously considered too complex to make economically. The shift is taking place from plastic prototype to fully functional metallic parts by direct deposition of metallic powders as produced parts can be directly used for desired purpose. This work is directed towards the development of experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping machine using selective laser sintering and studies the various parameters, which plays important role in the metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique. The machine structure in mainly divided into three main categories namely, (1) Z-movement of bed and table, (2) X-Y movement arrangement for LASER movements and (3) feeder mechanism. Z-movement of bed is controlled by using lead screw, bevel gear pair and stepper motor, which will maintain the accuracy of layer thickness. X-Y movements are controlled using timing belt and stepper motors for precise movements of LASER source. Feeder mechanism is then developed to control uniformity of layer thickness metal powder. Simultaneously, the study is carried out for selection of material. Various types of metal powders can be used for metal RP as Single metal powder, mixture of two metals powder, and combination of metal and polymer powder. Conclusion leads to use of mixture of two metals powder to minimize the problems such as, balling effect and porosity. Developed System can be validated by conducting various experiments on manufactured part to check mechanical and metallurgical properties. After studying the results of these experiments, various process parameters as LASER properties (as power, speed etc.), and material properties (as grain size and structure etc.) will be optimized. This work is mainly focused on the design and development of cost effective experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique which will gives the feel of

  7. Technical note: rapid prototyping of 3D grid arrays for image guided therapy quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Kittle, David; Holshouser, Barbara; Slater, James M; Guenther, Bob D; Pitsianis, Nikos P; Pearlstein, Robert D

    2008-12-01

    Three dimensional grid phantoms offer a number of advantages for measuring imaging related spatial inaccuracies for image guided surgery and radiotherapy. The authors examined the use of rapid prototyping technology for directly fabricating 3D grid phantoms from CAD drawings. We tested three different fabrication process materials, photopolymer jet with acrylic resin (PJ/AR), selective laser sintering with polyamide (SLS/P), and fused deposition modeling with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (FDM/ABS). The test objects consisted of rectangular arrays of control points formed by the intersections of posts and struts (2 mm rectangular cross section) and spaced 8 mm apart in the x, y, and z directions. The PJ/AR phantom expanded after immersion in water which resulted in permanent warping of the structure. The surface of the FDM/ABS grid exhibited a regular pattern of depressions and ridges from the extrusion process. SLS/P showed the best combination of build accuracy, surface finish, and stability. Based on these findings, a grid phantom for assessing machine-dependent and frame-induced MR spatial distortions was fabricated to be used for quality assurance in stereotactic neurosurgical and radiotherapy procedures. The spatial uniformity of the SLS/P grid control point array was determined by CT imaging (0.6 x 0.6 x 0.625 mm3 resolution) and found suitable for the application, with over 97.5% of the control points located within 0.3 mm of the position specified in CAD drawing and none of the points off by more than 0.4 mm. Rapid prototyping is a flexible and cost effective alternative for development of customized grid phantoms for medical physics quality assurance.

  8. Technical Note: Rapid prototyping of 3D grid arrays for image guided therapy quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Kittle, David; Holshouser, Barbara; Slater, James M.; Guenther, Bob D.; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Pearlstein, Robert D.

    2008-12-15

    Three dimensional grid phantoms offer a number of advantages for measuring imaging related spatial inaccuracies for image guided surgery and radiotherapy. The authors examined the use of rapid prototyping technology for directly fabricating 3D grid phantoms from CAD drawings. We tested three different fabrication process materials, photopolymer jet with acrylic resin (PJ/AR), selective laser sintering with polyamide (SLS/P), and fused deposition modeling with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (FDM/ABS). The test objects consisted of rectangular arrays of control points formed by the intersections of posts and struts (2 mm rectangular cross section) and spaced 8 mm apart in the x, y, and z directions. The PJ/AR phantom expanded after immersion in water which resulted in permanent warping of the structure. The surface of the FDM/ABS grid exhibited a regular pattern of depressions and ridges from the extrusion process. SLS/P showed the best combination of build accuracy, surface finish, and stability. Based on these findings, a grid phantom for assessing machine-dependent and frame-induced MR spatial distortions was fabricated to be used for quality assurance in stereotactic neurosurgical and radiotherapy procedures. The spatial uniformity of the SLS/P grid control point array was determined by CT imaging (0.6x0.6x0.625 mm{sup 3} resolution) and found suitable for the application, with over 97.5% of the control points located within 0.3 mm of the position specified in CAD drawing and none of the points off by more than 0.4 mm. Rapid prototyping is a flexible and cost effective alternative for development of customized grid phantoms for medical physics quality assurance.

  9. Reverse engineering and rapid prototyping techniques to innovate prosthesis socket design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Giorgio; Bertetti, Massimiliano; Bonacini, Daniele; Magrassi, Grazia

    2006-02-01

    The paper presents an innovative approach totally based on digital data to optimize lower limb socket prosthesis design. This approach is based on a stump's detailed geometric model and provides a substitute to plaster cast obtained through the traditional manual methodology with a physical model, realized with Rapid Prototyping technologies; this physical model will be used for the socket lamination. The paper discusses a methodology to reconstruct a 3D geometric model of the stump able to describe with high accuracy and detail the complete structure subdivided into bones, soft tissues, muscular masses and dermis. Some different technologies are used for stump acquisition: non contact laser technique for external geometry, CT and MRI imaging technologies for the internal structure, the first one dedicated to bones geometrical model, the last for soft tissues and muscles. We discuss problems related to 3D geometric reconstruction: the patient and stump positioning for the different acquisitions, markers' definition on the stump to identify landmarks, alignment's strategies for the different digital models, in order to define a protocol procedure with a requested accuracy for socket's realization. Some case-studies illustrate the methodology and the results obtained.

  10. A Method to Represent Heterogeneous Materials for Rapid Prototyping: The Matryoshka Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shuangyan; Frank, Matthew C.; Anderson, Donald D.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for representing heterogeneous materials using nested STL shells, based, in particular, on the density distributions of human bones. Design/methodology/approach Nested STL shells, called Matryoshka models, are described, based on their namesake Russian nesting dolls. In this approach, polygonal models, such as STL shells, are “stacked” inside one another to represent different material regions. The Matryoshka model addresses the challenge of representing different densities and different types of bone when reverse engineering from medical images. The Matryoshka model is generated via an iterative process of thresholding the Hounsfield Unit (HU) data using computed tomography (CT), thereby delineating regions of progressively increasing bone density. These nested shells can represent regions starting with the medullary (bone marrow) canal, up through and including the outer surface of the bone. Findings The Matryoshka approach introduced can be used to generate accurate models of heterogeneous materials in an automated fashion, avoiding the challenge of hand-creating an assembly model for input to multi-material additive or subtractive manufacturing. Originality/Value This paper presents a new method for describing heterogeneous materials: in this case, the density distribution in a human bone. The authors show how the Matryoshka model can be used to plan harvesting locations for creating custom rapid allograft bone implants from donor bone. An implementation of a proposed harvesting method is demonstrated, followed by a case study using subtractive rapid prototyping to harvest a bone implant from a human tibia surrogate. PMID:26120277

  11. Rapid Prototyping of Application Specific Signal Processors (RASSP) program - Study Phase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-12

    Design Solutions, 1992. G. Watson, "MIL Reliability : A New Approach," IEEE Spectrum, August 1992. Traditionally faulted for not predicting reliability ...consideration of manufacturability, quality, testability, reliability , affordability, etc., as an integral part of the design process. Again this can...standards. The time required for qualification and " reliability testing will reduce the rapidity of prototype development A proposed solution is diagrammed

  12. Utilizing a Rapid Prototyping Approach in the Building of a Hypermedia-Based Reference Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Dan

    This paper discusses the building of a hypermedia-based reference station at the Wright Laboratory Technical Library, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Following this, the paper focuses on an electronic user survey from which data is collected and analysis is made. The survey data is used in a rapid prototyping approach, which is defined as…

  13. A Rapidly Prototyped Vegetation Dryness Index Developed for Wildfire Risk Assessment at Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kenton; Graham, William D.; Prados, Donald; Spruce, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    A remote sensing index was developed to allow improved monitoring of vegetation dryness conditions on a regional basis. This remote sensing index was rapidly prototyped at Stennis Space Center in response to drought conditions in the local area in spring 2006.

  14. Low-Cost Rapid Prototyping of Whole-Glass Microfluidic Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Po Ki; Goral, Vasiliy N.

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost, straightforward, rapid prototyping of whole-glass microfluidic devices is presented using glass-etching cream that can be easily purchased in local stores. A self-adhered vinyl stencil cut out by a desktop digital craft cutter was used as an etching mask for patterning microstructures in glass using the glass-etching cream. A specific…

  15. JTEC/WTEC panel report on rapid prototyping in Europe and Japan. Volume 2: Site reports

    SciTech Connect

    Prinz, F.B.; Atwood, C.L.; Aubin, R.F.

    1996-09-01

    This study reports the findings by a panel of experts on the state of the art in physical rapid prototyping technologies in Europe and Japan. The panel focused its investigation on a new class of rapid prototyping technologies called solid free form fabrication (SFF). The efforts observed overseas are compared to efforts in the US. The expert panel was selected by recommendations from the study chairman and representatives of the sponsoring agencies. The panel was formed of members from industry, academia, and government. Industry members represented primarily users rather than developers of SFF technology. The panel visited 34 sites in subgroups of typically three to five members. This Volume 2 of the final report from the JTEC/WTEC Panel on Rapid Prototyping in Europe and Japan. It consists of the site reports from the panel`s visits to rapid prototyping labs and development facilities in Europe and Japan. Volume 1, published separately, contains the panel`s analytical chapters and overall conclusions.

  16. Plan to procedure: combining 3D templating with rapid prototyping to enhance pedicle screw placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Stans, Anthony A.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Huddleston, Paul M.; Matsumoto, Jane M.; Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard A.

    2010-02-01

    Spinal fusion procedures involving the implantation of pedicle screws have steadily increased over the past decade because of demonstrated improvement in biomechanical stability of the spine. However, current methods of spinal fusion carries a risk of serious vascular, visceral, and neurological injury caused by inaccurate placement or inappropriately sized instrumentation, which may lead to patient paralysis or even fatality. 3D spine templating software developed by the Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic allows the surgeon to virtually place pedicle screws using pre-operative 3D CT image data. With the template plan incorporated, a patient-specific 3D anatomic model is produced using a commercial rapid prototyping system. The pre-surgical plan and the patient-specific model then are used in the procedure room to provide real-time visualization and quantitative guidance for accurate placement of each pedicle screw, significantly reducing risk of injury. A pilot study was conducted at Mayo Clinic by the Department of Radiology, the Department of Orthopedics, and the BIR, involving seven complicated pediatric spine cases. In each case, pre-operative 3D templating was carried out and patient specific models were generated. The plans and the models were used intra-operatively, providing precise pedicle screw starting points and trajectories. Postoperative assessment by the surgeon confirmed all seven operations were successful. Results from the study suggest that patient-specific, 3D anatomic models successfully acquired from 3D templating tools are valuable for planning and conducting pedicle screw insertion procedures.

  17. Compact form fitting small antennas using three-dimensional rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Bryan Jon

    Three-dimensional (3D) rapid prototyping holds significant promise for future antenna designs. Many complex designs that would be unmanufacturable or costly are realizable on a 3D printing machine. The ability to create 3D designs of virtually any configuration makes it possible to build compact antennas that can form fit to any space. These antennas build on the concept that small antennas can best reach the ideal operating limit when utilizing the entire 3D space in a sphere surrounding the antenna. Antennas require a combination of dielectric and conductive materials. 3D rapid prototyping is already well advanced for plastics and dielectric materials (with more options coming online). Prototyping with conductive materials has lagged behind; due mainly to their higher melting points, but this is advancing as well. This dissertation focuses on 3D rapid prototyping for antenna design. A 3D antenna made from small cubical cells is optimized for 2.4--3GHz using a genetic algorithm (GA). The antennas are built using 3D printing of plastic covered by conductive paint. The effects of the conductivity of the paint and number of layers on the resonance and gain of the antenna are evaluated. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using 3D rapid prototyping for antenna design. A 3D dipole is also optimized using a GA to function from 510--910MHz. The antenna was built using 3D rapid prototyping from plastic. The 3D antenna was covered with a conductive coating and measured, showing good agreement with simulation. The 3D GA is used to design 3D antennas of random shape to fit inside the empty space in a cell phone case and optimized for cell phone bands 800--900MHz and 1.6--3.7GHz. The research also evaluates methods and materials that can be used to produce 3D antennas. In addition to the flexibility that 3D prototyping brings to antenna design, this paper describes how this new and emerging method for building antennas can provide fast and affordable antennas for

  18. Models of Rapid Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmer, G. H.; Broughton, J. Q.

    1984-01-01

    Laser annealing studies provide much information on various consequences of rapid solidification, including the trapping of impurities in the crystal, the generation of vacancies and twins, and on the fundamental limits to the speed of the crystal-melt interface. Some results obtained by molecular dynamics methods of the solidification of a Lennard-Jones liquid are reviewed. An indication of the relationship of interface speed to undercooling for certain materials can be derived from this model. Ising model simulations of impurity trapping in silicon are compared with some of the laser annealing results. The consequences of interface segregation and atomic strain are discussed.

  19. Exemplars, Prototypes, and the Flexibility of Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Henrik; Wennerholm, Pia; Lyxzen, Urban

    2004-01-01

    J. P. Minda and J. D. Smith (2001) showed that a prototype model outperforms an exemplar model, especially in larger categories or categories that contained more complex stimuli. R. M. Nosofsky and S. R. Zaki (2002) showed that an exemplar model with a response-scaling mechanism outperforms a prototype model. The authors of the current study…

  20. Application of Systems Engineering to Rapid Prototyping for Close Air Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    FRIENDLY MARKING DEvICE (FMD) IN SPIRAL CONTEXT Determine objectives, alternatives , and constraints Commit to an approach for the next iteration Plan the...3 Prototype 2 Operational Prototype Models Evaluate alternatives Cumulative cost Partition Review Develop the deliverables for the iteration and...patterns: An introduction to object-oriented analysis and design and iterative development (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR. Maier, M

  1. Rapid prototyping and evaluation of programmable SIMD SDR processors in LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Liu, Hengzhu; Zhang, Botao; Liu, Dongpei

    2013-03-01

    With the development of international wireless communication standards, there is an increase in computational requirement for baseband signal processors. Time-to-market pressure makes it impossible to completely redesign new processors for the evolving standards. Due to its high flexibility and low power, software defined radio (SDR) digital signal processors have been proposed as promising technology to replace traditional ASIC and FPGA fashions. In addition, there are large numbers of parallel data processed in computation-intensive functions, which fosters the development of single instruction multiple data (SIMD) architecture in SDR platform. So a new way must be found to prototype the SDR processors efficiently. In this paper we present a bit-and-cycle accurate model of programmable SIMD SDR processors in a machine description language LISA. LISA is a language for instruction set architecture which can gain rapid model at architectural level. In order to evaluate the availability of our proposed processor, three common baseband functions, FFT, FIR digital filter and matrix multiplication have been mapped on the SDR platform. Analytical results showed that the SDR processor achieved the maximum of 47.1% performance boost relative to the opponent processor.

  2. New Design for Rapid Prototyping of Digital Master Casts for Multiple Dental Implant Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Luis; Jiménez, Mariano; Espinosa, María del Mar; Domínguez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study proposes the replacement of all the physical devices used in the manufacturing of conventional prostheses through the use of digital tools, such as 3D scanners, CAD design software, 3D implants files, rapid prototyping machines or reverse engineering software, in order to develop laboratory work models from which to finish coatings for dental prostheses. Different types of dental prosthetic structures are used, which were adjusted by a non-rotatory threaded fixing system. Method From a digital process, the relative positions of dental implants, soft tissue and adjacent teeth of edentulous or partially edentulous patients has been captured, and a maser working model which accurately replicates data relating to the patients oral cavity has been through treatment of three-dimensional digital data. Results Compared with the conventional master cast, the results show a significant cost savings in attachments, as well as an increase in the quality of reproduction and accuracy of the master cast, with the consequent reduction in the number of patient consultation visits. The combination of software and hardware three-dimensional tools allows the optimization of the planning of dental implant-supported rehabilitations protocol, improving the predictability of clinical treatments and the production cost savings of master casts for restorations upon implants. PMID:26696528

  3. Evaluation of a rapid prototyping process for microsystems for silicon microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bange, Stefan; Herding, Mark; Woias, Peter

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade rapid prototyping has made a tremendous success in almost every branch of industrial fabrication. Almost every article of today"s life is pre-fabricated in a rapid process during its design. Functional rapid prototypes represent an increasing share, as they allow realistic functional tests of a component in an early stage of development. MEMS technology is still at the beginning of the rapid prototyping aera. Up to now, only a few conventional techniques, like stereolithography, have been downscaled to create rapid microprototypes with a limited choice of materials and geometries. Rapid prototyping of silicon is completely out of reach today. In this paper we propose a micro rapid prototyping concept for functional silicon microstructures. The process combines laser technology with standard processes of silicon microstructuring and has been evaluated with a metal-silicon layer system. First, noble metal is vapour deposited on top of a silicon wafer. The metal is subsequently structured with a laser, thus creating a mask, which can be transferred into the silicon by standard chemical etching procedures like KOH-etch. The advantage of this concept is that the time-consuming photomask generation is omitted completely, as the laser can be guided with CAD data. Moreover, the standard structuring process gives the opportunity to gain a microstructure with features equivalent to the final component. With laser ablation and KOH-etch two process steps are being carried out subsequently, which are inevitably linked to each other. Depending on the energy of the laser irradiation the ablation performance changes and, with it, the minimal structure width and the thermal melting zone at the edges of the mask openings. If the energy density is too high the crystalline structure of the silicon is destroyed by heat transfer and heat conduction. Hereby the anisotropic etch resistance is lost, which influences the following KOH-etch process. At the current

  4. Design Principles for Rapid Prototyping Forces Sensors using 3D Printing

    PubMed Central

    Kesner, Samuel B.; Howe, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Force sensors provide critical information for robot manipulators, manufacturing processes, and haptic interfaces. Commercial force sensors, however, are generally not adapted to specific system requirements, resulting in sensors with excess size, cost, and fragility. To overcome these issues, 3D printers can be used to create components for the quick and inexpensive development of force sensors. Limitations of this rapid prototyping technology, however, require specialized design principles. In this paper, we discuss techniques for rapidly developing simple force sensors, including selecting and attaching metal flexures, using inexpensive and simple displacement transducers, and 3D printing features to aid in assembly. These design methods are illustrated through the design and fabrication of a miniature force sensor for the tip of a robotic catheter system. The resulting force sensor prototype can measure forces with an accuracy of as low as 2% of the 10 N measurement range. PMID:21874102

  5. Design Principles for Rapid Prototyping Forces Sensors using 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Samuel B; Howe, Robert D

    2011-07-21

    Force sensors provide critical information for robot manipulators, manufacturing processes, and haptic interfaces. Commercial force sensors, however, are generally not adapted to specific system requirements, resulting in sensors with excess size, cost, and fragility. To overcome these issues, 3D printers can be used to create components for the quick and inexpensive development of force sensors. Limitations of this rapid prototyping technology, however, require specialized design principles. In this paper, we discuss techniques for rapidly developing simple force sensors, including selecting and attaching metal flexures, using inexpensive and simple displacement transducers, and 3D printing features to aid in assembly. These design methods are illustrated through the design and fabrication of a miniature force sensor for the tip of a robotic catheter system. The resulting force sensor prototype can measure forces with an accuracy of as low as 2% of the 10 N measurement range.

  6. Wine Traceability: A Data Model and Prototype in Albanian Context.

    PubMed

    Vukatana, Kreshnik; Sevrani, Kozeta; Hoxha, Elira

    2016-02-17

    Vine traceability is a critical issue that has gained interest internationally. Quality control programs and schemes are mandatory in many countries including EU members and the USA. Albania has transformed most of the EU regulations on food into laws. Regarding the vine sector, the obligation of wine producers to keep traceability data is part of the legislation. The analysis on the interviews conducted with Albanian winemakers show that these data are actually recorded only in hard copy. Another fact that emerges from the interviews is that only two producers have implemented the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standards on food. The purpose of this paper is to develop an agile and automated traceability system based on these standards. We propose a data model and system prototype that are described in the second and third section of this work. The data model is an adaption along the lines of the GS1 (Global Standards One) specifications for a wine supply chain. The proposed prototype has a key component that is mobile access to the information about wine through barcode technology. By using this mechanism the consumer obtains transparency on his expectations concerning the quality criteria. Another important component of the proposed system in this paper is a real-time notification module that works as an alert system when a risk is identified. This can help producers and authorities to have a rapid identification of a contaminated product. It is important in cases when recalling the product from the market or preventing it from reaching the consumer.

  7. Epitrochoid Power-Law Nozzle Rapid Prototype Build/Test Project (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Production Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. PA clearance # 15122. 4 Epitrochoid Power-Law Nozzle Build/Test Build on SpaceX ...Multiengine Approach SpaceX ) Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. PA clearance # 15122. Engines: Merlin 1D on Falcon 9 v1.1 (Photo 5...to utilize features of high performance engines advances and the economies of scale of the multi-engine approach of SpaceX Falcon 9 – Rapid Prototype

  8. Rapid Prototyping across the Spectrum: RF to Optical 3D Electromagnetic Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-17

    fabricated using 3D printer . The fill factor decreases radially outwards and the voids are visible in the unit cells as you approach the periphery of the...with thin walls) [29]. Figure 6: Examples of lenses fabricated with AM (a) GRIN lens fabricated using 3D printer . The fill factor decreases...AFRL-RW-EG-TP-2015-002 Rapid Prototyping across the Spectrum: RF to Optical 3D Electromagnetic Structures Jeffery W. Allen Monica S. Allen Brett

  9. Novel grinding stone used for polishing 3D plastic replica with rapid prototyping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wang; Niikura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Toshio; Kawashima, Norimichi

    2006-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) apparatus accepts a specific format translated from CAD data (patient's CT) and "slices" it into two-dimensional cross sections for laser photo curing. Surgeon can conduct safer surgery by reappearing on an actual model using 3D plastic replica in the preoperative. Polishing has to be used to eliminate the marks after removal of supports and the build layer pitches. Complicated and narrow areas of the 3D replica are difficult to be polished with the conventional grinding stone. This study proposes a novel grinding stone and introduces its producing process and characteristics. The novel grinding stone has many advantages as follows; (1) Preparation is possible of grinding stone that follows the complicated shape. (2) Grinding stone with uniformly dispersed abrasive grains can be prepared using magnetic particles and magnetic field. (3) Reshaping of grinding stone by heating is possible since the binder is made of a thermoplastic resin. (4) Every process can easily be carried out. We could polish to eliminate the marks after removal of supports and the build layer pitches on 3D plastic replica surface with the grinding stone.

  10. Processing of pure Ti by rapid prototyping based on laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Rapid prototyping based on laser cladding is an additive manufacturing (AM) process based on the overlapping of cladding tracks to produce functional components. Powder or wire are fed into a melting pool created using laser radiation as a heat source and the relative movement between the beam and the work piece makes possible to generate pieces layer-by-layer. This technique can be applied for any material which can be melted and the components can be manufactured directly according to a computer aided design (CAD) model. Additive manufacturing is particularly interesting to produce titanium components because, in this case, the loss of material produced by subtractive manufacturing methods is highly costly. Moreover, titanium and its alloys are widely used in biomedical, aircraft, chemical and marine industries due to their biocompatibility, excellent corrosion resistance and superior strength-to-weight ratio. In this research work, a near-infrared laser delivering a maximum power of 500W is used to produce pure titanium thin parts. Dimensions and surface morphology are characterized using Optical Microscopy (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), the hardness by nanoindentation and the composition by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The aim of this work is to establish the conditions under which satisfactory properties are obtained and to understand the relationship between microstructure/properties and deposition parameters.

  11. Enhancements to ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Prototype Building Models

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Supriya; Athalye, Rahul A.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Philip R.; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2014-04-16

    This report focuses on enhancements to prototype building models used to determine the energy impact of various versions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. Since the last publication of the prototype building models, PNNL has made numerous enhancements to the original prototype models compliant with the 2004, 2007, and 2010 editions of Standard 90.1. Those enhancements are described here and were made for several reasons: (1) to change or improve prototype design assumptions; (2) to improve the simulation accuracy; (3) to improve the simulation infrastructure; and (4) to add additional detail to the models needed to capture certain energy impacts from Standard 90.1 improvements. These enhancements impact simulated prototype energy use, and consequently impact the savings estimated from edition to edition of Standard 90.1.

  12. Rapid Prototyping of Inspired Gas Delivery System for Pulmonary MRI Research

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Fredrick Roscoe; Geier, Eric T.; Asadi, Amran K.; Sá, Rui Carlos; Prisk, G. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Specific ventilation imaging (SVI) is a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method for determining the regional distribution of inspired air in the lungs, useful for the assessment of pulmonary function in medical research. This technique works by monitoring the rate of magnetic resonance signal change in response to a series of imposed step changes in inspired oxygen concentration. The current SVI technique requires a complex system of tubes, valves, and electronics that are used to supply and rapidly switch inspired gases while subjects are imaged, which makes the technique difficult to translate into the clinical setting. This report discusses the design and implementation of custom three-dimensional (3D) printed hardware that greatly simplifies SVI measurement of lung function. Several hardware prototypes were modeled using computer-aided design software and printed for evaluation. After finalization of the design, the new delivery system was evaluated based on O2 and N2 concentration step responses and validated against the current SVI protocol. The design performed rapid switching of supplied gas within 250 ms and consistently supplied the desired concentration of O2 during operation. It features a reduction in the number of commercial hardware components, from five to one, and a reduction in the number of gas lines between the operator’s room and the scanner room, from four to one, as well as a substantially reduced preparation time from 25 to 5 min. 3D printing is well suited to the design of inexpensive custom MRI compatible hardware, making it particularly useful in imaging-based research. PMID:27917393

  13. Rapid prototyping amphiphilic polymer/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds with hydration-induced self-fixation behavior.

    PubMed

    Kutikov, Artem B; Gurijala, Anvesh; Song, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Two major factors hampering the broad use of rapid prototyped biomaterials for tissue engineering applications are the requirement for custom-designed or expensive research-grade three-dimensional (3D) printers and the limited selection of suitable thermoplastic biomaterials exhibiting physical characteristics desired for facile surgical handling and biological properties encouraging tissue integration. Properly designed thermoplastic biodegradable amphiphilic polymers can exhibit hydration-dependent hydrophilicity changes and stiffening behavior, which may be exploited to facilitate the surgical delivery/self-fixation of the scaffold within a physiological tissue environment. Compared to conventional hydrophobic polyesters, they also present significant advantages in blending with hydrophilic osteoconductive minerals with improved interfacial adhesion for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we demonstrated the excellent blending of biodegradable, amphiphilic poly(D,L-lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA-PEG-PLA) (PELA) triblock co-polymer with hydroxyapatite (HA) and the fabrication of high-quality rapid prototyped 3D macroporous composite scaffolds using an unmodified consumer-grade 3D printer. The rapid prototyped HA-PELA composite scaffolds and the PELA control (without HA) swelled (66% and 44% volume increases, respectively) and stiffened (1.38-fold and 4-fold increases in compressive modulus, respectively) in water. To test the hypothesis that the hydration-induced physical changes can translate into self-fixation properties of the scaffolds within a confined defect, a straightforward in vitro pull-out test was designed to quantify the peak force required to dislodge these scaffolds from a simulated cylindrical defect at dry versus wet states. Consistent with our hypothesis, the peak fixation force measured for the PELA and HA-PELA scaffolds increased 6-fold and 15-fold upon hydration, respectively. Furthermore, we showed that

  14. Rapid Prototyping Amphiphilic Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds with Hydration-Induced Self-Fixation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kutikov, Artem B.; Gurijala, Anvesh

    2015-01-01

    Two major factors hampering the broad use of rapid prototyped biomaterials for tissue engineering applications are the requirement for custom-designed or expensive research-grade three-dimensional (3D) printers and the limited selection of suitable thermoplastic biomaterials exhibiting physical characteristics desired for facile surgical handling and biological properties encouraging tissue integration. Properly designed thermoplastic biodegradable amphiphilic polymers can exhibit hydration-dependent hydrophilicity changes and stiffening behavior, which may be exploited to facilitate the surgical delivery/self-fixation of the scaffold within a physiological tissue environment. Compared to conventional hydrophobic polyesters, they also present significant advantages in blending with hydrophilic osteoconductive minerals with improved interfacial adhesion for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we demonstrated the excellent blending of biodegradable, amphiphilic poly(D,L-lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA-PEG-PLA) (PELA) triblock co-polymer with hydroxyapatite (HA) and the fabrication of high-quality rapid prototyped 3D macroporous composite scaffolds using an unmodified consumer-grade 3D printer. The rapid prototyped HA-PELA composite scaffolds and the PELA control (without HA) swelled (66% and 44% volume increases, respectively) and stiffened (1.38-fold and 4-fold increases in compressive modulus, respectively) in water. To test the hypothesis that the hydration-induced physical changes can translate into self-fixation properties of the scaffolds within a confined defect, a straightforward in vitro pull-out test was designed to quantify the peak force required to dislodge these scaffolds from a simulated cylindrical defect at dry versus wet states. Consistent with our hypothesis, the peak fixation force measured for the PELA and HA-PELA scaffolds increased 6-fold and 15-fold upon hydration, respectively. Furthermore, we showed that

  15. Active deformable sheets: prototype implementation, modeling, and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Robert J.; Johnson, Norbert; Doumanidis, Charalabos C.

    2000-06-01

    Active deformable sheets are integrated smart planar sheet structures performing off-plane deformations under computer actuation and control, to take up a desired dynamic morphology specified in CAD software or obtained by 3-D scanning of a solid surface. The sheet prototypes are implemented in the laboratory by elastic neoprene foil layers with embedded asymmetric grids of SMA wires (Nitinol), which upon electrical contraction bend the sheet to the necessary local curvature distribution. An analytical model of such prototypes, consisting of an electrical, a thermal, a material and a mechanical module, as well as a more complex finite element thermomechanical simulation of the sheet structure have been developed and validated experimentally. Besides open-loop control of the sheet curvatures by modulation of the SMA wire actuation current, a closed-loop control system has been implemented, using feedback of the wire electrical resistance measurements in real time, correlating to the material transformation state. The active deformable sheets are intended for applications such as reconfigurable airfoils and aerospace structures, variable focal length optics and electromagnetic reflectors, flexible and rapid tooling and microrobotics.

  16. Habitat Demonstration Unit Project: Leadership and Management Strategies for a Rapid Prototyping Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toup, Larry; Gill, Tracy; Tri, Terry; Howe, Scott; Smitherman, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) led multi-center Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project leadership and management strategies being used by the NASA HDU team for a rapid prototyping project. The HDU project team constructed and tested an analog prototype lunar surface habitat/laboratory called the Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) during 2010. The prototype unit subsystems were integrated in a short amount of time, utilizing a tiger team rapid prototyping approach that brought together over 20 habitation-related technologies and innovations from a variety of NASA centers. This paper describes the leadership and management strategies as well as lessons learned pertaining to leading and managing a multi-center diverse team in a rapid prototype environment. The PEM configuration went from a paper design to an operational surface habitat demonstration unit in less than 12 months. The HDU project is part of the strategic plan from the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Directorate Integration Office (DIO) and the Exploration Mission Systems Office (EMSO) to test destination elements in analog environments. The 2011 HDU-Deep Space Habitat (DSH) configuration will build upon the PEM work, and emphasize validity of crew operations (remote working and living), EVA operations, mission operations, logistics operations, and science operations that might be required in a deep space context for Near Earth Object (NEO) exploration mission architectures. The 2011 HDU-DSH will be field-tested during the 2011 Desert Research and Technologies Studies (DRaTS) field tests. The HDU project is a "technology-pull" project that integrates technologies and innovations from multiple NASA centers. This project will repurpose the HDU 2010 demo unit that was field tested in the 2010 DRaTS, adding habitation functionality to the prototype unit. This paper will describe the strategy of establishing a multi-center project

  17. SOAR telescope control system: a rapid prototype and development in LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashe, Michael C.; Schumacher, German

    2000-06-01

    A Rapid Prototype and full development plan of the SOAR TCS is reviewed to show advances in: (1) Prototyping speed, which makes implementation and test of features faster than specification under older methods. This allows the development environment and prototype modules to become partners with and part of the specification documents. (2) Real-Time performance and reliability through use of RT Linux. (3) Visually Rich GUI development that allows an emphasis on `seeing' versus `reading'. (4) Long-Term DataLogging and Internet subscription service of all desired variables with instant recall of historical trend data. (5) A `plug-in' software architecture which enables rapid reconfiguration and reuse of the system and/or plug-ins utilizing LabVIEW graphical modules, a scripting language engine (in LabVIEW) and encapsulation of interfaces in `instrument-driver' style `plug-in' modules. (6) A platform- independent development environment and distributed architecture allowing secure internet observation and control via every major OS and hardware platform.

  18. Rapid and Low-cost Prototyping of Medical Devices Using 3D Printed Molds for Liquid Injection Molding

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Philip; Heller, J. Alex; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Ottoson, Paige E.; Liu, Jonathan A.; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications. PMID:24998993

  19. Rapid and low-cost prototyping of medical devices using 3D printed molds for liquid injection molding.

    PubMed

    Chung, Philip; Heller, J Alex; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Ottoson, Paige E; Liu, Jonathan A; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-06-27

    Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications.

  20. The Influence of Depth of Cut, Feed Rate, and Step-over on Dimensional Accuracy in Subtractive Rapid Prototyping of Polycarbonate Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suteja, T. J.

    2017-03-01

    Subtractive rapid prototyping is fast and automatic three dimensions physical modelling that uses computer aided design model as the input. The dimensional accuracy of the result of the subtractive rapid prototyping is influenced by its process parameters. The aim of this research is to study and then develop a model that shows the influence of depth of cut, feed rate, and step-over on the vertical length error, horizontal length error, and depth error in subtractive rapid prototyping of polycarbonate material. This research implements response surface methodology to develop the model and then followed by the residual tests to evaluate the developed model. The result shows that the increase of the feed rate and the step-over will increase the horizontal dimension error. The most influenced factor on the horizontal dimension error is the step-over. Meanwhile, the vertical dimension error will be affected mostly by the step-over. Last, the depth error is influenced by the feed rate, the step-over, and the depth of cut. The depth of cut is the most critical factor that increases the depth error. The developed models give an insight on how several process parameters of rapid prototyping will influence the dimensional accuracy of a polycarbonate material. Based on the model, efficient resources utilization can be achieved.

  1. Rapid prototyping of zirconium diboride/copper electrical discharge machining electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stucker, Brent Eric

    The acceptance of rapid prototyping (RP) as the predominant technique for producing polymer and paper parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models has led many corporations and universities to try to extend its capabilities to more robust materials. In addition to producing prototype metal and ceramic parts, a significant effort has been made to create parts that are useful as tools and dies or that reduce the time necessary to create tools and dies. Most materials used for tools and dies are very hard, because they need to be able to withstand millions of cycles before failing. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the most common method used to machine tools and dies out of hard materials. A method for producing EDM electrodes using RP could greatly reduce the time and cost involved in creating tools and dies. A new EDM electrode material made up of zirconium diboride and copper (ZrBsb2/Cu) that is superior to traditional EDM electrodes has been investigated. The processing techniques necessary for creating Zrsb2/Cu electrodes from powders of ZrB2 and copper have been developed. These ZrBsb2/Cu electrodes have a better wear ratio and a faster sink rate than graphite, copper or tungsten/copper EDM electrodes. Performance variables that were tracked are: (1) wear ratio, (2) sink rate and (3) surface finish, where ZrBsb2/Cu, copper, graphite and W/Cu were used as anodes (electrodes) and stainless steel as cathodes (workpieces). The ZrBsb2/Cu electrode material system retains its superior EDM electrode performance across a number of materials processing and compositional variations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the electrodes after EDM. These SEM observations facilitated an understanding of the superior EDM electrode performance characteristics of ZrBsb2/Cu to traditional EDM electrode material systems. A method for creating geometrically-complex ZrBsb2/Cu EDM electrodes using the selective laser sintering (SLS) RP technique was

  2. Engineering Models Ease and Speed Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA astronauts plan to return to the Moon as early as 2015 and establish a lunar base, from which 6-month flights to Mars would be launched by 2030. Essential to this plan is the Ares launch vehicle, NASA s next-generation spacecraft that will, in various iterations, be responsible for transporting all equipment and personnel to the Moon, Mars, and beyond for the foreseeable future. The Ares launch vehicle is powered by the J-2X propulsion system, with what will be the world s largest rocket nozzles. One of the conditions that engineers carefully consider in designing rocket nozzles particularly large ones is called separation phenomenon, which occurs when outside ambient air is sucked into the nozzle rim by the relatively low pressures of rapidly expanding exhaust gasses. This separation of exhaust gasses from the side-wall imparts large asymmetric transverse loads on the nozzle, deforming the shape and thus perturbing exhaust flow to cause even greater separation. The resulting interaction can potentially crack the nozzle or break actuator arms that control thrust direction. Side-wall loads are extremely difficult to measure directly, and, until now, techniques were not available for accurately predicting the magnitude and frequency of the loads. NASA researchers studied separation phenomenon in scale-model rocket nozzles, seeking to use measured vibration on these nozzle replicas to calculate the unknown force causing the vibrations. Key to this approach was the creation of a computer model accurately representing the nozzle as well as the test cell.

  3. Rapid prototyping and inclined plane technique in the treatment of maxillofacial malformations in a fox.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Elisangela P; Rahal, Sheila C; Teixeira, Carlos R; Silva, Jorge V L; Noritomi, Pedro Y; Villela, Carlos H S; Yamashita, Seizo

    2010-03-01

    An approximately 9-month-old fox (Pseudalopex vetulus) was presented with malocclusion and deviation of the lower jaw to the right side. Orthodontic treatment was performed using the inclined plane technique. Virtual 3D models and prototypes of the head were based on computed tomography (CT) image data to assist in diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Ultra-rapid prototyping of flexible, multi-layered microfluidic devices via razor writing.

    PubMed

    Cosson, Steffen; Aeberli, Luc G; Brandenberg, Nathalie; Lutolf, Matthias P

    2015-01-07

    The fabrication of microfluidic devices is often still a time-consuming and costly process. Here we introduce a very simple and cheap microfabrication process based on "razor writing", also termed xurography, for the ultra-rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices. Thin poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membranes are spin-coated on flexible plastic foil and cut into user-defined shapes with a bench-top cutter plotter. The PDMS membranes can then be assembled into desirable microdevices via plasma bonding. The plastic foil allows manipulation of exceptionally thin (30-300 μm) PDMS layers and can be readily peeled after fabrication. This versatile technique can be used to produce a wide variety of microfluidic device prototypes within just a few hours.

  5. Design of anthropomorphic flow phantoms based on rapid prototyping of compliant vessel geometries.

    PubMed

    Lai, Simon S M; Yiu, Billy Y S; Poon, Alexander K K; Yu, Alfred C H

    2013-09-01

    Anatomically realistic flow phantoms are essential experimental tools for vascular ultrasound. Here we describe how these flow phantoms can be efficiently developed via a rapid prototyping (RP) framework that involves direct fabrication of compliant vessel geometries. In this framework, anthropomorphic vessel models were drafted in computer-aided design software, and they were fabricated using stereolithography (one type of RP). To produce elastic vessels, a compliant photopolymer was used for stereolithography. We fabricated a series of compliant, diseased carotid bifurcation models with eccentric stenosis (50%) and plaque ulceration (types I and III), and they were used to form thin-walled flow phantoms by coupling the vessels to an agar-based tissue-mimicking material. These phantoms were found to yield Doppler spectrograms with significant spectral broadening and color flow images with mosaic patterns, as typical of disturbed flow under stenosed and ulcerated disease conditions. Also, their wall distension behavior was found to be similar to that observed in vivo, and this corresponded with the vessel wall's average elastic modulus (391 kPa), which was within the nominal range for human arteries. The vessel material's acoustic properties were found to be sub-optimal: the estimated average acoustic speed was 1801 m/s, and the attenuation coefficient was 1.58 dB/(mm·MHz(n)) with a power-law coefficient of 0.97. Such an acoustic mismatch nevertheless did not notably affect our Doppler spectrograms and color flow image results. These findings suggest that phantoms produced from our design framework have the potential to serve as ultrasound-compatible test beds that can simulate complex flow dynamics similar to those observed in real vasculature.

  6. Rapid prototyping of biodegradable microneedle arrays by integrating CO2 laser processing and polymer molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, K. T.; Chung, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    An integrated technology of CO2 laser processing and polymer molding has been demonstrated for the rapid prototyping of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microneedle arrays. Rapid and low-cost CO2 laser processing was used for the fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio microneedle master mold instead of conventional time-consuming and expensive photolithography and etching processes. It is crucial to use flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to detach PLGA. However, the direct CO2 laser-ablated PDMS could generate poor surfaces with bulges, scorches, re-solidification and shrinkage. Here, we have combined the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ablation and two-step PDMS casting process to form a PDMS female microneedle mold to eliminate the problem of direct ablation. A self-assembled monolayer polyethylene glycol was coated to prevent stiction between the two PDMS layers during the peeling-off step in the PDMS-to-PDMS replication. Then the PLGA microneedle array was successfully released by bending the second-cast PDMS mold with flexibility and hydrophobic property. The depth of the polymer microneedles can range from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters. It is linked to the PMMA pattern profile and can be adjusted by CO2 laser power and scanning speed. The proposed integration process is maskless, simple and low-cost for rapid prototyping with a reusable mold.

  7. Fabrication of multi-well chips for spheroid cultures and implantable constructs through rapid prototyping techniques.

    PubMed

    Lopa, Silvia; Piraino, Francesco; Kemp, Raymond J; Di Caro, Clelia; Lovati, Arianna B; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Moroni, Lorenzo; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Rasponi, Marco; Moretti, Matteo

    2015-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture models are widely used in basic and translational research. In this study, to generate and culture multiple 3D cell spheroids, we exploited laser ablation and replica molding for the fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) multi-well chips, which were validated using articular chondrocytes (ACs). Multi-well ACs spheroids were comparable or superior to standard spheroids, as revealed by glycosaminoglycan and type-II collagen deposition. Moreover, the use of our multi-well chips significantly reduced the operation time for cell seeding and medium refresh. Exploiting a similar approach, we used clinical-grade fibrin to generate implantable multi-well constructs allowing for the precise distribution of multiple cell types. Multi-well fibrin constructs were seeded with ACs generating high cell density regions, as shown by histology and cell fluorescent staining. Multi-well constructs were compared to standard constructs with homogeneously distributed ACs. After 7 days in vitro, expression of SOX9, ACAN, COL2A1, and COMP was increased in both constructs, with multi-well constructs expressing significantly higher levels of chondrogenic genes than standard constructs. After 5 weeks in vivo, we found that despite a dramatic size reduction, the cell distribution pattern was maintained and glycosaminoglycan content per wet weight was significantly increased respect to pre-implantation samples. In conclusion, multi-well chips for the generation and culture of multiple cell spheroids can be fabricated by low-cost rapid prototyping techniques. Furthermore, these techniques can be used to generate implantable constructs with defined architecture and controlled cell distribution, allowing for in vitro and in vivo investigation of cell interactions in a 3D environment.

  8. A Rapidly Prototyped Vegetation Dryness Index Evaluated for Wildfire Risk Assessment at Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kenton; Graham, William; Prados, Don; Spruce, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    MVDI, which effectively involves the differencing of NDMI and NDVI, appears to display increased noise that is consistent with a differencing technique. This effect masks finer variations in vegetation moisture, preventing MVDI from fulfilling the requirement of giving decision makers insight into spatial variation of fire risk. MVDI shows dependencies on land cover and phenology which also argue against its use as a fire risk proxy in an area of diverse and fragmented land covers. The conclusion of the rapid prototyping effort is that MVDI should not be implemented for SSC decision support.

  9. Rapid tooling for functional prototyping of metal mold processes: Literature review on cast tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, M.D.; Hochanadel, P.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report is a literature review on cast tooling with the general focus on AISI H13 tool steel. The review includes processing of both wrought and cast H13 steel along with the accompanying microstructures. Also included is the incorporation of new rapid prototyping technologies, such as Stereolithography and Selective Laser Sintering, into the investment casting of tool steel. The limiting property of using wrought or cast tool steel for die casting is heat checking. Heat checking is addressed in terms of testing procedures, theories regarding the mechanism, and microstructural aspects related to the cracking.

  10. Mirror-image anterior crown fabrication with computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technology: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seok-Hwan; Chang, Won-Gun

    2013-02-01

    This clinical report describes the fabrication of a maxillary central incisor single crown with rapid prototyping (RP) technology. A patient with a recently replaced metal ceramic crown had discomfort due to the nonanatomic lingual contour of the crown. With computer-aided design (CAD) software and rapid prototyping (RP) technology, the shape of the contralateral central incisor was duplicated and reproduced to make a mirror-image for a new crown. The prosthodontic planning and treatment approach are discussed.

  11. Wine Traceability: A Data Model and Prototype in Albanian Context

    PubMed Central

    Vukatana, Kreshnik; Sevrani, Kozeta; Hoxha, Elira

    2016-01-01

    Vine traceability is a critical issue that has gained interest internationally. Quality control programs and schemes are mandatory in many countries including EU members and the USA. Albania has transformed most of the EU regulations on food into laws. Regarding the vine sector, the obligation of wine producers to keep traceability data is part of the legislation. The analysis on the interviews conducted with Albanian winemakers show that these data are actually recorded only in hard copy. Another fact that emerges from the interviews is that only two producers have implemented the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standards on food. The purpose of this paper is to develop an agile and automated traceability system based on these standards. We propose a data model and system prototype that are described in the second and third section of this work. The data model is an adaption along the lines of the GS1 (Global Standards One) specifications for a wine supply chain. The proposed prototype has a key component that is mobile access to the information about wine through barcode technology. By using this mechanism the consumer obtains transparency on his expectations concerning the quality criteria. Another important component of the proposed system in this paper is a real-time notification module that works as an alert system when a risk is identified. This can help producers and authorities to have a rapid identification of a contaminated product. It is important in cases when recalling the product from the market or preventing it from reaching the consumer. PMID:28231105

  12. Interactive visual steering--rapid visual prototyping of a common rail injection system.

    PubMed

    Matković, Kresimir; Gracanin, Denis; Jelović, Mario; Hauser, Helwig

    2008-01-01

    Interactive steering with visualization has been a common goal of the visualization research community for twenty years, but it is rarely ever realized in practice. In this paper we describe a successful realization of a tightly coupled steering loop, integrating new simulation technology and interactive visual analysis in a prototyping environment for automotive industry system design. Due to increasing pressure on car manufacturers to meet new emission regulations, to improve efficiency, and to reduce noise, both simulation and visualization are pushed to their limits. Automotive system components, such as the powertrain system or the injection system have an increasing number of parameters, and new design approaches are required. It is no longer possible to optimize such a system solely based on experience or forward optimization. By coupling interactive visualization with the simulation back-end (computational steering), it is now possible to quickly prototype a new system, starting from a non-optimized initial prototype and the corresponding simulation model. The prototyping continues through the refinement of the simulation model, of the simulation parameters and through trial-and-error attempts to an optimized solution. The ability to early see the first results from a multidimensional simulation space--thousands of simulations are run for a multidimensional variety of input parameters--and to quickly go back into the simulation and request more runs in particular parameter regions of interest significantly improves the prototyping process and provides a deeper understanding of the system behavior. The excellent results which we achieved for the common rail injection system strongly suggest that our approach has a great potential of being generalized to other, similar scenarios.

  13. Design and manufacturing of ear prosthesis by means of rapid prototyping technology.

    PubMed

    De Crescenzio, F; Fantini, M; Ciocca, L; Persiani, F; Scotti, R

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, the complete procedure to design and construct reusable moulds for implant-based ear prosthesis and manufacture substructures by means of a computer aided design-computer aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) procedure and rapid prototyping (RP) technology is presented. The scan of the healthy ear, the virtual superimposition of its mirrored image on to the defective side, and the rapid manufacturing of the substructure and of the mould eliminate several steps of traditional procedures (wax, stone, try-in). Moreover, the precise design and customization of the substructure is presented, with the original and engineered shape for the retention of the silicone. The time and cost saving results of this protocol are presented together with a discussion of the main design features that make the prosthesis a stable and reproducible system to improve rehabilitation of patients with auricular defects or absence.

  14. Effects of Hydrocarbon-Based Grease on Rapid Prototype Material Used for Grease Retention Shrouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, Andrew J.; Valco, Daniel J.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of hydrocarbon-based greases on specific rapid prototype (RP) materials used to fabricate grease retention shrouds (GRS) were explored in this study. Grease retention shrouds are being considered as a way to maintain adequate grease lubrication at the gear mesh in a prototype research transmission system. Due to their design and manufacturing flexibility, rapid prototype materials were chosen for the grease retention shrouds. In order to gain a better understanding of the short and long term effects grease pose on RP materials, research was conducted on the interaction of hydrocarbon-based grease with RP materials. The materials used in this study were durable polyamide (nylon), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and WaterClear 10120. Testing was conducted using Mobilgrease 28 and Syn-Tech 3913G grease (gear coupling grease). These greases were selected due to their regular use with mechanical components. To investigate the effect that grease has on RP materials, the following methods were used to obtain qualitative and quantitative data: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), interference profilometer measurements, digital camera imaging, physical shape measurement, and visual observations. To record the changes in the RP materials due to contact with the grease, data was taken before and after the grease application. Results showed that the WaterClear 10120 RP material provided the best resistance to grease penetration as compared to nylon and ABS RP materials. The manufacturing process, and thus resulting surface conditions of the RP material, played a key role in the grease penetration properties and resilience of these materials.

  15. The Role of Prototype Learning in Hierarchical Models of Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomure, Michael David

    2014-01-01

    I conduct a study of learning in HMAX-like models, which are hierarchical models of visual processing in biological vision systems. Such models compute a new representation for an image based on the similarity of image sub-parts to a number of specific patterns, called prototypes. Despite being a central piece of the overall model, the issue of…

  16. Fastcast: Integration and application of rapid prototyping and computational simulation to investment casting

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, M.C.; Baldwin, M.D.; Atwood, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    The emergence of several rapid prototyping and manufacturing (RP and M) technologies is having a dramatic impact on investment casting. While the most successful of the rapid prototyping technologies are almost a decade old, relatively recent process advances in their application have produced some remarkable success in utilizing their products as patterns for investment castings. Sandia National Laboratories has been developed highly coupled experimental and computational capabilities to examine the investment casting process with the intention of reducing the amount of time required to manufacture castings, and to increase the quality of the finished product. This presentation will begin with process aspects of RP and M pattern production and handling, shell fabrication, burnout, and casting. The emphasis will be on how the use of Stereolithography (SL) or Selective Laser Sintered (SLS) patterns differs from more traditional wax pattern processes. Aspects of computational simulation to couple design, thermal analysis, and mold filling will be discussed. Integration of these topics is probably the greatest challenge to the use of concurrent engineering principles with investment casting. Sandia has conducted several experiments aimed at calibrating computer codes and providing data for input into these simulations. Studies involving materials as diverse as stainless steel and gold have been conducted to determine liquid metal behavior in molds via real time radiography. The application of these experiments to predictive simulations will be described.

  17. Fabrication of thermoset polyester microfluidic devices and embossing masters using rapid prototyped polydimethylsiloxane molds.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Gina S; Jeffries, Gavin D M; Lim, David S W; Kuyper, Christopher L; Chiu, Daniel T

    2003-08-01

    Plastics are increasingly being used for the fabrication of Lab-on-a-Chip devices due to the variety of beneficial material properties, affordable cost, and straightforward fabrication methods available from a range of different types of plastics. Rapid prototyping of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices has become a well-known process for the quick and easy fabrication of microfluidic devices in the research laboratory; however, PDMS is not always an appropriate material for every application. This paper describes the fabrication of thermoset polyester microfluidic devices and masters for hot embossing using replica molding techniques. Rapid prototyped PDMS molds are convienently used for the production of non-PDMS polymeric devices. The recessed features in the cast polyester can be bonded to a second polyester piece to form an enclosed microchannel. Thermoset polyester can withstand moderate amounts of pressure and elevated temperature; therefore, the cast polyester piece also can be used as a master for embossing polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microfluidic systems. Examples of enclosed polyester and PMMA microchannels are presented, and we discuss the electroosmotic properties of both types of channels, which are important for analytical applications such as capillary electrophoresis.

  18. The Java Image Science Toolkit (JIST) for rapid prototyping and publishing of neuroimaging software.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Blake C; Bogovic, John A; Carass, Aaron; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Prince, Jerry L; Pham, Dzung L; Landman, Bennett A

    2010-03-01

    Non-invasive neuroimaging techniques enable extraordinarily sensitive and specific in vivo study of the structure, functional response and connectivity of biological mechanisms. With these advanced methods comes a heavy reliance on computer-based processing, analysis and interpretation. While the neuroimaging community has produced many excellent academic and commercial tool packages, new tools are often required to interpret new modalities and paradigms. Developing custom tools and ensuring interoperability with existing tools is a significant hurdle. To address these limitations, we present a new framework for algorithm development that implicitly ensures tool interoperability, generates graphical user interfaces, provides advanced batch processing tools, and, most importantly, requires minimal additional programming or computational overhead. Java-based rapid prototyping with this system is an efficient and practical approach to evaluate new algorithms since the proposed system ensures that rapidly constructed prototypes are actually fully-functional processing modules with support for multiple GUI's, a broad range of file formats, and distributed computation. Herein, we demonstrate MRI image processing with the proposed system for cortical surface extraction in large cross-sectional cohorts, provide a system for fully automated diffusion tensor image analysis, and illustrate how the system can be used as a simulation framework for the development of a new image analysis method. The system is released as open source under the Lesser GNU Public License (LGPL) through the Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resources Clearinghouse (NITRC).

  19. A new UV-curing elastomeric substrate for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvankarian, Jafar; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2012-03-01

    Rapid prototyping in the design cycle of new microfluidic devices is very important for shortening time-to-market. Researchers are facing the challenge to explore new and suitable substrates with simple and efficient microfabrication techniques. In this paper, we introduce and characterize a UV-curing elastomeric polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA) for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices. The swelling and solubility of PUMA in different chemicals is determined. Time-dependent measurements of water contact angle show that the native PUMA is hydrophilic without surface treatment. The current monitoring method is used for measurement of the electroosmotic flow mobility in the microchannels made from PUMA. The optical, physical, thermal and mechanical properties of PUMA are evaluated. The UV-lithography and molding process is used for making micropillars and deep channel microfluidic structures integrated to the supporting base layer. Spin coating is characterized for producing different layer thicknesses of PUMA resin. A device is fabricated and tested for examining the strength of different bonding techniques such as conformal, corona treating and semi-curing of two PUMA layers in microfluidic application and the results show that the bonding strengths are comparable to that of PDMS. We also report fabrication and testing of a three-layer multi inlet/outlet microfluidic device including a very effective fluidic interconnect for application demonstration of PUMA as a promising new substrate. A simple micro-device is developed and employed for observing the pressure deflection of membrane made from PUMA as a very effective elastomeric valve in microfluidic devices.

  20. Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a PDMS/polymer tape composite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungkyu; Surapaneni, Rajesh; Gale, Bruce K

    2009-05-07

    Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a combination of double-sided tape and PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) is introduced. PDMS is typically difficult to bond using adhesive tapes due to its hydrophobic nature and low surface energy. For this reason, PDMS is not compatible with the xurography method, which uses a knife plotter and various adhesive coated polymer tapes. To solve these problems, a PDMS/tape composite was developed and demonstrated in microfluidic applications. The PDMS/tape composite was created by spinning it to make a thin layer of PDMS over double-sided tape. Then the PDMS/tape composite was patterned to create channels using xurography, and bonded to a PDMS slab. After removing the backing paper from the tape, a complete microfluidic system could be created by placing the construct onto nearly any substrate; including glass, plastic or metal-coated glass/silicon substrates. The bond strength was shown to be sufficient for the pressures that occur in typical microfluidic channels used for chemical or biological analysis. This method was demonstrated in three applications: standard microfluidic channels and reactors, a microfluidic system with an integrated membrane, and an electrochemical biosensor. The PDMS/tape composite rapid prototyping technique provides a fast and cost effective fabrication method and can provide easy integration of microfluidic channels with sensors and other components without the need for a cleanroom facility.

  1. A prototypic mathematical model of the human hair cycle.

    PubMed

    Al-Nuaimi, Yusur; Goodfellow, Marc; Paus, Ralf; Baier, Gerold

    2012-10-07

    The human hair cycle is a complex, dynamic organ-transformation process during which the hair follicle repetitively progresses from a growth phase (anagen) to a rapid apoptosis-driven involution (catagen) and finally a relative quiescent phase (telogen) before returning to anagen. At present no theory satisfactorily explains the origin of the hair cycle rhythm. Based on experimental evidence we propose a prototypic model that focuses on the dynamics of hair matrix keratinocytes. We argue that a plausible feedback-control structure between two key compartments (matrix keratinocytes and dermal papilla) leads to dynamic instabilities in the population dynamics resulting in rhythmic hair growth. The underlying oscillation consists of an autonomous switching between two quasi-steady states. Additional features of the model, namely bistability and excitability, lead to new hypotheses about the impact of interventions on hair growth. We show how in silico testing may facilitate testing of candidate hair growth modulatory agents in human HF organ culture or in clinical trials.

  2. A Hybrid Tool for User Interface Modeling and Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trætteberg, Hallvard

    Although many methods have been proposed, model-based development methods have only to some extent been adopted for UI design. In particular, they are not easy to combine with user-centered design methods. In this paper, we present a hybrid UI modeling and GUI prototyping tool, which is designed to fit better with IS development and UI design traditions. The tool includes a diagram editor for domain and UI models and an execution engine that integrates UI behavior, live UI components and sample data. Thus, both model-based user interface design and prototyping-based iterative design are supported

  3. A new production method of elastic silicone carotid phantom based on MRI acquisition using rapid prototyping technique.

    PubMed

    Cao, Peng; Duhamel, Yvan; Olympe, Guillaume; Ramond, Bruno; Langevin, Francois

    2013-01-01

    In vitro experimental simulations of blood fluid in carotid artery require ideal phantoms that are as precise as possible. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate a method for carotid phantom fabrication by rapid prototyping technique (RP). By using 3D reconstructed projection of the 3D time-of-flight (TOF) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequence, a 12.5 cm multi-dimensional spatial structure of a carotid artery has been set up. Y-shaped and patient specific models have been generated respectively using silicone elastomer, which has a high resilience and a good tensile strength. The final patient specific model has internal carotid artery (ICA) with a highly spiraling siphon and an external carotid artery (ECA). Elastic properties of carotid walls have also been evaluated by Young's elastic modulus test and dynamic behaviors in optical and echography simulation experiments.

  4. A system for rapid prototyping of hearts with congenital malformations based on the medical imaging interaction toolkit (MITK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Ivo; Böttger, Thomas; Rietdorf, Urte; Maleike, Daniel; Greil, Gerald; Sieverding, Ludger; Miller, Stephan; Mottl-Link, Sibylle; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2006-03-01

    Precise knowledge of the individual cardiac anatomy is essential for diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease. Complex malformations of the heart can best be comprehended not from images but from anatomic specimens. Physical models can be created from data using rapid prototyping techniques, e.g., lasersintering or 3D-printing. We have developed a system for obtaining data that show the relevant cardiac anatomy from high-resolution CT/MR images and are suitable for rapid prototyping. The challenge is to preserve all relevant details unaltered in the produced models. The main anatomical structures of interest are the four heart cavities (atria, ventricles), the valves and the septum separating the cavities, and the great vessels. These can be shown either by reproducing the morphology itself or by producing a model of the blood-pool, thus creating a negative of the morphology. Algorithmically the key issue is segmentation. Practically, possibilities allowing the cardiologist or cardiac surgeon to interactively check and correct the segmentation are even more important due to the complex, irregular anatomy and imaging artefacts. The paper presents the algorithmic and interactive processing steps implemented in the system, which is based on the open-source Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK, www.mitk.org). It is shown how the principles used in MITK enable to assemble the system from modules (functionalities) developed independently from each other. The system allows to produce models of the heart (and other anatomic structures) of individual patients as well as to reproduce unique specimens from pathology collections for teaching purposes.

  5. CAD-CAM generated ear cast by means of a laser scanner and rapid prototyping machine.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto

    2004-12-01

    Sculpting a wax ear cast for use when making a definitive prosthesis for a patient who has had auricle ablative surgery, is challenging. It requires a skilled anaplastologist along with complex instrumentation able to perform facial laser scans and reproduce anatomic details. The aim of this article is to present a technique to create a cast by laser scanning a stone cast of the existing ear. A 3D laser scanner develops an integrated 3D digital image of the unaffected ear, which is copied and then mirrored. A rapid prototyping machine collects the necessary data to manufacture the definitive resin ear. This procedure is time and cost effective only if the technology is free of charge.

  6. Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong; Chen, Qi-Dai; Niu, Li-Gang; Wang, Jian-Nan; Wang, Juan; Wang, Rui; Xia, Hong; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2009-08-21

    Microfluidic researches are now resorting to advanced micro-nanoprocessing technologies for production of more functional "lab-on-a-chip" systems. However, two-photon polymerization (TPP), a powerful designable micro-nanofabrication approach, has not been put to use on the exciting field, largely due to the difficulties in forming buried channels. Here, we solve the problem by TPP prototyping of nanoshells, for which the usage of the negative tone resin SU-8 is found critical. The fabrication efficiency improved by orders of magnitude, together with the prospect of integration of movable micro-mechanical and optical components into the chip would make TPP a promising enabling tool for the micro-analytical systems. Finally, a 25 microm length functional microvalve in a microfluidic channel was rapidly realized and its "ON" and "OFF" states were tested.

  7. Advances in three-dimensional rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices for biological applications

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, P. F.; Ben Azouz, A.; Vázquez, M.; Liu, J.; Marczak, S.; Slouka, Z.; Chang, H. C.; Diamond, D.; Brabazon, D.

    2014-01-01

    The capability of 3D printing technologies for direct production of complex 3D structures in a single step has recently attracted an ever increasing interest within the field of microfluidics. Recently, ultrafast lasers have also allowed developing new methods for production of internal microfluidic channels within the bulk of glass and polymer materials by direct internal 3D laser writing. This review critically summarizes the latest advances in the production of microfluidic 3D structures by using 3D printing technologies and direct internal 3D laser writing fabrication methods. Current applications of these rapid prototyped microfluidic platforms in biology will be also discussed. These include imaging of cells and living organisms, electrochemical detection of viruses and neurotransmitters, and studies in drug transport and induced-release of adenosine triphosphate from erythrocytes. PMID:25538804

  8. Innovative Applications of Laser Scanning and Rapid Prototype Printing to Rock Breakdown Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourke, Mary; Viles, Heather; Nicoll, Joe; Lyew-Ayee, Parris; Ghent, Rebecca; Holmlund, James

    2008-01-01

    We present the novel application of two technologies for use in rock breakdown experiments, i.e. close-range, ground-based 3D triangulation scanning and rapid prototype printing. These techniques aid analyses of form-process interactions across the range of scales relevant to breakdown (micron-m). This is achieved through (a) the creation of DEMs (which permit quantitative description and analysis of rock surface morphology and morphological change) and (b) the production of more realistically-shaped experimental blocks. We illustrate the use of these techniques, alongside appropriate data analysis routines, in experiments designed to investigate the persistence of fluvially-derived features in the face of subsequent wind abrasion and weathering. These techniques have a range of potential applications in experimental field and lab-based geomorphic studies beyond those specifically outlined here.

  9. Novel CAD/CAM rapid prototyping of next-generation biomedical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doraiswamy, Anand

    An aging population with growing healthcare needs demands multifaceted tools for diagnosis and treatment of health conditions. In the near-future, drug-administration devices, implantable devices/sensors, enhanced prosthesis, artificial and unique functional tissue constructs will become increasingly significant. Conventional technologies for mass-produced implants do not adequately take individual patient anatomy into consideration. Development of novel CAD/CAM rapid prototyping techniques may significantly accelerate progress of these devices for next-generation patient-care. In this dissertation, several novel rapid prototyping techniques have been introduced for next-generation biomedical applications. Two-photon polymerization was developed to microfabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering, microneedles for drug-delivery and ossicular replacement prostheses. Various photoplymers were evaluated for feasibility, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and surface properties. Laser direct write using MDW was utilized for developing microstructures of bioceramics such as hydroxyapatite, and viable mammalian osteosarcoma cells. CAD/CAM laser micromachining (CLM) was developed to engineer biointerfaces as surface recognition regions for differential adherence of cells and growth into tissue-like networks. CLM was also developed for engineering multi-cellular vascular networks. Cytotoxic evaluations and growth studies demonstrated VEGF-induced proliferation of HAAE-1 human aortic endothelial cells with inhibition of HA-VSMC human aortic smooth muscle cells. Finally, piiezoelectric inkjet printing was developed for controlled administration of natural and synthetic adhesives to overcome several problems associated with conventional tissue bonding materials, and greatly improve wound-repair in next generation eye repair, fracture fixation, organ fixation, wound closure, tissue engineering, and drug delivery devices.

  10. Quantitative assessment of biophotonic imaging system performance with phantoms fabricated by rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianting; Coburn, James; Woolsey, Nicholas; Liang, Chia-Pin; Ramella-Roman, Jessica; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    In biophotonic imaging, turbid phantoms that are low-cost, biologically-relevant, and durable are desired for standardized performance assessment. Such phantoms often contain inclusions of varying depths and sizes in order to quantify key image quality characteristics such as penetration depth, sensitivity and contrast detectability. The emerging technique of rapid prototyping with three-dimensional (3D) printers provides a potentially revolutionary way to fabricate these structures. Towards this goal, we have characterized the optical properties and morphology of phantoms fabricated by two 3D printing approaches: thermosoftening and photopolymerization. Material optical properties were measured by spectrophotometry while the morphology of phantoms incorporating 0.2-1.0 mm diameter channels was studied by μCT, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical microscopy. A near-infrared absorbing dye and nanorods at several concentrations were injected into channels to evaluate detectability with a near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging (HRI) system (650-1100 nm). Phantoms exhibited biologically-relevant scattering and low absorption across visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Although limitations in resolution were noted, channels with diameters of 0.4 mm or more could be reliably fabricated. The most significant problem noted was the porosity of phantoms generated with the thermosoftening-based printer. The aforementioned three imaging methods provided a valuable mix of insights into phantom morphology and may also be useful for detailed structural inspection of medical devices fabricated by rapid prototyping, such as customized implants. Overall, our findings indicate that 3D printing has significant potential as a method for fabricating well-characterized, standard phantoms for medical imaging modalities such as HRI.

  11. Assessment of Data Assimilation with the Prototype High Resolution Rapid Refresh for Alaska (HRRRAK)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Kayla; Morton, Don; Zavodsky, Brad; Chou, Shih; Hu, Ming

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic Region Supercomputing Center has been running a quasi-operational prototype of a High Resolution Rapid Refresh for Alaska (HRRRAK) at 3km resolution, initialized by the 13km Rapid Refresh (RR). Although the RR assimilates a broad range of observations into its analyses, experiments with the HRRRAK suggest that there may be added value in assimilating observations into the 3km initial conditions, downscaled from the 13km RR analyses. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) group has been using assimilated data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) in WRF and WRF-Var simulations since 2004 with promising results. The sounder is aboard NASA s Aqua satellite, and provides vertical profiles of temperature and humidity. The Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system is then used to assimilate these vertical profiles into WRF forecasts. In this work, we assess the use of AIRS data in combination with other global data assimilation products on non-assimilated HRRRAK case studies. Two separate weather events will be assessed to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the impacts of AIRS data on HRRRAK forecasts.

  12. A microcontroller platform for the rapid prototyping of functional electrical stimulation-based gait neuroprostheses.

    PubMed

    Luzio de Melo, Paulo; da Silva, Miguel Tavares; Martins, Jorge; Newman, Dava

    2015-05-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been used over the last decades as a method to rehabilitate lost motor functions of individuals with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and post-stroke hemiparesis. Within this field, researchers in need of developing FES-based control solutions for specific disabilities often have to choose between either the acquisition and integration of high-performance industry-level systems, which are rather expensive and hardly portable, or develop custom-made portable solutions, which despite their lower cost, usually require expert-level electronic skills. Here, a flexible low-cost microcontroller-based platform for rapid prototyping of FES neuroprostheses is presented, designed for reduced execution complexity, development time, and production cost. For this reason, the Arduino open-source microcontroller platform was used, together with off-the-shelf components whenever possible. The developed system enables the rapid deployment of portable FES-based gait neuroprostheses, being flexible enough to allow simple open-loop strategies but also more complex closed-loop solutions. The system is based on a modular architecture that allows the development of optimized solutions depending on the desired FES applications, even though the design and testing of the platform were focused toward drop foot correction. The flexibility of the system was demonstrated using two algorithms targeting drop foot condition within different experimental setups. Successful bench testing of the device in healthy subjects demonstrated these neuroprosthesis platform capabilities to correct drop foot.

  13. Optimization of process parameters for dimensional accuracy in an area-forming rapid prototyping system using the Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Shih-Hsuan; Chen, Cheng-Chin; Chen, Kun-Ting; Su, Chun-Hao

    2015-03-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have been extensively applied to build products in recent decades. The area-forming rapid prototyping is an emerging RP technology with the advantages of a simple procedure with a short processing time. With the expansion in fields of application, the strictness on product quality has also increased. The dimensional accuracy of a product is one of the most critical quality characteristics. In order to improve the dimensional accuracy of a product from an area-forming RP system, this study optimizes the seven factors via the Taguchi method, and the result is verified with an extra sample.

  14. A frame-based domain-specific language for rapid prototyping of FPGA-based software-defined radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, Ganda Stephane; Gautier, Matthieu; Sentieys, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    The field-programmable gate array (FPGA) technology is expected to play a key role in the development of software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. As this technology evolves, low-level designing methods for prototyping FPGA-based applications did not change throughout the decades. In the outstanding context of SDR, it is important to rapidly implement new waveforms to fulfill such a stringent flexibility paradigm. At the current time, different proposals have defined, through software-based approaches, some efficient methods to prototype SDR waveforms in a processor-based running environment. This paper describes a novel design flow for FPGA-based SDR applications. This flow relies upon high-level synthesis (HLS) principles and leverages the nascent HLS tools. Its entry point is a domain-specific language (DSL) which handles the complexity of programming an FPGA and integrates some SDR features so as to enable automatic waveform control generation from a data frame model. Two waveforms (IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11a) have been designed and explored via this new methodology, and the results are highlighted in this paper.

  15. Rapid prototyping of interfacing microcomponents for printed circuit board-level optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    One of the important challenges for the deployment of the emerging breed of nanotechnology components is interfacing them with the external world, preferably accomplished with low-cost micro-optical devices. For the fabrication of this kind of micro-optical components, we make use of deep proton writing (DPW) as a generic rapid prototyping technology. DPW consists of bombarding polymer samples with swift protons, which results after chemical processing steps in high quality micro-optical components. The strength of the DPW micro-machining technology is the ability to fabricate monolithic building blocks that include micro-optical and mechanical functionalities which can be precisely integrated into more complex photonic systems. In this paper we give an overview of the process steps of the technology and we present several examples of micro-optical and micro-mechanical components, fabricated through DPW, targeting applications in printed circuit baordlevel optical interconnections. These include: high-precision 2-D fiber connectors, discrete out-of-plane coupling structures featuring high-quality 45° and curved micro-mirrors, arrays of high aspect ratio micro-pillars and backplane connectors. While DPW is clearly not a mass fabrication technique as such, one of its assets is that once the master component has been prototyped, a metal mould can be generated from the DPW master by applying electroplating. After removal of the plastic master, this metal mould can be used as a shim in a final microinjection moulding or hot embossing step. This way, the master component can be mass-produced at low cost in a wide variety of high-tech plastics.

  16. Deep proton writing: a powerful rapid prototyping technology for various micro-optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Debaes, Christof; Ottevaere, Heidi; Van Overmeire, Sara; Hermanne, Alex; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-05-01

    One of the important challenges for the deployment of the emerging breed of nanotechnology components is interfacing them with the external world, preferably accomplished with low-cost micro-optical devices. For the fabrication of this kind of micro-optical modules, we make use of deep proton writing (DPW) as a generic rapid prototyping technology. DPW consists of bombarding polymer samples with swift protons, which results after chemical processing steps in high quality micro-optical components. The strength of the DPW micro-machining technology is the ability to fabricate monolithic building blocks that include micro-optical and mechanical functionalities which can be precisely integrated into more complex photonic systems. In this paper we give an overview of the process steps of the technology and we present several examples of micro-optical and micro-mechanical components, fabricated through DPW, targeting applications in optical interconnections and in bio-photonics. These include: high-precision 2-D fiber connectors, out-of-plane coupling structures featuring high-quality 45° and curved micro-mirrors, arrays of high aspect ratio micro-pillars, and fluorescence and absorption detection bio-photonics modules. While DPW is clearly not a mass fabrication technique as such, one of its assets is that once the master component has been prototyped, a metal mould can be generated from the DPW master by applying electroplating. After removal of the plastic master, this metal mould can be used as a shim in a final microinjection moulding or hot embossing step. This way, the master component can be mass-produced at low cost in a wide variety of high-tech plastics.

  17. Rapid Prototyping of Hyperspectral Image Analysis Algorithms for Improved Invasive Species Decision Support Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, L. M.; Ball, J. E.; Evangilista, P.; Stohlgren, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    Nonnative invasive species adversely impact ecosystems, causing loss of native plant diversity, species extinction, and impairment of wildlife habitats. As a result, over the past decade federal and state agencies and nongovernmental organizations have begun to work more closely together to address the management of invasive species. In 2005, approximately 500M dollars was budgeted by U.S. Federal Agencies for the management of invasive species. Despite extensive expenditures, most of the methods used to detect and quantify the distribution of these invaders are ad hoc, at best. Likewise, decisions on the type of management techniques to be used or evaluation of the success of these methods are typically non-systematic. More efficient methods to detect or predict the occurrence of these species, as well as the incorporation of this knowledge into decision support systems, are greatly needed. In this project, rapid prototyping capabilities (RPC) are utilized for an invasive species application. More precisely, our recently developed analysis techniques for hyperspectral imagery are being prototyped for inclusion in the national Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS). The current ecological forecasting tools in ISFS will be compared to our hyperspectral-based invasives prediction algorithms to determine if/how the newer algorithms enhance the performance of ISFS. The PIs have researched the use of remotely sensed multispectral and hyperspectral reflectance data for the detection of invasive vegetative species. As a result, the PI has designed, implemented, and benchmarked various target detection systems that utilize remotely sensed data. These systems have been designed to make decisions based on a variety of remotely sensed data, including high spectral/spatial resolution hyperspectral signatures (1000's of spectral bands, such as those measured using ASD handheld devices), moderate spectral/spatial resolution hyperspectral images (100's of spectral bands, such

  18. Air injection test on a Kaplan turbine: prototype - model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, M.; Rivetti, A.; Díaz, L.; Liscia, S.

    2016-11-01

    Air injection is a very well-known resource to reduce pressure pulsation magnitude in turbines, especially on Francis type. In the case of large Kaplan designs, even when not so usual, it could be a solution to mitigate vibrations arising when tip vortex cavitation phenomenon becomes erosive and induces structural vibrations. In order to study this alternative, aeration tests were performed on a Kaplan turbine at model and prototype scales. The research was focused on efficiency of different air flow rates injected in reducing vibrations, especially at the draft tube and the discharge ring and also in the efficiency drop magnitude. It was found that results on both scales presents the same trend in particular for vibration levels at the discharge ring. The efficiency drop was overestimated on model tests while on prototype were less than 0.2 % for all power output. On prototype, air has a beneficial effect in reducing pressure fluctuations up to 0.2 ‰ of air flow rate. On model high speed image computing helped to quantify the volume of tip vortex cavitation that is strongly correlated with the vibration level. The hydrophone measurements did not capture the cavitation intensity when air is injected, however on prototype, it was detected by a sonometer installed at the draft tube access gallery.

  19. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Wei-Hsiang; Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm × 6 cm × 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm × 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm -2 and 0.4 mg cm -2, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm -2 at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm -2 at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 °C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of parallel connected and

  20. Rapid Prototyping of a High Sensitivity Graphene Based Glucose Sensor Strip

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Farshad; Reiner, Lisa; Bavarian, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    A rapid prototyping of an inexpensive, disposable graphene and copper nanocomposite sensor strip using polymeric flexible substrate for highly sensitive and selective nonenzymatic glucose detection has been developed and tested for direct oxidization of glucose. The CuNPs were electrochemically deposited on to the graphene sheets to improve electron transfer rates and to enhance electrocatalytic activity toward glucose. The graphene based electrode with CuNPs demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity (1101.3±56 μA/mM.cm2), excellent selectivity (without an interference with Ascorbic Acid, Uric Acid, Dopamine, and Acetaminophen), good stability with a linear response to glucose ranging from 0.1 mM to 0.6 mM concentration, and detection limits of 0.025 mM to 0.9 mM. Characterization of the electrodes was performed by scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and SEM). The electrochemical properties of the modified graphene electrodes were inspected by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and amperometry. PMID:26678700

  1. Rapid Prototyping of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Microfluidic Systems Using Solvent Imprinting and Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiuhua; Peeni, Bridget A.; Yang, Weichun; Becerril, Hector A.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a method for rapid prototyping of hard polymer microfluidic systems using solvent imprinting and bonding. We investigated the applicability of patterned SU-8 photoresist on glass as an easily fabricated template for solvent imprinting. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) exposed to acetonitrile for 2 min then had an SU-8 template pressed into the surface for 10 min, which provided appropriately imprinted channels and a suitable surface for bonding. After a PMMA cover plate had also been exposed to acetonitrile for 2 min, the imprinted and top PMMA pieces could be bonded together at room temperature with appropriate pressure. The total fabrication time was less than 15 min. Under the optimized fabrication conditions, nearly 30 PMMA chips could be replicated using a single patterned SU-8 master with high chip-to-chip reproducibility. Relative standard deviations were 2.3% and 5.4% for the widths and depths of the replicated channels, respectively. Fluorescently labeled amino acid and peptide mixtures were baseline separated using these PMMA microchips in <15 s. Theoretical plate numbers in excess of 5000 were obtained for a ~3 cm separation distance, and the migration time relative standard deviation for an amino acid peak was 1.5% for intra-day and 2.2% for inter-day analysis. This new solvent imprinting and bonding approach significantly simplifies the process for fabricating microfluidic structures in hard polymers such as PMMA. PMID:17466320

  2. Rapid Prototyping Technique for the Fabrication of Millifluidic Devices for Polymer Formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Joao; Harrison, Christopher; Eric, Amis; Karim, Alamgir

    2003-03-01

    We describe a rapid prototyping technique for the fabrication of 600 micron deep fluidic channels in a solvent-resistant polymeric matrix. Using a conventional illumination source, a laser-jet printed mask, and a commercially available thioelene-based adhesive, we demonstrate the fabrication of fluidic channels which are impervious to a wide range of solvents. The fabrication of channels with this depth by conventional lithography would be both challenging and time-consuming. We demonstrate two lithography methods: one which fabricates channels sealed between glass plates (closed face) and one which fabricates structures on a single plate (open-faced). Furthermore, we demonstrate that this technology can be used to fabricate channels with a depth which varies linearly with distance. The latter is completely compatible with silicone replication technniques. Additionally, we demonstrate that siloxane-based elastomer molds of these channels can be readily made for aqueous applications. Applications to on-line phase mapping of polymer solutions (PEO-Water-Salt) and off line phase separation studies will be discussed.

  3. Fabrication of topologically complex three-dimensional microfluidic systems in PDMS by rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R; Chiu, D T; Jackman, R J; Cherniavskaya, O; McDonald, J C; Wu, H; Whitesides, S H; Whitesides, G M

    2000-07-15

    This paper describes a procedure for making topologically complex three-dimensional microfluidic channel systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). This procedure is called the "membrane sandwich" method to suggest the structure of the final system: a thin membrane having channel structures molded on each face (and with connections between the faces) sandwiched between two thicker, flat slabs that provide structural support. Two "masters" are fabricated by rapid prototyping using two-level photolithography and replica molding. They are aligned face to face, under pressure, with PDMS prepolymer between them. The PDMS is cured thermally. The masters have complementary alignment tracks, so registration is straightforward. The resulting, thin PDMS membrane can be transferred and sealed to another membrane or slab of PDMS by a sequence of steps in which the two masters are removed one at a time; these steps take place without distortion of the features. This method can fabricate a membrane containing a channel that crosses over and under itself, but does not intersect itself and, therefore, can be fabricated in the form of any knot. It follows that this method can generate topologically complex microfluidic systems; this capability is demonstrated by the fabrication of a "basketweave" structure. By filling the channels and removing the membrane, complex microstructures can be made. Stacking and sealing more than one membrane allows even more complicated geometries than are possible in one membrane. A square coiled channel that surrounds, but does not connect to, a straight channel illustrates this type of complexity.

  4. Direct rapid prototyping of PDMS from a photomask film for micropatterning of biomolecules and cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Kang, Gyumin; Yeon, Ju Hun; Nam, Yoonkey; Park, Je-Kyun

    2009-01-07

    The soft lithographic technique is a collection of simple and cost-effective patterning techniques which applies an elastomeric stamp to transfer a nano/micro-scale pattern. Patterning biological materials using soft lithography provides procedurally simple control of the surface chemistry and the cell environments. However, conventional methods for generating microstructures on a substrate require expensive clean room facilities and skillful training. Here we report a simple and inexpensive clean-room free process using a conventional photomask film as a master to fabricate elastomeric stamps or microfluidic channels. This ultra rapid prototyping technique was applied to print FITC labeled poly-L-lysine with a 10 microm feature size on a glass substrate using soft lithographic processes, such as micro-contact printing and micromolding in capillaries, for patterning human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, human skin fibroblasts and hippocampal neurons from E-18 Sprague-Dawley rat. This novel technique using a photomask film as a master would be very useful 'hands-on' tool for the generation of micro-patterned chemical or biological assays using cells and proteins.

  5. Rapid prototyping of electrochromatography chips for improved two-photon excited fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Claudia; Beyreiss, Reinhild; Geissler, David; Jezierski, Stefan; Belder, Detlev

    2014-04-15

    In the present study, we introduce two-photon excitation at 532 nm for label-free fluorescence detection in chip electrochromatography. Two-photon excitation at 532 nm offers a promising alternative to one-photon excitation at 266 nm, as it enables the use of economic chip materials instead of fused silica. In order to demonstrate these benefits, one-photon and two-photon induced fluorescence detection are compared in different chip layouts and materials with respect to the achievable sensitivity in the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Customized chromatography chips with cover or bottom slides of different material and thickness are produced by means of a rapid prototyping method based on liquid-phase lithography. The design of thin bottom chips (180 μm) enables the use of high-performance immersion objectives with low working distances, which allows one to exploit the full potential of two-photon excitation for a sensitive detection. The developed method is applied for label-free analysis of PAHs separated on a polymer monolith inside polymer glass sandwich chips made from fused silica or soda-lime glass. The obtained limits of detection range from 40 nM to 1.95 μM, with similar sensitivities in fused silica thin bottom chips for one-photon and two-photon excitation. In deep-UV non- or less-transparent devices two-photon excitation is mandatory for label-free detection of aromatics with high sensitivity.

  6. Rapid prototyping: porous titanium alloy scaffolds produced by selective laser melting for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Warnke, Patrick H; Douglas, Timothy; Wollny, Patrick; Sherry, Eugene; Steiner, Martin; Galonska, Sebastian; Becker, Stephan T; Springer, Ingo N; Wiltfang, Jörg; Sivananthan, Sureshan

    2009-06-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM), a method used in the nuclear, space, and racing industries, allows the creation of customized titanium alloy scaffolds with highly defined external shape and internal structure using rapid prototyping as supporting external structures within which bone tissue can grow. Human osteoblasts were cultured on SLM-produced Ti6Al4V mesh scaffolds to demonstrate biocompatibility using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy after cell vitality staining, and common biocompatibility tests (lactate dihydrogenase (LDH), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and water soluble tetrazolium (WST)). Cell occlusion of pores of different widths (0.45-1.2 mm) was evaluated. Scaffolds were tested for resistance to compressive force. SEM investigations showed osteoblasts with well-spread morphology and multiple contact points. Cell vitality staining and biocompatibility tests confirmed osteoblast vitality and proliferation on the scaffolds. Pore overgrowth increased during 6 weeks' culture at pore widths of 0.45 and 0.5 mm, and in the course of 3 weeks for pore widths of 0.55, 0.6, and 0.7 mm. No pore occlusion was observed on pores of width 0.9-1.2 mm. Porosity and maximum compressive load at failure increased and decreased with increasing pore width, respectively. In summary, the scaffolds are biocompatible, and pore width influences pore overgrowth, resistance to compressive force, and porosity.

  7. Rapid Prototyping of a Cyclic Olefin Copolymer Microfluidic Device for Automated Oocyte Culturing.

    PubMed

    Berenguel-Alonso, Miguel; Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Morató, Roser; Ymbern, Oriol; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Laura; Talló-Parra, Oriol; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián; Puyol, Mar; López-Béjar, Manel

    2017-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) can benefit from the features of microfluidic technologies, such as the automation of time-consuming labor-intensive procedures, the possibility to mimic in vivo environments, and the miniaturization of the required equipment. To date, most of the proposed approaches are based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as platform substrate material due to its widespread use in academia, despite certain disadvantages, such as the elevated cost of mass production. Herein, we present a rapid fabrication process for a cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) monolithic microfluidic device combining hot embossing-using a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) master-and micromilling. The microfluidic device was suitable for trapping and maturation of bovine oocytes, which were further studied to determine their ability to be fertilized. Furthermore, another COC microfluidic device was fabricated to store sperm and assess its quality parameters over time. The study herein presented demonstrates a good biocompatibility of the COC when working with gametes, and it exhibits certain advantages, such as the nonabsorption of small molecules, gas impermeability, and low fabrication costs, all at the prototyping and mass production scale, thus taking a step further toward fully automated microfluidic devices in ART.

  8. Accuracy Assessment of Using Rapid Prototyping Drill Templates for Atlantoaxial Screw Placement: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuai; Lu, Teng; Hu, Qiaolong; Yang, Baohui; He, Xijing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To preliminarily evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of using rapid prototyping drill templates (RPDTs) for C1 lateral mass screw (C1-LMS) and C2 pedicle screw (C2-PS) placement. Methods. 23 formalin-fixed craniocervical cadaver specimens were randomly divided into two groups. In the conventional method group, intraoperative fluoroscopy was used to assist the screw placement. In the RPDT navigation group, specific RPDTs were constructed for each specimen and were used intraoperatively for screw placement navigation. The screw position, the operating time, and the fluoroscopy time for each screw placement were compared between the 2 groups. Results. Compared with the conventional method, the RPDT technique significantly increased the placement accuracy of the C2-PS (p < 0.05). In the axial plane, using RPDTs also significantly increased C1-LMS placement accuracy (p < 0.05). In the sagittal plane, although using RPDTs had a very high accuracy rate (100%) in C1-LMS placement, it was not statistically significant compared with the conventional method (p > 0.05). Moreover, the RPDT technique significantly decreased the operating and fluoroscopy times. Conclusion. Using RPDTs significantly increases the accuracy of C1-LMS and C2-PS placement while decreasing the screw placement time and the radiation exposure. Due to these advantages, this approach is worth promoting for use in the Harms technique. PMID:28004004

  9. Rapid prototyping of update algorithm of discrete Fourier transform for real-time signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakad, Yogendra P.; Sherlock, Barry G.; Chatapuram, Krishnan V.; Bishop, Stephen

    2001-10-01

    An algorithm is developed in the companion paper, to update the existing DFT to represent the new data series that results when a new signal point is received. Updating the DFT in this way uses less computation than directly evaluating the DFT using the FFT algorithm, This reduces the computational order by a factor of log2 N. The algorithm is able to work in the presence of data window function, for use with rectangular window, the split triangular, Hanning, Hamming, and Blackman windows. In this paper, a hardware implementation of this algorithm, using FPGA technology, is outlined. Unlike traditional fully customized VLSI circuits, FPGAs represent a technical break through in the corresponding industry. The FPGA implements thousands of gates of logic in a single IC chip and it can be programmed by users at their site in a few seconds or less depending on the type of device used. The risk is low and the development time is short. The advantages have made FPGAs very popular for rapid prototyping of algorithms in the area of digital communication, digital signal processing, and image processing. Our paper addresses the related issues of implementation using hardware descriptive language in the development of the design and the subsequent downloading on the programmable hardware chip.

  10. Porous titanium scaffolds fabricated using a rapid prototyping and powder metallurgy technique.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Garrett E; Pandit, Abhay S; Apatsidis, Dimitrios P

    2008-09-01

    One of the main issues in orthopaedic implant design is the fabrication of scaffolds that closely mimic the biomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. This research reports on a multi-stage rapid prototyping technique that was successfully developed to produce porous titanium scaffolds with fully interconnected pore networks and reproducible porosity and pore size. The scaffolds' porous characteristics were governed by a sacrificial wax template, fabricated using a commercial 3D-printer. Powder metallurgy processes were employed to generate the titanium scaffolds by filling around the wax template with titanium slurry. In the attempt to optimise the powder metallurgy technique, variations in slurry concentration, compaction pressure and sintering temperature were investigated. By altering the wax design template, pore sizes ranging from 200 to 400 microm were achieved. Scaffolds with porosities of 66.8 +/- 3.6% revealed compression strengths of 104.4+/-22.5 MPa in the axial direction and 23.5 +/- 9.6 MPa in the transverse direction demonstrating their anisotropic nature. Scaffold topography was characterised using scanning electron microscopy and microcomputed tomography. Three-dimensional reconstruction enabled the main architectural parameters such as pore size, interconnecting porosity, level of anisotropy and level of structural disorder to be determined. The titanium scaffolds were compared to their intended designs, as governed by their sacrificial wax templates. Although discrepancies in architectural parameters existed between the intended and the actual scaffolds, overall the results indicate that the porous titanium scaffolds have the properties to be potentially employed in orthopaedic applications.

  11. Deep proton writing with 12 MeV protons for rapid prototyping of microstructures in polymethylmethacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebraert, Evert; Gökçe, Berkcan; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Vervaeke, Michael; Meyer, Pascal; Guttmann, Markus; Dubruel, Peter; Thienpont, Hugo; Van Erps, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    Deep proton writing (DPW) is a fabrication technology developed for the rapid prototyping of polymer microstructures. We use polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates, which act as a positive resist, for irradiation with a collimated 12-MeV energy proton beam. Using 12 MeV enables the irradiation of increasingly thick PMMA substrates with less conicity of the sidewalls compared to the lower energies used in previous work. A microhole of 47.7 μm diameter over a depth of 1 mm is achieved, leading to a maximum aspect ratio of 21∶1. The sidewalls of the irradiated structures show a slightly conical shape and their root-mean-square surface roughness is lower than 50 nm averaged over 72 measured areas of 56 μm×44 μm. This means that DPW components have optical surface quality sidewalls for wavelengths larger than 400 nm. Based on the trade-off among the sidewall roughness, conicity, and the development time, we determine that the optimal proton fluence for 12-MeV DPW in PMMA is 7.75×106 μm-2. Finally, we discuss some high aspect ratio microstructures with optical surface quality that were created with DPW to be used for a myriad of applications, such as micromirrors, microlenses, optofluidic devices, and high-precision alignment structures for single-mode optical fiber connectors.

  12. Rapid prototyping of multi-scale biomedical microdevices by combining additive manufacturing technologies.

    PubMed

    Hengsbach, Stefan; Lantada, Andrés Díaz

    2014-08-01

    The possibility of designing and manufacturing biomedical microdevices with multiple length-scale geometries can help to promote special interactions both with their environment and with surrounding biological systems. These interactions aim to enhance biocompatibility and overall performance by using biomimetic approaches. In this paper, we present a design and manufacturing procedure for obtaining multi-scale biomedical microsystems based on the combination of two additive manufacturing processes: a conventional laser writer to manufacture the overall device structure, and a direct-laser writer based on two-photon polymerization to yield finer details. The process excels for its versatility, accuracy and manufacturing speed and allows for the manufacture of microsystems and implants with overall sizes up to several millimeters and with details down to sub-micrometric structures. As an application example we have focused on manufacturing a biomedical microsystem to analyze the impact of microtextured surfaces on cell motility. This process yielded a relevant increase in precision and manufacturing speed when compared with more conventional rapid prototyping procedures.

  13. Rapid prototyping of reflectors for vehicle lighting using laser activated remote phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachmayer, Roland; Kloppenburg, Gerolf; Wolf, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Bright white light sources are of significant importance for automotive front lighting systems. Today's upper class vehicles mainly use HID or LED as light source. As a further step in this development laser diode based systems offer high luminance, efficiency and allow the realization of new styling concepts and new dynamic lighting functions. These white laser diode systems can either be realized by mixing different spectral sources or by combining diodes with specific phosphors. Based on the approach of generating light using a laser and remote phosphor, lighting modules are manufactured. Four blue laser diodes (450 nm) are used to activate a phosphor coating and thus to achieve white light. A segmented paraboloid reflector generates the desired light distribution for an additional car headlamp. We use high speed milling and selective laser melting to build the reflector system for this lighting module. We compare the spectral reflection grade of these materials. Furthermore the generated modules are analyzed regarding their efficiency and light distribution. The use of Rapid Prototyping technologies allows an early validation of the chosen concept and is supposed to reduce cost and time in the product development process significantly. Therefor we discuss costs and times of the applied manufacturing technologies.

  14. Rapid prototyping of silicon structures by aid of laser and abrasive-jet machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruusing, Arvi; Leppaevuori, Seppo; Uusimaki, Antti; Uusimaki, Matti

    1999-03-01

    Rapid prototyping of silicon microstructures for fluidic devices using laser machining in water and abrasive-jet machining through mask is described. For laser machining a Q-switched 1-2 W 1 kHz pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam and 60 mJ XeCl excimer laser beam were used. The laser beam was scanned along the silicon surface at speeds 0.1-2 mm/s. Using excimer laser, the silicon nitride layer was patterned for subsequent chemical etching. Nd:YAG laser was used for fabrication of cavities and channels of depth down to 200 micrometers . Comparison of Nd:YAG laser machining of silicon in air and in water has been performed. Machining in water yields more even surfaces and there is no debris. By abrasive jet of velocity approximately 200 m/s and abrasive feed rate of 0.4 g/s, the silicon was eroded at speed of 40 micrometers /min. Several masking materials were compared, whereby a styrene based glue was found to have the best abrasion resistivity. The polymer masks were spun on the surface and patterned by excimer laser point or by knife. The described fabrication methods were used for making the fluid channels and chambers in silicon and for releasing silicon nitride and oxide films.

  15. Rapid prototyping process using linear array of high-power laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linquan; Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Hanchang

    2000-02-01

    Because of the weak points of the SLS spot Scanning process, a new rapid prototyping process -- SLS line scan using linear array of high power laser diodes regarded as energy sources is researched in this paper. A linear array with requisite length is formed by some high power laser diodes that can be derived individually. Beams of the linear array are transferred to the workplace and imaged some short and light lines by the corresponding optical collimators. They are lined up in a linear laser beam without separation whose length is equal to that of the linear array diodes. When sintering powdered material, the linear laser beam scans in one direction along x axis only. Only if the maximum line length is less than the y axial size of the workpiece, it is necessary that linear laser beam is lapped for some times in the y axis. The Scanning mode of x-y simultaneous guideways are used in this new system which differs entirely from the vibrating mirror scan. The scanning trace of the latter is an arc that will influence processing quality. This new process has higher efficiency and better quality than the traditional spot scanning method.

  16. Extrusion based rapid prototyping technique: an advanced platform for tissue engineering scaffold fabrication.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M Enamul; Chuan, Y Leng; Pashby, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Advances in scaffold design and fabrication technology have brought the tissue engineering field stepping into a new era. Conventional techniques used to develop scaffolds inherit limitations, such as lack of control over the pore morphology and architecture as well as reproducibility. Rapid prototyping (RP) technology, a layer-by-layer additive approach offers a unique opportunity to build complex 3D architectures overcoming those limitations that could ultimately be tailored to cater for patient-specific applications. Using RP methods, researchers have been able to customize scaffolds to mimic the biomechanical properties (in terms of structural integrity, strength, and microenvironment) of the organ or tissue to be repaired/replaced quite closely. This article provides intensive description on various extrusion based scaffold fabrication techniques and review their potential utility for TE applications. The extrusion-based technique extrudes the molten polymer as a thin filament through a nozzle onto a platform layer-by-layer and thus building 3D scaffold. The technique allows full control over pore architecture and dimension in the x- and y- planes. However, the pore height in z-direction is predetermined by the extruding nozzle diameter rather than the technique itself. This review attempts to assess the current state and future prospects of this technology.

  17. Prototyping disposable electrophoresis microchips with electrochemical detection using rapid marker masking and laminar flow etching.

    PubMed

    Manica, Drew P; Ewing, Andrew G

    2002-11-01

    Two novel methods are described for the fabrication of components for microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection (microchip CEEC) on glass substrates. First, rapid marker masking is introduced as a completely nonphotolithographic method of patterning and fabricating integrated thin-film metal electrodes onto a glass substrate. The process involves applying the pattern directly onto the metal layer with a permanent marker that masks the ensuing chemical etch. The method is characterized, and the performance of the resulting electrode is evaluated using catecholamines. The response compares well with photolithographically defined electrodes and exhibits detection limits of 648 nM and 1.02 microM for dopamine and catechol, respectively. Second, laminar flow etching is introduced as a partially nonphotolithographic method of replicating channel networks onto glass substrates. The replication process involves applying a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold of the channel network onto a slide coated with a sacrificial metal layer and then pulling solutions of metal etchants through the channels to transfer the pattern onto the sacrificial layer. The method is tested, and prototype channel networks are shown. These methods serve to overcome the time and cost involved in fabricating glass-based microchips, thereby making the goal of a disposable high performance lab-on-a-chip more attainable.

  18. Three-dimensional bioactive glass implants fabricated by rapid prototyping based on CO(2) laser cladding.

    PubMed

    Comesaña, R; Lusquiños, F; Del Val, J; López-Álvarez, M; Quintero, F; Riveiro, A; Boutinguiza, M; de Carlos, A; Jones, J R; Hill, R G; Pou, J

    2011-09-01

    Three-dimensional bioactive glass implants were produced by rapid prototyping based on laser cladding without using moulds. CO(2) laser radiation was employed to melt 45S5 and S520 bioactive glass particles and to deposit the material layer by layer following a desired geometry. Controlled thermal input and cooling rate by fine tuning of the processing parameters allowed the production of crack-free fully dense implants. Microstructural characterization revealed chemical composition stability, but crystallization during processing was extensive when 45S5 bioactive glass was used. Improved results were obtained using the S520 bioactive glass, which showed limited surface crystallization due to an expanded sintering window (the difference between the glass transition temperature and crystallization onset temperature). Ion release from the S520 implants in Tris buffer was similar to that of amorphous 45S5 bioactive glass prepared by casting in graphite moulds. Laser processed S520 scaffolds were not cytotoxic in vitro when osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with the dissolution products of the glasses; and the MC3T3-E1 cells attached and spread well when cultured on the surface of the materials.

  19. Application of the rapid prototyping technique to design a customized temporomandibular joint used to treat temporomandibular ankylosis

    PubMed Central

    Chaware, Suresh M.; Bagaria, Vaibhav; Kuthe, Abhay

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometric variations in humans make it difficult to replace a temporomandibular joint (TMJ), successfully using a standard “one-size-fits-all” prosthesis. The case report presents a unique concept of total TMJ replacement with customized and modified TMJ prosthesis, which is cost-effective and provides the best fit for the patient. The process involved in designing and modifications over the existing prosthesis are also described. A 12-year- old female who presented for treatment of left unilateral TMJ ankylosis underwent the surgery for total TMJ replacement. A three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) scan suggested features of bony ankylosis of left TMJ. CT images were converted to a sterolithographic model using CAD software and a rapid prototyping machine. A process of rapid manufacturing was then used to manufacture the customized prosthesis. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, with an improvement in mouth opening of 3.5 cm and painless jaw movements. Three years postsurgery, the patient is pain-free, has a mouth opening of about 4.0 cm and enjoys a normal diet. The postoperative radiographs concur with the excellent clinical results. The use of CAD/CAM technique to design the custom-made prosthesis, using orthopaedically proven structural materials, significantly improves the predictability and success rates of TMJ replacement surgery. PMID:19881026

  20. Rapid Model Fabrication and Testing for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced methods for rapid fabrication and instrumentation of hypersonic wind tunnel models are being developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center. Rapid aeroheating model fabrication and measurement techniques using investment casting of ceramic test models and thermographic phosphors are reviewed. More accurate model casting techniques for fabrication of benchmark metal and ceramic test models are being developed using a combination of rapid prototype patterns and investment casting. White light optical scanning is used for coordinate measurements to evaluate the fabrication process and verify model accuracy to +/- 0.002 inches. Higher-temperature (<210C) luminescent coatings are also being developed for simultaneous pressure and temperature mapping, providing global pressure as well as global aeroheating measurements. Together these techniques will provide a more rapid and complete experimental aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic database for future aerospace vehicles.

  1. Rapid prototyping 3D virtual world interfaces within a virtual factory environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosta, Charles Paul; Krolak, Patrick D.

    1993-01-01

    On-going work into user requirements analysis using CLIPS (NASA/JSC) expert systems as an intelligent event simulator has led to research into three-dimensional (3D) interfaces. Previous work involved CLIPS and two-dimensional (2D) models. Integral to this work was the development of the University of Massachusetts Lowell parallel version of CLIPS, called PCLIPS. This allowed us to create both a Software Bus and a group problem-solving environment for expert systems development. By shifting the PCLIPS paradigm to use the VEOS messaging protocol we have merged VEOS (HlTL/Seattle) and CLIPS into a distributed virtual worlds prototyping environment (VCLIPS). VCLIPS uses the VEOS protocol layer to allow multiple experts to cooperate on a single problem. We have begun to look at the control of a virtual factory. In the virtual factory there are actors and objects as found in our Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future project. In this artificial reality architecture there are three VCLIPS entities in action. One entity is responsible for display and user events in the 3D virtual world. Another is responsible for either simulating the virtual factory or communicating with the real factory. The third is a user interface expert. The interface expert maps user input levels, within the current prototype, to control information for the factory. The interface to the virtual factory is based on a camera paradigm. The graphics subsystem generates camera views of the factory on standard X-Window displays. The camera allows for view control and object control. Control or the factory is accomplished by the user reaching into the camera views to perform object interactions. All communication between the separate CLIPS expert systems is done through VEOS.

  2. Numerical study of similarity in prototype and model pumped turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. J.; Wang, Z. W.; Bi, H. L.

    2014-03-01

    Similarity study of prototype and model pumped turbines are performed by numerical simulation and the partial discharge case is analysed in detail. It is found out that in the RSI (rotor-stator interaction) region where the flow is convectively accelerated with minor flow separation, a high level of similarity in flow patterns and pressure fluctuation appear with relative pressure fluctuation amplitude of model turbine slightly higher than that of prototype turbine. As for the condition in the runner where the flow is convectively accelerated with severe separation, similarity fades substantially due to different topology of flow separation and vortex formation brought by distinctive Reynolds numbers of the two turbines. In the draft tube where the flow is diffusively decelerated, similarity becomes debilitated owing to different vortex rope formation impacted by Reynolds number. It is noted that the pressure fluctuation amplitude and characteristic frequency of model turbine are larger than those of prototype turbine. The differences in pressure fluctuation characteristics are discussed theoretically through dimensionless Navier-Stokes equation. The above conclusions are all made based on simulation without regard to the penstock response and resonance.

  3. Rapid world modelling for robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Littile, C.Q.; Wilson, C.W.

    1996-04-01

    The ability to use an interactive world model, whether it is for robotics simulation or most other virtual graphical environments, relies on the users ability to create an accurate world model. Typically this is a tedious process, requiring many hours to create 3-D CAD models of the surfaces within a workspace. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop usable methods to rapidly build world models of real world workspaces. This brings structure to an unstructured environment and allows graphical based robotics control to be accomplished in a reasonable time frame when traditional CAD modelling is not enough. To accomplish this, 3D range sensors are deployed to capture surface data within the workspace. This data is then transformed into surface maps, or models. A 3D world model of the workspace is built quickly and accurately, without ever having to put people in the environment.

  4. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the

  5. Development of a Prototype Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFI) for the Rapid Diagnosis of Melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Raymond L.; Reed, Dana E.; Hubbard, Mark A.; Dillon, Michael J.; Chen, Hongjing; Currie, Bart J.; Mayo, Mark; Sarovich, Derek S.; Theobald, Vanessa; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Chantratita, Narisara; Peacock, Sharon J.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Duval, Brea; Brett, Paul J.; Burtnick, Mary N.; AuCoin, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3–7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD) to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI); the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (∼0.2 ng/ml). The analytical reactivity (inclusivity) of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77) when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity) testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36) were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation. PMID:24651568

  6. Development of a prototype lateral flow immunoassay (LFI) for the rapid diagnosis of melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Raymond L; Reed, Dana E; Hubbard, Mark A; Dillon, Michael J; Chen, Hongjing; Currie, Bart J; Mayo, Mark; Sarovich, Derek S; Theobald, Vanessa; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Chantratita, Narisara; Peacock, Sharon J; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Duval, Brea; Brett, Paul J; Burtnick, Mary N; Aucoin, David P

    2014-03-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3-7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD) to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI); the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (∼0.2 ng/ml). The analytical reactivity (inclusivity) of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77) when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity) testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36) were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation.

  7. Application of Rapid Prototyping to the Investment Casting of Test Hardware (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Project No. 98-08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K. G.; Wells, D.

    2000-01-01

    Investment casting masters of a selected propulsion hardware component, a fuel pump housing, were rapid prototyped on the several processes in-house, along with the new Z-Corp process acquired through this project. Also, tensile samples were prototyped and cast using the same significant parameters. The models were then shelled in-house using a commercial grade zircon-based slurry and stucco technique. Next, the shelled models were fired and cast by our in-house foundry contractor (IITRI), with NASA-23, a commonly used test hardware metal. The cast models are compared by their surface finish and overall appearance (i.e., the occurrence of pitting, warping, etc.), as well as dimensional accuracy.

  8. Rapid Target Modeling Through Genetic Inheritance Mechanism Genetically Evolved Target Prototypmg (GETP). Phase I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-10

    Phase I Final Report Rapid Target Modeling Through Genetic Inheritance Mechanism Genetically Evolved Target Prototyping (GETP) Pbiai Dat December 10...COVERED 12/10/96 Final Report 5/7/96-12/10/96 A. TITE AND SUBTITU S. FUNDING NUMBERS Rapid Target Modeling Through Genetic Inheritance Mechanism... Genetically Evolved Target Prototyping (GETP) 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Jerzy Bala (P1) Dr. Peter Pachowicz (Co-P1) B.K. Gogia (PM) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  9. Virtual modelling of novel applicator prototypes for cervical cancer brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hudej, Robert; Al-Hammadi, Noora; Segedin, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Standard applicators for cervical cancer Brachytherapy (BT) do not always achieve acceptable balance between target volume and normal tissue irradiation. We aimed to develop an innovative method of Target-volume Density Mapping (TDM) for modelling of novel applicator prototypes with optimal coverage characteristics. Patients and methods. Development of Contour-Analysis Tool 2 (CAT-2) software for TDM generation was the core priority of our task group. Main requests regarding software functionalities were formulated and guided the coding process. Software validation and accuracy check was performed using phantom objects. Concepts and terms for standardized workflow of TDM post-processing and applicator development were introduced. Results CAT-2 enables applicator-based co-registration of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structures from a sample of cases, generating a TDM with pooled contours in applicator-eye-view. Each TDM voxel is assigned a value, corresponding to the number of target contours encompassing that voxel. Values are converted to grey levels and transformed to DICOM image, which is transported to the treatment planning system. Iso-density contours (IDC) are generated as lines, connecting voxels with same grey levels. Residual Volume at Risk (RVR) is created for each IDC as potential volume that could contain organs at risk. Finally, standard and prototype applicators are applied on the TDM and virtual dose planning is performed. Dose volume histogram (DVH) parameters are recorded for individual IDC and RVR delineations and characteristic curves generated. Optimal applicator configuration is determined in an iterative manner based on comparison of characteristic curves, virtual implant complexities and isodose distributions. Conclusions Using the TDM approach, virtual applicator prototypes capable of conformal coverage of any target volume, can be modelled. Further systematic assessment, including studies on

  10. Rapid world modelling from a mobile platform

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, R.E.; Jones, J.P.; Little, C.Q.; Wilson, C.W.

    1997-04-01

    The ability to successfully use and interact with a computerized world model is dependent on the ability to create an accurate world model. The goal of this project was to develop a prototype system to remotely deploy sensors into a workspace, collect surface information, and rapidly build an accurate world model of that workspace. A key consideration was that the workspace areas are typically hazardous environments, where it is difficult or impossible for humans to enter. Therefore, the system needed to be fully remote, with no external connections. To accomplish this goal, an electric, mobile platform with battery power sufficient for both the platform and sensor electronics was procured and 3D range sensors were deployed on the platform to capture surface data within the workspace. A radio Ethernet connection was used to provide communications to the vehicle and all on-board electronics. Video from on-board cameras was also transmitted to the base station and used to teleoperate the vehicle. Range data generated by the on-board 3D sensors was transformed into surface maps, or models. Registering the sensor location to a consistent reference frame as the platform moved through the workspace allowed construction of a detailed 3D world model of the extended workspace.

  11. Key elements to successful rapid prototyping and building of a Michelson interferometer for space-based sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Merritt; Cordray, David; Cronin, Shaun; Walker, Gary

    2004-02-01

    The Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is one of the sensors now under development for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) program. In order to reduce program risk and verify instrument performance rapid prototyping of the sensor and critical subsystems has been utilized. Key among these was a prototype instrument and a prototype interferometer. This prototype instrument is referred to as the EDU1 (Engineering Development Unit). A second effort was the build of a prototype interferometer as a part of an internal ITT effort. This was an uncompensated version of the CrIS interferometer. This was referred to as the Aluminum Prototype Interferometer. The idea was to move rapidly to hardware while exploring new technologies. This was built in 4 months. There were key success factors for both efforts. A set of clear cardinal requirements was established. The layout and the cardinal requirements therefore provided a conceptual overview and a basis for deriving lower level requirements. These requirements remained basically unchanged throughout the effort. Vendors were closely worked with but; key to this was the GD&T dimensions and datum"s that were established. These enabled sub systems to be independently produced and "snapped together" to produce a final assembly in a minimum time. Essentially many of the critical optical alignments were built in to the individual parts so the subsequent shiming was not required. Electronics to control the porchswing and Dynamic Alignment Mechanism were developed in existing servo control test beds and designed to be FPGA based. This allowed a high degree of flexibility. Success was also based on continuity of the key engineering leadership and effective communications between the team and a clear understanding of the technical issues by the engineering leadership team.

  12. Using the prototype willingness model to predict doping in sport.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, L; Long, J; Petróczi, A; Backhouse, S H

    2014-10-01

    To enable preventive measures to be designed, it is important to identify modifiable distal and proximal factors underlying doping behavior. This study investigated aspects of the prototype willingness model in relation to doping. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 729 competitive athletes. Following ethical approval, athletes (mean age = 28.8 ± 10.1 years; 63% male) completed an online questionnaire, which assessed doping-related attitudes, norms, prototype perceptions, outcome expectancies, and behavioral willingness. Using hierarchical multiple regression analysis, 54.4% of the total variance in willingness to dope was explained. Specifically, past doping, attitudes, and favorability of performance enhancing substance user prototypes were the strongest unique predictors of willingness to dope. Athletes appeared most willing to dope if they were to suffer an injury, a dip in performance, or think others are doping and getting away with it. National-level athletes displayed significantly greater willingness to dope (Kruskal-Wallis γ2 = 35.9, P < 0.001) and perceived themselves as significantly more similar to a doper (Kruskal-Wallis γ2 = 13.4, P = 0.004) than athletes competing at any other level. The findings highlight the importance of extending anti-doping provision beyond elite-level sport and the need to target athletes' doping-related perceptions.

  13. The Effect of Jetting Parameters on the Performance of Droplet Formation for Ink-Jet Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, Wayne

    1998-01-01

    Heinzl et al. (1985) reports that experiments in ink-jets to produce drawings or signals occurred as early as 1930. Various companies such as IBM and Pitney-Bowes have conducted extensive studies on these devices for many years. Many such reports are available in such journals as the IBM Journal of Research and Development. While numerous articles have been published on the jetting characteristics of ink and water, the literature is rather limited on fluids such as waxes (Gao & Sonin 1994) or non-water based fluids (Passow, et al. 1993). This present study extends the knowledge base to determine the performance of molten waxes in "ink-jet" type printers for rapid prototyping. The purpose of this research was to qualitatively and quantitatively study the droplet formation of a drop-on-demand ink-jet type nozzle system for rapid prototyping.

  14. Utility and Scope of Rapid Prototyping in Patients with Complex Muscular Ventricular Septal Defects or Double-Outlet Right Ventricle: Does it Alter Management Decisions?

    PubMed

    Bhatla, Puneet; Tretter, Justin T; Ludomirsky, Achi; Argilla, Michael; Latson, Larry A; Chakravarti, Sujata; Barker, Piers C; Yoo, Shi-Joon; McElhinney, Doff B; Wake, Nicole; Mosca, Ralph S

    2017-01-01

    Rapid prototyping facilitates comprehension of complex cardiac anatomy. However, determining when this additional information proves instrumental in patient management remains a challenge. We describe our experience with patient-specific anatomic models created using rapid prototyping from various imaging modalities, suggesting their utility in surgical and interventional planning in congenital heart disease (CHD). Virtual and physical 3-dimensional (3D) models were generated from CT or MRI data, using commercially available software for patients with complex muscular ventricular septal defects (CMVSD) and double-outlet right ventricle (DORV). Six patients with complex anatomy and uncertainty of the optimal management strategy were included in this study. The models were subsequently used to guide management decisions, and the outcomes reviewed. 3D models clearly demonstrated the complex intra-cardiac anatomy in all six patients and were utilized to guide management decisions. In the three patients with CMVSD, one underwent successful endovascular device closure following a prior failed attempt at transcatheter closure, and the other two underwent successful primary surgical closure with the aid of 3D models. In all three cases of DORV, the models provided better anatomic delineation and additional information that altered or confirmed the surgical plan. Patient-specific 3D heart models show promise in accurately defining intra-cardiac anatomy in CHD, specifically CMVSD and DORV. We believe these models improve understanding of the complex anatomical spatial relationships in these defects and provide additional insight for pre/intra-interventional management and surgical planning.

  15. Field flatteners fabricated with a rapid prototyper for K-edge subtraction imaging of small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Honglin; Bewer, Brian; Florin Gh. Popescu, Bogdan; Nichol, Helen; Chapman, Dean

    2008-04-01

    One of the difficulties in X-ray imaging is the need to record a wide dynamic range of intensities on the detector. For example, some rays may miss the object being imaged entirely while others may suffer many orders of magnitude attenuation in passing through. In K-edge subtraction (KES) [E. Rubenstein, et al., Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 97 (1985) 27.] imaging subtle differences in transmission through an object about the absorption edge of an element are used to create an image of the projected density of that element. This is done by a logarithmic subtraction of images acquired with energies above and below the absorption edge. For KES, the detector must register this transmitted intensity range in a linear manner for the subtraction method to be successful. The range of intensities which may strike the detector has inspired the concept of a field flattener. A field flattener is a device placed in the beam path that attenuates the input monochromatic beam to equalize X-ray absorption due to differences in the density of soft and hard tissues of an object before it passes through the object and thus achieves a flattened image. This removes the need for a wide dynamic range linear detector and allows detectors with modest performance to be used successfully in KES applications. The field flattener improves the S/ N ratio since X-ray exposures can be increased up to detector saturation. However, a field flattener removes anatomical information from each raw image (above or below K-edge) that may provide useful landmarks. Using rapid prototyping technology, two sets of field flatteners were fabricated and used in a KES experiment. This paper describes the procedure to design and fabricate field flatteners based on animal images from X-ray computed tomography (CT). Analysis of experimental data and KES images of a rat head with and without the field flattener are also presented. The results show a promising improvement of S/ N ratio using a field flattener

  16. Rapid prototyping and the ASME B5.54 standard for evaluation of machine tool performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G.K.; Rhorer, D.

    1998-03-01

    The Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) process has shown feasibility for rapid fabrication of metal to full density. Structural properties equivalent to those of conventionally processed material have been achieved. The process is performed without the use of stereolithography files using a more conventional CNC approach to developing the motion path from the CAD solid model and using multi-axis positioning to deposit material in any plane, not just the horizontal plane used in many current processes. The important criteria for evaluating a solid free-form deposit were suggested and used to evaluate a part produced by DLF example presented here.

  17. Development of rapid, continuous calibration techniques and implementation as a prototype system for civil engineering materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M. L.; Gagarin, N.; Mekemson, J. R.; Chintakunta, S. R.

    2011-06-23

    Until recently, civil engineering material calibration data could only be obtained from material sample cores or via time consuming, stationary calibration measurements in a limited number of locations. Calibration data are used to determine material propagation velocities of electromagnetic waves in test materials for use in layer thickness measurements and subsurface imaging. Limitations these calibration methods impose have been a significant impediment to broader use of nondestructive evaluation methods such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR). In 2006, a new rapid, continuous calibration approach was designed using simulation software to address these measurement limitations during a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) research and development effort. This continuous calibration method combines a digitally-synthesized step-frequency (SF)-GPR array and a data collection protocol sequence for the common midpoint (CMP) method. Modeling and laboratory test results for various data collection protocols and materials are presented in this paper. The continuous-CMP concept was finally implemented for FHWA in a prototype demonstration system called the Advanced Pavement Evaluation (APE) system in 2009. Data from the continuous-CMP protocol is processed using a semblance/coherency analysis to determine material propagation velocities. Continuously calibrated pavement thicknesses measured with the APE system in 2009 are presented. This method is efficient, accurate, and cost-effective.

  18. Comparison of Conventional Methods and Laser-Assisted Rapid Prototyping for Manufacturing Fixed Dental Prostheses: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Pompa, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Stefano; De Angelis, Francesca; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Annibali, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether there are differences in marginal fit between laser-fusion and conventional techniques to produce fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). A master steel die with 2 abutments was produced to receive a posterior 4-unit FDPs and single copings. These experimental models were divided into three groups (n = 20/group) manufactured: group 1, Ni-Cr alloy, with a lost-wax casting technique; group 2, Co-Cr alloy, with selective laser melting (SLM); and group 3, yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP), with a milling system. All specimens were cut along the longitudinal axis and their adaptation was measured at the marginal and shoulder areas on the right and left sides of each abutment. Measurements were made using a stereomicroscope (×60 magnification) and a scanning electron microscope (×800 magnification). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test, with a significance cutoff of 5%. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between group 3 and the other groups. The marginal opening was smallest with Co-Cr alloy substructures, while the shoulder opening was smallest with Ni-Cr alloy substructures. Within the limitations of this study, the marginal fit of an FDP is better with rapid prototyping (RP) via SLM than conventional manufacturing systems.

  19. Comparison of Conventional Methods and Laser-Assisted Rapid Prototyping for Manufacturing Fixed Dental Prostheses: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Pompa, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Stefano; De Angelis, Francesca; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Annibali, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether there are differences in marginal fit between laser-fusion and conventional techniques to produce fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). A master steel die with 2 abutments was produced to receive a posterior 4-unit FDPs and single copings. These experimental models were divided into three groups (n = 20/group) manufactured: group 1, Ni-Cr alloy, with a lost-wax casting technique; group 2, Co-Cr alloy, with selective laser melting (SLM); and group 3, yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP), with a milling system. All specimens were cut along the longitudinal axis and their adaptation was measured at the marginal and shoulder areas on the right and left sides of each abutment. Measurements were made using a stereomicroscope (×60 magnification) and a scanning electron microscope (×800 magnification). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test, with a significance cutoff of 5%. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between group 3 and the other groups. The marginal opening was smallest with Co-Cr alloy substructures, while the shoulder opening was smallest with Ni-Cr alloy substructures. Within the limitations of this study, the marginal fit of an FDP is better with rapid prototyping (RP) via SLM than conventional manufacturing systems. PMID:26576419

  20. Development of Rapid, Continuous Calibration Techniques and Implementation as a Prototype System for Civil Engineering Materials Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, M. L.; Gagarin, N.; Mekemson, J. R.; Chintakunta, S. R.

    2011-06-01

    Until recently, civil engineering material calibration data could only be obtained from material sample cores or via time consuming, stationary calibration measurements in a limited number of locations. Calibration data are used to determine material propagation velocities of electromagnetic waves in test materials for use in layer thickness measurements and subsurface imaging. Limitations these calibration methods impose have been a significant impediment to broader use of nondestructive evaluation methods such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR). In 2006, a new rapid, continuous calibration approach was designed using simulation software to address these measurement limitations during a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) research and development effort. This continuous calibration method combines a digitally-synthesized step-frequency (SF)-GPR array and a data collection protocol sequence for the common midpoint (CMP) method. Modeling and laboratory test results for various data collection protocols and materials are presented in this paper. The continuous-CMP concept was finally implemented for FHWA in a prototype demonstration system called the Advanced Pavement Evaluation (APE) system in 2009. Data from the continuous-CMP protocol is processed using a semblance/coherency analysis to determine material propagation velocities. Continuously calibrated pavement thicknesses measured with the APE system in 2009 are presented. This method is efficient, accurate, and cost-effective.

  1. Using INGRES as a rapid prototyping device during development of management information applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, L.; Connell, J.; Shafer, D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents case studies from the Administrative Data Processing Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory where a prototyping too, the INGRES relational database system, has been used to develop management information systems. The tool has proved valuable in satisfying user requirements and expectations, and in aiding data processing in the analysis and specification phases of the system life cycle. The prototype approach helps enormously in bridging the developer-user communication gap and has been found to add a negligible amount of cost to the entire software development project. Presented here are four case studies of how INGRES has been employed in prototyping. Also presented are examples of specific INGRES features and how they were used in one of the case studies and further examples involving another similar case. Special considerations and cautions are required when using INGRES for prototyping, but the overall conclusion is that it is a tool which has tremendously benefited our organization. Whether the final implemented system is INGRES-based or not, prototyping greatly enhances the possibility of complete, correct and unambiguous specifications prior to final software product development.

  2. An Embedded Systems Laboratory to Support Rapid Prototyping of Robotics and the Internet of Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblen, J. O.; van Bekkum, G. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for a course and laboratory designed to allow students to develop low-cost prototypes of robotic and other embedded devices that feature Internet connectivity, I/O, networking, a real-time operating system (RTOS), and object-oriented C/C++. The application programming interface (API) libraries provided permit…

  3. A prototype software methodology for the rapid evaluation of biomanufacturing process options.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Sunil; Francis, Richard; O'Donovan, Kieran; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J; Newcombe, Anthony R; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2007-10-01

    A three-layered simulation methodology is described that rapidly evaluates biomanufacturing process options. In each layer, inferior options are screened out, while more promising candidates are evaluated further in the subsequent, more refined layer, which uses more rigorous models that require more data from time-consuming experimentation. Screening ensures laboratory studies are focused only on options showing the greatest potential. To simplify the screening, outputs of production level, cost and time are combined into a single value using multi-attribute-decision-making techniques. The methodology was illustrated by evaluating alternatives to an FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration)-approved process manufacturing rattlesnake antivenom. Currently, antivenom antibodies are recovered from ovine serum by precipitation/centrifugation and proteolyzed before chromatographic purification. Alternatives included increasing the feed volume, replacing centrifugation with microfiltration and replacing precipitation/centrifugation with a Protein G column. The best alternative used a higher feed volume and a Protein G step. By rapidly evaluating the attractiveness of options, the methodology facilitates efficient and cost-effective process development.

  4. Rapid Prototyping for In Vitro Knee Rig Investigations of Prosthetized Knee Biomechanics: Comparison with Cobalt-Chromium Alloy Implant Material

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Christian; Steinbrück, Arnd; Müller, Tatjana; Woiczinski, Matthias; Chevalier, Yan; Müller, Peter E.; Jansson, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    Retropatellar complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) such as anterior knee pain and subluxations might be related to altered patellofemoral biomechanics, in particular to trochlear design and femorotibial joint positioning. A method was developed to test femorotibial and patellofemoral joint modifications separately with 3D-rapid prototyped components for in vitro tests, but material differences may further influence results. This pilot study aims at validating the use of prostheses made of photopolymerized rapid prototype material (RPM) by measuring the sliding friction with a ring-on-disc setup as well as knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure on a knee rig. Cobalt-chromium alloy (standard prosthesis material, SPM) prostheses served as validation standard. Friction coefficients between these materials and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were additionally tested as this latter material is commonly used to protect pressure sensors in experiments. No statistical differences were found between friction coefficients of both materials to PTFE. UHMWPE shows higher friction coefficient at low axial loads for RPM, a difference that disappears at higher load. No measurable statistical differences were found in knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure distribution. This suggests that using polymer prototypes may be a valid alternative to original components for in vitro TKA studies and future investigations on knee biomechanics. PMID:25879019

  5. Rapid prototyping for in vitro knee rig investigations of prosthetized knee biomechanics: comparison with cobalt-chromium alloy implant material.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Christian; Steinbrück, Arnd; Müller, Tatjana; Woiczinski, Matthias; Chevalier, Yan; Weber, Patrick; Müller, Peter E; Jansson, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    Retropatellar complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) such as anterior knee pain and subluxations might be related to altered patellofemoral biomechanics, in particular to trochlear design and femorotibial joint positioning. A method was developed to test femorotibial and patellofemoral joint modifications separately with 3D-rapid prototyped components for in vitro tests, but material differences may further influence results. This pilot study aims at validating the use of prostheses made of photopolymerized rapid prototype material (RPM) by measuring the sliding friction with a ring-on-disc setup as well as knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure on a knee rig. Cobalt-chromium alloy (standard prosthesis material, SPM) prostheses served as validation standard. Friction coefficients between these materials and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were additionally tested as this latter material is commonly used to protect pressure sensors in experiments. No statistical differences were found between friction coefficients of both materials to PTFE. UHMWPE shows higher friction coefficient at low axial loads for RPM, a difference that disappears at higher load. No measurable statistical differences were found in knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure distribution. This suggests that using polymer prototypes may be a valid alternative to original components for in vitro TKA studies and future investigations on knee biomechanics.

  6. Rehabilitation of the nose using CAD/CAM and rapid prototyping technology after ablative surgery of squamous cell carcinoma: a pilot clinical report.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Leonardo; De Crescenzio, Francesca; Fantini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Restoration of a nasal defect after ablative surgery for squamous cell carcinoma necessitates replacing the missing volume and anchoring a prosthesis to the patient's face. This report describes the failure of plastic reconstructive surgery after ablation of a squamous cell cancer of the nose and the esthetic and functional restoration of the patient with a nasal prosthesis. The process of making an implant-supported prosthesis using digital technology, including digitized anatomic models from a "nose library," and the rapid prototyping of the mesiostructure for bar anchorage and of the mold for silicone processing are presented.

  7. [Computer-aided method and rapid prototyping for the personalized fabrication of a silicone bandage digital prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Ventura Ferreira, Nuno; Leal, Nuno; Correia Sá, Inês; Reis, Ana; Marques, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of digital prostheses has acquired growing importance not only for the possibility for the patient to overcome psychosocial trauma but also to promote grip functionality. An application method of three dimensional-computer-aided design technologies for the production of passive prostheses is presented by means of a fifth finger amputee clinical case following bilateral hand replantation.Three-dimensional-computerized tomography was used for the collection of anthropometric images of the hands. Computer-aided design techniques were used to develop the digital file-based prosthesis from the reconstruction images by inversion and superimposing the contra-lateral finger images. The rapid prototyping manufacturing method was used for the production of a silicone bandage prosthesis prototype. This approach replaces the traditional manual method by a virtual method that is basis for the optimization of a high speed, accurate and innovative process.

  8. A highly miniaturized electron and ion energy spectrometer prototype for the rapid analysis of space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bedington, R.; Kataria, D. O.; Smith, A.

    2014-02-15

    MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) plasma analyzers are a promising possibility for future space missions but conventional instrument designs are not necessarily well suited to micro-fabrication. Here, a candidate design for a MEMS-based instrument has been prototyped using electron-discharge machining. The device features 10 electrostatic analyzers that, with a single voltage applied to it, allow five different energies of electron and five different energies of positive ion to be simultaneously sampled. It has been simulated using SIMION and the electron response characteristics tested in an instrument calibration chamber. Small deviations found in the electrode spacing of the as-built prototype were found to have some effect on the electron response characteristics but do not significantly impede its performance.

  9. Advanced product realization through model-based design and virtual prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    Several government agencies and industrial sectors have recognized the need for, and payoff of, investing in the methodologies and associated technologies for improving the product realization process. Within the defense community as well as commercial industry, there are three major needs. First, they must reduce the cost of military products, of related manufacturing processes, and of the enterprises that have to be maintained. Second, they must reduce the time required to realize products while still applying the latest technologies. Finally, they must improve the predictability of process attributes, product performance, cost, schedule and quality. They must continue to advance technology, quickly incorporate their innovations in new products and in processes to produce them, and they need to capitalize on the raw computational power and communications bandwidth that continues to become available at decreasing cost. Sandia National Laboratories initiative is pursuing several interrelated, key concepts and technologies in order to enable such product realization process improvements: model-based design; intelligent manufacturing processes; rapid virtual and physical prototyping; and agile people/enterprises. While progress in each of these areas is necessary, this paper only addresses a portion of the overall initiative. First a vision of a desired future capability in model-based design and virtual prototyping is presented. This is followed by a discussion of two specific activities parametric design analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) and virtual prototyping of miniaturized high-density electronics -- that exemplify the vision as well as provide a status report on relevant work in progress.

  10. Eagle II: A prototype for multi-resolution combat modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.R.; Hutchinson, J.L.

    1993-02-01

    Eagle 11 is a prototype analytic model derived from the integration of the low resolution Eagle model with the high resolution SIMNET model. This integration promises a new capability to allow for a more effective examination of proposed or existing combat systems that could not be easily evaluated using either Eagle or SIMNET alone. In essence, Eagle II becomes a multi-resolution combat model in which simulated combat units can exhibit both high and low fidelity behavior at different times during model execution. This capability allows a unit to behave in a highly manner only when required, thereby reducing the overall computational and manpower requirements for a given study. In this framework, the SIMNET portion enables a highly credible assessment of the performance of individual combat systems under consideration, encompassing both engineering performance and crew capabilities. However, when the assessment being conducted goes beyond system performance and extends to questions of force structure balance and sustainment, then SISMNET results can be used to ``calibrate`` the Eagle attrition process appropriate to the study at hand. Advancing technologies, changes in the world-wide threat, requirements for flexible response, declining defense budgets, and down-sizing of military forces motivate the development of manpower-efficient, low-cost, responsive tools for combat development studies. Eagle and SIMNET both serve as credible and useful tools. The integration of these two models promises enhanced capabilities to examine the broader, deeper, more complex battlefield of the future with higher fidelity, greater responsiveness and low overall cost.

  11. Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1

    SciTech Connect

    Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1993-02-24

    There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

  12. Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1993-02-24

    There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

  13. Application of Rapid Prototyping and Wire Arc Spray to the Fabrication of Injection Mold Tools (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K. G.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a layer-by-layer-based additive manufacturing process for constructing three-dimensional representations of a computer design from a wax, plastic, or similar material. Wire arc spray (WAS) is a metal spray forming technique, which deposits thin layers of metal onto a substrate or pattern. Marshall Space Flight Center currently has both capabilities in-house, and this project proposed merging the two processes into an innovative manufacturing technique, in which intermediate injection molding tool halves were to be fabricated with RP and WAS metal forming.

  14. Assessment of a virtual functional prototyping process for the rapid manufacture of passive-dynamic ankle-foot orthoses.

    PubMed

    Schrank, Elisa S; Hitch, Lester; Wallace, Kevin; Moore, Richard; Stanhope, Steven J

    2013-10-01

    Passive-dynamic ankle-foot orthosis (PD-AFO) bending stiffness is a key functional characteristic for achieving enhanced gait function. However, current orthosis customization methods inhibit objective premanufacture tuning of the PD-AFO bending stiffness, making optimization of orthosis function challenging. We have developed a novel virtual functional prototyping (VFP) process, which harnesses the strengths of computer aided design (CAD) model parameterization and finite element analysis, to quantitatively tune and predict the functional characteristics of a PD-AFO, which is rapidly manufactured via fused deposition modeling (FDM). The purpose of this study was to assess the VFP process for PD-AFO bending stiffness. A PD-AFO CAD model was customized for a healthy subject and tuned to four bending stiffness values via VFP. Two sets of each tuned model were fabricated via FDM using medical-grade polycarbonate (PC-ISO). Dimensional accuracy of the fabricated orthoses was excellent (average 0.51 ± 0.39 mm). Manufacturing precision ranged from 0.0 to 0.74 Nm/deg (average 0.30 ± 0.36 Nm/deg). Bending stiffness prediction accuracy was within 1 Nm/deg using the manufacturer provided PC-ISO elastic modulus (average 0.48 ± 0.35 Nm/deg). Using an experimentally derived PC-ISO elastic modulus improved the optimized bending stiffness prediction accuracy (average 0.29 ± 0.57 Nm/deg). Robustness of the derived modulus was tested by carrying out the VFP process for a disparate subject, tuning the PD-AFO model to five bending stiffness values. For this disparate subject, bending stiffness prediction accuracy was strong (average 0.20 ± 0.14 Nm/deg). Overall, the VFP process had excellent dimensional accuracy, good manufacturing precision, and strong prediction accuracy with the derived modulus. Implementing VFP as part of our PD-AFO customization and manufacturing framework, which also includes fit customization, provides a novel and powerful method to

  15. Rapid Prototyping of Microbial Cell Factories via Genome-scale Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Si, Tong; Xiao, Han; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Advances in reading, writing and editing genetic materials have greatly expanded our ability to reprogram biological systems at the resolution of a single nucleotide and on the scale of a whole genome. Such capacity has greatly accelerated the cycles of design, build and test to engineer microbes for efficient synthesis of fuels, chemicals and drugs. In this review, we summarize the emerging technologies that have been applied, or are potentially useful for genome-scale engineering in microbial systems. We will focus on the development of high-throughput methodologies, which may accelerate the prototyping of microbial cell factories. PMID:25450192

  16. Rapid prototyping of microbial cell factories via genome-scale engineering.

    PubMed

    Si, Tong; Xiao, Han; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-11-15

    Advances in reading, writing and editing genetic materials have greatly expanded our ability to reprogram biological systems at the resolution of a single nucleotide and on the scale of a whole genome. Such capacity has greatly accelerated the cycles of design, build and test to engineer microbes for efficient synthesis of fuels, chemicals and drugs. In this review, we summarize the emerging technologies that have been applied, or are potentially useful for genome-scale engineering in microbial systems. We will focus on the development of high-throughput methodologies, which may accelerate the prototyping of microbial cell factories.

  17. Correction of a severe facial asymmetry with computerized planning and with the use of a rapid prototyped surgical template: a case report/technique article

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Management of significant facial asymmetry presents a challenge due to the geometric complexity of the bony and other facial structures. Manual model surgery is an essential part of treatment planning but it can be complicated, time-consuming and may contain potential errors. Computer-aided surgery has revolutionized the correction of maxillofacial deformities. The aim of this study was to report a case of facial asymmetry when computerised simulation surgery was performed instead of manual model surgery and a virtually planned wafer splint was fabricated. A 26-year-old male was presented with a severe right-sided hemimandibular elongation. Following presurgical orthodontics high-resolution computer tomography scan was performed. The stack images were reformatted into a three-dimensional structure. Virtual Le Fort-I osteotomy was performed and the symmetry of the maxilla was corrected with the help of a three-dimensional planning software. A virtual intermediate surgical wafer was designed and produced with three-dimensional rapid prototyping technology. The mandible was rotated into the correct position following virtual bilateral sagittal split osteotomy to visualize the movements of the osteotomised mandibular segments. The two-jaw procedure was performed according to the virtual plan. The facial symmetry was improved significantly and stable occlusion was achieved. This complex case shows the advantages of computer-aided surgical planning and three-dimensional rapid prototyping for the correction of facial asymmetries. PMID:25014992

  18. Robot based three-dimensional welding for jet engine blade repair and rapid prototyping of small components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thukaram, Santosh Kumar

    Aero engines are made up of a large number of blades which are subject to wear and damage. They are expensive and must be repaired wherever possible. Engines also have small components which are required in small numbers that need to be developed rapidly. The first part of this research work focuses on developing a robust automated blade repair method using robotic welding. Optimal weld parameters were developed for build-up of edges having different thicknesses. Samples with varying Current and varying travel speed were produced and their micro hardness values were compared. Blade profiles were welded upon. The second part involves a methodology for producing small components using rapid prototyping (RP) techniques. This part involves use of 3D robotic welding for layered manufacturing. Tensile samples produced using the metal RP method were tested and results were found to be well above the minimum cast specifications for the given material.

  19. Low-temperature deposition manufacturing: A novel and promising rapid prototyping technology for the fabrication of tissue-engineered scaffold.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Daming; Huang, Jianghong; Wei, You; Xiong, Jianyi; Zhu, Weimin; Duan, Li; Chen, Jielin; Sun, Rong; Wang, Daping

    2017-01-01

    Developed in recent years, low-temperature deposition manufacturing (LDM) represents one of the most promising rapid prototyping technologies. It is not only based on rapid deposition manufacturing process but also combined with phase separation process. Besides the controlled macropore size, tissue-engineered scaffold fabricated by LDM has inter-connected micropores in the deposited lines. More importantly, it is a green manufacturing process that involves non-heating liquefying of materials. It has been employed to fabricate tissue-engineered scaffolds for bone, cartilage, blood vessel and nerve tissue regenerations. It is a promising technology in the fabrication of tissue-engineered scaffold similar to ideal scaffold and the design of complex organs. In the current paper, this novel LDM technology is introduced, and its control parameters, biomedical applications and challenges are included and discussed as well.

  20. Prototyping user displays using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosta, Charles P.; Miller, Ross; Krolak, Patrick; Vesty, Matt

    1990-01-01

    CLIPS is being used as an integral module of a rapid prototyping system. The prototyping system consists of a display manager for object browsing, a graph program for displaying line and bar charts, and a communications server for routing messages between modules. A CLIPS simulation of a physical model provides dynamic control of the user's display. Currently, a project is well underway to prototype the Advanced Automation System (AAS) for the Federal Aviation Administration.

  1. Rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices with integrated wrinkled gold micro-/nano textured electrodes for electrochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Gabardo, C M; Adams-McGavin, R C; Vanderfleet, O M; Soleymani, L

    2015-08-21

    Fully-integrated electro-fluidic systems with micro-/nano-scale features have a wide range of applications in lab-on-a-chip systems used for biosensing, biological sample processing, and environmental monitoring. Rapid prototyping of application-specific electro-fluidic systems is envisioned to facilitate the testing, validation, and market translation of several lab-on-a-chip systems. Towards this goal, we developed a rapid prototyping process for creating wrinkled micro-/nano-textured electrodes on shrink memory polymers, fabricating microfluidics using molds patterned by a craft-cutter, and bonding electrical and fluidic circuitries using a PDMS partial curing method optimized for creating void-free bonds at the side walls and surfaces of tall (>5 μm) micro-/nano-textured wrinkled electrodes. The resulting electro-fluidic devices, featuring closely spaced high topography electrodes for electrochemical analysis, can withstand flow-rates and burst pressures larger than 25 mL min(-1) and 125 kPa, respectively. In addition, the fully-integrated electrochemical flow-cell developed here demonstrates excellent electrochemical behaviour, with negligible scan to scan variation for over 100 cyclic voltammetry scans, and expected redox signatures measured under various voltage scan rates and fluidic flow rates.

  2. US Air Force Space Weather Products Rapid Prototyping Efforts - Solar Radio Background/Burst Effects and Meteor Effects Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.; Scro, K.

    2001-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSB) has joined efforts with the Technology Applications Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC Det 11/CIT) to rapidly transition space weather research into prototype, operational, system-impact products. These Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC) products are used to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense systems and communications. A summary of RPC activity is provided. Emphasis will be placed on current products under development, to include Solar Radio Background/Burst Effects (SoRBE) and Meteor Effects (ME) products. These will be added to real-time operations in the near future. SoRBE specifies the detrimental interference effects of background and event-level solar radio output on radar observations and satellite communications. ME will provide general meteor shower "nowcast" and forecast information, along with more specific meteor and meteor shower impact, radar clutter, and bolide (exploding meteor) effects. A brief overview of recently delivered products: Radar Auroral Clutter, Satellite Scintillation, HF Illumination, and GPS Single-Frequency Error Maps will also be provided.

  3. Rapid prototyping of an automated video surveillance system: a hardware-software co-design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Hau T.; Rakvic, Ryan N.; Broussard, Randy P.; Ives, Robert W.

    2011-06-01

    FPGA devices with embedded DSP and memory blocks, and high-speed interfaces are ideal for real-time video processing applications. In this work, a hardware-software co-design approach is proposed to effectively utilize FPGA features for a prototype of an automated video surveillance system. Time-critical steps of the video surveillance algorithm are designed and implemented in the FPGAs logic elements to maximize parallel processing. Other non timecritical tasks are achieved by executing a high level language program on an embedded Nios-II processor. Pre-tested and verified video and interface functions from a standard video framework are utilized to significantly reduce development and verification time. Custom and parallel processing modules are integrated into the video processing chain by Altera's Avalon Streaming video protocol. Other data control interfaces are achieved by connecting hardware controllers to a Nios-II processor using Altera's Avalon Memory Mapped protocol.

  4. Rapid prototyping for tissue-engineered bone scaffold by 3D printing and biocompatibility study

    PubMed Central

    He, Hui-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Mi, Xue; Hu, Yang; Gu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold (calcined goat spongy bone-biphasic ceramic composite/PVA gel) by 3D printing was performed, and the biocompatibility of the fabricated bone scaffold was studied. Pre-designed STL file was imported into the GXYZ303010-XYLE 3D printing system, and the tissue-engineered bone scaffold was fabricated by 3D printing using gel extrusion. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in vitro and then inoculated to the sterilized bone scaffold obtained by 3D printing. The growth of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of the tissue-engineered bone scaffold on the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs using MTT assay. Universal testing machine was adopted to test the tensile strength of the bone scaffold. The leachate of the bone scaffold was prepared and injected into the New Zealand rabbits. Cytotoxicity test, acute toxicity test, pyrogenic test and intracutaneous stimulation test were performed to assess the biocompatibility of the bone scaffold. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing had uniform pore size with the porosity of about 68.3%. The pores were well interconnected, and the bone scaffold showed excellent mechanical property. Rabbit BMSCs grew and proliferated on the surface of the bone scaffold after adherence. MTT assay indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold did not differ significantly from that of the cells in the control. In vivo experiments proved that the bone scaffold fabricated by 3D printing had no acute toxicity, pyrogenic reaction or stimulation. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing allows the rabbit BMSCs to adhere, grow and proliferate and exhibits excellent biomechanical property and high biocompatibility. 3D printing has a good application prospect in the prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold. PMID:26380018

  5. Rapid prototyping for tissue-engineered bone scaffold by 3D printing and biocompatibility study.

    PubMed

    He, Hui-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Mi, Xue; Hu, Yang; Gu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold (calcined goat spongy bone-biphasic ceramic composite/PVA gel) by 3D printing was performed, and the biocompatibility of the fabricated bone scaffold was studied. Pre-designed STL file was imported into the GXYZ303010-XYLE 3D printing system, and the tissue-engineered bone scaffold was fabricated by 3D printing using gel extrusion. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in vitro and then inoculated to the sterilized bone scaffold obtained by 3D printing. The growth of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of the tissue-engineered bone scaffold on the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs using MTT assay. Universal testing machine was adopted to test the tensile strength of the bone scaffold. The leachate of the bone scaffold was prepared and injected into the New Zealand rabbits. Cytotoxicity test, acute toxicity test, pyrogenic test and intracutaneous stimulation test were performed to assess the biocompatibility of the bone scaffold. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing had uniform pore size with the porosity of about 68.3%. The pores were well interconnected, and the bone scaffold showed excellent mechanical property. Rabbit BMSCs grew and proliferated on the surface of the bone scaffold after adherence. MTT assay indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold did not differ significantly from that of the cells in the control. In vivo experiments proved that the bone scaffold fabricated by 3D printing had no acute toxicity, pyrogenic reaction or stimulation. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing allows the rabbit BMSCs to adhere, grow and proliferate and exhibits excellent biomechanical property and high biocompatibility. 3D printing has a good application prospect in the prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold.

  6. Performance Evaluation of the Prototype Model NEXT Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The performance testing results of the first prototype model NEXT ion engine, PM1, are presented. The NEXT program has developed the next generation ion propulsion system to enhance and enable Discovery, New Frontiers, and Flagship-type NASA missions. The PM1 thruster exhibits operational behavior consistent with its predecessors, the engineering model thrusters, with substantial mass savings, enhanced thermal margins, and design improvements for environmental testing compliance. The dry mass of PM1 is 12.7 kg. Modifications made in the thruster design have resulted in improved performance and operating margins, as anticipated. PM1 beginning-of-life performance satisfies all of the electric propulsion thruster mission-derived technical requirements. It demonstrates a wide range of throttleability by processing input power levels from 0.5 to 6.9 kW. At 6.9 kW, the PM1 thruster demonstrates specific impulse of 4190 s, 237 mN of thrust, and a thrust efficiency of 0.71. The flat beam profile, flatness parameters vary from 0.66 at low-power to 0.88 at full-power, and advanced ion optics reduce localized accelerator grid erosion and increases margins for electron backstreaming, impingement-limited voltage, and screen grid ion transparency. The thruster throughput capability is predicted to exceed 750 kg of xenon, an equivalent of 36,500 hr of continuous operation at the full-power operating condition.

  7. Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yang; Song, Jiangxin; Li, En; Luo, Yong; Shen, Yinglong; Chen, Danping; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2012-02-21

    The creation of complex three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic systems has attracted significant attention from both scientific and applied research communities. However, it is still a formidable challenge to build 3D microfluidic structures with arbitrary configurations using conventional planar lithographic fabrication methods. Here, we demonstrate rapid fabrication of high-aspect-ratio microfluidic channels with various 3D configurations in glass substrates by femtosecond laser direct writing. Based on this approach, we demonstrate a 3D passive microfluidic mixer and characterize its functionalities. This technology will enable rapid construction of complex 3D microfluidic devices for a wide array of lab-on-a-chip applications.

  8. Performance of the ALMA Band 10 SIS Receiver Prototype Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yasunori; Kroug, Matthias; Kaneko, Keiko; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Uzawa, Yoshinori; Kojima, Takafumi; Kuroiwa, Koich; Miyachi, Akihira; Makise, Kazumasa; Wang, Zhen; Shan, Wenlei

    2011-06-01

    We have developed a dual polarization prototype model of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 10 (787-950 GHz) receivers. The front-end optics comprises a pair of ellipsoidal mirrors, a wire grid, and two corrugated feed horns. A waveguide mixer block is attached to each feed horn in which a mixer chip employing Nb/AlOx/Nb junctions and NbTiN/SiO2/Al microstrip tuning circuits is mounted to a WR-1.2 full-height waveguide. A local oscillator (LO) signal receiving horn and a waveguide 10-dB LO coupler are integrated in the block to provide the LO signal to the mixer chip. A fixed-tuned multiplier with a diagonal horn located at the 110-K stage is used to transmit the LO power. The LO signal is then quasi-optically coupled to the mixer receiving horn. A very wide intermediate frequency (IF) system with a bandwidth of 4-12 GHz is employed. The receiver demonstrated double sideband (DSB) noise temperatures of about 160 K (4h /kB) without any correctin for loss in front of the receiver at the LO frequency of 834 GHz at an operating physical temperature of 4 K.

  9. Binary Encoded-Prototype Tree for Probabilistic Model Building GP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanase, Toshihiko; Hasegawa, Yoshihiko; Iba, Hitoshi

    In recent years, program evolution algorithms based on the estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) have been proposed to improve search ability of genetic programming (GP) and to overcome GP-hard problems. One such method is the probabilistic prototype tree (PPT) based algorithm. The PPT based method explores the optimal tree structure by using the full tree whose number of child nodes is maximum among possible trees. This algorithm, however, suffers from problems arising from function nodes having different number of child nodes. These function nodes cause intron nodes, which do not affect the fitness function. Moreover, the function nodes having many child nodes increase the search space and the number of samples necessary for properly constructing the probabilistic model. In order to solve this problem, we propose binary encoding for PPT. In this article, we convert each function node to a subtree of binary nodes where the converted tree is correct in grammar. Our method reduces ineffectual search space, and the binary encoded tree is able to express the same tree structures as the original method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through the use of two computational experiments.

  10. Rapid prototyping of microchannels with surface patterns for fabrication of polymer fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, Payton J.; Sharifi, Farrokh; Hashemi, Nastaran

    2015-08-14

    Microfluidic technology has provided innovative solutions to numerous problems, but the cost of designing and fabricating microfluidic channels is impeding its expansion. In this study, Shrinky-Dink thermoplastic sheets are used to create multilayered complex templates for microfluidic channels. We also used inkjet and laserjet printers to raise a predetermined microchannel geometry by depositing several layers of ink for each feature consecutively. We achieved feature heights over 100 μm, which were measured and compared with surface profilometry. Templates closest to the target geometry were then used to create microfluidic devices from soft-lithography with the molds as a template. These microfluidic devices were, futhermore used to fabricate polymer microfibers using the microfluidic focusing approach to demonstrate the potential that this process has for microfluidic applications. Finally, an economic analysis was conducted to compare the price of common microfluidic template manufacturing methods. We showed that multilayer microchannels can be created significantly quicker and cheaper than current methods for design prototyping and point-of-care applications in the biomedical area.

  11. Rapid prototyping of microchannels with surface patterns for fabrication of polymer fibers

    DOE PAGES

    Goodrich, Payton J.; Sharifi, Farrokh; Hashemi, Nastaran

    2015-08-14

    Microfluidic technology has provided innovative solutions to numerous problems, but the cost of designing and fabricating microfluidic channels is impeding its expansion. In this study, Shrinky-Dink thermoplastic sheets are used to create multilayered complex templates for microfluidic channels. We also used inkjet and laserjet printers to raise a predetermined microchannel geometry by depositing several layers of ink for each feature consecutively. We achieved feature heights over 100 μm, which were measured and compared with surface profilometry. Templates closest to the target geometry were then used to create microfluidic devices from soft-lithography with the molds as a template. These microfluidic devicesmore » were, futhermore used to fabricate polymer microfibers using the microfluidic focusing approach to demonstrate the potential that this process has for microfluidic applications. Finally, an economic analysis was conducted to compare the price of common microfluidic template manufacturing methods. We showed that multilayer microchannels can be created significantly quicker and cheaper than current methods for design prototyping and point-of-care applications in the biomedical area.« less

  12. Hadron rapidity spectra within a hybrid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvorostukhin, A. S.; Toneev, V. D.

    2017-01-01

    A 2-stage hybrid model is proposed that joins the fast initial state of interaction, described by the hadron string dynamics (HSD) model, to subsequent evolution of the expanding system at the second stage, treated within ideal hydrodynamics. The developed hybrid model is assigned to describe heavy-ion collisions in the energy range of the NICA collider under construction in Dubna. Generally, the model is in reasonable agreement with the available data on proton rapidity spectra. However, reproducing proton rapidity spectra, our hybrid model cannot describe the rapidity distributions of pions. The model should be improved by taking into consideration viscosity effects at the hydrodynamical stage of system evolution.

  13. Rapid prototyping of a microfluidics-based Venturi micropump imprinted on polymeric, postage-stamp-sized chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, C.; Eshaque, B.; Badali, K.; Karanassios, V.

    2012-06-01

    Pumps are widely used in chemical analysis. For instance, they are used to help transport liquid samples from a beaker to an instrument, for example for sample introduction. Pumps can also used to evacuate chambers used for mass spectrometry. For miniaturized, portable analytical instruments, miniaturized pumps are ideally suited. In this paper, a micropump with no moving parts that relies on the Venturi effect has been rapidly prototyped by imprinting fluidic channels on inexpensive polymeric substrates. The micropump was first evaluated for potential vacuum applications (e.g., for portable mass spectrometers). Subsequently, it was evaluated for its ability to transfer liquids in microfluidic channels (for possible use as a sample delivery vehicle to an appropriate sample introduction system).

  14. Integration of a macro/micro architectured compartmentalised neuronal culture device using a rapid prototyping moulding process.

    PubMed

    Arundell, Martin; Perry, V Hugh; Newman, Tracey A

    2011-09-07

    The rapid prototyping of a reversible and one step moulded compartmentalised neuron glass/PDMS device with a thin wall barrier directly adjacent to the reservoirs is presented. A simple moulding technique to produce these devices results in a barrier of 560 μm where the 3 μm deep by 8 μm wide channels can be reversibly fabricated in either the glass base or PDMS compartmentalised mould depending on the type of application required. Using glass substrates with commercially laser engraved microchannels, both the PDMS planar and PDMS channelled device can be easily fabricated in a standard laboratory. The compartmentalised device has several advantages including good experimental accessibility and versatility with a variety of end user applications.

  15. Updates on the Construction of an Eyeglass-Supported Nasal Prosthesis Using Computer-Aided Design and Rapid Prototyping Technology.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Tarsitano, Achille; Marchetti, Claudio; Scotti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to design an updated connection system for an eyeglass-supported nasal prosthesis using rapid prototyping techniques. The substructure was developed with two main endpoints in mind: the connection to the silicone and the connection to the eyeglasses. The mold design was also updated; the mold was composed of various parts, each carefully designed to allow for easy release after silicone processing and to facilitate extraction of the prosthesis without any strain. The approach used in this study enabled perfect transfer of the reciprocal position of the prosthesis with respect to the eyeglasses, from the virtual to the clinical environment. Moreover, the reduction in thickness improved the flexibility of the prosthesis and promoted adaptation to the contours of the skin, even during functional movements. The method described here is a simplified and viable alternative to standard construction techniques for nasal prostheses and offers improved esthetic and functional results when no bone is available for implant-supported prostheses.

  16. 3D imaging acquisition, modeling, and prototyping for facial defects reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Trebeschi, Marco; Cavagnini, Gianluca; Gastaldi, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach that combines optical three-dimensional imaging, reverse engineering (RE) and rapid prototyping (RP) for mold production in the prosthetic reconstruction of facial prostheses is presented. A commercial laser-stripe digitizer is used to perform the multiview acquisition of the patient's face; the point clouds are aligned and merged in order to obtain a polygonal model, which is then edited to sculpture the virtual prothesis. Two physical models of both the deformed face and the 'repaired' face are obtained: they differ only in the defect zone. Depending on the material used for the actual prosthesis, the two prototypes can be used either to directly cast the final prosthesis or to fabricate the positive wax pattern. Two case studies are presented, referring to prostetic reconstructions of an eye and of a nose. The results demonstrate the advantages over conventional techniques as well as the improvements with respect to known automated manufacturing techniques in the mold construction. The proposed method results into decreased patient's disconfort, reduced dependence on the anaplasthologist skill, increased repeatability and efficiency of the whole process.

  17. Rapid-Prototyping of Application Specific Signal Processors (RASSP) Education and Facilitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    Site Program • RASSP Conference Success • VHDL Models • The Benchmark 1 Executable Requirement • Vive La Difference • Acknowledgements... HTC ) has developed a library and a corresponding methodology for developing VHDL performance models. These models can be used for capturing and...documenting architectural level designs, and for doing performance analysis studies of the architecture. HTC is significantly enhancing this library for the

  18. Rapid prototyping of multichannel microfluidic devices for single-molecule DNA curtain imaging.

    PubMed

    Robison, Aaron D; Finkelstein, Ilya J

    2014-05-06

    Single-molecule imaging and manipulation of biochemical reactions continues to reveal numerous biological insights. To facilitate these studies, we have developed and implemented a high-throughput approach to organize and image hundreds of individual DNA molecules at aligned diffusion barriers. Nonetheless, obtaining statistically relevant data sets under a variety of reaction conditions remains challenging. Here, we present a method for integrating high-throughput single-molecule "DNA curtain" imaging with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidics. Our benchtop fabrication method can be accomplished in minutes with common tools found in all molecular biology laboratories. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by simultaneous imaging of two independent biochemical reaction conditions in a laminar flow device. In addition, five different reaction conditions can be observed concurrently in a passive linear gradient generator. Combining rapid microfluidic fabrication with high-throughput DNA curtains greatly expands our capability to interrogate complex biological reactions.

  19. Liquid on Paper: Rapid Prototyping of Soft Functional Components for Paper Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Long Han, Yu; Liu, Hao; Ouyang, Cheng; Jian Lu, Tian; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to fabricate paper-based electric circuits consisting of a paper matrix embedded with three-dimensional (3D) microchannels and liquid metal. Leveraging the high electric conductivity and good flowability of liquid metal, and metallophobic property of paper, it is possible to keep electric and mechanical functionality of the electric circuit even after a thousand cycles of deformation. Embedding liquid metal into paper matrix is a promising method to rapidly fabricate low-cost, disposable, and soft electric circuits for electronics. As a demonstration, we designed a programmable displacement transducer and applied it as variable resistors and pressure sensors. The unique metallophobic property, combined with softness, low cost and light weight, makes paper an attractive alternative to other materials in which liquid metal are currently embedded. PMID:26129723

  20. Workstation-Based Simulation for Rapid Prototyping and Piloted Evaluation of Control System Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansur, M. Hossein; Colbourne, Jason D.; Chang, Yu-Kuang; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The development and optimization of flight control systems for modem fixed- and rotary-. wing aircraft consume a significant portion of the overall time and cost of aircraft development. Substantial savings can be achieved if the time required to develop and flight test the control system, and the cost, is reduced. To bring about such reductions, software tools such as Matlab/Simulink are being used to readily implement block diagrams and rapidly evaluate the expected responses of the completed system. Moreover, tools such as CONDUIT (CONtrol Designer's Unified InTerface) have been developed that enable the controls engineers to optimize their control laws and ensure that all the relevant quantitative criteria are satisfied, all within a fully interactive, user friendly, unified software environment.

  1. Ketamine as a promising prototype for a new generation of rapid-acting antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Chadi G.; Averill, Lynnette A.; Krystal, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of ketamine’s rapid and robust antidepressant effects opened a window into a new generation of antidepressants. Multiple controlled trials and open-label studies have demonstrated these effects across a variety of patient populations known to often achieve little to no response from traditional antidepressants. Ketamine has been generally well tolerated across patient groups, with transient mild to moderate adverse effects during infusion. However, the optimal dosing and route of administration and the safety of chronic treatment is not fully known. This review summarizes the clinical effects of ketamine and its neurobiological underpinnings and mechanisms of action that may provide insight into the neurobiology of depression, relevant biomarkers, and treatment targets. Moreover, we offer suggestions for future research that can continue to advance the field forward and ultimately improve the psychopharmacologic interventions available for those individuals struggling with depressive and trauma-related disorders. PMID:25727103

  2. Liquid on Paper: Rapid Prototyping of Soft Functional Components for Paper Electronics.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu Long; Liu, Hao; Ouyang, Cheng; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to fabricate paper-based electric circuits consisting of a paper matrix embedded with three-dimensional (3D) microchannels and liquid metal. Leveraging the high electric conductivity and good flowability of liquid metal, and metallophobic property of paper, it is possible to keep electric and mechanical functionality of the electric circuit even after a thousand cycles of deformation. Embedding liquid metal into paper matrix is a promising method to rapidly fabricate low-cost, disposable, and soft electric circuits for electronics. As a demonstration, we designed a programmable displacement transducer and applied it as variable resistors and pressure sensors. The unique metallophobic property, combined with softness, low cost and light weight, makes paper an attractive alternative to other materials in which liquid metal are currently embedded.

  3. Liquid on Paper: Rapid Prototyping of Soft Functional Components for Paper Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long Han, Yu; Liu, Hao; Ouyang, Cheng; Jian Lu, Tian; Xu, Feng

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to fabricate paper-based electric circuits consisting of a paper matrix embedded with three-dimensional (3D) microchannels and liquid metal. Leveraging the high electric conductivity and good flowability of liquid metal, and metallophobic property of paper, it is possible to keep electric and mechanical functionality of the electric circuit even after a thousand cycles of deformation. Embedding liquid metal into paper matrix is a promising method to rapidly fabricate low-cost, disposable, and soft electric circuits for electronics. As a demonstration, we designed a programmable displacement transducer and applied it as variable resistors and pressure sensors. The unique metallophobic property, combined with softness, low cost and light weight, makes paper an attractive alternative to other materials in which liquid metal are currently embedded.

  4. The Validity of the Five-Factor Model Prototypes for Personality Disorders in Two Clinical Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua D.; Reynolds, Sarah K.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the validity of D. R. Lynam and T. A. Widiger's (2001) prototypes for personality disorders (PDs) derived from the facets of the 5-factor model (FFM) of personality in 2 clinical samples. In the 1st sample (N = 94), there was good agreement between the prototypes generated by experts and the profiles reported by patients.…

  5. Routes to plastic models and prototypes using the SLS selective laser sintering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Sandra; van de Crommert, Simon; Esser, Klaus K.; McAlea, Kevin

    1997-09-01

    Complex three dimensional parts can be manufactured directly from CAD data using the SLSR selective laser sintering process. In addition to the currently used nylon materials, two new materials have been developed for the production of functional models. From an elastomeric polymer, commercially available as Somos 201, highly flexible, rubber-like parts can be produced directly in the sinterstation system. Also, a new product for producing stiff functional prototypes will be introduced in July, commercially available as VeriForm polymer. Its surface quality and detail definition is superior to the currently used nylon materials while the mechanical properties could be kept at the same level. Comparative data of VeriForm and the nylon materials are presented. For the production of real technical prototypes injection moulding inserts can be produced by the RapidTool process that can be employed for the production of up to 80,000 parts depending on the injected material and part geometry. By changes in the chemical composition and by new processing parameters, the average cycle time could be reduced from 4 to 5 days down to 2 to 3 days.

  6. Rapid serial prototyping of magnet-tipped attonewton-sensitivity cantilevers by focused ion beam manipulation1

    PubMed Central

    Longenecker, Jonilyn G.; Moore, Eric W.; Marohn, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a method for rapidly prototyping attonewton-sensitivity cantilevers with custom-fabricated tips and illustrate the method by preparing tips consisting of a magnetic nanorod overhanging the leading edge of the cantilevers. Micron-long nickel nanorods with widths of 120–220 nm were fabricated on silicon chips by electron beam lithography, deposition, and lift-off. Each silicon chip, with its integral nanomagnet, was attached serially to a custom-fabricated attonewton-sensitivity cantilever using focused ion beam manipulation. The magnetic nanorod tips were prepared with and without an alumina capping layer, and the minimum detectable force and tip magnetic moment of the resulting cantilevers was characterized by cantilever magnetometry. The results indicate that this serial but high-yield approach is an effective way to rapidly prepare and characterize magnetic tips for the proposed single-electron-spin and single-proton magnetic resonance imaging experiments. The approach also represents a versatile route for affixing essentially any vacuum-compatible sample to the leading edge of an attonewton-sensitivity cantilever. PMID:23028212

  7. A Rapid Prototyping Look at NASA's Next Generation Earth-Observing Satellites; Opportunities for Global Change Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, L.; Young, D. F.; Parker, P. A.; Eckman, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    biological productivity. NASA's Applied Sciences Program is taking a scientifically rigorous systems engineering approach to facilitate rapid prototyping of potential uses of the projected research capabilities of these new missions into decision support systems. This presentation includes an example of a prototype experiment that focuses on two of the Applied Sciences Program's twelve National Applications focus areas, Water Management and Energy Management. This experiment is utilizing research results and associated uncertainties from existing Earth-observation missions as well as from several of NASA's nine next generation missions. This prototype experiment is simulating decision support analysis and research results leading to priority management and/or policy issues concentrating on climate change and uncertainties in alpine areas on the watershed scale.

  8. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-31

    FormIt allows for the creation of building models in the field using an iOS or Android tablet . The final class of software is the energy...survey, we have seen an explosion in the use of personal devices such as laptops and tablets , associated increases in plug loads would not have...FormIt App for iOS and Android tablets currently; browser version in beta. Can be used to create geo-referenced and scaled conceptual building

  9. A prototype computer-aided modelling tool for life-support system models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preisig, H. A.; Lee, Tae-Yeong; Little, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Based on the canonical decomposition of physical-chemical-biological systems, a prototype kernel has been developed to efficiently model alternative life-support systems. It supports (1) the work in an interdisciplinary group through an easy-to-use mostly graphical interface, (2) modularized object-oriented model representation, (3) reuse of models, (4) inheritance of structures from model object to model object, and (5) model data base. The kernel is implemented in Modula-II and presently operates on an IBM PC.

  10. Prototyping the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Advanced Ceramics Research (ACR) of Tucson, Arizona, researches transforming scientific concepts into technological achievement. Through the SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) program, ACR developed a high pressure and temperature fused deposition system, a prototyping system that is known as extrusion freeform fabrication. This system is useful in manufacturing prosthetics. ACR also developed a three-dimensional rapid prototyping process in which physical models are quickly created directly from computer generated models. Marshall Space Flight Center also contracted ACR to fabricate a set of ceramic engines to be appraised for a solar thermal rocket engine test program.

  11. Software Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hanseler, Haley; Crouch, Barbara Insley; Cummins, Mollie R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Health information exchange (HIE) between Poison Control Centers (PCCs) and Emergency Departments (EDs) could improve care of poisoned patients. However, PCC information systems are not designed to facilitate HIE with EDs; therefore, we are developing specialized software to support HIE within the normal workflow of the PCC using user-centered design and rapid prototyping. Objective To describe the design of an HIE dashboard and the refinement of user requirements through rapid prototyping. Methods Using previously elicited user requirements, we designed low-fidelity sketches of designs on paper with iterative refinement. Next, we designed an interactive high-fidelity prototype and conducted scenario-based usability tests with end users. Users were asked to think aloud while accomplishing tasks related to a case vignette. After testing, the users provided feedback and evaluated the prototype using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Survey results from three users provided useful feedback that was then incorporated into the design. After achieving a stable design, we used the prototype itself as the specification for development of the actual software. Benefits of prototyping included having 1) subject-matter experts heavily involved with the design; 2) flexibility to make rapid changes, 3) the ability to minimize software development efforts early in the design stage; 4) rapid finalization of requirements; 5) early visualization of designs; 6) and a powerful vehicle for communication of the design to the programmers. Challenges included 1) time and effort to develop the prototypes and case scenarios; 2) no simulation of system performance; 3) not having all proposed functionality available in the final product; and 4) missing needed data elements in the PCC information system. PMID:27081404

  12. Fabrication and characterization of a rapid prototyped tissue engineering scaffold with embedded multicomponent matrix for controlled drug release

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Muwan; Le, Dang QS; Hein, San; Li, Pengcheng; Nygaard, Jens V; Kassem, Moustapha; Kjems, Jørgen; Besenbacher, Flemming; Bünger, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering implants with sustained local drug delivery provide an opportunity for better postoperative care for bone tumor patients because these implants offer sustained drug release at the tumor site and reduce systemic side effects. A rapid prototyped macroporous polycaprolactone scaffold was embedded with a porous matrix composed of chitosan, nanoclay, and β-tricalcium phosphate by freeze-drying. This composite scaffold was evaluated on its ability to deliver an anthracycline antibiotic and to promote formation of mineralized matrix in vitro. Scanning electronic microscopy, confocal imaging, and DNA quantification confirmed that immortalized human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-TERT) cultured in the scaffold showed high cell viability and growth, and good cell infiltration to the pores of the scaffold. Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin staining showed that the scaffold was osteoinductive. The drug-release kinetics was investigated by loading doxorubicin into the scaffold. The scaffolds comprising nanoclay released up to 45% of the drug for up to 2 months, while the scaffold without nanoclay released 95% of the drug within 4 days. Therefore, this scaffold can fulfill the requirements for both bone tissue engineering and local sustained release of an anticancer drug in vitro. These results suggest that the scaffold can be used clinically in reconstructive surgery after bone tumor resection. Moreover, by changing the composition and amount of individual components, the scaffold can find application in other tissue engineering areas that need local sustained release of drug. PMID:22904634

  13. Reverse engineering techniques applied to a human skull, for CAD 3D reconstruction and physical replication by rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Galantucci, L M; Percoco, G; Angelelli, G; Lopez, C; Introna, F; Liuzzi, C; De Donno, A

    2006-01-01

    The production of a copy of an existing object of complex shape is one of the typical applications of the integration between two modern computer-based technologies, reverse engineering (RE) and rapid prototyping (RP). The method is extremely versatile and can be used in various applicative domains (e.g. replacement of anatomical parts with artificial prostheses, replication of skeletal remains). Two different acquisition techniques of images of a skull, by laser and by CT scan, were compared to ascertain which enabled more accurate reproduction of the original specimen. The skull was chosen due to it being the body part most often used in medico-legal investigations (for personal identification, skull-photo superimposition techniques, forensic art, etc). Comparison between the copy and the original yielded satisfactory results for both techniques. However, CT scanning demonstrated some advantages over the laser technique, as it provided a cleaner point cloud, enabling shorter pre-reproduction processing times, as well as data on the internal parts, which resulted in the reproduction of a more faithful copy.

  14. Rapid prototyping of concave microwells for the formation of 3D multicellular cancer aggregates for drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Ting-Yuan; Wang, Zhe; Bai, Jing; Sun, Wei; Peng, Weng Kung; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju; Thiery, Jean-Paul; Kamm, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Microwell technology has revolutionized many aspects of in vitro cellular studies from 2-dimensional (2D) traditional cultures to 3-dimensional (3D) in vivo-like functional assays. However, existing lithography-based approaches are often costly and time-consuming. This study presents a rapid, low-cost prototyping method of CO2 laser ablation of a conventional untreated culture dish to create concave microwells used for generating multicellular aggregates, which can be readily available for general laboratories. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and polystyrene (PS) microwells were investigated, and each produced distinctive microwell features. Among these three materials, PS cell culture dishes produced the optimal surface smoothness and roundness. A549 lung cancer cells were grown to form cancer aggregates of controllable size from ~40 to ~80 μm in PS microwells. Functional assays of spheroids were performed to study migration on 2D substrates and in 3D hydrogel conditions as a step towards recapitulating the dissemination of cancer cells. Preclinical anti-cancer drug screening was investigated and revealed considerable differences between 2D and 3D conditions, indicating the importance of assay type as well as the utility of the present approach. PMID:23983140

  15. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabardo, Christine M.; Adams-McGavin, Robert C.; Fung, Barnabas C.; Mahoney, Eric J.; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal.

  16. Rapid micro-optical prototyping technology for fabricating optical interconnection modules at the MCM and PCB level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debaes, C.; Vervaeke, M.; Van Erps, J.; Desmet, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Gomez, V.; Vynck, P.; Van Overmeire, S.; Ishii, Y.; Hermanne, A.; Thienpont, H.

    2006-10-01

    One of the remaining challenges to solve the interconnection bottlenecks at the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and Multi-Chip-Module (MCM) level, is to adequately replace the galvanic interconnects with high-performance, low-cost, compact and reliable micro-photonic alternatives. At our labs of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel we are therefore optimizing and deploying a rapid micro-optical prototyping technology for micro-optical interconnect modules, which we call Deep Proton Writing (DPW). An advantage of the DPW process is that it can create steep micro-optical surfaces, micro-holes, micro-lenses and alignment features in one irradation step. Hence, relative accuracies are very well controlled. In this report, we will address more specifically the following components, made each with the DPW technology: 1) out-of-plane couplers for optical wave-guides embedded in PCB, 2) peripheral fiber ribbons and two dimensional single- and multimode fiber connectors for high-speed parallel optical connections, and 3) intra-MCM level optical interconnections via free-space optical modules. We will give special attention to the optical tolerancing and the opto-mechanical integration of components in their packages. We use both a sensitivity analysis to misalignment errors and Monte-Carlo simulations. It is our aim to investigate the whole component integration chain from the optoelectronic device packaging to the micro-opto-mechanical assembly of the interconnect module.

  17. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling.

    PubMed

    Gabardo, Christine M; Adams-McGavin, Robert C; Fung, Barnabas C; Mahoney, Eric J; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla

    2017-02-13

    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal.

  18. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling

    PubMed Central

    Gabardo, Christine M.; Adams-McGavin, Robert C.; Fung, Barnabas C.; Mahoney, Eric J.; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal. PMID:28211898

  19. A Methodology for Rapid Prototyping Peak-Constrained Least-Squares Bit-Serial Finite Impulse Response Filters in FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreira, Alex; Fox, Trevor W.; Turner, Laurence E.

    2003-12-01

    Area-efficient peak-constrained least-squares (PCLS) bit-serial finite impulse response (FIR) filter implementations can be rapidly prototyped in field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) with the methodology presented in this paper. Faster generation of the FPGA configuration bitstream is possible with a new application-specific mapping and placement method that uses JBits to avoid conventional general-purpose mapping and placement tools. JBits is a set of Java classes that provide an interface into the Xilinx Virtex FPGA configuration bitstream, allowing the user to generate new configuration bitstreams. PCLS coefficient generation allows passband-to-stopband energy ratio (PSR) performance to be traded for a reduction in the filter's hardware cost without altering the minimum stopband attenuation. Fixed-point coefficients that meet the frequency response and hardware cost specifications can be generated with the PCLS method. It is not possible to meet these specifications solely by the quantization of floating-point coefficients generated in other methods.

  20. A comparative study of wire feeding and powder feeding in direct diode laser deposition for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Waheed Ul Haq; Pinkerton, Andrew J.; Li, Lin

    2005-07-01

    Metal powder feeding has been used widely in various rapid prototyping and tooling processes such as direct laser deposition (DLD) and layered engineered net shaping (LENS) to achieve near net shape accuracy. Although powder recycling has been practiced, the material usage efficiency has been very low (normally below 30%). This study compares the process characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of wire- and powder-feed DLD. A 1.5 kW diode laser is used to build multiple layer parts, which are compared and analysed in terms of surface finish, microstructure and deposition efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy are used for the material characterisation. The microstructure of samples from both the methods is similar, with some porosity found in powder-feed components, but the surface finish and material usage efficiency is better for wire-feed samples. The deposition angle is found to be critical in the case of wire feeding and the characteristics of different feed angles are explored. Possible reasons for the different characteristics of the two deposition techniques are discussed.

  1. Deep Proton Writing for the rapid prototyping of polymer micro-components for optical interconnects and optofluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Ottevaere, Heidi; Hermanne, Alex; Thienpont, Hugo

    2013-07-01

    The use of photonics in data communication and numerous other industrial applications brought plenty of prospects for innovation and opened up different unexplored market opportunities. This is a major driving force for the fabrication of micro-optical and micro-mechanical structures and their accurate alignment and integration into opto-mechanical modules and systems. To this end, we present Deep Proton Writing (DPW) as a powerful rapid prototyping technology for such micro-components. The DPW process consists of bombarding polymer samples (PMMA or SU-8) with swift protons, which results after chemical processing steps in high-quality micro-optical components. One of the strengths of the DPW micro-fabrication technology is the ability to fabricate monolithic building blocks that include micro-optical and mechanical functionalities which can be precisely integrated into more complex photonic systems. In this paper we comment on how we shifted from using 8.3 to 16.5 MeV protons for DPW and give some examples of micro-optical and micro-mechanical components recently fabricated through DPW, targeting applications in optical interconnections and in optofluidics.

  2. Rapid Modeling and Analysis Tools: Evolution, Status, Needs and Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Stone, Thomas J.; Ransom, Jonathan B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advanced aerospace systems are becoming increasingly more complex, and customers are demanding lower cost, higher performance, and high reliability. Increased demands are placed on the design engineers to collaborate and integrate design needs and objectives early in the design process to minimize risks that may occur later in the design development stage. High performance systems require better understanding of system sensitivities much earlier in the design process to meet these goals. The knowledge, skills, intuition, and experience of an individual design engineer will need to be extended significantly for the next generation of aerospace system designs. Then a collaborative effort involving the designer, rapid and reliable analysis tools and virtual experts will result in advanced aerospace systems that are safe, reliable, and efficient. This paper discusses the evolution, status, needs and directions for rapid modeling and analysis tools for structural analysis. First, the evolution of computerized design and analysis tools is briefly described. Next, the status of representative design and analysis tools is described along with a brief statement on their functionality. Then technology advancements to achieve rapid modeling and analysis are identified. Finally, potential future directions including possible prototype configurations are proposed.

  3. Greenbrier Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-18

    This case study describes a prototype home that is the model home for the Homes at Greenbrier in Oakdale, Connecticut, and demonstrates the builder's concept of “attainable sustainable” of offering high performance homes at mid-market prices.

  4. Modelling Observable Properties of Rapidly Rotating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, D.; Deupree, R. G.; Aufdenberg, J.

    2016-11-01

    To fully understand the Be star phenomenon, one must have a reasonable degree of knowledge about the star beneath the disk, which is often found to be rapidly rotating. Rapid rotation complicates modelling because fundamental properties like the stellar luminosity and effective temperature require knowledge of the angle of inclination at which the star is observed. Furthermore our knowledge of the structure of rapidly rotating stars is on a less sure foundation than for non-rotating stars. The uncertainties in the inclination and the surface properties of a few rapidly rotating stars have been substantially reduced by interferometric observations over the last decade, and these stars can be used as tests of rotating stellar models, even if those stars themselves may not be Be stars. Vega, as an MK standard, is historically a very important star because it is used for calibration purposes. However, several studies have suggested that Vega is a rapidly rotating star viewed at a very low inclination angle, raising questions as to how well we really know its properties. Appropriate modelling has been challenging and there is still room for debate over the actual properties of Vega, as opposed to its observed properties. We have previously shown that under certain conditions both the stellar surface properties and the deduced surface properties scale from one model to another with the same surface shape. We used this scaling algorithm with realistic 2D models to compute high-resolution spectral energy distributions and interferometric visibilities to determine the best rotating model fit to Vega. Detailed comparisons between the computed and observed data will be presented.

  5. Interactive Effects within the Prototype Willingness Model: Predicting the Drinking Behavior of Indigenous Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Armenta, Brian E.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Gentzler, Kari C.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the Prototype/Willingness Model of Adolescent Risk Behavior we used longitudinal data collected from North American Indigenous early adolescents (ages 10–12 years) to examine the interactive effects of favorable drinker prototypes, perceived drinking norms, and past year drinking behavior on subsequent drinking behavior (i.e., drinking behavior 1 year later and growth in drinking behavior from 1–5 years later). We found that the positive association between favorable drinker prototypes and drinking one year later was strongest for adolescents who were high in past year drinking and perceived low drinking norms. The interaction pattern for growth in drinking was more complex and suggested an important pattern; specifically, favorable drinker prototypes were positively associated with drinking five years later, but only for adolescents who reported no past year drinking and perceived low drinking norms. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26999351

  6. Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft, (LCRRS): A Research Project in Low Cost Spacecraft Design and Fabrication in a Rapid Prototyping Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan; Bregman, Jesse; Dallara, Christopher D.; Ghassemieh, Shakib M.; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Kitts, Christopher; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ignacio, Mas; Mayer, David; Quigley, Emmett; Rasay, Mike; Swank, Aaron; Vandersteen, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    The Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft (LCRRS) is an ongoing research development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, California. The prototype spacecraft, called Cost Optimized Test for Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT) is the first of what could potentially be a series of rapidly produced low-cost satellites. COTSAT has a target launch date of March 2009 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle. The LCRRS research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing satellite. The design concept was baselined to support a 0.5 meter Ritchey-Chretien telescope payload. This telescope and camera system is expected to achieve 1.5 meter/pixel resolution. The COTSAT team is investigating the possibility of building a fully functional spacecraft for $500,000 parts and $2,000,000 labor. Cost is dramatically reduced by using a sealed container, housing the bus and payload subsystems. Some electrical and RF designs were improved/upgraded from GeneSat-1 heritage systems. The project began in January 2007 and has yielded two functional test platforms. It is expected that a flight-qualified unit will be finished in December 2008. Flight quality controls are in place on the parts and materials used in this development with the aim of using them to finish a proto-flight satellite. For LEO missions the team is targeting a mission class requiring a minimum of six months lifetime or more. The system architecture incorporates several design features required by high reliability missions. This allows for a true skunk works environment to rapidly progress toward a flight design. Engineering and fabrication is primarily done in-house at NASA Ames with flight certifications on materials. The team currently employs seven Full Time Equivalent employees. The success of COTSATs small team in this effort can be attributed to highly cross trained

  7. A Prototypical Model for Estimating High Tech Navy Recruiting Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Company, New York, N.Y., 1990. Gujarati , Damodar N., Basic Econometrics, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, N.Y., 1988. Jehn, Christopher...Probability, Logit, and Probit Models, New York, New York 1990, p. 73. 37 Gujarati , D., ibid, p. 500. 31 V. MODELS ESTIMATION A. MODEL I ESTIMATION OF

  8. Accuracy of fibular sectioning and insertion into a rapid-prototyped bone plate, for mandibular reconstruction using CAD-CAM technology.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Marchetti, Claudio; Mazzoni, Simona; Baldissara, Paolo; Gatto, Maria Rosaria Antonella; Cipriani, Riccardo; Scotti, Roberto; Tarsitano, Achille

    2015-01-01

    Modern techniques of mandibular reconstruction, such as CAD-CAM technology and rapid prototyping, offer new means by which reconstructive surgery can be planned to optimise aesthetic outcomes and prosthetic rehabilitation. The high degree of accuracy afforded by these approaches is principally attributable to high-precision fibular sectioning and insertion of the bone into a customised bone plate. CAD-CAM mandibular reconstruction procedures using vascularised bone free-flap transfers were performed on 10 patients with benign or malignant neoplasms. Five were not treated with the aid of CAD-CAM technology, and served as the control group. Five were scheduled for maxillofacial surgery using surgical cutting guides and customised bone plates. A generalised linear model for linear measures was used to compare the accuracy of reconstruction between the two groups. A difference, even though not significant, in the lateral shift of the mesial and distal positions of the fibular units was evident between groups. CAD-CAM-generated fibular surgical guides afford improved accuracy when used to restore native anatomy, especially in the context of mandibular arch restoration, and both operating room time and related costs are reduced during fibular sectioning.

  9. Development of a Prototype Model-Form Uncertainty Knowledge Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainties are generally classified as either aleatory or epistemic. Aleatory uncertainties are those attributed to random variation, either naturally or through manufacturing processes. Epistemic uncertainties are generally attributed to a lack of knowledge. One type of epistemic uncertainty is called model-form uncertainty. The term model-form means that among the choices to be made during a design process within an analysis, there are different forms of the analysis process, which each give different results for the same configuration at the same flight conditions. Examples of model-form uncertainties include the grid density, grid type, and solver type used within a computational fluid dynamics code, or the choice of the number and type of model elements within a structures analysis. The objectives of this work are to identify and quantify a representative set of model-form uncertainties and to make this information available to designers through an interactive knowledge base (KB). The KB can then be used during probabilistic design sessions, so as to enable the possible reduction of uncertainties in the design process through resource investment. An extensive literature search has been conducted to identify and quantify typical model-form uncertainties present within aerospace design. An initial attempt has been made to assemble the results of this literature search into a searchable KB, usable in real time during probabilistic design sessions. A concept of operations and the basic structure of a model-form uncertainty KB are described. Key operations within the KB are illustrated. Current limitations in the KB, and possible workarounds are explained.

  10. A Prototype Windflow Modeling System for Tactical Weather Support Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-07

    individuals and organi - zations. Instead of describing these contributions in detail, we choose to list the individuals and groups who have helped us over...illustrates the usefulness of the model windflow clima ~ology together with other known information to make a determina- tion of safety conditions at

  11. Final report on LDRD project: Low-cost Pd-catalyzed metallization technology for rapid prototyping of electronic substrates and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.S.; Morgan, W.P.; Zich, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    A low-cost, thermally-activated, palladium-catalyzed metallization process was developed for rapid prototyping of polymeric electronic substrates and devices. The process was successfully applied in producing adhesiveless copper/polyimide laminates with high peel strengths and thick copper coating; copper/polyimide laminates are widely used in fabricating interconnects such as printed wiring boards (PWBs) and flexible circuits. Also successfully metallized using this low-cost metallization process were: (1) scaled-down models of radar-and-communication antenna and waveguide; (2) scaled-down model of pulsed-power-accelerator electrode; (3) three-dimensional micro-porous, open-cell vitreous carbon foams. Moreover, additive patterned metallization was successfully achieved by selectively printing or plotting the catalyst ink only on areas where metallization is desired, and by uniform thermal activation. Additive patterned metallization eliminates the time-consuming, costly and environmentally-unfriendly etching process that is routinely carried out in conventional subtractive patterned metallization. A metallization process via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation activation was also demonstrated. In this process palladium-catalyst solution is first uniformly coated onto the substrate. A masking pattern is used to cover the areas where metallization is not wanted. UV irradiation is applied uniformly to activate the palladium catalyst and to cure the polymer carrier in areas that are not covered by the mask. Metal is then deposited by electroless plating only or by a combination of electroless and electrolytic plating. This UV-activation technique is particularly useful in additive fine-line patterned metallization. Lastly, computer models for electrolytic and electroless plating processes were developed to provide guidance in plating-process design.

  12. Testing and modeling of diffusion bonded prototype optical windows under ITER conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.; Van Oost, G.; Degrieck, J.; De Baere, I.; Gusarov, A.; Gubbels, F.; Massaut, V.

    2011-07-01

    Glass-metal joints are a part of ITER optical diagnostics windows. These joints must be leak tight for the safety (presence of tritium in ITER) and to preserve the vacuum. They must also withstand the ITER environment: temperatures up to 220 deg.C and fast neutron fluxes of {approx}3.10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}.s. At the moment, little information is available about glass-metal joints suitable for ITER. Therefore, we performed mechanical and thermal tests on some prototypes of an aluminium diffusion bonded optical window. Finite element modeling with Abaqus code was used to understand the experimental results. The prototypes were helium leaking probably due to very tiny cracks in the interaction layer between the steel and the aluminium. However, they were all able to withstand a thermal cycling test up to 200 deg. C; no damage could be seen after the tests by visual inspection. The prototypes successfully passed push-out test with a 500 N load. During the destructive push-out tests the prototypes broke at a 6-12 kN load between the aluminium layer and the steel or the glass, depending on the surface quality of the glass. The microanalysis of the joints has also been performed. The finite element modeling of the push-out tests is in a reasonable agreement with the experiments. According to the model, the highest thermal stress is created in the aluminium layer. Thus, the aluminium joint seems to be the weakest part of the prototypes. If this layer is improved, it will probably make the prototype helium leak tight and as such, a good ITER window candidate. (authors)

  13. A review method for UML requirements analysis model employing system-side prototyping.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Shinpei; Matsuura, Saeko

    2013-12-01

    User interface prototyping is an effective method for users to validate the requirements defined by analysts at an early stage of a software development. However, a user interface prototype system offers weak support for the analysts to verify the consistency of the specifications about internal aspects of a system such as business logic. As the result, the inconsistency causes a lot of rework costs because the inconsistency often makes the developers impossible to actualize the system based on the specifications. For verifying such consistency, functional prototyping is an effective method for the analysts, but it needs a lot of costs and more detailed specifications. In this paper, we propose a review method so that analysts can verify the consistency among several different kinds of diagrams in UML efficiently by employing system-side prototyping without the detailed model. The system-side prototype system does not have any functions to achieve business logic, but visualizes the results of the integration among the diagrams in UML as Web pages. The usefulness of our proposal was evaluated by applying our proposal into a development of Library Management System (LMS) for a laboratory. This development was conducted by a group. As the result, our proposal was useful for discovering the serious inconsistency caused by the misunderstanding among the members of the group.

  14. Test results for three prototype models of a linear induction launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Zabar, Z.; Lu, X.N.; He, J.L.; Birenbaum, L.; Levi, E.; Kuznetsov, S.B.; Nahemow, M.D. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the work on the linear induction launcher (LIL) started with an analytical study tht was followed by computer simulations and then was tested by laboratory models. Two mathematical representations have been developed to describe the launcher. The first, based on the field approach with sinusoidal excitation, has been validated by static tests on a small scale prototype fed at constant current and variable frequency. The second, a transient representation using computer simulation allows consideration of energization by means of a capacitor bank and a power conditioner. Tests performed on three small-scale prototypes up to 100 m/s muzzle velocities show good agreement with predicted performance.

  15. Development of an Adolescent Alcohol Misuse Intervention Based on the Prototype Willingness Model: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Emma; Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of the Delphi method to gain expert feedback on the identification of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and development of a novel intervention to reduce adolescent alcohol misuse, based on the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) of health risk behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: Four…

  16. Assessing the Utility of the Willingness/Prototype Model in Predicting Help-Seeking Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Joseph H.; Vogel, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research on professional psychological help-seeking behavior has operated on the assumption that the decision to seek help is based on intentional and reasoned processes. However, research on the dual-process prototype/willingness model (PWM; Gerrard, Gibbons, Houlihan, Stock, & Pomery, 2008) suggests health-related decisions may also…

  17. Medication Reconciliation: Work Domain Ontology, prototype development, and a predictive model.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Eliz; Bernstam, Elmer V; Herskovic, Jorge; Zhang, Jiajie; Shneiderman, Ben; Plaisant, Catherine; Johnson, Todd R

    2011-01-01

    Medication errors can result from administration inaccuracies at any point of care and are a major cause for concern. To develop a successful Medication Reconciliation (MR) tool, we believe it necessary to build a Work Domain Ontology (WDO) for the MR process. A WDO defines the explicit, abstract, implementation-independent description of the task by separating the task from work context, application technology, and cognitive architecture. We developed a prototype based upon the WDO and designed to adhere to standard principles of interface design. The prototype was compared to Legacy Health System's and Pre-Admission Medication List Builder MR tools via a Keystroke-Level Model analysis for three MR tasks. The analysis found the prototype requires the fewest mental operations, completes tasks in the fewest steps, and completes tasks in the least amount of time. Accordingly, we believe that developing a MR tool, based upon the WDO and user interface guidelines, improves user efficiency and reduces cognitive load.

  18. Boron-10 ABUNCL Prototype Models And Initial Active Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-04-23

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from MCNPX model simulations and initial testing of the active mode variation of the Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) design built by General Electric Reuter-Stokes. Initial experimental testing of the as-delivered passive ABUNCL was previously reported.

  19. Design and modeling of a prototype fiber scanning CARS endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Isra"l.; Doucet, Michel; Coté, Patrice; Verreault, Sonia; Fortin, Michel; Paradis, Patrick; Leclair, Sébastien; Da Costa, Ralph S.; Wilson, Brian C.; Seibel, Eric; Mermut, Ozzy; Cormier, Jean-François

    2010-02-01

    An endoscope capable of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging would be of significant clinical value for improving early detection of endoluminal cancers. However, developing this technology is challenging for many reasons. First, nonlinear imaging techniques such as CARS are single point measurements thus requiring fast scanning in a small footprint if video rate is to be achieved. Moreover, the intrinsic nonlinearity of this modality imposes several technical constraints and limitations, mainly related to pulse and beam distortions that occur within the optical fiber and the focusing objective. Here, we describe the design and report modeling results of a new CARS endoscope. The miniature microscope objective design and its anticipated performance are presented, along with its compatibility with a new spiral scanningfiber imaging technology developed at the University of Washington. This technology has ideal attributes for clinical use, with its small footprint, adjustable field-of-view and high spatial-resolution. This compact hybrid fiber-based endoscopic CARS imaging design is anticipated to have a wide clinical applicability.

  20. Laser Doppler imaging of cutaneous blood flow through transparent face masks: a necessary preamble to computer-controlled rapid prototyping fabrication with submillimeter precision.

    PubMed

    Allely, Rebekah R; Van-Buendia, Lan B; Jeng, James C; White, Patricia; Wu, Jingshu; Niszczak, Jonathan; Jordan, Marion H

    2008-01-01

    A paradigm shift in management of postburn facial scarring is lurking "just beneath the waves" with the widespread availability of two recent technologies: precise three-dimensional scanning/digitizing of complex surfaces and computer-controlled rapid prototyping three-dimensional "printers". Laser Doppler imaging may be the sensible method to track the scar hyperemia that should form the basis of assessing progress and directing incremental changes in the digitized topographical face mask "prescription". The purpose of this study was to establish feasibility of detecting perfusion through transparent face masks using the Laser Doppler Imaging scanner. Laser Doppler images of perfusion were obtained at multiple facial regions on five uninjured staff members. Images were obtained without a mask, followed by images with a loose fitting mask with and without a silicone liner, and then with a tight fitting mask with and without a silicone liner. Right and left oblique images, in addition to the frontal images, were used to overcome unobtainable measurements at the extremes of face mask curvature. General linear model, mixed model, and t tests were used for data analysis. Three hundred seventy-five measurements were used for analysis, with a mean perfusion unit of 299 and pixel validity of 97%. The effect of face mask pressure with and without the silicone liner was readily quantified with significant changes in mean cutaneous blood flow (P < .5). High valid pixel rate laser Doppler imager flow data can be obtained through transparent face masks. Perfusion decreases with the application of pressure and with silicone. Every participant measured differently in perfusion units; however, consistent perfusion patterns in the face were observed.

  1. Rapid implementation of advanced constitutive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starman, Bojan; Halilovič, Miroslav; Vrh, Marko; Štok, Boris

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a methodology based on the NICE integration scheme [1, 2] for simple and rapid numerical implementation of a class of plasticity constitutive models. In this regard, an algorithm is purposely developed for the implementation of newly developed advanced constitutive models into explicit finite element framework. The methodology follows the organization of the problem state variables into an extended form, which allows the constitutive models' equations to be organized in such a way, that the algorithm can be optionally extended with minimal effort to integrate also evolution equations related to a description of other specific phenomena, such as damage, distortional hardening, phase transitions, degradation etc. To confirm simplicity of the program implementation, computational robustness, effectiveness and improved accuracy of the implemented integration algorithm, a deep drawing simulation of the cylindrical cup is considered as the case study, performed in ABAQUS/Explicit. As a fairly complex considered model, the YLD2004-18p model [3, 4] is first implemented via external subroutine VUMAT. Further, to give additional proof of the simplicity of the proposed methodology, a combination of the YLD2004-18p model and Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model (GTN) is considered. As demonstrated, the implementation is really obtained in a very simple way.

  2. RRTM: A rapid radiative transfer model

    SciTech Connect

    Mlawer, E.J.; Taubman, S.J.; Clough, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    A rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM) for the calculation of longwave clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates has been developed. The model, which uses the correlated-k method, is both accurate and computationally fast. The foundation for RRTM is the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) from which the relevant k-distributions are obtained. LBLRTM, which has been extensively validated against spectral observations e.g., the high-resolution sounder and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, is used to validate the flux and cooling rate results from RRTM. Validations of RRTM`s results have been performed for the tropical, midlatitude summer, and midlatitude winter atmospheres, as well as for the four Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) cases from the Spectral Radiance Experiment (SPECTRE). Details of some of these validations are presented below. RRTM has the identical atmospheric input module as LBLRTM, facilitating intercomparisons with LBLRTM and application of the model at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Cloud and Radiation Testbed sites.

  3. Validation of a FAST Model of the SWAY Prototype Floating Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, J. H.; Ng, E. Y. K.; Robertson, Amy; Jonkman, Jason; Driscoll, Frederick

    2016-06-01

    As part of a collaboration of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SWAY AS, NREL installed scientific wind, wave, and motion measurement equipment on the spar-type 1/6.5th-scale prototype SWAY floating offshore wind system. The equipment enhanced SWAY's data collection and allowed SWAY to verify the concept and NREL to validate a FAST model of the SWAY design in an open-water condition. Nanyang Technological University (NTU), in collaboration with NREL, assisted with the validation. This final report gives an overview of the SWAY prototype and NREL and NTU's efforts to validate a model of the system. The report provides a summary of the different software tools used in the study, the modeling strategies, and the development of a FAST model of the SWAY prototype wind turbine, including justification of the modeling assumptions. Because of uncertainty in system parameters and modeling assumptions due to the complexity of the design, several system properties were tuned to better represent the system and improve the accuracy of the simulations. Calibration was performed using data from a static equilibrium test and free-decay tests.

  4. Integrated Use of Tools and Technologies for Rapidly Prototyping Simulated Data Products of Future NASA Observing Systems For Evaluation in Applications of National Importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, C. G.; Moorhead, R.; Shaw, D.; Shrestha, B.; Ross, K.; Prados, D.; Russell, J.; Ryan, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    NASA sponsored "Rapid Prototyping Capability" (RPC) research activities of the Mississippi Research Consortium are aimed at developing infrastructure and experiments to evaluate data products from future NASA observing systems in applications, models or decision support tools of national importance. The RPC will host a wide variety of experiments, many of which will require the simulation of data streams to approximate products from future NASA observing systems. To simulate data from a future observing system, a variety of tools and technologies must be employed in an integrated computational workflow. Future data product simulations will typically involve using data products from currently operational science data mission observing systems to provide inputs to a process wherein data will be extracted and manipulated to provide products that approximate the spectral, spatial, radiometric, and temporal characteristics of planned future sensors. The integration of tools and technologies and adapting interfaces for ease of use will enable researchers to test a variety of simulations to efficiently determine an acceptable set of procedures whereby a simulated data product may be derived from existing data sources. Interactive research and testing of data product simulation scenarios will strongly leverage NASA tools and technologies such as the HDF Extraction to GeoTiff tool (HEG2.7) to extract large volumes of data in batch mode, the Time-Series Product Toolkit (TSPT) to evaluate methods for data fusion, de-noising, and creating multi-temporal composites, and the Application Research Toolbox (ART) to manipulate data product characteristics in the simulation process. Given an accepted simulation configuration generated by a set of methods and a documented process workflow, the process will be computationally implemented using Mississippi State University's Temporal Map Algebra (TMA) tools which will enable handling large data sets, computing efficiently the desired

  5. A fast and flexible method for manufacturing 3D molded interconnect devices by the use of a rapid prototyping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, P.; Pscherer, C.; Rechtenwald, T.; Frick, T.; Schmidt, M.

    This paper presents experimental results of manufacturing MID-prototypes by means of SLS, laser structuring and metallization. Therefore common SLS powder (PA12) doped with laser structuring additives is used. First of all the influence of the additives on the characteristic temperatures of melting and crystallization is analyzed by means of DSC. Afterwards the sintering process is carried out and optimized by experiments. Finally the generated components are qualified regarding their density, mechanical properties and surface roughness. Especially the surface quality is important for the metallization process. Therefore surface finishing techniques are investigated.

  6. Static and dynamic cultivation of bone marrow stromal cells on biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds derived from an indirect rapid prototyping technique.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, M; Uhl, F; Detsch, R; Deisinger, U; Ziegler, G

    2010-11-01

    The adequate regeneration of large bone defects is still a major problem in orthopaedic surgery. Synthetic bone substitute materials have to be biocompatible, biodegradable, osteoconductive and processable into macroporous scaffolds tailored to the patient specific defect. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as well as mixtures of both phases, biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP), meet all these requirements and are considered to be optimal synthetic bone substitute materials. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be applied to manufacture scaffolds, meeting the criteria required to ensure bone ingrowth such as high porosity and defined pore characteristics. Such scaffolds can be used for bone tissue engineering (BTE), a concept based on the cultivation of osteogenic cells on osteoconductive scaffolds. In this study, scaffolds with interconnecting macroporosity were manufactured from HA, TCP and BCP (60 wt% HA) using an indirect rapid prototyping technique involving wax ink-jet printing. ST-2 bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were seeded onto the scaffolds and cultivated for 17 days under either static or dynamic culture conditions and osteogenic stimulation. While cell number within the scaffold pore system decreased in case of static conditions, dynamic cultivation allowed homogeneous cell growth even within deep pores of large (1,440 mm(3)) scaffolds. Osteogenic cell differentiation was most advanced on BCP scaffolds in both culture systems, while cells cultured under perfusion conditions were generally more differentiated after 17 days. Therefore, scaffolds manufactured from BCP ceramic and seeded with BMSCs using a dynamic culture system are the method of choice for bone tissue engineering.

  7. Correction of facial asymmetry associated with vertical maxillary excess and mandibular prognathism by combined orthognathic surgery and guiding templates and splints fabricated by rapid prototyping technique.

    PubMed

    Ying, B; Ye, N; Jiang, Y; Liu, Y; Hu, J; Zhu, S

    2015-11-01

    The facial asymmetry associated with vertical maxillary excess and mandibular prognathism is one of the more complicated types in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of combined orthognathic surgeries, together with guiding templates and splints fabricated by rapid prototyping technique, for the correction of facial asymmetry. Fourteen patients with facial asymmetry associated with vertical maxillary excess and mandibular prognathism were included. A maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy, a sagittal split ramus osteotomy on the shorter side of the face, and an intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy on the longer side of the face were performed with the aid of guiding templates and splints fabricated by rapid prototyping technique. Parameters reflecting maxillary canting, ramal inclination, mandibular deviation, and chin inclination were measured before surgery, 7 days after surgery, and 1 year after surgery, and compared. Significant differences in these parameters were found between the two sides preoperatively, whereas no differences were observed postoperatively. Facial asymmetry was corrected in all patients with satisfactory outcomes. In conclusion, combined orthognathic surgery and guiding templates and splints can offer improvements in accuracy, complexity, and duration over traditional procedures for the correction of facial asymmetry associated with vertical maxillary excess and mandibular prognathism.

  8. The Utility of the Prototype/Willingness Model in Predicting Alcohol Use among North American Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armenta, Brian E.; Hautala, Dane S.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we considered the utility of the prototype/willingness model in predicting alcohol use among North-American Indigenous adolescents. Specifically, using longitudinal data, we examined the associations among subjective drinking norms, positive drinker prototypes, drinking expectations (as a proxy of drinking willingness), and…

  9. A prototypicality validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality model (CAPP).

    PubMed

    Hoff, Helge Andreas; Rypdal, Knut; Mykletun, Arnstein; Cooke, David J

    2012-06-01

    Cooke and colleagues recently developed the lexically based model of psychopathy named the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP, Cooke, Hart, Logan, & Michie, 2004). The current study was the first to evaluate aspects of the validity of a translated version of the CAPP model, which comprises 33 symptoms from six domains of personality functioning. Prototypicality ratings from 796 Norwegian community residents, forensic mental health professionals, and corrections professionals were obtained. Most CAPP symptoms were evaluated as highly prototypical of psychopathy by all three groups. Symptoms from the Self, Dominance, and Attachment domains were perceived as more prototypical than those from the Behavioral domain. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) indicated that two CAPP domains were unidimensional whereas evidence of unidimensionality was somewhat weaker for the other domains, but improved substantially after removal of problematic symptoms. Overall, the findings support the content validity of the CAPP model. This may have relevance to the current considerations regarding reformulation of the criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder in DSM-V.

  10. Addendum to `numerical modeling of an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, T.J.; Chew, W.C.; Aydiner, A.A.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.; Abraham, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Two numerical models to simulate an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system that is used for buried-object detection and environmental problems are presented. In the first model, the transmitting and receiving loop antennas accurately analyzed using the method of moments (MoM), and then conjugate gradient (CG) methods with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) are utilized to investigate the scattering from buried conducting plates. In the second model, two magnetic dipoles are used to replace the transmitter and receiver. Both the theory and formulation are correct and the simulation results for the primary magnetic field and the reflected magnetic field are accurate.

  11. Personality prototypes in individuals with compulsive buying based on the Big Five Model.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Steve A; Crosby, Ross D; de Zwaan, Martina

    2010-09-01

    Personality prototypes based on the Big Five factor model were investigated in a treatment-seeking sample of 68 individuals with compulsive buying (CB). Cluster analysis of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) scales yielded two distinct personality clusters. Participants in cluster II scored significantly higher than those in cluster I on neuroticism and lower on the other four personality traits. Subjects in cluster II showed higher severity of CB, lower degree of control over CB symptoms, and were more anxious, interpersonally sensitive and impulsive. Furthermore, cluster II was characterized by higher rates of comorbid anxiety disorders, and cluster B personality disorders. The two personality prototypes did not differ with respect to obsessive-compulsive features. Finally and of considerable clinical significance, participants in cluster II reported lower remission rates after undergoing cognitive-behavioral therapy. Implications of the results for treatment are discussed.

  12. Virtual Prototyping and Performance Analysis of RapidIO-Based System Architectures for Space-Based Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    RapidIO uses Low-Voltage Differential Signaling ( LVDS ) to minimize power usage at high clock speeds, and therefore is appropriate for use in HPEC...point, packet-switched interconnect Peak single-link throughput ranging from 2 to 64 Gb/s Focus on 16-bit parallel LVDS RIO implementation for satellite

  13. A prototype symbolic model of canonical functional neuroanatomy of the motor system.

    PubMed

    Talos, Ion-Florin; Rubin, Daniel L; Halle, Michael; Musen, Mark; Kikinis, Ron

    2008-04-01

    Recent advances in bioinformatics have opened entire new avenues for organizing, integrating and retrieving neuroscientific data, in a digital, machine-processable format, which can be at the same time understood by humans, using ontological, symbolic data representations. Declarative information stored in ontological format can be perused and maintained by domain experts, interpreted by machines, and serve as basis for a multitude of decision support, computerized simulation, data mining, and teaching applications. We have developed a prototype symbolic model of canonical neuroanatomy of the motor system. Our symbolic model is intended to support symbolic look up, logical inference and mathematical modeling by integrating descriptive, qualitative and quantitative functional neuroanatomical knowledge. Furthermore, we show how our approach can be extended to modeling impaired brain connectivity in disease states, such as common movement disorders. In developing our ontology, we adopted a disciplined modeling approach, relying on a set of declared principles, a high-level schema, Aristotelian definitions, and a frame-based authoring system. These features, along with the use of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) vocabulary, enable the alignment of our functional ontology with an existing comprehensive ontology of human anatomy, and thus allow for combining the structural and functional views of neuroanatomy for clinical decision support and neuroanatomy teaching applications. Although the scope of our current prototype ontology is limited to a particular functional system in the brain, it may be possible to adapt this approach for modeling other brain functional systems as well.

  14. Prediction of a Francis turbine prototype full load instability from investigations on the reduced scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alligné, S.; Maruzewski, P.; Dinh, T.; Wang, B.; Fedorov, A.; Iosfin, J.; Avellan, F.

    2010-08-01

    The growing development of renewable energies combined with the process of privatization, lead to a change of economical energy market strategies. Instantaneous pricings of electricity as a function of demand or predictions, induces profitable peak productions which are mainly covered by hydroelectric power plants. Therefore, operators harness more hydroelectric facilities at full load operating conditions. However, the Francis Turbine features an axi-symmetric rope leaving the runner which may act under certain conditions as an internal energy source leading to instability. Undesired power and pressure fluctuations are induced which may limit the maximum available power output. BC Hydro experiences such constraints in a hydroelectric power plant consisting of four 435 MW Francis Turbine generating units, which is located in Canada's province of British Columbia. Under specific full load operating conditions, one unit experiences power and pressure fluctuations at 0.46 Hz. The aim of the paper is to present a methodology allowing prediction of this prototype's instability frequency from investigations on the reduced scale model. A new hydro acoustic vortex rope model has been developed in SIMSEN software, taking into account the energy dissipation due to the thermodynamic exchange between the gas and the surrounding liquid. A combination of measurements, CFD simulations and computation of eigenmodes of the reduced scale model installed on test rig, allows the accurate calibration of the vortex rope model parameters at the model scale. Then, transposition of parameters to the prototype according to similitude laws is applied and stability analysis of the power plant is performed. The eigenfrequency of 0.39 Hz related to the first eigenmode of the power plant is determined to be unstable. Predicted frequency of the full load power and pressure fluctuations at the unit unstable operating point is found to be in general agreement with the prototype measurements.

  15. Are anticoagulant independent mechanical valves within reach—fast prototype fabrication and in vitro testing of innovative bi-leaflet valve models

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Rolland

    2015-01-01

    Background Exploration for causes of prosthetic valve thrombogenicity has frequently focused on forward or post-closure flow detail. In prior laboratory studies, we uncovered high amplitude flow velocities of short duration close to valve closure implying potential for substantial shear stress with subsequent initiation of blood coagulation pathways. This may be relevant to widely accepted clinical disparity between mechanical and tissue valves vis-à-vis thrombogenicity. With a series of prototype bi-leaflet mechanical valves, we attempt reduction of closure related velocities with the objective of identifying a prototype valve with thrombogenic potential similar to our tissue valve control. This iterative design approach may find application in preclinical assessment of valves for anticoagulation independence. Methods Tested valves included: prototype mechanical bi-leaflet BVs (n=56), controls (n=2) and patented early prototype mechanicals (n=2) from other investigators. Pulsatile and quasi-steady flow systems were used for testing. Projected dynamic valve area (PDVA) was measured using previously described novel technology. Flow velocity over the open and closing periods was determined by volumetric flow rate/PDVA. For the closed valve interval, use was made of data obtained from quasi-steady back pressure/flow tests. Performance was ranked by a proposed thrombogenicity potential index (TPI) relative to tissue and mechanical control valves. Results Optimization of the prototype valve designs lead to a 3-D printed model (BV3D). For the mitral/aortic site, BV3D has lower TPI (1.10/1.47) relative to the control mechanical valve (3.44/3.93) and similar to the control tissue valve (ideal TPI ≤1.0). Conclusions Using unique technology, rapid prototyping and thrombogenicity ranking, optimization of experimental valves for reduced thrombogenic potential was expedited and simplified. Innovative mechanical valve configurations were identified that merit consideration

  16. Modeling Thermal and Environmental Effects of Prototype Scale Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamrick, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) utilizes the temperature difference between the mix lay and deep water electricity generation. The small temperature difference compared to other thermal-electric generation devises, typically between 20 and 25 C, requires the substantial volumetric flows on the order of hundreds of cubic meters per second to generate net energy and recover capital investments. This presentation described the use of a high resolution three-dimensional EFDC model with an embedded jet-plume model to simulate the thermal and environmental impacts of a number of prototype OTEC configurations on the southwest coast of Oahu, Hawaii. The EFDC model is one-way nested into a larger scale ROMS model to allow for realistic incorporation of region processes including external and internal tides and sub-tidal circulation. Impacts on local thermal structure and the potential for nutrient enrichment of the mixed layer are addressed with model and presented.

  17. Building and Calibration of a FAST Model of the SWAY Prototype Floating Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, J. H.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Driscoll, F.; Ng, E. Y. K.

    2013-09-01

    Present efforts to verify and validate aero-hydro-servo-elastic numerical simulation tools that predict the dynamic response of a floating offshore wind turbine are primarily limited to code-to-code comparisons or code-to-data comparisons using data from wind-wave basin tests. In partnership with SWAY AS, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) installed scientific wind, wave, and motion measurement equipment on the 1/6.5th-scale prototype SWAY floating wind system to collect data to validate a FAST model of the SWAY design in an open-water condition. Nanyang Technological University (NTU), through a collaboration with NREL, assisted in this validation.

  18. Business intelligence tools for radiology: creating a prototype model using open-source tools.

    PubMed

    Prevedello, Luciano M; Andriole, Katherine P; Hanson, Richard; Kelly, Pauline; Khorasani, Ramin

    2010-04-01

    Digital radiology departments could benefit from the ability to integrate and visualize data (e.g. information reflecting complex workflow states) from all of their imaging and information management systems in one composite presentation view. Leveraging data warehousing tools developed in the business world may be one way to achieve this capability. In total, the concept of managing the information available in this data repository is known as Business Intelligence or BI. This paper describes the concepts used in Business Intelligence, their importance to modern Radiology, and the steps used in the creation of a prototype model of a data warehouse for BI using open-source tools.

  19. Dynamic Characteristics of a Model and Prototype for 3D-RC Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniuddin, Md. Khaja; Vasanthalakshmi, G.; Chethan, K.; Babu, R. Ramesh

    2016-06-01

    Infill walls provide durable and economical partitions that have relatively excellent thermal and sound insulation with high fire resistance. Monolithic infilled walls are provided within RC structures without being analyzed as a combination of concrete and brick elements, although in reality they act as a single unit during earthquakes. The performance of such structures during earthquakes has proved to be superior in comparison to bare frames in terms of stiffness, strength and energy dissipation. To know the dynamic characteristics of monolithic infill wall panels and masonry infill, modal, response spectrum and time history analyses have been carried out on a model and prototype of a 3D RC structure for a comparative study.

  20. Rapid prototyping of an adaptive light-source for mobile manipulators with EasyKit and EasyLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtczyk, Martin; Barner, Simon; Geisinger, Michael; Knoll, Alois

    2008-08-01

    While still not common in day-to-day business, mobile robot platforms form a growing market in robotics. Mobile platforms equipped with a manipulator for increased flexibility have been used successfully in biotech laboratories for sample management as shown on the well-known ESACT meetings. Navigation and object recognition is carried out by the utilization of a mounted machine vision camera. To cope with the different illumination conditions in a large laboratory, development of an adaptive light source was indispensable. We present our approach of rapid developing a computer controlled, adaptive LED light within one single business day, by utilizing the hardware toolbox EasyKit and our appropriate software counterpart EasyLab.

  1. Novel use of an aerospace selective laser sintering machine for rapid prototyping of an orbital blowout fracture.

    PubMed

    Williams, J V; Revington, P J

    2010-02-01

    The authors describe the novel use of a selective laser sintering (SLS) machine, commonly used in the aerospace industry, to produce an accurate model of an orbital blowout fracture. Standard stereolithographic apparatus (SLA) technology failed to reproduce either orbital floor of a patient with a blowout fracture. The use of SLS technology using the same CT dataset to produce a superior model, highlights potential limitations of routine SLA technology and the high accuracy of SLS models. A custom-made titanium implant was constructed by hand using the SLS model as a template, it was positioned surgically and the patient's symptoms resolved uneventfully.

  2. Modeling and simulation of a beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic for the ITER prototype neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Barbisan, M. Zaniol, B.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2014-11-15

    A test facility for the development of the neutral beam injection system for ITER is under construction at Consorzio RFX. It will host two experiments: SPIDER, a 100 keV H{sup −}/D{sup −} ion RF source, and MITICA, a prototype of the full performance ITER injector (1 MV, 17 MW beam). A set of diagnostics will monitor the operation and allow to optimize the performance of the two prototypes. In particular, beam emission spectroscopy will measure the uniformity and the divergence of the fast particles beam exiting the ion source and travelling through the beam line components. This type of measurement is based on the collection of the H{sub α}/D{sub α} emission resulting from the interaction of the energetic particles with the background gas. A numerical model has been developed to simulate the spectrum of the collected emissions in order to design this diagnostic and to study its performance. The paper describes the model at the base of the simulations and presents the modeled H{sub α} spectra in the case of MITICA experiment.

  3. Use of statecharts in the modelling of dynamic behavior in the ATLAS DAQ prototype-1

    SciTech Connect

    Croll, P.; Sari, R.F.; Wheeler, S.; Duval, P.Y.; Jones, R.; Kolos, S.

    1998-08-01

    Many applications within the ATLAS DAQ prototype-1 system have complicated dynamic behavior which can be successfully modelled in terms of states and transitions between states. Previously, state diagrams implemented as finite-state machines have been used. Although effective, they become ungainly as system size increases. Harel statecharts address this problem by implementing additional features such as hierarchy and concurrency. The CHSM object-oriented language system is freeware which implements Harel statecharts as concurrent, hierarchical, finite-state machines (CHSMs). An evaluation of this language system by the ATLAS DAQ group has shown it to be suitable for describing the dynamic behavior of typical DAQ applications. The language is currently being used to model the dynamic behavior of the prototype-1 run-control system. The design is specified by means of a CHSM description file, and C++ code is obtained by running the CHSM compiler on the file. In parallel with the modelling work, a code generator has been developed which translates statecharts, drawn using the StP ASE tool, into the CHSM language, C++ code, describing the dynamic behavior of the run-control system, has been successfully generated directly from StP statecharts using the CHSM generator and compiler. The validity of the design was tested using the simulation features of the Statemate CASE tool.

  4. Using the theory of planned behaviour and prototype willingness model to target binge drinking in female undergraduate university students.

    PubMed

    Todd, Jemma; Mullan, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    The current study investigated whether binge drinking in female undergraduates could be reduced by the mere measurement effect (MME), and by altering binge drinker prototypes from the prototype willingness model (PWM). Whether willingness added to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was also explored. Female undergraduates aged 17-25 (N=122) were randomly allocated to a prototype manipulation, mere measurement, or control group, and completed two online questionnaires separated by 14-21 days. Controlling for past behaviour, MME group consumed less alcohol than the control group, and this effect was more extreme for those who previously consumed more alcohol. However, the prototype manipulation had no effect. The TPB variables were predictive of intentions and behaviour, but willingness was not. Despite limitations, the MME could be utilised to reduce binge drinking in female undergraduates. The TPB appears to model binge drinking in female undergraduates better than the PWM, implying that binge drinking can be a reasoned behaviour.

  5. Reasoned versus reactive prediction of behaviour: a meta-analysis of the prototype willingness model.

    PubMed

    Todd, Jemma; Kothe, Emily; Mullan, Barbara; Monds, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The prototype willingness model (PWM) was designed to extend expectancy-value models of health behaviour by also including a heuristic, or social reactive pathway, to better explain health-risk behaviours in adolescents and young adults. The pathway includes prototype, i.e., images of a typical person who engages in a behaviour, and willingness to engage in behaviour. The current study describes a meta-analysis of predictive research using the PWM and explores the role of the heuristic pathway and intentions in predicting behaviour. Eighty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Overall, the PWM was supported and explained 20.5% of the variance in behaviour. Willingness explained 4.9% of the variance in behaviour over and above intention, although intention tended to be more strongly related to behaviour than was willingness. The strength of the PWM relationships tended to vary according to the behaviour being tested, with alcohol consumption being the behaviour best explained. Age was also an important moderator, and, as expected, PWM behaviour was best accounted for within adolescent samples. Results were heterogeneous even after moderators were taken into consideration. This meta-analysis provides support for the PWM and may be used to inform future interventions that can be tailored for at-risk populations.

  6. Prototype Positive Control Wells for Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests: Prospective Evaluation of Implementation Among Health Workers in Lao People's Democratic Republic and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David; Bwanika, John Baptist; Cunningham, Jane; Gatton, Michelle; González, Iveth J.; Hopkins, Heidi; Kibira, Simon Peter S.; Kyabayinze, Daniel J.; Mayxay, Mayfong; Ndawula, Bbaale; Newton, Paul N.; Phommasone, Koukeo; Streat, Elizabeth; Umlauf, René

    2017-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used for malaria diagnosis, but lack of quality control at point of care restricts trust in test results. Prototype positive control wells (PCW) containing recombinant malaria antigens have been developed to identify poor-quality RDT lots. This study assessed community and facility health workers' (HW) ability to use PCWs to detect degraded RDTs, the impact of PCW availability on RDT use and prescribing, and preferred strategies for implementation in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) and Uganda. A total of 557 HWs participated in Laos (267) and Uganda (290). After training, most (88% to ≥ 99%) participants correctly performed the six key individual PCW steps; performance was generally maintained during the 6-month study period. Nearly all (97%) reported a correct action based on PCW use at routine work sites. In Uganda, where data for 127,775 individual patients were available, PCW introduction in health facilities was followed by a decrease in antimalarial prescribing for RDT-negative patients ≥ 5 years of age (4.7–1.9%); among community-based HWs, the decrease was 12.2% (P < 0.05) for all patients. Qualitative data revealed PCWs as a way to confirm RDT quality and restore confidence in RDT results. HWs in malaria-endemic areas are able to use prototype PCWs for quality control of malaria RDTs. PCW availability can improve HWs' confidence in RDT results, and benefit malaria diagnostic programs. Lessons learned from this study may be valuable for introduction of other point-of-care diagnostic and quality-control tools. Future work should evaluate longer term impacts of PCWs on patient management. PMID:27895267

  7. Prototype integration of the joint munitions assessment and planning model with the OSD threat methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, R.Y.S.; Bolmarcich, J.J.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this Memorandum is to propose a prototype procedure which the Office of Munitions might employ to exercise, in a supportive joint fashion, two of its High Level Conventional Munitions Models, namely, the OSD Threat Methodology and the Joint Munitions Assessment and Planning (JMAP) model. The joint application of JMAP and the OSD Threat Methodology provides a tool to optimize munitions stockpiles. The remainder of this Memorandum comprises five parts. The first is a description of the structure and use of the OSD Threat Methodology. The second is a description of JMAP and its use. The third discusses the concept of the joint application of JMAP and OSD Threat Methodology. The fourth displays sample output of the joint application. The fifth is a summary and epilogue. Finally, three appendices contain details of the formulation, data, and computer code.

  8. 3-D Simulation of a prototype pump-turbine during starting period in turbine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. J.; Luo, X. Q.; Guo, P. C.; Wu, Y. L.

    2013-12-01

    Three dimensional (3-D), unsteady flows in a prototype pump-turbine during a transient process of start-up at no load condition were studied using the computational fluid dynamics method. The fluid coupling and DM method were used to calculate the rotational speed for each time step. The dynamic mesh (DM) method and remeshing method were applied to simulate the rotation of guide vanes. Calculations were performed based on the bar v2-f turbulence model, and the calculation results were compared and verified by experimental data. Transient explicit characteristics such as the flow-rate, head, torque of the runner etc., as well as the internal flow during the start-up were analyzed. The amplitude of pressure fluctuation was larger as the rotational speed of runner increased. The pump-turbine was more unstable with the decrease of the moment of inertia. The impact jet flow in the runner has a direct relationship with the increase of the torque of runner. No stall phenomenon in the runner when the pump-turbine runs close to no load opening condition. This calculation was based on a prototype of a pumped storage power station and the computational method could be used in the fault diagnosis of transient operation.

  9. State-and-transition prototype model of riparian vegetation downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Starfield, Anthony M.; Black, Ronald S.; Van Lonkhuyzen, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Facing an altered riparian plant community dominated by nonnative species, resource managers are increasingly interested in understanding how to manage and promote healthy riparian habitats in which native species dominate. For regulated rivers, managing flows is one tool resource managers consider to achieve these goals. Among many factors that can influence riparian community composition, hydrology is a primary forcing variable. Frame-based models, used successfully in grassland systems, provide an opportunity for stakeholders concerned with riparian systems to evaluate potential riparian vegetation responses to alternative flows. Frame-based, state-and-transition models of riparian vegetation for reattachment bars, separation bars, and the channel margin found on the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam were constructed using information from the literature. Frame-based models can be simple spreadsheet models (created in Microsoft® Excel) or developed further with programming languages (for example, C-sharp). The models described here include seven community states and five dam operations that cause transitions between states. Each model divides operations into growing (April–September) and non-growing seasons (October–March) and incorporates upper and lower bar models, using stage elevation as a division. The inputs (operations) can be used by stakeholders to evaluate flows that may promote dynamic riparian vegetation states, or identify those flow options that may promote less desirable states (for example, Tamarisk [Tamarix sp.] temporarily flooded shrubland). This prototype model, although simple, can still elicit discussion about operational options and vegetation response.

  10. Numerical modeling of an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, T.J.; Chew, W.C.; Aydiner, A.A.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.; Abraham, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, two numerical models are presented to simulate an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system, which is used for buried-object detection and environmental problems. Usually, the VETEM system contains a transmitting loop antenna and a receiving loop antenna, which run on a lossy ground to detect buried objects. In the first numerical model, the loop antennas are accurately analyzed using the Method of Moments (MoM) for wire antennas above or buried in lossy ground. Then, Conjugate Gradient (CG) methods, with the use of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) or MoM, are applied to investigate the scattering from buried objects. Reflected and scattered magnetic fields are evaluated at the receiving loop to calculate the output electric current. However, the working frequency for the VETEM system is usually low and, hence, two magnetic dipoles are used to replace the transmitter and receiver in the second numerical model. Comparing these two models, the second one is simple, but only valid for low frequency or small loops, while the first modeling is more general. In this paper, all computations are performed in the frequency domain, and the FFT is used to obtain the time-domain responses. Numerical examples show that simulation results from these two models fit very well when the frequency ranges from 10 kHz to 10 MHz, and both results are close to the measured data.

  11. Modified energy cascade model adapted for a multicrop Lunar greenhouse prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscheri, G.; Kacira, M.; Patterson, L.; Giacomelli, G.; Sadler, P.; Furfaro, R.; Lobascio, C.; Lamantea, M.; Grizzaffi, L.

    2012-10-01

    Models are required to accurately predict mass and energy balances in a bioregenerative life support system. A modified energy cascade model was used to predict outputs of a multi-crop (tomatoes, potatoes, lettuce and strawberries) Lunar greenhouse prototype. The model performance was evaluated against measured data obtained from several system closure experiments. The model predictions corresponded well to those obtained from experimental measurements for the overall system closure test period (five months), especially for biomass produced (0.7% underestimated), water consumption (0.3% overestimated) and condensate production (0.5% overestimated). However, the model was less accurate when the results were compared with data obtained from a shorter experimental time period, with 31%, 48% and 51% error for biomass uptake, water consumption, and condensate production, respectively, which were obtained under more complex crop production patterns (e.g. tall tomato plants covering part of the lettuce production zones). These results, together with a model sensitivity analysis highlighted the necessity of periodic characterization of the environmental parameters (e.g. light levels, air leakage) in the Lunar greenhouse.

  12. Prototype Data Models and Data Dictionaries for Hanford Sediment Physical and Hydraulic Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Last, George V.; Middleton, Lisa A.

    2010-09-30

    The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), has been compiling physical and hydraulic property data and parameters to support risk analyses and waste management decisions at Hanford. In FY09 the RDS project developed a strategic plan for a physical and hydraulic property database. This report documents prototype data models and dictionaries for these properties and associated parameters. Physical properties and hydraulic parameters and their distributions are required for any type of quantitative assessment of risk and uncertainty associated with predictions of contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface. The central plateau of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State contains most of the contamination at the Site and has up to {approx}100 m of unsaturated and unconsolidated or semi-consolidated sediments overlying the unconfined aquifer. These sediments contain a wide variety of contaminants ranging from organic compounds, such as carbon tetrachloride, to numerous radionuclides including technetium, plutonium, and uranium. Knowledge of the physical and hydraulic properties of the sediments and their distributions is critical for quantitative assessment of the transport of these contaminants in the subsurface, for evaluation of long-term risks and uncertainty associated with model predictions of contaminant transport and fate, and for evaluating, designing, and operating remediation alternatives. One of the goals of PNNL's RDS project is to work with the Hanford Environmental Data Manager (currently with CHPRC) to develop a protocol and schedule for incorporation of physical property and hydraulic parameter datasets currently maintained by PNNL into HEIS. This requires that the data first be reviewed to ensure quality and consistency. New data models must then be developed for HEIS that are

  13. Shaping ability of Reciproc and TF Adaptive systems in severely curved canals of rapid microCT-based prototyping molar replicas

    PubMed Central

    ORDINOLA-ZAPATA, Ronald; BRAMANTE, Clovis Monteiro; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Húngaro; CAVENAGO, Bruno Cavalini; JARAMILLO, David; VERSIANI, Marco Aurélio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the shaping ability of Reciproc and Twisted-File Adaptive systems in rapid prototyping replicas. Material and Methods: Two mandibular molars showing S-shaped and 62-degree curvatures in the mesial root were scanned by using a microcomputed tomography (μCT) system. The data were exported in the stereolitograhic format and 20 samples of each molar were printed at 16 µm resolution. The mesial canals of 10 replicas of each specimen were prepared with each system. Transportation was measured by overlapping radiographs taken before and after preparation and resin thickness after instrumentation was measured by μCT. Results: Both systems maintained the original shape of the apical third in both anatomies (P>0.05). Overall, considering the resin thickness in the 62-degree replicas, no statistical difference was found between the systems (P>0.05). In the S-shaped curvature replica, Reciproc significantly decreased the thickness of the resin walls in comparison with TF Adaptive. Conclusions: The evaluated systems were able to maintain the original shape at the apical third of severely curved mesial canals of molar replicas. PMID:24918662

  14. Microstructures and mechanical properties of electron beam-rapid manufactured Ti-6Al-4V biomedical prototypes compared to wrought Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect

    Murr, L.E. Esquivel, E.V.; Quinones, S.A.; Gaytan, S.M.; Lopez, M.I.; Martinez, E.Y.; Medina, F.; Hernandez, D.H.; Martinez, E.; Martinez, J.L.; Stafford, S.W.; Brown, D.K.; Hoppe, T.; Meyers, W.; Lindhe, U.; Wicker, R.B.

    2009-02-15

    This study represents an exploratory characterization and comparison of electron-beam melted (EBM) or rapid manufacturing (RM) of Ti-6Al-4V components (from nominal 30 {mu}m diameter powder) with wrought products. Acicular {alpha} and associated {beta} microstructures observed by optical metallography and electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) are compared along with corresponding tensile test and hardness data; including the initial powder particles where the Vickers microindentation hardness averaged 5.0 GPa in comparison with the fully dense, EB manufactured product with an average microindentation hardness ranging from 3.6 to 3.9 GPa. This compared with wrought products where the Vickers microindentation hardness averaged 4.0 GPa. Values of UTS for the EBM samples averaged 1.18 GPa for elongations ranging from 16 to 25%. Biomaterials/biomedical applications of EBM prototypes in direct prosthesis or implant manufacturing from CT or MRI data are discussed in the context of this work, especially prospects for tailoring physical properties through EB control to achieve customized and optimized implant and prosthetic products direct from CT-scans.

  15. Bacterial inhibition potential of 3D rapid-prototyped magnesium-based porous composite scaffolds–an in vitro efficacy study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui; Lai, Yu-xiao; Li, Long; Tan, Hong-lue; Wang, Jia-li; Li, Ye; Tang, Ting-ting; Qin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Bone infections are common in trauma-induced open fractures with bone defects. Therefore, developing anti-infection scaffolds for repairing bone defects is desirable. This study develoepd novel Mg-based porous composite scaffolds with a basal matrix composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolicacid) (PLGA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP). A unique low-temperature rapid prototyping technology was used to fabricate the scaffolds, including PLGA/TCP (PT), PLGA/TCP/5%Mg (PT5M), PLGA/TCP/10%Mg (PT10M), and PLGA/TCP/15%Mg (PT15M). The bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. The results indicated that the Mg-based scaffolds significantly inhibited bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation compared to PT, and the PT10M and PT15M exhibited significantly stronger anti-biofilm ability than PT5M. In vitro degratation tests revealed that the degradation of the Mg-based scaffolds caused an increase of pH, Mg2+ concentration and osmolality, and the increased pH may be one of the major contributing factors to the antibacterial function of the Mg-based scaffolds. Additionally, the PT15M exhibited an inhibitory effect on cell adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, the PLGA/TCP/Mg scaffolds could inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, and the PT10M scaffold was considered to be an effective composition with considerable antibacterial ability and good cytocompatibility. PMID:26346217

  16. Rapid prototype extruded conductive pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbitt, III, John T.

    2016-06-21

    A process of producing electrically conductive pathways within additively manufactured parts and similar parts made by plastic extrusion nozzles. The process allows for a three-dimensional part having both conductive and non-conductive portions and allows for such parts to be manufactured in a single production step.

  17. Rapid Prototyping of Robotic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    15 C. SENSORS .......................................................................................................15 1. Proprioceptive ...Sensor Fusion is a complex interaction of proprioceptive sensors and algorithms to provide a composite indicator of a parameter of interest, such...navigation package composed of several different types of sensors. For example, Ojeda and Borenstein fuse three different types of proprioceptive

  18. National Fire Fuels and Risks Assessment Using Remote Sensing and Ecological Modeling: Prototype Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Rollins, M.

    2003-12-01

    Hazardous fuel reduction, ecosystem rehabilitation and restoration, and firefighting safety, are land management priorities emphasized by recent national fire policies such as the National Fire Plan. Implementation of these policies requires geospatial data of vegetation conditions, fire fuels, risks, and ecosystem status developed consistently nationwide that can be used at multiple scales (i.e., local, regional, and national). A new research and development project called LANDFIRE has been conducted to develop an integrated methodology to produce geospatial fire data and predictive models for the land management community and a broad range of other applications. Main deliverables include mapped potential and existing vegetation types and structure variables, various biophysical data layers, fire fuels models, fire risk layers, as well as state-of-the-art computer models for assessing fire risk, behavior and effects. In this presentation, we will review research results and findings of the LANDFIRE project using results from a prototype study covering central Utah Uinta and Wasatch ecosystems. Particularly we will describe how a consistent and operational vegetation mapping component may be achieved by integrating machine-learning algorithms, field reference data, satellite imagery, and ecologically significant biophysical variables. We will discuss how remotely sensed vegetation cover types and structure can be successfully converted to fire fuel classes and risk layers which are necessary input into fire behavior and fire effect models. Finally we will discuss challenges and opportunities for national implementation of the methodology.

  19. Modeling rapidly disseminating infectious disease during mass gatherings.

    PubMed

    Chowell, Gerardo; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Viboud, Cécile

    2012-12-07

    We discuss models for rapidly disseminating infectious diseases during mass gatherings (MGs), using influenza as a case study. Recent innovations in modeling and forecasting influenza transmission dynamics at local, regional, and global scales have made influenza a particularly attractive model scenario for MG. We discuss the behavioral, medical, and population factors for modeling MG disease transmission, review existing model formulations, and highlight key data and modeling gaps related to modeling MG disease transmission. We argue that the proposed improvements will help integrate infectious-disease models in MG health contingency plans in the near future, echoing modeling efforts that have helped shape influenza pandemic preparedness plans in recent years.

  20. Biomimetically Ornamented Rapid Prototyping Fabrication of an Apatite-Collagen-Polycaprolactone Composite Construct with Nano-Micro-Macro Hierarchical Structure for Large Bone Defect Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinbing; Wu, Dingyu; Zhang, Zhanzhao; Li, Jun; Shen, Yi; Wang, Zhenxing; Li, Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Jian

    2015-12-02

    Biomaterial-based bone graft substitute with favorable mechanical and biological properties could be used as an alternative to autograft for large defect treatment. Here, an apatite-collagen-polycaprolactone (Ap-Col-PCL) composite construct was developed with unique nano-micro-macro hierarchical architectures by combining rapid prototyping (RP) fabrication technology and a 3D functionalization strategy. Macroporous PCL framework was fabricated using RP technology, then functionalized by collagen incorporation and biomimetic deposition. Ap-Col-PCL composite construct was characterized with hierarchical architectures of a nanoscale (∼100 nm thickness and ∼1 μm length) platelike apatite coating on the microporous (126 ± 18 μm) collagen networks, which homogeneously filled the macroporous (∼1000 μm) PCL frameworks and possessed a favorable hydrophilic property and compressive modulus (68.75 ± 3.39 MPa) similar to that of cancellous bone. Moreover, in vitro cell culture assay and in vivo critical-sized bone defect implantation demonstrated that the Ap-Col-PCL construct could not only significantly increase the cell adhesion capability (2.0-fold) and promote faster cell proliferation but also successfully bridge the segmental long bone defect within 12 weeks with much more bone regeneration (5.2-fold), better osteointegration (7.2-fold), and a faster new bone deposition rate (2.9-fold). Our study demonstrated that biomimetically ornamented Ap-Col-PCL constructs exhibit a favorable mechanical property, more bone tissue ingrowth, and better osteointegration capability as an effective bone graft substitute for critical-sized bone defect treatment; meanwhile, it can also harness the advantages of RP technology, in particular, facilitating the customization of the shape and size of implants according to medical images during clinical application.

  1. Five-Factor Model Prototypes for Personality Disorders: The Utility of Self-Reports and Observer Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua D.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.

    2004-01-01

    The current study examined the prototype-matching technique for using the five-factor model (FFM) of personality to assess personality disorders (PDs) and their correlates. The sample was composed of 69 psychiatric patients, most of whom suffered from affective or anxiety disorders. The participants were predominantly outpatients (78%), Caucasian…

  2. Speeded Classification in a Probabilistic Category Structure: Contrasting Exemplar-Retrieval, Decision-Boundary, and Prototype Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Stanton, Roger D.

    2005-01-01

    Speeded perceptual classification experiments were conducted to distinguish among the predictions of exemplar-retrieval, decision-boundary, and prototype models. The key manipulation was that across conditions, individual stimuli received either probabilistic or deterministic category feedback. Regardless of the probabilistic feedback, however, an…

  3. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    As part of the continuing emphasis on emergency preparedness the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the development of a rapid dose assessment system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This system, the Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program for rapidly assessing the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. This User's Guide provides instruction in the setup and operation of the equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Instructions are also given on how to load the magnetic disks and access the interactive part of the program. Two other companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. Reactor Accident Assessment Methods (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 2) describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations. Scenarios for Comparing Dose Assessment Models (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 3) provides the results of calculations made by IRDAM and other models for specific accident scenarios.

  4. Simulation of combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models.

    PubMed

    Han, S J; Fitzpatrick, C S B; Wetherill, A

    2009-01-01

    Combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models are applied to simulate filtration and backwash cycles. The simulated results from the backwash model suggest that air flow rate can be optimised to maximise particle removal efficiency in the backwash for a particular system. The simulation of combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models suggests that efficient backwash operation is essential for maintaining the life time of a filter. However, the filter is not advised to be completely cleaned up in the backwash and the particles retained on filter grains after the backwash can be beneficial for subsequent filtration runs.

  5. Simulation on combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models.

    PubMed

    Han, S J; Fitzpatrick, C S B; Wetherill, A

    2009-01-01

    Combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models have been applied to simulate filtration and backwash cycles. The simulated results from the backwash model suggest that an optimum air flow rate exists to maximise particle removal efficiency in the backwash operation for a certain backwash system. The simulation of combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models suggests that the filter should not be completely cleaned up in the backwash and a certain amount of particles retained on filter grains after backwash can be beneficial for subsequent filtration runs. This is consistent with the experimental results in the literature.

  6. Prompt and Precise Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    For Sanders Design International, Inc., of Wilton, New Hampshire, every passing second between the concept and realization of a product is essential to succeed in the rapid prototyping industry where amongst heavy competition, faster time-to-market means more business. To separate itself from its rivals, Sanders Design aligned with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop what it considers to be the most accurate rapid prototyping machine for fabrication of extremely precise tooling prototypes. The company's Rapid ToolMaker System has revolutionized production of high quality, small-to-medium sized prototype patterns and tooling molds with an exactness that surpasses that of computer numerically-controlled (CNC) machining devices. Created with funding and support from Marshall under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Rapid ToolMaker is a dual-use technology with applications in both commercial and military aerospace fields. The advanced technology provides cost savings in the design and manufacturing of automotive, electronic, and medical parts, as well as in other areas of consumer interest, such as jewelry and toys. For aerospace applications, the Rapid ToolMaker enables fabrication of high-quality turbine and compressor blades for jet engines on unmanned air vehicles, aircraft, and missiles.

  7. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage

    PubMed Central

    Dow, C F; Kulessa, B; Rutt, I C; Tsai, V C; Pimentel, S; Doyle, S H; van As, D; Lindbäck, K; Pettersson, R; Jones, G A; Hubbard, A

    2015-01-01

    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and examine whether substantial, efficient subglacial channels can form during or following lake drainage events and their effect on the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system. We force the model with field data from a lake drainage site, 70 km from the terminus of Russell Glacier in West Greenland. The model outputs suggest that efficient subglacial channels do not readily form in the vicinity of the lake during rapid drainage and instead water is evacuated primarily by a transient turbulent sheet and the distributed system. Following lake drainage, channels grow but are not large enough to reduce the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system, unless preexisting channels are present throughout the domain. Our results have implications for the analysis of subglacial hydrological systems in regions where rapid lake drainage provides the primary mechanism for surface-to-bed connections. Key Points Model for subglacial hydrological analysis of rapid lake drainage events Limited subglacial channel growth during and following rapid lake drainage Persistence of distributed drainage in inland areas where channel growth is limited PMID:26640746

  8. Personality prototypes in eating disorders based on the Big Five model.

    PubMed

    Claes, Laurence; Vandereycken, Walter; Luyten, Patrick; Soenens, Bart; Pieters, Guido; Vertommen, Hans

    2006-08-01

    A three factor model of personality pathology was investigated in a clinical sample of 335 female eating disordered patients. Cluster analysis of the Big Five NEO-FFI scales (Costa & McCrae, 1992) yielded three distinct personality profiles, which were consistent with previous studies: (1) a resilient/high functioning cluster with no clinical elevations on the NEO-FFI scales; (2) an undercontrolled/emotionally dysregulated cluster with elevated scores on the Neuroticism scale and low scores on Conscientiousness and Agreeableness; (3) an overcontrolled/constricted cluster showing high scores on Neuroticism and Conscientiousness and low scores on Openness to Experience. Comparing the three personality prototypes with respect to Axis I and Axis II disorders,resilients reported systematically less clinical and personality problems than both undercontrollers and overcontrollers. Compared to the latter, undercontrollers showed more impulsive personality features and behaviors. Finally, cluster membership was not clearly associated with eating disorder subtypes, suggesting that there is considerable variance in personality features and/or pathology within the various eating disorder categories.

  9. COINSTAC: A Privacy Enabled Model and Prototype for Leveraging and Processing Decentralized Brain Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Plis, Sergey M.; Sarwate, Anand D.; Wood, Dylan; Dieringer, Christopher; Landis, Drew; Reed, Cory; Panta, Sandeep R.; Turner, Jessica A.; Shoemaker, Jody M.; Carter, Kim W.; Thompson, Paul; Hutchison, Kent; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2016-01-01

    The field of neuroimaging has embraced the need for sharing and collaboration. Data sharing mandates from public funding agencies and major journal publishers have spurred the development of data repositories and neuroinformatics consortia. However, efficient and effective data sharing still faces several hurdles. For example, open data sharing is on the rise but is not suitable for sensitive data that are not easily shared, such as genetics. Current approaches can be cumbersome (such as negotiating multiple data sharing agreements). There are also significant data transfer, organization and computational challenges. Centralized repositories only partially address the issues. We propose a dynamic, decentralized platform for large scale analyses called the Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite Toolkit for Anonymous Computation (COINSTAC). The COINSTAC solution can include data missing from central repositories, allows pooling of both open and “closed” repositories by developing privacy-preserving versions of widely-used algorithms, and incorporates the tools within an easy-to-use platform enabling distributed computation. We present an initial prototype system which we demonstrate on two multi-site data sets, without aggregating the data. In addition, by iterating across sites, the COINSTAC model enables meta-analytic solutions to converge to “pooled-data” solutions (i.e., as if the entire data were in hand). More advanced approaches such as feature generation, matrix factorization models, and preprocessing can be incorporated into such a model. In sum, COINSTAC enables access to the many currently unavailable data sets, a user friendly privacy enabled interface for decentralized analysis, and a powerful solution that complements existing data sharing solutions. PMID:27594820

  10. Prototype Near-Field/GIS Model for Sequestered-CO2 Risk Characterization and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T; Homann, S G; Gouveia, F J; Neher, L A

    2006-02-10

    Detecting unmapped abandoned wells thus remains a major carbon sequestration (CS) technology gap. Many (>10{sup 5}) abandoned wells are thought to lie in potential sequestration sites. For such wells, risk analysis to date has focused on aggregate long-term future impacts of seepage at rates < or << {approx}1 g m{sup 2} d{sup -1} on storage goals as sequestered plumes encroach upon wells with assumed distributions of seal ineffectiveness (Oldenburg and Unger, 2003; Saripali et al. 2003; Celia, 2005). However, unmapped abandoned wells include an unknown number without any effective seal at all, venting through which may dominate CO{sub 2}-loss scenarios. A model of such a well is Crystal Geyser (CG), a prospective oil well abandoned in the 1930s with no barrier installed after it encountered a natural CO{sub 2} reservoir rather than oil (Baer and Rigby, 1978; Rinehart, 1980). CG demonstrates how an unimpeded conduit to the surface now regularly vents from 10{sup 3} to >10{sup 4} kg of CO{sub 2} gas to the terrestrial surface (Figure 1). Unique field data recently gathered from Crystal Geyser (CG) in Utah (Gouveia et al. 2005) confirm that, although resulting surface CO{sub 2} concentrations resulting from CG-like eruptions would likely be safe in general, they could accumulate to pose lethal hazards under relatively rare meteorological and topographic (MT) conditions. This source of foreseeable risk needs to be managed if carbon sequestration is to be publicly accepted. To address this concern, we used CG field data to estimate the source term for a prototype model that identifies zones at relatively highly elevated risk for sequestered-CO{sub 2} casualties. Such a model could be applied both to design and comply with future regulatory requirements to survey high-risk zones in each proposed sequestration site for improperly sealed wells.

  11. Rapid installation of numerical models in multiple parent codes

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, R.M.; Wong, M.K.

    1996-10-01

    A set of``model interface guidelines``, called MIG, is offered as a means to more rapidly install numerical models (such as stress-strain laws) into any parent code (hydrocode, finite element code, etc.) without having to modify the model subroutines. The model developer (who creates the model package in compliance with the guidelines) specifies the model`s input and storage requirements in a standardized way. For portability, database management (such as saving user inputs and field variables) is handled by the parent code. To date, NUG has proved viable in beta installations of several diverse models in vectorized and parallel codes written in different computer languages. A NUG-compliant model can be installed in different codes without modifying the model`s subroutines. By maintaining one model for many codes, MIG facilitates code-to-code comparisons and reduces duplication of effort potentially reducing the cost of installing and sharing models.

  12. Prototyping an online wetland ecosystem services model using open model sharing standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, M.; Liu, S.; Euliss, N.H.; Young, Caitlin; Mushet, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Great interest currently exists for developing ecosystem models to forecast how ecosystem services may change under alternative land use and climate futures. Ecosystem services are diverse and include supporting services or functions (e.g., primary production, nutrient cycling), provisioning services (e.g., wildlife, groundwater), regulating services (e.g., water purification, floodwater retention), and even cultural services (e.g., ecotourism, cultural heritage). Hence, the knowledge base necessary to quantify ecosystem services is broad and derived from many diverse scientific disciplines. Building the required interdisciplinary models is especially challenging as modelers from different locations and times may develop the disciplinary models needed for ecosystem simulations, and these models must be identified and made accessible to the interdisciplinary simulation. Additional difficulties include inconsistent data structures, formats, and metadata required by geospatial models as well as limitations on computing, storage, and connectivity. Traditional standalone and closed network systems cannot fully support sharing and integrating interdisciplinary geospatial models from variant sources. To address this need, we developed an approach to openly share and access geospatial computational models using distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques and open geospatial standards. We included a means to share computational models compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Processing Services (WPS) standard to ensure modelers have an efficient and simplified means to publish new models. To demonstrate our approach, we developed five disciplinary models that can be integrated and shared to simulate a few of the ecosystem services (e.g., water storage, waterfowl breeding) that are provided by wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America.

  13. Evaluation of Proteus as a Tool for the Rapid Development of Models of Hydrologic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, T. M.; Farthing, M. W.; Kees, C. E.; Miller, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    Models of modern hydrologic systems can be complex and involve a variety of operators with varying character. The goal is to implement approximations of such models that are both efficient for the developer and computationally efficient, which is a set of naturally competing objectives. Proteus is a Python-based toolbox that supports prototyping of model formulations as well as a wide variety of modern numerical methods and parallel computing. We used Proteus to develop numerical approximations for three models: Richards' equation, a brine flow model derived using the Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory (TCAT), and a multiphase TCAT-based tumor growth model. For Richards' equation, we investigated discontinuous Galerkin solutions with higher order time integration based on the backward difference formulas. The TCAT brine flow model was implemented using Proteus and a variety of numerical methods were compared to hand coded solutions. Finally, an existing tumor growth model was implemented in Proteus to introduce more advanced numerics and allow the code to be run in parallel. From these three example models, Proteus was found to be an attractive open-source option for rapidly developing high quality code for solving existing and evolving computational science models.

  14. [A rapid quantificational identification model of minerals and its applications].

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Lin, Qi-Zhong; Liu, Qing-Jie; Wang, Meng-Fei; Wang, Qin-Jun; Wei, Yong-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Rapid identification of minerals is the key point for enhancing the efficiency of mineral exploration by remote sensing, mineral mapping by remote sensing and many geological investigations. Because of the limitation of technology and other aspects, the amount of models and software concerning rapid identification of minerals is very small. Since 1990s the development in spectrometers and computers has made it possible to apply near infrared spectrum technology to identify minerals. Two models have emerged. Model I is based on analyzing the position of absorption bands, while Model II is founded on waveform matching. In the present paper, characteristic spectrum linear inversion modeling was built. Validated by the data gained from end-members of USGS mineral spectrum library by mixing randomly, this model with the accuracy being approximately 100% is much better than Model I and II. Used to analyze the 23 samples selected in Baogutu area in Xinjiang, the model we built with the accuracy of 64.6% is superior to Model I (the accuracy is 33.8%) and Model II (the accuracy is 8.1%). Though the accuracy of our model is not as high as that of identification by microscope at present, using our model is much more effective and convenient, and there also will be less artificial error and smaller workload. The good performance of our model in the mineral exploration work by remote sensing in Baogutu area in Xinjiang shows wide popularizing prospects.

  15. Nanoelectronic Modeling (NEMO): Moving from commercial grade 1-D simulation to prototype 3-D simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimeck, Gerhard

    2001-03-01

    The quantum mechanical functionality of commercially pursued heterostructure devices such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), quantum well infrared photodetectors, and quantum well lasers are enabled by material variations on an atomic scale. The creation of these heterostructure devices is realized in a vast design space of material compositions, layer thicknesses and doping profiles. The full experimental exploration of this design space is unfeasible and a reliable design tool is needed. The Nanoelectronic Modeling tool (NEMO) is one of the first commercial grade attempts for such a modeling tool. NEMO was developed as a general-purpose quantum mechanics-based 1-D device design and analysis tool from 1993-97 by the Central Research Laboratory of Texas Instruments (later Raytheon Systems). NEMO enables(R. Lake, G. Klimeck, R. C. Bowen, and D. Jovanovic, J. Appl. Phys. 81), 7845 (1997). the fundamentally sound inclusion of the required(G. Klimeck et al.), in the 1997 55th Annual Device Research Conference Digest, (IEEE, NJ, 1997), p. 92^,(R. C. Bowen et al.), J. Appl. Phys 81, 3207 (1997). physics: bandstructure, scattering, and charge self-consistency based on the non-equilibrium Green function approach. A new class of devices which require full 3-D quantum mechanics based models is starting to emerge: quantum dots, or in general semiconductor based deca-nano devices. We are currently building a 3-D modeling tool based on NEMO to include the important physics to understand electronic stated in such superscaled structures. This presentation will overview various facets of the NEMO 1-D tool such electron transport physics in RTDs, numerical technology, software engineering and graphical user interface. The lessons learned from that work are now entering the NEMO 3-D development and first results using the NEMO 3-D prototype will be shown. More information about

  16. Development of Residential Prototype Building Models and Analysis System for Large-Scale Energy Efficiency Studies Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2014-09-10

    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in residential building energy efficiency and codes have resulted in increased interest in detailed residential building energy models using the latest energy simulation software. One of the challenges of developing residential building models to characterize new residential building stock is to allow for flexibility to address variability in house features like geometry, configuration, HVAC systems etc. Researchers solved this problem in a novel way by creating a simulation structure capable of creating fully-functional EnergyPlus batch runs using a completely scalable residential EnergyPlus template system. This system was used to create a set of thirty-two residential prototype building models covering single- and multifamily buildings, four common foundation types and four common heating system types found in the United States (US). A weighting scheme with detailed state-wise and national weighting factors was designed to supplement the residential prototype models. The complete set is designed to represent a majority of new residential construction stock. The entire structure consists of a system of utility programs developed around the core EnergyPlus simulation engine to automate the creation and management of large-scale simulation studies with minimal human effort. The simulation structure and the residential prototype building models have been used for numerous large-scale studies, one of which is briefly discussed in this paper.

  17. Kaiser Permanente/Sandia National health care model. Phase I prototype final report. Part 1 - model overview

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.; Yoshimura, A.; Butler, D.; Judson, R.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and Kaiser Permanente Southern California to develop a prototype computer model of Kaiser Permanente`s health care delivery system. As a discrete event simulation, SimHCO models for each of 100,000 patients the progression of disease, individual resource usage, and patient choices in a competitive environment. SimHCO is implemented in the object-oriented programming language C++, stressing reusable knowledge and reusable software components. The versioned implementation of SimHCO showed that the object-oriented framework allows the program to grow in complexity in an incremental way. Furthermore, timing calculations showed that SimHCO runs in a reasonable time on typical workstations, and that a second phase model will scale proportionally and run within the system constraints of contemporary computer technology. This report is published as two documents: Model Overview and Domain Analysis. A separate Kaiser-proprietary report contains the Disease and Health Care Organization Selection Models.

  18. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  19. Rapid Analysis Model: Reducing Analysis Time without Sacrificing Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, William W.; Owens, Diana

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the performance technology design process and the fact that the analysis phase is often being eliminated to speed up the process. Proposes a rapid analysis model that reduces time needed for analysis and still ensures more successful value-added solutions that focus on customer satisfaction. (LRW)

  20. Standardized data collection to build prediction models in oncology: a prototype for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Meldolesi, Elisa; van Soest, Johan; Damiani, Andrea; Dekker, Andre; Alitto, Anna Rita; Campitelli, Maura; Dinapoli, Nicola; Gatta, Roberto; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Lanzotti, Vito; Lambin, Philippe; Valentini, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The advances in diagnostic and treatment technology are responsible for a remarkable transformation in the internal medicine concept with the establishment of a new idea of personalized medicine. Inter- and intra-patient tumor heterogeneity and the clinical outcome and/or treatment's toxicity's complexity, justify the effort to develop predictive models from decision support systems. However, the number of evaluated variables coming from multiple disciplines: oncology, computer science, bioinformatics, statistics, genomics, imaging, among others could be very large thus making traditional statistical analysis difficult to exploit. Automated data-mining processes and machine learning approaches can be a solution to organize the massive amount of data, trying to unravel important interaction. The purpose of this paper is to describe the strategy to collect and analyze data properly for decision support and introduce the concept of an 'umbrella protocol' within the framework of 'rapid learning healthcare'.

  1. Elements of effective palliative care models: a rapid review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Population ageing, changes to the profiles of life-limiting illnesses and evolving societal attitudes prompt a critical evaluation of models of palliative care. We set out to identify evidence-based models of palliative care to inform policy reform in Australia. Method A rapid review of electronic databases and the grey literature was undertaken over an eight week period in April-June 2012. We included policy documents and comparative studies from countries within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) published in English since 2001. Meta-analysis was planned where >1 study met criteria; otherwise, synthesis was narrative using methods described by Popay et al. (2006). Results Of 1,959 peer-reviewed articles, 23 reported systematic reviews, 9 additional RCTs and 34 non-randomised comparative studies. Variation in the content of models, contexts in which these were implemented and lack of detailed reporting meant that elements of models constituted a more meaningful unit of analysis than models themselves. Case management was the element most consistently reported in models for which comparative studies provided evidence for effectiveness. Essential attributes of population-based palliative care models identified by policy and addressed by more than one element were communication and coordination between providers (including primary care), skill enhancement, and capacity to respond rapidly to individuals’ changing needs and preferences over time. Conclusion Models of palliative care should integrate specialist expertise with primary and community care services and enable transitions across settings, including residential aged care. The increasing complexity of care needs, services, interventions and contextual drivers warrants future research aimed at elucidating the interactions between different components and the roles played by patient, provider and health system factors. The findings of this review are limited by its

  2. Quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging in a porcine ischemia model using a prototype spectral detector CT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmi, Rachid; Eck, Brendan L.; Levi, Jacob; Fares, Anas; Dhanantwari, Amar; Vembar, Mani; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    We optimized and evaluated dynamic myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) imaging on a prototype spectral detector CT (SDCT) scanner. Simultaneous acquisition of energy sensitive projections on the SDCT system enabled projection-based material decomposition, which typically performs better than image-based decomposition required by some other system designs. In addition to virtual monoenergetic, or keV images, the SDCT provided conventional (kVp) images, allowing us to compare and contrast results. Physical phantom measurements demonstrated linearity of keV images, a requirement for quantitative perfusion. Comparisons of kVp to keV images demonstrated very significant reductions in tell-tale beam hardening (BH) artifacts in both phantom and pig images. In phantom images, consideration of iodine contrast to noise ratio and small residual BH artifacts suggested optimum processing at 70 keV. The processing pipeline for dynamic CTP measurements included 4D image registration, spatio-temporal noise filtering, and model-independent singular value decomposition deconvolution, automatically regularized using the L-curve criterion. In normal pig CTP, 70 keV perfusion estimates were homogeneous throughout the myocardium. At 120 kVp, flow was reduced by more than 20% on the BH-hypo-enhanced myocardium, a range that might falsely indicate actionable ischemia, considering the 0.8 threshold for actionable FFR. With partial occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery (FFR  <  0.8), perfusion defects at 70 keV were correctly identified in the LAD territory. At 120 kVp, BH affected the size and flow in the ischemic area; e.g. with FFR ≈ 0.65, the anterior-to-lateral flow ratio was 0.29  ±  0.01, over-estimating stenosis severity as compared to 0.42  ±  0.01 (p  <  0.05) at 70 keV. On the non-ischemic inferior wall (not a LAD territory), the flow ratio was 0.50  ±  0.04 falsely indicating an actionable ischemic condition in a healthy

  3. Quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging in a porcine ischemia model using a prototype spectral detector CT system.

    PubMed

    Fahmi, Rachid; Eck, Brendan L; Levi, Jacob; Fares, Anas; Dhanantwari, Amar; Vembar, Mani; Bezerra, Hiram G; Wilson, David L

    2016-03-21

    We optimized and evaluated dynamic myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) imaging on a prototype spectral detector CT (SDCT) scanner. Simultaneous acquisition of energy sensitive projections on the SDCT system enabled projection-based material decomposition, which typically performs better than image-based decomposition required by some other system designs. In addition to virtual monoenergetic, or keV images, the SDCT provided conventional (kVp) images, allowing us to compare and contrast results. Physical phantom measurements demonstrated linearity of keV images, a requirement for quantitative perfusion. Comparisons of kVp to keV images demonstrated very significant reductions in tell-tale beam hardening (BH) artifacts in both phantom and pig images. In phantom images, consideration of iodine contrast to noise ratio and small residual BH artifacts suggested optimum processing at 70 keV. The processing pipeline for dynamic CTP measurements included 4D image registration, spatio-temporal noise filtering, and model-independent singular value decomposition deconvolution, automatically regularized using the L-curve criterion. In normal pig CTP, 70 keV perfusion estimates were homogeneous throughout the myocardium. At 120 kVp, flow was reduced by more than 20% on the BH-hypo-enhanced myocardium, a range that might falsely indicate actionable ischemia, considering the 0.8 threshold for actionable FFR. With partial occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery (FFR < 0.8), perfusion defects at 70 keV were correctly identified in the LAD territory. At 120 kVp, BH affected the size and flow in the ischemic area; e.g. with FFR ≈ 0.65, the anterior-to-lateral flow ratio was 0.29 ± 0.01, over-estimating stenosis severity as compared to 0.42 ± 0.01 (p < 0.05) at 70 keV. On the non-ischemic inferior wall (not a LAD territory), the flow ratio was 0.50 ± 0.04 falsely indicating an actionable ischemic condition in a healthy territory. This ratio was 1.00 ± 0.08 at 70 ke

  4. Rapid Automated Aircraft Simulation Model Updating from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brian, Geoff; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2011-01-01

    Techniques to identify aircraft aerodynamic characteristics from flight measurements and compute corrections to an existing simulation model of a research aircraft were investigated. The purpose of the research was to develop a process enabling rapid automated updating of aircraft simulation models using flight data and apply this capability to all flight regimes, including flight envelope extremes. The process presented has the potential to improve the efficiency of envelope expansion flight testing, revision of control system properties, and the development of high-fidelity simulators for pilot training.

  5. Modeling rapid mass movements using the shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergarten, S.; Robl, J.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a new method to model rapid mass movements on complex topography using the shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates. These equations are the widely used standard approximation for the flow of water in rivers and shallow lakes, but the main prerequisite for their application - an almost horizontal fluid table - is in general not satisfied for avalanches and debris flows in steep terrain. Therefore, we have developed appropriate correction terms for large topographic gradients. In this study we present the mathematical formulation of these correction terms and their implementation in the open source flow solver GERRIS. This novel approach is evaluated by simulating avalanches on synthetic and finally natural topographies and the widely used Voellmy flow resistance law. The results are tested against analytical solutions and the commercial avalanche model RAMMS. The overall results are in excellent agreement with the reference system RAMMS, and the deviations between the different models are far below the uncertainties in the determination of the relevant fluid parameters and involved avalanche volumes in reality. As this code is freely available and open source, it can be easily extended by additional fluid models or source areas, making this model suitable for simulating several types of rapid mass movements. It therefore provides a valuable tool assisting regional scale natural hazard studies.

  6. Extending a prototype knowledge and object based image analysis model to coarser spatial resolution imagery: an example from the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strong, Laurence L.

    2012-01-01

    A prototype knowledge- and object-based image analysis model was developed to inventory and map least tern and piping plover habitat on the Missouri River, USA. The model has been used to inventory the state of sandbars annually for 4 segments of the Missouri River since 2006 using QuickBird imagery. Interpretation of the state of sandbars is difficult when images for the segment are acquired at different river stages and different states of vegetation phenology and canopy cover. Concurrent QuickBird and RapidEye images were classified using the model and the spatial correspondence of classes in the land cover and sandbar maps were analysed for the spatial extent of the images and at nest locations for both bird species. Omission and commission errors were low for unvegetated land cover classes used for nesting by both bird species and for land cover types with continuous vegetation cover and water. Errors were larger for land cover classes characterized by a mixture of sand and vegetation. Sandbar classification decisions are made using information on land cover class proportions and disagreement between sandbar classes was resolved using fuzzy membership possibilities. Regression analysis of area for a paired sample of 47 sandbars indicated an average positive bias, 1.15 ha, for RapidEye that did not vary with sandbar size. RapidEye has potential to reduce temporal uncertainty about least tern and piping plover habitat but would not be suitable for mapping sandbar erosion, and characterization of sandbar shapes or vegetation patches at fine spatial resolution.

  7. Extending a prototype knowledge- and object-based image analysis model to coarser spatial resolution imagery: an example from the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strong, Laurence L.

    2012-01-01

    A prototype knowledge- and object-based image analysis model was developed to inventory and map least tern and piping plover habitat on the Missouri River, USA. The model has been used to inventory the state of sandbars annually for 4 segments of the Missouri River since 2006 using QuickBird imagery. Interpretation of the state of sandbars is difficult when images for the segment are acquired at different river stages and different states of vegetation phenology and canopy cover. Concurrent QuickBird and RapidEye images were classified using the model and the spatial correspondence of classes in the land cover and sandbar maps were analysed for the spatial extent of the images and at nest locations for both bird species. Omission and commission errors were low for unvegetated land cover classes used for nesting by both bird species and for land cover types with continuous vegetation cover and water. Errors were larger for land cover classes characterized by a mixture of sand and vegetation. Sandbar classification decisions are made using information on land cover class proportions and disagreement between sandbar classes was resolved using fuzzy membership possibilities. Regression analysis of area for a paired sample of 47 sandbars indicated an average positive bias, 1.15 ha, for RapidEye that did not vary with sandbar size. RapidEye has potential to reduce temporal uncertainty about least tern and piping plover habitat but would not be suitable for mapping sandbar erosion, and characterization of sandbar shapes or vegetation patches at fine spatial resolution.

  8. A Prototype Model for Automating Nursing Diagnosis, Nurse Care Planning and Patient Classification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    Administration * 02 Sign- Cff Cwrrmnt user. Select One number tO-43 ---- >. W Figure 2 This screen, the Prototype Master Screen provides a < branching point to...the four major areas. Depending upon the password~ used and option chosen, the program moves to ure 3, ’t, 5 or S. Sign- Cff is an option given on most...Sponsor’s oldest child [includes stepchildren) 02 Sponsor’s next oldest child 03,04, etc. Sponsor’s third oldest, etc. 20 Sponsor [active dutW, reserve and

  9. Two-point Spectral Modeling of Anisotropic Rapid Distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Timothy; Kurien, Susan; Rubinstein, Robert; Zemach, Charles

    2015-11-01

    We perform simulations of a two-point spectral model for the evolution of the energy tensor as function of wave-vector, for arbitrarily anisotropic turbulence in the limit of rapid distortion. The resulting Reynolds stress tensor for such flow is analysed for the effects of anisotropy during evolution. According to the SO(3) rotation group decomposition of the energy tensor, the leading order isotropic contribution is labelled by rotational mode index j = 0 , while higher order anisotropic contributions in statistically homogeneous flows contain a potentially very large array of rotational modes j = 2 , 3 , 4 , ... . We compare our results to those of the classical Launder, Reece and Rodi class of models in the rapid distortion limit. These models only retain anisotropy in a nominal manner up to j = 2 , due to an a priori angle-averaging procedure on the energy tensor, reducing it to a function of wave-number alone. Although the Reynolds stress itself has maximum j = 2 in the SO(3) representation, the terms that contribute to its evolution generate higher order rotational modes. The contributions from the higher order modes are shown to be responsible for the deviation of the LRR solution from the true solution over time.

  10. Modeling of weld bead geometry for rapid manufacturing by robotic GMAW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Xiong, Jun; Chen, Hui; Chen, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Weld-based rapid prototyping (RP) has shown great promises for fabricating 3D complex parts. During the layered deposition of forming metallic parts with robotic gas metal arc welding, the geometry of a single weld bead has an important influence on surface finish quality, layer thickness and dimensional accuracy of the deposited layer. In order to obtain accurate, predictable and controllable bead geometry, it is essential to understand the relationships between the process variables with the bead geometry (bead width, bead height and ratio of bead width to bead height). This paper highlights an experimental study carried out to develop mathematical models to predict deposited bead geometry through the quadratic general rotary unitized design. The adequacy and significance of the models were verified via the analysis of variance. Complicated cause-effect relationships between the process parameters and the bead geometry were revealed. Results show that the developed models can be applied to predict the desired bead geometry with great accuracy in layered deposition with accordance to the slicing process of RP.

  11. Lattice model for rapidly folding protein-like heteropolymers.

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, I; Vishveshwara, S; Cieplak, M; Maritan, A; Banavar, J R

    1995-01-01

    Protein folding is a relatively fast process considering the astronomical number of conformations in which a protein could find itself. Within the framework of a lattice model, we show that one can design rapidly folding sequences by assigning the strongest attractive couplings to the contacts present in a target native state. Our protein design can be extended to situations with both attractive and repulsive contacts. Frustration is minimized by ensuring that all the native contacts are again strongly attractive. Strikingly, this ensures the inevitability of folding and accelerates the folding process by an order of magnitude. The evolutionary implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:7568102

  12. Rapid isolation of intact, viable fetal cartilage models

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.R.; Chepenik, K.P.; Paynton, B.V.; Cotler, J.M.

    1982-04-01

    A rapid procedure is described for the isolation of viable, intact, femoral cartilage models (humeri and femora) obtained from pregnant rats on the 18th day of gestation. Viability of these models is demonstrated in an in vitro system where the incorporation of /sup 35/S-sulfate was linear with time of incubation and with numbers of cartilage models utilized. Treatment of cartilage models with ice-cold trichloroacetic acid and a boiling water bath prior to incubation with radiolabel, reduced the amount of radioactivity incorporated to 1.3% of that observed for models incubated by routine procedures. Furthermore, digestion of cartilage model homogenates with protease yielded a supernatant from which 51% to 57% of the radioactivity was precipitated as GAG. This method may also be used to isolate fetal cartilage models as early as the 16th day of gestation. with this system, specific biochemical parameters of mammalian fetal chondrogenesis may be surveyed in normally and abnormally developing fetal cartilage free of surrounding soft tissue.

  13. Application of expert system technology to nondestructive waste assay - initial prototype model

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1997-11-01

    Expert system technology has been identified as a technique useful for filling certain types of technology/capability gaps in existing waste nondestructive assay (NDA) applications. In particular, expert system techniques are being investigated with the intent of providing on-line evaluation of acquired data and/or directed acquisition of data in a manner that mimics the logic and decision making process a waste NDA expert would employ. The space from which information and data sources utilized in this process is much expanded with respect to the algorithmic approach typically utilized in waste NDA. Expert system technology provides a mechanism to manage and reason with this expanded information/data set. The material presented in this paper concerns initial studies and a resultant prototype expert system that incorporates pertinent information, and evaluation logic and decision processes, for the purpose of validating acquired waste NDA measurement assays. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Model measurement based identification of Francis turbine vortex rope parameters for prototype part load pressure and power pulsation prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manderla, M.; Weber, W.; Koutnik, J.

    2016-11-01

    Pressure and power fluctuations of hydro-electric power plants in part-load operation are an important measure for the quality of the power which is delivered to the electrical grid. It is well known that the unsteadiness is driven by the flow patterns in the draft tube where a vortex rope is present. However, until today the equivalent vortex rope parameters for common numerical 1D-models are a major source of uncertainty. In this work, a new optimization-based grey box method for experimental vortex rope modelling and parameter identification is presented. The combination of analytical vortex rope and test rig modelling and the usage of dynamic measurements allow the identification of the unknown vortex rope parameters. Upscaling from model to prototype size is achieved via existing nondimensional parameters. In this work, a new experimental setup and system identification method is proposed which are suitable for the determination of the full set of part load vortex rope parameters in the lab. For the vortex rope, a symmetric model with cavity compliance, bulk viscosity and two pressure excitation sources is developed and implemented which shows the best correspondence with available measurement data. Due to the non-dimensional parameter definition, scaling is possible. This finally provides a complete method for the prediction of prototype part-load pressure and power oscillations. Since the proposed method is based on a simple limited control domain, limited modelling effort and also small modelling uncertainties are some major advantages. Due to the generality of the approach, a future application to other operating conditions such as full load will be straightforward.

  15. Kaiser Permanente-Sandia National Health Care Model: Phase 1 prototype final report. Part 2 -- Domain analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.; Yoshimura, A.; Butler, D.; Judson, R.; Mason, W.; Napolitano, L.; Mariano, R.; Eddy, D.; Schlessinger, L.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and Kaiser Permanente Southern California to develop a prototype computer model of Kaiser Permanente`s health care delivery system. As a discrete event simulation, SimHCO models for each of 100,000 patients the progression of disease, individual resource usage, and patient choices in a competitive environment. SimHCO is implemented in the object-oriented programming language C{sup 2}, stressing reusable knowledge and reusable software components. The versioned implementation of SimHCO showed that the object-oriented framework allows the program to grow in complexity in an incremental way. Furthermore, timing calculations showed that SimHCO runs in a reasonable time on typical workstations, and that a second phase model will scale proportionally and run within the system constraints of contemporary computer technology.

  16. Health monitoring data analysis and comparison of prototype and laboratorial model for long-span cable-stayed bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ou; Ou, Jinping

    2009-03-01

    Since 2004, Shandong Binzhou Yellow River highway bridge health monitoring (SHM) system has started to operate. Abundance data has been acquired during these years. To make full use of these data, a 1/40 scale laboratorial model has been built based on the design information of Shandong Binzhou Yellow River highway bridge. And a health monitoring system of the laboratorial model, which included loading system, local response monitoring subsystem and global response monitoring subsystem, has been designed and implemented. The dynamic performance of bridge model and prototype has been compared and the error analysis has been provided also. The numeric simulation of cable damage localization utilizing damage location vectors (DLVs) has been demonstrated. And the results indicated that using DLVs to localize the cable damage is feasible and accurate. The goal of these efforts is to utilize the convenience of the laboratorial environment to obtain the structural information in ideal state which is hard to get in field.

  17. Wind-tunnel evaluation of a 21-percent-scale powered model of a prototype advanced scout helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, A. E., III; Berry, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    An exploratory wind tunnel investigation of a 21 percent scale powered model of a prototype advanced scout helicopter was conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel. The investigation was conducted to define the overall aerodynamic characteristics of the Army Helicopter Improvement Program (AHIP), to determine the effects of the rotor on the aerodynamic characteristics and to evaluate the effect of a mast mounted sight on the aircraft stability characteristics. Tests covered a range of thrust coefficients, advance ratios, angles of attack and angles of sideslip and were run for both rotor on and rotor off configurations. Results of the investigation showed that the prototype configuration was longitudinally unstable with angle of attack for all configurations tested. The instability was due to unfavorable interference effects between the horizontal tail and the wake shed from the engine pylon and rotor hub, which caused a loss of horizontal tail effectiveness. The addition of the mast mounted sight had little effect on the stability of the model, but it caused an alteration in the rotor lift distribution that resulted in substantial interference drag for the sight.

  18. Rapid SAR target modeling through genetic inheritance mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Jerzy; Pachowicz, Peter W.; Vafaie, Halleh

    1997-07-01

    The paper presents a methodology and GETP experimental system for rapid SAR target signature generation from limited initial sensory data. The methodology exploits and integrates the following four processes: (1) analysis of initial SAR image signatures and their transformation into higher-level blob representation, (2) blob modeling, (3) genetic inheritance modeling to generate new instances of a target model in blob representation, and (4) synthesis of new SAR signatures from genetically evolved blob data. The GETP system takes several SAR signatures of the target and transforms each signature into more general scattered blob graphs, where each blob represents local energy cluster. A single graph node is describe by blob relative position, confidence, and iconic data. Graph data is forwarded to the genetic modeling process while blob image is stored in a catalog. Genetic inheritance is applied to the initial population of graph data. New graph models of the target are generated and evaluated. Selected graph variations are forwarded to the synthesis process. The synthesis process restores target signature from a given graph and a catalog of blobs. The background is synthesized to complement the signature. Initial experimental results are illustrated with 64 X 32 image sections of a tank.

  19. Rapid world modeling: Fitting range data to geometric primitives

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.; Little, C.

    1996-12-31

    For the past seven years, Sandia National Laboratories has been active in the development of robotic systems to help remediate DOE`s waste sites and decommissioned facilities. Some of these facilities have high levels of radioactivity which prevent manual clean-up. Tele-operated and autonomous robotic systems have been envisioned as the only suitable means of removing the radioactive elements. World modeling is defined as the process of creating a numerical geometric model of a real world environment or workspace. This model is often used in robotics to plan robot motions which perform a task while avoiding obstacles. In many applications where the world model does not exist ahead of time, structured lighting, laser range finders, and even acoustical sensors have been used to create three dimensional maps of the environment. These maps consist of thousands of range points which are difficult to handle and interpret. This paper presents a least squares technique for fitting range data to planar and quadric surfaces, including cylinders and ellipsoids. Once fit to these primitive surfaces, the amount of data associated with a surface is greatly reduced up to three orders of magnitude, thus allowing for more rapid handling and analysis of world data.

  20. Development of a hybrid (numerical-hydraulic) circulatory model: prototype testing and its response to IABP assistance.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, G; Kozarski, M; De Lazzari, C; Górczyńska, K; Tosti, G; Darowski, M

    2005-07-01

    Merging numerical and physical models of the circulation makes it possible to develop a new class of circulatory models defined as hybrid. This solution reduces the costs, enhances the flexibility and opens the way to many applications ranging from research to education and heart assist devices testing. In the prototype described in this paper, a hydraulic model of systemic arterial tree is connected to a lumped parameters numerical model including pulmonary circulation and the remaining parts of systemic circulation. The hydraulic model consists of a characteristic resistance, of a silicon rubber tube to allow the insertion of an Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) and of a lumped parameters compliance. Two electro-hydraulic interfaces, realized by means of gear pumps driven by DC motors, connect the numerical section with both terminals of the hydraulic section. The lumped parameters numerical model and the control system (including analog to digital and digital to analog converters)are developed in LabVIEW environment. The behavior of the model is analyzed by means of the ventricular pressure-volume loops and the time courses of arterial and ventricular pressures and flows in different circulatory conditions. A simulated pathological condition was set to test the IABP and verify the response of the system to this type of mechanical circulatory assistance. The results show that the model can represent hemodynamic relationships in different ventricular and circulatory conditions and is able to react to the IABP assistance.

  1. Prototyping global Earth System Models at high resolution: Representation of climate, ecosystems, and acidification in Eastern Boundary Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, J. P.; John, J. G.; Stock, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The world's major Eastern Boundary Currents (EBC) such as the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) are critically important areas for global fisheries. Computational limitations have divided past EBC modeling into two types: high resolution regional approaches that resolve the strong meso-scale structures involved, and coarse global approaches that represent the large scale context for EBCs, but only crudely resolve only the largest scales of their manifestation. These latter global studies have illustrated the complex mechanisms involved in the climate change and acidification response in these regions, with the CCLME response dominated not by local adjustments but large scale reorganization of ocean circulation through remote forcing of water-mass supply pathways. While qualitatively illustrating the limitations of regional high resolution studies in long term projection, these studies lack the ability to robustly quantify change because of the inability of these models to represent the baseline meso-scale structures of EBCs. In the present work, we compare current generation coarse resolution (one degree) and a prototype next generation high resolution (1/10 degree) Earth System Models (ESMs) from NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in representing the four major EBCs. We review the long-known temperature biases that the coarse models suffer in being unable to represent the timing and intensity of upwelling-favorable winds, along with lack of representation of the observed high chlorophyll and biological productivity resulting from this upwelling. In promising contrast, we show that the high resolution prototype is capable of representing not only the overall meso-scale structure in physical and biogeochemical fields, but also the appropriate offshore extent of temperature anomalies and other EBC characteristics. Results for chlorophyll were mixed; while high resolution chlorophyll in EBCs were strongly enhanced over the coarse resolution

  2. A Model of Rapid Radicalization Behavior Using Agent-Based Modeling and Quorum Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Noah; Drucker, Nick; Campbell, Kenyth

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of radicalization, especially rapid radicalization, has become increasingly important to US policy in the past several years. Traditionally, radicalization is considered a slow process, but recent social and political events demonstrate that the process can occur quickly. Examining this rapid process, in real time, is impossible. However, recreating an event using modeling and simulation (M&S) allows researchers to study some of the complex dynamics associated with rapid radicalization. We propose to adapt the biological mechanism of quorum sensing as a tool to explore, or possibly explain, rapid radicalization. Due to the complex nature of quorum sensing, M&S allows us to examine events that we could not otherwise examine in real time. For this study, we employ Agent Based Modeling (ABM), an M&S paradigm suited to modeling group behavior. The result of this study was the successful creation of rapid radicalization using quorum sensing. The Battle of Mogadishu was the inspiration for this model and provided the testing conditions used to explore quorum sensing and the ideas behind rapid radicalization. The final product has wider applicability however, using quorum sensing as a possible tool for examining other catalytic rapid radicalization events.

  3. Modeling the rapid de-swelling of toroidal hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Chang, Ya-Wen; Alexeev, Alexander; Fernandez de Las Nieves, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    The utilization of synthetic hydrogel networks as 3-D cell culture platforms has allowed researchers to more effectively study how epigenetic factors affect cell growth and physiology. As a whole, this has emphasized the biomechanical role of scaffold structures and led to a number of advances in tissue engineering. Our current research focuses on modeling temperature activated shape transformations of toroidal poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) pNIPAM gels. We use dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to simulate the steady (slow heating rates) and unsteady (fast heating rates) de-swelling behavior of these thermo-sensitive gels. Our simulations show that for slow heating rates the aspect ratio of the tori remains constant during de-swelling. For rapid heating rates we observe buckling instabilities. Our simulations agree with the experimental observations. Financial support by NSF CAREER Award DMR-1255288 is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Electrophysiological Validation of a Human Prototype Auditory Midbrain Implant in a Guinea Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Lenarz, Minoo; Patrick, James F.; Anderson, David J.; Lenarz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The auditory midbrain implant (AMI) is a new treatment for hearing restoration in patients with neural deafness or surgically inaccessible cochleae who cannot benefit from cochlear implants (CI). This includes neurofibromatosis type II (NF2) patients who, due to development and/or removal of vestibular schwannomas, usually experience complete damage of their auditory nerves. Although the auditory brainstem implant (ABI) provides sound awareness and aids lip-reading capabilities for these NF2 patients, it generally only achieves hearing performance levels comparable with a single-channel CI. In collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Lane Cove, Australia), we developed a human prototype AMI, which is designed for electrical stimulation along the well-defined tonotopic gradient of the inferior colliculus central nucleus (ICC). Considering that better speech perception and hearing performance has been correlated with a greater number of discriminable frequency channels of information available, the ability of the AMI to effectively activate discrete frequency regions within the ICC may enable better hearing performance than achieved by the ABI. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate if our AMI array could achieve low-threshold, frequency-specific activation within the ICC, and whether the levels for ICC activation via AMI stimulation were within safe limits for human application. We electrically stimulated different frequency regions within the ICC via the AMI array and recorded the corresponding neural activity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) using a multisite silicon probe in ketamine-anesthetized guinea pigs. Based on our results, AMI stimulation achieves lower thresholds and more localized, frequency-specific activation than CI stimulation. Furthermore, AMI stimulation achieves cortical activation with current levels that are within safe limits for central nervous system stimulation. This study confirms that our AMI design is sufficient for ensuring

  5. Development of a Decision Aid for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Involving Intensive Care Unit Patients' and Health Professionals' Participation Using User-Centered Design and a Wiki Platform for Rapid Prototyping: A Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Heyland, Daren Keith; Ebell, Mark H; Dupuis, Audrey; Lavoie-Bérard, Carole-Anne; Légaré, France; Archambault, Patrick Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an intervention used in cases of cardiac arrest to revive patients whose heart has stopped. Because cardiac arrest can have potentially devastating outcomes such as severe neurological deficits even if CPR is performed, patients must be involved in determining in advance if they want CPR in the case of an unexpected arrest. Shared decision making (SDM) facilitates discussions about goals of care regarding CPR in intensive care units (ICUs). Patient decision aids (DAs) are proven to support the implementation of SDM. Many patient DAs about CPR exist, but they are not universally implemented in ICUs in part due to lack of context and cultural adaptation. Adaptation to local context is an important phase of implementing any type of knowledge tool such as patient DAs. User-centered design supported by a wiki platform to perform rapid prototyping has previously been successful in creating knowledge tools adapted to the needs of patients and health professionals (eg, asthma action plans). This project aims to explore how user-centered design and a wiki platform can support the adaptation of an existing DA for CPR to the local context. Objective The primary objective is to use an existing DA about CPR to create a wiki-based DA that is adapted to the context of a single ICU and tailorable to individual patient’s risk factors while employing user-centered design. The secondary objective is to document the use of a wiki platform for the adaptation of patient DAs. Methods This study will be conducted in a mixed surgical and medical ICU at Hôtel-Dieu de Lévis, Quebec, Canada. We plan to involve all 5 intensivists and recruit at least 20 alert and oriented patients admitted to the ICU and their family members if available. In the first phase of this study, we will observe 3 weeks of daily interactions between patients, families, intensivists, and other allied health professionals. We will specifically observe 5 dyads of

  6. Agile manufacturing prototyping system (AMPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P.

    1998-05-09

    The Agile Manufacturing Prototyping System (AMPS) is being integrated at Sandia National Laboratories. AMPS consists of state of the industry flexible manufacturing hardware and software enhanced with Sandia advancements in sensor and model based control; automated programming, assembly and task planning; flexible fixturing; and automated reconfiguration technology. AMPS is focused on the agile production of complex electromechanical parts. It currently includes 7 robots (4 Adept One, 2 Adept 505, 1 Staubli RX90), conveyance equipment, and a collection of process equipment to form a flexible production line capable of assembling a wide range of electromechanical products. This system became operational in September 1995. Additional smart manufacturing processes will be integrated in the future. An automated spray cleaning workcell capable of handling alcohol and similar solvents was added in 1996 as well as parts cleaning and encapsulation equipment, automated deburring, and automated vision inspection stations. Plans for 1997 and out years include adding manufacturing processes for the rapid prototyping of electronic components such as soldering, paste dispensing and pick-and-place hardware.

  7. Prototype of the Mexican spatial data infrastructure for climate raster models and satellite imagery (“VISTA-C”)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couturier, S.; Osorno Covarrubias, J.; Magaña Rueda, V.; Martínez Zazueta, I.; Vázquez Cruz, G.

    2017-01-01

    In the face of climatic uncertainty and its impacts on agriculture yields, there is a growing need for public institutions of subtropical countries to access as reliable as possible meteorological models and transmit a representation of their results in an effective way to stakeholders in agriculture. In many of these countries however, broad climatic regions and point-based statistics remain the core of these representations. The use of satellite imagery is largely limited to visual assessment, although it could serve as complementary data to meteorological raster models and the basis for spatially consistent quantitative impact assessments of meteorological events. In view of this situation in Mexico, a project developed by the Institute of Geography at UNAM university, and promoted by the National Institute of Geography and Statistics, consisted in the development of a climate monitoring system, which includes three main features: 1) a modular array storage system containing NOAA and GOES satellite imagery acquired though a receiving station (ERISA), 2) a climate modeling squeme based on successive error corrections of climate raster maps and associated models using the above mentioned imagery, and 3) an online, dynamic geovisualization of the results of the models. We discuss the implemented technologies and illustrate the VISTA-C prototype which has been released.

  8. Digital Microdroplet Ejection Technology-Based Heterogeneous Objects Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiquan; Feng, Chunmei; Yang, Jianfei; Zhu, Liya; Guo, Aiqing

    2016-01-01

    An integrate fabrication framework is presented to build heterogeneous objects (HEO) using digital microdroplets injecting technology and rapid prototyping. The heterogeneous materials part design and manufacturing method in structure and material was used to change the traditional process. The net node method was used for digital modeling that can configure multimaterials in time. The relationship of material, color, and jetting nozzle was built. The main important contributions are to combine the structure, material, and visualization in one process and give the digital model for manufacture. From the given model, it is concluded that the method is effective for HEO. Using microdroplet rapid prototyping and the model given in the paper HEO could be gotten basically. The model could be used in 3D biomanufacturing. PMID:26981110

  9. Aircraft model prototypes which have specified handling-quality time histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    Several techniques for obtaining linear constant-coefficient airplane models from specified handling-quality time histories are discussed. One technique, the pseudodata method, solves the basic problem, yields specified eigenvalues, and accommodates state-variable transfer-function zero suppression. The method is fully illustrated for a fourth-order stability-axis small-motion model with three lateral handling-quality time histories specified. The FORTRAN program which obtains and verifies the model is included and fully documented.

  10. A Multi-Model Real Time Forecasting Prototype System in the Mara Basin (Kenya/Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Valdes, J. B.; Valdes, R.; Demaria, E. M.; Durcik, M.; Maitaria, K.; Roy, T.

    2013-12-01

    Remote sensing data and hydrologic models can respond to monitoring and forecasting needs in Africa and other poorly gauged regions. We present here the progress to date in developing a multi-model platform to provide hydrologic monitoring and forecasting using real time remote sensing observations. Satellite precipitation products such as CMORPH, TMPA (at 0.25° resolution) and PERSIANN-CCS (at 4km resolution) are used to force two models of different structure. One model is physically based and distributed, and the other is conceptual and lumped at the sub-basin level. The performance of both models is evaluated using different metrics, and the uncertainty in their predictions based on the errors incurred during the historical simulations period is computed. The models were compared and the potential increase in performance from using both models versus a single one will be assessed. This work provides insights into the advantages of a multi-model platform over a single model, with respect to different management and decision-making purposes. The methods were applied to the Mara Basin (Kenya/Tanzania), where growing human demands on water and land use are likely to alter significantly the hydrologic balance of the basin and the ecosystems that depend on it. These efforts are part of the Applied Sciences Team of the NASA SERVIR Program in collaboration with its East Africa Hub at the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (Nairobi,Kenya).

  11. Aircraft model prototypes which have specified handling-quality time histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Several techniques for obtaining linear constant-coefficient airplane models from specified handling-quality time histories are discussed. The pseudodata method solves the basic problem, yields specified eigenvalues, and accommodates state-variable transfer-function zero suppression. The algebraic equations to be solved are bilinear, at worst. The disadvantages are reduced generality and no assurance that the resulting model will be airplane like in detail. The method is fully illustrated for a fourth-order stability-axis small motion model with three lateral handling quality time histories specified. The FORTRAN program which obtains and verifies the model is included and fully documented.

  12. Prototype of an Integrated Hurricane Information System for Research: Description and Illustration of its Use in Evaluating WRF Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova-Veleva, S.; Chao, Y.; Vane, D.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P. P.; Knosp, B.; Vu, Q. A.; Su, H.; Dang, V.; Fovell, R.; Tanelli, S.; Garay, M.; Willis, J.; Poulsen, W.; Fishbein, E.; Ao, C. O.; Vazquez, J.; Park, K. J.; Callahan, P.; Marcus, S.; Haddad, Z.; Fetzer, E.; Kahn, R.

    2007-12-01

    In spite of recent improvements in hurricane track forecast accuracy, currently there are still many unanswered questions about the physical processes that determine hurricane genesis, intensity, track and impact on large- scale environment. Furthermore, a significant amount of work remains to be done in validating hurricane forecast models, understanding their sensitivities and improving their parameterizations. None of this can be accomplished without a comprehensive set of multiparameter observations that are relevant to both the large- scale and the storm-scale processes in the atmosphere and in the ocean. To address this need, we have developed a prototype of a comprehensive hurricane information system of high- resolution satellite, airborne and in-situ observations and model outputs pertaining to: i) the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storms; ii) the air-sea interaction processes; iii) the larger-scale environment as depicted by the SST, ocean heat content and the aerosol loading of the environment. Our goal was to create a one-stop place to provide the researchers with an extensive set of observed hurricane data, and their graphical representation, together with large-scale and convection-resolving model output, all organized in an easy way to determine when coincident observations from multiple instruments are available. Analysis tools will be developed in the next step. The analysis tools will be used to determine spatial, temporal and multiparameter covariances that are needed to evaluate model performance, provide information for data assimilation and characterize and compare observations from different platforms. We envision that the developed hurricane information system will help in the validation of the hurricane models, in the systematic understanding of their sensitivities and in the improvement of the physical parameterizations employed by the models. Furthermore, it will help in studying the physical processes that affect

  13. Developing a Computational Environment for Coupling MOR Data, Maps, and Models: The Virtual Research Vessel (VRV) Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. J.; O'Dea, E.; Cushing, J. B.; Cuny, J. E.; Toomey, D. R.; Hackett, K.; Tikekar, R.

    2001-12-01

    The East Pacific Rise (EPR) from 9-10deg. N is currently our best-studied section of fast-spreading mid-ocean ridge. During several decades of investigation it has been explored by the full spectrum of ridge investigators, including chemists, biologists, geologists and geophysicists. These studies, and those that are ongoing, provide a wealth of observational data, results and data-driven theoretical (often numerical) studies that have not yet been fully utilized either by research scientists or by professional educators. While the situation is improving, a large amount of data, results, and related theoretical models still exist either in an inert, non-interactive form (e.g., journal publications) or as unlinked and currently incompatible computer data or algorithms. Infrastructure is needed not just for ready access to data, but linkage of disparate data sets (data to data) as well as data to models in order quantitatively evaluate hypotheses, refine numerical simulations, and explore new relations between observables. The prototype of a computational environment and toolset, called the Virtual Research Vessel (VRV), is being developed to provide scientists and educators with ready access to data, results and numerical models. While this effort is focused on the EPR 9N region, the resulting software tools and infrastructure should be helpful in establishing similar systems for other sections of the global mid-ocean ridge. Work in progress includes efforts to develop: (1) virtual database to incorporate diverse data types with domain-specific metadata into a global schema that allows web-query across different marine geology data sets, and an analogous declarative (database available) description of tools and models; (2) the ability to move data between GIS and the above DBMS, and tools to encourage data submission to archivesl (3) tools for finding and viewing archives, and translating between formats; (4) support for "computational steering" (tool composition

  14. A Dual-Process Approach to Health Risk Decision Making: The Prototype Willingness Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Houlihan, Amy E.; Stock, Michelle L.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Although dual-process models in cognitive, personality, and social psychology have stimulated a large body of research about analytic and heuristic modes of decision making, these models have seldom been applied to the study of adolescent risk behaviors. In addition, the developmental course of these two kinds of information processing, and their…

  15. Recognizing human actions by learning and matching shape-motion prototype trees.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhuolin; Lin, Zhe; Davis, Larry S

    2012-03-01

    A shape-motion prototype-based approach is introduced for action recognition. The approach represents an action as a sequence of prototypes for efficient and flexible action matching in long video sequences. During training, an action prototype tree is learned in a joint shape and motion space via hierarchical K-means clustering and each training sequence is represented as a labeled prototype sequence; then a look-up table of prototype-to-prototype distances is generated. During testing, based on a joint probability model of the actor location and action prototype, the actor is tracked while a frame-to-prototype correspondence is established by maximizing the joint probability, which is efficiently performed by searching the learned prototype tree; then actions are recognized using dynamic prototype sequence matching. Distance measures used for sequence matching are rapidly obtained by look-up table indexing, which is an order of magnitude faster than brute-force computation of frame-to-frame distances. Our approach enables robust action matching in challenging situations (such as moving cameras, dynamic backgrounds) and allows automatic alignment of action sequences. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves recognition rates of 92.86 percent on a large gesture data set (with dynamic backgrounds), 100 percent on the Weizmann action data set, 95.77 percent on the KTH action data set, 88 percent on the UCF sports data set, and 87.27 percent on the CMU action data set.

  16. Getting expert systems off the ground: Lessons learned from integrating model-based diagnostics with prototype flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Amy; Erikson, Carol A.

    1991-01-01

    As an initial attempt to introduce expert system technology into an onboard environment, a model based diagnostic system using the TRW MARPLE software tool was integrated with prototype flight hardware and its corresponding control software. Because this experiment was designed primarily to test the effectiveness of the model based reasoning technique used, the expert system ran on a separate hardware platform, and interactions between the control software and the model based diagnostics were limited. While this project met its objective of showing that model based reasoning can effectively isolate failures in flight hardware, it also identified the need for an integrated development path for expert system and control software for onboard applications. In developing expert systems that are ready for flight, artificial intelligence techniques must be evaluated to determine whether they offer a real advantage onboard, identify which diagnostic functions should be performed by the expert systems and which are better left to the procedural software, and work closely with both the hardware and the software developers from the beginning of a project to produce a well designed and thoroughly integrated application.

  17. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  18. System Modeling of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) Subassembly for Prototype Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Chad; Padilla, Sebastian; Iacomini, Christie; Paul, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes modeling methods for the three core components of a Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) subassembly: the sorbent bed, a sublimation (cooling) heat exchanger (SHX), and a condensing icing (warming) heat exchanger (CIHX). The primary function of the MTSA, removing carbon dioxide from a ventilation loop, is performed via the sorbent bed. The CIHX is used to heat the sorbent bed for desorption and to remove moisture from the ventilation loop while the SHX is alternately employed to cool the sorbent bed via sublimation of a spray of water at low pressure to prepare the reconditioned bed for the next cycle. This paper describes a system level model of the MTSA as developed in Thermal Desktop and SINDA/FLUINT including assumptions on geometry and physical phenomena, modeling methodology and relevant pa ra mete rizatio ns. Several areas of particular modeling interest are discussed. In the sorbent bed, capture of the translating CO2 saturation front and associated local energy and mass balance in both adsorbing and desorbing modes is covered. The CIHX poses particular challenges for modeling in SINDA/FLUINT as accounting for solids states in fluid submodels are not a native capability. Methods for capturing phase change and latent heat of ice as well as the transport properties across a layer of low density accreted frost are developed. This extended modeling capacity is applicable to temperatures greater than 258 K. To extend applicability to the minimum device temperature of 235 K, a method for a mapped transformation of temperatures from below the limit temperatures to some value above is given along with descriptions for associated material property transformations and the resulting impacts to total heat and mass transfer. Similar considerations are shown for the SHX along with assumptions for flow mechanics and resulting model methods for sublimation in a flow.

  19. A prototype Global Drought Information System based on multiple land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijssen, Bart; Shukla, Shrad; Lin, Chi-Yu; Lettenmaier, Dennis

    2013-04-01

    Droughts are pervasive natural hazards, which cause large economic losses and human suffering. While the absolute magnitude of these losses is greatest in the developed world, the relative impact is much higher in the developing world. Nonetheless, our ability to monitor and predict the development and occurrence of droughts at a global scale in near real-time is limited. This ability is of particular importance in estimating regional crop production and thus current and future prices of agricultural commodities, as well as the implementation of emergency measures in areas where the effects of drought threaten lives and livelihoods. We describe the implementation of a multi-model drought monitoring system, which provides near real-time estimates of soil moisture conditions for the global land areas between 50S and 50N with a latency of about one day. The system is an extension of similar systems developed by both the University of Washington and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction for use in the U.S. Drought Monitor. Global application of the protocols used in the U.S. systems poses new challenges, particularly with respect to the generation of meteorological forcings with which to drive the land surface models used in such a system. The global system we describe uses satellite-based precipitation (as contrasted with gridded station data in the U.S. systems) as well as temperature estimates based on global weather model analysis fields to track the evolution of soil moisture in near real-time at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree using multiple land surface models. By comparing the modeled, near real-time soil moisture values with the results from long-term retrospective simulations, the model estimates can be placed in historic context (as soil moisture percentiles) and used to monitor the development of droughts around the world. We evaluate the performance of our system for historic droughts, and compare with other drought analyses and analytical

  20. The "Research Audit" Model: A Prototype for Data-Driven Discovery of Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnette, Margaret H.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interdisciplinarity of scientific research creates both challenges and opportunities for librarians. The liaison model may be inadequate for supporting campus research that represents multiple disciplines and geographically dispersed departments. The identification of units, researchers, and projects is a first step in planning and…

  1. A Bayesian Performance Prediction Model for Mathematics Education: A Prototypical Approach for Effective Group Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekele, Rahel; McPherson, Maggie

    2011-01-01

    This research work presents a Bayesian Performance Prediction Model that was created in order to determine the strength of personality traits in predicting the level of mathematics performance of high school students in Addis Ababa. It is an automated tool that can be used to collect information from students for the purpose of effective group…

  2. CMAQ MODELING FOR AIR TOXICS AT FINE SCALES: A PROTOTYPE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic air pollutants (TAPs) or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) exhibit considerable spatial and temporal variability across urban areas. Therefore, the ability of chemical transport models (CTMs), e.g. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ), to reproduce the spatial and tempor...

  3. A failure management prototype: DR/Rx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammen, David G.; Baker, Carolyn G.; Kelly, Christine M.; Marsh, Christopher A.

    1991-01-01

    This failure management prototype performs failure diagnosis and recovery management of hierarchical, distributed systems. The prototype, which evolved from a series of previous prototypes following a spiral model for development, focuses on two functions: (1) the diagnostic reasoner (DR) performs integrated failure diagnosis in distributed systems; and (2) the recovery expert (Rx) develops plans to recover from the failure. Issues related to expert system prototype design and the previous history of this prototype are discussed. The architecture of the current prototype is described in terms of the knowledge representation and functionality of its components.

  4. Modeling Of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) Subassembly For Prototype Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Chad E.; Padilla, Sebastian A.; Iacomini, Christie S.; Paul, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes modeling methods for the three core components of a Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) subassembly: a sorbent bed, a sublimation (cooling) heat exchanger (SHX), and a condensing icing (warming) heat exchanger (CIHX). The primary function of the MTSA, removing carbon dioxide from a space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation loop, is performed via the sorbent bed. The CIHX is used to heat the sorbent bed for desorption and to remove moisture from the ventilation loop while the SHX is alternately employed to cool the sorbent bed via sublimation of a spray of water at low pressure to prepare the reconditioned bed for the next cycle. This paper describes subsystem heat a mass transfer modeling methodologies relevant to the description of the MTSA subassembly in Thermal Desktop and SINDA/FLUINT. Several areas of particular modeling interest are discussed. In the sorbent bed, capture of the translating carbon dioxide (CO2) front and associated local energy and mass balance in both adsorbing and desorbing modes is covered. The CIHX poses particular challenges for modeling in SINDA/FLUINT as accounting for solids states in fluid submodels are not a native capability. Methods for capturing phase change and latent heat of ice as well as the transport properties across a layer of low density accreted frost are developed. This extended modeling capacity is applicable to temperatures greater than 258 K. To extend applicability to the minimum device temperature of 235 K, a method for a mapped transformation of temperatures from below the limit temperatures to some value above is given along with descriptions for associated material property transformations and the resulting impacts to total heat and mass transfer. Similar considerations are given for the SHX along with functional relationships for areal sublimation rates as limited by flow mechanics in t1he outlet duct.

  5. Computational Modeling of a Mechanized Benchtop Apparatus for Leading-Edge Slat Noise Treatment Device Prototypes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Moore, James B.; Long, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Airframe noise is a growing concern in the vicinity of airports because of population growth and gains in engine noise reduction that have rendered the airframe an equal contributor during the approach and landing phases of flight for many transport aircraft. The leading-edge-slat device of a typical high-lift system for transport aircraft is a prominent source of airframe noise. Two technologies have significant potential for slat noise reduction; the slat-cove filler (SCF) and the slat-gap filler (SGF). Previous work was done on a 2D section of a transport-aircraft wing to demonstrate the implementation feasibility of these concepts. Benchtop hardware was developed in that work for qualitative parametric study. The benchtop models were mechanized for quantitative measurements of performance. Computational models of the mechanized benchtop apparatus for the SCF were developed and the performance of the system for five different SCF assemblies is demonstrated.

  6. Users guide for SAMM: A prototype southeast Alaska multiresource model. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Weyermann, D.L.; Fight, R.D.; Garrett, F.D.

    1991-08-01

    This paper instructs resource analysts on using the southeast Alaska multiresource model (SAMM). SAMM is an interactive microcomputer program that allows users to explore relations among several resources in southeast Alaska (timber, anadromous fish, deer, and hydrology) and the effects of timber management activities (logging, thinning, and road building) on those relations and resources. This guide assists users in installing SAMM on a microcomputer, developing input data files, making simulation runs, and strong output data for external analysis and graphic display.

  7. Cabin Atmosphere Monitoring System (CAMS), pre-prototype model development continuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bursack, W. W.; Harris, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    The development of the Cabin Atmosphere Monitoring System (CAMS) is described. Attention was directed toward improving stability and reliability of the design using flight application guidelines. Considerable effort was devoted to the development of a temperature-stable RF/DC generator used for excitation of the quadrupole mass filter. Minor design changes were made in the preprototype model. Specific gas measurement examples are included along with a discussion of the measurement rationale employed.

  8. SmartCard Prototype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    prototype. ............................................................................................. 7 Figure 6 Smart Card Prototype main window...a data explorer. Intervention costs Database with a single instance (i.e. one data set). User help framework Figure 6 Smart Card Prototype

  9. A prototype natural language interface to a large complex knowledge base, the Foundational Model of Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Distelhorst, Gregory; Srivastava, Vishrut; Rosse, Cornelius; Brinkley, James F

    2003-01-01

    We describe a constrained natural language interface to a large knowledge base, the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA). The interface, called GAPP, handles simple or nested questions that can be parsed to the form, subject-relation-object, where subject or object is unknown. With the aid of domain-specific dictionaries the parsed sentence is converted to queries in the StruQL graph-searching query language, then sent to a server we developed, called OQAFMA, that queries the FMA and returns output as XML. Preliminary evaluation shows that GAPP has the potential to be used in the evaluation of the FMA by domain experts in anatomy.

  10. Smashing the Stovepipe: Leveraging the GMSEC Open Architecture and Advanced IT Automation to Rapidly Prototype, Develop and Deploy Next-Generation Multi-Mission Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Satellite/Payload Ground Systems - Typically highly-customized to a specific mission's use cases - Utilize hundreds (or thousands!) of specialized point-to-point interfaces for data flows / file transfers Documentation and tracking of these complex interfaces requires extensive time to develop and extremely high staffing costs Implementation and testing of these interfaces are even more cost-prohibitive, and documentation often lags behind implementation resulting in inconsistencies down the road With expanding threat vectors, IT Security, Information Assurance and Operational Security have become key Ground System architecture drivers New Federal security-related directives are generated on a daily basis, imposing new requirements on current / existing ground systems - These mandated activities and data calls typically carry little or no additional funding for implementation As a result, Ground System Sustaining Engineering groups and Information Technology staff continually struggle to keep up with the rolling tide of security Advancing security concerns and shrinking budgets are pushing these large stove-piped ground systems to begin sharing resources - I.e. Operational / SysAdmin staff, IT security baselines, architecture decisions or even networks / hosting infrastructure Refactoring these existing ground systems into multi-mission assets proves extremely challenging due to what is typically very tight coupling between legacy components As a result, many "Multi-Mission" ops. environments end up simply sharing compute resources and networks due to the difficulty of refactoring into true multi-mission systems Utilizing continuous integration / rapid system deployment technologies in conjunction with an open architecture messaging approach allows System Engineers and Architects to worry less about the low-level details of interfaces between components and configuration of systems GMSEC messaging is inherently designed to support multi-mission requirements, and

  11. Atrial Model Development and Prototype Simulations: CRADA Final Report on Tasks 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, T.; Zhang, X.; Villongco, C.; Lightstone, F.; Richards, D.

    2016-10-28

    The goal of this CRADA was to develop essential tools needed to simulate human atrial electrophysiology in 3-dimensions using an anatomical image-based anatomy and physiologically detailed human cellular model. The atria were modeled as anisotropic, representing the preferentially longitudinal electrical coupling between myocytes. Across the entire anatomy, cellular electrophysiology was heterogeneous, with left and right atrial myocytes defined differently. Left and right cell types for the “control” case of sinus rhythm (SR) was compared with remodeled electrophysiology and calcium cycling characteristics of chronic atrial fibrillation (cAF). The effects of Isoproterenol (ISO), a beta-adrenergic agonist that represents the functional consequences of PKA phosphorylation of various ion channels and transporters, was also simulated in SR and cAF to represent atrial activity under physical or emotional stress. Results and findings from Tasks 3 & 4 are described. Tasks 3 and 4 are, respectively: Input parameters prepared for a Cardioid simulation; Report including recommendations for additional scenario development and post-processing analytic strategy.

  12. Millon's Evolutionary Model of Personality Assessment: A Case for Categorical/Dimensional Prototypes.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Seth D

    2015-01-01

    Theodore Millon (1928-2014) was arguably one of the most influential figures in conceptualizing and detailing personality styles and disorders in the latter 20th and early 21st centuries. A prominent member of the Axis II Work Group of DSM-III, III-R, and IV, Millon continued refining his evolutionary model long after his active involvement with these committees, and remained focused on the future of personality assessment until his death in 2014. This article is an exploration of his latter works, critiques of recent DSM-5 developments, and commentary on the usefulness of his deductive methodology as it continues to apply to the study, classification, and clinical application of personality assessment.

  13. Prototyping scalable digital signal processing systems for radio astronomy using dataflow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, N.; Ford, J.; Harris, A. I.; Bhattacharyya, S. S.

    2012-05-01

    There is a growing trend toward using high-level tools for design and implementation of radio astronomy digital signal processing (DSP) systems. Such tools, for example, those from the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), are usually platform-specific, and lack high-level, platform-independent, portable, scalable application specifications. This limits the designer's ability to experiment with designs at a high-level of abstraction and early in the development cycle. We address some of these issues using a model-based design approach employing dataflow models. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the design of a tunable digital downconverter (TDD) used for narrow-bandwidth spectroscopy. Our design is targeted toward an FPGA platform, called the Interconnect Break-out Board (IBOB), that is available from the CASPER. We use the term TDD to refer to a digital downconverter for which the decimation factor and center frequency can be reconfigured without the need for regenerating the hardware code. Such a design is currently not available in the CASPER DSP library. The work presented in this paper focuses on two aspects. First, we introduce and demonstrate a dataflow-based design approach using the dataflow interchange format (DIF) tool for high-level application specification, and we integrate this approach with the CASPER tool flow. Secondly, we explore the trade-off between the flexibility of TDD designs and the low hardware cost of fixed-configuration digital downconverter (FDD) designs that use the available CASPER DSP library. We further explore this trade-off in the context of a two-stage downconversion scheme employing a combination of TDD or FDD designs.

  14. Perspective: The Asakura Oosawa model: A colloid prototype for bulk and interfacial phase behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Kurt; Virnau, Peter; Statt, Antonia

    2014-10-14

    In many colloidal suspensions, the micrometer-sized particles behave like hard spheres, but when non-adsorbing polymers are added to the solution a depletion attraction (of entropic origin) is created. Since 60 years the Asakura-Oosawa model, which simply describes the polymers as ideal soft spheres, is an archetypical description for the statistical thermodynamics of such systems, accounting for many features of real colloid-polymer mixtures very well. While the fugacity of the polymers (which controls their concentration in the solution) plays a role like inverse temperature, the size ratio of polymer versus colloid radii acts as a control parameter to modify the phase diagram: when this ratio is large enough, a vapor-liquid like phase separation occurs at low enough colloid packing fractions, up to a triple point where a liquid-solid two-phase coexistence region takes over. For smaller size ratios, the critical point of the phase separation and the triple point merge, resulting in a single two-phase coexistence region between fluid and crystalline phases (of “inverted swan neck”-topology, with possibly a hidden metastable phase separation). Furthermore, liquid-crystalline ordering may be found if colloidal particles of non-spherical shape (e.g., rod like) are considered. Also interactions of the particles with solid surfaces should be tunable (e.g., walls coated by polymer brushes), and interfacial phenomena are particularly interesting experimentally, since fluctuations can be studied in the microscope on all length scales, down to the particle level. Due to its simplicity this model has become a workhorse for both analytical theory and computer simulation. Recently, generalizations addressing dynamic phenomena (phase separation, crystal nucleation, etc.) have become the focus of studies.

  15. Perspective: The Asakura Oosawa model: A colloid prototype for bulk and interfacial phase behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Kurt; Virnau, Peter; Statt, Antonia

    2014-10-01

    In many colloidal suspensions, the micrometer-sized particles behave like hard spheres, but when non-adsorbing polymers are added to the solution a depletion attraction (of entropic origin) is created. Since 60 years the Asakura-Oosawa model, which simply describes the polymers as ideal soft spheres, is an archetypical description for the statistical thermodynamics of such systems, accounting for many features of real colloid-polymer mixtures very well. While the fugacity of the polymers (which controls their concentration in the solution) plays a role like inverse temperature, the size ratio of polymer versus colloid radii acts as a control parameter to modify the phase diagram: when this ratio is large enough, a vapor-liquid like phase separation occurs at low enough colloid packing fractions, up to a triple point where a liquid-solid two-phase coexistence region takes over. For smaller size ratios, the critical point of the phase separation and the triple point merge, resulting in a single two-phase coexistence region between fluid and crystalline phases (of "inverted swan neck"-topology, with possibly a hidden metastable phase separation). Furthermore, liquid-crystalline ordering may be found if colloidal particles of non-spherical shape (e.g., rod like) are considered. Also interactions of the particles with solid surfaces should be tunable (e.g., walls coated by polymer brushes), and interfacial phenomena are particularly interesting experimentally, since fluctuations can be studied in the microscope on all length scales, down to the particle level. Due to its simplicity this model has become a workhorse for both analytical theory and computer simulation. Recently, generalizations addressing dynamic phenomena (phase separation, crystal nucleation, etc.) have become the focus of studies.

  16. A High-Fidelity Solar System Model and High-Contrast Integral Field Spectrograph Prototype for Exoplanet Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, A. N.; McElwain, M. W.; Roberge, A.; Nesvold, E.; Stark, C. C.; Kuchner, M. J.; Robinson, T.; Meadows, V. S.; Straughn, A. N.; Turnbull, M. C.; Gong, Q.; Woodgate, B.; Brandt, T.; Staplefelt, K.; Heap, S.; Hilton, G.

    2014-03-01

    and spectral capabilities. To that end, we have begun fabrication of the Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES), a lenslet-based integral field spectrograph (IFS) that will have a resolution of R~70, a wavelength span of 0.65 µm to 0.9 µm, and used as a prototype IFS for mission concepts such as the AFTA-Coronagraph, the Probe Science and Technology (STDT) teams, and ATLAST. Upon completion in 2015, PISCES will be integrated into the High-Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at NASA JPL, where it will undergo simulations with the Haystacks models and also be available to the community for testing. We present the design of PISCES, its current status, and preliminary simulations specific to the PISCES parameters of how exoplanetary systems formulated with Haystacks would look to PISCES and what those results mean for detectability of exoEarths and potential biomarkers.

  17. Prototyping of Computer-Based Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, D. E.; Black, T. R.

    1994-01-01

    Defines prototyping as an original version or model on which a completed software system for computer-based training is formed; examines the development process of a prototype; describes how prototyping can assist in facilitating communication between educational technology, software engineering, and project management; and discusses why…

  18. Design of a head phantom produced on a 3D rapid prototyping printer and comparison with a RANDO and 3M lucite head phantom in eye dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Homolka, Peter; Figl, Michael; Wartak, Andreas; Glanzer, Mathias; Dünkelmeyer, Martina; Hojreh, Azadeh; Hummel, Johann

    2017-04-21

    An anthropomorphic head phantom including eye inserts allowing placement of TLDs 3 mm below the cornea has been produced on a 3D printer using a photo-cured acrylic resin to best allow tissue equivalence. Thus Hp(3) can be determined in radiological and interventional photon radiation fields. Eye doses and doses to the forehead have been compared to an Alderson RANDO head and a 3M Lucite skull phantom in terms of surface dose per incident air kerma for frontal irradiation since the commercial phantoms do not allow placement of TLDs 3 mm below the corneal surface. A comparison of dose reduction factors (DRFs) of a common lead glasses model has also been performed. Eye dose per incident air kerma were comparable between all three phantoms (printed phantom: 1.40, standard error (SE) 0.04; RANDO: 1.36, SE 0.03; 3M: 1.37, SE 0.03). Doses to the forehead were identical to eye surface doses for the printed phantom and the RANDO head (ratio 1.00 SE 0.04, and 0.99 SE 0.03, respectively). In the 3M Lucite skull phantom dose on the forehead was 15% lower than dose to the eyes attributable to phantom properties. DRF of a sport frame style leaded glasses model with 0.75 mm lead equivalence measured were 6.8 SE 0.5, 9.3 SE 0.4 and 10.5 SE 0.5 for the RANDO head, the printed phantom, and the 3M Lucite head phantom, respectively, for frontal irradiation. A comparison of doses measured in 3 mm depth and on the surface of the eyes in the printed phantom revealed no difference larger than standard errors from TLD dosimetry. 3D printing offers an interesting opportunity for phantom design with increasing potential as printers allowing combinations of tissue substitutes will become available. Variations between phantoms may provide a useful indication of uncertainty budgets when using phantom measurements to estimate individual personnel doses.

  19. Design of a head phantom produced on a 3D rapid prototyping printer and comparison with a RANDO and 3M lucite head phantom in eye dosimetry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homolka, Peter; Figl, Michael; Wartak, Andreas; Glanzer, Mathias; Dünkelmeyer, Martina; Hojreh, Azadeh; Hummel, Johann

    2017-04-01

    An anthropomorphic head phantom including eye inserts allowing placement of TLDs 3 mm below the cornea has been produced on a 3D printer using a photo-cured acrylic resin to best allow tissue equivalence. Thus Hp(3) can be determined in radiological and interventional photon radiation fields. Eye doses and doses to the forehead have been compared to an Alderson RANDO head and a 3M Lucite skull phantom in terms of surface dose per incident air kerma for frontal irradiation since the commercial phantoms do not allow placement of TLDs 3 mm below the corneal surface. A comparison of dose reduction factors (DRFs) of a common lead glasses model has also been performed. Eye dose per incident air kerma were comparable between all three phantoms (printed phantom: 1.40, standard error (SE) 0.04; RANDO: 1.36, SE 0.03; 3M: 1.37, SE 0.03). Doses to the forehead were identical to eye surface doses for the printed phantom and the RANDO head (ratio 1.00 SE 0.04, and 0.99 SE 0.03, respectively). In the 3M Lucite skull phantom dose on the forehead was 15% lower than dose to the eyes attributable to phantom properties. DRF of a sport frame style leaded glasses model with 0.75 mm lead equivalence measured were 6.8 SE 0.5, 9.3 SE 0.4 and 10.5 SE 0.5 for the RANDO head, the printed phantom, and the 3M Lucite head phantom, respectively, for frontal irradiation. A comparison of doses measured in 3 mm depth and on the surface of the eyes in the printed phantom revealed no difference larger than standard errors from TLD dosimetry. 3D printing offers an interesting opportunity for phantom design with increasing potential as printers allowing combinations of tissue substitutes will become available. Variations between phantoms may provide a useful indication of uncertainty budgets when using phantom measurements to estimate individual personnel doses.

  20. Modeling & Testing of Inflatable Structures for Rapidly Deployable Port Infrastructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    and Mulberry 21 (Summer ’08) have shown potential to facilitate logistics operations through rapidly deployable, inflatable and water filled flexible...elastic analysis of the MOSES/ Mulberry concepts represents further development of inflatable structures technology in terms of concept, size...The team should review previous MODES and Mulberry 21 projects; The team will review requirements and then brainstorm potential ideas

  1. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): scenarios for comparing dose-assessment models. Vol. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    The Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program designed to provide rapid assessments of the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. The main body of this document consists of 28 examples of IRDAM input and output, representing various types of accidents and releases. These examples are intended to provide a basis for comparison with other models or for testing IRDAM itself. Figures are included which show dose rates calculated by IRDAM for each scenario. Figures are also included which show calculations made using the computer codes WRAITH (Scherpelz, Borst and Hoenes, 1980) and RADPUR (Dabbert, et. al., 1982). Two other companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The User's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Reactor Accident Assessment Methods (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 2) describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations.

  2. The Prototypical Ranitidine Analog JWS-USC-75-IX Improves Information Processing and Cognitive Function in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Buccafusco, Jerry J.; Herman, Elizabeth J.; Callahan, Patrick M.; Beck, Wayne D.; Warner, Samantha; Vandenhuerk, Leah; Bouchard, Kristy; Schwarz, Gary M.; Gao, Jie; Chapman, James M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate further a prototypical ranitidine analog, JWS-USC-75-IX, [(3-[[[2-[[(5-dimethylaminomethyl)-2-furanyl]methyl]thio]ethyl]amino]-4-nitropyridazine, JWS], for neuropharmacologic properties that would theoretically be useful for treating cognitive and noncognitive behavioral symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders. JWS was previously found to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, serve as a potent ligand at muscarinic M2 acetylcholine receptors, and elicit positive effects on spatial learning, passive avoidance, and working memory in rodents. In the current study, JWS was evaluated for binding activity at more than 60 neurotransmitter receptors, transporters, and ion channels, as well as for inhibitory activity at AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The results indicate that JWS inhibits AChE and BChE at low (micromolar) concentrations and that it is a functional antagonist at M2 receptors (KB = 320 nM). JWS was subsequently evaluated orally across additional behavioral assays in rodents (dose range, 0.03–10.0 mg/kg) as well as nonhuman primates (dose range, 0.05–2.0 mg/kg). In rats, JWS improved prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response in nonimpaired rats and attenuated PPI deficits in three pharmacologic impairment models. JWS also attenuated scopolamine and (−)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801)-related impairments in a spontaneous novel object recognition task and a five-choice serial reaction time task, respectively. In monkeys, JWS elicited dose-dependent improvements of a delayed match-to-sample task as well as an attention-related version of the task where randomly presented (task-relevant) distractors were presented. Thus, JWS (potentially via effects at several drug targets) improves information processing, attention, and memory in animal models and could potentially treat the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of some neuropsychiatric illnesses

  3. Robust formulation for the design of tissue engineering scaffolds: A comprehensive study on structural anisotropy, viscoelasticity and degradation of 3D scaffolds fabricated with customized desktop robot based rapid prototyping (DRBRP) system.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M Enamul

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the scaffolds' structural anisotropy (i.e. the effect of loading direction), viscoelasticity (i.e. the effect of cross head speed or strain rate), and the influence of simulated physiological environment (PBS solution at 37°C) on the mechanical properties. Besides, the in vitro degradation study has also been performed that evaluates the effect of variation in material and lay-down pattern on the scaffolds' degradation kinetics in terms of mass loss, and change in morphological and mechanical properties. Porous three dimensional (3D) scaffolds of polycarprolactone (PCL) and polycarprolactone-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG) were developed by laying down the microfilaments directionally layer-by-layer using an in-house built computer-controlled extrusion and deposition process, called desktop robot based rapid prototyping (DRBRP) system. The loading direction, strain rate and physiological environment directly influenced the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. In vitro degradation study demonstrated that both PCL and PCL-PEG scaffolds realized homogeneous hydrolytic degradation via surface erosion resulting in a consistent and predictable mass loss. The linear mass loss caused uniform and linear increase in porosity that accordingly led to the decrease in mechanical properties. The synthetic polymer had the potential to modulate hydrophilicity and/or degradability and consequently, the biomechanical properties of the scaffolds by varying the polymer constituents.

  4. Rapid Prototyping: State of the Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-23

    Manufacturing ( DCM ) is the name given to 3D Systems’ OptoForm technology. OptoForm was a French company that 3D acquired in early 2001. Subsequently...discussion. Kolisch, S., IIT Research Institute, Program Manager, Mobile Parts Hospital, Personal discussion. Sova, B., Boeing Phantom Works, St. Louis, MO

  5. Rapid Prototyping: State of the Art Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-23

    Manufacturing ( DCM ) is the name given to 3D Systems’ OptoForm technology. OptoForm was a French company that 3D acquired in early 2001. Subsequently, 3D... Phantom Works, St. Louis, MO. Personal discussion. Kolisch, S., “Army to Produce Replacement Parts on Demand in the Field,” AMPTIAC Quarterly, Vol

  6. The Development of a Rapid Prototyping Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    bOOLEAN; procedure EMPTY(G : out GRAPH); function IS NODE(X : in VERTEX; G : GRAPH ) return BOOLIAN; futction IS LIHK(X : In VERTEX; Y : in VERTEX; G...EMPTY; 306 function XS NODE (X : in VERTEX; G : GRAPH ) return 500LZA)I is begin if LOOK4(X, G.VERTICES) /-null then return TRUE; else return FALSE; end

  7. Rapid Prototyping Platform for Robotics Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Kao-Shing; Hsiao, Wen-Hsu; Shing, Gaung-Ting; Chen, Kim-Joan

    2011-01-01

    For the past several years, a team in the Department of Electrical Engineering (EE), National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, has been establishing a pedagogical approach to embody embedded systems in the context of robotics. To alleviate the burden on students in the robotics curriculum in their junior and senior years, a training platform on…

  8. C3I Rapid Prototype Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    It was , against this set of functions and their organization that we began our .’- 52 eva *. lu ons -. lf People 7ZV. Kernl Imedde Funtion System...generator available to any system with a FORTRAN compiler. It has a descriptive language in which to describe a grammar . Then the grammar description...is translated into Fortran source for compilation and use. In addition it provides an interactive environment for developing a grammar . Data Base

  9. Reusable Rapid Prototyped Blunt Impact Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    generally uses a computer-controlled deposition/curing process to create the individual layers, eventually culminating in a 3-D reproduction of an...back-face deformation impacts on instrumented headforms. These new data were subsequently analyzed by WSB to verify accurate reproduction of impact

  10. Five-factor model personality disorder prototypes in a community sample: self- and informant-reports predicting interview-based DSM diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Erin M; Shields, Andrew J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2011-10-01

    The need for an empirically validated, dimensional system of personality disorders is becoming increasingly apparent. While a number of systems have been investigated in this regard, the five-factor model of personality has demonstrated the ability to adequately capture personality pathology. In particular, the personality disorder prototypes developed by Lynam and Widiger (2001) have been tested in a number of samples. The goal of the present study is to extend this literature by validating the prototypes in a large, representative community sample of later middle-aged adults using both self and informant reports. We found that the prototypes largely work well in this age group. Schizoid, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic, and Avoidant personality disorders demonstrate good convergent validity, with a particularly strong pattern of discriminant validity for the latter four. Informant-reported prototypes show similar patterns to self reports for all analyses. This demonstrates that informants are not succumbing to halo representations of the participants, but are rather describing participants in nuanced ways. It is important that informant reports add significant predictive validity for Schizoid, Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, and Narcissistic personality disorders. Implications of our results and directions for future research are discussed.

  11. 3-D subsurface modeling within the framework of an environmental restoration information system: Prototype results using earthvision

    SciTech Connect

    Goeltz, R.T.; Zondlo, T.F.

    1994-12-31

    As a result of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE-ORR) placement on the EPA Superfund National Priorities List in December of 1989, all remedial activities, including characterization, remedial alternatives selection, and implementation of remedial measures, must meet the combined requirements of RCRA, CERCLA, and NEPA. The Environmental Restoration Program, therefore, was established with the mission of eliminating or reducing to prescribed safe levels the risks to the environment or to human health and safety posed by inactive and surplus DOE-ORR managed sites and facilities that have been contaminated by radioactive and surplus DOE-ORR managed sites and facilities that have been contaminated by radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes. In accordance with an established Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA), waste sites and facilities across the DOE-ORR have been inventoried, prioritized, and are being systematically investigated and remediated under the direction of Environmental Restoration. EarthVision, a product of Dynamic Graphics, Inc., that provides three-dimensional (3-D) modeling and visualization, was exercised within the framework of an environmental restoration (ER) decision support system. The goal of the prototype was to investigate framework integration issues including compatibility and value to decision making. This paper describes the ER program, study site, and information system framework; selected EarthVision results are shown and discussed. EarthVision proved effective in integrating complex data from disparate sources and in providing 3-D visualizations of the spatial relationships of the data, including contaminant plumes. Work is under way to expand the analysis to the full site, covering about 1600 acres, and to include data from new sources, particularly remote-sensing studies.

  12. Design and fabrication of a long-life Stirling cycle cooler for space application. Phase 3: Prototype model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keung, C.; Patt, P. J.; Starr, M.; Sweet, R. C.; Bourdillon, L. A.; Figueroa, R.; Hartmann, M.; Mcfarlane, R.

    1990-01-01

    A second-generation, Stirling-cycle cryocooler (cryogenic refrigerator) for space applications, with a cooling capacity of 5 watts at 65 K, was recently completed. The refrigerator, called the Prototype Model, was designed with a goal of 5 year life with no degradation in cooling performance. The free displacer and free piston of the refrigerator are driven directly by moving-magnet linear motors with the moving elements supported by active magnetic bearings. The use of clearance seals and the absence of outgassing material in the working volume of the refrigerator enable long-life operation with no deterioration in performance. Fiber-optic sensors detect the radial position of the shafts and provide a control signal for the magnetic bearings. The frequency, phase, stroke, and offset of the compressor and expander are controlled by signals from precision linear position sensors (LVDTs). The vibration generated by the compressor and expander is cancelled by an active counter balance which also uses a moving-magnet linear motor and magnetic bearings. The driving signal for the counter balance is derived from the compressor and expander position sensors which have wide bandwidth for suppression of harmonic vibrations. The efficiency of the three active members, which operate in a resonant mode, is enhanced by a magnetic spring in the expander and by gas springs in the compressor and counterbalance. The cooling was achieved with a total motor input power of 139 watts. The magnetic-bearing stiffness was significantly increased from the first-generation cooler to accommodate shuttle launch vibrations.

  13. Do the eyes scan dream images during rapid eye movement sleep? Evidence from the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder model.

    PubMed

    Leclair-Visonneau, Laurène; Oudiette, Delphine; Gaymard, Bertrand; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Rapid eye movements and complex visual dreams are salient features of human rapid eye movement sleep. However, it remains to be elucidated whether the eyes scan dream images, despite studies that have retrospectively compared the direction of rapid eye movements to the dream recall recorded after having awakened the sleeper. We used the model of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (when patients enact their dreams by persistence of muscle tone) to determine directly whether the eyes move in the same directions as the head and limbs. In 56 patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 17 healthy matched controls, the eye movements were monitored by electrooculography in four (right, left, up and down) directions, calibrated with a target and synchronized with video and sleep monitoring. The rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-associated behaviours occurred 2.1 times more frequently during rapid eye movement sleep with than without rapid eye movements, and more often during or after rapid eye movements than before. Rapid eye movement density, index and complexity were similar in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and controls. When rapid eye movements accompanied goal-oriented motor behaviour during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (e.g. grabbing a fictive object, hand greetings, climbing a ladder), which happened in 19 sequences, 82% were directed towards the action of the patient (same plane and direction). When restricted to the determinant rapid eye movements, the concordance increased to 90%. Rapid eye movements were absent in 38-42% of behaviours. This directional coherence between limbs, head and eye movements during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder suggests that, when present, rapid eye movements imitate the scanning of the dream scene. Since the rapid eye movements are similar in subjects with and without rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, this concordance can be extended

  14. The RARE model of rapid HIV risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bates, Christopher J; Singer, Merrill; Needle, Richard; Trotter, Robert T

    2007-08-01

    The impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on minority communities called for interventions to stem the increase in new HIV infections and identify HIV-positive individuals for referral to care and treatment services. The Rapid Assessment, Response and Evaluation (RARE) project was designed to provide highly affected communities with a tool that would quickly identify conditions that fuel new infections and serve as barriers to HIV-positive individuals getting HIV testing, care, and treatment. RARE brought indigenous community health outreach workers and key community-level stakeholders together to advocate for the transfer of findings into programmatic and policy responses in places where high risk behaviors were practiced. This article describes RARE's qualitative methods that captured the voice of those most affected by the HIV/AIDS threat and identified critical insights and dynamics about factors that lead to HIV infections and those that can move positive individuals into care and treatment.

  15. Incorporating tissue absorption and scattering in rapid ultrasound beam modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Douglas; Almquist, Scott

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a new approach for modeling the propagation of an ultrasound beam in inhomogeneous tissues such as encountered with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for treatment of various diseases. This method, called the hybrid angular spectrum (HAS) approach, alternates propagation steps between the space and the spatial frequency domains throughout the inhomogeneous regions of the body; the use of spatial Fourier transforms makes this technique considerably faster than other modeling approaches (about 10 sec for a 141 x 141 x 121 model). In HIFU thermal treatments, the acoustic absorption property of the tissues is of prime importance since it leads to temperature rise and the achievement of desired thermal dose at the treatment site. We have recently added to the HAS method the capability of independently modeling tissue absorption and scattering, the two components of acoustic attenuation. These additions improve the predictive value of the beam modeling and more accurately describes the thermal conditions expected during a therapeutic ultrasound exposure. Two approaches to explicitly model scattering were developed: one for scattering sizes smaller than a voxel, and one when the scattering scale is several voxels wide. Some anatomically realistic examples that demonstrate the importance of independently modeling absorption and scattering are given, including propagation through the human skull for noninvasive brain therapy and in the human breast for treatment of breast lesions.

  16. Evaluating Rapid Models for High-Throughput Exposure Forecasting (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High throughput exposure screening models can provide quantitative predictions for thousands of chemicals; however these predictions must be systematically evaluated for predictive ability. Without the capability to make quantitative, albeit uncertain, forecasts of exposure, the ...

  17. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard Jason; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2015-01-01

    This report introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing-edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio, and number of control surfaces. Using this information, the generalized forces are computed using the doublet-lattice method. Using Roger's approximation, a rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. All parameters can be easily modified if desired. The focus of this report is on tool presentation, verification, and validation. These processes are carried out in stages throughout the report. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool, therefore, the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind-tunnel results for the same structure. A case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis, including the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  18. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard J.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing-edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio, and number of control surfaces. Using this information, the generalized forces are computed using the doublet-lattice method. Using Roger's approximation, a rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. All parameters can be easily modified if desired. The focus of this paper is on tool presentation, verification, and validation. These processes are carried out in stages throughout the paper. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool, therefore, the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind-tunnel results for the same structure. A case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis, including the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  19. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard J.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio and number of control surfaces. A doublet lattice approach is taken to compute generalized forces. A rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. Although, all parameters can be easily modified if desired.The focus of this paper is on tool presentation, verification and validation. This process is carried out in stages throughout the paper. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool. Therefore the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using V-g and V-f analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind tunnel results for the same structure. Finally a case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to V-g and V-f analysis. This also includes the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  20. A Rapid Approach to Modeling Species-Habitat Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Geoffrey M.; Breinger, David R.; Stolen, Eric D.

    2005-01-01

    A growing number of species require conservation or management efforts. Success of these activities requires knowledge of the species' occurrence pattern. Species-habitat models developed from GIS data sources are commonly used to predict species occurrence but commonly used data sources are often developed for purposes other than predicting species occurrence and are of inappropriate scale and the techniques used to extract predictor variables are often time consuming and cannot be repeated easily and thus cannot efficiently reflect changing conditions. We used digital orthophotographs and a grid cell classification scheme to develop an efficient technique to extract predictor variables. We combined our classification scheme with a priori hypothesis development using expert knowledge and a previously published habitat suitability index and used an objective model selection procedure to choose candidate models. We were able to classify a large area (57,000 ha) in a fraction of the time that would be required to map vegetation and were able to test models at varying scales using a windowing process. Interpretation of the selected models confirmed existing knowledge of factors important to Florida scrub-jay habitat occupancy. The potential uses and advantages of using a grid cell classification scheme in conjunction with expert knowledge or an habitat suitability index (HSI) and an objective model selection procedure are discussed.