RRTM: A rapid radiative transfer model
Mlawer, E.J.; Taubman, S.J.; Clough, S.A.
1996-04-01
A rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM) for the calculation of longwave clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates has been developed. The model, which uses the correlated-k method, is both accurate and computationally fast. The foundation for RRTM is the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) from which the relevant k-distributions are obtained. LBLRTM, which has been extensively validated against spectral observations e.g., the high-resolution sounder and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, is used to validate the flux and cooling rate results from RRTM. Validations of RRTM`s results have been performed for the tropical, midlatitude summer, and midlatitude winter atmospheres, as well as for the four Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) cases from the Spectral Radiance Experiment (SPECTRE). Details of some of these validations are presented below. RRTM has the identical atmospheric input module as LBLRTM, facilitating intercomparisons with LBLRTM and application of the model at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Cloud and Radiation Testbed sites.
Thermal radiation heat transfer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siegel, R.; Howell, J. R.
1972-01-01
A comprehensive discussion of heat transfer by thermal radiation is presented, including the radiative behavior of materials, radiation between surfaces, and gas radiation. Among the topics considered are property prediction by electromagnetic theory, the observed properties of solid materials, radiation in the presence of other modes of energy transfer, the equations of transfer for an absorbing-emitting gas, and radiative transfer in scattering and absorbing media. Also considered are radiation exchange between black isothermal surfaces, radiation exchange in enclosures composed of diffuse gray surfaces and in enclosures having some specularly reflecting surfaces, and radiation exchange between nondiffuse nongray surfaces. The use of the Monte Carlo technique in solving radiant-exchange problems and problems of radiative transfer through absorbing-emitting media is explained.
Fast multilevel radiative transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paletou, Frédéric; Léger, Ludovick
2007-01-01
The vast majority of recent advances in the field of numerical radiative transfer relies on approximate operator methods better known in astrophysics as Accelerated Lambda-Iteration (ALI). A superior class of iterative schemes, in term of rates of convergence, such as Gauss-Seidel and Successive Overrelaxation methods were therefore quite naturally introduced in the field of radiative transfer by Trujillo Bueno & Fabiani Bendicho (1995); it was thoroughly described for the non-LTE two-level atom case. We describe hereafter in details how such methods can be generalized when dealing with non-LTE unpolarised radiation transfer with multilevel atomic models, in monodimensional geometry.
Ultrafast radiative heat transfer.
Yu, Renwen; Manjavacas, Alejandro; García de Abajo, F Javier
2017-02-23
Light absorption in conducting materials produces heating of their conduction electrons, followed by relaxation into phonons within picoseconds, and subsequent diffusion into the surrounding media over longer timescales. This conventional picture of optical heating is supplemented by radiative cooling, which typically takes place at an even lower pace, only becoming relevant for structures held in vacuum or under extreme thermal isolation. Here, we reveal an ultrafast radiative cooling regime between neighboring plasmon-supporting graphene nanostructures in which noncontact heat transfer becomes a dominant channel. We predict that more than 50% of the electronic heat energy deposited on a graphene disk can be transferred to a neighboring nanoisland within a femtosecond timescale. This phenomenon is facilitated by the combination of low electronic heat capacity and large plasmonic field concentration in doped graphene. Similar effects should occur in other van der Waals materials, thus opening an unexplored avenue toward efficient heat management.Electron relaxation, which is the dominant release channel of electronic heat in nanostructures, occurs with characteristic times of several picoseconds. Here, the authors predict that an ultrafast (femtosecond) radiative cooling regime takes place in plasmonically active neighboring graphene nanodisks prior to electron relaxation.
RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN ULTRARELATIVISTIC OUTFLOWS
Beloborodov, Andrei M.
2011-08-20
Analytical and numerical solutions are obtained for the equation of radiative transfer in ultrarelativistic opaque jets. The solution describes the initial trapping of radiation, its adiabatic cooling, and the transition to transparency. Two opposite regimes are examined. (1) Matter-dominated outflow. Surprisingly, radiation develops enormous anisotropy in the fluid frame before decoupling from the fluid. The radiation is strongly polarized. (2) Radiation-dominated outflow. The transfer occurs as if radiation propagated in vacuum, preserving the angular distribution and the blackbody shape of the spectrum. The escaping radiation has a blackbody spectrum if (and only if) the outflow energy is dominated by radiation up to the photospheric radius.
RATT: Rapid Annotation Transfer Tool
Otto, Thomas D.; Dillon, Gary P.; Degrave, Wim S.; Berriman, Matthew
2011-01-01
Second-generation sequencing technologies have made large-scale sequencing projects commonplace. However, making use of these datasets often requires gene function to be ascribed genome wide. Although tool development has kept pace with the changes in sequence production, for tasks such as mapping, de novo assembly or visualization, genome annotation remains a challenge. We have developed a method to rapidly provide accurate annotation for new genomes using previously annotated genomes as a reference. The method, implemented in a tool called RATT (Rapid Annotation Transfer Tool), transfers annotations from a high-quality reference to a new genome on the basis of conserved synteny. We demonstrate that a Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome or a single 2.5 Mb chromosome from a malaria parasite can be annotated in less than five minutes with only modest computational resources. RATT is available at http://ratt.sourceforge.net. PMID:21306991
LRAT: Lightning Radiative Transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phanord, Dieudonne D.
1993-01-01
In this report, we extend to cloud physics the work done for single and multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves. We consider the scattering of light, visible or infrared, by a spherical cloud represented by a statistically homogeneous ensemble of configurations of N identical spherical water droplets whose centers are uniformly distributed in its volume V. The ensemble is specified by the average number rho of scatterers in unit volume and by rho f(R) with f(R) as the distribution function for separations R of pairs. The incident light, vector-phi(sub 0) a plane electromagnetic wave with harmonic time dependence, is from outside the cloud. The propagation parameter kappa(sub 0) and the index of refraction eta(sub 0) determine physically the medium outside the distribution of scatterers. We solve the interior problem separately to obtain the bulk parameters for the scatterer equivalent to the ensemble of spherical droplets. With the interior solution or the equivalent medium approach, the multiple scattering problem is reduced to that of an equivalent single scatterer excited from outside illumination. A dispersion relation which determines the bulk propagation parameter K and the bulk index of refraction eta of the cloud is given in terms of the vector equivalent scattering amplitude vector-G and the dyadic scattering amplitude tilde-g of the single object in isolation. Based on this transfer model we will have the ability to consider clouds composed of inhomogeneous distribution of water and/or ice particles and we will be able to take into account particle size distributions within the cloud. We will also be able to study the effects of cloud composition (i.e., particle shape, size, composition, orientation, location) on the polarization of the single or the multiple scattered waves. Finally, this study will provide a new starting point for studying the problem of lightning radiative transfer.
Radiative transfer dynamo effect
Munirov, Vadim R.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2017-01-17
Here, magnetic fields in rotating and radiating astrophysical plasma can be produced due to a radiative interaction between plasma layers moving relative to each other. The efficiency of current drive, and with it the associated dynamo effect, is considered in a number of limits. It is shown here, however, that predictions for these generated magnetic fields can be significantly higher when kinetic effects, previously neglected, are taken into account.
Radiative transfer dynamo effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munirov, Vadim R.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2017-01-01
Magnetic fields in rotating and radiating astrophysical plasma can be produced due to a radiative interaction between plasma layers moving relative to each other. The efficiency of current drive, and with it the associated dynamo effect, is considered in a number of limits. It is shown here, however, that predictions for these generated magnetic fields can be significantly higher when kinetic effects, previously neglected, are taken into account.
Auroral resonance line radiative transfer
Gladstone, G.R. )
1992-02-01
A model is developed for simulating the two-dimensional radiative transfer of resonance line emissions in auroras. The method of solution utilizes Fourier decomposition of the horizontal dependence in the intensity field so that the two-dimensional problem becomes a set of one-dimensional problems having different horizontal wavenumbers. The individual one-dimensional problems are solved for using a Feautrier-type solution of the differential-integral form of the radiative transfer equation. In the limit as the horizontal wavenumber becomes much larger than the local line-center extinction coefficient, the scattering integral becomes considerably simplified, and the final source function is evaluated in closed form. The two-dimensional aspects of the model are tested against results for nonresonance radiative transfer studies, and the resonance line part of the model is tested against results of existing plane-parallel resonance line radiative transfer codes. Finally, the model is used to simulate the intensity field of O{sub I} 1,304{angstrom} for hard and soft auroras of various Gaussian horizontal widths. The results demonstrate the importance of considering the effects of two-dimensional radiative transfer when analyzing auroral resonance line data.
Radiative transfer in spherical atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalkofen, W.; Wehrse, R.
A method for defining spherical model atmospheres in radiative/convective and hydrostatic equilibrium is presented. A finite difference form is found for the transfer equation and a matrix operator is developed as the discrete space analog (in curvilinear coordinates) of a formal integral in plane geometry. Pressure is treated as a function of temperature. Flux conservation is maintained within the energy equation, although the correct luminosity transport must be assigned for any given level of the atmosphere. A perturbed integral operator is used in a complete linearization of the transfer and constraint equations. Finally, techniques for generating stable solutions in economical computer time are discussed.
Nonlinear response matrix methods for radiative transfer. [Radiative transfer
Miller, W.F. Jr.; Lewis, E.E.
1987-01-01
A nonlinear response matrix formalism is presented for the solution of time-dependent radiative transfer problems. The essential feature of the method is that within each computational cell the temperature is calculated in response to the incoming photons from all frequency groups. Thus the updating of the temperature distribution is placed within the iterative solution of the spaceangle transport problem, instead of being placed outside of it. The method is formulated for both grey and multifrequency problems and applied in slab geometry. The method is compared to the more conventional source iteration technique. 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.
Radiative transfer in dusty nebulae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dana, R. A.
1977-01-01
The effects of dust scattering on observable optical and infrared parameters, and the accuracy of approximate solutions were examined. The equation of radiative transfer in a static and homogeneous, but not necessarily uniform, distribution gas and dust around a central empty core with a point source of energy at its center was solved. The dust properties were characterized by a phenomenological extinction cross section, albedo and parameters describing the anisotropy of dust scattering. For ultraviolet photons, ionization equilibrium equations for the gas were solved, and for infrared photons a self-consistent dust temperature was calculated. Ray tracing was used to solve for the angular dependence of the intensity.
Radiative Transfer in Protoplanetary Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graziani, L.; Aiello, S.; Belleni-Morante, A.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.
2008-09-01
Abstract Protoplanetary disks are the precursors of planetary systems. All building materials needed to assembly the planetary systems are supplied by these reservoirs, including many organic molecules [1,2]. Thus, the physical and chemical properties in Protoplanetary disks set the boundary conditions for the formation and evolution of planets and other solar system bodies. In standard radiative scenario structure and chemistry of protoplanetary disks depend strongly on the nature of central star around which they formed. The dust temperature is manly set by the stellar luminosity, while the chemistry of the whole disk depends on the UV and X ray fluxes [3,4,6,8]. Therefore, a knowledge as accurate as possible of the radiative transfer (RT) inside disks is a prerequisite for their modelling. Actually, real disks are complex, stratified and inhomogeneous environments requiring a detailed dust mixture modelling and the ability to follow the radiation transfer across radial and vertical gradients. Different energetic processes as the mass accretion processes onto the star surface, the viscous dissipative heating dominating the midplane region, and the flared atmospheres radiation reprocessing, have a significant role in the disk structuring [4,5,8]. During the last 10 years many authors suggested various numerical and analytical techniques to resolve the disk temperature structure providing vertical temperature profiles and disk SED databases [4,6]. In this work we present the results of our semi analytical and numerical model solving the radiative transfer problem in two separate interesting disk regions: 1) Disk atmospheres at large radius, r > 10 AU. 2) Vertical disk structure over 1 < r < 10 AU and 10 < r < 100 AU. A simplified analytical approach based on P-N approximation [7] for a rectified disk surface (suitable for limited range of r) is compared and contrasted with a more accurate Monte Carlo integration [5]. Our code can handle arbitrary dust
[Stochastic radiation transfer]. Final report
Byrne, N.
1992-12-31
The original proposal was to produce a new cloud parameterization based upon an innovative stochastic radiative transfer techniques, in which the parameters will be validated by ARM data. The authors intended to construct a subgrid model for use in GCMs that would account for the effects of unresolved clouds on radiation flow, and they pointed out that scattering could be accommodated in this approach. They were to use ARM site data on cloud morphology and cloud/radiative energy balance in developing the new model. The data was to be supplemented by satellite data since they knew the projected rich set of ARM data would not be available immediately. The new technique was to be first checked out by incorporation into the Scripps single-column model, and after a period of refinement and proving itself was to be incorporated in a version of the CCM code. Among the minor goals was the use of these studies to provide guidance to ARM program managers and experimenters and to engender intercommunity scientific collaboration between private industry, the DOE/ARM and academia.
Stochastic Radiative transfer and real cloudiness
Evans, F.
1995-09-01
Plane-parallel radiative transfer modeling of clouds in GCMs is thought to be an inadequate representation of the effects of real cloudiness. A promising new approach for studying the effects of cloud horizontal inhomogeneity is stochastic radiative transfer, which computes the radiative effects of ensembles of cloud structures described by probability distributions. This approach is appropriate because cloud information is inherently statistical, and it is the mean radiative effect of complex 3D cloud structure that is desired. 2 refs., 1 fig.
Molecular Adaptation during a Rapid Adaptive Radiation
Kapralov, Maxim V.; Votintseva, Antonina A.; Filatov, Dmitry A.
2013-01-01
“Explosive” adaptive radiations on islands remain one of the most puzzling evolutionary phenomena and the evolutionary genetic processes behind such radiations remain unclear. Rapid morphological and ecological evolution during island radiations suggests that many genes may be under fairly strong selection, although this remains untested. Here, we report that during a rapid recent diversification in the Hawaiian endemic plant genus Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae), 5 in 36 studied genes evolved under positive selection. Positively selected genes are involved in defence mechanisms, photosynthesis, and reproduction. Comparison with eight mainland plant groups demonstrates both the relaxation of purifying selection and more widespread positive selection in Hawaiian Schiedea. This provides compelling evidence that adaptive evolution of protein-coding genes may play a significant role during island adaptive radiations. PMID:23355532
Plasma effects in high frequency radiative transfer
Alonso, C.T.
1981-02-08
This paper is intended as a survey of collective plasma processes which can affect the transfer of high frequency radiation in a hot dense plasma. We are rapidly approaching an era when this subject will become important in the laboratory. For pedagogical reasons we have chosen to examine plasma processes by relating them to a particular reference plasma which will consist of fully ionized carbon at a temperature kT=1 KeV (10/sup 70/K) and an electron density N = 3 x 10/sup 23/cm/sup -3/, (which corresponds to a mass density rho = 1 gm/cm/sup 3/ and an ion density N/sub i/ = 5 x 10/sup 22/ cm/sup -3/). We will consider the transport in such a plasma of photons ranging from 1 eV to 1 KeV in energy. Such photons will probably be frequently used as diagnostic probes of hot dense laboratory plasmas.
Radiative heat transfer in porous uranium dioxide
Hayes, S.L.
1992-12-01
Due to low thermal conductivity and high emissivity of UO{sub 2}, it has been suggested that radiative heat transfer may play a significant role in heat transfer through pores of UO{sub 2} fuel. This possibility was computationally investigated and contribution of radiative heat transfer within pores to overall heat transport in porous UO{sub 2} quantified. A repeating unit cell was developed to model approximately a porous UO{sub 2} fuel system, and the heat transfer through unit cells representing a wide variety of fuel conditions was calculated using a finite element computer program. Conduction through solid fuel matrix as wekk as pore gas, and radiative exchange at pore surface was incorporated. A variety of pore compositions were investigated: porosity, pore size, shape and orientation, temperature, and temperature gradient. Calculations were made in which pore surface radiation was both modeled and neglected. The difference between yielding the integral contribution of radiative heat transfer mechanism to overall heat transport. Results indicate that radiative component of heat transfer within pores is small for conditions representative of light water reactor fuel, typically less than 1% of total heat transport. It is much larger, however, for conditions present in liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuel; during restructuring of this fuel type early in life, the radiative heat transfer mode was shown to contribute as much as 10-20% of total heat transport in hottest regions of fuel.
The Eighth International Symposium On Radiative Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemonnier, Denis; Webb, Brent W.; Mengüç, M. Pınar
2017-08-01
This Special Issue of The Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer is based on the papers selected from RAD-16, the Eighth International Symposium on Radiative Transfer, which was held June 2016, in Cappadocia, Turkey. This Symposium is a follow-up of the seven previous meetings held in Kuşadası in 1995, 1997, and 2013; Antalya in 2001 and 2010; Istanbul in 2004; and Bodrum in 2007, all in Turkey. The Symposium was another enjoyable opportunity for the international radiation transfer community to assemble in a comfortable setting to present and discuss the state-of-the-art in research and application.
Simple rapid method for gene transfer
Cockburn, A.F.; Meier, H.
1990-01-30
The object of the present invention is to provide methods for gene transfer that reduce or eliminate cellular pretreatment steps, e.g., the removal of cell wall by chemical or enzymatic methods, is rapid and can be practiced without the need of additional expensive equipment. Cells, embryos or tissues selected for genetic manipulation are suspended in an Eppendorf tube in an aliquot of the desired genetic material to be transferred to which the resulting mixture is added and is agitated by vortexing from about 30 to about 90 seconds. The cells, embryos or tissue are sedimented and the DNA supernatant removed. After sedimentation, the injected material is resuspended in or on a growth medium to assay for expression.
ARTIST: Adaptable Radiative Transfer Innovations for Submillimeter Telescopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jørgensen, Jes; Brinch, Christian; Girart, Josep Miquel; Padovani, Marco; Frau, Pau; Schaaf, Reinhold; Kuiper, Rolf; Bertoldi, Frank; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Juhasz, Attila; Vlemmings, Wouter
2014-02-01
ARTIST is a suite of tools for comprehensive multi-dimensional radiative transfer calculations of dust and line emission, as well as their polarization, to help interpret observations from submillimeter telescopes. The ARTIST package consists of LIME, a radiative transfer code that uses adaptive gridding allowing simulations of sources with arbitrary multi-dimensional (1D, 2D, 3D) and time-dependent structures, thus ensuring rapid convergence; the DustPol and LinePol tools for modeling the polarization of the line and dust emission; and an interface run from Python scripts that manages the interaction between a general model library and LIME, and a graphical interface to simulate images.
Angular radiation transfer in inhomogeneous dispersive media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saad, E. A.; El Ghazaly, A. A.; Krim, M. S. Abdel
1988-10-01
The equation of radiative transfer for an inhomogeneous dispersive finite medium subject to general boundary conditions is solved. The Padé approximation technique is used to calculate the angular distribution of radiation. Numerical results for the [0/1] Padé approximant lead to numerical results that compare with the exact results.
Rapid Rebuilding of the Outer Radiation Belt
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glocer, A.; Fok, M.-C.; Nagai, T.; Toth, G.; Guild, T.; Bkake, J.
2011-01-01
Recent observations by the radiation monitor (RDM) on the spacecraft Akebono have shown several cases of greater than 2.5 MeV radiation belt electron enhancements occurring on timescales of less than a few hours. Similar enhancements are also seen in detectors on board the NOAA/POES and TWINS 1 satellites. These intervals are shorter than typical radial diffusion or wave-particle interactions can account for. We choose two so-called "rapid rebuilding" events that occur during high speed streams (4 September 2008 and 22 July 2009) and simulated them with the Space Weather Modeling Framework configured with global magnetosphere, radiation belt, ring current, and ionosphere electrodynamics model. Our simulations produce a weaker and delayed dipolarization as compared to observations, but the associated inductive electric field in the simulations is still strong enough to rapidly transport and accelerate MeV electrons resulting in an energetic electron flux enhancement that is somewhat weaker than is observed. Nevertheless, the calculated flux enhancement and dipolarization is found to be qualitatively consistent with the observations. Taken together, the modeling results and observations support the conclusion that storm-time dipolarization events in the magnetospheric magnetic field result in strong radial transport and energization of radiation belt electrons.
Nonlinear radiative transfer in high temperature plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soloviev, Vadim Y.
2017-10-01
An approximation to the nonlinear radiative transfer equation is considered in the context of magnetohydrodynamics. This approximation retains nonlinear terms which are responsible for the Compton plasma heating in addition to the radiation cooling. The effect is studied numerically. In particular, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the Dai-Woodward case are modeled. It is shown that radiation-plasma coupling results in damping of small scale instabilities and alters the shock wave structure.
Radiation heat transfer shapefactors for combustion systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emery, A. F.; Johansson, O.; Abrous, A.
1987-01-01
The computation of radiation heat transfer through absorbing media is commonly done through the zoning method which relies upon values of the geometric mean transmittance and absorptance. The computation of these values is difficult and expensive, particularly if many spectral bands are used. This paper describes the extension of a scan line algorithm, based upon surface-surface radiation, to the computation of surface-gas and gas-gas radiation transmittances.
Session on modeling of radiative transfer processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flatau, Piotr
1993-01-01
The session on modeling of radiative transfer processes is reviewed. Six critical issues surfaced in the discussion concerning scale-interactive radiative processes relevent to the mesoscale convective systems (MCS's). These issues are the need to expand basic knowledge of how MCS's influence climate through extensive cloud shields and increased humidity in the upper troposphere; to improve radiation parameterizations used in mesoscale and General Circulation Model (GCM) models; to improve our basic understanding of the influence of radiation on MCS dynamics due to diabatic heating, production of condensate, and vertical and horizontal heat fluxes; to quantify our understanding of radiative impacts of MCS's on the surface and free atmosphere energy budgets; to quantify and identify radiative and microphysical processes important in the evolution of MCS's; and to improve the capability to remotely sense MCS radiative properties from space and ground-based systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, K. K., Wilson, S. J.
The advancement of observational techniques over the years has led to the discovery of a large number of stars exhibiting complex spectral structures, thus necessitating the search for new techniques and methods to study radiative transfer in such stars with moving envelopes. This led to the introduction of the concept of "photon escape probability" and the wisdom of expressing the transfer equations in "comoving frames" (CMF). Radiative transfer problems in spherically moving media form a branch of mathematical physics which uses mathematics of a very distinctive kind. Radiative Transfer in Moving Media records the basic mathematical methodologies, both analytical and numerical, developed for solving radiation transfer problems in spherically symmetric moving media, in the consideration of macroscopic velocity fields only. Part I contains the basic notions of radiation-matter interaction in participating media and constructs the relevant transfer equations to be solved in the subsequent chapters. Part II considers the basic mathematical methods for solving the transfer problems in extensive moving atmospheres when it is observed in the lab frame. Part III introduces the analytical and numerical methods for solving radiative transfer problems in spherically symmetric moving atmospheres when expressed in the comoving frame. This book is addressed to graduate students and researchers in Astrophysics, in particular to those studying radiative transfer in stellar atmospheres.
Radiative Transfer using the Monte Carlo Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carciofi, A. C.
2001-09-01
The radiation of stellar objects surrounded by an envelope can undergo significant reprocessing by the circumstellar material. To investigate the nature of the central object, and also of the envelope, it is necessary a theoretical tool capable of modeling, in a satisfactory way, the radiative transfer. In this work, we present a Monte Carlo code which treats the radiative transfer of the polarized light in several media, which is able to simulate several kinds of observation: polarimetry, espectropolarimetry, imaging, photome-try and spectroscopy. The code was developed aiming at three different applications. The first was the solution of the radiative transfer in electronic clouds. The second one was the study of the radiative transfer of resonant lines in stellar winds. The third one was the solution of the radiative transfer coupled to the radiative equilibrium in dusty environments. In this work, we show the application of the code to two situations: resonant line formation in spherical stellar winds and the radiative transfer in dusty circumstellar envelopes. In the study of the resonant line formation we examine the effects of the wind parameters (velocity law, optical depth, thermal velocity, etc.) on the observables. Among the results shown, we highlight new results for the envelope brightness and polarization profiles and for line maps, which simulate spectropolarimetric observations of different parts of the wind. The main application of the code was the study of the radiative transfer and radiative equilibrium in dusty circumstellar envelopes. We studied the effects of the dust grain size on the energy spectral distribution of spherical envelopes. We introduced the concept of approximate scaling, which reveals important symmetries on the infrared emission of envelopes with different grain sizes and their consequences to the spectral energy distribution. We showed that, in some cases, the spectral energy distribution of models with differently sized
Rapid radiative clearing of protoplanetary discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haworth, Thomas J.; Clarke, Cathie J.; Owen, James E.
2016-04-01
The lack of observed transition discs with inner gas holes of radii greater than ˜50 au implies that protoplanetary discs dispersed from the inside out must remove gas from the outer regions rapidly. We investigate the role of photoevaporation in the final clearing of gas from low mass discs with inner holes. In particular, we study the so-called `thermal sweeping' mechanism which results in rapid clearing of the disc. Thermal sweeping was originally thought to arise when the radial and vertical pressure scalelengths at the X-ray heated inner edge of the disc match. We demonstrate that this criterion is not fundamental. Rather, thermal sweeping occurs when the pressure maximum at the inner edge of the dust heated disc falls below the maximum possible pressure of X-ray heated gas (which depends on the local X-ray flux). We derive new critical peak volume and surface density estimates for rapid radiative clearing which, in general, result in rapid dispersal happening less readily than in previous estimates. This less efficient clearing of discs by X-ray driven thermal sweeping leaves open the issue of what mechanism (e.g. far-ultraviolet heating) can clear gas from the outer disc sufficiently quickly to explain the non-detection of cold gas around weak line T Tauri stars.
SKIRT: Stellar Kinematics Including Radiative Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baes, Maarten; Dejonghe, Herwig; Davies, Jonathan
2011-09-01
SKIRT is a radiative transfer code based on the Monte Carlo technique. The name SKIRT, acronym for Stellar Kinematics Including Radiative Transfer, reflects the original motivation for its creation: it has been developed to study the effects of dust absorption and scattering on the observed kinematics of dusty galaxies. In a second stage, the SKIRT code was extended with a module to self-consistently calculate the dust emission spectrum under the assumption of local thermal equilibrium. This LTE version of SKIRT has been used to model the dust extinction and emission of various types of galaxies, as well as circumstellar discs and clumpy tori around active galactic nuclei. A new, extended version of SKIRT code can perform efficient 3D radiative transfer calculations including a self-consistent calculation of the dust temperature distribution and the associated FIR/submm emission with a full incorporation of the emission of transiently heated grains and PAH molecules.
Tests of Exoplanet Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrington, Joseph; Challener, Ryan; DeLarme, Emerson; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Austin; Garland, Justin
2016-10-01
Atmospheric radiative transfer codes are used both to predict planetary spectra and in retrieval algorithms to interpret data. Observational plans, theoretical models, and scientific results thus depend on the correctness of these calculations. Yet, the calculations are complex and the codes implementing them are often written without modern software-verification techniques. In the process of writing our own code, we became aware of several others with artifacts of unknown origin and even outright errors in their spectra. We present a series of tests to verify atmospheric radiative-transfer codes. These include: simple, single-line line lists that, when combined with delta-function abundance profiles, should produce a broadened line that can be verified easily; isothermal atmospheres that should produce analytically-verifiable blackbody spectra at the input temperatures; and model atmospheres with a range of complexities that can be compared to the output of other codes. We apply the tests to our own code, Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) and to several other codes. The test suite is open-source software. We propose this test suite as a standard for verifying current and future radiative transfer codes, analogous to the Held-Suarez test for general circulation models. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.
Groups in the radiative transfer theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikoghossian, Arthur
2016-11-01
The paper presents a group-theoretical description of radiation transfer in inhomogeneous and multi-component atmospheres with the plane-parallel geometry. It summarizes and generalizes the results obtained recently by the author for some standard transfer problems of astrophysical interest with allowance of the angle and frequency distributions of the radiation field. We introduce the concept of composition groups for media with different optical and physical properties. Group representations are derived for two possible cases of illumination of a composite finite atmosphere. An algorithm for determining the reflectance and transmittance of inhomogeneous and multi-component atmospheres is described. The group theory is applied also to determining the field of radiation inside an inhomogeneous atmosphere. The concept of a group of optical depth translations is introduced. The developed theory is illustrated with the problem of radiation diffusion with partial frequency distribution assuming that the inhomogeneity is due to depth-variation of the scattering coefficient. It is shown that once reflectance and transmittance of a medium are determined, the internal field of radiation in the source-free atmosphere is found without solving any new equations. The transfer problems for a semi-infinite atmosphere and an atmosphere with internal sources of energy are discussed. The developed theory allows to derive summation laws for the mean number of scattering events underwent by the photons in the course of diffusion in the atmosphere.
Sunrise: Radiation transfer through interstellar dust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonsson, Patrik
2013-03-01
Sunrise is a Monte Carlo radiation transfer code for calculating absorption and scattering of light to study the effects of dust in hydrodynamic simulations of interacting galaxies. It uses an adaptive mesh refinement grid to describe arbitrary geometries of emitting and absorbing/scattering media, with spatial dynamical range exceeding 104; it can efficiently generate images of the emerging radiation at arbitrary points in space and spectral energy distributions of simulated galaxies run with the Gadget, Gasoline, Arepo, Enzo or ART codes. In addition to the monochromatic radiative transfer typically used by Monte Carlo codes, Sunrise can propagate a range of wavelengths simultaneously. This "polychromatic" algorithm gives significant improvements in efficiency and accuracy when spectral features are calculated.
Viktor V. Sobolev and radiative transfer theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagirner, Dmitrij I.
2016-11-01
Invited review A detailed review of V.V. Sobolev's contributions to the theory of radiative transfer is presented. First, the basic problems of the theory of monochromatic scattering are formulated, which were introduced and solved approximately by the founders of the theory (E. Milne, A. Eddington, and others). Then the fundamental contribution by academician V.A. Ambartsumian, Sobolev's scientific adviser, to the analytical radiative transfer theory is summarized. Academician V.V. Sobolev continued and profoundly developed this theory. He pioneered new areas of the theory of multiple light scattering: the scattering of polarized radiation; the theory of a time-dependent radiation field; and the scattering in inhomogeneous media, in plane-parallel media with reflecting boundaries, and in media expanding with a velocity gradient. He proposed new approximate methods for solving the problems of anisotropic monochromatic scattering as well as scattering in spectral lines in stationary and expanding media which are still in use today. The most important Sobolev's contribution was to the exact analytical theory of radiative transfer. He proposed the probability method to solve radiative transfer problems and the probabilistic treatment of scattering processes; he introduced and justified the approximation of CFR in spectral lines; he developed the resolvent method for the exact solution to the basic integral equation describing monochromatic scattering and scattering in spectral lines; and he developed the theory of anisotropic scattering to analytic perfection. V.V. Sobolev applied these solutions to the interpretation of observation data for many astrophysical objects: photometric, polarimetric, and spectral characteristics of planetary atmospheres; spectra of stationary and non-stationary stars; and polarization of X-ray sources and quasars. V.V. Sobolev coauthored several papers with his students. The publications by Sobolev's disciples that continued his research
Infrared radiative energy transfer in gaseous systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiwari, Surendra N.
1991-01-01
Analyses and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the radiative interactions in various energy transfer processes in gaseous systems. Both gray and non-gray radiative formulations for absorption and emission by molecular gases are presented. The gray gas formulations are based on the Planck mean absorption coefficient and the non-gray formulations are based on the wide band model correlations for molecular absorption. Various relations for the radiative flux and divergence of radiative flux are developed. These are useful for different flow conditions and physical problems. Specific plans for obtaining extensive results for different cases are presented. The procedure developed was applied to several realistic problems. Results of selected studies are presented.
Radiative Transfer Characterization of Inhomogeneous Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cartina, D. M.; Lemmon, M. T.
2016-12-01
Dust aerosols are a tracer of boundary layer dynamics in the Martian atmosphere. Vertical variations in dust mixing ratios have been detected at Gale Crater and interpreted in terms of boundary layer height and local to mesoscale mixing processes (Moores et al. 2015, Moore et al. 2016). Such variations have been seen through a simplified radiative transfer analysis of images of distant features to get the near-surface dust mixing ratio, which may then be compared to column average dust amounts (e.g., Lemmon et al., this session, abstract # 182909). We have developed a 3-dimensional radiative transfer model to evaluate and validate the simplified method for measuring dust content. In this model, the radiative transfer equation (RTE) is integrated over a line of sight in an arbitrary atmosphere. For this investigation, the atmosphere is a set of spherical shells; and is horizontally homogeneous except for the existence of an idealized crater, with allowed in-crater versus out-of-crater differences. The single-scattering contribution to the RTE is calculated analytically. The multiple-scattering contribution utilizes multiple runs of DISORT (a plane parallel, discrete-ordinates radiative transfer code; Stamnes et al. 1988) to characterize the diffuse radiation field as a function of position along the line of sight. We test the limitations of the simplified method under a variety of geometries and over the range of relevant wavelengths. Moore, C.A., et al., 2016. Icarus 264, 102-108. Moores, J., et al., 2015. Icarus 249, 129-142. Stamnes, K., 1988. Appl. Opt., 27(12):2502-2509, Jun 1988.
Modeling of Radiative Transfer in Protostellar Disks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
VonAllmen, Paul; Turner, Neal
2007-01-01
This program implements a spectral line, radiative transfer tool for interpreting Spitzer Space Telescope observations by matching them with models of protostellar disks for improved understanding of planet and star formation. The Spitzer Space Telescope detects gas phase molecules in the infrared spectra of protostellar disks, with spectral lines carrying information on the chemical composition of the material from which planets form. Input to the software includes chemical models developed at JPL. The products are synthetic images and spectra for comparison with Spitzer measurements. Radiative transfer in a protostellar disk is primarily affected by absorption and emission processes in the dust and in molecular gases such as H2, CO, and HCO. The magnitude of the optical absorption and emission is determined by the population of the electronic, vibrational, and rotational energy levels. The population of the molecular level is in turn determined by the intensity of the radiation field. Therefore, the intensity of the radiation field and the population of the molecular levels are inter-dependent quantities. To meet the computational challenges of solving for the coupled radiation field and electronic level populations in disks having wide ranges of optical depths and spatial scales, the tool runs in parallel on the JPL Dell Cluster supercomputer with C++ and Fortran compiler with a Message Passing Interface. Because this software has been developed on a distributed computing platform, the modeling of systems previously beyond the reach of available computational resources is possible.
Realistic three-dimensional radiative transfer simulations of observed precipitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, I. S.; Bettenhausen, M. H.
2013-12-01
Remote sensing observations of precipitation typically utilize a number of instruments on various platforms. Ground validation campaigns incorporate ground-based and airborne measurements to characterize and study precipitating clouds, while the precipitation measurement constellation envisioned by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission includes measurements from differing space-borne instruments. In addition to disparities such as frequency channel selection and bandwidth, measurement geometry and resolution differences between observing platforms result in inherent inconsistencies between data products. In order to harmonize measurements from multiple passive radiometers, a framework is required that addresses these differences. To accomplish this, we have implemented a flexible three-dimensional radiative transfer model. As its core, the radiative transfer model uses the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) version 2 to solve the radiative transfer equation in three dimensions using Monte Carlo integration. Gaseous absorption is computed with MonoRTM and formatted into look-up tables for rapid processing. Likewise, scattering properties are pre-computed using a number of publicly available codes, such as T-Matrix and DDSCAT. If necessary, a melting layer model can be applied to the input profiles. Gaussian antenna beams estimate the spatial resolutions of the passive measurements, and realistic bandpass characteristics can be included to properly account for the spectral response of the simulated instrument. This work presents three-dimensional simulations of WindSat brightness temperatures for an oceanic rain event sampled by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The 2B-31 combined Precipitation Radar / TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) retrievals provide profiles that are the input to the radiative transfer model. TMI brightness temperatures are also simulated. Comparisons between monochromatic, pencil beam simulations and
Enhancing radiative energy transfer through thermal extraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Yixuan; Liu, Baoan; Shen, Sheng; Yu, Zongfu
2016-06-01
Thermal radiation plays an increasingly important role in many emerging energy technologies, such as thermophotovoltaics, passive radiative cooling and wearable cooling clothes [1]. One of the fundamental constraints in thermal radiation is the Stefan-Boltzmann law, which limits the maximum power of far-field radiation to P0 = σT4S, where σ is the Boltzmann constant, S and T are the area and the temperature of the emitter, respectively (Fig. 1a). In order to overcome this limit, it has been shown that near-field radiations could have an energy density that is orders of magnitude greater than the Stefan-Boltzmann law [2-7]. Unfortunately, such near-field radiation transfer is spatially confined and cannot carry radiative heat to the far field. Recently, a new concept of thermal extraction was proposed [8] to enhance far-field thermal emission, which, conceptually, operates on a principle similar to oil immersion lenses and light extraction in light-emitting diodes using solid immersion lens to increase light output [62].Thermal extraction allows a blackbody to radiate more energy to the far field than the apparent limit of the Stefan-Boltzmann law without breaking the second law of thermodynamics. Thermal extraction works by using a specially designed thermal extractor to convert and guide the near-field energy to the far field, as shown in Fig. 1b. The same blackbody as shown in Fig. 1a is placed closely below the thermal extractor with a spacing smaller than the thermal wavelength. The near-field coupling transfers radiative energy with a density greater than σT4. The thermal extractor, made from transparent and high-index or structured materials, does not emit or absorb any radiation. It transforms the near-field energy and sends it toward the far field. As a result, the total amount of far-field radiative heat dissipated by the same blackbody is greatly enhanced above SσT4, where S is the area of the emitter. This paper will review the progress in thermal
Realistic synthetic observations from radiative transfer models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koepferl, Christine; Robitaille, Thomas
2013-07-01
When modeling young stars and star-forming regions throughout the Galaxy, it is important to correctly treat the limitations of the data such as finite resolution and sensitivity. In order to study these effects, and to make radiative transfer models directly comparable to real observations, we have developed a Python package that allows post-processing the output of the 3-d Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer code HYPERION (Robitaille 2011 A&A 536, A79, see poster 2S001). With this package, realistic synthetic observations can be generated, modeling the effects of convolution with arbitrary PSFs, transmission curves, finite pixel resolution, noise and reddening. Pipelines can be written to compute synthetic observations that simulate observatories such as the Spitzer Space Telescope or the Herschel Space Observatory. In this poster we describe the package and present examples of such synthetic observations.
Efficient stream distributions in radiative transfer theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitney, C.
1974-01-01
This paper discusses a new, computationally-efficient method for approximating the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer with a finite set of coupled differential equations for discrete streams. The method uses recommended spatial distributions of streams that are quite different from those typically used in that they are based on the symmetry of several regular Platonic solids. To facilitate the use of such distributions, an explicit, one-parameter relationship between the physical radiance and the abstract stream is formulated. The parameter is used to determine the minimum number of streams required in the radiative transfer model. Accuracy and computational efficiency are shown to be served best by choosing a stream distribution that is invariant to a large number of three space rotations. For various values of the above-mentioned parameter, the resulting recommended stream distribution is shown to be more computationally efficient than more conventional stream distributions. Finally, the incorporation of polarization in the stream definition is described.
Statistical concepts in radiative transfer through inhomogeneous media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindsey, C.; Jefferies, J. T.
1990-01-01
The theory of radiative transfer in inhomogeneous media is extended to handle transfer for scale lengths small compared to the scale size of the inhomogeneity. This is called the microscopic domain of inhomogeneous radiative transfer. A concept called the vector intensity distribution is introduced to characterize the statistical properties of radiation in various species of medium. Radiative transfer in an inhomogeneous atmosphere is expressed in terms of the evolution of this vector intensity distribution and its various moments along the optical path.
Applicaton of radiative transfer theory to microwave transmission medium calibrations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stelzried, C. T.
1982-01-01
Precise determinations of the transmission medium loss and noise temperature contribution which are important to the performance characterization of low noise microwave receiving systems and thermal noise standards are discussed. Tropospheric loss is frequently inferred from microwave radiometer noise temperature measurements. Interpretation of these measurements requires an inversion of the radiative transfer integral equation. This is inconvenient even with computer techniques. Solutions of a rapidly convergent power series of the radiative transfer equations are presented. This solution is applicable to a low loss medium with either uniform or nonuniform loss distributions. A four layer atmosphere model is investigated to demonstrate the accuracy of the solution relative to the model. Applications include thermal noise standards and single- and dual-frequency water radiometers.
Radiative transfer in a plane stratified dielectric
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilheit, T. T., Jr.
1975-01-01
A model is developed for calculating radiative transfer in a stratified dielectric. This model is used to show that the reflectivity of a stratified dielectric is primarily determined by gradients in the real part of the refractive index over distances on the order of 1/10 wavelength in the medium. The effective temperature of the medium is determined by the thermodynamic temperature profile over distances of the order delta T.
Introductory Tools for Radiative Transfer Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldman, D.; Kuai, L.; Natraj, V.; Yung, Y.
2006-12-01
Satellite data are currently so voluminous that, despite their unprecedented quality and potential for scientific application, only a small fraction is analyzed due to two factors: researchers' computational constraints and a relatively small number of researchers actively utilizing the data. Ultimately it is hoped that the terabytes of unanalyzed data being archived can receive scientific scrutiny but this will require a popularization of the methods associated with the analysis. Since a large portion of complexity is associated with the proper implementation of the radiative transfer model, it is reasonable and appropriate to make the model as accessible as possible to general audiences. Unfortunately, the algorithmic and conceptual details that are necessary for state-of-the-art analysis also tend to frustrate the accessibility for those new to remote sensing. Several efforts have been made to have web- based radiative transfer calculations, and these are useful for limited calculations, but analysis of more than a few spectra requires the utilization of home- or server-based computing resources. We present a system that is designed to allow for easier access to radiative transfer models with implementation on a home computing platform in the hopes that this system can be utilized in and expanded upon in advanced high school and introductory college settings. This learning-by-doing process is aided through the use of several powerful tools. The first is a wikipedia-style introduction to the salient features of radiative transfer that references the seminal works in the field and refers to more complicated calculations and algorithms sparingly5. The second feature is a technical forum, commonly referred to as a tiki-wiki, that addresses technical and conceptual questions through public postings, private messages, and a ranked searching routine. Together, these tools may be able to facilitate greater interest in the field of remote sensing.
Relativistic radiative transfer in relativistic spherical flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukue, Jun
2017-02-01
Relativistic radiative transfer in relativistic spherical flows is numerically examined under the fully special relativistic treatment. We first derive relativistic formal solutions for the relativistic radiative transfer equation in relativistic spherical flows. We then iteratively solve the relativistic radiative transfer equation, using an impact parameter method/tangent ray method, and obtain specific intensities in the inertial and comoving frames, as well as moment quantities, and the Eddington factor. We consider several cases; a scattering wind with a luminous central core, an isothermal wind without a core, a scattering accretion on to a luminous core, and an adiabatic accretion on to a dark core. In the typical wind case with a luminous core, the emergent intensity is enhanced at the center due to the Doppler boost, while it reduces at the outskirts due to the transverse Doppler effect. In contrast to the plane-parallel case, the behavior of the Eddington factor is rather complicated in each case, since the Eddington factor depends on the optical depth, the flow velocity, and other parameters.
Radiative transfer effects in primordial hydrogen recombination
Ali-Haiemoud, Yacine; Hirata, Christopher M.; Grin, Daniel
2010-12-15
The calculation of a highly accurate cosmological recombination history has been the object of particular attention recently, as it constitutes the major theoretical uncertainty when predicting the angular power spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropies. Lyman transitions, in particular the Lyman-{alpha} line, have long been recognized as one of the bottlenecks of recombination, due to their very low escape probabilities. The Sobolev approximation does not describe radiative transfer in the vicinity of Lyman lines to a sufficient degree of accuracy, and several corrections have already been computed in other works. In this paper, we compute the impact of some radiative transfer effects that were previously ignored, or for which previous treatments were incomplete. First, the effect of Thomson scattering in the vicinity of the Lyman-{alpha} line is evaluated, using a full redistribution kernel incorporated into a radiative transfer code. The effect of feedback of distortions generated by the optically thick deuterium Lyman-{alpha} line blueward of the hydrogen line is investigated with an analytic approximation. It is shown that both effects are negligible during cosmological hydrogen recombination. Second, the importance of high-lying, nonoverlapping Lyman transitions is assessed. It is shown that escape from lines above Ly{gamma} and frequency diffusion in Ly{beta} and higher lines can be neglected without loss of accuracy. Third, a formalism generalizing the Sobolev approximation is developed to account for the overlap of the high-lying Lyman lines, which is shown to lead to negligible changes to the recombination history. Finally, the possibility of a cosmological hydrogen recombination maser is investigated. It is shown that there is no such maser in the purely radiative treatment presented here.
Radiative charge transfer and radiative association in He++ Ne collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, X. J.; Qu, Y. Z.; Xiao, B. J.; Liu, C. H.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J. G.; Buenker, R. J.
2010-02-01
A fully quantum-mechanical approach is utilized to study the collision process of He+ with neutral neon, and the radiative charge transfer (RCT) and radiative association (RA) cross sections are presented in the energy range from 0.08 meV to 1 eV, while the optical potential and semiclassical methods are adopted to calculate the total radiative decay cross sections for energies from 0.08 meV to 5 keV. The potential energy curves and dipole transition matrix elements are obtained by an ab initio multireference configuration interaction package. For the related three lowest X 2Σ+, A 2Π, and B 2Σ+ states, the spectroscopic data are in good agreement with other theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. Our results indicate that the RCT cross section is much larger than the nonradiative charge transfer cross section for collision energy E < 20 eV, and when E > 40 eV, the nonradiative process becomes dominant. Especially, we found that in the present collision system the RA process is more important than the RCT process when E < 1 meV. The RCT and RA rate coefficients are also given for temperatures from 1 to 4 ×103 K.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yujia; Zhang, Xiaobing; Howell, John R.
2016-11-01
This work investigates the performance of P1 method, FVM and SP3 method for 2D combined conduction and radiation heat transfer problem. Results based on the Monte Carlo method coupled with the energy equation are used as the benchmark solutions. Effects of the conduction-radiation parameter and optical thickness are considered. Performance analyses in term of the accuracy of heat flux and temperature predictions and of computing time are presented and analyzed.
SKIRT: Hybrid parallelization of radiative transfer simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verstocken, S.; Van De Putte, D.; Camps, P.; Baes, M.
2017-07-01
We describe the design, implementation and performance of the new hybrid parallelization scheme in our Monte Carlo radiative transfer code SKIRT, which has been used extensively for modelling the continuum radiation of dusty astrophysical systems including late-type galaxies and dusty tori. The hybrid scheme combines distributed memory parallelization, using the standard Message Passing Interface (MPI) to communicate between processes, and shared memory parallelization, providing multiple execution threads within each process to avoid duplication of data structures. The synchronization between multiple threads is accomplished through atomic operations without high-level locking (also called lock-free programming). This improves the scaling behaviour of the code and substantially simplifies the implementation of the hybrid scheme. The result is an extremely flexible solution that adjusts to the number of available nodes, processors and memory, and consequently performs well on a wide variety of computing architectures.
Efficient Radiative Transfer Computations in the Atmosphere.
1981-01-01
absorptance, A = 1 - r , the net flux at level Z is given by equation (5) Net Flux, F (Z) = I - I, = B(Zsfc) -B(Ztop) A (ZtopZ) Zsfc - sft A (Z’,Z)dB(Z’) (5) ztop 11... F . Alyea, N. Phillips and R . Prinn, 1975; A three dimensional dynamical-chemical model of atmos- pheric ozone, J. Atmos. Sci., 32:170-194. 4...AD-ADO? 289 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH F /0 41/I EFFICIENT RADIATIVE TRANSFER COMPUTATIONS IN THE ATNOSI*ERE.fUI JAN 81 C R POSEY
Measurement of electromagnetic pulse emitted during rapid intramolecular electron transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beard, Matthew C.; Turner, Gordon M.; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A.
2001-03-01
We have measured the electromagnetic radiation emitted during intramolecular electron transfer using a method does not rely on secondary processes.^1 The motion of the electrons themselves generates the measured signal (as understood by Maxwell's equations). If the electron transfer occurs on a timescale of 0.1 to 10 picoseconds, the emitted radiation will fall in the THz or far-infrared region of the spectrum (1 THz = 33.33 wavenumbers), which is the region covered by our detector. We photoexcite a sample of partially oriented molecules and measure the emitted waveform. The polarity of the emitted field determines the direction of charge transfer unambiguously, and the shape of the field encodes the dynamics of the charge transfer -- a slower transfer rate produces a broader temporal pulse. Future work will extend this method to systems that are difficult to study by traditional means. 1. M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11541 (2000).
Transfer of radiative heat through clothing ensembles.
Lotens, W A; Pieters, A M
1995-06-01
A mathematical model was designed to calculate the temperature and dry heat transfer in the various layers of a clothing ensemble, and the total heat loss of a human who is irradiated for a certain fraction of his or her area. The clothing ensemble that is irradiated by an external heat source is considered to be composed of underclothing, trapped air, and outer fabric. The model was experimentally tested with heat balance methods, using subjects, varying the activity, wind, and radiation characteristics of the outer garment of two-layer ensembles. In two experiments the subjects could only give off dry heat because they were wrapped in plastic foil. The model appeared to be correct within about 1 degree C (rms error) and 10 Wm-2 (rms error). In a third experiment, sweat evaporation was also taken into account, showing that the resulting physiological heat load of 10 to 30% of the intercepted additional radiation is compensated by additional sweating. The resulting heat strain was rather mild. It is concluded that the mathematical model is a valid tool for the investigation of heat transfer through two-layer ensembles in radiant environments.
Radiative Transfer and Retrievals in EOF Domain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter
2008-01-01
The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) is a hyperspectral sensor with 8461 spectral channels and a nominal spectral resolution of 0.25 cm(sup -1). It is computationally intensive to perform radiative transfer calculations and inversions using all these channels. We will present a Principal Component-based Radiative Transfer Model (PCRTM) and a retrieval algorithm which perform all the necessary calculations in EOF domain. Since the EOFs are orthogonal to each other, only about 100 principal components are needed to represent the information content of the 8461 channels. The PCRTM provides the EOF coefficients and associated derivatives with respect to atmospheric and surface parameters needed by the inversion algorithm. The inversion algorithm is based on a non-linear Levenberg-Marquardt method with climatology covariance and a priori information as constraints. The retrieved parameters include atmospheric temperature, moisture and ozone profiles, cloud parameters, surface skin temperature, and surface emissivities. To make the retrieval system even more compact and stable. The atmospheric vertical profiles are compressed into the EOF space as well. The surface emissivities are also compressed into EOF space.
A fast all-sky radiative transfer model and its implications for solar energy research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Y.; Sengupta, M.
2015-12-01
Radiative transfer models simulating broadband solar radiation, e.g. Rapid Radiation Transfer Model (RRTM) and its GCM applications, have been widely used by atmospheric scientists to model solar resource for various energy applications such as operational forecasting. Due to the complexity of solving the radiative transfer equation, simulating solar radiation under cloudy conditions can be extremely time consuming though many approximations, e.g. two-stream approach and delta-M truncation scheme, have been utilized. To provide a new option to approximate solar radiation, we developed a Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) using simulated cloud transmittance and reflectance from 16-stream RRTM model runs. The solar irradiances at the land surface were simulated by combining parameterized cloud properties with a fast clear-sky radiative transfer model. Using solar radiation measurements from the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) central facility in Oklahoma as a benchmark against the model simulations, we were able to demonstrate that the accuracy of FARMS was comparable to the two-stream approach. However, FARMS is much more efficient since it does not explicitly solve the radiative transfer equation for each individual cloud condition. We further explored the use of FARMS to promote solar resource assessment and forecasting research through the increased ability to accommodate higher spatial and temporal resolution calculations for the next generation of satellite and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.
Flare loop radiative hydrodynamics. III - Nonlocal radiative transfer effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canfield, R. C.; Fisher, G. H.; Mcclymont, A. N.
1983-01-01
The study has three goals. The first is to demonstrate that processes exist whose intrinsic nonlocal nature cannot be represented by local approximations. The second is to elucidate the physical nature and origins of these nonlocal processes. The third is to suggest that the methods and results described here may prove useful in constructing semiempirical models of the chromosphere by means more efficient than trial and error. Matrices are computed that describe the effect of a temperature perturbation at an arbitrary point in the loop on density, hydrogen ionized fraction, total radiative loss rate, and radiative loss rate of selected hydrogen lines and continua at all other points. It is found that the dominant nonlocal radiative transfer effects can be separated into flux divergence coefficient effects and upper level population effects. The former are most important when the perturbation takes place in a region of significant opacity. Upper level population effects arise in both optically thick and thin regions in response to nonlocal density, ionization, and interlocking effects.
Radiative energy transfer in molecular gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiwari, Surendra N.
1992-01-01
Basic formulations, analyses, and numerical procedures are presented to study radiative interactions in gray as well as nongray gases under different physical and flow conditions. After preliminary fluid-dynamical considerations, essential governing equations for radiative transport are presented that are applicable under local and nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Auxiliary relations for relaxation times and spectral absorption models are also provided. For specific applications, several simple gaseous systems are analyzed. The first system considered consists of a gas bounded by two parallel plates having the same temperature. Within the gas there is a uniform heat source per unit volume. For this system, both vibrational nonequilibrium effects and radiation conduction interactions are studied. The second system consists of fully developed laminar flow and heat transfer in a parallel plate duct under the boundary condition of a uniform surface heat flux. For this system, effects of gray surface emittance are studied. With the single exception of a circular geometry, the third system is considered identical to the second system. Here, the influence of nongray walls is also studied.
Radiation energy transfer in RNA polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kempner, E. S.; Salovey, R.; Bernstein, S. L.
1996-11-01
Ribozymes are a special class of polyribonucleotide (RNA) molecules which possess intrinsic catalytic activity, capable of cleaving nucleic acid substrates. RNA molecules were synthesized containing a hammerhead ribozyme moiety of 52 nucleotides linked to an inactive leader sequence, for total lengths of either 262 or 1226 nucleotides. These RNAs were frozen and irradiated with high energy electrons. Surviving ribozyme activity was determined, using the ability of the irradiated ribozymes to cleave a labeled substrate. From the same irradiated samples, the amount of intact RNA remaining was determined following denaturing gel electrophoresis. Radiation target analyses of these data revealed a structural target size of 80 kDa and a ribozyme activity target size of 15 kDa for the smaller ribozyme, and 319 and 16 kDa, respectively, for the larger ribozyme. The disparity in target size for activity vs structure indicates that, in contrast to proteins, there is no spread of radiation damage far from the primary site of ionization in RNA molecules. The smaller target size for activity indicates that only primary ionizations occurring in the specific active region are effective. This is similar to the case for oligosaccharides. It is concluded that the presence of the ribose sugar in the polymer chain restricts radiation damage to a small region and prevents major energy transfer throughout the molecule.
EB radiation crosslinking of elastomers [rapid communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bik, J.; Głuszewski, W.; Rzymski, W. M.; Zagórski, Z. P.
2003-06-01
Radiation-induced crosslinking is proposed as successful alternative to conventional, chemical methods of crosslinking of elastomers. Hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber was irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam to doses up to 300 kGy. Irradiated samples were investigated for the extent of crosslinking and for properties important for understanding of mechanisms. It follows from sol-gel analysis, that for 100 crosslinking acts there are 6-9 acts of chain scission. It is less than expected from the 20% participation of multi-ionization spurs, also in the solid state, as announced during the previous 9th Tihany Conference (Radiat. Phys. Chem. 56 (1999) 559). However, the apparent too low yield of multi-ionization spurs could be explained by partial conversion of scission products into crosslinks of specific trifunctional Y type. Our investigations confirm the usefulness of consideration of different radiation spurs in polymers, as well as in all, low LET irradiated media.
A stochastic formation of radiative transfer in clouds
Stephens, G.L.; Gabriel, P.M.
1993-03-01
The research carried out under this award dealt with issues involving deterministic radiative transfer, remote sensing, Stochastic radiative transfer, and parameterization of cloud optical properties. A number of different forms of radiative transfer models in one, two, and three dimensions were developed in an attempt to build an understanding of the radiative transfer in clouds with realistic spatial structure and to determine the key geometrical parameter that influence this transfer. The research conducted also seeks to assess the relative importance of these geometrical effects in contrast to microphysical effects of clouds. The main conclusion of the work is that geometry has a profound influence on all aspects of radiative transfer and the interpretation of this transfer. We demonstrate how this geometry can influence estimate of particle effective radius to the 30-50% level and also how geometry can significantly bias the remote sensing of cloud optical depth.
Simulation of solar radiative transfer in cumulus clouds
Zuev, V.E.; Titov, G.A.
1996-04-01
This work presents a 3-D model of radiative transfer which is used to study the relationship between the spatial distribution of cumulus clouds and fluxes (albedo and transmittance) of visible solar radiation.
Rapidly rotating pulsar radiation in vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denisov, V. I.; Denisova, I. P.; Pimenov, A. B.; Sokolov, V. A.
2016-11-01
In this paper we investigate the corrections of vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics on rapidly rotating pulsar radiation and spin-down in the perturbative QED approach (post-Maxwellian approximation). An analytical expression for the pulsar's radiation intensity has been obtained and analyzed.
Multilevel Radiative Transfer with Partial Frequency Redistribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uitenbroek, H.
2001-08-01
A multilevel accelerated lambda iteration (MALI) method for radiative transfer calculations with partial frequency redistribution (PRD) is presented. The method, which is based on Rybicki & Hummer's complete frequency redistribution (CRD) formalism with full preconditioning, consistently accounts for overlapping radiative transitions. Its extension to PRD is implemented in a very natural way through the use of the Ψ operator operating on the emissivity rather than the commonly used Λ operator, which operates on the source function. Apart from requiring an additional inner computational loop to evaluate the PRD emission-line profiles with fixed population numbers, implementation of the presented method requires only a trivial addition of computer code. Since the presented method employs a diagonal operator, it is easily extended to different geometries. Currently, it has been implemented for one-, two-, and three-dimensional Cartesian grids and spherical symmetry. In all cases, the speed of convergence with PRD is very similar to that in CRD, with the former sometimes even surpassing the latter. Sample calculations exhibiting the favorable convergence behavior of the PRD code are presented in the case of the Ca II H and K lines, the Mg II h and k lines, and the hydrogen Lyα and Lyβ lines in a one-dimensional solar model and the Ca II resonance lines in a two-dimensional flux-sheet model.
Radiative Transfer in a Scattering Spherical Atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, S. S.; Park, Y.-S.; Kwon, S. M.; Park, C.; Weinberg, J. L.
2002-03-01
We have written a code called QDM_sca, which numerically solves the problem of radiative transfer in an anisotropically scattering, spherical atmosphere. First we formulate the problem as a second order differential equation of a quasi-diffusion type. We then apply a three-point finite differencing to the resulting differential equation and transform it to a tri-diagonal system of simultaneous linear equations. After boundary conditions are implemented in the tri-diagonal system, the QDM_sca radiative code fixes the field of specific intensity at every point in the atmosphere. As an application example, we used the code to calculate the brightness of atmospheric diffuse light(ADL) as a function of zenith distance, which plays a pivotal role in reducing the zodiacal light brightness from night sky observations. On the basis of this ADL calculation, frequent uses of effective extinction optical depth have been fully justified in correcting the atmospheric extinction for such extended sources as zodiacal light, integrated starlight and diffuse galactic light. The code will be available on request.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yujia; Zhang, Xiaobing; Howell, John R.
2017-06-01
This work investigates the performance of the DOM, FVM, P1, SP3 and P3 methods for 2D combined natural convection and radiation heat transfer for an absorbing, emitting medium. The Monte Carlo method is used to solve the RTE coupled with the energy equation, and its results are used as benchmark solutions. Effects of the Rayleigh number, Planck number and optical thickness are considered, all covering several orders of magnitude. Temperature distributions, heat transfer rate and computational performance in terms of accuracy and computing time are presented and analyzed.
The macroecology of rapid evolutionary radiation
Parnell, Nicholas F.; Streelman, J. Todd
2011-01-01
A long-standing debate in ecology addresses whether community composition is the result of stochastic factors or assembly rules. Non-random, over-dispersed patterns of species co-occurrence have commonly been attributed to competition—a particularly important force in adaptive radiation. We thus examined the macroecology of the recently radiated cichlid rock-fish assemblage in Lake Malawi, Africa at a spectrum of increasingly fine spatial scales (entire lake to depth within rock-reef sites). Along this range of spatial scales, we observed a signal of community structure (decreased co-occurrence of species) at the largest and smallest scales, but not in between. Evidence suggests that the lakewide signature of structure is driven by extreme endemism and micro-allopatric speciation, while patterns of reduced co-occurrence with depth are indicative of species interactions. We identified a ‘core’ set of rock-reef species, found in combination throughout the lake, whose depth profiles exhibited replicated positive and negative correlation. Our results provide insight into how ecological communities may be structured differently at distinct spatial scales, re-emphasize the importance of local species interactions in community assembly, and further elucidate the processes shaping speciation in this model adaptive radiation. PMID:21208961
Radiative Transfer Modeling and Retrievals for Advanced Hyperspectral Sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L., Sr.; Mango, Stephen A.
2009-01-01
A novel radiative transfer model and a physical inversion algorithm based on principal component analysis will be presented. Instead of dealing with channel radiances, the new approach fits principal component scores of these quantities. Compared to channel-based radiative transfer models, the new approach compresses radiances into a much smaller dimension making both forward modeling and inversion algorithm more efficient.
Radiative Transfer Modeling and Retrievals for Advanced Hyperspectral Sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L., Sr.; Mango, Stephen A.
2009-01-01
A novel radiative transfer model and a physical inversion algorithm based on principal component analysis will be presented. Instead of dealing with channel radiances, the new approach fits principal component scores of these quantities. Compared to channel-based radiative transfer models, the new approach compresses radiances into a much smaller dimension making both forward modeling and inversion algorithm more efficient.
Polar firn layering in radiative transfer models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linow, Stefanie; Hoerhold, Maria
2016-04-01
For many applications in the geosciences, remote sensing is the only feasible method of obtaining data from large areas with limited accessibility. This is especially true for the cryosphere, where light conditions and cloud coverage additionally limit the use of optical sensors. Here, instruments operating at microwave frequencies become important, for instance in polar snow parameters / SWE (snow water equivalent) mapping. However, the interaction between snow and microwave radiation is a complex process and still not fully understood. RT (radiative transfer) models to simulate snow-microwave interaction are available, but they require a number of input parameters such as microstructure and density, which are partly ill-constrained. The layering of snow and firn introduces an additional degree of complexity, as all snow parameters show a strong variability with depth. Many studies on RT modeling of polar firn deal with layer variability by using statistical properties derived from previous measurements, such as the standard deviations of density and microstructure, to configure model input. Here, the variability of microstructure parameters, such as density and particle size, are usually assumed to be independent of each other. However, in the case of the firn pack of the polar ice sheets, we observe that microstructure evolution depends on environmental parameters, such as temperature and snow deposition. Accordingly, density and microstructure evolve together within the snow and firn. Based on CT (computer tomography) microstructure measurements of antarctic firn, we can show that: first, the variability of density and effective grain size are linked and can thus be implemented in the RT models as a coupled set of parameters. Second, the magnitude of layering is captured by the measured standard deviation. Based on high-resolution density measurements of an Antarctic firn core, we study the effect of firn layering at different microwave wavelengths. By means of
Radiative Transfer in Primordial Atmosphere of Titan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, E.; Atreya, S.; Kuhn, W.
2005-05-01
In light of Huygens measurements, we present our improved model of thermal and photochemical evolution of Titan's atmosphere. Atreya et. al (1978) demonstrated that photolysis of ammonia on primordial Titan is capable of producing a nitrogen atmosphere substantially thicker than that measured by Voyager. E. Wilson (2001) carried this calculation one step further by including methane and water vapor explicitly in the ammonia photochemistry model, and arrived at a preliminary estimate of time required to accumulate different amounts of nitrogen. However, both models assumed an isothermal atmosphere. Since chemistry leading up to nitrogen occurs in the stratosphere, both the thermal structure and saturation effects are important for determining the time constants and amounts of nitrogen production. In this presentation, we discuss preliminary results of a radiative equilibrium model for the primordial middle and lower atmosphere of Titan. It includes CH4, NH3 and H2O in solar proportions for its initial composition, and CH4-CH4 pressure induced absorption, which presently controls the thermal structure in the troposphere. The temperature in the stratosphere is controlled by the haze, and we explore the effects of a haze layer at various altitudes for accelerating conversion of ammonia to nitrogen. Furthermore, we include the effects of enhanced solar flux during the T-Tauri phase, which could speed up both the loss of nitrogen and conversion of ammonia to nitrogen. We are in the process of coupling the radiative transfer model to a comprehensive photochemical model (Wilson and Atreya, 2004) to access the roles of trace species other than those included in this calculation.
Application of ray tracing in radiation heat transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, Joseph F.
1993-01-01
This collection of presentation figures displays the capabilities of ray tracing for radiation propagation calculations as compared to an analytical approach. The goal is to introduce the terminology and solution process used in ray tracing, and provide insight into radiation heat transfer principles and analysis tools. A thermal analysis working environment is introduced that solves demanding radiation heat transfer problems based on ray tracing. This information may serve as a reference for designing and building ones own analysis environment.
Radiative heat transfer in the extreme near field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyeongtae; Song, Bai; Fernández-Hurtado, Víctor; Lee, Woochul; Jeong, Wonho; Cui, Longji; Thompson, Dakotah; Feist, Johannes; Reid, M. T. Homer; García-Vidal, Francisco J.; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod
2015-12-01
Radiative transfer of energy at the nanometre length scale is of great importance to a variety of technologies including heat-assisted magnetic recording, near-field thermophotovoltaics and lithography. Although experimental advances have enabled elucidation of near-field radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as 20-30 nanometres (refs 4, 5, 6), quantitative analysis in the extreme near field (less than 10 nanometres) has been greatly limited by experimental challenges. Moreover, the results of pioneering measurements differed from theoretical predictions by orders of magnitude. Here we use custom-fabricated scanning probes with embedded thermocouples, in conjunction with new microdevices capable of periodic temperature modulation, to measure radiative heat transfer down to gaps as small as two nanometres. For our experiments we deposited suitably chosen metal or dielectric layers on the scanning probes and microdevices, enabling direct study of extreme near-field radiation between silica-silica, silicon nitride-silicon nitride and gold-gold surfaces to reveal marked, gap-size-dependent enhancements of radiative heat transfer. Furthermore, our state-of-the-art calculations of radiative heat transfer, performed within the theoretical framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, are in excellent agreement with our experimental results, providing unambiguous evidence that confirms the validity of this theory for modelling radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as a few nanometres. This work lays the foundations required for the rational design of novel technologies that leverage nanoscale radiative heat transfer.
Studies of radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.
1986-01-01
Schloerb and Claussen continued their analysis of the very high quality data set obtained on the 18 centimeter OH line from the Comet P/Halley with the NRAO 43 meter antenna. The high spectral resolution (0.22 km/sec) and high signal-to-noise of the OH spectra make them ideal for the study of kinematics in the coma. Synthetic profiles were initiated for comparison with the data. A vectorial model was developed using the Monte Carlo techniques originated by Combi and Delsemme. Analysis of the millimeter wavelength observations of HCN emission from P/Halley obtained throughout much of the recent apparition were continued using the University of Massachusetts 14 millimeter-wavelength (FCRAO) antenna. A detailed analysis of the HCN lineshpaes was performed over the last six months. The excitation of HCN in the coma was studied to obtain a detailed match to the observed spectra. The passive millimeter wave radiometer was used to probe the physical and chemical nature of comets from spacecraft. Work was continued on an improved theory of radiative transfer for rough and porous surfaces, such as the regoliths of satellites, asteroids, and comets.
Investigations of Planet Formation with Combined Hydrodynamics and Radiative Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kloster, D.
2014-01-01
Our aim is to investigate how the dynamics of protoplanetary disks are affected by environmental factors such as the presence of a planetary-mass object orbiting at the midplane and the radiation produced by the disk's host star. To accomplish this task we utilize the finite-volume numerical code PLUTO (Mignone, et al. 2007) to compute the evolution of the disk as a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation in 3D spherical coordinates, combined with a radiative transfer code (Jang-Condell 2008). At each iteration of the PLUTO simulation we will apply the radiative transfer code to the disk profile to model both processes simultaneously. The combined MHD and radiative transfer simulation will provide us with a much more accurate description of protoplanetary disk evolution than either isolated disk MHD or static disk radiative transfer models could individually.
Radiative transfer in atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system
Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Weeks, W.F.; Tsay, S.C.
1996-04-01
Radiative energy is critical in controlling the heat and mass balance of sea ice, which significantly affects the polar climate. In the polar oceans, light transmission through the atmosphere and sea ice is essential to the growth of plankton and algae and, consequently, to the microbial community both in the ice and in the ocean. Therefore, the study of radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system is of particular importance. Lacking a properly coupled radiative transfer model for the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system, a consistent study of the radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, snow, sea ice, and ocean system has not been undertaken before. The radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and in the ice and ocean have been treated separately. Because the radiation processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean depend on each other, this separate treatment is inconsistent. To study the radiative interaction between the atmosphere, clouds, snow, sea ice, and ocean, a radiative transfer model with consistent treatment of radiation in the coupled system is needed and is under development.
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Remote sensing technology can rapidly provide spatial information on crop growth status, which ideally could be used to invert radiative transfer models or ecophysiological models for estimating a variety of crop biophysical properties. However, the outcome of the model inversion procedure will be ...
Select radiation transfer problems in astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roscherr, Bruce
2001-09-01
to make, estimates for the intrinsic TeV flux of the blazar from broadband spectral fits imply that the IGMF should exceed 10-21 G to explain the non-detection. This implies that some form of field amplification must have occurred in the Universe. IV. Polarization effects are likely to be important in calculations involving induced (simulated) Compton scattering. The non-linear coupling to the radiation field, however, complicates the introduction of these effects into an equation of radiative transfer. A quantum mechanical derivation is presented for the case of low frequency radiation scattering off cold electrons. We reproduce, with a slight modification, the equation of Wilson (1982). We proceed to generalize the result of Wilson by relaxing the assumptions of low photon energy by considering the problem in a relativistic framework.
Polarization : Proving ground for methods in radiative transfer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagendra, K. N.; Anusha, L. S.; Sampoorna, M.
Polarization of solar lines arises due to illumination of radiating atom by anisotropic (limb darkened/brightened) radiation. Modelling the polarized spectra of the Sun and stars requires solution of the line radiative transfer problem in which the relevant polarizing physical mechanisms are incorporated. The purpose of this paper is to describe in what different ways the polarization state of the radiation `complicates' the numerical methods originally designed for scalar radiative transfer. We present several interesting situations involving the solution of polarized line transfer to prove our point. They are (i) Comparison of the polarized approximate lambda iteration (PALI) methods with new approaches like Bi-conjugate gradient method that is faster, (ii) Polarized Hanle scattering line radiative transfer in random magnetic fields, (iii) Difficulties encountered in incorporating polarized partial frequency redistribution (PRD) matrices in line radiative transfer codes, (iv) Technical difficulties encountered in handling polarized specific intensity vector, some components of which are sign changing, (v) Proving that scattering polarization is indeed a boundary layer phenomenon. We provide credible benchmarks in each of the above studies. We show that any new numerical methods can be tested in the best possible way, when it is extended to include polarization state of the radiation field in line scattering.
Rapid time variations and radiative instabilities of astrophysical masers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scappaticci, Gerardo A.; Watson, William D.
1992-01-01
The time-varying intensities are obtained for astrophysical masers that are radiatively unstable. Numerical integrations of the time-dependent, nonlinear equations of radiative transfer are performed with the usual approximation of a linear maser. At long times after changes in the physical conditions, the intensity of maser radiation reaches an asymptotic behavior and oscillates permanently in these idealized calculations with a period that is related to the length of the maser divided by the speed of light. The intensity varies by more than a factor of 10. These intensities depend upon the same four parameters as we originally found to determine the regime for radiative instabilities based on a stability analysis of the steady state. A detailed comparison is made between the predictions of the stability analysis and the time variations of the intensities. Calculations are performed for interacting pairs as well as isolated, individual masers.
Hybrid radiative-transfer-diffusion model for optical tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarvainen, Tanja; Vauhkonen, Marko; Kolehmainen, Ville; Kaipio, Jari P.
2005-02-01
A hybrid radiative-transfer-diffusion model for optical tomography is proposed. The light propagation is modeled with the radiative-transfer equation in the vicinity of the laser sources, and the diffusion approximation is used elsewhere in the domain. The solution of the radiative-transfer equation is used to construct a Dirichlet boundary condition for the diffusion approximation on a fictitious interface within the object. This boundary condition constitutes an approximative distributed source model for the diffusion approximation in the remaining area. The results from the proposed approach are compared with finite-element solutions of the radiative-transfer equation and the diffusion approximation and Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the method improves the accuracy of the forward model compared with the conventional diffusion model.
Lessons Learned from Radiative Transfer Simulations of the Venus Atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arney, G. N.; Meadows, V. S.; Lincowski, A.
2017-05-01
We discuss the challenges of modeling the spectrum of the venusian lower atmosphere, which can be used for retrievals of lower atmosphere gas abundances. We also discuss applications of radiative transfer simulations to exo-Venuses.
Radiative Transfer Model for Translucent Slab Ice on Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrieu, F.; Schmidt, F.; Douté, S.; Schmitt, B.; Brissaud, O.
2016-09-01
We developed a radiative transfer model that simulates in VIS/NIR the bidirectional reflectance of a contaminated slab layer of ice overlaying a granular medium, under geometrical optics conditions to study martian ices.
Rapid black hole growth under anisotropic radiation feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yajima, Hidenobu; Omukai, Kazuyuki
2017-07-01
Discovery of high-redshift (z > 6) supermassive black holes (BHs) may indicate that the rapid (or super-Eddington) gas accretion has aided their quick growth. Here, we study such rapid accretion of the primordial gas on to intermediate-mass (102-105 M⊙) BHs under anisotropic radiation feedback. We perform two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations that solve the flow structure across the Bondi radius, from far outside of the Bondi radius down to a central part that is larger than a circum-BH accretion disc. The radiation from the unresolved circum-BH disc is analytically modelled considering self-shadowing effect. We show that the flow settles into a steady state, where the flow structure consists of two distinct parts: (1) bipolar ionized outflowing regions, where the gas is pushed outward by thermal gas pressure and super-Eddington radiation pressure, and (2) an equatorial neutral inflowing region, where the gas falls towards the central BH without affected by radiation feedback. The resulting accretion rate is much higher than that in the case of isotropic radiation, far exceeding the Eddington-limited rate to reach a value slightly lower than the Bondi one. The opening angle of the equatorial inflowing region is determined by the luminosity and directional dependence of the central radiation. We find that photoevaporation from its surfaces set the critical opening angle of about 10° below which the accretion to the BH is quenched. We suggest that the shadowing effect allows even stellar-remnant BHs to grow rapidly enough to become high-redshift supermassive BHs.
Modeling of Radiative Heat Transfer in an Electric Arc Furnace
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Opitz, Florian; Treffinger, Peter; Wöllenstein, Jürgen
2017-08-01
Radiation is an important means of heat transfer inside an electric arc furnace (EAF). To gain insight into the complex processes of heat transfer inside the EAF vessel, not only radiation from the surfaces but also emission and absorption of the gas phase and the dust cloud need to be considered. Furthermore, the radiative heat exchange depends on the geometrical configuration which is continuously changing throughout the process. The present paper introduces a system model of the EAF which takes into account the radiative heat transfer between the surfaces and the participating medium. This is attained by the development of a simplified geometrical model, the use of a weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model, and a simplified consideration of dust radiation. The simulation results were compared with the data of real EAF plants available in literature.
Discrete diffusion Monte Carlo for frequency-dependent radiative transfer
Densmore, Jeffrey D; Kelly, Thompson G; Urbatish, Todd J
2010-11-17
Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) is a technique for increasing the efficiency of Implicit Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations. In this paper, we develop an extension of DDMC for frequency-dependent radiative transfer. We base our new DDMC method on a frequency-integrated diffusion equation for frequencies below a specified threshold. Above this threshold we employ standard Monte Carlo. With a frequency-dependent test problem, we confirm the increased efficiency of our new DDMC technique.
Modeling of radiative - conductive heat transfer in compositing materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luchnikov, P. A.; Nefedov, V. I.; Trefilov, N. A.; Dementiev, A. N.; Surzhikov, A. P.
2017-01-01
A layer of composite material is investigated, which is heated one-sidedly with one-dimensional energy transfer accounting for thermal conductivity and radiation. A mathematical model is suggested for non-stationary coefficient thermophysical problem under radiative-conductive heat transfer in a material layer. Temperature dependencies of thermal capacity and thermal conductivity coefficient of composite radio-transparent material have been determined through numerical modeling by solving the coefficient reverse problem of thermal conductivity.
Heat transfer augmentation of a car radiator using nanofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussein, Adnan M.; Bakar, R. A.; Kadirgama, K.; Sharma, K. V.
2014-05-01
The car radiator heat transfer enhancement by using TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in water as a base fluid was studied experimentally. The test rig is setup as a car radiator with tubes and container. The range of Reynolds number and volume fraction are (250-1,750) and (1.0-2.5 %) respectively. Results showed that the heat transfer increases with increasing of nanofluid volume fraction. The experimental data is agreed with other investigator.
High-Precision Direct Method for the Radiative Transfer Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yan; Hou, Su-Qing; Yang, Ping; Wu, Kai-Su
2013-06-01
It is the main aim of this paper to investigate the numerical methods of the radiative transfer equation. Using the five-point formula to approximate the differential part and the Simpson formula to substitute for integral part respectively, a new high-precision numerical scheme, which has 4-order local truncation error, is obtained. Subsequently, a numerical example for radiative transfer equation is carried out, and the calculation results show that the new numerical scheme is more accurate.
Rapid and Decentralized Human Waste Treatment by Microwave Radiation.
Nguyen, Tu Anh; Babel, Sandhya; Boonyarattanakalin, Siwarutt; Koottatep, Thammarat
2017-07-01
This study evaluates the technical feasibility of using microwave radiation for the rapid treatment of human feces. Human feces of 1000 g were radiated with a commercially available household microwave oven (with rotation) at different exposure time lengths (30, 50, 60, 70, and 75 mins) and powers (600, 800, and 1000 W). Volume reduction over 90% occurred after 1000 W microwave radiation for 75 mins. Pathogen eradiation performances of six log units or more at a high range of microwave powers were achieved. Treatments with the same energy input of 1000 Wh, but at lower powers with prolonged exposure times, significantly enhanced moisture removal and volume reduction. Microwave radiation caused carbonization and resulted in a more stable end product. The energy content of the samples after microwave treatment at 1000 W and 75 mins is 3517 ± 8.85 calories/g of dried sample, and the product can also be used as compost.
Application of the spectrally integrated Voigt function to line-by-line radiative transfer modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quine, B. M.; Abrarov, S. M.
2013-09-01
We show that a new approach based on the spectrally integrated Voigt function (SIVF) enables the computation of line-by-line (LBL) radiative transfer at reduced spectral resolution without loss of accuracy. The algorithm provides rapid and accurate computation of area under the Voigt function in a way that preserves spectral radiance and, consequently, radiant intensity. The error analysis we provide shows the high-accuracy of the proposed SIVF approximations. A comparison of the performance of the method with that of the traditional LBL approach is presented. Motivations for the use and advantage of the SIVF as a replacement for conventional line function computations in radiative transfer are discussed.
A study of Monte Carlo radiative transfer through fractal clouds
Gautier, C.; Lavallec, D.; O`Hirok, W.; Ricchiazzi, P.
1996-04-01
An understanding of radiation transport (RT) through clouds is fundamental to studies of the earth`s radiation budget and climate dynamics. The transmission through horizontally homogeneous clouds has been studied thoroughly using accurate, discreet ordinates radiative transfer models. However, the applicability of these results to general problems of global radiation budget is limited by the plane parallel assumption and the fact that real clouds fields show variability, both vertically and horizontally, on all size scales. To understand how radiation interacts with realistic clouds, we have used a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model to compute the details of the photon-cloud interaction on synthetic cloud fields. Synthetic cloud fields, generated by a cascade model, reproduce the scaling behavior, as well as the cloud variability observed and estimated from cloud satellite data.
Radiative Transfer Effects on the Colors of RR Lyrae Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, C. G.
The methods of Davis and Cox (1980), are applied to a series of models described by Bono and Stellingwerf(1994) to determine the colors of RR Lyrae stars. Convection is ignored and the radiation flow is treated by a complete variable Eddington, multi-frequency dependent radiative transfer approximation.
Radiative Transfer Effects on the Colors of RR Lyrae Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, C. G.
The methods of Davis & Cox (1980), are applied to a series of models described by Bono & Stellingwerf(1994), to determine the colors of RR Lyrae stars. Convection is ignored and the radiative flow is treated by a complete variable Eddington multi-frequency group radiative transfer approximation.
Radiation Transfer in the Atmosphere: Scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mishchenko, M.; Travis, L.; Lacis, Andrew A.
2014-01-01
Sunlight illuminating the Earth's atmosphere is scattered by gas molecules and suspended particles, giving rise to blue skies, white clouds, and optical displays such as rainbows and halos. By scattering and absorbing the shortwave solar radiation and the longwave radiation emitted by the underlying surface, cloud and aerosol particles strongly affect the radiation budget of the terrestrial climate system. As a consequence of the dependence of scattering characteristics on particle size, morphology, and composition, scattered light can be remarkably rich in information on particle properties and thus provides a sensitive tool for remote retrievals of macro- and microphysical parameters of clouds and aerosols.
General Relativistic Radiative Transfer: Applications to Black-Hole Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Kinwah; Fuerst, Steven V.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Lee, Khee-Gan
2007-01-01
We present general relativistic radiation transfer formulations which include opacity effects due to absorption, emission and scattering explicitly. We consider a moment expansions for the transfer in the presence of scattering. The formulation is applied to calculation emissions from accretion and outflows in black-hole systems. Cases with thin accretion disks and accretion tori are considered. Effects, such as emission anisotropy, non-stationary flows and geometrical self-occultation are investigated. Polarisation transfer in curved space-time is discussed qualitatively.
CRETE: Comet RadiativE Transfer and Excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Val-Borro, Miguel; Wilson, Thomas G.
2016-12-01
CRETE (Comet RadiativE Transfer and Excitation) is a one-dimensional water excitation and radiation transfer code for sub-millimeter wavelengths based on the RATRAN code (ascl:0008.002). The code considers rotational transitions of water molecules given a Haser spherically symmetric distribution for the cometary coma and produces FITS image cubes that can be analyzed with tools like MIRIAD (ascl:1106.007). In addition to collisional processes to excite water molecules, the effect of infrared radiation from the Sun is approximated by effective pumping rates for the rotational levels in the ground vibrational state.
Radiative heat transfer estimation in pipes with various wall emissivities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robin, Langebach; Christoph, Haberstroh
2017-02-01
Radiative heat transfer is usually of substantial importance in cryogenics when systems are designed and thermal budgeting is carried out. However, the contribution of pipes is commonly assumed to be comparably low since the warm and cold ends as well as their cross section are fairly small. Nevertheless, for a first assessment of each pipe rough estimates are always appreciated. In order to estimate the radiative heat transfer with traditional “paper and pencil“ methods there is only one analytical case available in literature - the case of plane-parallel plates. This case can only be used to calculate the theoretical lower and the upper asymptotic values of the radiative heat transfer, since pipe wall radiation properties are not taken into account. For this paper we investigated the radiative heat transfer estimation in pipes with various wall emissivities with the help of numerical simulations. Out of a number of calculation series we could gain an empirical extension for the used approach of plane-parallel plates. The model equation can be used to carry out enhanced paper and pencil estimations for the radiative heat transfer through pipes without demanding numerical simulations.
Spectrally-Invariant Approximation Within Atmospheric Radiative Transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Chiu, J. C.; Wiscombe, W. J.
2011-01-01
Certain algebraic combinations of single scattering albedo and solar radiation reflected from, or transmitted through, vegetation canopies do not vary with wavelength. These "spectrally invariant relationships" are the consequence of wavelength independence of the extinction coefficient and scattering phase function in vegetation. In general, this wavelength independence does not hold in the atmosphere, but in clouddominated atmospheres the total extinction and total scattering phase function vary only weakly with wavelength. This paper identifies the atmospheric conditions under which the spectrally invariant approximation can accurately describe the extinction. and scattering properties of cloudy atmospheres. The validity of the assumptions and the accuracy of the approximation are tested with ID radiative transfer calculations using publicly available radiative transfer models: Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (DISORT) and Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART). It is shown for cloudy atmospheres with cloud optical depth above 3, and for spectral intervals that exclude strong water vapor absorption, that the spectrally invariant relationships found in vegetation canopy radiative transfer are valid to better than 5%. The physics behind this phenomenon, its mathematical basis, and possible applications to remote sensing and climate are discussed.
Discontinuous finite element method for vector radiative transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Cun-Hai; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping
2017-03-01
The discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) is applied to solve the vector radiative transfer in participating media. The derivation in a discrete form of the vector radiation governing equations is presented, in which the angular space is discretized by the discrete-ordinates approach with a local refined modification, and the spatial domain is discretized into finite non-overlapped discontinuous elements. The elements in the whole solution domain are connected by modelling the boundary numerical flux between adjacent elements, which makes the DFEM numerically stable for solving radiative transfer equations. Several various problems of vector radiative transfer are tested to verify the performance of the developed DFEM, including vector radiative transfer in a one-dimensional parallel slab containing a Mie/Rayleigh/strong forward scattering medium and a two-dimensional square medium. The fact that DFEM results agree very well with the benchmark solutions in published references shows that the developed DFEM in this paper is accurate and effective for solving vector radiative transfer problems.
Model of radiation transfer in atmosphere-smoke system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sushkevich, Tamara A.; Strelkov, Sergey A.; Vladimirova, Ekaterina V.; Kulikov, Alexey K.; Maksakova, Svetlana V.
2004-02-01
A more detailed modeling of interactions between the solar radiation and smoke medium and also of mechanisms of radiative transfer between air and smoke media is required. One-dimensional models of solar-radiation transfer in the atmosphere-smoke system (SAS), i.e. atmosphere with admixtures that arose under the effect of large scale fires (forest, peat, industrial) and lead to forming extending smoke screen, are being developed by us on the basis of two approaches. In one model, calculations are performed by the iteration method of characteristics ofr a two-medium SAS: underlying layer - smoke screen, upper layer- atmosphere. The second model uses the optical transfer operator (OTO) to express the SAS radiation through the influence functions (IFs) of the atmosphere and smoke.
Radiative transfer in finite participating atmospheric aerosol media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Degheidy, A. R.; Elgarayhi, A.; Sallah, M.; Shaaban, S. M.
2014-01-01
The properties of radiation transfer through a plane-parallel atmospheric aerosol medium has been studied. It has been done by employing Mie theory to calculate the radiation transfer scattering parameters of the medium in the form of extinction, scattering, and absorption efficiencies. Then, the equation of radiative transfer through a plane-parallel atmosphere of aerosol has been solved for partial heat fluxes using two different analytical techniques, namely, the Variational Pomraning -Eddington approximation and Galerkin technique. Average efficiencies over log-normal and modified gamma size distributions are calculated. Therefore, the radiative properties of Carbon, Anthracite, Bituminous, Lignite, and Fly ash have been calculated. The obtained numerical results show very good agreement with each other in addition to the previous published work.
Radiative heat transfer in low-dimensional systems -- microscopic mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woods, Lilia; Phan, Anh; Drosdoff, David
2013-03-01
Radiative heat transfer between objects can increase dramatically at sub-wavelength scales. Exploring ways to modulate such transport between nano-systems is a key issue from fundamental and applied points of view. We advance the theoretical understanding of radiative heat transfer between nano-objects by introducing a microscopic model, which takes into account the individual atoms and their atomic polarizabilities. This approach is especially useful to investigate nano-objects with various geometries and give a detailed description of the heat transfer distribution. We employ this model to study the heat exchange in graphene nanoribbon/substrate systems. Our results for the distance separations, substrates, and presence of extended or localized defects enable making predictions for tailoring the radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale. Financial support from the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-06ER46297 is acknowledged.
Ancient hybridization fuels rapid cichlid fish adaptive radiations
Meier, Joana I.; Marques, David A.; Mwaiko, Salome; Wagner, Catherine E.; Excoffier, Laurent; Seehausen, Ole
2017-01-01
Understanding why some evolutionary lineages generate exceptionally high species diversity is an important goal in evolutionary biology. Haplochromine cichlid fishes of Africa's Lake Victoria region encompass >700 diverse species that all evolved in the last 150,000 years. How this ‘Lake Victoria Region Superflock' could evolve on such rapid timescales is an enduring question. Here, we demonstrate that hybridization between two divergent lineages facilitated this process by providing genetic variation that subsequently became recombined and sorted into many new species. Notably, the hybridization event generated exceptional allelic variation at an opsin gene known to be involved in adaptation and speciation. More generally, differentiation between new species is accentuated around variants that were fixed differences between the parental lineages, and that now appear in many new combinations in the radiation species. We conclude that hybridization between divergent lineages, when coincident with ecological opportunity, may facilitate rapid and extensive adaptive radiation. PMID:28186104
Rapid laser induced energy transfer in atomic systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.
1978-01-01
Analytical and experimental studies of the rapid transfer of stored populations from metastable states to selected target states of a different species are reported. Both laser-induced or laser-switched collision and laser-induced two-photon spontaneous emission are described. It is shown that the laser-induced collision method is particularly useful in the visible and UV spectral regions. It has applications in photochemistry, gas-phase kinetics, and in high-power, high-energy gas-phase lasers. The anti-Stokes source is useful in the VUV and soft X-ray spectral regions.
User's Manual: Routines for Radiative Heat Transfer and Thermometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Risch, Timothy K.
2016-01-01
Determining the intensity and spectral distribution of radiation emanating from a heated surface has applications in many areas of science and engineering. Areas of research in which the quantification of spectral radiation is used routinely include thermal radiation heat transfer, infrared signature analysis, and radiation thermometry. In the analysis of radiation, it is helpful to be able to predict the radiative intensity and the spectral distribution of the emitted energy. Presented in this report is a set of routines written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) and incorporating functions specific to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) that are useful for predicting the radiative behavior of heated surfaces. These routines include functions for calculating quantities of primary importance to engineers and scientists. In addition, the routines also provide the capability to use such information to determine surface temperatures from spectral intensities and for calculating the sensitivity of the surface temperature measurements to unknowns in the input parameters.
Rapid Analysis of Mass Distribution of Radiation Shielding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zapp, Edward
2007-01-01
Radiation Shielding Evaluation Toolset (RADSET) is a computer program that rapidly calculates the spatial distribution of mass of an arbitrary structure for use in ray-tracing analysis of the radiation-shielding properties of the structure. RADSET was written to be used in conjunction with unmodified commercial computer-aided design (CAD) software that provides access to data on the structure and generates selected three-dimensional-appearing views of the structure. RADSET obtains raw geometric, material, and mass data on the structure from the CAD software. From these data, RADSET calculates the distribution(s) of the masses of specific materials about any user-specified point(s). The results of these mass-distribution calculations are imported back into the CAD computing environment, wherein the radiation-shielding calculations are performed.
Radiation-induced bystander effect: early process and rapid assessment.
Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, K N; Hou, Jue; Liu, Qian; Han, Wei
2015-01-01
Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is a biological process that has received attention over the past two decades. RIBE refers to a plethora of biological effects in non-irradiated cells, including induction of genetic damages, gene expression, cell transformation, proliferation and cell death, which are initiated by receiving bystander signals released from irradiated cells. RIBE brings potential hazards to normal tissues in radiotherapy, and imparts a higher risk from low-dose radiation than we previously thought. Detection with proteins related to DNA damage and repair, cell cycle control, proliferation, etc. have enabled rapid assessment of RIBE in a number of research systems such as cultured cells, three-dimensional tissue models and animal models. Accumulated experimental data have suggested that RIBE may be initiated rapidly within a time frame as short as several minutes after radiation. These have led to the requirement of techniques capable of rapidly assessing RIBE itself as well as assessing the early processes involved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heat Transfer Analysis of a Closed Brayton Cycle Space Radiator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juhasz, Albert J.
2007-01-01
This paper presents a mathematical analysis of the heat transfer processes taking place in a radiator for a closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT), also referred to as a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) space power system. The resulting equations and relationships have been incorporated into a radiator sub-routine of a numerical triple objective CCGT optimization program to determine operating conditions yielding maximum cycle efficiency, minimum radiator area and minimum overall systems mass. Study results should be of interest to numerical modeling of closed cycle Brayton space power systems and to the design of fluid cooled radiators in general.
Radiative interactions in transient energy transfer in gaseous systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiwari, S. N.
1985-01-01
Analyses and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the radiative interactions in transient energy transfer processes in gaseous systems. The nongray radiative formulations are based on the wide-band model correlations for molecular absorption. Various relations for the radiative flux are developed; these are useful for different flow conditions and physical problems. Specific plans for obtaining extensive results for different cases are presented. The methods presented in this study can be extended easily to investigate the radiative interactions in realistic flows of hydrogen-air species in the scramjet engine.
A Non-Radiative Transfer Approach to Radiometric Vicarious Calibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary; Stanley, Thomas
2007-01-01
TOA (top-of-atmosphere) radiance from high-spatial-resolution satellite imagery systems is important for a wide variety of research and applications. Many research initiatives require data with absolute radiometric accuracy better than a few percent. The conversion of satellite digital numbers to radiance depends on accurate radiometric calibration. A common method for determining and validating radiometric calibrations is to rely upon vicarious calibration approaches. Historically, vicarious calibration methods use radiative transfer codes with ground-based atmosphere and surface reflectance or radiance inputs for estimating TOA radiance values. These TOA radiance values are compared against the satellite digital numbers to determine the radiometric calibration. However, the radiative transfer codes used depend on many assumptions about the aerosol properties and the atmospheric point spread function. A measurement-based atmospheric radiance estimation approach for high-spatial-resolution, multispectral, visible/near-infrared sensors is presented that eliminates the use of radiative transfer codes and many of the underlying assumptions. A comparison between the radiative transfer and non-radiative transfer approaches is made.
Rapid response radiation sensors for homeland security applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul
2014-09-01
The National Security Technologies, LLC, Remote Sensing Laboratory is developing a rapid response radiation detection system for homeland security field applications. The intelligence-driven system is deployed only when non-radiological information about the target is verifiable. The survey area is often limited, so the detection range is small; in most cases covering a distance of 10 meters or less suffices. Definitive response is required in no more than 3 seconds and should minimize false negative alarms, but can err on the side of positive false alarms. The detection system is rapidly reconfigurable in terms of size, shape, and outer appearance; it is a plug-and-play system. Multiple radiation detection components (viz., two or more sodium iodide scintillators) are used to independently "over-determine" the existence of the threat object. Rapid response electronic dose rate meters are also included in the equipment suite. Carefully studied threat signatures are the basis of the decision making. The use of Rad-Detect predictive modeling provides information on the nature of the threat object. Rad-Detect provides accurate dose rate from heavily shielded large sources; for example those lost in Mexico were Category 1 radiation sources (~3,000 Ci of 60Co), the most dangerous of five categories defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Taken out of their shielding containers, Category 1 sources can kill anyone who is exposed to them at close range for a few minutes to an hour. Whenever possible sub-second data acquisition will be attempted, and, when deployed, the system will be characterized for false alarm rates. Although the radiation detection materials selected are fast (viz., faster scintillators), their speed is secondary to sensitivity, which is of primary importance. Results from these efforts will be discussed and demonstrated.
Test problems in radiative transfer calculations
Shestakov, A. I.; Kershaw, D. S.; Zimmerman, G. B.
1989-01-12
Several test problems are presented for evaluating the radiation diffusion equations. For spatial transport schemes, 1-D problems with known analytic solutions are tested on 2-D domains with non-orthogonal meshes. It is shown that a scheme based on the Finite Element Method is insensitive to grid distortions when the diffusion term is dominant. Other test problems deal with Compton scattering, specifically the 1-D Fokker-Planck equation coupled to an equation describing the change in electron temperature. The test problems model the evolution of a Planckian radiation field as it equilibrates with the electrons. In all cases, the numerical results are compared with the analytic ones. 15 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.
Heat Transfer by Radiation from Flames
1956-01-01
the radiating characteristics sBurner " n of the flame. Only two series of these tests B have been made. -Pulley The factorial method of planning the...organization of the work, the made whereby the industries of those countries experimental facilities, the methods of research, were enabled to contribute...account of the objectives, method of operation, or of the results has been Great Britain: 0. A. Saunders, Professor, published in the United States
Radiation Heat Transfer Procedures for Space-Related Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chai, John C.
2000-01-01
Over the last contract year, a numerical procedure for combined conduction-radiation heat transfer using unstructured grids has been developed. As a result of this research, one paper has been published in the Numerical Heat Transfer Journal. One paper has been accepted for presentation at the International Center for Heat and Mass Transfer's International Symposium on Computational Heat Transfer to be held in Australia next year. A journal paper is under review by my NASA's contact. A conference paper for the ASME National Heat Transfer conference is under preparation. In summary, a total of four (4) papers (two journal and two conference) have been published, accepted or are under preparation. There are two (2) to three (3) more papers to be written for the project. In addition to the above publications, one book chapter, one journal paper and six conference papers have been published as a result of this project. Over the last contract year, the research project resulted in one Ph.D. thesis and partially supported another Ph.D. student. My NASA contact and myself have formulated radiation heat transfer procedures for materials with different indices of refraction and for combined conduction-radiation heat transfer. We are trying to find other applications for the procedures developed under this grant.
Radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, C. C.; Han, H. C.; Shin, Robert T.; Kong, Jin AU; Beaudoin, A.; Letoan, T.
1992-01-01
The radiative transfer theory is applied to interpret polarimetric radar backscatter from pine forest with clustered vegetation structures. To take into account the clustered structures with the radiative transfer theory, the scattering function of each cluster is calculated by incorporating the phase interference of scattered fields from each component. Subsequently, the resulting phase matrix is used in the radiative transfer equations to evaluate the polarimetric backscattering coefficients from random medium layers embedded with vegetation clusters. Upon including the multi-scale structures, namely, trunks, primary and secondary branches, as well as needles, we interpret and simulate the polarimetric radar responses from pine forest for different frequencies and looking angles. The preliminary results are shown to be in good agreement with the measured backscattering coefficients at the Landes maritime pine forest during the MAESTRO-1 experiment.
A modified Henyey method for computing radiative transfer hydrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karp, A. H.
1975-01-01
The implicit hydrodynamic code of Kutter and Sparks (1972), which is limited to optically thick regions and employs the diffusion approximation for radiative transfer, is modified to include radiative transfer effects in the optically thin regions of a model star. A modified Henyey method is used to include the solution of the radiative transfer equation in this implicit code, and the convergence properties of this method are proven. A comparison is made between two hydrodynamic models of a classical Cepheid with a 12-day period, one of which was computed with the diffusion approximation and the other with the modified Henyey method. It is found that the two models produce nearly identical light and velocity curves, but differ in the fact that the former never has temperature inversions in the atmosphere while the latter does when sufficiently strong shocks are present.
Partial moment entropy approximation to radiative heat transfer
Frank, Martin . E-mail: frank@mathematik.uni-kl.de; Dubroca, Bruno . E-mail: Bruno.Dubroca@math.u-bordeaux.fr; Klar, Axel . E-mail: klar@mathematik.uni-kl.de
2006-10-10
We extend the half moment entropy closure for the radiative heat transfer equations presented in Dubroca and Klar [B. Dubroca, A. Klar, Half moment closure for radiative transfer equations, J. Comput. Phys. 180 (2002) 584-596] and Turpault et al. [R. Turpault, M. Frank, B. Dubroca, A. Klar, Multigroup half space moment approximations to the radiative heat transfer equations, J. Comput. Phys. 198 (2004) 363-371] to multi-D. To that end, we consider a partial moment system with general partitions of the unit sphere closed by an entropy minimization principle. We give physical and mathematical reasons for this choice of model and study its properties. Several numerical examples in different physical regimes are presented.
Pakal A New Algorithm to Solve the Radiative Transfer Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De La Luz, Victor; Lara, A.; Mendoza, E.
2007-12-01
We present a new algorithm, called "PAKAL", to solve the radiative transfer equation using a cellular automaton and an expert system. Pakal are integrated by four main modules: i) geometry model, ii) radiative transfer equation numerical model, iii) emission model and iv) numerical methods. In this work we present the algorithm applied to 3D geometry. We have solved the radiative transfer equation using radio thermal emission and we used two different numerical methods to recreate the quiet Sun radio thermal emission. Pakal is able to generate multi-frequency images in 2D which may be compared against observations. In this work, we present the convergence analysis and comparetion between the numerical models.
Radiative Transfer Model for Contaminated Rough Surfaces
2013-02-01
transfer, reflectance, rough surface, BRDF, Kramers- Kronig , penetration depth, fill factor, infrared, LWIR, MWIR, absorption coefficient, scattering...can be obtained from the absorption coefficient via Equation 6 (below) and the real part may be obtained via Kramers- Kronig (KK) analysis,18 n = KK(k...expanded reference library with more than one reference spectrum per material. Kramers- Kronig Relations: The Kramers- Kronig relationship is a
Radiative Transfer in Submerged Macrophyte Canopies
2001-09-30
the canopy in Monterey Bay , California and Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas. Years 3 and 4 continued to evaluate inherent optical properties of individual...both the clear waters of Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas and the much more turbid environment of Elkhorn Slough, in Monterey Bay (Fig. 1A, C). Since...data sets consisting of water column optical property observations of nearshore waters in Monterey Bay were transferred to J. Smart (APL, Johns
A simplified scheme for computing radiation transfer in the troposphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katayama, A.
1973-01-01
A scheme is presented, for the heating of clear and cloudy air by solar and infrared radiation transfer, designed for use in tropospheric general circulation models with coarse vertical resolution. A bulk transmission function is defined for the infrared transfer. The interpolation factors, required for computing the bulk transmission function, are parameterized as functions of such physical parameters as the thickness of the layer, the pressure, and the mixing ratio at a reference level. The computation procedure for solar radiation is significantly simplified by the introduction of two basic concepts. The first is that the solar radiation spectrum can be divided into a scattered part, for which Rayleigh scattering is significant but absorption by water vapor is negligible, and an absorbed part for which absorption by water vapor is significant but Rayleigh scattering is negligible. The second concept is that of an equivalent cloud water vapor amount which absorbs the same amount of radiation as the cloud.
Radiative heat transfer as a Landauer-Büttiker problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yap, Han Hoe; Wang, Jian-Sheng
2017-01-01
We study the radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite half-spaces, bounded by conductive surfaces in contact with vacuum. This setup is interpreted as a four-terminal mesoscopic transport problem. The slabs and interfaces are viewed as bosonic reservoirs, coupled perfectly to a scattering center consisting of the two planes and vacuum. Using Rytov's fluctuational electrodynamics and assuming Kirchhoff's circuital law, we calculate the heat flow in each bath. This allows for explicit evaluation of a conductance matrix, from which one readily verifies Büttiker symmetry. Thus, radiative heat transfer in layered media with conductive interfaces becomes a Landauer-Büttiker transport problem.
Combined conduction and radiation heat transfer in concentric cylindrical media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandey, D. K.
1987-01-01
The exact radiative transfer expressions for gray and nongray gases which are absorbing, emitting and nonscattering, contained between infinitely long concentric cylinders with black surfaces, are given in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Resulting energy equations due to the combination of conduction and radiation modes of heat transfer, under steady state conditions for gray and nongray media, are solved numerically using the undetermined parameters method. A single 4.3-micron band of CO2 is considered for the nongray problems. The present solutions for gray and nongray gases obtained in the plane-parallel limit (radius ratio approaches to one) are compared with the plane-parallel results reported in the literature.
Phase space formulation of radiative transfer in optically thick plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosato, J.
2017-08-01
We present a formulation of the radiative transfer theory based on the quantum phase space formalism. The formalism employs the Wigner function relative to the electric field in (r , t , k , ω) space. It is shown that this quantity obeys a transport equation with source and loss terms nonlocal in space and time. This delocalization is a feature of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation, both relative to position and momentum and to time and energy. A discussion of the theory, together with links to the standard radiative transfer formalism, is done.
Computation of Radiation Heat Transfer in Aeroengine Combustors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patankar, S. V.
1996-01-01
In this report the highlights of the research completed for the NASA are summarized. This research has been completed in the form of two Ph.D. theses by Chai (1994) and Parthasarathy (1996). Readers are referred to these theses for a complete details of the work and lists of references. In the following sections, first objectives of this research are introduced, then the finite-volume method for radiation heat transfer is described, and finally computations of radiative heat transfer in non-gray participating media is presented.
Continuum radiative transfer Modeling of Sagittarius B2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmiedeke, A.; Schilke, P.; Möller, Th.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Bergin, E.; Comito, C.; Csengeri, T.; Lis, D. C.; Molinari, S.; Qin, S. L.; Rolffs, R.
2015-05-01
We present results from radiative transfer modeling of the continuum emission towards Sagittarius B2 (hereafter Sgr B2). We have developed a radiative transfer framework - Pandora - that employs RADMC-3D (Dullemond 2012) for a self-consistent determination of the dust temperature. With this pipeline, we have set-up a single model that consistently reproduces the thermal dust and free-free continuum emission of Sgr B2 spanning four orders of magnitude in spatial scales (0.02-45 pc) and two orders of magnitude in frequency (20-4000 GHz).
Theory of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance of oil radiators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mariamov, N B
1942-01-01
In the present report the coefficients of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance are theoretically obtained for the case of laminar flow of a heated viscous liquid in a narrow rectangular channel. The results obtained are applied to the computation of oil radiators, which to a first approximation may be considered as made up of a system of such channels. In conclusion, a comparison is given of the theoretical with the experimental results obtained from tests on airplane oil radiators.
Radiative heat transfer in coal furnaces
Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.
1992-01-01
A hybrid technique has been developed to solve three-dimensional spectral radiation transport equations for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. An optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy is obtained by combining the discrete ordinate method (S{sub 4}), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P{sub 1} approximation for use in different range of optical thicknesses. The technique is used in conjunction with a char burnout model and spectroscopic data for H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, char, soot and ash to determine the influence of ash composition, ash content and coal preparation on furnace heat absorption.
Radiative heat transfer in coal furnaces
Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.
1992-09-01
A hybrid technique has been developed to solve three-dimensional spectral radiation transport equations for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. An optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy is obtained by combining the discrete ordinate method (S{sub 4}), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P{sub 1} approximation for use in different range of optical thicknesses. The technique is used in conjunction with a char burnout model and spectroscopic data for H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, char, soot and ash to determine the influence of ash composition, ash content and coal preparation on furnace heat absorption.
Application of stochastic radiative transfer to remote sensing of vegetation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shabanov, Nikolay V.
2002-01-01
The availability of high quality remote sensing data during the past decade provides an impetus for the development of methods that facilitate accurate retrieval of structural and optical properties of vegetation required for the study of global vegetation dynamics. Empirical and statistical methods have proven to be quite useful in many applications, but they often do not shed light on the underlying physical processes. Approaches based on radiative transfer and the physics of matter-energy interaction are therefore required to gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for signal generation. The goal of this dissertation is the development of advanced methods based on radiative transfer for the retrieval of biophysical information from satellite data. Classical radiative transfer theory is applicable to homogeneous vegetation and is generally inaccurate in characterizing the radiation regime in natural vegetation communities, such as forests or woodlands. A stochastic approach to radiative transfer was introduced in this dissertation to describe the radiation regime in discontinuous vegetation canopies. The resulting stochastic model was implemented and tested with field data and Monte Carlo simulations. The effect of gaps on radiation fluxes in vegetation canopies was quantified analytically and compared to classical representations. Next, the stochastic theory was applied to vegetation remote sensing in two case studies. First, the radiative transfer principles underlying an algorithm for leaf area index (LAI) retrieval were studied with data from Harvard Forest. The classical expression for uncollided radiation was modified according to stochastic principles to explain radiometric measurements and vegetation structure. In the second case study, vegetation dynamics in the northern latitudes inferred from the Pathfinder Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer Land data were investigated. The signatures of interannual and seasonal variation recorded in the
Radiative heat transfer between nanoparticles enhanced by intermediate particle
Wang, Yanhong; Wu, Jingzhi
2016-02-15
Radiative heat transfer between two polar nanostructures at different temperatures can be enhanced by resonant tunneling of surface polaritons. Here we show that the heat transfer between two nanoparticles is strongly varied by the interactions with a third nanoparticle. By controlling the size of the third particle, the time scale of thermalization toward the thermal bath temperature can be modified over 5 orders of magnitude. This effect provides control of temperature distribution in nanoparticle aggregation and facilitates thermal management at nanoscale.
Super-Eddington radiation transfer in soft gamma repeaters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulmer, Andrew
1994-01-01
Bursts from soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) have been shown to be super-Eddington by a factor of 1000 and have been persuasively associated with compact objects. Super-Eddington radiation transfer on the surface of a strongly magnetic (greater than or equal to 10(exp 13) G) neutron star is studied and related to the observational constraints on SGRs. In strong magnetic fields, Thompson scattering is suppressed in one polarization state, so super-Eddington fluxes can be radiated while the plasma remains in hydrostatic equilibrium. We discuss a model which offers a somewhat natural explanation for the observation that the energy spectra of bursts with varying intensity are similar. The radiation produced is found to be linearly polarized to one part in 1000 in a direction determined by the local magnetic field, and intensity variations between bursts are understood as a change in the radiating area on the source. The net polarization is inversely correlated with burst intensity. Further, it is shown that for radiation transfer calculations in limit of superstrong magnetic fields, it is sufficient to solve the radiation transfer for the low opacity state rather than the coupled equations for both. With this approximation, standard stellar atmosphere techniques are utilized to calculate the model energy spectrum.
Ivanov, V. V.; Kukushkin, A. B.
1997-05-05
The importance of nonlocal effects in radiative transfer in continuous spectra is shown in numerical modelling of space profiles of plasma temperature and Bremsstrahlung total power losses in a layer of adiabatically compressed hot dense plasma, via comparing the results of the exact, integral equation formalism and widely used approach of radiation temperature diffusion with Rosseland mean diffusion coefficient.
Fractional integration and radiative transfer in a multifractal atmosphere
Naud, C.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.
1996-04-01
Recently, Cess et al. (1995) and Ramathan et al. (1995) cited observations which exhibit an anomalous absorption of cloudy skies in comparison with the value predicted by usual models and which thus introduce large uncertainties for climatic change assessments. These observation raise questions concerning the way general circulation models have been tuned for decades, relying on classical methods, of both radiative transfer and dynamical modeling. The observations also tend to demonstrate that homogeneous models are simply not relevant in relating the highly variable properties of clouds and radiation fields. However smoothed, the intensity of cloud`s multi-scattered radiation fields reflect this extreme variability.
A modular radiative transfer program for gas filter correlation radiometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Casas, J. C.; Campbell, S. A.
1977-01-01
The fundamentals of a computer program, simulated monochromatic atmospheric radiative transfer (SMART), which calculates atmospheric path transmission, solar radiation, and thermal radiation in the 4.6 micrometer spectral region, are described. A brief outline of atmospheric absorption properties and line by line transmission calculations is explained in conjunction with an outline of the SMART computational procedures. Program flexibility is demonstrated by simulating the response of a gas filter correlation radiometer as one example of an atmospheric infrared sensor. Program limitations, input data requirements, program listing, and comparison of SMART transmission calculations are presented.
Validation of the Poisson Stochastic Radiative Transfer Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhuravleva, Tatiana; Marshak, Alexander
2004-01-01
A new approach to validation of the Poisson stochastic radiative transfer method is proposed. In contrast to other validations of stochastic models, the main parameter of the Poisson model responsible for cloud geometrical structure - cloud aspect ratio - is determined entirely by matching measurements and calculations of the direct solar radiation. If the measurements of the direct solar radiation is unavailable, it was shown that there is a range of the aspect ratios that allows the stochastic model to accurately approximate the average measurements of surface downward and cloud top upward fluxes. Realizations of the fractionally integrated cascade model are taken as a prototype of real measurements.
Computational Challenges of 3D Radiative Transfer in Atmospheric Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakub, Fabian; Bernhard, Mayer
2017-04-01
The computation of radiative heating and cooling rates is one of the most expensive components in todays atmospheric models. The high computational cost stems not only from the laborious integration over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum but also from the fact that solving the integro-differential radiative transfer equation for monochromatic light is already rather involved. This lead to the advent of numerous approximations and parameterizations to reduce the cost of the solver. One of the most prominent one is the so called independent pixel approximations (IPA) where horizontal energy transfer is neglected whatsoever and radiation may only propagate in the vertical direction (1D). Recent studies implicate that the IPA introduces significant errors in high resolution simulations and affects the evolution and development of convective systems. However, using fully 3D solvers such as for example MonteCarlo methods is not even on state of the art supercomputers feasible. The parallelization of atmospheric models is often realized by a horizontal domain decomposition, and hence, horizontal transfer of energy necessitates communication. E.g. a cloud's shadow at a low zenith angle will cast a long shadow and potentially needs to communication through a multitude of processors. Especially light in the solar spectral range may travel long distances through the atmosphere. Concerning highly parallel simulations, it is vital that 3D radiative transfer solvers put a special emphasis on parallel scalability. We will present an introduction to intricacies computing 3D radiative heating and cooling rates as well as report on the parallel performance of the TenStream solver. The TenStream is a 3D radiative transfer solver using the PETSc framework to iteratively solve a set of partial differential equation. We investigate two matrix preconditioners, (a) geometric algebraic multigrid preconditioning(MG+GAMG) and (b) block Jacobi incomplete LU (ILU) factorization. The
Modeling radiative transfer in heterogeneous 3D vegetation canopies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.; Demarez, V.; Pinel, Veronique; Zagolski, Francis
1995-01-01
The DART (discrete anisotropic radiative transfer) model simulates radiative transfer in heterogeneous 3-D scenes; here, a forest plantation. Similarly to Kimes model, the scene is divided into a rectangular cell matrix, i.e., a building block for simulating larger scenes. Cells are parallelipipedic. The scene encompasses different landscape features (i.e., trees with leaves and trunks, grass, water, and soil) with specific optical (reflectance, transmittance) and structural (LAI, LAD) characteristics. Radiation directions are subdivided into contiguous sectors with possibly uneven spacing. Topography, hot spot, and multiple interactions (scattering, attenuation) within cells are modeled. Two major steps are distinguished: (1) Illumination of cells by direct sun radiation. Actual locations of within cell scattering are determined for optimizing scattering computation. (2) Interception and scattering of previously scattered radiation. Diffuse atmospheric radiation is input at this level. Multiple scattering is represented with a spherical harmonic decomposition, for reducing data volume. The model iterates on step 2 for all cells, and stops with the energetic equilibrium. This model predicts the bi-directional reflectance factors of 3D canopies, with each scene component contribution; it was successfully tested with homogeneous covers. It gives also the radiation regime with canopies, and consequently some information about volume distribution of photosynthesis rates and primary production.
Stochastic Radiative Transfer in Polar Mixed Phase Clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brodie, J.; Veron, D. E.
2004-12-01
According to recent research, mixed phase clouds comprise one third of the overall annual cloud cover in the Arctic region. These clouds contain distinct regions of liquid water and ice, which have a different impact on radiation than single-phase clouds. Despite the prevalence of mixed phase clouds in the polar regions, many modern atmospheric general circulation models use single-phase clouds in their radiation routines. A stochastic approach to representating the transfer of shortwave radiation through a cloud layer where the distribution of the ice and liquid is governed by observed statistics is being assessed. Data from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) program and the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's North Slopes of Alaska Cloud and Radiation Testbed site will be used to determine the characteristic features of the cloud field and to evaluate the performance of this statistical model.
Radiation transfer in plant canopies - Scattering of solar radiation and canopy reflectance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verstraete, Michel M.
1988-01-01
The one-dimensional vertical model of radiation transfer in a plant canopy described by Verstraete (1987) is extended to account for the transfer of diffuse radiation. This improved model computes the absorption and scattering of both visible and near-infrared radiation in a multilayer canopy as a function of solar position and leaf orientation distribution. Multiple scattering is allowed, and the spectral reflectance of the vegetation stand is predicted. The results of the model are compared to those of other models and actual observations.
Mesoscopic near-field radiative heat transfer at low temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maasilta, Ilari; Geng, Zhuoran; Chaudhuri, Saumyadip; Koppinen, Panu
2015-03-01
Near-field radiative heat transfer has mostly been discussed at room temperatures and/or macroscopic scale geometries. Here, we discuss our recent theoretical and experimental advances in understanding near-field transfer at ultra-low temperatures below 1K. As the thermal wavelengths increase with lowering temperature, we show that with sensitive tunnel junction bolometers it is possible to study near-field transfer up to distances ~ 10 μm currently, even though the power levels are low. In addition, these type of experiments correspond to the extreme near-field limit, as the near-field region starts at ~ mm distances at 0.1 K, and could have theoretical power enhancement factors of the order of 1010. Preliminary results on heat transfer between two parallel metallic wires are presented. We also comment on possible areas were such heat transfer might be relevant, such as densely packed arrays of low-temperature detectors.
Transit: Radiative-transfer code for planetary atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joe; Rojo, Patricio; Foster, Austin J.; Stemm, Madison; Challener, Ryan; Foster, Andrew S. D.
2017-04-01
Transit calculates the transmission or emission spectrum of a planetary atmosphere with application to extrasolar-planet transit and eclipse observations, respectively. It computes the spectra by solving the one-dimensional line-by-line radiative-transfer equation for an atmospheric model.
Efficient vector radiative transfer calculations in vertically inhomogeneous cloudy atmospheres.
van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Hasekamp, Otto P; Landgraf, Jochen
2006-08-10
Accurate radiative transfer calculations in cloudy atmospheres are generally time consuming, limiting their practical use in satellite remote sensing applications. We present a model to efficiently calculate the radiative transfer of polarized light in atmospheres that contain homogeneous cloud layers. This model combines the Gauss-Seidel method, which is efficient for inhomogeneous cloudless atmospheres, with the doubling method, which is efficient for homogeneous cloud layers. Additionally to reduce the computational effort for radiative transfer calculations in absorption bands, the cloud reflection and transmission matrices are interpolated over the absorption and scattering optical thicknesses within the cloud layer. We demonstrate that the proposed radiative transfer model in combination with this interpolation technique is efficient for the simulation of satellite measurements for inhomogeneous atmospheres containing one homogeneous cloud layer. For example, the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) measurements in the oxygen A band (758-773 nm) and the Hartley-Huggins ozone band (295-335 nm) with a spectral resolution of 0.4 nm can be simulated for these atmospheres within 1 min on a 2.8 GHz PC with an accuracy better than 0.1%.
Efficient vector radiative transfer calculations in vertically inhomogeneous cloudy atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Landgraf, Jochen
2006-08-01
Accurate radiative transfer calculations in cloudy atmospheres are generally time consuming, limiting their practical use in satellite remote sensing applications. We present a model to efficiently calculate the radiative transfer of polarized light in atmospheres that contain homogeneous cloud layers. This model combines the Gauss-Seidel method, which is efficient for inhomogeneous cloudless atmospheres, with the doubling method, which is efficient for homogeneous cloud layers. Additionally to reduce the computational effort for radiative transfer calculations in absorption bands, the cloud reflection and transmission matrices are interpolated over the absorption and scattering optical thicknesses within the cloud layer. We demonstrate that the proposed radiative transfer model in combination with this interpolation technique is efficient for the simulation of satellite measurements for inhomogeneous atmospheres containing one homogeneous cloud layer. For example, the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) measurements in the oxygen A band (758-773 nm) and the Hartley-Huggins ozone band (295-335 nm) with a spectral resolution of 0.4 nm can be simulated for these atmospheres within 1 min on a 2.8 GHz PC with an accuracy better than 0.1%.
Bernhard, Yann; Collin, Bertrand; Decréau, Richard A
2017-03-24
Cherenkov Radiation (CR), this blue glow seen in nuclear reactors, is an optical light originating from energetic β-emitter radionuclides. CR emitter (90)Y triggers a cascade of energy transfers in the presence of a mixed population of fluorophores (which each other match their respective absorption and emission maxima): Cherenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET) first, followed by multiple Förster Resonance Energy transfers (FRET): CRET ratios were calculated to give a rough estimate of the transfer efficiency. While CR is blue-weighted (300-500 nm), such cascades of Energy Transfers allowed to get a) fluorescence emission up to 710 nm, which is beyond the main CR window and within the near-infrared (NIR) window where biological tissues are most transparent, b) to amplify this emission and boost the radiance on that window: EMT6-tumor bearing mice injected with both a radionuclide and a mixture of fluorophores having a good spectral overlap, were shown to have nearly a two-fold radiance boost (measured on a NIR window centered on the emission wavelength of the last fluorophore in the Energy Transfer cascade) compared to a tumor injected with the radionuclide only. Some CR embarked light source could be converted into a near-infrared radiation, where biological tissues are most transparent.
Bernhard, Yann; Collin, Bertrand; Decréau, Richard A.
2017-01-01
Cherenkov Radiation (CR), this blue glow seen in nuclear reactors, is an optical light originating from energetic β-emitter radionuclides. CR emitter 90Y triggers a cascade of energy transfers in the presence of a mixed population of fluorophores (which each other match their respective absorption and emission maxima): Cherenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET) first, followed by multiple Förster Resonance Energy transfers (FRET): CRET ratios were calculated to give a rough estimate of the transfer efficiency. While CR is blue-weighted (300–500 nm), such cascades of Energy Transfers allowed to get a) fluorescence emission up to 710 nm, which is beyond the main CR window and within the near-infrared (NIR) window where biological tissues are most transparent, b) to amplify this emission and boost the radiance on that window: EMT6-tumor bearing mice injected with both a radionuclide and a mixture of fluorophores having a good spectral overlap, were shown to have nearly a two-fold radiance boost (measured on a NIR window centered on the emission wavelength of the last fluorophore in the Energy Transfer cascade) compared to a tumor injected with the radionuclide only. Some CR embarked light source could be converted into a near-infrared radiation, where biological tissues are most transparent. PMID:28338043
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernhard, Yann; Collin, Bertrand; Decréau, Richard A.
2017-03-01
Cherenkov Radiation (CR), this blue glow seen in nuclear reactors, is an optical light originating from energetic β-emitter radionuclides. CR emitter 90Y triggers a cascade of energy transfers in the presence of a mixed population of fluorophores (which each other match their respective absorption and emission maxima): Cherenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET) first, followed by multiple Förster Resonance Energy transfers (FRET): CRET ratios were calculated to give a rough estimate of the transfer efficiency. While CR is blue-weighted (300–500 nm), such cascades of Energy Transfers allowed to get a) fluorescence emission up to 710 nm, which is beyond the main CR window and within the near-infrared (NIR) window where biological tissues are most transparent, b) to amplify this emission and boost the radiance on that window: EMT6-tumor bearing mice injected with both a radionuclide and a mixture of fluorophores having a good spectral overlap, were shown to have nearly a two-fold radiance boost (measured on a NIR window centered on the emission wavelength of the last fluorophore in the Energy Transfer cascade) compared to a tumor injected with the radionuclide only. Some CR embarked light source could be converted into a near-infrared radiation, where biological tissues are most transparent.
Dana E. Veron
2012-04-09
This project had two primary goals: (1) development of stochastic radiative transfer as a parameterization that could be employed in an AGCM environment, and (2) exploration of the stochastic approach as a means for representing shortwave radiative transfer through mixed-phase layer clouds. To achieve these goals, climatology of cloud properties was developed at the ARM CART sites, an analysis of the performance of the stochastic approach was performed, a simple stochastic cloud-radiation parameterization for an AGCM was developed and tested, a statistical description of Arctic mixed phase clouds was developed and the appropriateness of stochastic approach for representing radiative transfer through mixed-phase clouds was assessed. Significant progress has been made in all of these areas and is detailed in the final report.
Veron, Dana E
2009-03-12
This project had two primary goals: 1) development of stochastic radiative transfer as a parameterization that could be employed in an AGCM environment, and 2) exploration of the stochastic approach as a means for representing shortwave radiative transfer through mixed-phase layer clouds. To achieve these goals, an analysis of the performance of the stochastic approach was performed, a simple stochastic cloud-radiation parameterization for an AGCM was developed and tested, a statistical description of Arctic mixed phase clouds was developed and the appropriateness of stochastic approach for representing radiative transfer through mixed-phase clouds was assessed. Significant progress has been made in all of these areas and is detailed below.
Cirrus microphysics and radiative transfer: A case study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kinne, Stefan A.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.
1990-01-01
During the Cirrus Intensive Field Operations of FIRE, data collected by the NCAR King Air in the vicinity of Wausau, WI on October 28 were selected to study the influence of cirrus cloud microphysics on radiative transfer and the role of microphysical approximations in radiative transfer models. The instrumentation of the King Air provided, aside from temperature and wind data, up-and downwelling broadband solar and infrared fluxes as well as detailed microphysical data. The aircraft data, supplied every second, are averaged over the 7 legs to represent the properties for that altitude. The resulting vertical profiles, however, suffer from the fact that each leg represents a different cloud column path. Based on the measured microphysical data particle size distributions of equivalent spheres for each cloud level are developed. Accurate radiative transfer calculations are performed, incorporating atmospheric and radiative data from the ground and the stratosphere. Comparing calculated to the measured up- and downwelling fluxes at the seven cloud levels for both the averaged and the three crossover data will help to assess the validity of particle size and shape approximation as they are frequently used to model cirrus clouds. Once agreement is achieved the model results may be applied to determine, in comparison to a cloudfree case, the influence of this particular cirrus on the radiation budget of the earth atmosphere system.
A thermokinetic approach to radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale.
Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Lapas, Luciano C; Rubí, J Miguel
2013-01-01
Radiative heat exchange at the nanoscale presents a challenge for several areas due to its scope and nature. Here, we provide a thermokinetic description of microscale radiative energy transfer including phonon-photon coupling manifested through a non-Debye relaxation behavior. We show that a lognormal-like distribution of modes of relaxation accounts for this non-Debye relaxation behavior leading to the thermal conductance. We also discuss the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The general expression for the thermal conductance we obtain fits existing experimental results with remarkable accuracy. Accordingly, our approach offers an overall explanation of radiative energy transfer through micrometric gaps regardless of geometrical configurations and distances.
Radiative transfer in a polluted urban planetary boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viskanta, R.; Johnson, R. O.; Bergstrom, R. W.
1977-01-01
Radiative transfer in a polluted urban atmosphere is studied using a dynamic model. The diurnal nature of radiative transfer for summer conditions is simulated for an urban area 40 km in extent and the effects of various parameters arising in the problem are investigated. The results of numerical computations show that air pollution has the potential of playing a major role in the radiative regime of the urban area. Absorption of solar energy by aerosols in realistic models of urban atmosphere are of the same order of magnitude as that due to water vapor. The predicted effect of the air pollution aerosol in the city is to warm the earth-atmosphere system, and the net effect of gaseous pollutant is to warm the surface and cool the planetary boundary layer, particularly near the top.
A Thermokinetic Approach to Radiative Heat Transfer at the Nanoscale
Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Lapas, Luciano C.; Rubí, J. Miguel
2013-01-01
Radiative heat exchange at the nanoscale presents a challenge for several areas due to its scope and nature. Here, we provide a thermokinetic description of microscale radiative energy transfer including phonon-photon coupling manifested through a non-Debye relaxation behavior. We show that a lognormal-like distribution of modes of relaxation accounts for this non-Debye relaxation behavior leading to the thermal conductance. We also discuss the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The general expression for the thermal conductance we obtain fits existing experimental results with remarkable accuracy. Accordingly, our approach offers an overall explanation of radiative energy transfer through micrometric gaps regardless of geometrical configurations and distances. PMID:23527019
Importance of instantaneous radiative forcing for rapid tropospheric adjustment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogura, Tomoo; Webb, Mark J.; Watanabe, Masahiro; Lambert, F. Hugo; Tsushima, Yoko; Sekiguchi, Miho
2014-09-01
To better understand CFMIP/CMIP inter-model differences in rapid low cloud responses to CO2 increases and their associated effective radiative forcings, we examined the tropospheric adjustment of the lower tropospheric stability (LTS) in three general circulation models (GCMs): HadGEM2-A, MIROC3.2 medres, and MIROC5. MIROC3.2 medres showed a reduction in LTS over the sub-tropical ocean, in contrast to the other two models. This reduction was consistent with a temperature decrease in the mid-troposphere. The temperature decrease was mainly driven by instantaneous radiative forcing (RF) caused by an increase in CO2. Reductions in radiative and latent heating, due to clouds, and in adiabatic and advective heating, also contribute to the temperature decrease. The instantaneous RF in the mid-troposphere in MIROC3.2 medres is inconsistent with the results of line-by-line (LBL) calculations, and thus it is considered questionable. These results illustrate the importance of evaluating the vertical profile of instantaneous RF with LBL calculations; improved future model performance in this regard should help to increase our confidence in the tropospheric adjustment in GCMs.
Multi-dimensional Radiation Transport in Rapidly Expanding Envelopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Höflich, P.
2009-09-01
We discuss the current status of our HYDrodynamical RAdiation (Hydra) code for rapidly expanding, low density envelopes commonly found in core collapse and thermonuclear supernovae (+ novae and WR stars). We focus on our current implementation of multi-dimensional, non-relativistic radiation transport neglecting all terms of higher order than 0(v/c). Line opacities are treated in the narrow line limit and consistency with the rate equations, radiation field and hydrodynamics is achieved iteratively in each time step via 'accelerated lambda iteration'. The solution of the transport is based on a hybrid scheme between a grid-based Variable Eddington Tensor and a Monte-Carlo method which is used for the auxiliary calculation to determine the Tensor elements. The advantages and limitation of our approach are discussed. We use this hybrid approach to reduce problems related to a grid-imposed directional dependence of the speed of light, and problems inherent to methods based on short and long characteristics for the Tensors. For short and long characteristics, the frequency or directional errors increase with the resolution or memory and computational requirements seem to be beyond feasibility, respectively. The limitations and the potential of our current approach is demonstrated by two simulations for thermonuclear supernovae.
Near-field radiative heat transfer between metamaterial thin films.
Basu, Soumyadipta; Francoeur, Mathieu
2014-03-01
We investigate near-field radiative heat transfer between two thin films made of metamaterials. The impact of film thickness on magnetic and electric surface polaritons (ESPs) is analyzed. It is found that the strength as well as the location of magnetic resonance does not change with film thickness until the film behaves as semi-infinite for the dielectric function chosen in this study. When the film is thinner than vacuum gap, both electric and magnetic polaritons contribute evenly to near-field radiative heat transfer. At larger film thicknesses, ESPs dominate heat transfer due to excitation of a larger number of modes. Results obtained from this study will facilitate applications of metamaterials as thin-film coatings for energy systems.
A Fast Infrared Radiative Transfer Model for Overlapping Clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Niu, Jianguo; Yang, Ping; Huang, Huang-Lung; Davies, James E.; Li, Jun; Baum, Bryan A.; Hu, Yong X.
2006-01-01
A fast infrared radiative transfer model (FIRTM2) appropriate for application to both single-layered and overlapping cloud situations is developed for simulating the outgoing infrared spectral radiance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). In FIRTM2 a pre-computed library of cloud reflectance and transmittance values is employed to account for one or two cloud layers, whereas the background atmospheric optical thickness due to gaseous absorption can be computed from a clear-sky radiative transfer model. FIRTM2 is applicable to three atmospheric conditions: 1) clear-sky, 2) single-layered ice or water cloud, and 3) two simultaneous cloud layers in a column (e.g., ice cloud overlying water cloud). Moreover, FIRTM2 outputs the derivatives (i.e., Jacobians) of the TOA brightness temperature with respect to cloud optical thickness and effective particle size. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out to assess the performance of FIRTM2 for two spectral regions, namely the longwave (LW) band (587.3 - 1179.5/cm) and the short-to-medium wave (SMW) band (1180.1 - 2228.9/cm). The assessment is carried out in terms of brightness temperature differences (BTD) between FIRTM2 and the well-known discrete ordinates radiative transfer model (DISORT), henceforth referred to as BTD (F-D). The BTD (F-D) values for single-layered clouds are generally less than 0.8 K. For the case of two cloud layers (specifically ice cloud over water cloud), the BTD(F-D) values are also generally less than 0.8 K except for the SMW band for the case of a very high altitude (>15 km) cloud comprised of small ice particles. Note that for clear-sky atmospheres, FIRTM2 reduces to the clear-sky radiative transfer model that is incorporated into FIRTM2, and the errors in this case are essentially those of the clear-sky radiative transfer model.
Polarized radiative transfer considering thermal emission in semitransparent media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben, Xun; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping
2014-09-01
The characteristics of the polarization must be considered for a complete and correct description of radiation transfer in a scattering medium. Observing and identifying the polarizition characteristics of the thermal emission of a hot semitransparent medium have a major significance to analyze the optical responses of the medium for different temperatures. In this paper, a Monte Carlo method is developed for polarzied radiative transfer in a semitransparent medium. There are mainly two kinds of mechanisms leading to polarization of light: specular reflection on the Fresnel boundary and scattering by particles. The determination of scattering direction is the key to solve polarized radiative transfer problem using the Monte Carlo method. An optimized rejection method is used to calculate the scattering angles. In the model, the treatment of specular reflection is also considered, and in the process of tracing photons, the normalization must be applied to the Stokes vector when scattering, reflection, or transmission occurs. The vector radiative transfer matrix (VRTM) is defined and solved using Monte Carlo strategy, by which all four Stokes elements can be determined. Our results for Rayleigh scattering and Mie scattering are compared well with published data. The accuracy of the developed Monte Carlo method is shown to be good enough for the solution to vector radiative transfer. Polarization characteristics of thermal emission in a hot semitransparent medium is investigated, and results show that the U and V parameters of Stokes vector are equal to zero, an obvious peak always appear in the Q curve instead of the I curve, and refractive index has a completely different effect on I from Q.
The impacts of light scattering by clouds on longwave radiative transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuo, C. P.; Yang, P.; Huang, X.; Feldman, D.; Flanner, M.
2016-12-01
In the longwave spectrum, clouds modulate energy budgets in the climate system through scattering, absorbing and emitting radiation. On the average, ice clouds tend to warm the climate, while liquid water clouds cool the climate, due to the distinct physical and optical properties of ice and liquid water clouds. General circulation models (GCMs) are the most popular tool to investigate the influences of clouds on climate. However, most GCMs, due to computational complexity, neglect multiple scattering effects in longwave radiative transfer calculations. To evaluate the potential impacts of neglecting longwave multiple scattering, we conduct sensitivity studies, utilizing the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) reanalysis atmospheric profiles, a modified RRTMG_LW (Longwave Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCM applications) and the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) collection 6 level 3 cloud retrieval products. The modified RRTMG_LW uses the 16-stream DISORT (Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer Program for a Multi-Layered Plane-Parallel Medium) as a robust radiative solver to calculate longwave fluxes. In the study, the bias in longwave flux (simulated without, minus simulated with, light scattering by ice and liquid water clouds) represents the influence of neglecting light scattering. Biases of upward flux at the top of the atmosphere, downward flux at the surface, and net flux into the atmosphere are presented. The preliminary results show that the absence of longwave light scattering could lead to considerable biases in global and regional flux simulations.
Gopinath, A.; Sadhal, S.S.; Jones, P.D.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.; Woodbury, K.A.
1996-12-31
In the first section on heat transfer in microgravity, the papers cover phase-change phenomena and thermocapillary flows and surface effects. In the second section, several papers cover solution methods for radiative heat transfer while the rest cover heat transfer in low-temperature environments. The last section covers papers containing valuable information for thermal contact conductance of various materials plus papers on inverse problems in heat transfer. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.
Design of horizontal fin array for radiative heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Mutari Hajara; Shuaibu, Bilyaminu
2017-08-01
This paper presents the analytical and simulation results of optimizing the radiative heat transfer performance of horizontal rectangular fin array heat sink. The fin thickness and inter-fin spacing need to be properly designed to eliminate surface area changes accompanying the creation of fin structures. Analytical expression for this change in area is developed in this work and used in identifying the optimum number of fins and their corresponding inter-fin spacing for a given rectangular space of a radiative heat sink. COMSOL Multiphysics software is used to simulate the structures considered in the above analysis. The performances of the simulated structures as radiative heat sinks are compared with the ones suggested by the developed empirical equation. The results from the two methods agreed with each successfully in the sense that the structures with large numerical radiative power from the simulations are found to also be the optimum structures suggested by the analytical formula derived in this work.
Coupling radiative heat transfer in participating media with other heat transfer modes
Tencer, John; Howell, John R.
2015-09-28
The common methods for finding the local radiative flux divergence in participating media through solution of the radiative transfer equation are outlined. The pros and cons of each method are discussed in terms of their speed, ability to handle spectral properties and scattering phenomena, as well as their accuracy in different ranges of media transport properties. The suitability of each method for inclusion in the energy equation to efficiently solve multi-mode thermal transfer problems is discussed. Lastly, remaining topics needing research are outlined.
Coupling radiative heat transfer in participating media with other heat transfer modes
Tencer, John; Howell, John R.
2015-09-28
The common methods for finding the local radiative flux divergence in participating media through solution of the radiative transfer equation are outlined. The pros and cons of each method are discussed in terms of their speed, ability to handle spectral properties and scattering phenomena, as well as their accuracy in different ranges of media transport properties. The suitability of each method for inclusion in the energy equation to efficiently solve multi-mode thermal transfer problems is discussed. Lastly, remaining topics needing research are outlined.
EFFICIENT THREE-DIMENSIONAL NLTE DUST RADIATIVE TRANSFER WITH SKIRT
Baes, Maarten; Verstappen, Joris; De Looze, Ilse; Fritz, Jacopo; Saftly, Waad; Vidal Perez, Edgardo; Stalevski, Marko; Valcke, Sander
2011-10-01
We present an updated version of SKIRT, a three-dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo radiative transfer code developed to simulate dusty galaxies. The main novel characteristics of the SKIRT code are the use of a stellar foam to generate random positions, an efficient combination of eternal forced scattering and continuous absorption, and a new library approach that links the radiative transfer code to the DustEM dust emission library. This approach enables a fast, accurate, and self-consistent calculation of the dust emission of arbitrary mixtures of transiently heated dust grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, even for full 3D models containing millions of dust cells. We have demonstrated the accuracy of the SKIRT code through a set of simulations based on the edge-on spiral galaxy UGC 4754. The models we ran were gradually refined from a smooth, two-dimensional, local thermal equilibrium (LTE) model to a fully 3D model that includes non-LTE (NLTE) dust emission and a clumpy structure of the dusty interstellar medium. We find that clumpy models absorb UV and optical radiation less efficiently than smooth models with the same amount of dust, and that the dust in clumpy models is on average both cooler and less luminous. Our simulations demonstrate that, given the appropriate use of optimization techniques, it is possible to efficiently and accurately run Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations of arbitrary 3D structures of several million dust cells, including a full calculation of the NLTE emission by arbitrary dust mixtures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jin, Zhonghai; Charlock, Thomas P.; Rutledge, Ken; Knut Stamnes; Wang, Yingjian
2006-01-01
Using the efficient discrete-ordinate method, we present an analytical solution for radiative transfer in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system with rough air-water interface. The theoretical formulations of the radiative transfer equation and solution are described. The effects of surface roughness on radiation field in the atmosphere and ocean are studied and compared with measurements. The results show that ocean surface roughness has significant effects on the upwelling radiation in the atmosphere and the downwelling radiation in the ocean. As wind speed increases, the angular domain of sunglint broadens, the surface albedo decreases, and the transmission to ocean increases. The downward radiance field in the upper ocean is highly anisotropic, but this anisotropy decreases rapidly as surface wind increases and as depth in ocean increases. The effects of surface roughness on radiation also depend greatly on both wavelength and angle of incidence (i.e., solar elevation); these effects are significantly smaller throughout the spectrum at high sun. The model-observation discrepancies may indicate that the Cox-Munk surface roughness model is not sufficient for high wind conditions.
Preliminary results of a three-dimensional radiative transfer model
O`Hirok, W.
1995-09-01
Clouds act as the primary modulator of the Earth`s radiation at the top of the atmosphere, within the atmospheric column, and at the Earth`s surface. They interact with both shortwave and longwave radiation, but it is primarily in the case of shortwave where most of the uncertainty lies because of the difficulties in treating scattered solar radiation. To understand cloud-radiative interactions, radiative transfer models portray clouds as plane-parallel homogeneous entities to ease the computational physics. Unfortunately, clouds are far from being homogeneous, and large differences between measurement and theory point to a stronger need to understand and model cloud macrophysical properties. In an attempt to better comprehend the role of cloud morphology on the 3-dimensional radiation field, a Monte Carlo model has been developed. This model can simulate broadband shortwave radiation fluxes while incorporating all of the major atmospheric constituents. The model is used to investigate the cloud absorption anomaly where cloud absorption measurements exceed theoretical estimates and to examine the efficacy of ERBE measurements and cloud field experiments. 3 figs.
Critical ingredients of Type Ia supernova radiative-transfer modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Blondin, Stéphane; Khokhlov, Alexei
2014-07-01
We explore the physics of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves and spectra using the 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) time-dependent radiative-transfer code CMFGEN. Rather than adjusting ejecta properties to match observations, we select as input one `standard' 1D Chandrasekhar-mass delayed-detonation hydrodynamical model, and then explore the sensitivity of radiation and gas properties of the ejecta on radiative-transfer modelling assumptions. The correct computation of SN Ia radiation is not exclusively a solution to an `opacity problem', characterized by the treatment of a large number of lines. We demonstrate that the key is to identify and treat important atomic processes consistently. This is not limited to treating line blanketing in non-LTE. We show that including forbidden-line transitions of metals, and in particular Co, is increasingly important for the temperature and ionization of the gas beyond maximum light. Non-thermal ionization and excitation are also critical since they affect the colour evolution and the ΔM15 decline rate of our model. While impacting little the bolometric luminosity, a more complete treatment of decay routes leads to enhanced line blanketing, e.g. associated with 48Ti in the U and B bands. Overall, we find that SN Ia radiation properties are influenced in a complicated way by the atomic data we employ, so that obtaining converged results is a real challenge. Nonetheless, with our fully fledged CMFGEN model, we obtain good agreement with the golden standard Type Ia SN 2005cf in the optical and near-IR, from 5 to 60 d after explosion, suggesting that assuming spherical symmetry is not detrimental to SN Ia radiative-transfer modelling at these times. Multi-D effects no doubt matter, but they are perhaps less important than accurately treating the non-LTE processes that are crucial to obtain reliable temperature and ionization structures.
SPHRAY: A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Ray Tracer for Radiative Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altay, Gabriel; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Pelupessy, Inti
2011-03-01
SPHRAY, a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) ray tracer, is designed to solve the 3D, time dependent, radiative transfer (RT) equations for arbitrary density fields. The SPH nature of SPHRAY makes the incorporation of separate hydrodynamics and gravity solvers very natural. SPHRAY relies on a Monte Carlo (MC) ray tracing scheme that does not interpolate the SPH particles onto a grid but instead integrates directly through the SPH kernels. Given initial conditions and a description of the sources of ionizing radiation, the code will calculate the non-equilibrium ionization state (HI, HII, HeI, HeII, HeIII, e) and temperature (internal energy/entropy) of each SPH particle. The sources of radiation can include point like objects, diffuse recombination radiation, and a background field from outside the computational volume. The MC ray tracing implementation allows for the quick introduction of new physics and is parallelization friendly. A quick Axis Aligned Bounding Box (AABB) test taken from computer graphics applications allows for the acceleration of the raytracing component. We present the algorithms used in SPHRAY and verify the code by performing all the test problems detailed in the recent Radiative Transfer Comparison Project of Iliev et. al. The Fortran 90 source code for SPHRAY and example SPH density fields are made available online.
Rapid Enzymatic Response to Compensate UV Radiation in Copepods
Souza, María Sol; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Hylander, Samuel; Modenutti, Beatriz; Balseiro, Esteban
2012-01-01
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) causes physical damage to DNA, carboxylation of proteins and peroxidation of lipids in copepod crustaceans, ubiquitous and abundant secondary producers in most aquatic ecosystems. Copepod adaptations for long duration exposures include changes in behaviour, changes in pigmentation and ultimately changes in morphology. Adaptations to short-term exposures are little studied. Here we show that short-duration exposure to UVR causes the freshwater calanoid copepod, Eudiaptomus gracilis, to rapidly activate production of enzymes that prevent widespread collateral peroxidation (glutathione S-transferase, GST), that regulate apoptosis cell death (Caspase-3, Casp-3), and that facilitate neurotransmissions (cholinesterase-ChE). None of these enzyme systems is alone sufficient, but they act in concert to reduce the stress level of the organism. The interplay among enzymatic responses provides useful information on how organisms respond to environmental stressors acting on short time scales. PMID:22384136
A Radiative Transfer Model for Radiation Computations in AN OCEAN-ATMOSPHERE System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salinas, S. V.; Liew, S. C.
We report a radiative transfer model for the atmosphere-ocean system based on the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation. We use a modified radiative transfer code to handle multiple scattering inside the atmosphere and include a new surface reflection term to handle light reflection from a rough liquid surface including surface wind and wave age effects. The one-dimensional model atmosphere is solved via the widely known doubling and adding method and the ocean system is treated as a boundary condition to the problem. Model calculations and evaluation are performed for representative wind speeds and wave ages. The model can then be used for the analysis and interpretation of reflectance variability near a Sun glint region.
Implications of a quadratic stream definition in radiative transfer theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitney, C.
1972-01-01
An explicit definition of the radiation-stream concept is stated and applied to approximate the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer with a set of twelve coupled differential equations. Computational efficiency is enhanced by distributing the corresponding streams in three-dimensional space in a totally symmetric way. Polarization is then incorporated in this model. A computer program based on the model is briefly compared with a Monte Carlo program for simulation of horizon scans of the earth's atmosphere. It is found to be considerably faster.
Fire Intensity Data for Validation of the Radiative Transfer Equation
Blanchat, Thomas K.; Jernigan, Dann A.
2016-01-01
A set of experiments and test data are outlined in this report that provides radiation intensity data for the validation of models for the radiative transfer equation. The experiments were performed with lightly-sooting liquid hydrocarbon fuels that yielded fully turbulent fires 2 m diameter). In addition, supplemental measurements of air flow and temperature, fuel temperature and burn rate, and flame surface emissive power, wall heat, and flame height and width provide a complete set of boundary condition data needed for validation of models used in fire simulations.
An Improved Radiative Transfer Model for Climate Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergstrom, Robert W.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Clough, Shepard A.; Toon, Owen B.
1998-01-01
This paper presents a radiative transfer model that has been developed to accurately predict the atmospheric radiant flux in both the infrared and the solar spectrum with a minimum of computational effort. The model is designed to be included in numerical climate models To assess the accuracy of the model, the results are compared to other more detailed models for several standard cases in the solar and thermal spectrum. As the thermal spectrum has been treated in other publications, we focus here on the solar part of the spectrum. We perform several example calculations focussing on the question of absorption of solar radiation by gases and aerosols.
Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials.
Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego A R
2015-06-03
We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.
Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials
Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.
2015-05-12
We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.
Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials
Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.
2015-05-12
We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.
Advanced Computational Methods for Thermal Radiative Heat Transfer
Tencer, John; Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Larsen, Marvin E.; Hogan, Roy E.
2016-10-01
Participating media radiation (PMR) in weapon safety calculations for abnormal thermal environments are too costly to do routinely. This cost may be s ubstantially reduced by applying reduced order modeling (ROM) techniques. The application of ROM to PMR is a new and unique approach for this class of problems. This approach was investigated by the authors and shown to provide significant reductions in the computational expense associated with typical PMR simulations. Once this technology is migrated into production heat transfer analysis codes this capability will enable the routine use of PMR heat transfer in higher - fidelity simulations of weapon resp onse in fire environments.
Radiative Heat Transfer and Turbulence-Radiation Interactions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paul, C.; Sircar, A.; Ferreyro, S.; Imren, A.; Haworth, D. C.; Roy, S.; Ge, W.; Modest, M. F.
2016-11-01
Radiation in piston engines has received relatively little attention to date. Recently, it is being revisited in light of current trends towards higher operating pressures and higher levels of exhaust-gas recirculation, both of which enhance molecular gas radiation. Advanced high-efficiency engines also are expected to function closer to the limits of stable operation, where even small perturbations to the energy balance can have a large influence on system behavior. Here several different spectral radiation property models and radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers have been implemented in an OpenFOAM-based engine CFD code, and simulations have been performed for a heavy-duty diesel engine. Differences in computed temperature fields, NO and soot levels, and wall heat transfer rates are shown for different combinations of spectral models and RTE solvers. The relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation is examined. And the influence of turbulence-radiation interactions is determined by comparing results obtained using local mean values of composition and temperature to compute radiative emission and absorption with those obtained using a particle-based transported probability density function method. DOE, NSF.
A RADIATION TRANSFER SOLVER FOR ATHENA USING SHORT CHARACTERISTICS
Davis, Shane W.; Stone, James M.; Jiang Yanfei
2012-03-01
We describe the implementation of a module for the Athena magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code that solves the time-independent, multi-frequency radiative transfer (RT) equation on multidimensional Cartesian simulation domains, including scattering and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) effects. The module is based on well known and well tested algorithms developed for modeling stellar atmospheres, including the method of short characteristics to solve the RT equation, accelerated Lambda iteration to handle scattering and non-LTE effects, and parallelization via domain decomposition. The module serves several purposes: it can be used to generate spectra and images, to compute a variable Eddington tensor (VET) for full radiation MHD simulations, and to calculate the heating and cooling source terms in the MHD equations in flows where radiation pressure is small compared with gas pressure. For the latter case, the module is combined with the standard MHD integrators using operator splitting: we describe this approach in detail, including a new constraint on the time step for stability due to radiation diffusion modes. Implementation of the VET method for radiation pressure dominated flows is described in a companion paper. We present results from a suite of test problems for both the RT solver itself and for dynamical problems that include radiative heating and cooling. These tests demonstrate that the radiative transfer solution is accurate and confirm that the operator split method is stable, convergent, and efficient for problems of interest. We demonstrate there is no need to adopt ad hoc assumptions of questionable accuracy to solve RT problems in concert with MHD: the computational cost for our general-purpose module for simple (e.g., LTE gray) problems can be comparable to or less than a single time step of Athena's MHD integrators, and only few times more expensive than that for more general (non-LTE) problems.
A Radiation Transfer Solver for Athena Using Short Characteristics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Shane W.; Stone, James M.; Jiang, Yan-Fei
2012-03-01
We describe the implementation of a module for the Athena magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code that solves the time-independent, multi-frequency radiative transfer (RT) equation on multidimensional Cartesian simulation domains, including scattering and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) effects. The module is based on well known and well tested algorithms developed for modeling stellar atmospheres, including the method of short characteristics to solve the RT equation, accelerated Lambda iteration to handle scattering and non-LTE effects, and parallelization via domain decomposition. The module serves several purposes: it can be used to generate spectra and images, to compute a variable Eddington tensor (VET) for full radiation MHD simulations, and to calculate the heating and cooling source terms in the MHD equations in flows where radiation pressure is small compared with gas pressure. For the latter case, the module is combined with the standard MHD integrators using operator splitting: we describe this approach in detail, including a new constraint on the time step for stability due to radiation diffusion modes. Implementation of the VET method for radiation pressure dominated flows is described in a companion paper. We present results from a suite of test problems for both the RT solver itself and for dynamical problems that include radiative heating and cooling. These tests demonstrate that the radiative transfer solution is accurate and confirm that the operator split method is stable, convergent, and efficient for problems of interest. We demonstrate there is no need to adopt ad hoc assumptions of questionable accuracy to solve RT problems in concert with MHD: the computational cost for our general-purpose module for simple (e.g., LTE gray) problems can be comparable to or less than a single time step of Athena's MHD integrators, and only few times more expensive than that for more general (non-LTE) problems.
Rapid release of mercury from intertidal sediments exposed to solar radiation: a field experiment.
Canário, João; Vale, Carlos
2004-07-15
There is increasing evidence of the primary importance of photochemical reactions and transfer of gaseous mercury to the atmosphere. Although mercury in aquatic sediments is efficiently retained, resuspension and bioturbation in intertidal sediments may expose temporarily anoxic sediments to solar radiation. Field experiments were performed to investigate these processes. Anoxic sediments from two areas in the Tagus estuary with different degrees of Hg contamination (experiments I and II) were homogenized and distributed into two sets of 36 uncovered Petri dishes. The samples were placed on the intertidal sediments and exposed to direct solar radiation and kept under dark (control) for 6-8 h. The decrease rates of acid volatile sulfides (abrupt in the first 3 h) and of pyrite (linear) were the same in sediments under solar radiation and dark. The total Hg concentrations were relatively constant in sediments kept in dark, but decreased from 17.6 to 7.65 and 3.45 to 1.35 nmol g(-1) in experiments I and II, respectively. In those exposed to solar radiation during the period of higher UV intensity. Similar evolutions were found in nonreactive Hg in pore waters (3.00-2.59 and 0.725-0.105 nM). On the contrary, reactive Hg was higher in pore waters of the sediments exposed to solar radiation and increased with time, from 424 to 845 pM and 53 to 193 pM. These results indicate that most mercury released in pore waters was photochemically reduced in a short period of time and escaped rapidly to the atmosphere. Episodes of bottom resuspension and bioturbation in the intertidal sediments enhance the transfer of gaseous mercury to the atmosphere.
Radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, C. C.; Han, H. C.; Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.; Beaudoin, A.; Le Toan, T.
1992-01-01
The radiative transfer theory is applied to interpret polarimetric radar backscatter from pine forest with clustered vegetation structures. The scattering function of each cluster is calculated by incorporating the phase interference of scattered fields from each component. The resulting phase matrix is used in the radiative transfer equations to evaluate the polarimetric backscattering coefficients from random medium layers embedded with vegetation clusters. Upon including multiscale structures (trunks, primary and secondary branches, and needles), polarimetric radar responses from pine forest for different frequencies and looking angles are interpreted and simulated. Preliminary results are shown to be in good agreement with the measured backscattering coefficients at the Landes maritime pine forest during the MAESTRO-1 experiment.
BACKWARD AND FORWARD MONTE CARLO METHOD IN POLARIZED RADIATIVE TRANSFER
Yong, Huang; Guo-Dong, Shi; Ke-Yong, Zhu
2016-03-20
In general, the Stocks vector cannot be calculated in reverse in the vector radiative transfer. This paper presents a novel backward and forward Monte Carlo simulation strategy to study the vector radiative transfer in the participated medium. A backward Monte Carlo process is used to calculate the ray trajectory and the endpoint of the ray. The Stocks vector is carried out by a forward Monte Carlo process. A one-dimensional graded index semi-transparent medium was presented as the physical model and the thermal emission consideration of polarization was studied in the medium. The solution process to non-scattering, isotropic scattering, and the anisotropic scattering medium, respectively, is discussed. The influence of the optical thickness and albedo on the Stocks vector are studied. The results show that the U, V-components of the apparent Stocks vector are very small, but the Q-component of the apparent Stocks vector is relatively larger, which cannot be ignored.
Application of nonlinear Krylov acceleration to radiative transfer problems
Till, A. T.; Adams, M. L.; Morel, J. E.
2013-07-01
The iterative solution technique used for radiative transfer is normally nested, with outer thermal iterations and inner transport iterations. We implement a nonlinear Krylov acceleration (NKA) method in the PDT code for radiative transfer problems that breaks nesting, resulting in more thermal iterations but significantly fewer total inner transport iterations. Using the metric of total inner transport iterations, we investigate a crooked-pipe-like problem and a pseudo-shock-tube problem. Using only sweep preconditioning, we compare NKA against a typical inner / outer method employing GMRES / Newton and find NKA to be comparable or superior. Finally, we demonstrate the efficacy of applying diffusion-based preconditioning to grey problems in conjunction with NKA. (authors)
Backward and Forward Monte Carlo Method in Polarized Radiative Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yong, Huang; Guo-Dong, Shi; Ke-Yong, Zhu
2016-03-01
In general, the Stocks vector cannot be calculated in reverse in the vector radiative transfer. This paper presents a novel backward and forward Monte Carlo simulation strategy to study the vector radiative transfer in the participated medium. A backward Monte Carlo process is used to calculate the ray trajectory and the endpoint of the ray. The Stocks vector is carried out by a forward Monte Carlo process. A one-dimensional graded index semi-transparent medium was presented as the physical model and the thermal emission consideration of polarization was studied in the medium. The solution process to non-scattering, isotropic scattering, and the anisotropic scattering medium, respectively, is discussed. The influence of the optical thickness and albedo on the Stocks vector are studied. The results show that the U, V-components of the apparent Stocks vector are very small, but the Q-component of the apparent Stocks vector is relatively larger, which cannot be ignored.
Radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, C. C.; Han, H. C.; Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.; Beaudoin, A.; Le Toan, T.
1992-01-01
The radiative transfer theory is applied to interpret polarimetric radar backscatter from pine forest with clustered vegetation structures. The scattering function of each cluster is calculated by incorporating the phase interference of scattered fields from each component. The resulting phase matrix is used in the radiative transfer equations to evaluate the polarimetric backscattering coefficients from random medium layers embedded with vegetation clusters. Upon including multiscale structures (trunks, primary and secondary branches, and needles), polarimetric radar responses from pine forest for different frequencies and looking angles are interpreted and simulated. Preliminary results are shown to be in good agreement with the measured backscattering coefficients at the Landes maritime pine forest during the MAESTRO-1 experiment.
Radiative charge transfer in collisions of C with He+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babb, James F.; McLaughlin, B. M.
2017-02-01
Radiative charge exchange collisions between a carbon atom {{C}}({}3P) and a helium ion {{He}}+({}2S), both in their ground state, are investigated theoretically. Detailed quantum chemistry calculations are carried out to obtain potential energy curves and transition dipole matrix elements for doublet and quartet molecular states of the HeC+ cation. Radiative charge transfer cross sections and rate coefficients are calculated and are found at thermal and lower energies to be large compared to those for direct charge transfer. The present results might be applicable to modelling the complex interplay of [{{C}} {{II}}] (or {{{C}}}+), {{C}}, and {CO} at the boundaries of interstellar photon dominated regions and in x-ray dominated regions, where the abundance of {{He}}+ affects the abundance of {CO}.
Quantitative photoacoustic tomography based on the radiative transfer equation.
Yao, Lei; Sun, Yao; Jiang, Huabei
2009-06-15
We describe a method for quantitative photoacoustic tomography (PAT) based on the radiative transfer equation (RTE) coupled with the Helmholtz photoacoustic wave equation. This RTE-based quantitative PAT allows for accurate recovery of absolute absorption coefficient images of heterogeneous media and provides significantly improved image reconstruction for the cases where the photon diffusion approximation may fail. The method and associated finite element reconstruction algorithm are validated using a series of tissuelike phantom experiments.
SMRT: A new, modular snow microwave radiative transfer model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Picard, Ghislain; Sandells, Melody; Löwe, Henning; Dumont, Marie; Essery, Richard; Floury, Nicolas; Kontu, Anna; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Maslanka, William; Mätzler, Christian; Morin, Samuel; Wiesmann, Andreas
2017-04-01
Forward models of radiative transfer processes are needed to interpret remote sensing data and derive measurements of snow properties such as snow mass. A key requirement and challenge for microwave emission and scattering models is an accurate description of the snow microstructure. The snow microwave radiative transfer model (SMRT) was designed to cater for potential future active and/or passive satellite missions and developed to improve understanding of how to parameterize snow microstructure. SMRT is implemented in Python and is modular to allow easy intercomparison of different theoretical approaches. Separate modules are included for the snow microstructure model, electromagnetic module, radiative transfer solver, substrate, interface reflectivities, atmosphere and permittivities. An object-oriented approach is used with carefully specified exchanges between modules to allow future extensibility i.e. without constraining the parameter list requirements. This presentation illustrates the capabilities of SMRT. At present, five different snow microstructure models have been implemented, and direct insertion of the autocorrelation function from microtomography data is also foreseen with SMRT. Three electromagnetic modules are currently available. While DMRT-QCA and Rayleigh models need specific microstructure models, the Improved Born Approximation may be used with any microstructure representation. A discrete ordinates approach with stream connection is used to solve the radiative transfer equations, although future inclusion of 6-flux and 2-flux solvers are envisioned. Wrappers have been included to allow existing microwave emission models (MEMLS, HUT, DMRT-QMS) to be run with the same inputs and minimal extra code (2 lines). Comparisons between theoretical approaches will be shown, and evaluation against field experiments in the frequency range 5-150 GHz. SMRT is simple and elegant to use whilst providing a framework for future development within the
Nonradiative and radiative Förster energy transfer between quantum dots
Poddubny, A. N. Rodina, A. V.
2016-03-15
We theoretically study nonradiative and radiative energy transfer between two localized quantum emitters, a donor (initially excited) and an acceptor (receiving the excitation). The rates of nonradiative and radiative processes are calculated depending on the spatial and spectral separation between the donor and acceptor states and for different donor and acceptor lifetimes for typical parameters of semiconductor quantum dots. We find that the donor lifetime can be significantly modified only due to the nonradiative Förster energy transfer process at donor–acceptor separations of approximately 10 nm (depending on the acceptor radiative lifetime) and for the energy detuning not larger than 1–2 meV. The efficiency of the nonradiative Förster energy transfer process under these conditions is close to unity and decreases rapidly with an increase in the donor–acceptor distance or energy detuning. At large donor–acceptor separations greater than 40 nm, the radiative corrections to the donor lifetime are comparable with nonradiative ones but are relatively weak.
Energetic Radiation from Rapidly Spinning Pulsars. II. VELA and Crab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, K. S.; Ho, C.; Ruderman, M.
1986-01-01
The growth of charge-depleted regions (gaps) in the outer magnetosphere of rapidly spinning magnetized neutron stars is limited by e± production. In the Vela pulsar a pair of e+ and e- created within the gap (primaries) are accelerated in opposite directions to extreme relativistic energies. The primary e-/e+ produce primary γ-rays through inverse Compton scattering on IR photons. Primary γ-rays are sufficiently energetic to produce (secondary) e± pairs in collisions with this same IR photon flux. Secondary synchrotron radiation by these pairs gives crossed fan beams of γ-rays and weaker ones of X-rays. Collisions of the hard secondary γ-rays with the secondary crossed beam soft X-rays give a large flux of lower energy e± (tertiary) pairs which fill much of the outer magnetosphere. It is the (tertiary) IR synchrotron radiation from tertiary pairs through the outer gap which initiates the entire series of pair production processes. For Vela, the calculated observable consequences include (a) twin cusped γ-ray pulses with photon spectrum F(ω) ≍ ω-3/2 ln (3 GeV/hω) from 3 GeV to about 102 KeV; (b) total fan beam radiated power 10-2 the pulsar spin-down energy loss rate; (c) an X-ray spectrum F(ω) ≍ ω-2/3 below 102 KeV; (d) weak, more closely spaced twin optical pulses from the tertiary radiation with power 10-5 that of the secondary γ-rays; (e) and e± outflow of 1036 s-1; (f) a double pulse of 1012 - 1013 eV γ-rays with about 10-2 the γ-ray power. Model Crab pulsar emissions are considered with emphasis on differences from those of Vela. Crab primary outer gap e+/e- lose most of their energy to curvature γ-rays, which convert to e± pairs in collisions with X-rays. These X-rays come from the synchrotron (secondary) emission from such (secondary) pairs created beyond the gap boundary. Inverse Compton scattering of secondary e± on the secondary X-rays boosts a fraction to γ-rays. The combination of secondary synchrotron and inverse Compton
Radiative transfer solution for rugged and heterogeneous scene observations.
Miesch, C; Briottet, X; Kerr, Y H; Cabot, F
2000-12-20
A physical algorithm is developed to solve the radiative transfer problem in the solar reflective spectral domain. This new code, Advanced Modeling of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Inhomogeneous Surfaces (AMARTIS), takes into account the relief, the spatial heterogeneity, and the bidirectional reflectances of ground surfaces. The resolution method consists of first identifying the irradiance and radiance components at ground and sensor levels and then modeling these components separately, the rationale being to find the optimal trade off between accuracy and computation times. The validity of the various assumptions introduced in the AMARTIS model are checked through comparisons with a reference Monte Carlo radiative transfer code for various ground scenes: flat ground with two surface types, a linear sand dune landscape, and an extreme mountainous configuration. The results show a divergence of less than 2% between the AMARTIS code and the Monte Carlo reference code for the total signals received at satellite level. In particular, it is demonstrated that the environmental and topographic effects are properly assessed by the AMARTIS model even for situations in which the effects become dominant.
Interpreting snowpack radiometry using currently existing microwave radiative transfer models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Do-Hyuk; Tang, Shurun; Kim, Edward J.
2015-10-01
A radiative transfer model (RTM) to calculate the snow brightness temperatures (Tb) is a critical element in terrestrial snow parameter retrieval from microwave remote sensing observations. The RTM simulates the Tb based on a layered snow by solving a set of microwave radiative transfer equations. Even with the same snow physical inputs to drive the RTM, currently existing models such as Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS), Dense Media Radiative Transfer (DMRT-QMS), and Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) models produce different Tb responses. To backwardly invert snow physical properties from the Tb, differences from RTMs are first to be quantitatively explained. To this end, this initial investigation evaluates the sources of perturbations in these RTMs, and reveals the equations where the variations are made among the three models. Modelling experiments are conducted by providing the same but gradual changes in snow physical inputs such as snow grain size, and snow density to the 3 RTMs. Simulations are conducted with the frequencies consistent with the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer- E (AMSR-E) at 6.9, 10.7, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89.0 GHz. For realistic simulations, the 3 RTMs are simultaneously driven by the same snow physics model with the meteorological forcing datasets and are validated against the snow insitu samplings from the CLPX (Cold Land Processes Field Experiment) 2002-2003, and NoSREx (Nordic Snow Radar Experiment) 2009-2010.
Interpreting snowpack radiometry using currently existing microwave radiative transfer models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, D. H.; Tan, S.; Kim, E. J.
2015-12-01
A radiative transfer model (RTM) to calculate a snow brightness temperature (Tb) is a critical element to retrieve terrestrial snow from microwave remote sensing observations. The RTM simulates the Tb based on a layered snow by solving a set of microwave radiative transfer formulas. Even with the same snow physical inputs used for the RTM, currently existing models such as Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS), Dense Media Radiative Transfer (DMRT-Tsang), and Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) models produce different Tb responses. To backwardly invert snow physical properties from the Tb, the differences from the RTMs are to be quantitatively explained. To this end, the paper evaluates the sources of perturbations in the RTMs, and reveals the equations where the variations are made among three models. Investigations are conducted by providing the same but gradual changes in snow physical inputs such as snow grain size, and snow density to the 3 RTMs. Simulations are done with the frequencies consistent with the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-E (AMSR-E) at 6.9, 10.7, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89.0 GHz. For realistic simulations, the 3 RTMs are simultaneously driven by the same snow physics model with the meteorological forcing datasets and are validated from the snow core samplings from the CLPX (Cold Land Processes Field Experiment) 2002-2003, and NoSREx (Nordic Snow Radar Experiment) 2009-2010.
Millimeter wave radiative transfer studies for precipitation measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vivekanandan, J.; Evans, Frank
1989-01-01
Scattering calculations using the discrete dipole approximation and vector radiative transfer calculations were performed to model multiparameter radar return and passive microwave emission for a simple model of a winter storm. The issue of dendrite riming was addressed by computing scattering properties of thin ice disks with varying bulk density. It was shown that C-band multiparameter radar contains information about particle density and the number concentration of the ice particles. The radiative transfer modeling indicated that polarized multifrequency passive microwave emission may be used to infer some properties of ice hydrometers. Detailed radar modeling and vector radiative transfer modeling is in progress to enhance the understanding of simultaneous radar and radiometer measurements, as in the case of the proposed TRMM field program. A one-dimensional cloud model will be used to simulate the storm structure in detail and study the microphysics, such as size and density. Multifrequency polarized radiometer measurements from the SSMI satellite instrument will be analyzed in relation to dual-frequency and dual-polarization radar measurements.
Radiation heat transfer within an optical fiber draw tower furnace
Issa, J.; Jaluria, Y.; Polymeropoulos, C.E.; Yin, Z.
1995-12-31
Study of the thermal transport and material flow processes associated with the drawing of optical fiber in a graphite draw furnace requires modeling of the heat transfer from the furnace wall. Previous work has shown that accurate knowledge of the furnace heater element axial temperature distribution is essential for proper modeling of the radiative transfer process. The present work is aimed at providing this information, as well as generating a set of data for the study of radiation exchange in the furnace cavity. The experimental procedure involved measuring the centerline temperature distribution in graphite and fused silica rods inserted into an optical fiber draw tower furnace. The temperature measurements were then used along with a model for radiative-convective heat transfer in the furnace in order to obtain the furnace temperature profile. This is an inverse problem since the centerline temperature in the rod is known whereas the furnace thermal conditions are not. The results obtained showed that the furnace temperature distribution was independent of rod material and size. The shape of the computed temperature distributions suggest that they can be well represented by a Gaussian function.
TWILIGHT: A Cellular Framework for Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khatami, David; Madore, Barry
2015-01-01
We describe a new framework for solving three-dimensional radiative transfer of arbitrary geometries, including a full characterisation of the wavelength-dependent anisotropic scattering, absorption, and thermal reemission of light by dust. By adopting a cellular approach to discretising the light and dust, the problem can be efficiently solved through a fully deterministic iterative process. As a proof of concept we present TWILIGHT, our implementation of the cellular approach, in order to demonstrate and benchmark the new method. TWILIGHT simultaneously renders over one hundred unique images of a given environment with no additional slowdown, enabling a close study of inclination effects of three-dimensional dust geometries. In addition to qualitative rendering tests, TWILIGHT is successfully tested against two Monte-Carlo radiative transfer benchmarks, producing similar brightness profiles at varying inclinations. With the proof-of-concept established, we describe the improvements and current developments underway using the cellular framework, including a technique to resolve the subgrid physics of dust radiative transfer from micron-scale grain models to kiloparsec-sized dust environments.
The Generation and Transfer of Polarized Radiation in Stellar Atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trujillo Bueno, J.
2003-01-01
The standard Non-LTE problem consists in calculating the atomic level populations that are consistent with the intensity of the radiation field generated within any given stellar atmospheric model. In contrast, the Non-LTE problem of the second kind is, indeed, like an ``algebraic Annapurna'': it requires to calculate the diagonal and non-diagonal elements of the atomic density matrix (associated to each level i of total angular momentum Ji) that are consistent with the intensity and polarization of the radiation field generated within the (generally magnetized) stellar atmospheric model under consideration. After arguing why this problem is of real astrophysical interest, I will introduce the relevant equations and the basic anisotropic radiation pumping processes. Finally, I will show how to solve efficiently Non-LTE problems of the second kind via the development and application of fast iterative methods and accurate formal solvers of the Stokes vector transfer equation.
The longwave radiative heat transfer of the building envelopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowak, H.
The longwave radiative heat transfer between outside surface of the building envelopes and the thermal environment, is treated in this paper as interesting from the point of view of the studies of the influence of the atmospheric counterradiation on the heat balance of low-sloped roofs and walls. This influence may be taken into account by means of introducing a correction that would lower outside air temperature values. This paper presents the way of calculating this correction (temperature depression) as well as the factors influencing its values. The paper submits also quantitative analysis of the influence of the longwave atmospheric radiation upon the net radiative heat loss of the low-sloped roofs and walls as a function: the thermal resistance of the building partitions, the emissivity of their outside surfaces, wind speed, the sky, the outdoor and the indoor air temperature values.
SPAMCART: a code for smoothed particle Monte Carlo radiative transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lomax, O.; Whitworth, A. P.
2016-10-01
We present a code for generating synthetic spectral energy distributions and intensity maps from smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation snapshots. The code is based on the Lucy Monte Carlo radiative transfer method, i.e. it follows discrete luminosity packets as they propagate through a density field, and then uses their trajectories to compute the radiative equilibrium temperature of the ambient dust. The sources can be extended and/or embedded, and discrete and/or diffuse. The density is not mapped on to a grid, and therefore the calculation is performed at exactly the same resolution as the hydrodynamics. We present two example calculations using this method. First, we demonstrate that the code strictly adheres to Kirchhoff's law of radiation. Secondly, we present synthetic intensity maps and spectra of an embedded protostellar multiple system. The algorithm uses data structures that are already constructed for other purposes in modern particle codes. It is therefore relatively simple to implement.
Near-field radiative heat transfer in mesoporous alumina
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Li; Yan-Hui, Feng; Xin-Xin, Zhang; Cong-Liang, Huang; Ge, Wang
2015-01-01
The thermal conductivity of mesoporous material has aroused the great interest of scholars due to its wide applications such as insulation, catalyst, etc. Mesoporous alumina substrate consists of uniformly distributed, unconnected cylindrical pores. Near-field radiative heat transfer cannot be ignored, when the diameters of the pores are less than the characteristic wavelength of thermal radiation. In this paper, near-field radiation across a cylindrical pore is simulated by employing the fluctuation dissipation theorem and Green function. Such factors as the diameter of the pore, and the temperature of the material are further analyzed. The research results show that the radiative heat transfer on a mesoscale is 2˜4 orders higher than on a macroscale. The heat flux and equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation across a cylindrical pore decrease exponentially with pore diameter increasing, while increase with temperature increasing. The calculated equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation is further developed to modify the thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina. The combined thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina is obtained by using porosity weighted dilute medium and compared with the measurement. The combined thermal conductivity of mesoporous silica decreases gradually with pore diameter increasing, while increases smoothly with temperature increasing, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. The larger the porosity, the more significant the near-field effect is, which cannot be ignored. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51422601), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB720404), and the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013BAJ01B03).
An interative solution of an integral equation for radiative transfer by using variational technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoshikawa, K. K.
1973-01-01
An effective iterative technique is introduced to solve a nonlinear integral equation frequently associated with radiative transfer problems. The problem is formulated in such a way that each step of an iterative sequence requires the solution of a linear integral equation. The advantage of a previously introduced variational technique which utilizes a stepwise constant trial function is exploited to cope with the nonlinear problem. The method is simple and straightforward. Rapid convergence is obtained by employing a linear interpolation of the iterative solutions. Using absorption coefficients of the Milne-Eddington type, which are applicable to some planetary atmospheric radiation problems. Solutions are found in terms of temperature and radiative flux. These solutions are presented numerically and show excellent agreement with other numerical solutions.
Radiative heat transfer analysis in modern rocket combustion chambers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goebel, Florian; Kniesner, Björn; Frey, Manuel; Knab, Oliver; Mundt, Christian
2014-06-01
Radiative heat transfer is analyzed for subscale and fullscale rocket combustion chambers for H2/O2 and CH4/O2 combustion using the P1 radiation transport model in combination with various Weighted Sum of Gray Gases Models (WSGGMs). The influence of different wall emissivities, as well as the results using different WSGGMs, the size of the combustion chamber and the coupling of radiation and fluid dynamics, is investigated. Using rather simple WSGGMs for homogeneous systems yields similar results as using sophisticated models. With models for nonhomogeneous systems the radiative wall heat flux (RWHF) decreases by 25-30 % for H2/O2 combustion and by almost 50 % for CH4/O2 combustion. Enlarging the volume of the combustion chamber increases the RWHF. The influence of radiation on the flow field is found to be negligible. The local ratio of RWHF to total wall heat flux shows a maximum of 9-10 % for H2/O2 and 8 % for CH4/O2 combustion. The integrated heat load ratio is around 3 % for H2/O2 and 2.5 % for CH4/O2 combustion. With WSGGMs for nonhomogeneous systems, the local ratio decreases to 5 % (H2/O2) and 3 % (CH4/O2) while the integrated ratio is only 2 % (H2/O2) and 1.3 % (CH4/O2).
Three Dimensional Radiative Transfer In Tropical Deep Convective Clouds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Giuseppe, F.
In this study the focus is on the interaction between short-wave radiation with a field of tropical deep convective events generated using a 3D cloud resolving model (CRM) to assess the significance of 3D radiative transport (3DRT). It is not currently un- derstood what magnitude of error is involved when a two stream approximation is used to describe the radiative transfer through such a cloud field. It seems likely that deep convective clouds could be the most complex to represent, and that the error in neglecting horizontal transport could be relevant in these cases. The field here con- sidered has an extention of roughly 90x90 km, approximately equivalent to the grid box dimension of many global models. The 3DRT results are compared both with the calculations obtained by an Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA) approch and by the Plane Parallel radiative scheme (PP) implemented in ECMWF's Forecast model. The differences between the three calculations are used to assess both problems in current GCM's representation of radiative heating and inaccuracies in the dynamical response of CRM simulations due to the Independent Column Approximation (ICA). The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the main 3DRT/1D differences is the starting point for the future attempt to develop a parameterization procedure.
Rapid and extensive warming following cessation of solar radiation management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCusker, Kelly E.; Armour, Kyle C.; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Battisti, David S.
2014-01-01
Solar radiation management (SRM) has been proposed as a means to alleviate the climate impacts of ongoing anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, its efficacy depends on its indefinite maintenance, without interruption from a variety of possible sources, such as technological failure or global cooperation breakdown. Here, we consider the scenario in which SRM—via stratospheric aerosol injection—is terminated abruptly following an implementation period during which anthropogenic GHG emissions have continued. We show that upon cessation of SRM, an abrupt, spatially broad, and sustained warming over land occurs that is well outside 20th century climate variability bounds. Global mean precipitation also increases rapidly following cessation, however spatial patterns are less coherent than temperature, with almost half of land areas experiencing drying trends. We further show that the rate of warming—of critical importance for ecological and human systems—is principally controlled by background GHG levels. Thus, a risk of abrupt and dangerous warming is inherent to the large-scale implementation of SRM, and can be diminished only through concurrent strong reductions in anthropogenic GHG emissions.
DHS Regional Reachback: Rapid Expert Radiation Alarm Assistance.
Bowerman,B.; Archer, D.; Young, J.; Monetti, M.; Savage, B.
2008-07-13
Following assessments that attacks with radiological and nuclear weapons are possible, detection system deployments are being supported at national and local levels. Detection systems include both, highly sensitive but non-discriminating detectors, as well as detectors and algorithms capable of distinguishing and identifying gamma rays by energy. The latter systems, usually handheld systems based on sodium iodide detectors, also provide analysis of the specific radionuclides present and are referred to as radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs). Studies have shown that sodium iodide based RIIDs fall far short of 100% accurate identifications. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) initiated the Regional Reachback (RRB) Program in 2006 to provide rapid expert interpretation of gamma spectroscopic data from radiation alarms from detection systems deployed by state and local authorities. With expert specialists on call 24/7, RRB provides an avenue for local and state authorities to verify routine results, interpret unknown identifications, and notify national response assets if needed. This paper will provide details of the RRE3 program, an outline of the analysis process, a description of the drills and training systems used to maintain specialists response performance, and examples of drills and incidents from the first full year of operation.
Conjugate conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer in rocket engines
Naraghi, M.H.N.; DeLise, J.C.
1995-12-31
A comprehensive conductive, convective and radiative model for thermal analysis of rocket thrust chambers and nozzles is presented. In this model, the rocket thrust chamber and nozzle are subdivided into a number of stations along the longitudinal direction. At each station a finite element scheme is used to evaluate wall temperature distribution. The hot-gas-side convective heat transport is evaluated by numerically solving the compressible boundary layer equations and the radiative fluxes are evaluated by implementing an exchange factor scheme. The convective heat flux in the cooling channel is modeled based on the existing closed form correlations for rocket cooling channels. The conductive, convective and radiative processes are conjugated through an iterative procedure. The hot-gas-side heat transfer coefficients evaluated based on this model are compared to the experimental results reported in the literature. The computed convective heat transfer coefficients agree very well with experimental data for most of the engine except the throat where a discrepancy of approximately 20% exists. The model is applied to a typical regeneratively cooled rocket engine and the resulting wall temperature and heat flux distribution are presented.
Computing Radiative Transfer in a 3D Medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Von Allmen, Paul; Lee, Seungwon
2012-01-01
A package of software computes the time-dependent propagation of a narrow laser beam in an arbitrary three- dimensional (3D) medium with absorption and scattering, using the transient-discrete-ordinates method and a direct integration method. Unlike prior software that utilizes a Monte Carlo method, this software enables simulation at very small signal-to-noise ratios. The ability to simulate propagation of a narrow laser beam in a 3D medium is an improvement over other discrete-ordinate software. Unlike other direct-integration software, this software is not limited to simulation of propagation of thermal radiation with broad angular spread in three dimensions or of a laser pulse with narrow angular spread in two dimensions. Uses for this software include (1) computing scattering of a pulsed laser beam on a material having given elastic scattering and absorption profiles, and (2) evaluating concepts for laser-based instruments for sensing oceanic turbulence and related measurements of oceanic mixed-layer depths. With suitable augmentation, this software could be used to compute radiative transfer in ultrasound imaging in biological tissues, radiative transfer in the upper Earth crust for oil exploration, and propagation of laser pulses in telecommunication applications.
Radiative charge transfer and association in slow Li- + H collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Xiaohe; Peng, Yigeng; Wu, Yong; Wang, Jianguo; Janev, Ratko; Shao, Bin
2017-02-01
Aims: The radiative charge transfer and association processes in Li- + H collisions are studied in the 10-10-10 eV center-of-mass energy range. Methods: we carried out total and ν-resolved state-selective cross sections have been carried out by using the fully quantum, optical potential, and semiclassical methods. Results: In the energy region below 0.8 eV, the radiative association process is the dominant decay channel, while radiative charge transfer dominates at higher energies. Rich resonance structures are observed in the cross sections of both processes in the 0.1-1.5 eV energy range; These structures are associated with the quasi-bound states below the top of the centrifugal barrier of the effective potential in the entrance channel for specific vibrational and angular momentum states. It is found that with the increase of collision energy, the resonances occur for higher angular momentum states and lower vibrational states. Besides the cross sections for the studied processes we also present their reaction rate coefficients in the 10-6-106K temperature range.
Effect of superconductivity on near-field radiative heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Králík, Tomáš; Musilová, Věra; Fořt, Tomáš; Srnka, Aleš
2017-02-01
Near-field (NF) radiative heat transfer (RHT) over vacuum space between bodies can exceed the far-field (FF) heat transfer by orders of magnitude. A large portion of the heat flux transferred between metals in NF is at very low frequencies, much lower than in FF. Thus a strong effect of superconductivity on NF RHT can be expected even at radiation temperatures above the superconducting critical temperature, where nearly no effect in FF is observed. We have examined experimentally the RHT between plane-parallel surfaces of niobium. Up to a fivefold decrease in NF heat flux was observed when the colder sample passed from the normal to the superconducting state. We found that a maximum decrease occurs at sample spacings ten times shorter than the spacing of crossover between the NF and FF heat flux, being ≈1000/T (μm). Applying Polder's and Van Hove's relations for NF RHT and BCS theory of superconductivity, we explain this effect and show the roles of transversal electric and magnetic modes in the steep decrease of heat flux below the critical temperature and the subsequent flux saturation at low temperatures.
Three-dimensional radiative transfer on a massively parallel computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vath, H. M.
1994-01-01
We perform 3D radiative transfer calculations in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) in the simple two-level atom approximation on the Mas-Par MP-1, which contains 8192 processors and is a single instruction multiple data (SIMD) machine, an example of the new generation of massively parallel computers. On such a machine, all processors execute the same command at a given time, but on different data. To make radiative transfer calculations efficient, we must re-consider the numerical methods and storage of data. To solve the transfer equation, we adopt the short characteristic method and examine different acceleration methods to obtain the source function. We use the ALI method and test local and non-local operators. Furthermore, we compare the Ng and the orthomin methods of acceleration. We also investigate the use of multi-grid methods to get fast solutions for the NLTE case. In order to test these numerical methods, we apply them to two problems with and without periodic boundary conditions.
Coupled Convective and Radiative Heat Transfer Simulation for Urban Environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gracik, Stefan; Sadeghipour, Mostapha; Pitchurov, George; Liu, Jiying; Heidarinejad, Mohammad; Srebric, Jelena; Building Science Group, Penn State Team
2013-11-01
A building's surroundings affect its energy use. An analysis of building energy use needs to include the effects of its urban environment, as over half of the world's population now lives in cities. To correctly model the energy flow around buildings, an energy simulation needs to account for both convective and radiative heat transfer. This study develops a new model by coupling OpenFOAM and Radiance, open source packages for simulating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and solar radiation, respectively. The model currently provides themo-fluid parameters including convective heat transfer coefficients, pressure coefficients, and solar heat fluxes that will be used as inputs for building energy simulations in a follow up study. The model uses Penn State campus buildings immersed in the atmospheric boundary layer flow as a case study to determine the thermo-fluid parameters around buildings. The results of this case study show that shadows can reduce the solar heat flux of a building's surface by eighty percent during a sunny afternoon. Convective heat transfer coefficients can vary by around fifty percent during a windy day.
Förster Resonance Energy Transfer imaging in vivo with approximated Radiative Transfer Equation
Soloviev, Vadim Y.; McGinty, James; Stuckey, Daniel W.; Laine, Romain; Wylezinska-Arridge, Marzena; Wells, Dominic J.; Sardini, Alessandro; Hajnal, Joseph V.; French, Paul M.W.; Arridge, Simon R.
2012-01-01
We describe a new light transport model that we have applied to 3-D image reconstruction of in vivo fluorescence lifetime tomography data applied to read out Förster Resonance Energy Transfer in mice. The model is an approximation to the Radiative Transfer Equation and combines light diffusion and rays optics. This approximation is well adopted to wide-field time-gated intensity based data acquisition. Reconstructed image data are presented and compared with results obtained by using the Telegraph Equation approximation. The new approach provides improved recovery of absorption and scattering parameters while returning similar values for the fluorescence parameters. PMID:22193187
Evidence of energy transfer in nanoparticle-porphyrins conjugates for radiation therapy enhancement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudinov, Konstantin; Cooper, Daniel; Tyagi, Pooja; Bekah, Devesh; Bhattacharyya, Dhrittiman; Hill, Colin; Ha, Jonathan Kin; Nadeau, Jay; Bradforth, Stephen
2015-03-01
We report progress towards combining radiation therapy (RT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) using scintillating nanoparticle (NP)-photosensitizer conjugates. In this approach, scintillating NPs are excited by clinically relevant ionizing radiation sources and subsequently transfer energy to conjugated photosensitizers via FRET, acting as an energy mediator between ionizing radiation and photosensitizer molecules. The excited photosensitizers generate reactive oxygen species that can induce local damage and immune response. Advantages of the scheme include: 1) Compared with traditional radiation therapy, a possible decrease of the total radiation dose needed to eliminate the lesion; 2) Compared with traditional PDT, the ability to target deeper and more highly pigmented lesions; 3) The possibility of additional photosensitizing effects due to the scintillation of the nanoparticles. In this work, the photosensitizer molecule chlorin e6 was covalently bound to the surface of LaF3:Ce NPs. After conjugation, the photoluminescence intensity of NPs decreased, and fluorescence lifetime of conjugated chlorin e6 became sensitive to excitation wavelength, suggesting rapid FRET. In addition, scintillation spectra of nanoparticles were measured. Preliminary calculations suggest that the observed scintillation efficiencies are sufficient to enhance RT. In vitro cancer cell studies suggest conjugates are taken up by cells. Survival curves with radiation exposure suggest that the particles alone cause radiosensitization comparable to that seen with gold nanoparticles.
Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Arevalo, Philip; Datta, Manoshi S.; Yu, Xiaoqian; Corzett, Christopher H.; Henschel, Andreas; Preheim, Sarah P.; Timberlake, Sonia; Alm, Eric J.; Polz, Martin F.
2016-01-01
Adaptive radiations are important drivers of niche filling, since they rapidly adapt a single clade of organisms to ecological opportunities. Although thought to be common for animals and plants, adaptive radiations have remained difficult to document for microbes in the wild. Here we describe a recent adaptive radiation leading to fine-scale ecophysiological differentiation in the degradation of an algal glycan in a clade of closely related marine bacteria. Horizontal gene transfer is the primary driver in the diversification of the pathway leading to several ecophysiologically differentiated Vibrionaceae populations adapted to different physical forms of alginate. Pathway architecture is predictive of function and ecology, underscoring that horizontal gene transfer without extensive regulatory changes can rapidly assemble fully functional pathways in microbes. PMID:27653556
GORRAM: Introducing accurate operational-speed radiative transfer Monte Carlo solvers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buras-Schnell, Robert; Schnell, Franziska; Buras, Allan
2016-06-01
We present a new approach for solving the radiative transfer equation in horizontally homogeneous atmospheres. The motivation was to develop a fast yet accurate radiative transfer solver to be used in operational retrieval algorithms for next generation meteorological satellites. The core component is the program GORRAM (Generator Of Really Rapid Accurate Monte-Carlo) which generates solvers individually optimized for the intended task. These solvers consist of a Monte Carlo model capable of path recycling and a representative set of photon paths. Latter is generated using the simulated annealing technique. GORRAM automatically takes advantage of limitations on the variability of the atmosphere. Due to this optimization the number of photon paths necessary for accurate results can be reduced by several orders of magnitude. For the shown example of a forward model intended for an aerosol satellite retrieval, comparison with an exact yet slow solver shows that a precision of better than 1% can be achieved with only 36 photons. The computational time is at least an order of magnitude faster than any other type of radiative transfer solver. Merely the lookup table approach often used in satellite retrieval is faster, but on the other hand suffers from limited accuracy. This makes GORRAM-generated solvers an eligible candidate as forward model in operational-speed retrieval algorithms and data assimilation applications. GORRAM also has the potential to create fast solvers of other integrable equations.
THE RADIATIVE TRANSFER OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION THROUGH A COMPRESSED RANDOM MAGNETIC FIELD
Cawthorne, T. V.; Hughes, P. A.
2013-07-01
This paper examines the radiative transfer of synchrotron radiation in the presence of a magnetic field configuration resulting from the compression of a highly disordered magnetic field. It is shown that, provided Faraday rotation and circular polarization can be neglected, the radiative transfer equations for synchrotron radiation separate for this configuration, and the intensities and polarization values for sources that are uniform on large scales can be found straightforwardly in the case where opacity is significant. Although the emission and absorption coefficients must, in general, be obtained numerically, the process is much simpler than a full numerical solution to the transfer equations. Some illustrative results are given and an interesting effect, whereby the polarization increases while the magnetic field distribution becomes less strongly confined to the plane of compression, is discussed. The results are of importance for the interpretation of polarization near the edges of lobes in radio galaxies and of bright features in the parsec-scale jets of active galactic nuclei, where such magnetic field configurations are believed to exist.
Radiative transfer modeling for quantifying lunar mineral abundance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, S.; Li, L.
2010-12-01
This work is part of our efforts for quantifying lunar surface minerals (agglutinate, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, ilmenite, and volcanic glass) from the lunar soil characterization consortium (LSCC) dataset with Hapke's radiative transfer model. We have implemented Hapke's radiative transfer model in the inverse mode in which instead of commonly used look-up table (LUT) Newton's theory was used to solve nonlinear questions for derivation of mineral absorption coefficients and estimation of mineral abundances. While the effects of temperature and surface roughness are incorporated into the implementation to improve the model performance for application of lunar spacecraft data, these effects are not considered in the current work because of the use of lab measured reflectance data. We first tested the inverse model with all samples of the LSCC dataset, the model showed poor performance, which is primarily degraded by samples with a high amount of SMFe. The model was then tested with relatively fresh samples (Is/FeO <= 50, totally 20 samples), and the results were compared with those resulting from genetic algorithm - partial least square models (GA-PLS). This comparison indicates radiative transfer modeling resulted in higher squared correlations and lower root mean square correlations than those from GA-PLS for all minerals (Figure 1). It is concluded that the inverse RTM is preferred over GA-PLS for deriving mineral information of lunar fresh samples. To apply this approach to lunar spacecraft data for mineral abundance estimation, the model needs to be improved for handling more mature lunar soil samples. Figure 1. Comparison of relative RMSE and r-squares of GA-PLS and inversion RTM results.
Fast radiative transfer using monochromatic look-up tables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anthony Vincent, R.; Dudhia, Anu
2017-01-01
Line-by-line (LBL) methods of numerically solving the equations of radiative transfer can be inhibitingly slow. Operational trace gas retrieval schemes generally require much faster output than current LBL radiative transfer models can achieve. One option to speed up computation is to precalculate absorption cross sections for each absorbing gas on a fixed grid and interpolate. This work presents a general method for creating, compressing, and validating a set of individual look-up tables (LUTs) for the 11 most abundant trace gases to use the Reference Forward Model (RFM) to simulate radiances observed by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) at a more operational pace. These LUTs allow the RFM to generate radiances more than 20 times faster than LBL mode and were rigorously validated for 80 different atmospheric scenarios chosen to represent variability indicative of Earth's atmosphere. More than 99% of all IASI simulated spectral channels had LUT interpolation errors of brightness temperature less than 0.02 K, several factors below the IASI noise level. Including a reduced spectral grid for radiative transfer speed up the computation by another factor of six at the expense of approximately doubling interpolation errors, still factors below IASI noise. Furthermore, a simple spectral compression scheme based upon linear interpolation is presented, which reduced the total LUT file size from 120 Gbytes to 5.6 Gbytes; a compression to just 4.4% of the original. These LUTs are openly available for use by the scientific community, whether using the RFM or to be incorporated into any forward model.
Global sensitivity analysis of the radiative transfer model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neelam, Maheshwari; Mohanty, Binayak P.
2015-04-01
With the recently launched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, it is very important to have a complete understanding of the radiative transfer model for better soil moisture retrievals and to direct future research and field campaigns in areas of necessity. Because natural systems show great variability and complexity with respect to soil, land cover, topography, precipitation, there exist large uncertainties and heterogeneities in model input factors. In this paper, we explore the possibility of using global sensitivity analysis (GSA) technique to study the influence of heterogeneity and uncertainties in model inputs on zero order radiative transfer (ZRT) model and to quantify interactions between parameters. GSA technique is based on decomposition of variance and can handle nonlinear and nonmonotonic functions. We direct our analyses toward growing agricultural fields of corn and soybean in two different regions, Iowa, USA (SMEX02) and Winnipeg, Canada (SMAPVEX12). We noticed that, there exists a spatio-temporal variation in parameter interactions under different soil moisture and vegetation conditions. Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) behaves more non-linearly in SMEX02 and linearly in SMAPVEX12, with average parameter interactions of 14% in SMEX02 and 5% in SMAPVEX12. Also, parameter interactions increased with vegetation water content (VWC) and roughness conditions. Interestingly, soil moisture shows an exponentially decreasing sensitivity function whereas parameters such as root mean square height (RMS height) and vegetation water content show increasing sensitivity with 0.05 v/v increase in soil moisture range. Overall, considering the SMAPVEX12 fields to be water rich environment (due to higher observed SM) and SMEX02 fields to be energy rich environment (due to lower SM and wide ranges of TSURF), our results indicate that first order as well as interactions between the parameters change with water and energy rich environments.
Radiative transfer for a three-dimensional raining cloud
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haferman, J. L.; Krajewski, W. F.; Smith, T. F.; Sanchez, A.
1993-01-01
Satellite-sensor-based microwave brightness temperatures for a three-dimensional raining cloud over a reflecting surface are computed by using a radiative transfer model based on the discrete-ordinates solution procedure. The three-dimensional model applied to a plane layer is validated by comparison with results from a one-dimensional model that is available in the literature. Results examining the effects of cloud height, rainfall rate, surface reflectance, rainfall footprint area, and satellite viewing position on one- and three-dimensional brightness temperature calculations are reported. The numerical experiments indicate that, under certain conditions, three-dimensional effects are significant in the analysis of satellite-sensor-based rainfall retrieval algorithms. The results point to the need to consider carefully three-dimensional effects as well as surface reflectance effects when interpreting satellite-measured radiation data.
Radiative transfer for a three-dimensional raining cloud
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haferman, J. L.; Krajewski, W. F.; Smith, T. F.; Sanchez, A.
1993-01-01
Satellite-sensor-based microwave brightness temperatures for a three-dimensional raining cloud over a reflecting surface are computed by using a radiative transfer model based on the discrete-ordinates solution procedure. The three-dimensional model applied to a plane layer is validated by comparison with results from a one-dimensional model that is available in the literature. Results examining the effects of cloud height, rainfall rate, surface reflectance, rainfall footprint area, and satellite viewing position on one- and three-dimensional brightness temperature calculations are reported. The numerical experiments indicate that, under certain conditions, three-dimensional effects are significant in the analysis of satellite-sensor-based rainfall retrieval algorithms. The results point to the need to consider carefully three-dimensional effects as well as surface reflectance effects when interpreting satellite-measured radiation data.
A field test of a simple stochastic radiative transfer model
Byrne, N.
1995-09-01
The problem of determining the effect of clouds on the radiative energy balance of the globe is of well-recognized importance. One can in principle solve the problem for any given configuration of clouds using numerical techniques. This knowledge is not useful however, because of the amount of input data and computer resources required. Besides, we need only the average of the resulting solution over the grid scale of a general circulation model (GCM). Therefore, we are interested in estimating the average of the solutions of such fine-grained problems using only coarse grained data, a science or art called stochastic radiation transfer. Results of the described field test indicate that the stochastic description is a somewhat better fit to the data than is a fractional cloud cover model, but more data are needed. 1 ref., 3 figs.
Formal Solutions for Polarized Radiative Transfer. I. The DELO Family
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janett, Gioele; Carlin, Edgar S.; Steiner, Oskar; Belluzzi, Luca
2017-05-01
The discussion regarding the numerical integration of the polarized radiative transfer equation is still open and the comparison between the different numerical schemes proposed by different authors in the past is not fully clear. Aiming at facilitating the comprehension of the advantages and drawbacks of the different formal solvers, this work presents a reference paradigm for their characterization based on the concepts of order of accuracy, stability, and computational cost. Special attention is paid to understand the numerical methods belonging to the Diagonal Element Lambda Operator family, in an attempt to highlight their specificities.
3D Monte Carlo radiation transfer modelling of photodynamic therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, C. Louise; Christison, Craig; Brown, C. Tom A.; Wood, Kenneth; Valentine, Ronan M.; Moseley, Harry
2015-06-01
The effects of ageing and skin type on Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for different treatment methods have been theoretically investigated. A multilayered Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer model is presented where both daylight activated PDT and conventional PDT are compared. It was found that light penetrates deeper through older skin with a lighter complexion, which translates into a deeper effective treatment depth. The effect of ageing was found to be larger for darker skin types. The investigation further strengthens the usage of daylight as a potential light source for PDT where effective treatment depths of about 2 mm can be achieved.
The diffusion approximation. An application to radiative transfer in clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arduini, R. F.; Barkstrom, B. R.
1976-01-01
It is shown how the radiative transfer equation reduces to the diffusion equation. To keep the mathematics as simple as possible, the approximation is applied to a cylindrical cloud of radius R and height h. The diffusion equation separates in cylindrical coordinates and, in a sample calculation, the solution is evaluated for a range of cloud radii with cloud heights of 0.5 km and 1.0 km. The simplicity of the method and the speed with which solutions are obtained give it potential as a tool with which to study the effects of finite-sized clouds on the albedo of the earth-atmosphere system.
Odyssey: Ray tracing and radiative transfer in Kerr spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pu, Hung-Yi; Yun, Kiyun; Younsi, Ziri; Yoon, Suk-Jin
2016-01-01
Odyssey is a GPU-based General Relativistic Radiative Transfer (GRRT) code for computing images and/or spectra in Kerr metric describing the spacetime around a rotating black hole. Odyssey is implemented in CUDA C/C++. For flexibility, the namespace structure in C++ is used for different tasks; the two default tasks presented in the source code are the redshift of a Keplerian disk and the image of a Keplerian rotating shell at 340GHz. Odyssey_Edu, an educational software package for visualizing the ray trajectories in the Kerr spacetime that uses Odyssey, is also available.
A multilevel method for conductive-radiative heat transfer
Banoczi, J.M.; Kelley, C.T.
1996-12-31
We present a fast multilevel algorithm for the solution of a system of nonlinear integro-differential equations that model steady-state combined radiative-conductive heat transfer. The equations can be formulated as a compact fixed point problem with a fixed point map that requires both a solution of the linear transport equation and the linear heat equation for its evaluation. We use fast transport solvers developed by the second author, to construct an efficient evaluation of the fixed point map and then apply the Atkinson-Brakhage, method, with Newton-GMRES as the coarse mesh solver, to the full nonlinear system.
Introduction of acoustical diffraction in the radiative transfer method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reboul, Emeline; Le Bot, Alain; Perret-Liaudet, Joël
2004-07-01
This Note presents an original approach to include diffraction in the radiative transfer method when applied to acoustics. This approach leads to a better spatial description of the acoustical energy. An energetic diffraction coefficient and some diffraction sources are introduced to model the diffraction phenomena. The amplitudes of these sources are determined by solving a linear sytem of equations resulting from the power balance between all acoustical sources. The approach is applied on bidimensional examples and gives good results except at geometrical boundaries. To cite this article: E. Reboul et al., C. R. Mecanique 332 (2004).
Nonresonant radiative exciton transfer by near field between quantum wells
Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Gavrilenko, L. V. Gaponova, D. M.; Kadykov, A. M.; Lysenko, V. G.; Krasil’nik, Z. F.
2013-11-15
We experimentally observed an increase in the intensity of photoluminescence from a wider quantum well (QW) when an exciton transition was induced in the neighboring narrower QW separated from the former one by a tunneling-nontransparent AlGaAs barrier. The dependence of the efficiency of the near-field radiative transfer of excitons on the distance between QWs was studied in heterostructures without coincidence of exciton resonances in the adjacent QWs. Theoretical results were qualitatively consistent with the available experimental data.
II. The Second Law in Relation to Thermal Radiative Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jesudason, Christopher G.
2011-12-01
Planck introduced the quantum hypothesis from his Blackbody radiation studies, where he and subsequent workers opined that classical mechanics and electrodynamical theories could not account for the phenomenon. Hence a statistical mechanics with an appropriate Second law entropy was invented and coupled to the First law to account for quantum effects. Here, as an academic exercise we derive the quantum of energy by considering two structures, that of the dipole oscillators on a 2-D surface and the scattering of radiation into the 3-D cavity. Previous derivations are briefly cited and reviewed where none followed this approach. One prediction from this first order Brownian motion development is that a 2-D sheet of oscillators should emit radiation largely with energy density factor T1 of the Kelvin temperature T, rather than that deduced as T4 from detailed balance. Preliminary measurements conducted here seemed to verify the the T1 density. The first order theory also admits a possibility of nonlinear quanta and the consequences are explored briefly. It was noticed in passing during the experimentation that certain bodies suspended in a vacuum exhibited small persistent temperature differentials. A Second law statement is presented for such cases and consequences explored for processes that are not coupled by Newtonian momentum energy transfer mechanisms, such as for the radiation field as deduced by Planck. The different forms of heat transfer due to different laws (e.g. gravity waves and electromagnetic waves) are strictly separable and cannot be confused or forced to an equivalence. We generalize on the Zeroth law, the Kirchoff law and postulate an appropriate entropy form due to these generalizations.
Numerical Radiative Transfer and the Hydrogen Reionization of the Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petkova, M.
2011-03-01
One of the most interesting questions in cosmology is to understand how the Universe evolved from its nearly uniform and simple state briefly after the Big Bang to the complex state we see around us today. In particular, we would like to explain how galaxies have formed, and why they have the properties that we observe in the local Universe. Computer simulations play a highly important role in studying these questions, because they allow one to follow the dynamical equations of gravity and hydrodynamics well into the non-linear regime of the growth of cosmic structures. The current generation of simulation codes for cosmological structure formation calculates the self-gravity of dark matter and cosmic gas, and the fluid dynamics of the cosmic gas, but radiation processes are typically not taken into account, or only at the level of a spatially uniform, externally imposed background field. However, we know that the radiation field has been highly inhomogeneous during certain phases of the growth of structure, and may have in fact provided important feedback effects for galaxy formation. In particular, it is well established that the diffuse gas in the universe was nearly fully neutral after recombination at very high redshift, but today this gas is highly ionized. Sometime during the evolution, a transition to the ionized state must have occurred, a process we refer to as reionization. The UV radiation responsible for this reionization is now permeating the universe and may in part explain why small dwarf galaxies have so low luminosities. It is therefore clear that accurate and self-consistent studies of galaxy formation and of the dynamics of the reionization process should ideally be done with simulation codes that directly include a treatment of radiative transfer, and that account for all relevant source and sink terms of the radiation. We present a novel numerical implementation of radiative transfer in the cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weston, K. C.; Reynolds, A. C., Jr.; Alikhan, A.; Drago, D. W.
1974-01-01
Numerical solutions for radiative transport in a class of anisotropically scattering materials are presented. Conditions for convergence and divergence of the iterative method are given and supported by computed results. The relation of two flux theories to the equation of radiative transfer for isotropic scattering is discussed. The adequacy of the two flux approach for the reflectance, radiative flux and radiative flux divergence of highly scattering media is evaluated with respect to solutions of the radiative transfer equation.
Energy Transfer Based Nanocomposite Scintillator for Radiation Detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aslam, Soha; Sahi, Sunil; Chen, Wei; Ma, Lun; Kenarangui, Rasool
2014-09-01
Scintillators are the materials that emit light upon irradiation with high energy radiation like X-ray or gamma-ray. Inorganic single crystal and organic (plastic and liquid) are the two most used scintillator types. Both of these scintillator kinds have advantages and disadvantages. Inorganic single crystals are expensive and difficult to grow in desire shape and size. Also, single crystal scintillator such as NaI and CsI are very hygroscopic. On the other hand, organic scintillators have low density which limits their applications in gamma spectroscopy. Due to high quantum yield and size dependent emission, nanoparticles have attracted interested in various field of research. Here, we have studies the nanoparticles for radiation detection. We have synthesized nanoparticles of Cerium fluoride (CeF3), Zinc Oxide (ZnO), Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), Copper complex and Zinc sulfide (ZnS). We have used Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) principle to enhance the luminescence properties of nanocomposite scintillator. Nanocomposites scintillators are structurally characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Optical properties are studied using Photoluminescence, UV-Visible and X-ray. Enhancements in the luminescence are observed under UV and X-ray excitation. Preliminary studies shows nanocomposite scintillators are promising for radiation detection. Scintillators are the materials that emit light upon irradiation with high energy radiation like X-ray or gamma-ray. Inorganic single crystal and organic (plastic and liquid) are the two most used scintillator types. Both of these scintillator kinds have advantages and disadvantages. Inorganic single crystals are expensive and difficult to grow in desire shape and size. Also, single crystal scintillator such as NaI and CsI are very hygroscopic. On the other hand, organic scintillators have low density which limits their applications in gamma spectroscopy. Due to high quantum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kutepov, A. A.; Kunze, D.; Hummer, D. G.; Rybicki, G. B.
1991-01-01
An iterative method based on the use of approximate transfer operators, which was designed initially to solve multilevel NLTE line formation problems in stellar atmospheres, is adapted and applied to the solution of the NLTE molecular band radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres. The matrices to be constructed and inverted are much smaller than those used in the traditional Curtis matrix technique, which makes possible the treatment of more realistic problems using relatively small computers. This technique converges much more rapidly than straightforward iteration between the transfer equation and the equations of statistical equilibrium. A test application of this new technique to the solution of NLTE radiative transfer problems for optically thick and thin bands (the 4.3 micron CO2 band in the Venusian atmosphere and the 4.7 and 2.3 micron CO bands in the earth's atmosphere) is described.
Preliminary design for Arctic atmospheric radiative transfer experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, B. D.; Church, H. W.; Stamnes, K.; Shaw, G.; Filyushkin, V.; Jin, Z.; Ellingson, R. G.; Tsay, S. C.
1995-01-01
If current plans are realized, within the next few years, an extraordinary set of coordinated research efforts focusing on energy flows in the Arctic will be implemented. All are motivated by the prospect of global climate change. SHEBA (Surface Energy Budget of the Arctic Ocean), led by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Office of Naval Research (ONR), involves instrumenting an ice camp in the perennial Arctic ice pack, and taking data for 12-18 months. The ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) focuses on atmospheric radiative transport, especially in the presence of clouds. The NSA/AAO CART involves instrumenting a sizeable area on the North Slope of Alaska and adjacent waters in the vicinity of Barrow, and acquiring data over a period of about 10 years. FIRE (First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program) Regional Experiment) Phase 3 is a program led by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which focuses on Arctic clouds, and which is coordinated with SHEBA and ARM. FIRE has historically emphasized data from airborne and satellite platforms. All three program anticipate initiating Arctic data acquisition during spring, 1997. In light of his historic opportunity, the authors discuss a strawman atmospheric radiative transfer experimental plan that identifies which features of the radiative transport models they think should be tested, what experimental data are required for each type of test, the platforms and instrumentation necessary to acquire those data, and in general terms, how the experiments could be conducted. Aspects of the plan are applicable to all three programs.
3ARM: A Fast, Accurate Radiative Transfer Model for Use in Climate Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergstrom, R. W.; Kinne, S.; Sokolik, I. N.; Toon, O. B.; Mlawer, E. J.; Clough, S. A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Mather, J.
1996-01-01
A new radiative transfer model combining the efforts of three groups of researchers is discussed. The model accurately computes radiative transfer in a inhomogeneous absorbing, scattering and emitting atmospheres. As an illustration of the model, results are shown for the effects of dust on the thermal radiation.
3ARM: A Fast, Accurate Radiative Transfer Model for use in Climate Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergstrom, R. W.; Kinne, S.; Sokolik, I. N.; Toon, O. B.; Mlawer, E. J.; Clough, S. A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Mather, J.
1996-01-01
A new radiative transfer model combining the efforts of three groups of researchers is discussed. The model accurately computes radiative transfer in a inhomogeneous absorbing, scattering and emitting atmospheres. As an illustration of the model, results are shown for the effects of dust on the thermal radiation.
Radiative transfer code SHARM for atmospheric and terrestrial applications.
Lyapustin, A I
2005-12-20
An overview of the publicly available radiative transfer Spherical Harmonics code (SHARM) is presented. SHARM is a rigorous code, as accurate as the Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (DISORT) code, yet faster. It performs simultaneous calculations for different solar zenith angles, view zenith angles, and view azimuths and allows the user to make multiwavelength calculations in one run. The Delta-M method is implemented for calculations with highly anisotropic phase functions. Rayleigh scattering is automatically included as a function of wavelength, surface elevation, and the selected vertical profile of one of the standard atmospheric models. The current version of the SHARM code does not explicitly include atmospheric gaseous absorption, which should be provided by the user. The SHARM code has several built-in models of the bidirectional reflectance of land and wind-ruffled water surfaces that are most widely used in research and satellite data processing. A modification of the SHARM code with the built-in Mie algorithm designed for calculations with spherical aerosols is also described.
A deterministic photon free method to solve radiation transfer equations
Chang, Britton . E-mail: bchang@llnl.gov
2007-03-01
A new method to solve radiation transfer equations is presented. In the absence of scattering, material motion, and heat conduction, the photon variables can be eliminated from the fully implicit, multi-group, discrete-ordinate, finite difference (finite element) equations of continuum radiation transfer to yield a smaller set of equations which depends only on temperature. The solution to this smaller set of equations is used to generate the solution to the original set of equations from which the reduced set is derived. The reduced system simplifies to a nonlinear heat equation in the regime of strong absorption and strong emission. We solve the reduced set of equations by the Newton-GMRES method in which the Jacobian update is preconditioned by a linearization of this nonlinear heat equation. The performances of this new method and of the semi-implicit linear method, which is preconditioned by grey transport acceleration combined with diffusion synthetic acceleration, are compared on two test problems. The test results indicate that the new method can take larger time steps, requires less memory, is more accurate, and is competitive in speed with the semi-implicit linear method.
Suomi NPP VIIRS Striping Analysis using Radiative Transfer Model Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Z.; Cao, C.
2015-12-01
Modern satellite radiometers such as VIIRS have many detectors with slightly different relative spectral response (RSR). These differences can introduce artifacts such as striping in the imagery. In recent studies we have analyzed the striping pattern related to the detector level RSR difference in VIIRS Thermal Emissive Bands (TEB) M15 and M16, which includes line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) detector level response study and onboard detector stability evaluation using the solar diffuser. Now we extend these analysis to the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) using MODTRAN atmospheric radiative transfer model (RTM) for detector level radiance simulation. Previous studies analyzed the striping pattern in the images of VIIRS ocean color and reflectance in RSB, further studies about the root cause for striping are still needed. In this study, we will use the MODTRAN model at spectral resolution of 1 cm^-1 under different atmospheric conditions for VIIRS RSB, for example band M1 centered at 410nm which is used for Ocean Color product retrieval. The impact of detector level RSR difference, atmospheric dependency, and solar geometry on the striping in VIIRS SDR imagery will be investigated. The cumulative histogram method used successfully for the TEB striping analysis will be used to quantify the striping. These analysis help S-NPP and J1 to better understand the root cause for VIIRS image artifacts and reduce the uncertainties in geophysical retrievals to meet the user needs.
Constrained radiative transfer inversions for vegetation moisture retrievals in grasslands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasgupta, Swarvanu; Qu, John J.; Bhoi, Sanjeeb
2009-01-01
The retrieval of Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC) over fire prone grasslands is important for fire risk and drought assessment. Radiative transfer (RT) model based inversion of measured reflectances for retrievals of LFMC offers a promising method for estimating LFMC. This paper evaluates the extent to which inverse RT model based LFMC retrievals over grasslands can be improved by the use of prior information on soil moisture and LAI. However due to the uncertainty in the procedures used in obtaining the pre-retrieval information about LAI and soil moisture, the prior information is more likely to be in terms of an expected range for LAI and soil moisture rather than exact values. This study uses simulations from coupled soil-leaf-canopy radiative transfer models to investigate the extent to which such categorical prior information may reduce the uncertainty in LFMC retrievals. Results show that under the experimental conditions used in this study, prior information on LAI and soil moisture improves LFMC estimation on the average by about 2.3 to 3.4% (absolute LFMC) depending on the quality and accuracy of the prior information. This can be equivalent to a relative improvement of about 18-27%. This can be significant, since at the dry conditions represented by this study, when fire spread is highly sensitive to LFMC, such improvements in LFMC could considerably improve fire spread predictions and aid fire management decision making. Uncertainty analysis in terms of prediction intervals and standard deviation of errors also show that improvements are significant.
Radiative transfer modeling of compositions of lunar pyroclastic deposits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilcox, B. B.; Lucey, P. G.; Hawke, B. R.
2006-09-01
While over 100 lunar pyroclastic deposits have been identified remotely, their compositions remain poorly constrained. In this work, we determine the compositions of three lunar regional pyroclastic deposits which are likely to contain large amounts of glass and for which we have high-quality ground-based spectra: the Aristarchus Plateau, Mare Humorum, and Sulpicius Gallus. We use radiative transfer theory and employ measured optical constants of glasses to predict the bidirectional reflectance of a particulate glass surface as a function of Fe and Ti concentration, particle size, and maturity in order to find the best spectral match to the remotely observed deposits. Tools are not available to model the optical effects of the unusual geometries of the ilmenite laths in the black beads, so we address their effects on spectra of the regional pyroclastic deposits using computational mixing. We find that model spectra of pure glass (as opposed to devitrified black beads) provide good matches to all three regions. Radiative transfer modeling predicts iron contents of 21, 20, and 17 wt% FeO for Aristarchus, Humorum, and Sulpicius Gallus, respectively, and suggests that all three regions are low in titanium, a result supported by Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer data. However, we find that a moderate Ti glass mixed with a small fraction of black beads cannot be ruled out for the Sulpicius Gallus region.
Rabacus: A Python package for analytic cosmological radiative transfer calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altay, G.; Wise, J. H.
2015-04-01
We describe RABACUS, a Python package for calculating the transfer of hydrogen ionizing radiation in simplified geometries relevant to astronomy and cosmology. We present example solutions for three specific cases: (1) a semi-infinite slab gas distribution in a homogeneous isotropic background, (2) a spherically symmetric gas distribution with a point source at the center, and (3) a spherically symmetric gas distribution in a homogeneous isotropic background. All problems can accommodate arbitrary spectra and density profiles as input. The solutions include a treatment of both hydrogen and helium, a self-consistent calculation of equilibrium temperatures, and the transfer of recombination radiation. The core routines are written in Fortran 90 and then wrapped in Python leading to execution speeds thousands of times faster than equivalent routines written in pure Python. In addition, all variables have associated units for ease of analysis. The software is part of the Python Package Index and the source code is available on Bitbucket at https://bitbucket.org/galtay/rabacus. In addition, installation instructions and a detailed users guide are available at http://pythonhosted.org//rabacus.
Lattice Boltzmann model for a steady radiative transfer equation.
Yi, Hong-Liang; Yao, Feng-Ju; Tan, He-Ping
2016-08-01
A complete lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) is proposed for the steady radiative transfer equation (RTE). The RTE can be regarded as a pure convection equation with a source term. To derive the expressions for the equilibrium distribution function and the relaxation time, an artificial isotropic diffusion term is introduced to form a convection-diffusion equation. When the dimensionless relaxation time has a value of 0.5, the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) is exactly applicable to the original steady RTE. We also perform a multiscale analysis based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion to recover the macroscopic RTE from the mesoscopic LBE. The D2Q9 model is used to solve the LBE, and the numerical results obtained by the LBM are comparable to the results obtained by other methods or analytical solutions, which demonstrates that the proposed model is highly accurate and stable in simulating multidimensional radiative transfer. In addition, we find that the convergence rate of the LBM depends on the transport properties of RTE: for diffusion-dominated RTE with a large optical thickness, the LBM shows a second-order convergence rate in space, while for convection-dominated RTE with a small optical thickness, a lower convergence rate is observed.
Infrared radiative transfer through a regular array of cuboidal clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
HARSHVARDHAN; Weinman, J. A.
1981-01-01
Infrared radiative transfer through a regular array of cuboidal clouds is studied and the interaction of the sides of the clouds with each other and the ground is considered. The theory is developed for black clouds and is extended to scattering clouds using a variable azimuth two-stream approximation. It is shown that geometrical considerations often dominate over the microphysical aspects of radiative transfer through the clouds. For example, the difference in simulated 10 micron brightness temperature between black isothermal cubic clouds and cubic clouds of optical depth 10, is less than 2 deg for zenith angles less than 50 deg for all cloud fractions when viewed parallel to the array. The results show that serious errors are made in flux and cooling rate computations if broken clouds are modeled as planiform. Radiances computed by the usual practice of area-weighting cloudy and clear sky radiances are in error by 2 to 8 K in brightness temperature for cubic clouds over a wide range of cloud fractions and zenith angles. It is also shown that the lapse rate does not markedly affect the exiting radiances for cuboidal clouds of unit aspect ratio and optical depth 10.
The new surface and radiative transfer parameterization in the SKIRON/Dust modeling System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallos, G.; Spyrou, C.; Mitsakou, C.; Vlastou, G.
2008-12-01
Major contributors of PM in the atmosphere are the dust areas and mainly Sahara. The impacts of dust in the atmosphere are many and especially in radiation, clouds and precipitation. It is a considerable climate modifier. The impacts to land and marine ecosystems are considerable as well in humans. Modeling the dust cycle in the atmosphere at the University of Athens started in the mid-nineties with the development of the SKIRON/Dust atmospheric modeling system. The main purpose was the development of an analysis and forecasting tool that will provide early warning of Saharan dust outbreaks. The dust cycle module is directly coupled with the meteorological model and in its early development was called DREAM. Continuous development of the entire system led to a model version where inaccuracies have been reduced and extra features have been added. Some of these are log-normal particle size distribution (eight bins), calculation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), radiative transfer corrections by utilizing look up tables (shading effect), new dust source identification and utilization of rocky soil characterization, replacement of the dry and wet deposition schemes with more accurate ones, in-cloud scavenging, etc. The new model version replaced the previous four-size bins system in the operations of the University of Athens. Recently, the old radiative transfer scheme from GFDL has been replaced by the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model - RRTM for both short and long wave radiation. The new radiative transfer scheme has many properties that allow the description of dust impacts in the atmosphere on a more accurate way. Mid and low tropospheric warming by dust is one of the new features that the model can describe. In this presentation we discuss the new model characteristics and especially the dust radiative properties as described by both: lookup tables and empirical formulation as well as the new approach by utilizing RRTM. The model results are compared with lidar and
Phylogenetics of Coenonymphina (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) and the problem of rooting rapid radiations.
Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa; Peña, Carlos; Braby, Michael F; Grund, Roger; Müller, Chris J; Nylin, Sören; Wahlberg, Niklas
2010-02-01
We report a rapid radiation of a group of butterflies within the family Nymphalidae and examine some aspects of popular analytical methods in dealing with rapid radiations. We attempted to infer the phylogeny of butterflies belonging to the subtribe Coenonymphina sensu lato using five genes (4398bp) with Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Initial analyses suggested that the group has undergone rapid speciation within Australasia. We further analyzed the dataset with different outgroup combinations the choice of which had a profound effect on relationships within the ingroup. Modelling methods recovered Coenonymphina as a monophyletic group to the exclusion of Zipaetis and Orsotriaena, irrespective of outgroup combination. Maximum Parsimony occasionally returned a polyphyletic Coenonymphina, with Argyronympha grouping with outgroups, but this was strongly dependent on the outgroups used. We analyzed the ingroup without any outgroups and found that the relationships inferred among taxa were different from those inferred when either of the outgroup combinations was used, and this was true for all methods. We also tested whether a hard polytomy is a better hypothesis to explain our dataset, but could not find conclusive evidence. We therefore conclude that the major lineages within Coenonymphina form a near-hard polytomy with regard to each other. The study highlights the importance of testing different outgroups rather than using results from a single outgroup combination of a few taxa, particularly in difficult cases where basal nodes appear to receive low support. We provide a revised classification of Coenonymphina; Zipaetis and Orsotriaena are transferred to the tribe Eritina. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verstraete, Michel M.
1987-01-01
Understanding the details of the interaction between the radiation field and plant structures is important climatically because of the influence of vegetation on the surface water and energy balance, but also biologically, since solar radiation provides the energy necessary for photosynthesis. The problem is complex because of the extreme variety of vegetation forms in space and time, as well as within and across plant species. This one-dimensional vertical multilayer model describes the transfer of direct solar radiation through a leaf canopy, accounting explicitly for the vertical inhomogeneities of a plant stand and leaf orientation, as well as heliotropic plant behavior. This model reproduces observational results on homogeneous canopies, but it is also well adapted to describe vertically inhomogeneous canopies. Some of the implications of leaf orientation and plant structure as far as light collection is concerned are briefly reviewed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verstraete, Michel M.
1987-01-01
Understanding the details of the interaction between the radiation field and plant structures is important climatically because of the influence of vegetation on the surface water and energy balance, but also biologically, since solar radiation provides the energy necessary for photosynthesis. The problem is complex because of the extreme variety of vegetation forms in space and time, as well as within and across plant species. This one-dimensional vertical multilayer model describes the transfer of direct solar radiation through a leaf canopy, accounting explicitly for the vertical inhomogeneities of a plant stand and leaf orientation, as well as heliotropic plant behavior. This model reproduces observational results on homogeneous canopies, but it is also well adapted to describe vertically inhomogeneous canopies. Some of the implications of leaf orientation and plant structure as far as light collection is concerned are briefly reviewed.
Radiative/Turbulent Transfer Interactions in Layer Clouds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanson, Howard P.
1987-05-01
The differential absorption and emission of radiation with height inside clouds creates sources and sinks of buoyancy and thus can be an important factor in the turbulence-maintaining and dissipating processes of the clouds. This paper is concerned with the roles that solar and infrared radiation play in the turbulence budget of layer clouds, with primary emphasis on marine stratocumulus and inferential discussion of other layer cloud systems.Physically realistic parameterizations of solar and infrared (IR) fluxes are used to show how the turbulence generation by cloud-top IR cooling can be more than offset by stabilization due to absorption of sunlight, and how the role of cloud-base IR warming depends crucially on the height of the cloud base. In the context of a mixed-layer model, these effects can be cast entirely in terms of the height of the layer's center of mass relative to the net heating and/or cooling due to the radiative transfer. Implications for the diurnal cycle and for a thin-cloud instability are discussed.
Detectivity of gas leakage based on electromagnetic radiation transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Yunting; Wang, Lingxue; Li, Jiakun; Zhang, Changxing; Zhang, Bei
2011-05-01
Standoff detection of gas leakage is a fundamental need in petrochemical and power industries. The passive gas imaging system using thermal imager has been proven to be efficient to visualize leaking gas which is not visible to the naked eye. The detection probability of gas leakage is the basis for designing a gas imaging system. Supposing the performance parameters of the thermal imager are known, the detectivity based on electromagnetic radiation transfer model to image gas leakage is analyzed. This model takes into consideration a physical analysis of the gas plume spread in the atmosphere-the interaction processes between the gas and its surrounding environment, the temperature of the gas and the background, the background surface emissivity, and also gas concentration, etc. Under a certain environmental conditions, through calculating the radiation reaching to the detector from the camera's optical field of view, we obtain an entity "Gas Equivalent Blackbody Temperature Difference (GEBTD)" which is the radiation difference between the on-plume and off-plume regions. Comparing the GEBTD with the Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) of the thermal imager, we can know whether the system can image the gas leakage. At last, an example of detecting CO2 gas by JADE MWIR thermal imager with a narrow band-pass filter is presented.
Radiative transfer and radiative driving of outflows in active galactic nuclei and starbursts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novak, G. S.; Ostriker, J. P.; Ciotti, L.
2012-12-01
To facilitate the study of black hole fuelling, star formation and feedback in galaxies, we outline a method for treating the radial forces on interstellar gas due to absorption of photons by dust grains. The method gives the correct behaviour in all of the relevant limits [dominated by the central point source; dominated by the distributed isotropic source; optically thin; optically thick to ultraviolet (UV)/optical; optically thick to infrared (IR)] and reasonably interpolates between the limits when necessary. The method is explicitly energy conserving so that UV/optical photons that are absorbed are not lost, but are rather redistributed to the IR where they may scatter out of the galaxy. We implement the radiative transfer algorithm in a two-dimensional hydrodynamical code designed to study feedback processes in the context of early-type galaxies. We find that the dynamics and final state of simulations are measurably but only moderately affected by radiative forces on dust, even when assumptions about the dust-to-gas ratio are varied from zero to a value appropriate for the Milky Way. In simulations with high gas densities designed to mimic ultraluminous IR galaxies with a star formation rate of several hundred solar masses per year, dust makes a more substantial contribution to the dynamics and outcome of the simulation. We find that, despite the large opacity of dust to UV radiation, the momentum input to the flow from radiation very rarely exceeds L/c due to two factors: the low opacity of dust to the re-radiated IR and the tendency for dust to be destroyed by sputtering in hot gas environments. We also develop a simplification of our radiative transfer algorithm that respects the essential physics but is much easier to implement and requires a fraction of the computational cost.
Menelaou, Christopher; ter Schiphorst, Jeroen; Kendhale, Amol M; Parkinson, Patrick; Debije, Michael G; Schenning, Albertus P H J; Herz, Laura M
2015-04-02
Materials showing rapid intramolecular energy transfer and polarization switching are of interest for both their fundamental photophysics and potential for use in real-world applications. Here, we report two donor-acceptor-donor triad dyes based on perylene-bisimide subunits, with the long axis of the donors arranged either parallel or perpendicular to that of the central acceptor. We observe rapid energy transfer (<2 ps) and effective polarization control in both dye molecules in solution. A distributed-dipole Förster model predicts the excitation energy transfer rate for the linearly arranged triad but severely underestimates it for the orthogonal case. We show that the rapid energy transfer arises from a combination of through-bond coupling and through-space transfer between donor and acceptor units. As they allow energy cascading to an excited state with controllable polarization, these triad dyes show high potential for use in luminescent solar concentrator devices.
Escape factors in zero-dimensional radiation-transfer codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, G. J.; Wark, J. S.; Kerr, F. M.; Rose, S. J.; Lee, R. W.
2008-04-01
Several zero-dimensional non-LTE radiation-transfer codes are in common use within the laser-plasma community (for example, RATION, FLY, FLYCHK and GALAXY). These codes are capable of generating calculated emission spectra for a plasma of given density and temperature in the presence of a radiation field. Although dimensionless in nature, these codes can take into account the coupling of radiation and populations by use of the escape factor method, and in this sense the codes incorporate the finite size of the plasma of interest in two ways - firstly in the calculation of the effect of the radiation on the populations and secondly when using these populations to generate a spectrum. Different lengths can be used within these two distinct operations, though it has not been made clear what these lengths should be. We submit that the appropriate length to use for the calculation of populations in such zero-dimensional codes is the mean chord of the system, whilst when calculating the spectrum the appropriate length is the size of the plasma along the line of sight. Indeed, for specific plasma shapes using the appropriate escape factors it can be shown that this interpretation agrees with analytic results. However, this is only the case if the correct escape factor is employed: use of the Holstein escape factor (which is in widely distributed versions of the codes mentioned above) is found to be significantly in error under most conditions. We also note that for the case where a plasma is close to coronal equilibrium, some limited information concerning the shape of the plasma can be extracted merely from the ratio of optically thick to optically thin lines, without the need for any explicit spatial resolution.
Gradient ascent pulse engineering for rapid exchange saturation transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rancan, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Glaser, S. J.
2015-03-01
Efforts in the clinical translation of the paraCEST contrast agent Yb-HPDO3A have prompted an investigation into saturation pulse optimality under energy constraints. The GRAPE algorithm has been adapted and implemented for saturation pulse optimization with chemical exchange. The flexibility of the methodology, both in extracting the microscopical parameter ensemble for the algorithm as well as in determining the characteristics of this new class of rising amplitude waveforms allows rapid testing and implementation. Optimal pulses achieve higher saturation efficiencies than the continuous wave gold standard for rapid and especially for variable exchange rates, as brought about by pH-catalysis. Gains of at least 5-15% without any tradeoff have been confirmed both on a spectrometer and on a clinical imager. Pool specific solutions, with pulses optimized for a specific exchange rate value, additionally increase the flexibility of the CEST ratiometric analysis. A simple experimental approach to determine close to optimal triangular pulses is presented.
A Discrete Probability Function Method for the Equation of Radiative Transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sivathanu, Y. R.; Gore, J. P.
1993-01-01
A discrete probability function (DPF) method for the equation of radiative transfer is derived. The DPF is defined as the integral of the probability density function (PDF) over a discrete interval. The derivation allows the evaluation of the PDF of intensities leaving desired radiation paths including turbulence-radiation interactions without the use of computer intensive stochastic methods. The DPF method has a distinct advantage over conventional PDF methods since the creation of a partial differential equation from the equation of transfer is avoided. Further, convergence of all moments of intensity is guaranteed at the basic level of simulation unlike the stochastic method where the number of realizations for convergence of higher order moments increases rapidly. The DPF method is described for a representative path with approximately integral-length scale-sized spatial discretization. The results show good agreement with measurements in a propylene/air flame except for the effects of intermittency resulting from highly correlated realizations. The method can be extended to the treatment of spatial correlations as described in the Appendix. However, information regarding spatial correlations in turbulent flames is needed prior to the execution of this extension.
Howard Barker; Jason Cole
2012-05-17
Utilization of cloud-resolving models and multi-dimensional radiative transfer models to investigate the importance of 3D radiation effects on the numerical simulation of cloud fields and their properties.
Device for rapid transfer of condensable gases into a capillary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halas, S.; Krouse, H. R.
1984-07-01
An inverted bellows-sealed vacuum valve was modified by replacing the Teflon pad on its stem by a stainless-steel dish with a knife-edge circumference and a capillary attached through its center. A Teflon cup for containing liquid air was threaded on top into the valve outlet. With the dish down, condensable gases could be frozen on a small surface area on the bottom of the cup. By pushing the dish upwards so the knife edge pushed into the Teflon, the gas was quantitatively transferred into the capillary upon warming.
Effects of ionizing radiation in ginkgo and guarana [rapid communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabelo Soriani, Renata; Cristina Satomi, Lucilia; Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus A.
2005-07-01
Raw plant materials normally carry high bioburden due to their origin, offering potential hazards to consumers. The use of decontamination processes is therefore an important step towards the consumer safety and therapeutical efficiency. Several authors have reported the treatment of medicinal herbs with ionizing radiation. This work evaluated the effects of different radiation doses on the microbial burden and chemical constituents of ginkgo ( Ginkgo biloba L.) and guaraná ( Paullinia cupana H.B.K.).
Rapid heteroatom transfer to arylmetals utilizing multifunctional reagent scaffolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Hongyin; Zhou, Zhe; Kwon, Doo-Hyun; Coombs, James; Jones, Steven; Behnke, Nicole Erin; Ess, Daniel H.; Kürti, László
2017-07-01
Arylmetals are highly valuable carbon nucleophiles that are readily and inexpensively prepared from aryl halides or arenes and widely used on both laboratory and industrial scales to react directly with a wide range of electrophiles. Although C-C bond formation has been a staple of organic synthesis, the direct transfer of primary amino (-NH2) and hydroxyl (-OH) groups to arylmetals in a scalable and environmentally friendly fashion remains a formidable synthetic challenge because of the absence of suitable heteroatom-transfer reagents. Here, we demonstrate the use of bench-stable N-H and N-alkyl oxaziridines derived from readily available terpenoid scaffolds as efficient multifunctional reagents for the direct primary amination and hydroxylation of structurally diverse aryl- and heteroarylmetals. This practical and scalable method provides one-step synthetic access to primary anilines and phenols at low temperature and avoids the use of transition-metal catalysts, ligands and additives, nitrogen-protecting groups, excess reagents and harsh workup conditions.
Radiative transfer theory applied to ocean bottom modeling.
Quijano, Jorge E; Zurk, Lisa M
2009-10-01
Research on the propagation of acoustic waves in the ocean bottom sediment is of interest for active sonar applications such as target detection and remote sensing. The interaction of acoustic energy with the sea floor sublayers is usually modeled with techniques based on the full solution of the wave equation, which sometimes leads to mathematically intractable problems. An alternative way to model wave propagation in layered media containing random scatterers is the radiative transfer (RT) formulation, which is a well established technique in the electromagnetics community and is based on the principle of conservation of energy. In this paper, the RT equation is used to model the backscattering of acoustic energy from a layered elastic bottom sediment containing distributions of independent scatterers due to a constant single frequency excitation in the water column. It is shown that the RT formulation provides insight into the physical phenomena of scattering and conversion of energy between waves of different polarizations.
Radiative Transfer Theory Verified by Controlled Laboratory Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Goldstein, Dennis H.; Chowdhary, Jacek; Lompado, Arthur
2013-01-01
We report the results of high-accuracy controlled laboratory measurements of the Stokes reflection matrix for suspensions of submicrometer-sized latex particles in water and compare them with the results of a numerically exact computer solution of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The quantitative performance of the VRTE is monitored by increasing the volume packing density of the latex particles from 2 to 10. Our results indicate that the VRTE can be applied safely to random particulate media with packing densities up to 2. VRTE results for packing densities of the order of 5 should be taken with caution, whereas the polarized bidirectional reflectivity of suspensions with larger packing densities cannot be accurately predicted. We demonstrate that a simple modification of the phase matrix entering the VRTE based on the so-called static structure factor can be a promising remedy that deserves further examination.
Matrix operator theory of radiative transfer. I - Rayleigh scattering.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plass, G. N.; Kattawar, G. W.; Catchings, F. E.
1973-01-01
An entirely rigorous method for the solution of the equations for radiative transfer based on the matrix operator theory is reviewed. The advantages of the present method are: (1) all orders of the reflection and transmission matrices are calculated at once; (2) layers of any thickness may be combined, so that a realistic model of the atmosphere can be developed from any arbitrary number of layers, each with different properties and thicknesses; (3) calculations can readily be made for large optical depths and with highly anisotropic phase functions; (4) results are obtained for any desired value of the surface albedo including the value unity and for a large number of polar and azimuthal angles; (5) all fundamental equations can be interpreted immediately in terms of the physical interactions appropriate to the problem; and (6) both upward and downward radiance can be calculated at interior points from relatively simple expressions.
Time dependent flare model with non-LTE radiative transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varady, M.; Karlický, M.; Kašparová, J.; Heinzel, P.
2002-12-01
The first results of a time dependent simulation of chromospheric response to a high energy electron beam are presented. The hybrid code, i.e. a combination of a 1-D hydrodynamic code and a test particle code, has been used to calculate the energy losses of a high energy electron beam propagating through the solar atmosphere and the consequent response of the ambient solar plasma to the energy deposition. The resulting time evolution of the solar plasma temperature, density, velocity and energy deposit on hydrogen has then been used as an input for a time dependent radiative transfer code in the MALI approach to determine the time variation of the Hα line profile. Non-thermal collisional rates have been included in the linearised ESE.
Radiative Transfer in Decretion Disks of Be Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panoglou, D.; Faes, D. M.; Carciofi, A. C.; Okazaki, A. T.; Rivinius, Th.
2017-02-01
In this work we explore the effect of binarity on the decretion disk of Be stars in order to explain their variability. To this aim, we performed smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations on Be binary systems, following the matter ejected isotropically from the equator of the Be star towards the base of an isothermal decretion disk. We let the system evolve long enough to be considered at steady state, and focus on the effect of viscosity for coplanar prograde binary orbits. The disk structure is found to be locked to the orbital phase and to exhibit a dependence on the azimuthal angle. Additionally, we present the first results from detailed non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative transfer calculations of the disk structure computed with the SPH code. This is achieved by the use of the three-dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo code HDUST, which can produce predictions with respect to a series of observables.
Rapid Proton Transfer Mediated by a Strong Laser Field
Markevitch, Alexei N.; Levis, Robert J.; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Smith, Stanley M.
2006-04-28
Kinetic energy distributions of H{sup +} ejected from a polyatomic molecule, anthraquinone, subjected to 60 fs, 800 nm laser pulses of intensity between 0.2 and 4.0x10{sup 14} W{center_dot}cm{sup -2}, reveal field-driven restructuring of the molecule prior to Coulomb explosion. Calculations demonstrate fast intramolecular proton migration into a field-dressed metastable potential energy minimum. The proton migration occurs in the direction perpendicular to the polarization of the laser field. Rapid field-mediated isomerization is an important new phenomenon in coupling of polyatomic molecules with intense lasers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Zhang-Mao; Tian, Hong; Li, Ben-Wen; Zhang, Wei; Yin, Yan-Shan; Ruan, Min; Chen, Dong-Lin
2017-10-01
The ray-effect is a major discretization error in the approximate solution method for the radiative transfer equation (RTE). To overcome this problem, the incident energy transfer equation (IETE) is proposed. The incident energy, instead of radiation intensity, is obtained by directly solving this new equation. Good numerical properties are found for the incident energy transfer equation. To show the properties of numerical solution, the collocation spectral method (CSM) is employed to solve the incident energy transfer equation. Three test cases are taken into account to verify the performance of the incident energy transfer equation. The result shows that the radiative heat flux obtained based on IETE is much more accurate than that based on RTE, which means that the IETE is very effective in eliminating the impacts of ray-effect on the heat flux. However, on the contrary, the radiative intensity obtained based on IETE is less accurate than that based on RTE due to the ray-effect. So, this equation is more suitable for those radiative heat transfer problems, in which the radiation heat flux and incident energy are needed rather than the radiation intensity.
Radiative Transfer Modeling On The Atmosphere Of Uranus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Joo Hyeon; Sromovsky, L. A.; Fry, P. M.
2010-10-01
We carried out radiative transfer modeling on the atmosphere of Uranus to find the simplest 3-dimensional aerosol models that could fit the observations within measurement and modeling uncertainties. We used the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in combination with a radiative transfer model that accounts for Raman scattering and polarization (Sromovsky 2005, Icarus 173, 245-283) to fit 2002 HST/STIS spectra calibrated by Karkoschka and Tomasko (2009, Icarus 202, 287-309) and bandpass filter imaging observations by the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in 2006 and by the Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 in 2007. Preliminary results were obtained from sampling 5 different latitudes with 4-6 emission angles and the 0.6-0.86 micron spectral range (chosen to allow conservative scattering and assumption of Beer's law), using five different methane mixing ratios consistent with the Lindal et al. (1987, JGR 92, 14987-15001) occultation solutions. The best-fit mixing ratio is near 2.9% at low latitudes and near 2.3% at middle-high latitudes, which agree with the results of Karkoschka and Tomasko (2009). A single layer of sub-micron Mie particles fits remarkably well, but a better fit is obtained with two such Mie layers, which consists of optically thin layer at 1.5 bar and optically thick layer at 2.1 2.7 bar. Both layers have optical depth increasing toward southern hemisphere. This work was supported by grants from the Space Telescope Science Institute.
Radiative charge transfer and radiative association in He{sup +}+ Ne collisions
Liu, X. J.; Xiao, B. J.; Qu, Y. Z.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, C. H.; Wang, J. G.; Buenker, R. J.
2010-02-15
A fully quantum-mechanical approach is utilized to study the collision process of He{sup +} with neutral neon, and the radiative charge transfer (RCT) and radiative association (RA) cross sections are presented in the energy range from 0.08 meV to 1 eV, while the optical potential and semiclassical methods are adopted to calculate the total radiative decay cross sections for energies from 0.08 meV to 5 keV. The potential energy curves and dipole transition matrix elements are obtained by an ab initio multireference configuration interaction package. For the related three lowest X {sup 2{Sigma}+}, A {sup 2{Pi}}, and B {sup 2{Sigma}+} states, the spectroscopic data are in good agreement with other theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. Our results indicate that the RCT cross section is much larger than the nonradiative charge transfer cross section for collision energy E < 20 eV, and when E > 40 eV, the nonradiative process becomes dominant. Especially, we found that in the present collision system the RA process is more important than the RCT process when E < 1 meV. The RCT and RA rate coefficients are also given for temperatures from 1 to 4 x10{sup 3} K.
Martian Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Optimal Spectral Sampling Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eluszkiewicz, J.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Uymin, G.; Moncet, J.-L.
2005-01-01
The large volume of existing and planned infrared observations of Mars have prompted the development of a new martian radiative transfer model that could be used in the retrievals of atmospheric and surface properties. The model is based on the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS) method [1]. The method is a fast and accurate monochromatic technique applicable to a wide range of remote sensing platforms (from microwave to UV) and was originally developed for the real-time processing of infrared and microwave data acquired by instruments aboard the satellites forming part of the next-generation global weather satellite system NPOESS (National Polarorbiting Operational Satellite System) [2]. As part of our on-going research related to the radiative properties of the martian polar caps, we have begun the development of a martian OSS model with the goal of using it to perform self-consistent atmospheric corrections necessary to retrieve caps emissivity from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra. While the caps will provide the initial focus area for applying the new model, it is hoped that the model will be of interest to the wider Mars remote sensing community.
A new Radiative Transfer Model of the Venus atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, C.; Richardson, M. I.
2009-12-01
General Circulation Models (GCMs) of the Venus atmosphere forced with linearized cooling exhibit significant sensitivity to the prescribed heating structure. In order to improve the radiative forcing used in GCMs we have developed a medium resolution, full scattering, radiative transfer model (RTM) to provide optical properties and reference heating conditions for the Venus atmosphere over a wide wavelength range. We describe the components used by the RTM, including an efficient K-coefficient description of the gaseous absorbers, Mie/Henyey-Greenstein scattering by particulate matter in the clouds, Rayleigh scattering by the major gases, continuum absorption, and additional Ultra Violet and Visible gaseuous absorption. The implementation of the RTM is modular and allows any valid wavelength range to be investigated given sufficient optical data. We show the results of validation experiments using the RTM. We calculate fluxes in the near Infra-Red optical windows near 1.0 micron, 1.7 micron and 2.3 micron using native VIRTIS spectral resolution K-coefficients, and degrade the resolution to test the sensitivity to nearby high opacity spectral features. We calculate fluxes and heating rates for a sample profile from the Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA), and additionally provide geometric albedo (0.85), bond albedo (0.72), and downward diffuse and direct solar fluxes at the surface (17W/m/m between 350-750 nm) for the same profile. We discuss the work required to create a suitable self-consistent radiative forcing for a GCM using this RTM. A two-stream implementation is considered and tested using the TWOSTR flux solver and the calculations required to produce a Curtis Matrix algorithm are described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Z.; Yim, S. H. L.; Lau, G.
2016-12-01
Part of organic carbon defined as brown carbon (BrC) has been found to absorb solar radiation, especially in near-ultraviolet and blue bands, but their radiation impact is far less understood than black carbon (BC). Rapid adjustment thought to occur within a few weeks, induced by aerosol radiative effect and thereby alter cloud cover or other climate components. These effects are particularly pronounced for absorbing aerosols. The data gathered is from an online coupled model, WRF-Chem. A two-simulation test is conducted from July 8 to July 15. The baseline simulation doesn't account for aerosol-radiation interactions, whereas the sensitivity run includes it. The differences between these two simulations represent total effects of the aerosol instantaneous radiative forcing and subsequent rapid adjustment. In Figure 1, without cloud effect (clear sky), at the top of atmosphere (TOA), the SW radiation changes are negative in the PRD region, representing an overall cooling effect of aerosols. However, in the atmosphere (ATM), aerosols heat the atmosphere by absorbing incoming solar radiation with an average of 2.4 W/m2 (Table 1). After including rapid adjustment (all sky), the radiation change pattern becomes significantly different, especially at TOA and surface (SFC). This may be caused by cloud cover change due to rapid adjustment. The magnitude of SW radiation changes for all sky at all levels is smaller than that for clear sky. This result suggests the rapid adjustment counteracts the instantaneous radiative forcing of aerosols. At TOA, the cooling effect of the aerosol is 74% lower for all sky compared with clear sky, highlighting an overall warming effect of rapid adjustment in the PRD region. Aerosol-induced changes (W/m2) TOA ATM SFC Clear Sky -9.2 2.4 -11.6 All Sky -2.4 1.9 -4.3 Table 1. Aerosol-induced averaged changes in shortwave radiation due to aerosol-radiation interactions in the Pearl River Delta. The test shows the rapid adjustment of aerosols
Ultra-rapid plasma freezing with halocarbon heat transfer liquids
Coelho, P.H.; Comerchero, V.
1988-03-15
A process of freezing plasma is described comprising the steps of exposing thin wall containers of plasma to be frozen to direct contact with a heat transfer liquid selected from the group consisting of the chlorofluorocarbon 1,1,2 trichloro-1,2,2, trifluoro-ethane (CFC 113) and mixtures of the chlorofluorocarbon 1,1,2 trichloro-1,2,2, trifluoro-ethane (Freon 113) and at least one of the fluorocarbons perfluoropentane (C/sub 5/F/sub 12/), perfluorohexane (C/sub 6/F/sub 14/), perfluoromethylcyclohexane (C/sub 7/F/sub 14/), perfluoroheptane (C/sub 7/F/sub 16/), perfluoromonomethyldimethylcyclohexanes (C/sub 7/F/sub 14/C/sub 8/F/sub 16/), perfluorodecalin isomers (C/sub 10/F/sub 18/), mixed perfluorodecalin and methyldecalin isomers (C/sub 10/F/sub 18/+C/sub 11/F/sub 20/), and perfluorinatd polyethers ((OCF(CF/sub 3/)CF/sub 2/)/sub n/ - (OCF/sub 2/)/sub m/, and maintaining the liquid at a temperature sufficiently low enough to freeze the plasma in the desired amount of time.
Radiative transfer in cylindrical threads with incident radiation. VII. Multi-thread models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labrosse, N.; Rodger, A. S.
2016-03-01
Aims: Our aim is to improve on previous radiative transfer calculations in illuminated cylindrical threads to better understand the physical conditions in cool solar chromospheric and coronal structures commonly observed in hydrogen and helium lines. Methods: We solved the radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations in a two-dimensional cross-section of a cylindrical structure oriented horizontally and lying above the solar surface. The cylinder is filled with a mixture of hydrogen and helium and is illuminated at a given altitude from the solar disc. We constructed simple models made from a single thread or from an ensemble of several threads along the line of sight. This first use of two-dimensional, multi-thread fine structure modelling combining hydrogen and helium radiative transfer allowed us to compute synthetic emergent spectra from cylindrical structures and to study the effect of line-of-sight integration of an ensemble of threads under a range of physical conditions. We analysed the effects of variations in temperature distribution and in gas pressure. We considered the effect of multi-thread structures within a given field of view and the effect of peculiar velocities between the structures in a multi-thread model. We compared these new models to the single thread model and tested them with varying parameters. Results: The presence of a temperature gradient, with temperature increasing towards the edge of the cylindrical thread, reduces the relative importance of the incident radiation coming from the solar disc on the emergent intensities of most hydrogen and helium lines. We also find that when assuming randomly displaced threads in a given field of view, the integrated intensities of optically thick and thin transitions behave considerably differently. In optically thin lines, the emergent intensity increases proportionally with the number of threads, and the spatial variation of the intensity becomes increasingly homogeneous. Optically
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hauschildt, P. H.
1992-01-01
A fast method for the solution of the radiative transfer equation in rapidly moving spherical media, based on an approximate Lambda-operator iteration, is described. The method uses the short characteristic method and a tridiagonal approximate Lambda-operator to achieve fast convergence. The convergence properties and the CPU time requirements of the method are discussed for the test problem of a two-level atom with background continuum absorption and Thomson scattering. Details of the actual implementation for fast vector and parallel computers are given. The method is accurate and fast enough to be incorporated in radiation-hydrodynamic calculations.
A scalable plant-resolving radiative transfer model based on optimized GPU ray tracing
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
A new model for radiative transfer in participating media and its application to complex plant canopies is presented. The goal was to be able to efficiently solve complex canopy-scale radiative transfer problems while also representing sub-plant heterogeneity. In the model, individual leaf surfaces ...
2015-03-26
each panel. The laboratory-collected data is comprised of spectral hemispherical, specular, and diffuse directional reflectance (HDR, SDR , and DDR...Radiative Transfer Model (HDR only) ..........................................................19 Expanded Radiative Transfer Model (HDR, DDR, and SDR ...37 Figure 8. HDR, DDR, and SDR of an aged sample of Infragold® ................................. 40 Figure 9
Classification and radiative-transfer modeling of meteorite spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pentikäinen, H.; Penttilä, A.; Peltoniemi, J.; Muinonen, K.
2014-07-01
The interpretation of asteroid spectra is closely tied to surface structure and composition. Asteroid surfaces are usually assumed to be covered with a regolith, which is a mixture of mineral grains ranging from micrometers to centimeters in size. The inverse problem of deducing the characteristics of the grains from the scattering of light (e.g., using photometric and polarimetric observations) is difficult. Meteorite spectroscopy can be a valuable alternative source of information considering that unweathered meteoritic ''falls'' are almost pristine samples of their parent bodies. Reflectance spectra of 18 different meteorite samples were measured with the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer (FIGIFIGO) covering a wavelength range of 450--2250 nm [1,2]. The measurements expand the database of reflectance spectra obtained by Paton et al. [3] and Gaffey [4]. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) performed on the spectra indicates a separation of the undifferentiated ordinary chondrites and the differentiated achondrites. The principal components also suggest a discrimination between the spectra of ordinary chondrites with petrologic grades 5 and 6. The distinction is not present when the data are supplemented with the spectra from the two other data sets obtained with differing measuring techniques. To further investigate the different classifications, the PCA is implemented with selected spectral features contrary to the previous analyses, which encompassed the complete spectra. Single-scattering albedos for meteoritic fundamental scatterers were derived with a Monte Carlo radiative-transfer model [1]. In the derivation, realistic scattering phase functions were utilized. The functions were obtained by fitting triple Henyey-Greenstein functions to the measured scattering phase functions of olivine powder for two different size distributions [5,6]. The simulated reflectances for different scattering phase functions were matched to the measured meteorite
An easy algorithm for solving radiative transfer equation in clear atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jingmei; Qiu, Jinhuan
1992-12-01
An accurate and rapid method for solving radiative transfer equation is presented in this paper. According to the fact that the multiple scattering component of radiance is less sensitive to the error of phase function than the single scattering component is, we calculate the multiple scattering component by using delta-Eddington approximation and the single scattering component by solving radiative transfer equation. On the ground, when multiple sattering component is small, for example, when the total optical depth τ is small, the accurate radiance can be obtained with this method. For the need of the space remote sensing, the upward radiance at the top of the atmosphere is mainly studied, and an approximate expression is presented to correct the multiple scattering component. Compared with the more precise Gauss-Seidel method, the results from this method show an accuracy of better than 10% when zenith angle θ<50° and τ≤1. The computational speed of this method is, however, much faster than that of Gauss-Seidel method.
Lessons Learned from Radiative Transfer Simulations of the Venus Atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arney, G.; Meadows, V. S.; Lincowski, A.
2017-01-01
The Venus atmosphere is extremely complex, and because of this the spectrum of Earths sister planet is likewise intricate and a challenge to model accurately. However, accurate modeling of Venus spectrum opens up multiple opportunities to better understand the planet next door, and even for understanding Venus-like planets beyond our solar system. Near-infrared (1-2.5 um, NIR) spectral windows observable on the Venus nigthside present the opportunity to probe beneath the Venusian cloud deck and measure thermal emission from the surface and lower atmosphere remotely from Earth or from orbit. These nigthside spectral windows were discovered by Allen and Crawford (1984) and have since been used measure trace gas abundances in the Venus lower atmosphere (less than 45 km), map surface emissivity varisions, and measure properties of the lower cloud deck. These windows sample radiation from below the cloud base at roughly 45 km, and pressures in this region range from roughly Earthlike (approx. 1 bar) up to 90 bars at the surface. Temperatures in this region are high: they range from about 400 K at the base of the cloud deck up to about 740 K at the surface. This high temperature and pressure presents several challenges to modelers attempting radiative transfer simulations of this region of the atmosphere, which we will review. Venus is also important to spectrally model to predict the remote observables of Venus-like exoplanets in anticipation of data from future observatories. Venus-like planets are likely one of the most common types of terrestrial planets and so simulations of them are valuable for planning observatory and detector properties of future telescopes being designed, as well as predicting the types of observations required to characterize them.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATION TRANSFER IN YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS
Whitney, B. A.; Honor, J.; Robitaille, T. P.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Dong, R.; Wolff, M. J.; Wood, K.
2013-08-15
We have updated our publicly available dust radiative transfer code (HOCHUNK3D) to include new emission processes and various three-dimensional (3D) geometries appropriate for forming stars. The 3D geometries include warps and spirals in disks, accretion hotspots on the central star, fractal clumping density enhancements, and misaligned inner disks. Additional axisymmetric (2D) features include gaps in disks and envelopes, ''puffed-up inner rims'' in disks, multiple bipolar cavity walls, and iteration of disk vertical structure assuming hydrostatic equilibrium (HSEQ). We include the option for simple power-law envelope geometry, which, combined with fractal clumping and bipolar cavities, can be used to model evolved stars as well as protostars. We include non-thermal emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains, and external illumination from the interstellar radiation field. The grid structure was modified to allow multiple dust species in each cell; based on this, a simple prescription is implemented to model dust stratification. We describe these features in detail, and show example calculations of each. Some of the more interesting results include the following: (1) outflow cavities may be more clumpy than infalling envelopes. (2) PAH emission in high-mass stars may be a better indicator of evolutionary stage than the broadband spectral energy distribution slope; and related to this, (3) externally illuminated clumps and high-mass stars in optically thin clouds can masquerade as young stellar objects. (4) Our HSEQ models suggest that dust settling is likely ubiquitous in T Tauri disks, in agreement with previous observations.
Rapid radiation in bacteria leads to a division of labour
Kim, Wook; Levy, Stuart B.; Foster, Kevin R.
2016-01-01
The division of labour is a central feature of the most sophisticated biological systems, including genomes, multicellular organisms and societies, which took millions of years to evolve. Here we show that a well-organized and robust division of labour can evolve in a matter of days. Mutants emerge within bacterial colonies and work with the parent strain to gain new territory. The two strains self-organize in space: one provides a wetting polymer at the colony edge, whereas the other sits behind and pushes them both along. The emergence of the interaction is repeatable, bidirectional and only requires a single mutation to alter production of the intracellular messenger, cyclic-di-GMP. Our work demonstrates the power of the division of labour to rapidly solve biological problems without the need for long-term evolution or derived sociality. We predict that the division of labour will evolve frequently in microbial populations, where rapid genetic diversification is common. PMID:26852925
Radiative heat transfer in anisotropic many-body systems: Tuning and enhancement
Nikbakht, Moladad
2014-09-07
A general formalism for calculating the radiative heat transfer in many body systems with anisotropic component is presented. Our scheme extends the theory of radiative heat transfer in isotropic many body systems to anisotropic cases. In addition, the radiative heating of the particles by the thermal bath is taken into account in our formula. It is shown that the radiative heat exchange (HE) between anisotropic particles and their radiative cooling/heating (RCH) could be enhanced several order of magnitude than that of isotropic particles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both the HE and RCH can be tuned dramatically by particles relative orientation in many body systems.
Numerical Investigation of Radiative Heat Transfer in Laser Induced Air Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, J.; Chen, Y. S.; Wang, T. S.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Radiative heat transfer is one of the most important phenomena in the laser induced plasmas. This study is intended to develop accurate and efficient methods for predicting laser radiation absorption and plasma radiative heat transfer, and investigate the plasma radiation effects in laser propelled vehicles. To model laser radiation absorption, a ray tracing method along with the Beer's law is adopted. To solve the radiative transfer equation in the air plasmas, the discrete transfer method (DTM) is selected and explained. The air plasma radiative properties are predicted by the LORAN code. To validate the present nonequilibrium radiation model, several benchmark problems are examined and the present results are found to match the available solutions. To investigate the effects of plasma radiation in laser propelled vehicles, the present radiation code is coupled into a plasma aerodynamics code and a selected problem is considered. Comparisons of results at different cases show that plasma radiation plays a role of cooling plasma and it lowers the plasma temperature by about 10%. This change in temperature also results in a reduction of the coupling coefficient by about 10-20%. The present study indicates that plasma radiation modeling is very important for accurate modeling of aerodynamics in a laser propelled vehicle.
Enabling Radiative Transfer on AMR grids in CRASH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hariharan, N.; Graziani, L.; Ciardi, B.; Miniati, F.; Bungartz, H.-J.
2017-05-01
We introduce crash-amr, a new version of the cosmological radiative transfer (RT) code crash, enabled to use refined grids. This new feature allows us to attain higher resolution in our RT simulations and thus to describe more accurately ionization and temperature patterns in high-density regions. We have tested crash-amr by simulating the evolution of an ionized region produced by a single source embedded in gas at constant density, as well as by a more realistic configuration of multiple sources in an inhomogeneous density field. While we find an excellent agreement with the previous version of crash when the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) feature is disabled, showing that no numerical artefact has been introduced in crash-amr, when additional refinement levels are used the code can simulate more accurately the physics of ionized gas in high-density regions. This result has been attained at no computational loss, as RT simulations on AMR grids with maximum resolution equivalent to that of a uniform Cartesian grid can be run with a gain of up to 60 per cent in computational time.
Radiation Transfer Model for Aerosol Events in the Earth Atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukai, Sonoyo; Yokomae, Takuma; Nakata, Makiko; Sano, Itaru
Recently large scale-forest fire, which damages the Earth environment as biomass burning and emission of carbonaceous particles, frequently occurs due to the unstable climate and/or global warming tendency. It is also known that the heavy soil dust is transported from the China continent to Japan on westerly winds, especially in spring. Furthermore the increasing emis-sions of anthropogenic particles associated with continuing economic growth scatter serious air pollutants. Thus atmospheric aerosols, especially in Asia, are very complex and heavy loading, which is called aerosol event. In the case of aerosol events, it is rather difficult to do the sun/sky photometry from the ground, however satellite observation is an effective for aerosol monitoring. Here the detection algorithms from space for such aerosol events as dust storm or biomass burn-ing are dealt with multispectral satellite data as ADEOS-2/GLI, Terra/Aqua/MODIS and/or GOSAT/CAI first. And then aerosol retrieval algorithms are examined based on new radiation transfer code for semi-infinite atmosphere model. The derived space-based results are validated with ground-based measurements and/or model simulations. Namely the space-or surface-based measurements, multiple scattering calculations and model simulations are synthesized together for aerosol retrieval in this work.
Test plan for validation of the radiative transfer equation.
Ricks, Allen Joseph; Grasser, Thomas W.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Jernigan, Dann A.; Blanchat, Thomas K.
2010-09-01
As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide soot volume fraction/temperature data and heat flux (intensity) data for the validation of models for the radiative transfer equation. In addition, a complete set of boundary condition measurements will be taken to allow full fire predictions for validation of the entire fire model. The experiments will be performed with a lightly-sooting liquid hydrocarbon fuel fire in the fully turbulent scale range (2 m diameter).
SRTC++: a New Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer Model for Titan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, Jason W.; MacKenzie, Shannon; Young, Eliot F.
2016-10-01
Titan's vertically extended and highly scattering atmosphere poses a challenge to interpreting near-infrared observations of its surface. Not only does Titan's extended atmosphere often require accommodation of its spherical geometry, it is also difficult to separate surface albedos from scattering or absorption within low-altitude atmospheric layers. One way to disentangle the surface and atmosphere is to combine observations in which terrain on Titan is imaged from a range of viewing geometries. To address this type of problem, we have developed a new algorithm, Spherical Radiative Transfer in C++ or SRTC++.This code is written from scratch in fast C++ and designed from the ground up to run efficiently in parallel. We see SRTC++ as complementary to existing plane-parallel codes, not in competition with them as the first problems that we seek to address will be spatial in nature. For example, we will be able to investigate spatial resolution limits in the various spectral windows, discrimination of vertical atmospheric layers, the adjacency effect, and indirect illumination past Titan's terminator.
Algorithmic vs. finite difference Jacobians for infrared atmospheric radiative transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreier, Franz; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Vasquez, Mayte; Xu, Jian
2015-10-01
Jacobians, i.e. partial derivatives of the radiance and transmission spectrum with respect to the atmospheric state parameters to be retrieved from remote sensing observations, are important for the iterative solution of the nonlinear inverse problem. Finite difference Jacobians are easy to implement, but computationally expensive and possibly of dubious quality; on the other hand, analytical Jacobians are accurate and efficient, but the implementation can be quite demanding. GARLIC, our "Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Infrared Code", utilizes algorithmic differentiation (AD) techniques to implement derivatives w.r.t. atmospheric temperature and molecular concentrations. In this paper, we describe our approach for differentiation of the high resolution infrared and microwave spectra and provide an in-depth assessment of finite difference approximations using "exact" AD Jacobians as a reference. The results indicate that the "standard" two-point finite differences with 1 K and 1% perturbation for temperature and volume mixing ratio, respectively, can exhibit substantial errors, and central differences are significantly better. However, these deviations do not transfer into the truncated singular value decomposition solution of a least squares problem. Nevertheless, AD Jacobians are clearly recommended because of the superior speed and accuracy.
Inversion of the radiative transfer equation for polarized light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
del Toro Iniesta, Jose Carlos; Ruiz Cobo, Basilio
2016-12-01
Since the early 1970s, inversion techniques have become the most useful tool for inferring the magnetic, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties of the solar atmosphere. Inversions have been proposed in the literature with a sequential increase in model complexity: astrophysical inferences depend not only on measurements but also on the physics assumed to prevail both on the formation of the spectral line Stokes profiles and on their detection with the instrument. Such an intrinsic model dependence makes it necessary to formulate specific means that include the physics in a properly quantitative way. The core of this physics lies in the radiative transfer equation (RTE), where the properties of the atmosphere are assumed to be known while the unknowns are the four Stokes profiles. The solution of the (differential) RTE is known as the direct or forward problem. From an observational point of view, the problem is rather the opposite: the data are made up of the observed Stokes profiles and the unknowns are the solar physical quantities. Inverting the RTE is therefore mandatory. Indeed, the formal solution of this equation can be considered an integral equation. The solution of such an integral equation is called the inverse problem. Inversion techniques are automated codes aimed at solving the inverse problem. The foundations of inversion techniques are critically revisited with an emphasis on making explicit the many assumptions underlying each of them.
Advanced Doubling Adding Method for Radiative Transfer in Planetary Atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Quanhua; Weng, Fuzhong
2006-12-01
The doubling adding method (DA) is one of the most accurate tools for detailed multiple-scattering calculations. The principle of the method goes back to the nineteenth century in a problem dealing with reflection and transmission by glass plates. Since then the doubling adding method has been widely used as a reference tool for other radiative transfer models. The method has never been used in operational applications owing to tremendous demand on computational resources from the model. This study derives an analytical expression replacing the most complicated thermal source terms in the doubling adding method. The new development is called the advanced doubling adding (ADA) method. Thanks also to the efficiency of matrix and vector manipulations in FORTRAN 90/95, the advanced doubling adding method is about 60 times faster than the doubling adding method. The radiance (i.e., forward) computation code of ADA is easily translated into tangent linear and adjoint codes for radiance gradient calculations. The simplicity in forward and Jacobian computation codes is very useful for operational applications and for the consistency between the forward and adjoint calculations in satellite data assimilation.
Enabling Radiative Transfer on AMR grids in CRASH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hariharan, N.; Graziani, L.; Ciardi, B.; Miniati, F.; Bungartz, H.-J.
2017-01-01
We introduce CRASH-AMR, a new version of the cosmological Radiative Transfer (RT) code CRASH, enabled to use refined grids. This new feature allows us to attain higher resolution in our RT simulations and thus to describe more accurately ionisation and temperature patterns in high density regions. We have tested CRASH-AMR by simulating the evolution of an ionised region produced by a single source embedded in gas at constant density, as well as by a more realistic configuration of multiple sources in an inhomogeneous density field. While we find an excellent agreement with the previous version of CRASH when the AMR feature is disabled, showing that no numerical artifact has been introduced in CRASH-AMR, when additional refinement levels are used the code can simulate more accurately the physics of ionised gas in high density regions. This result has been attained at no computational loss, as RT simulations on AMR grids with maximum resolution equivalent to that of a uniform cartesian grid can be run with a gain of up to 60% in computational time.
Sparse tensor spherical harmonics approximation in radiative transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grella, K.; Schwab, Ch.
2011-09-01
The stationary monochromatic radiative transfer equation is a partial differential transport equation stated on a five-dimensional phase space. To obtain a well-posed problem, boundary conditions have to be prescribed on the inflow part of the domain boundary. We solve the equation with a multi-level Galerkin FEM in physical space and a spectral discretization with harmonics in solid angle and show that the benefits of the concept of sparse tensor products, known from the context of sparse grids, can also be leveraged in combination with a spectral discretization. Our method allows us to include high spectral orders without incurring the "curse of dimension" of a five-dimensional computational domain. Neglecting boundary conditions, we find analytically that for smooth solutions, the convergence rate of the full tensor product method is retained in our method up to a logarithmic factor, while the number of degrees of freedom grows essentially only as fast as for the purely spatial problem. For the case with boundary conditions, we propose a splitting of the physical function space and a conforming tensorization. Numerical experiments in two physical and one angular dimension show evidence for the theoretical convergence rates to hold in the latter case as well.
Radiative Transfer Modeling of Uranus' Atmospheric Structure at Equinox
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norwood, James; Chanover, N.
2009-09-01
We acquired near-infrared spectra of Uranus near equinox at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in September 2006 and September 2007. These spectra, taken with SpeX (R=2000), probe Uranus' atmosphere between 0.8 and 2.4 microns. The position of the slit over the Uranian disk was varied to obtain spectra from all visible latitudes. Assessment of these observations has revealed that Uranus' atmospheric structure not only changes with latitude, but also underwent notable evolution near its 2007 equinox in the twelve-month time span between datasets (2009, Icarus, in press). We now present results from an in-depth analysis of these observations using a radiative transfer code. This code creates synthetic spectra based on model atmospheres, and utilizes the band-model methane absorption coefficients determined by Irwin et al. (2006, Icarus 181, 309-319). Properties of Uranus' atmosphere, such as methane abundance and vertical structure, are varied to determine which conditions are best able to reproduce the observed spectra. We further determine what physical changes resulted in the temporal and latitudinal variations witnessed in Uranus' atmosphere. This project was funded by a NASA Earth and Space Fellowship.
Verification of snowpack radiation transfer models using actinometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Gavin J.; Simpson, William R.
2005-04-01
Actinometric measurements of photolysis rate coefficients within artificial snow have been used to test calculations of these coefficients by two radiative transfer models. The models used were based upon the delta-Eddington method or the discrete ordinate method, as implemented in the tropospheric ultraviolet and visible snow model, and were constrained by irradiance measurements and light attenuation profiles within the artificial snow. Actinometric measurements of the photolysis rate coefficient were made by observing the unimolecular conversion of 2-nitrobenzaldehyde (NBA) to its photoproduct under ultraviolet irradiation. A control experiment using liquid solutions of NBA determined that the quantum yield for conversion was ϕ = 0.41 ± 0.04 (±2σ). Measured photolysis rate coefficients in the artificial snow are enhanced in the near-surface layer, as predicted in the model calculations. The two models yielded essentially identical results for the depth-integrated photolysis rate coefficient of NBA, and their results quantitatively agreed with the actinometric measurements within the experimental precision of the measurement (±10%, ±2σ). The study shows that these models accurately determine snowpack actinic fluxes. To calculate in-snow photolysis rates for a molecule of interest, one must also have knowledge of the absorption spectrum and quantum yield for the specific photoprocess in addition to the actinic flux. Having demonstrated that the actinic flux is well determined by these models, we find that the major remaining uncertainty in prediction of snowpack photochemical rates is the measurement of these molecular photophysical properties.
Numerical model for combined conductive and radiative heat transfer in annular packed beds
Kamiuto, K.; Saito, S.; Ito, K. . Dept. of Production Systems Engineering)
1993-06-01
A numerical model is developed for quantitatively analyzing combined conductive and radiative heat transfer in concentric annular packed beds. A packed bed is considered to be a continuous medium for heat transfer, but the porosity distribution within a packed bed is taken into account. To examine the validity of the proposed model, combined conductive and radiative heat transfer through annular packed beds of cordierite or porcelain beads is analyzed numerically using finite differences under conditions corresponding to heat transfer experiments of these packed beds. The resultant temperature profiles and heat transfer characteristics are compared with the experimental results.
Parameterization and Analysis of 3-D Solar Radiative Transfer in Clouds: Final Report
Jerry Y. Harrington
2012-09-21
This document reports on the research that we have done over the course of our two-year project. The report also covers the research done on this project during a 1 year no-cost extension of the grant. Our work has had two main, inter-related thrusts: The first thrust was to characterize the response of stratocumulus cloud structure and dynamics to systematic changes in cloud infrared radiative cooling and solar heating using one-dimensional radiative transfer models. The second was to couple a three-dimensional (3-D) solar radiative transfer model to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model that we use to simulate stratocumulus. The purpose of the studies with 3-D radiative transfer was to examine the possible influences of 3-D photon transport on the structure, evolution, and radiative properties of stratocumulus. While 3-D radiative transport has been examined in static cloud environments, few studies have attempted to examine whether the 3-D nature of radiative absorption and emission influence the structure and evolution of stratocumulus. We undertook this dual approach because only a small number of LES simulations with the 3-D radiative transfer model are possible due to the high computational costs. Consequently, LES simulations with a 1-D radiative transfer solver were used in order to examine the portions of stratocumulus parameter space that may be most sensitive to perturbations in the radiative fields. The goal was then to explore these sensitive regions with LES using full 3-D radiative transfer. Our overall goal was to discover whether 3-D radiative processes alter cloud structure and evolution, and whether this may have any indirect implications for cloud radiative properties. In addition, we collaborated with Dr. Tamas Varni, providing model output fields for his attempt at parameterizing 3-D radiative effects for cloud models.
Preliminary investigation on the radiation transfer in dynamic hohlraums on the PTS facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Delong; Ye, Fan; Meng, Shijian; Ning, Jiamin; Qin, Yi; Hu, Qingyuan; Huang, Zhanchang; Yang, Jianlun; Chen, Faxin; Jiang, Shuqing; Ding, Ning; Xu, Rongkun; Xue, Chuang; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Shunkai; Shu, Xiaojian
2017-09-01
The radiation transfer in dynamic hohlraums on the PTS facility is preliminarily investigated in this paper. Simulation results show that as the accelerated wire-array plasma impacts onto the foam converter, energy thermalization takes place in a local interaction region near the boundary of the wire-array plasma and the foam converter, and then, high temperature radiation is gradually generated. Its transfer process largely depends on the radiation temperature and the mass density of the converter. When the mass ratio of the wire-array to the converter is near 1.0, the radiation temperature can be increased to about 120 eV with the PTS drive current. In this case, the radiation generated from the interaction region will quickly transfer to the center of the converter. The experimental end-on x-ray images present the overall process of radiation production and transfer of this kind of dynamic hohlraum. As the mass ratio is decreased, the radiation temperature will also be deceased, and the converter will become more opaque to the radiation. In the case of extremely low mass ratios such as lower than 0.3, the peak radiation temperature will be much lower than 100 eV, and the radiation transfers slowly to the interior of the converter and presents large non-uniformity, which is also observed in experiments on the PTS facility.
On the dynamics of a radiative rapidly rotating star
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rieutord, M.; Espinosa Lara, F.
2009-07-01
The envelope of massive rapidly rotating stars is pervaded by baroclinic fluid flows, namely a differential rotation with a meridional circulation and likely a small-scale turbulence. We present here some of the first results of the ESTER project (Evolution STEllaire en Rotation). More specifically, using for the first time the spheroidal geometry, we give the shape of the differential rotation and show that the baroclinic torque imposes a fast rotating core and a slow envelope, together with a slow pole and a fast equator. The angular velocity of the core is 50% larger than that of the envelope.
Design Review Closure Report for the SY-101 Rapid Transfer System
POWELL, W.J.
1999-11-29
The purpose of this report, is to document closure of design review open items, resulting from design reviews conducted for the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Transfer System. Results of the various design reviews were documented in the Design Review Report for The SY-101 Rapid Mitigation System, HNF-4519. In that report, twenty-three open items were identified. In this report the 23 items are reviewed and statused.
Radiative transfer calculated from a Markov chain formalism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Esposito, L. W.; House, L. L.
1978-01-01
The theory of Markov chains is used to formulate the radiative transport problem in a general way by modeling the successive interactions of a photon as a stochastic process. Under the minimal requirement that the stochastic process is a Markov chain, the determination of the diffuse reflection or transmission from a scattering atmosphere is equivalent to the solution of a system of linear equations. This treatment is mathematically equivalent to, and thus has many of the advantages of, Monte Carlo methods, but can be considerably more rapid than Monte Carlo algorithms for numerical calculations in particular applications. We have verified the speed and accuracy of this formalism for the standard problem of finding the intensity of scattered light from a homogeneous plane-parallel atmosphere with an arbitrary phase function for scattering. Accurate results over a wide range of parameters were obtained with computation times comparable to those of a standard 'doubling' routine. The generality of this formalism thus allows fast, direct solutions to problems that were previously soluble only by Monte Carlo methods. Some comparisons are made with respect to integral equation methods.
High-order solution methods for grey discrete ordinates thermal radiative transfer
Maginot, Peter G.; Ragusa, Jean C.; Morel, Jim E.
2016-09-29
This paper presents a solution methodology for solving the grey radiative transfer equations that is both spatially and temporally more accurate than the canonical radiative transfer solution technique of linear discontinuous finite element discretization in space with implicit Euler integration in time. We solve the grey radiative transfer equations by fully converging the nonlinear temperature dependence of the material specific heat, material opacities, and Planck function. The grey radiative transfer equations are discretized in space using arbitrary-order self-lumping discontinuous finite elements and integrated in time with arbitrary-order diagonally implicit Runge–Kutta time integration techniques. Iterative convergence of the radiation equation is accelerated using a modified interior penalty diffusion operator to precondition the full discrete ordinates transport operator.
High-order solution methods for grey discrete ordinates thermal radiative transfer
Maginot, Peter G.; Ragusa, Jean C.; Morel, Jim E.
2016-12-15
This work presents a solution methodology for solving the grey radiative transfer equations that is both spatially and temporally more accurate than the canonical radiative transfer solution technique of linear discontinuous finite element discretization in space with implicit Euler integration in time. We solve the grey radiative transfer equations by fully converging the nonlinear temperature dependence of the material specific heat, material opacities, and Planck function. The grey radiative transfer equations are discretized in space using arbitrary-order self-lumping discontinuous finite elements and integrated in time with arbitrary-order diagonally implicit Runge–Kutta time integration techniques. Iterative convergence of the radiation equation is accelerated using a modified interior penalty diffusion operator to precondition the full discrete ordinates transport operator.
A passive and active microwave-vector radiative transfer (PAM-VRT) model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jun; Min, Qilong
2015-11-01
A passive and active microwave vector radiative transfer (PAM-VRT) package has been developed. This fast and accurate forward microwave model, with flexible and versatile input and output components, self-consistently and realistically simulates measurements/radiation of passive and active microwave sensors. The core PAM-VRT, microwave radiative transfer model, consists of five modules: gas absorption (two line-by-line databases and four fast models); hydrometeor property of water droplets and ice (spherical and nonspherical) particles; surface emissivity (from Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM)); vector radiative transfer of successive order of scattering (VSOS); and passive and active microwave simulation. The PAM-VRT package has been validated against other existing models, demonstrating good accuracy. The PAM-VRT not only can be used to simulate or assimilate measurements of existing microwave sensors, but also can be used to simulate observation results at some new microwave sensors.
High-order solution methods for grey discrete ordinates thermal radiative transfer
Maginot, Peter G.; Ragusa, Jean C.; Morel, Jim E.
2016-09-29
This paper presents a solution methodology for solving the grey radiative transfer equations that is both spatially and temporally more accurate than the canonical radiative transfer solution technique of linear discontinuous finite element discretization in space with implicit Euler integration in time. We solve the grey radiative transfer equations by fully converging the nonlinear temperature dependence of the material specific heat, material opacities, and Planck function. The grey radiative transfer equations are discretized in space using arbitrary-order self-lumping discontinuous finite elements and integrated in time with arbitrary-order diagonally implicit Runge–Kutta time integration techniques. Iterative convergence of the radiation equation is accelerated using a modified interior penalty diffusion operator to precondition the full discrete ordinates transport operator.
High-order solution methods for grey discrete ordinates thermal radiative transfer
Maginot, Peter G.; Ragusa, Jean C.; Morel, Jim E.
2016-09-29
This paper presents a solution methodology for solving the grey radiative transfer equations that is both spatially and temporally more accurate than the canonical radiative transfer solution technique of linear discontinuous finite element discretization in space with implicit Euler integration in time. We solve the grey radiative transfer equations by fully converging the nonlinear temperature dependence of the material specific heat, material opacities, and Planck function. The grey radiative transfer equations are discretized in space using arbitrary-order self-lumping discontinuous finite elements and integrated in time with arbitrary-order diagonally implicit Runge–Kutta time integration techniques. Iterative convergence of the radiation equation ismore » accelerated using a modified interior penalty diffusion operator to precondition the full discrete ordinates transport operator.« less
Founder effects initiated rapid species radiation in Hawaiian cave planthoppers
Wessel, Andreas; Hoch, Hannelore; Asche, Manfred; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Heck, Volker; Stone, Fred D.; Howarth, Francis G.
2013-01-01
The Hawaiian Islands provide the venue of one of nature’s grand experiments in evolution. Here, we present morphological, behavioral, genetic, and geologic data from a young subterranean insect lineage in lava tube caves on Hawai‘i Island. The Oliarus polyphemus species complex has the potential to become a model for studying rapid speciation by stochastic events. All species in this lineage live in extremely similar environments but show strong differentiation in behavioral and morphometric characters, which are random with respect to cave age and geographic distribution. Our observation that phenotypic variability within populations decreases with increasing cave age challenges traditional views on founder effects. Furthermore, these cave populations are natural replicates that can be used to test the contradictory hypotheses. Moreover, Hawaiian cave planthoppers exhibit one of the highest speciation rates among animals and, thus, radically shift our perception on the evolutionary potential of obligate cavernicoles. PMID:23696661
Founder effects initiated rapid species radiation in Hawaiian cave planthoppers.
Wessel, Andreas; Hoch, Hannelore; Asche, Manfred; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Heck, Volker; Stone, Fred D; Howarth, Francis G
2013-06-04
The Hawaiian Islands provide the venue of one of nature's grand experiments in evolution. Here, we present morphological, behavioral, genetic, and geologic data from a young subterranean insect lineage in lava tube caves on Hawai'i Island. The Oliarus polyphemus species complex has the potential to become a model for studying rapid speciation by stochastic events. All species in this lineage live in extremely similar environments but show strong differentiation in behavioral and morphometric characters, which are random with respect to cave age and geographic distribution. Our observation that phenotypic variability within populations decreases with increasing cave age challenges traditional views on founder effects. Furthermore, these cave populations are natural replicates that can be used to test the contradictory hypotheses. Moreover, Hawaiian cave planthoppers exhibit one of the highest speciation rates among animals and, thus, radically shift our perception on the evolutionary potential of obligate cavernicoles.
The rapid-dispersal approximation in radiative atomic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sudbery, A.
1988-11-01
We discuss the assumption that in the decay of an unstable system the decay products rapidly disperse immediately after their formation. This assumption, a version of the Weisskopf-Wigner assumption of a broad energy spectrum, makes it possible to obtain detailed expressions for the time development of the decaying system. It is shown to follow from quantum electrodynamics, with no further assumptions, for spontaneous emission by atoms. It is used to give simple and intuitive treatments of spontaneous emission and resonance fluorescence, in the Schrödinger picture and with the focus on photons rather than electromagnetic field values. The time dependence of the lineshape is discussed, and it is shown that the effect of detection of photons at finite times after emission is to give an overall lineshape which is not Lorentzian.
Phylogenetic evidence of a rapid radiation of pleurocarpous mosses (Bryophyta).
Shaw, A J; Cox, C J; Goffinet, B; Buck, W R; Boles, S B
2003-10-01
Pleurocarpous mosses, characterized by lateral female gametangia and highly branched, interwoven stems, comprise three orders and some 5000 species, or almost half of all moss diversity. Recent phylogenetic analyses resolve the Ptychomniales as sister to the Hypnales plus Hookeriales. Species richness is highly asymmetric with approximately 100 Ptychomniales, 750 Hookeriales, and 4400 Hypnales. Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences were obtained to compare partitioning of molecular diversity among the orders with estimates of species richness, and to test the hypothesis that either the Hookeriales or Hypnales underwent a period (or periods) of exceptionally rapid diversification. Levels of biodiversity were quantified using explicitly historical "phylogenetic diversity" and non-historical estimates of standing sequence diversity. Diversification rates were visualized using lineage-through-time (LTT) plots, and statistical tests of alternative diversification models were performed using the methods of Paradis (1997). The effects of incomplete sampling on the shape of LTT plots and performance of statistical tests were investigated using simulated phylogenies with incomplete sampling. Despite a much larger number of accepted species, the Hypnales contain lower levels of (cpDNA) biodiversity than their sister group, the Hookeriales, based on all molecular measures. Simulations confirm previous results that incomplete sampling yields diversification patterns that appear to reflect a decreasing rate through time, even when the true phylogenies were simulated with constant rates. Comparisons between simulated results and empirical data indicate that a constant rate of diversification cannot be rejected for the Hookeriales. The Hypnales, however, appear to have undergone a period of exceptionally rapid diversification for the earliest 20% of their history.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Q.; Gong, P.; Li, W.
2015-02-01
Modeling vegetation photosynthesis is essential for understanding carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The radiative transfer process within plant canopies is one of the key drivers that regulate canopy photosynthesis. Most vegetation cover consists of discrete plant crowns, of which the physical observation departs from the underlying assumption of a homogenous and uniform medium in classic radiative transfer theory. Here we advance the Geometric Optical Radiative Transfer (GORT) model to simulate photosynthesis activities for discontinuous plant canopies. We separate radiation absorption into two components that are absorbed by sunlit and shaded leaves, and derive analytical solutions by integrating over the canopy layer. To model leaf-level and canopy-level photosynthesis, leaf light absorption is then linked to the biochemical process of gas diffusion through leaf stomata. The canopy gap probability derived from GORT differs from classic radiative transfer theory, especially when the leaf area index is high, due to leaf clumping effects. Tree characteristics such as tree density, crown shape, and canopy length affect leaf clumping and regulate radiation interception. Modeled gross primary production (GPP) for two deciduous forest stands could explain more than 80% of the variance of flux tower measurements at both near hourly and daily time scales. We also demonstrate that the ambient CO2 concentration influences daytime vegetation photosynthesis, which needs to be considered in state-of-the-art biogeochemical models. The proposed model is complementary to classic radiative transfer theory and shows promise in modeling the radiative transfer process and photosynthetic activities over discontinuous forest canopies.
HELIOS: A new open-source radiative transfer code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malik, Matej; Grosheintz, Luc; Lukas Grimm, Simon; Mendonça, João; Kitzmann, Daniel; Heng, Kevin
2015-12-01
I present the new open-source code HELIOS, developed to accurately describe radiative transfer in a wide variety of irradiated atmospheres. We employ a one-dimensional multi-wavelength two-stream approach with scattering. Written in Cuda C++, HELIOS uses the GPU’s potential of massive parallelization and is able to compute the TP-profile of an atmosphere in radiative equilibrium and the subsequent emission spectrum in a few minutes on a single computer (for 60 layers and 1000 wavelength bins).The required molecular opacities are obtained with the recently published code HELIOS-K [1], which calculates the line shapes from an input line list and resamples the numerous line-by-line data into a manageable k-distribution format. Based on simple equilibrium chemistry theory [2] we combine the k-distribution functions of the molecules H2O, CO2, CO & CH4 to generate a k-table, which we then employ in HELIOS.I present our results of the following: (i) Various numerical tests, e.g. isothermal vs. non-isothermal treatment of layers. (ii) Comparison of iteratively determined TP-profiles with their analytical parametric prescriptions [3] and of the corresponding spectra. (iii) Benchmarks of TP-profiles & spectra for various elemental abundances. (iv) Benchmarks of averaged TP-profiles & spectra for the exoplanets GJ1214b, HD189733b & HD209458b. (v) Comparison with secondary eclipse data for HD189733b, XO-1b & Corot-2b.HELIOS is being developed, together with the dynamical core THOR and the chemistry solver VULCAN, in the group of Kevin Heng at the University of Bern as part of the Exoclimes Simulation Platform (ESP) [4], which is an open-source project aimed to provide community tools to model exoplanetary atmospheres.-----------------------------[1] Grimm & Heng 2015, ArXiv, 1503.03806[2] Heng, Lyons & Tsai, Arxiv, 1506.05501Heng & Lyons, ArXiv, 1507.01944[3] e.g. Heng, Mendonca & Lee, 2014, ApJS, 215, 4H[4] exoclime.net
Investigation of spectral radiation heat transfer and NO{sub x} emission in a glass furnace
Golchert, B.; Zhou, C. Q.; Chang, S. L.; Petrick, M.
2000-08-02
A comprehensive radiation heat transfer model and a reduced NOx kinetics model were coupled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and then used to investigate the radiation heat transfer, pollutant formation and flow characteristics in a glass furnace. The radiation model solves the spectral radiative transport equation in the combustion space of emitting and absorbing media, i.e., CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and soot and emission/reflection from the furnace crown. The advanced numerical scheme for calculating the radiation heat transfer is extremely effective in conserving energy between radiation emission and absorption. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the impact of operating conditions on the furnace performance with emphasis on the investigation into the formation of NOx.
ULTRAVIOLET RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELING OF NEARBY GALAXIES WITH EXTRAPLANAR DUSTS
Shinn, Jong-Ho; Seon, Kwang-Il
2015-12-20
In order to examine their relation to the host galaxy, the extraplanar dusts of six nearby galaxies are modeled, employing a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The targets are from the highly inclined galaxies that show dust-scattered ultraviolet halos, and the archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV band images were fitted with the model. The observed images are generally well-reproduced by two dust layers and one light source layer, whose vertical and radial distributions have exponential profiles. We obtained several important physical parameters, such as star formation rate (SFR{sub UV}), face-on optical depth, and scale-heights. Three galaxies (NGC 891, NGC 3628, and UGC 11794) show clear evidence for the existence of an extraplanar dust layer. However, it is found that the remaining three targets (IC 5249, NGC 24, and NGC 4173) do not necessarily need a thick dust disk to model the ultraviolet (UV) halo, because its contribution is too small and the UV halo may be caused by the wing part of the GALEX point spread function. This indicates that the galaxy samples reported to have UV halos may be contaminated by galaxies with negligible extraplanar (halo) dust. The galaxies showing evidence of an extraplanar dust layer fall within a narrow range on the scatter plots between physical parameters such as SFR{sub UV} and extraplanar dust mass. Several mechanisms that could possibly produce the extraplanar dust are discussed. We also found a hint that the extraplanar dust scale-height might not be much different from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission characteristic height.
Testing quasar unification: radiative transfer in clumpy winds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matthews, J. H.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Sim, S. A.; Higginbottom, N.; Mangham, S. W.
2016-05-01
Various unification schemes interpret the complex phenomenology of quasars and luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) in terms of a simple picture involving a central black hole, an accretion disc and an associated outflow. Here, we continue our tests of this paradigm by comparing quasar spectra to synthetic spectra of biconical disc wind models, produced with our state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. Previously, we have shown that we could produce synthetic spectra resembling those of observed broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, but only if the X-ray luminosity was limited to 1043 erg s-1. Here, we introduce a simple treatment of clumping, and find that a filling factor of ˜0.01 moderates the ionization state sufficiently for BAL features to form in the rest-frame UV at more realistic X-ray luminosities. Our fiducial model shows good agreement with AGN X-ray properties and the wind produces strong line emission in, e.g., Lyα and C IV 1550 Å at low inclinations. At high inclinations, the spectra possess prominent LoBAL features. Despite these successes, we cannot reproduce all emission lines seen in quasar spectra with the correct equivalent-width ratios, and we find an angular dependence of emission line equivalent width despite the similarities in the observed emission line properties of BAL and non-BAL quasars. Overall, our work suggests that biconical winds can reproduce much of the qualitative behaviour expected from a unified model, but we cannot yet provide quantitative matches with quasar properties at all viewing angles. Whether disc winds can successfully unify quasars is therefore still an open question.
Radiative transfer modelling of parsec-scale dusty warped discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jud, H.; Schartmann, M.; Mould, J.; Burtscher, L.; Tristram, K. R. W.
2017-02-01
Warped discs have been found on (sub-)parsec scale in some nearby Seyfert nuclei, identified by their maser emission. Using dust radiative transfer simulations, we explore their observational signatures in the infrared in order to find out whether they can partly replace the molecular torus. Strong variations of the brightness distributions are found, depending on the orientation of the warp with respect to the line of sight. Whereas images at short wavelengths typically show a disc-like and a point source component, the warp itself only becomes visible at far-infrared wavelengths. A similar variety is visible in the shapes of the spectral energy distributions. Especially for close to edge-on views, the models show silicate feature strengths ranging from deep absorption to strong emission for variations of the lines of sight towards the warp. To test the applicability of our model, we use the case of the Circinus galaxy, where infrared interferometry has revealed a highly elongated emission component matching a warped maser disc in orientation and size. Our model is for the first time able to present a physical explanation for the observed dust morphology as coming from the active galactic nuclei heated dust. As opposed to available torus models, a warped disc morphology produces a variety of silicate feature shapes for grazing lines of sight, close to an edge-on view. This could be an attractive alternative to a claimed change of the dust composition for the case of the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068, which harbours a warped maser disc as well.
Stellar Populations and Radiative Transfer of Lyman Alpha Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finkelstein, Steven L.; Rhoads, J. E.; Malhotra, S.; Pirzkal, N.; Wang, J.; Grogin, N.
2007-05-01
From stellar population modeling of z 4.5 Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs), we find that they are in general a young (t 10 Myr), low mass (M 108 MSun) subset of galaxies. We detected 22 LAE candidates in two or more broadband filters (g', r', i' and z') in the Large Area Lyman Alpha (LALA) survey Cetus Field with the MMT. These objects had calculated rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) ranging from 5-800 Å. By comparing broad and narrow-band colors of these galaxies to stellar population models, we determined their ages and stellar masses. The highest EW objects were found to have an average age of 4 Myr, consistent with ongoing star formation. The lowest EW objects showed an age of 40 - 200 Myr, consistent with the expectation that larger numbers of old stars are causing low EWs. We found masses ranging from 2 x 107 MSun for the youngest objects in the sample to 2 x 109 MSun for the oldest. While young stellar populations are the generally accepted cause of the large Lyα EW in these objects, it is possible that dust effects could produce large EWs in older populations. This could occur if the ISM were sufficiently clumpy such that the continuum photons would suffer attenuation, while the Lyα photons would be resonantly scattered by the clumps, eventually escaping. We investigate this radiative transfer scenario with our second sample, which consists of six LAE candidates in the GOODS CDF-S, selected at z 4.5 with Hα narrow-band imaging obtained at CTIO. We will present results of stellar population studies of these objects, constraining their rest-frame UV with HST and their rest-frame optical with Spitzer.
Ultraviolet Radiative Transfer Modeling of Nearby Galaxies with Extraplanar Dusts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinn, Jong-Ho; Seon, Kwang-Il
2015-12-01
In order to examine their relation to the host galaxy, the extraplanar dusts of six nearby galaxies are modeled, employing a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The targets are from the highly inclined galaxies that show dust-scattered ultraviolet halos, and the archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV band images were fitted with the model. The observed images are generally well-reproduced by two dust layers and one light source layer, whose vertical and radial distributions have exponential profiles. We obtained several important physical parameters, such as star formation rate (SFRUV), face-on optical depth, and scale-heights. Three galaxies (NGC 891, NGC 3628, and UGC 11794) show clear evidence for the existence of an extraplanar dust layer. However, it is found that the remaining three targets (IC 5249, NGC 24, and NGC 4173) do not necessarily need a thick dust disk to model the ultraviolet (UV) halo, because its contribution is too small and the UV halo may be caused by the wing part of the GALEX point spread function. This indicates that the galaxy samples reported to have UV halos may be contaminated by galaxies with negligible extraplanar (halo) dust. The galaxies showing evidence of an extraplanar dust layer fall within a narrow range on the scatter plots between physical parameters such as SFRUV and extraplanar dust mass. Several mechanisms that could possibly produce the extraplanar dust are discussed. We also found a hint that the extraplanar dust scale-height might not be much different from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission characteristic height.
Rapid and efficient pesticide detection via cyclodextrin-promoted energy transfer.
Serio, Nicole; Roque, John; Badwal, Andrew; Levine, Mindy
2015-11-21
Cyclodextrins facilitate non-covalent fluorescence energy transfer from a variety of pesticides to high quantum-yield fluorophores, resulting in a rapid, sensitive detection scheme for these compounds with detection limits as low as two micromolar. Such a facile detection tool has significant potential applications in agriculture and public health research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fisher, Wayne W.; Greer, Brian D.; Fuhrman, Ashley M.; Querim, Angie C.
2015-01-01
Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects across settings and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fisher, Wayne W.; Greer, Brian D.; Fuhrman, Ashley M.; Querim, Angie C.
2015-01-01
Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects across settings and…
Radiative Transfer Modeling of the Coupled Atmosphere and Plant Canopy and BRDF Retrieval
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Shunlin
The limitations of conventional satellite remote sensing that mainly uses nadir observations of terrestrial surfaces has led to an exploration of the use of angular signatures. The Earth Observation System (EOS), to be launched in 1998, is capable of providing directional observations from the space. This dissertation was designed to study the fundamental properties of the directional reflectance of terrestrial surfaces. Four new and inter-related algorithms have been developed in this study, including (a) an improved Gauss -Seidel numerical algorithm to solve the coupled atmosphere --vegetation canopy radiative transfer equation; (b) an analytic bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model of canopy radiative transfer and its inversion algorithm; (c) a statistical BRDF model; and (d) an analytic model of atmospheric radiance transfer over a non-Lambertian surface. The classic Gauss-Seidel algorithm has been widely applied in atmosphere research. This is its first application for calculating the multiple-scattering radiance of the coupled atmosphere and canopy, and an improved iteration formula is derived to speed convergence due to large optical thickness. One of the major advantages of this algorithm is that it can easily incorporate any form of surface BRDF as the lower boundary condition. This dissertation presents an analytic canopy BRDF model based on a rigorous canopy radiative transfer equation in which the multiple-scattering component is approximated by asymptotic theory and the single-scattering calculation, which requires numerical integration to properly accommodate the hotspot effect, is also simplified. The Powell algorithm is then used to retrieve biophysical parameters from soybean measurement data based on both canopy and sky radiance distribution models. The results show that leaf area index (LAI) can be well retrieved, and more efforts are required to retrieve leaf angle distribution (LAD). A new procedure is developed to obtain
Principles of the radiosity method versus radiative transfer for canopy reflectance modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerstl, Siegfried A. W.; Borel, Christoph C.
1992-01-01
The radiosity method is introduced to plant canopy reflectance modeling. We review the physics principles of the radiosity method which originates in thermal radiative transfer analyses when hot and cold surfaces are considered within a given enclosure. The radiosity equation, which is an energy balance equation for discrete surfaces, is described and contrasted with the radiative transfer equation, which is a volumetric energy balance equation. Comparing the strengths and weaknesses of the radiosity method and the radiative transfer method, we conclude that both methods are complementary to each other. Results of sample calculations are given for canopy models with up to 20,000 discrete leaves.
Rapid Transfer Alignment of MEMS SINS Based on Adaptive Incremental Kalman Filter.
Chu, Hairong; Sun, Tingting; Zhang, Baiqiang; Zhang, Hongwei; Chen, Yang
2017-01-14
In airborne MEMS SINS transfer alignment, the error of MEMS IMU is highly environment-dependent and the parameters of the system model are also uncertain, which may lead to large error and bad convergence of the Kalman filter. In order to solve this problem, an improved adaptive incremental Kalman filter (AIKF) algorithm is proposed. First, the model of SINS transfer alignment is defined based on the "Velocity and Attitude" matching method. Then the detailed algorithm progress of AIKF and its recurrence formulas are presented. The performance and calculation amount of AKF and AIKF are also compared. Finally, a simulation test is designed to verify the accuracy and the rapidity of the AIKF algorithm by comparing it with KF and AKF. The results show that the AIKF algorithm has better estimation accuracy and shorter convergence time, especially for the bias of the gyroscope and the accelerometer, which can meet the accuracy and rapidity requirement of transfer alignment.
Rapid Transfer Alignment of MEMS SINS Based on Adaptive Incremental Kalman Filter
Chu, Hairong; Sun, Tingting; Zhang, Baiqiang; Zhang, Hongwei; Chen, Yang
2017-01-01
In airborne MEMS SINS transfer alignment, the error of MEMS IMU is highly environment-dependent and the parameters of the system model are also uncertain, which may lead to large error and bad convergence of the Kalman filter. In order to solve this problem, an improved adaptive incremental Kalman filter (AIKF) algorithm is proposed. First, the model of SINS transfer alignment is defined based on the “Velocity and Attitude” matching method. Then the detailed algorithm progress of AIKF and its recurrence formulas are presented. The performance and calculation amount of AKF and AIKF are also compared. Finally, a simulation test is designed to verify the accuracy and the rapidity of the AIKF algorithm by comparing it with KF and AKF. The results show that the AIKF algorithm has better estimation accuracy and shorter convergence time, especially for the bias of the gyroscope and the accelerometer, which can meet the accuracy and rapidity requirement of transfer alignment. PMID:28098829
Graphene-assisted near-field radiative heat transfer between corrugated polar materials
Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Z. M.
2014-06-23
Graphene has attracted great attention in nanoelectronics, optics, and energy harvesting. Here, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered corrugated silica is investigated based on the exact scattering theory. It is found that graphene can improve the radiative heat flux between silica gratings by more than one order of magnitude and alleviate the performance sensitivity to lateral shift. The underlying mechanism is mainly attributed to the improved photon tunneling of modes away from phonon resonances. Besides, coating with graphene leads to nonlocal radiative transfer that breaks Derjaguin's proximity approximation and enables corrugated silica to outperform bulk silica in near-field radiation.
Radiation asymmetry and MHD activity in gas jet rapid shutdowns on Alcator C-Mod
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olynyk, Geoffrey; Granetz, Robert; Whyte, Dennis; Alcator C-Mod Team
2013-10-01
Radiative rapid shutdown via massive noble gas injection (MGI) is an integral part of the ITER disruption mitigation system (DMS). However, observations have shown that the radiation during MGI rapid shutdowns may be spatially asymmetric, particularly during the initial phase when the plasma's thermal energy is converted to radiation. ITER requires the radiation peaking factor (PF) to be less than approximately 2.0 to 2.5 in this thermal quench (TQ) phase in order to prevent melting of the beryllium wall even in the case of a successful MGI rapid shutdown. We report on observations of rotating MHD modes in single- and multiple-gas-jet rapid shutdowns on Alcator C-Mod, and discuss the role of mode rotation during the TQ in setting the radiation peaking factor. The implications for the ITER DMS are discussed. This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FC02-99ER54512 and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada PGS D program.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mishchenko, Michael I.
2014-01-01
This Essay traces the centuries-long history of the phenomenological disciplines of directional radiometry and radiative transfer in turbid media, discusses their fundamental weaknesses, and outlines the convoluted process of their conversion into legitimate branches of physical optics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, Y. J.
1982-01-01
An understanding of radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere is a necessity for the remote sensing of surface reflectivity from satellites and aircraft. The range of the adjacency effect, which represents the effect of bright areas on the radiance above dark areas, is the main parameter that distinguishes atmospheric radiative transfer over a nonuniform surface from that over a uniform one. A radiative transfer model which expresses this range correctly is, therefore, critical for developing remote sensing methods for the case of an atmosphere over a nonuniform surface. The present investigation is concerned with the development of a new approximate solution of the radiative transfer (RT) equation. The solution is not limited to nonabsorbing atmospheres, but it will still be limited to nadir observations. The results compare favorably with Monte Carlo simulations.
Two Experiments for Estimating Free Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Economides, Michael J.; Maloney, J. O.
1978-01-01
This article describes two simple undergraduate heat transfer experiments which may reinforce a student's understanding of free convection and radiation. Apparatus, experimental procedure, typical results, and discussion are included. (Author/BB)
Extending generalized Kubelka-Munk to three-dimensional radiative transfer.
Sandoval, Christopher; Kim, Arnold D
2015-08-10
The generalized Kubelka-Munk (gKM) approximation is a linear transformation of the double spherical harmonics of order one (DP_{1}) approximation of the radiative transfer equation. Here, we extend the gKM approximation to study problems in three-dimensional radiative transfer. In particular, we derive the gKM approximation for the problem of collimated beam propagation and scattering in a plane-parallel slab composed of a uniform absorbing and scattering medium. The result is an 8×8 system of partial differential equations that is much easier to solve than the radiative transfer equation. We compare the solutions of the gKM approximation with Monte Carlo simulations of the radiative transfer equation to identify the range of validity for this approximation. We find that the gKM approximation is accurate for isotropic scattering media that are sufficiently thick and much less accurate for anisotropic, forward-peaked scattering media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping
2014-04-01
The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is extended to solve transient radiative transfer in one-dimensional slab containing absorbing and scattering media with graded index subjected to a short square laser irradiation. By using a fully implicit backward differencing scheme to discretize the transient term in the radiative transfer equation, a new type of lattice structure is devised. Firstly, for the case of the refractive index matched boundary, LBM solutions to transient radiative transfer in graded index medium are validated by comparison with results reported in the literature. Afterward, LBM is employed to investigate transient radiative transfer in graded index medium with a refractive index discontinuity at the boundaries. Effects of the graded index distributions, the optical thickness, and scattering phase function on transmittance and reflectance signals are investigated, and several interesting trends on the time-resolved signals are observed and analyzed.
Approximate Solution Methods for Spectral Radiative Transfer in High Refractive Index Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siegel, R.; Spuckler, C. M.
1994-01-01
Some ceramic materials for high temperature applications are partially transparent for radiative transfer. The refractive indices of these materials can be substantially greater than one which influences internal radiative emission and reflections. Heat transfer behavior of single and laminated layers has been obtained in the literature by numerical solutions of the radiative transfer equations coupled with heat conduction and heating at the boundaries by convection and radiation. Two-flux and diffusion methods are investigated here to obtain approximate solutions using a simpler formulation than required for exact numerical solutions. Isotropic scattering is included. The two-flux method for a single layer yields excellent results for gray and two band spectral calculations. The diffusion method yields a good approximation for spectral behavior in laminated multiple layers if the overall optical thickness is larger than about ten. A hybrid spectral model is developed using the two-flux method in the optically thin bands, and radiative diffusion in bands that are optically thick.
Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer under Temperature Gradients and Conductive Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Weiliang; Messina, Riccardo; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.
2017-02-01
We describe a recently developed formulation of coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer (RHT) between objects separated by nanometric, vacuum gaps. Our results rely on analytical formulas of RHT between planar slabs (based on the scattering-matrix method) as well as a general formulation of RHT between arbitrarily shaped bodies (based on the fluctuating-volume current method), which fully captures the existence of temperature inhomogeneities. In particular, the impact of RHT on conduction, and vice versa, is obtained via self-consistent solutions of the Fourier heat equation and Maxwell's equations. We show that in materials with low thermal conductivities (e.g. zinc oxides and glasses), the interplay of conduction and RHT can strongly modify heat exchange, exemplified for instance by the presence of large temperature gradients and saturating flux rates at short (nanometric) distances. More generally, we show that the ability to tailor the temperature distribution of an object can modify the behaviour of RHT with respect to gap separations, e.g. qualitatively changing the asymptotic scaling at short separations from quadratic to linear or logarithmic. Our results could be relevant to the interpretation of both past and future experimental measurements of RHT at nanometric distances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takehisa, M.; Arai, H.; Arai, M.; Miyata, T.; Sakumoto, A.; Hashimoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Watanabe, H.; Kawakami, W.; Kuriyama, I.
Humic acid and Fulvic acid in natural water are precursors of carcinogenic THM which is formed during chlorine disinfection in city water processing. The radiation-oxidation process in the presence of ozone is effective to remove the precursors. The THM formation was reduced more than the decrease in TOC by the combination treatment. This is mainly due to a change in the chemical structure of the oxidation products. A composting of radiation disinfected sludge cake for agricultural reuse could be achieved within 3 days primary fermentation in a sewage plant. The rapid fermentation with use of radiation is effective to scale down of a fermentor of composting plant and the process reduces a health risk from the workers as well as final users.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hollstein, André; Fischer, Jürgen
2012-05-01
Accurate radiative transfer models are the key tools for the understanding of radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and ocean, and for the development of remote sensing algorithms. The widely used scalar approximation of radiative transfer can lead to errors in calculated top of atmosphere radiances. We show results with errors in the order of±8% for atmosphere ocean systems with case one waters. Variations in sea water salinity and temperature can lead to variations in the signal of similar magnitude. Therefore, we enhanced our scalar radiative transfer model MOMO, which is in use at Freie Universität Berlin, to treat these effects as accurately as possible. We describe our one-dimensional vector radiative transfer model for an atmosphere ocean system with a rough interface. We describe the matrix operator scheme and the bio-optical model for case one waters. We discuss some effects of neglecting polarization in radiative transfer calculations and effects of salinity changes for top of atmosphere radiances. Results are shown for the channels of the satellite instruments MERIS and OLCI from 412.5 nm to 900 nm.
Radiative Transfer Modeling, Spectral Analysis, and Remote Sensing of Coral Reefs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guild, L.; Ganapol, B.; Furfaro, R.; Kramer, P.; Armstrong, R.; Gleason, A.; Torres, J.
2004-12-01
The calcium carbonate structures of tropical coral reefs protect coastlines from storms, create habitats for the world's greatest marine biodiversity, provide nurseries for many marine species; play essential roles in carbon and CO2 cycles, are major protein sources for many local populations, and are vital for sustainable economies of many societies. The world's reefs are in peril due to climate change and anthropogenic activity caused by rapidly growing populations in coastal zones. An important contribution to coral reef research is improved spectral distinction of reef components indicative of reef condition, including physical and biological degradation. Unfortunately, relatively little is known concerning the spectral properties of coral or how coral architecture reflect/transmit light. New insights into optical processes of corals can lead to improved interpretation of remote sensing data and forecasting of immediate or long-term impacts such as bleaching and disease in coral and algal overgrowth. We are investigating the spatial/spectral properties required to remotely sense changes in reef biological and physical properties by coupling spectral analysis of in situ spectra with a new coral-specific radiative transfer model. The first model development phase (CorMOD) imposes a scattering baseline that is constant regardless of coral condition, and further specifies that coral is optically thick. Evolution of the model is towards a coral-specific radiative transfer model that includes coral biochemical concentrations, specific absorptivities of coral components, and transmission measurements from coral surfaces. We present our field collected in situ spectra and resultant output relative absorption profiles of coral from CorMOD. Further, we will present NASA AVIRIS data and in situ spectra collection of coral and seagrass to support the AVIRIS mission that was collected during August 2004 for Florida Keys and Puerto Rico.
HICKMAN, G.L.
2000-01-10
The lower temperature limit for the 241 SY-101 RAPID transfer project is currently set at 20 F Based on the analysis and recommendations in this document this limit can be lowered to 0 F. Analysis of all structures systems and components (SSCs) indicate that a reduction in operating temperature may be achieved with minor modifications to field-installed equipment. Following implementation of these changes it is recommended that the system requirements be amended to specify a temperature range for transfer or back dilute evolutions of 0 F to 100 F.
Many-body heat radiation and heat transfer in the presence of a nonabsorbing background medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Boris; Incardone, Roberta; Antezza, Mauro; Emig, Thorsten; Krüger, Matthias
2017-02-01
Heat radiation and near-field radiative heat transfer can be strongly manipulated by adjusting geometrical shapes, optical properties, or the relative positions of the objects involved. Typically, these objects are considered as embedded in vacuum. By applying the methods of fluctuational electrodynamics, we derive general closed-form expressions for heat radiation and heat transfer in a system of N arbitrary objects embedded in a passive nonabsorbing background medium. Taking into account the principle of reciprocity, we explicitly prove the symmetry and positivity of transfer in any such system. Regarding applications, we find that the heat radiation of a sphere as well as the heat transfer between two parallel plates is strongly enhanced by the presence of a background medium. Regarding near- and far-field transfer through a gas like air, we show that a microscopic model (based on gas particles) and a macroscopic model (using a dielectric contrast) yield identical results. We also compare the radiative transfer through a medium like air and the energy transfer found from kinetic gas theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosarev, N. I.; Shaparev, N. Ya
2006-04-01
The problem of ionisation of atomic sodium in the field of resonance laser radiation is numerically solved taking radiative transfer into account. Seed electrons are produced due to the mechanism of associative ionisation, then they gain energy in superelastic processes (collisions of the second kind) and initiate the avalanche ionisation of the medium by electron impact. We studied the effect of secondary radiation on the laser pulse propagation upon competition between the ionising and quenching electron collisions with excited atoms, on the kinetics of ionisation-induced vapour bleaching, and the plasma channel expansion in the form of a halo.
On the Possibility of High Velocity Deflagration Front Propagation by Radiative Energy Transfer
1987-10-01
energy can be transported - conduction , convection , and radiation. For the present purpose we will distinguish the transfer of kinetic energy in the...and lie outside the present discourse. Thus, we find the first three in the list of mechanisms for energy 4 transfer, conduction , convection , and shock
Adipose veno-lymphatic transfer for management of post-radiation lymphedema
Pho, R.W.; Bayon, P.; Tan, L.
1989-01-01
In a patient who had post-radiation lymphedema after excision of liposarcoma, a method is described that is called adipose veno-lymphatic transfer. The technique involves transferring adipose tissue containing lymphatic vessels that surround the long saphenous vein, from the normal, healthy leg to the irradiated leg, with the creation of an arteriovenous fistula.
Transfer of PSR0531 rotation energy to the radiation of the Crab nebula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machabeli, G.; Gogoberidze, G.; Shapakidze, D.; Midelashvili, E.
2017-04-01
This study focuses on the transfer of the Crab pulsar rotation energy to the electrostatic plasma waves of the pulsar magnetosphere by means of parametric instability. The energy of generated Langmuir waves is redistributed both to the pulsar radiation and the radiation of Crab nebula. It is shown that the power of the electrostatic waves transmitted to the Nebula is much greater than the power of Langmuir waves responsible for the generation of high frequency pulsar radiation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everson, John; Nelson, H. F.
1993-01-01
A reverse Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to predict rocket plume base heating is presented. In this technique rays representing the radiation propagation are traced backwards in time from the receiving surface to the point of emission in the plume. This increases the computational efficiency relative to the forward Monte Carlo technique when calculating the radiation reaching a specific point, as only the rays that strike the receiving point are considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zverev, V. G.; Goldin, V. D.; Teploukhov, A. V.
2016-04-01
Radiative heating of a metal plate protected by an intumescent coating layer has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Special aspects of physical modeling of intumescent coating heating on a test bench for radiative heating are considered. Heat resistance testing of metal structures is justified. A conjugate mathematical model of radiative-conductive heat transfer in an intumesced material layer is proposed. The experimental and calculation data on the metal plate temperature beneath the coating are shown to agree well.
Rapid transfer of abstract rules to novel contexts in human lateral prefrontal cortex.
Cole, Michael W; Etzel, Joset A; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Schneider, Walter; Braver, Todd S
2011-01-01
Flexible, adaptive behavior is thought to rely on abstract rule representations within lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), yet it remains unclear how these representations provide such flexibility. We recently demonstrated that humans can learn complex novel tasks in seconds. Here we hypothesized that this impressive mental flexibility may be possible due to rapid transfer of practiced rule representations within LPFC to novel task contexts. We tested this hypothesis using functional MRI and multivariate pattern analysis, classifying LPFC activity patterns across 64 tasks. Classifiers trained to identify abstract rules based on practiced task activity patterns successfully generalized to novel tasks. This suggests humans can transfer practiced rule representations within LPFC to rapidly learn new tasks, facilitating cognitive performance in novel circumstances.
Rapid Transfer of Abstract Rules to Novel Contexts in Human Lateral Prefrontal Cortex
Cole, Michael W.; Etzel, Joset A.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Schneider, Walter; Braver, Todd S.
2011-01-01
Flexible, adaptive behavior is thought to rely on abstract rule representations within lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), yet it remains unclear how these representations provide such flexibility. We recently demonstrated that humans can learn complex novel tasks in seconds. Here we hypothesized that this impressive mental flexibility may be possible due to rapid transfer of practiced rule representations within LPFC to novel task contexts. We tested this hypothesis using functional MRI and multivariate pattern analysis, classifying LPFC activity patterns across 64 tasks. Classifiers trained to identify abstract rules based on practiced task activity patterns successfully generalized to novel tasks. This suggests humans can transfer practiced rule representations within LPFC to rapidly learn new tasks, facilitating cognitive performance in novel circumstances. PMID:22125519
A detailed evaluation of the stratospheric heat budget: 1. Radiation transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mertens, Christopher J.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Portmann, Robert W.
1999-03-01
We present part 1 of a two-part series on a detailed evaluation of the stratospheric heat budget. In part 2 [Mlynczak et al., this issue] we present radiative heating, radiative cooling, net radiative heating, global radiation balance, radiative relaxation times, and diabatic circulations in the stratosphere using temperature and minor constituent data provided by instruments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) between 1991 and 1993 and by the limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) instrument, which operated on the Nimbus-7 spacecraft in 1978-1979. Here we describe the radiative transfer techniques used to compute the climatology of radiative heating and circulations given in part 2. Included in the radiation transfer calculations are heating due to absorption of solar radiation from the ultraviolet through near-infrared wavelengths and radiative cooling due to emission by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and ozone from 0 to 3000 cm-1 (∞-3.3 μm). Infrared radiative effects of stratospheric aerosols are also considered in detail.
Kane, Avinash S; Hoffmann, Armin; Baumgärtel, Peter; Seckler, Robert; Reichardt, Gerd; Horsley, David A; Schuler, Benjamin; Bakajin, Olgica
2008-12-15
We have developed a microfluidic mixer optimized for rapid measurements of protein folding kinetics using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The combination of fabrication in fused silica and synchrotron radiation allows measurements at wavelengths below 220 nm, the typical limit of commercial instrumentation. At these wavelengths, the discrimination between the different types of protein secondary structure increases sharply. The device was optimized for rapid mixing at moderate sample consumption by employing a serpentine channel design, resulting in a dead time of less than 200 micros. Here, we discuss the design and fabrication of the mixer and quantify the mixing efficiency using wide-field and confocal epi-fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate the performance of the device in SRCD measurements of the folding kinetics of cytochrome c, a small, fast-folding protein. Our results show that the combination of SRCD with microfluidic mixing opens new possibilities for investigating rapid conformational changes in biological macromolecules that have previously been inaccessible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sircar, A.; Paul, C.; Ferreyro, S.; Imren, A.; Haworth, D. C.; Roy, S.; Ge, W.; Modest, M. F.
2016-11-01
The lack of accurate submodels for in-cylinder radiation and heat transfer has been identified as a key shortcoming in developing truly predictive CFD models that can be used to develop combustion systems for advanced high-efficiency, low-emissions engines. Recent measurements of wall layers in engines show discrepancies of up to 100% with respect to standard CFD boundary-layer models. And recent analysis of in-cylinder radiation based on recent spectral property databases and high-fidelity radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers has shown that at operating conditions typical of heavy-duty CI engines, radiative emission can be as high as 40% of the wall heat losses, that molecular gas radiation can be more important than soot radiation, and that a significant fraction of the emitted radiation can be reabsorbed before reaching the walls. That is, radiation changes the in-cylinder temperature distribution, which in turn affects combustion and emissions. The goal of this research is to develop models that explicitly account for the potentially strong coupling between radiative and turbulent boundary layer heat transfer. For example, for optically thick conditions, a simple diffusion model might be formulated in terms of an absorption-coefficient-dependent turbulent Prandtl number. NSF, DOE.
Ohsuga, Ken; Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.
2016-02-20
We develop a numerical scheme for solving the equations of fully special relativistic, radiation magnetohydrodynamics (MHDs), in which the frequency-integrated, time-dependent radiation transfer equation is solved to calculate the specific intensity. The radiation energy density, the radiation flux, and the radiation stress tensor are obtained by the angular quadrature of the intensity. In the present method, conservation of total mass, momentum, and energy of the radiation magnetofluids is guaranteed. We treat not only the isotropic scattering but also the Thomson scattering. The numerical method of MHDs is the same as that of our previous work. The advection terms are explicitly solved, and the source terms, which describe the gas–radiation interaction, are implicitly integrated. Our code is suitable for massive parallel computing. We present that our code shows reasonable results in some numerical tests for propagating radiation and radiation hydrodynamics. Particularly, the correct solution is given even in the optically very thin or moderately thin regimes, and the special relativistic effects are nicely reproduced.
Parameterization and analysis of 3-D radiative transfer in clouds
Varnai, Tamas
2012-03-16
This report provides a summary of major accomplishments from the project. The project examines the impact of radiative interactions between neighboring atmospheric columns, for example clouds scattering extra sunlight toward nearby clear areas. While most current cloud models don't consider these interactions and instead treat sunlight in each atmospheric column separately, the resulting uncertainties have remained unknown. This project has provided the first estimates on the way average solar heating is affected by interactions between nearby columns. These estimates have been obtained by combining several years of cloud observations at three DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sites (in Alaska, Oklahoma, and Papua New Guinea) with simulations of solar radiation around the observed clouds. The importance of radiative interactions between atmospheric columns was evaluated by contrasting simulations that included the interactions with those that did not. This study provides lower-bound estimates for radiative interactions: It cannot consider interactions in cross-wind direction, because it uses two-dimensional vertical cross-sections through clouds that were observed by instruments looking straight up as clouds drifted aloft. Data from new DOE scanning radars will allow future radiative studies to consider the full three-dimensional nature of radiative processes. The results reveal that two-dimensional radiative interactions increase overall day-and-night average solar heating by about 0.3, 1.2, and 4.1 Watts per meter square at the three sites, respectively. This increase grows further if one considers that most large-domain cloud simulations have resolutions that cannot specify small-scale cloud variability. For example, the increases in solar heating mentioned above roughly double for a fairly typical model resolution of 1 km. The study also examined the factors that shape radiative interactions between atmospheric columns and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Cheng-An; Sadat, Hamou; Tan, Jian-Yu
2016-01-01
A diffuse approximation meshless method (DAM) is employed as a means of solving the coupled radiative and conductive heat transfer problems in semi-transparent refractive index media contained in 1D and 2D geometries. The meshless approach for radiative transfer is based on the discrete ordinates equation. Cases of combined conduction- radiation are presented, including plane parallel slab, square enclosure, and semicircular enclosure with an inner circle. The influence of the refractive index on the temperature distributions and heat fluxes is investigated. Results obtained using the proposed meshless method are compared with those reported in the literature to demonstrate the flexibility and accuracy of the method.
A generalized analytical model for radiative transfer in vacuum thermal insulation of space vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krainova, Irina V.; Dombrovsky, Leonid A.; Nenarokomov, Aleksey V.; Budnik, Sergey A.; Titov, Dmitry M.; Alifanov, Oleg M.
2017-08-01
The previously developed spectral model for radiative transfer in vacuum thermal insulation of space vehicles is generalized to take into account possible thermal contact between a fibrous spacer and one of the neighboring aluminum foil layers. An approximate analytical solution based on slightly modified two-flux approximation for radiative transfer in a semi-transparent fibrous spacer is derived. It was shown that thermal contact between the spacer and adjacent foil may decrease significantly the quality of thermal insulation because of an increase in radiative flux to/from the opposite aluminum foil. Theoretical predictions are confirmed by comparison with new results of laboratory experiments.
Numerical radiative transfer with state-of-the-art iterative methods made easy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambert, Julien; Paletou, Frédéric; Josselin, Eric; Glorian, Jean-Michel
2016-01-01
This article presents an on-line tool and its accompanying software resources for the numerical solution of basic radiation transfer out of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). State-of-the-art stationary iterative methods such as Accelerated Λ-iteration and Gauss-Seidel schemes, using a short characteristics-based formal solver are used. We also comment on typical numerical experiments associated to the basic non-LTE radiation problem. These resources are intended for the largest use and benefit, in support to more classical radiation transfer lectures usually given at the Master level.
The effect of the number of wavebands used in spectral radiation heat transfer calculations
Chang, S. L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.
2000-05-09
A spectral radiation heat transfer model that conserves emitted and absorbed energy has been developed and used to model the combustion space of an industrial glass furnace. This comprehensive radiation heat transfer model coupled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code was used to investigate the effect of spectral dependencies on the computed results. The results of this work clearly indicate the need for a spectral approach as opposed to a gray body approach since the gray body approach (one waveband) severely underestimates the energy emitted via radiation.
Enhancing Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer with Si-based Metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Hurtado, V.; García-Vidal, F. J.; Fan, Shanhui; Cuevas, J. C.
2017-05-01
We demonstrate in this work that the use of metasurfaces provides a viable strategy to largely tune and enhance near-field radiative heat transfer between extended structures. In particular, using a rigorous coupled wave analysis, we predict that Si-based metasurfaces featuring two-dimensional periodic arrays of holes can exhibit a room-temperature near-field radiative heat conductance much larger than any unstructured material to date. We show that this enhancement, which takes place in a broad range of separations, relies on the possibility to largely tune the properties of the surface plasmon polaritons that dominate the radiative heat transfer in the near-field regime.
Introduction to the Theory of Atmospheric Radiative Transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buglia, J. J.
1986-01-01
The fundamental physical and mathematical principles governing the transmission of radiation through the atmosphere are presented, with emphasis on the scattering of visible and near-IR radiation. The classical two-stream, thin-atmosphere, and Eddington approximations, along with some of their offspring, are developed in detail, along with the discrete ordinates method of Chandrasekhar. The adding and doubling methods are discussed from basic principles, and references for further reading are suggested.
Radiative Heat Transfer During Atmosphere Entry at Parabolic Velocity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoshikawa, Kenneth K.; Wick, Bradford H.
1961-01-01
Stagnation point radiative heating rates for manned vehicles entering the earth's atmosphere at parabolic velocity are presented and compared with corresponding laminar convective heating rates. The calculations were made for both nonlifting and lifting entry trajectories for vehicles of varying nose radius, weight-to-area ratio, and drag. It is concluded from the results presented that radiative heating will be important for the entry conditions considered.
Circumstellar shells, the formation of grains, and radiation transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lefevre, Jean
1987-01-01
Advances in infrared astronomy during the last decade have firmly established the presence of dust around a large number of cold giant and supergiant stars. To describe the properties of stars and to understand their evolution, it is necessary to know the nature of the giants and their influence on stellar radiation. Two questions are considered: the formation of grains around cold stars and the modification of stellar radiation by the stellar shell.
Single-node orbit analsyis with radiation heat transfer only
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peoples, J. A.
1977-01-01
The steady-state temperature of a single node which dissipates energy by radiation only is discussed for a nontime varying thermal environment. Relationships are developed to illustrate how shields can be utilized to represent a louver system. A computer program is presented which can assess periodic temperature characteristics of a single node in a time varying thermal environment having energy dissipation by radiation only. The computer program performs thermal orbital analysis for five combinations of plate, shields, and louvers.
Realistic NLTE Radiative Transfer for Modeling Stellar Winds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, Philip D.
1999-01-01
This NASA grant supported the development of codes to solve the non-LTE multi-level spherical radiative transfer problem in the presence of velocity fields. Much of this work was done in collaboration with Graham Harper (CASA, University of Colorado). These codes were developed for application to the cool, low-velocity winds of evolved late-type stars. Particular emphasis was placed on modeling the wind of lambda Velorum (K4 lb), the brightest K supergiant in the sky, based on extensive observations of the ultraviolet spectrum with the HST/GHRS from GO program 5307. Several solution techniques were examined, including the Eddington factor Approach described in detail by Bennett & Harper (1997). An Eddington factor variant of Harper's S-MULTI code (Harper 1994) for stationary atmospheres was developed and implemented, although full convergence was not realized. The ratio of wind terminal velocity to turbulent velocity is large (approx. 0.3-0.5) in these cool star winds so this assumption of stationarity provides reasonable starting models. Final models, incorporating specified wind laws, were converged using the comoving CRD S-MULTI code. Details of the solution procedure were published by Bennett & Harper (1997). Our analysis of the wind of lambda Vel, based on wind absorption superimposed on chromospheric emission lines in the ultraviolet, can be found in Carpenter et al. (1999). In this paper, we compare observed wind absorption features to an exact CRD calculation in the comoving frame, and also to a much quicker, but approximate, method using the SEI (Sobolev with Exact Integration) code of Lamers, Cerruti-Sola, & Perinotto (1987). Carpenter et al. (1999) provide detailed comparisons of the exact CRD and approximate SEI results and discuss when SEI is adequate to use for computing wind line profiles. Unfortunately, the observational material is insufficient to unambiguously determine the wind acceleration law for lambda Vel. Relatively few unblended Fe II lines
Realistic NLTE Radiative Transfer for Modeling Stellar Winds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, Philip D.
1999-01-01
This NASA grant supported the development of codes to solve the non-LTE multi-level spherical radiative transfer problem in the presence of velocity fields. Much of this work was done in collaboration with Graham Harper (CASA, University of Colorado). These codes were developed for application to the cool, low-velocity winds of evolved late-type stars. Particular emphasis was placed on modeling the wind of lambda Velorum (K4 lb), the brightest K supergiant in the sky, based on extensive observations of the ultraviolet spectrum with the HST/GHRS from GO program 5307. Several solution techniques were examined, including the Eddington factor Approach described in detail by Bennett & Harper (1997). An Eddington factor variant of Harper's S-MULTI code (Harper 1994) for stationary atmospheres was developed and implemented, although full convergence was not realized. The ratio of wind terminal velocity to turbulent velocity is large (approx. 0.3-0.5) in these cool star winds so this assumption of stationarity provides reasonable starting models. Final models, incorporating specified wind laws, were converged using the comoving CRD S-MULTI code. Details of the solution procedure were published by Bennett & Harper (1997). Our analysis of the wind of lambda Vel, based on wind absorption superimposed on chromospheric emission lines in the ultraviolet, can be found in Carpenter et al. (1999). In this paper, we compare observed wind absorption features to an exact CRD calculation in the comoving frame, and also to a much quicker, but approximate, method using the SEI (Sobolev with Exact Integration) code of Lamers, Cerruti-Sola, & Perinotto (1987). Carpenter et al. (1999) provide detailed comparisons of the exact CRD and approximate SEI results and discuss when SEI is adequate to use for computing wind line profiles. Unfortunately, the observational material is insufficient to unambiguously determine the wind acceleration law for lambda Vel. Relatively few unblended Fe II lines
[Mid-infrared atmosphere radiation transfer analytic model and remote sensing images simulation].
Yang, Gui-Jun; Liu, Qin-Huo; Liu, Qiang; Xiao, Qing; Gu, Xing-Fa; Huang, Wen-Jiang
2009-03-01
In order to establish a complete set of simulation system for high-resolution mid-infrared remote sensing and provide a powerful reference for spacecraft design and related works, the importance of atmospheric radiative transfer simulation in this system was considered, and a reasonable and high precision imaging numerical simulation method was expected. Taking into account the characteristics of MIR, including scattering and thermal emission, terms of atmospheric radiative transfer were decomposed based on radiative transfer principle, and images of top of atmosphere (TOA) were simulated according to MODTRAN4 and look-up table method. Besides, adjacency effect caused by atmospheric scattering of neighboring pixels radiation was considered, and an extended point spread function in mid-infrared was coupled with analytical model of atmospheric radiative transfer to simulate TOA images. Finally, a preliminary test and simulation results show that the simulation model has better accuracy. If parameters of observation geometry and atmosphere were given and the land surface temperature/emissivity was determined, the calculation of pixel-level atmospheric radiative transfer was to be achieved.
A hybrid transport-diffusion model for radiative transfer in absorbing and scattering media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roger, M.; Caliot, C.; Crouseilles, N.; Coelho, P. J.
2014-10-01
A new multi-scale hybrid transport-diffusion model for radiative transfer is proposed in order to improve the efficiency of the calculations close to the diffusive regime, in absorbing and strongly scattering media. In this model, the radiative intensity is decomposed into a macroscopic component calculated by the diffusion equation, and a mesoscopic component. The transport equation for the mesoscopic component allows to correct the estimation of the diffusion equation, and then to obtain the solution of the linear radiative transfer equation. In this work, results are presented for stationary and transient radiative transfer cases, in examples which concern solar concentrated and optical tomography applications. The Monte Carlo and the discrete-ordinate methods are used to solve the mesoscopic equation. It is shown that the multi-scale model allows to improve the efficiency of the calculations when the medium is close to the diffusive regime. The proposed model is a good alternative for radiative transfer at the intermediate regime where the macroscopic diffusion equation is not accurate enough and the radiative transfer equation requires too much computational effort.
Bidirectional plant canopy reflection models derived from the radiation transfer equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beeth, D. R.
1975-01-01
A collection of bidirectional canopy reflection models was obtained from the solution of the radiation transfer equation for a horizontally homogeneous canopy. A phase function is derived for a collection of bidirectionally reflecting and transmitting planar elements characterized geometrically by slope and azimuth density functions. Two approaches to solving the radiation transfer equation for the canopy are presented. One approach factors the radiation transfer equation into a solvable set of three first-order linear differential equations by assuming that the radiation field within the canopy can be initially approximated by three components: uniformly diffuse downwelling, uniformly diffuse upwelling, and attenuated specular. The solution to these equations, which can be iterated to any degree of accuracy, was used to obtain overall canopy reflection from the formal solution to the radiation transfer equation. A programable solution to canopy overall bidirectional reflection is given for this approach. The special example of Lambertian leaves with constant leaf bidirectional reflection and scattering functions is considered, and a programmable solution for this example is given. The other approach to solving the radiation transfer equation, a generalized Chandrasekhar technique, is presented in the appendix.
A hybrid transport-diffusion model for radiative transfer in absorbing and scattering media
Roger, M.; Caliot, C.; Crouseilles, N.; Coelho, P.J.
2014-10-15
A new multi-scale hybrid transport-diffusion model for radiative transfer is proposed in order to improve the efficiency of the calculations close to the diffusive regime, in absorbing and strongly scattering media. In this model, the radiative intensity is decomposed into a macroscopic component calculated by the diffusion equation, and a mesoscopic component. The transport equation for the mesoscopic component allows to correct the estimation of the diffusion equation, and then to obtain the solution of the linear radiative transfer equation. In this work, results are presented for stationary and transient radiative transfer cases, in examples which concern solar concentrated and optical tomography applications. The Monte Carlo and the discrete-ordinate methods are used to solve the mesoscopic equation. It is shown that the multi-scale model allows to improve the efficiency of the calculations when the medium is close to the diffusive regime. The proposed model is a good alternative for radiative transfer at the intermediate regime where the macroscopic diffusion equation is not accurate enough and the radiative transfer equation requires too much computational effort.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozanov, V. V.; Dinter, T.; Rozanov, A. V.; Wolanin, A.; Bracher, A.; Burrows, J. P.
2017-06-01
SCIATRAN is a comprehensive software package which is designed to model radiative transfer processes in the terrestrial atmosphere and ocean in the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the thermal infrared (0.18-40 μm). It accounts for multiple scattering processes, polarization, thermal emission and ocean-atmosphere coupling. The main goal of this paper is to present a recently developed version of SCIATRAN which takes into account accurately inelastic radiative processes in both the atmosphere and the ocean. In the scalar version of the coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer solver presented by Rozanov et al. [61] we have implemented the simulation of the rotational Raman scattering, vibrational Raman scattering, chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence. In this paper we discuss and explain the numerical methods used in SCIATRAN to solve the scalar radiative transfer equation including trans-spectral processes, and demonstrate how some selected radiative transfer problems are solved using the SCIATRAN package. In addition we present selected comparisons of SCIATRAN simulations with those published benchmark results, independent radiative transfer models, and various measurements from satellite, ground-based, and ship-borne instruments. The extended SCIATRAN software package along with a detailed User's Guide is made available for scientists and students, who are undertaking their own research typically at universities, via the web page of the Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen: http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Funsten, H. O.
2016-08-01
Van Allen radiation belt electrons exhibit complex dynamics during geomagnetically active periods. Investigation of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) can provide important information on the dominant physical mechanisms controlling radiation belt behaviors. Here we report a storm time radiation belt event where energetic electron PADs changed from butterfly distributions to normal or flattop distributions within several hours. Van Allen Probes observations showed that the flattening of butterfly PADs was closely related to the occurrence of whistler-mode chorus waves. Two-dimensional quasi-linear STEERB simulations demonstrate that the observed chorus can resonantly accelerate the near-equatorially trapped electrons and rapidly flatten the corresponding electron butterfly PADs. These results provide a new insight on how chorus waves affect the dynamic evolution of radiation belt electrons.
Comparison of Methods for Calculating Radiative Heat Transfer
Schock, Alfred; Abbate, M J
2012-01-19
Various approximations for calculating radioactive heat transfer between parallel surfaces are evaluated. This is done by applying the approximations based on total emissivities to a special case of known spectral emissivities, for which exact heat transfer calculations are possible. Comparison of results indicates that the best approximation is obtained by basing the emissivity of the receiving surface primarily on the temperature of the emitter. A specific model is shown to give excellent agreement over a very wide range of values.
Orbital transfers in an asteroid system considering the solar radiation pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, Geraldo Magela Couto; Bertachini de A. Prado, Antonio F.; Sanchez, Diogo Merguizo; Gomes, Vivian Martins
2017-10-01
The present paper studies the effects of the radiation pressure in the trajectories of a spacecraft in transfers between the collinear Lagrange points of a double asteroid system. The system considered is this paper is formed by the double asteroid 1996FG3 and the maneuvers are always assumed to be bi-impulsive. In a system formed by asteroids, the solar radiation pressure has a significant influence in the transfers paths. This occurs because the gravitational forces in these systems are smaller if compared with systems formed by larger bodies. Solutions with lower and higher fuel consumption can be found by adding the solar radiation pressure. The radiation pressure was not used as a control but its effects over the transfers were measured. For a small system of primaries such as an asteroid system, it is very important to take into account this force to make sure that the spacecraft will reach the desired point.
A Consummate Radiative Transfer Package for Studying the Atmosphere and Oceans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, P.; Hu, Y.; Trepte, C. R.; Winker, D. M.
2015-12-01
We will present a radiative transfer package based on the successive order of scattering method. This code is capable to calculate the radiation field in turbid media, which can be either the atmosphere-land or atmosphere-ocean coupled systems. The outputs include all four Stokes parameters at arbitrary detector locations and viewing angles in the turbid medium. Both the elastic and inelastic scattering are implemented in the package. This radiative transfer tool has been used in various applications, for instance, generating an aerosol look-up table for atmospheric correction in ocean color remote sensing; retrieving water cloud size distribution using the polarized multi-angle measurements; simulating the OCO2 O2 A band radiance measurement, etc. Our radiative transfer package is a great tool to interpret and predict the measurements from the future polarimeters and multipolarization-state lidars for Earth observing missions.
Effective-medium model of wire metamaterials in the problems of radiative heat transfer
Mirmoosa, M. S. Nefedov, I. S. Simovski, C. R.; Rüting, F.
2014-06-21
In the present work, we check the applicability of the effective medium model (EMM) to the problems of radiative heat transfer (RHT) through so-called wire metamaterials (WMMs)—composites comprising parallel arrays of metal nanowires. It is explained why this problem is so important for the development of prospective thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems. Previous studies of the applicability of EMM for WMMs were targeted by the imaging applications of WMMs. The analogous study referring to the transfer of radiative heat is a separate problem that deserves extended investigations. We show that WMMs with practically realizable design parameters transmit the radiative heat as effectively homogeneous media. Existing EMM is an adequate tool for qualitative prediction of the magnitude of transferred radiative heat and of its effective frequency band.
Tools for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer: Streamer and FluxNet. Revised
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Key, Jeffrey R.; Schweiger, Axel J.
1998-01-01
Two tools for the solution of radiative transfer problems are presented. Streamer is a highly flexible medium spectral resolution radiative transfer model based on the plane-parallel theory of radiative transfer. Capable of computing either fluxes or radiances, it is suitable for studying radiative processes at the surface or within the atmosphere and for the development of remote-sensing algorithms. FluxNet is a fast neural network-based implementation of Streamer for computing surface fluxes. It allows for a sophisticated treatment of radiative processes in the analysis of large data sets and potential integration into geophysical models where computational efficiency is an issue. Documentation and tools for the development of alternative versions of Fluxnet are available. Collectively, Streamer and FluxNet solve a wide variety of problems related to radiative transfer: Streamer provides the detail and sophistication needed to perform basic research on most aspects of complex radiative processes while the efficiency and simplicity of FluxNet make it ideal for operational use.
Radiative heat transfer in many-body systems: Coupled electric and magnetic dipole approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Jian; Zhao, Junming; Liu, Linhua
2017-03-01
The many-body radiative heat transfer theory [P. Ben-Abdallah, S.-A. Biehs, and K. Joulain, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 114301 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.114301] considered only the contribution from the electric dipole moment. For metal particles, however, the magnetic dipole moment due to eddy current plays an important role, which can further couple with the electric dipole moment to introduce crossed terms. In this paper, we develop the coupled electric and magnetic dipole (CEMD) approach for the radiative heat transfer in a collection of objects in mutual interaction. Due to the coupled electric and magnetic interactions, four terms, namely the electric-electric, the electric-magnetic, the magnetic-electric, and the magnetic-magnetic terms, contribute to the radiative heat flux and the local energy density. The CEMD is applied to study the radiative heat transfer between various dimers of nanoparticles. It is found that each of the four terms can dominate the radiative heat transfer depending on the position and composition of particles. Moreover, near-field many-body interactions are studied by CEMD considering both dielectric and metallic nanoparticles. The near-field radiative heat flux and local energy density can be greatly increased when the particles are in coupled resonances. Surface plasmon polariton and surface phonon polariton can be coupled to enhance the radiative heat flux.
Analysis of radiative heat transfer impact in cross-flow tube and fin heat exchangers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanuszkiewicz-Drapała, Małgorzata; Bury, Tomasz; Widziewicz, Katarzyna
2016-03-01
A cross-flow, tube and fin heat exchanger of the water - air type is the subject of the analysis. The analysis had experimental and computational form and was aimed for evaluation of radiative heat transfer impact on the heat exchanger performance. The main element of the test facility was an enlarged recurrent segment of the heat exchanger under consideration. The main results of measurements are heat transfer rates, as well as temperature distributions on the surface of the first fin obtained by using the infrared camera. The experimental results have been next compared to computational ones coming from a numerical model of the test station. The model has been elaborated using computational fluid dynamics software. The computations have been accomplished for two cases: without radiative heat transfer and taking this phenomenon into account. Evaluation of the radiative heat transfer impact in considered system has been done by comparing all the received results.
SCIATRAN 3.1: A new radiative transfer model and retrieval package
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozanov, Alexei; Rozanov, Vladimir; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Burrows, John P.
The SCIATRAN 3.1 package is a result of further development of the SCIATRAN 2.X software family which, similar to previous versions, comprises a radiative transfer model and a retrieval block. After an implementation of the vector radiative transfer model in SCIATRAN 3.0 the spectral range covered by the model has been extended into the thermal infrared ranging to approximately 40 micrometers. Another major improvement has been done accounting for the underlying surface effects. Among others, a sophisticated representation of the water surface with a bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) has been implemented accounting for the Fresnel reflection of the polarized light and for the effect of foam. A newly developed representation for a snow surface allows radiative transfer calculations to be performed within an unpolluted or soiled snow layer. Furthermore, a new approach has been implemented allowing radiative transfer calculations to be performed for a coupled atmosphere-ocean system. This means that, the underlying ocean is not considered as a purely reflecting surface any more. Instead, full radiative transfer calculations are performed within the water allowing the user to simulate the radiance within both the atmosphere and the ocean. Similar to previous versions, the simulations can be performed for any viewing geometry typi-cal for atmospheric observations in the UV-Vis-NIR-TIR spectral range (nadir, limb, off-axis, etc.) as well as for any observer location within or outside the Earth's atmosphere including underwater observations. Similar to the precursor version, the new model is freely available for non-commercial use via the web page of the University of Bremen. In this presentation a short description of the software package, especially of the new features of the radiative transfer model is given, including remarks on the availability for the scientific community. Furthermore, some application examples of the radiative transfer model are
a Radiative Transfer Equation/phase Function Approach to Vegetation Canopy Reflectance Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Randolph, Marion Herbert
Vegetation canopy reflectance models currently in use differ considerably in their treatment of the radiation scattering problem, and it is this fundamental difference which stimulated this investigation of the radiative transfer equation/phase function approach. The primary objective of this thesis is the development of vegetation canopy phase functions which describe the probability of radiation scattering within a canopy in terms of its biological and physical characteristics. In this thesis a technique based upon quadrature formulae is used to numerically generate a variety of vegetation canopy phase functions. Based upon leaf inclination distribution functions, phase functions are generated for plagiophile, extremophile, erectophile, spherical, planophile, blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and soybean canopies. The vegetation canopy phase functions generated are symmetric with respect to the incident and exitant angles, and hence satisfy the principle of reciprocity. The remaining terms in the radiative transfer equation are also derived in terms of canopy geometry and optical properties to complete the development of the radiative transfer equation/phase function description for vegetation canopy reflectance modeling. In order to test the radiative transfer equation/phase function approach the iterative discrete ordinates method for solving the radiative transfer equation is implemented. In comparison with field data, the approach tends to underestimate the visible reflectance and overestimate infrared reflectance. The approach does compare well, however, with other extant canopy reflectance models; for example, it agrees to within ten to fifteen percent of the Suits model (Suits, 1972). Sensitivity analysis indicates that canopy geometry may influence reflectance as much as 100 percent for a given wavelength. Optical thickness produces little change in reflectance after a depth of 2.5 (Leaf area index of 4.0) is reached, and reflectance generally increases
Fisher, Wayne W.; Greer, Brian D.; Fuhrman, Ashley M.; Querim, Angie C.
2016-01-01
Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects from one setting to the next and from one therapist to the next. With two children, we conducted FCT in the context of mixed (baseline) and multiple (treatment) schedules introduced across settings or therapists using a multiple baseline design. Results indicated that when the multiple schedules were introduced, the functional communication response came under rapid discriminative control, and problem behavior remained at near-zero rates. We extended these findings with another individual by using a more traditional baseline in which problem behavior produced reinforcement. Results replicated those of the previous participants and showed rapid reductions in problem behavior when multiple schedules were implemented across settings. PMID:26384141
2012-01-01
Background To simplify clinical scale lymphocyte expansions, we investigated the use of the WAVE®, a closed system bioreactor that utilizes active perfusion to generate high cell numbers in minimal volumes. Methods We have developed an optimized rapid expansion protocol for the WAVE bioreactor that produces clinically relevant numbers of cells for our adoptive cell transfer clinical protocols. Results TIL and genetically modified PBL were rapidly expanded to clinically relevant scales in both static bags and the WAVE bioreactor. Both bioreactors produced comparable numbers of cells; however the cultures generated in the WAVE bioreactor had a higher percentage of CD4+ cells and had a less activated phenotype. Conclusions The WAVE bioreactor simplifies the process of rapidly expanding tumor reactive lymphocytes under GMP conditions, and provides an alternate approach to cell generation for ACT protocols. PMID:22475724
Analytical-HZETRN model for rapid assessment of active magnetic radiation shielding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Washburn, S. A.; Blattnig, S. R.; Singleterry, R. C.; Westover, S. C.
2014-01-01
The use of active radiation shielding designs has the potential to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on deep-space missions at a significantly lower mass penalty than designs utilizing only passive shielding. Unfortunately, the determination of the radiation exposure inside these shielded environments often involves lengthy and computationally intensive Monte Carlo analysis. In order to evaluate the large trade space of design parameters associated with a magnetic radiation shield design, an analytical model was developed for the determination of flux inside a solenoid magnetic field due to the Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) radiation environment. This analytical model was then coupled with NASA's radiation transport code, HZETRN, to account for the effects of passive/structural shielding mass. The resulting model can rapidly obtain results for a given configuration and can therefore be used to analyze an entire trade space of potential variables in less time than is required for even a single Monte Carlo run. Analyzing this trade space for a solenoid magnetic shield design indicates that active shield bending powers greater than ∼15 Tm and passive/structural shielding thicknesses greater than 40 g/cm2 have a limited impact on reducing dose equivalent values. Also, it is shown that higher magnetic field strengths are more effective than thicker magnetic fields at reducing dose equivalent.
Analytical-HZETRN Model for Rapid Assessment of Active Magnetic Radiation Shielding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Washburn, S. A.; Blattnig, S. R.; Singleterry, R. C.; Westover, S. C.
2014-01-01
The use of active radiation shielding designs has the potential to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on deep-space missions at a significantly lower mass penalty than designs utilizing only passive shielding. Unfortunately, the determination of the radiation exposure inside these shielded environments often involves lengthy and computationally intensive Monte Carlo analysis. In order to evaluate the large trade space of design parameters associated with a magnetic radiation shield design, an analytical model was developed for the determination of flux inside a solenoid magnetic field due to the Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) radiation environment. This analytical model was then coupled with NASA's radiation transport code, HZETRN, to account for the effects of passive/structural shielding mass. The resulting model can rapidly obtain results for a given configuration and can therefore be used to analyze an entire trade space of potential variables in less time than is required for even a single Monte Carlo run. Analyzing this trade space for a solenoid magnetic shield design indicates that active shield bending powers greater than 15 Tm and passive/structural shielding thicknesses greater than 40 g/cm2 have a limited impact on reducing dose equivalent values. Also, it is shown that higher magnetic field strengths are more effective than thicker magnetic fields at reducing dose equivalent.
Analytical-HZETRN Model for Rapid Assessment of Active Magnetic Radiation Shielding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Washburn, S. A.; Blattnig, S. R.; Singleterry, R. C.; Westover, S. C.
2014-01-01
The use of active radiation shielding designs has the potential to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on deep-space missions at a significantly lower mass penalty than designs utilizing only passive shielding. Unfortunately, the determination of the radiation exposure inside these shielded environments often involves lengthy and computationally intensive Monte Carlo analysis. In order to evaluate the large trade space of design parameters associated with a magnetic radiation shield design, an analytical model was developed for the determination of flux inside a solenoid magnetic field due to the Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) radiation environment. This analytical model was then coupled with NASA's radiation transport code, HZETRN, to account for the effects of passive/structural shielding mass. The resulting model can rapidly obtain results for a given configuration and can therefore be used to analyze an entire trade space of potential variables in less time than is required for even a single Monte Carlo run. Analyzing this trade space for a solenoid magnetic shield design indicates that active shield bending powers greater than 15 Tm and passive/structural shielding thicknesses greater than 40 g/cm2 have a limited impact on reducing dose equivalent values. Also, it is shown that higher magnetic field strengths are more effective than thicker magnetic fields at reducing dose equivalent.
Brinkman, Adam S.; Gill, Kara G.; Leys, Charles M.; Gosain, Ankush
2015-01-01
Purpose Pediatric trauma patients presenting to Referring Facilities (RF) often undergo computed tomography scans (CT) to identify injuries before transfer to a Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center (PTC). The purpose of our study was to evaluate RF compliance with the American College of Radiology (ACR) guidelines to minimize ionizing radiation exposure in pediatric trauma patients and to determine the frequency of additional or repeat CT imaging after transfer to a PTC. Methods After IRB approval, a retrospective review of all pediatric trauma admissions from January 2010-December 2011 at our American College of Surgeons (ACS) Level 1 PTC was performed. Patient demographics, means of arrival, injury severity score and disposition were analyzed. Patients who underwent CT were grouped by means of arrival: those that were transferred from a RF versus those that presented primarily to the PTC. Compliance with ACR guidelines and need for additional or repeat CT scans were assessed for both groups. Results 697 children (<18yo) were identified with a mean age of 10.6 years. 321 (46%) patients presented primarily to the PTC. 376 (54%) were transferred from a RF, of which 90 (24%) patients underwent CT imaging prior to transfer. CT radiation dosing information was available for 79/90 patients (88%). After transfer, 8/90 (9%) of children imaged at a RF required additional CT scans. In comparison, 314/321 (98%) of patients who presented primarily to the PTC and underwent CT received appropriate pediatric radiation dosing. Mean radiation dose at PTC was approximately half of that at RF for CT scans of the head, chest and abdomen/pelvis (p<0.01). Conclusions Pediatric trauma patients transferred from RF often undergo CT scanning with higher than recommended radiation doses, potentially placing them at increased carcinogenic risk. Fortunately, few RF patients required additional CT scans after PTC transfer. Finally, compliance with ACR radiation dose limit guidelines is better
Humphreys, Stacey; Totapally, Balagangadhar R
2016-01-01
Variability in disposition of children according to the time of rapid response calls is unknown. To evaluate times and disposition of rapid response alerts and outcomes for children transferred from acute care to intensive care. Deidentified data on demographics, time and disposition of the child after activation of a rapid response, time of transfer to intensive care, and patient outcomes were reviewed retrospectively. Data for rapid-response patients on time of activation of the response and unplanned transfers to the intensive care unit were compared with data on other patients admitted to the unit. Of 542 rapid responses activated, 321 (59.2%) were called during the daytime. Out of all rapid response activations, 323 children (59.6%) were transferred to intensive care, 164 (30.3%) remained on the general unit, and 19 (3.5%) required resuscitation. More children were transferred to intensive care after rapid response alerts (P = .048) during the daytime (66%) than at night (59%). During the same period, 1313 patients were transferred to intensive care from acute care units. Age, sex, risk of mortality, length of stay, and mortality rate did not differ according to the time of transfer. Mortality among unplanned transfers (3.8%) was significantly higher (P < .001) than among other intensive care patients (1.4%). Only 25% of transfers from acute care units to the intensive care unit occurred after activation of a rapid response team. Most rapid responses were called during daytime hours. Mortality was significantly higher among unplanned transfers from acute care than among other intensive care admissions. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
Coaxial radiative and convective heat transfer in gray and nongray gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mattick, A. T.
1980-01-01
Coupled radiative and convective heat transfer is investigated for an absorbing gas flowing in a finite length channel and heated by blackbody radiation directed along the flow axis. The problem is formulated in one dimension and numerical solutions are obtained for the temperature profile of the gas and for the radiation escaping the channel entrance, assuming both gray and nongray absorption spectra. Due to radiation trapping, the flowing gas is found to have substantially smaller radiation losses for a given peak gas temperature than a solid surface that is radiatively heated to this temperature. A greenhouse effect is also evident whereby radiation losses are minimized for a gas having stronger absorption at long wavelengths.
Coaxial radiative and convective heat transfer in gray and nongray gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mattick, A. T.
1980-01-01
Coupled radiative and convective heat transfer is investigated for an absorbing gas flowing in a finite length channel and heated by blackbody radiation directed along the flow axis. The problem is formulated in one dimension and numerical solutions are obtained for the temperature profile of the gas and for the radiation escaping the channel entrance, assuming both gray and nongray absorption spectra. Due to radiation trapping, the flowing gas is found to have substantially smaller radiation losses for a given peak gas temperature than a solid surface that is radiatively heated to this temperature. A greenhouse effect is also evident whereby radiation losses are minimized for a gas having stronger absorption at long wavelengths.
Computational methodology for radiation heat transfer in the flowfield of an AOTV
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fuehrer, P. L.; Edwards, D. K.; Babikian, D. S.
1991-01-01
A computational methodology is developed for the calculation of radiation heat transfer in a non-scattering medium where nonequilibrium conditions exist and give rise to complex spectra. The specific problem of radiation in an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV) flowfield is addressed. Nonequilibrium radiation from the gases around a hypersonic vehicle is evaluated using the NASA-Ames NEQAIR program together with a three-dimensional geometrical flowfield model. Nonequilibrium compositions and temperatures are taken from NASA-Langley 3-D hypersonic flowfield calculations that include real-gas effects and finite-rate chemical kinetics. It is shown that the concept of a transmission path adjustment, together with precomputations of curves of growth based upon local properties at flowfield locations, facilitates radiation calculations. Sample calculations of directional and spectral distributions of gas radiation received upon a hypersonic vehicle are presented.
General relativistic radiative transfer code in rotating black hole space-time: ARTIST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Rohta; Umemura, Masayuki
2017-02-01
We present a general relativistic radiative transfer code, ARTIST (Authentic Radiative Transfer In Space-Time), that is a perfectly causal scheme to pursue the propagation of radiation with absorption and scattering around a Kerr black hole. The code explicitly solves the invariant radiation intensity along null geodesics in the Kerr-Schild coordinates, and therefore properly includes light bending, Doppler boosting, frame dragging, and gravitational redshifts. The notable aspect of ARTIST is that it conserves the radiative energy with high accuracy, and is not subject to the numerical diffusion, since the transfer is solved on long characteristics along null geodesics. We first solve the wavefront propagation around a Kerr black hole that was originally explored by Hanni. This demonstrates repeated wavefront collisions, light bending, and causal propagation of radiation with the speed of light. We show that the decay rate of the total energy of wavefronts near a black hole is determined solely by the black hole spin in late phases, in agreement with analytic expectations. As a result, the ARTIST turns out to correctly solve the general relativistic radiation fields until late phases as t ˜ 90 M. We also explore the effects of absorption and scattering, and apply this code for a photon wall problem and an orbiting hotspot problem. All the simulations in this study are performed in the equatorial plane around a Kerr black hole. The ARTIST is the first step to realize the general relativistic radiation hydrodynamics.
The Rapid Response Radiation Survey (R3S) Mission Using the HISat Conformal Satellite Architecture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Nathanael
2015-01-01
The Rapid Response Radiation Survey (R3S) experiment, designed as a quick turnaround mission to make radiation measurements in LEO, will fly as a hosted payload in partnership with NovaWurks using their Hyper-integrated Satlet (HiSat) architecture. The need for the mission arises as the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionization Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model moves from a research effort into an operational radiation assessment tool. The data collected by R3S, in addition to the complementary data from a NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) atmospheric balloon mission entitled Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaDX), will validate exposure prediction capabilities of NAIRAS. This paper discusses the development of the R3S experiment as made possible by use of the HiSat architecture. The system design and operational modes of the experiment are described, as well as the experiment interfaces to the HiSat satellite via the user defined adapter (UDA) provided by NovaWurks. This paper outlines the steps taken by the project to execute the R3S mission in the 4 months of design, build, and test. Finally, description of the engineering process is provided, including the use of facilitated rapid/concurrent engineering sessions, the associated documentation, and the review process employed.
Episodic Mass Loss on the Timescale of Thermal Pulses: Radiative Transfer Modeling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speck, Angela; Nenkova, Maia; Meixner, Margaret; Eltizur, Moshe; Knapp, Gillian
Using far-infrared observations obtained from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have discovered extremely large dust shells around two post-AGB stars (the Egg Nebula and AFGL 618; Speck, Meixner & Knapp 2001). These circumstellar shells contain the fossil record of their previous AGB mass loss. The radial profiles of these dust shells suggest that episodic mass loss has occurred with mass-loss enhancements on timescales corresponding to theoretical predictions of thermal pulses on the AGB. By modeling the dust emission, we can constrain how the mass loss varies as stars evolve on the AGB, which will constrain the mass-loss mechanisms. Furthermore this modeling allows the determination of the density distribution of the dust around the protoplanetary nebulae as a function of radius. However, modeling such large dust shells is not trivial. Previous studies of very large circumstellar shells showed that most of the outer shell is heated by the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) rather than the central star. Therefore using radiative transfer models with only the central star heating the dust is unrealistic. Furthermore, where the circumstellar shell ploughs into the surrounding interstellar medium may lead to a pile up of material at the outer edge of the dust shell. We present results of modeling the very large dust shells around the Egg Nebula and AFGL 618 using a version of the 1-d radiative transfer code DUSTY which includes external heating of the dust by the ISRF. The models require that the innermost regions has a rapid (1r3) dust density drop-off, indicative of the increased mass-loss rate towards the end of the AGB. Further out, the dust shell has an underlying 1r2 density drop-off, with two superimposed density enhancements. These results provide constraints on the spatial extent of increased density regions and therefore on the duration of increased mass-loss episodes. Furthermore, the modeling suggests that the mass loss rate was either higher in
Phylogeny of Saxifragales (angiosperms, eudicots): analysis of a rapid, ancient radiation.
Fishbein, M; Hibsch-Jetter, C; Soltis, D E; Hufford, L
2001-01-01
Rapid, ancient radiations pose one of the most difficult challenges for phylogenetic estimation. We used DNA sequence data of 9,006 aligned base pairs from five genes (chloroplast atpB, matK, rbcL, and 18S and 26S nrDNA) to elucidate relationships among major lineages of Saxifragales (angiosperms, eudicots). These relationships were poorly supported in previous studies, apparently because the lineages originated in rapid succession. Using an array of methods that explicitly incorporate assumptions about evolutionary process (weighted maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, LogDet/paralinear transformed distances), we show that the initial diversification of Saxifragales was indeed rapid. We suggest that the poor resolution of our best phylogenetic estimate is not due to violations of assumptions or to combining data partitions having conflicting histories or processes. We show that estimated branch lengths during the initial diversification are exceedingly short, and we estimate that acquiring sufficient sequence data to resolve these relationships would require an extraordinary effort (approximately 10(7) bp), assuming a linear increase in branch support with branch length. However, our simulation of much larger data sets containing a distribution of phylogenetic signal similar to that of the five sampled gene sequences suggests a limit to achievable branch support. Using statistical tests of differences in the likelihoods of topologies, we evaluated whether the initial radiation of Saxifragales involved the simultaneous origin of major lineages. Our results are consistent with predictions that resolving the branching order of rapid, ancient radiations requires sampling characters that evolved rapidly at the time of the radiation but have since experienced a slower evolutionary rate.
Transient radiative energy transfer in incompressible laminar flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiwari, S. N.; Singh, D. J.
1987-01-01
Analysis and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the transient radiative interactions of nongray absorbing-emitting species in laminar fully-developed flows between two parallel plates. The particular species considered are OH, CO, CO2, and H2O and different mixtures of these. Transient and steady-state results are obtained for the temperaure distribution and bulk temperature for different plate spacings, wall temperatures, and pressures. Results, in general, indicate that the rate of radiative heating can be quite high during earlier times. This information is useful in designing thermal protection systems for transient operations.
Space-to-Space Power Beaming Enabling High Performance Rapid Geocentric Orbit Transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dankanich, John W.; Vassallo, Corinne; Tadge, Megan
2015-01-01
The use of electric propulsion is more prevalent than ever, with industry pursuing all electric orbit transfers. Electric propulsion provides high mass utilization through efficient propellant transfer. However, the transfer times become detrimental as the delta V transitions from near-impulsive to low-thrust. Increasing power and therefore thrust has diminishing returns as the increasing mass of the power system limits the potential acceleration of the spacecraft. By using space-to-space power beaming, the power system can be decoupled from the spacecraft and allow significantly higher spacecraft alpha (W/kg) and therefore enable significantly higher accelerations while maintaining high performance. This project assesses the efficacy of space-to-space power beaming to enable rapid orbit transfer while maintaining high mass utilization. Concept assessment requires integrated techniques for low-thrust orbit transfer steering laws, efficient large-scale rectenna systems, and satellite constellation configuration optimization. This project includes the development of an integrated tool with implementation of IPOPT, Q-Law, and power-beaming models. The results highlight the viability of the concept, limits and paths to infusion, and comparison to state-of-the-art capabilities. The results indicate the viability of power beaming for what may be the only approach for achieving the desired transit times with high specific impulse.
Luchavez, Jennifer; Lintag, Ma Eichelle; Coll-Black, Mary; Baik, Fred; Bell, David
2007-11-15
Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind.
Luchavez, Jennifer; Lintag, Ma Eichelle; Coll-Black, Mary; Baik, Fred; Bell, David
2007-01-01
Background Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Methods Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. Results There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. Conclusion None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind. PMID:18001481
Resonance laser-induced ionisation of sodium vapour taking radiative transfer into account
Kosarev, N I; Shaparev, N Ya
2006-04-30
The problem of ionisation of atomic sodium in the field of resonance laser radiation is numerically solved taking radiative transfer into account. Seed electrons are produced due to the mechanism of associative ionisation, then they gain energy in superelastic processes (collisions of the second kind) and initiate the avalanche ionisation of the medium by electron impact. We studied the effect of secondary radiation on the laser pulse propagation upon competition between the ionising and quenching electron collisions with excited atoms, on the kinetics of ionisation-induced vapour bleaching, and the plasma channel expansion in the form of a halo. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Bo; Guo, Weidong; Xue, Yongkang; Dai, Qiudan
2016-10-01
The process of radiative transfer over vegetated areas has a profound impact on energy, water, and carbon balances over the terrestrial surface. In this paper, a generalized radiative transfer scheme (GRTS) within canopy is implemented in the Simplified Simple Biosphere land surface model (SSiB). The main concept and structure of GRTS and its coupling methodology to a land model are presented. Different from the two-stream method, the GRTS takes into account the effects of complex canopy morphology and inhomogeneous optical properties of leaves on radiative transfer process within the canopy. In the offline SSiB/GRTS simulation for the period of 2001-2012, the nonuniform leaf angle distribution within canopy layers is considered in SSiB/GRTS in the areas of evergreen broadleaf trees. Compared with the SSiB/two stream method, SSiB/GRTS produces lower canopy reflectance and higher transmittance, which leads to more realistic albedo simulation. The canopy-absorbed radiation flux in SSiB/GRTS simulation is lower than that in SSiB/two stream method simulation throughout the year in the areas of evergreen broadleaf trees. The largest difference of -18.4 W/m2 occurs in the Amazon region in the autumn. The ground-absorbed radiation flux increases in the SSiB/GRTS simulation, especially in the spring and autumn. The largest difference in the ground-absorbed radiation flux between SSiB/GRTS simulation and SSiB/two stream method simulation is 25.45 W/m2. In the boreal winter season, compared with the two-stream method in the SSiB, the GRTS gives higher surface albedo in the areas with high snow cover fraction over leaf.
Repin, M V; Repina, L A
2011-01-01
The probability of losses of different chromosome aberrations during the dicentric chromosome assay of metaphase cells with incomplete sets of chromosome centromeres was estimated using a mathematical model for low doses of ionizing radiation. A dicentric assay of human blood lymphocytes without determination of the total amount of chromosome centromeres in cells without chromosome aberrations (rapid dicentric assay) has been proposed. The rapid dicentric analysis allows to register chromosome aberrations in full compliance with the conventional classification. The experimental data have shown no statistically significant difference between the frequencies of dicentric chromosomes detected by rapid and classical dicentric chromosome assays of human lymphocytes exposed to 0.5 Gy of 60Co gamma-rays. The rate of the rapid dicentric assay was almost twice as high as that of the classical dicentric assay.
Rapid calculation of terrain parameters for radiation modeling from digital elevation data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dozier, Jeff; Frew, James
1990-01-01
Digital elevation models are now widely used to calculate terrain parameters to determine incoming solar and longwave radiation for use in surface climate models, interpretation of remote-sensing data, and parameters in hydrologic models. Because of the large number of points in an elevation grid, fast algorithms are useful to save computation time. A description is given of rapid methods for calculating slope and azimuth, solar illumination angle, horizons, and view factors for radiation from sky and terrain. Calculation time is reduced by fast algorithms and lookup tables.
McCormack, E A; Lowth, H S; Bell, M T; Weidmann, D; Ritchie, G A D
2012-07-21
A continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) operating at 10 μm has been used to record absorption spectra of low pressure samples of OCS in an astigmatic Herriott cell. As a result of the frequency chirp of the laser, the spectra show clearly the effects of rapid passage on the absorption line shape. At the low chirp rates that can be obtained with the cw-QCL, population transfer between rovibrational quantum states is predicted to be much more efficient than in typical pulsed QCL experiments. This optical pumping is investigated by solving the Maxwell Bloch equations to simulate the propagation of the laser radiation through an inhomogeneously broadened two-level system. The calculated absorption profiles show good quantitative agreement with those measured experimentally over a range of chirp rates and optical thicknesses. It is predicted that at a low chirp rate of 0.13 MHz ns(-1), the population transfer between rovibrational quantum states is 12%, considerably more than that obtained at the higher chirp rates utilised in pulsed QCL experiments.
The effects of radiative transfer on low-level cyclogenesis
Leach, M.J.; Raman, S.
1995-04-01
Many investigators have documented the role that thermodynamic forcing due to radiative flux divergence plays in the enhancement or generation of circulation. Most of these studies involve large-scale systems, small-scale systems such as thunderstorms, and squall lines. The generation of circulation on large scales results from the creation of divergence in the upper troposphere and the maintenance of low-level potentially unstable air, and the maintenance of baroclinicity throughout the atmosphere. On smaller scales, radiative flux divergence acts similarly. In the thunderstorms and squall lines, the radiative forcing acts as a pump, increasing the divergence at the top of the storm systems and increasing the updraft velocity and the intensity of inflow at mid-levels in the storm systems. Other researchers have examined the role of surface processes and low-level baroclinicity in east coast cyclogenesis. In this paper, we examine the interactive role that radiative flux divergence, clouds, and surface processes play in low-level cyclogenesis and the creation or maintenance of the boundary layer baroclinicity.
On the linear properties of the nonlinear radiative transfer problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pikichyan, H. V.
2016-11-01
In this report, we further expose the assertions made in nonlinear problem of reflection/transmission of radiation from a scattering/absorbing one-dimensional anisotropic medium of finite geometrical thickness, when both of its boundaries are illuminated by intense monochromatic radiative beams. The new conceptual element of well-defined, so-called, linear images is noteworthy. They admit a probabilistic interpretation. In the framework of nonlinear problem of reflection/transmission of radiation, we derive solution which is similar to linear case. That is, the solution is reduced to the linear combination of linear images. By virtue of the physical meaning, these functions describe the reflectivity and transmittance of the medium for a single photon or their beam of unit intensity, incident on one of the boundaries of the layer. Thereby the medium in real regime is still under the bilateral illumination by external exciting radiation of arbitrary intensity. To determine the linear images, we exploit three well known methods of (i) adding of layers, (ii) its limiting form, described by differential equations of invariant imbedding, and (iii) a transition to the, so-called, functional equations of the "Ambartsumyan's complete invariance".
Heat Transfer Issues in Thin-Film Thermal Radiation Detectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barry, Mamadou Y.
1999-01-01
The Thermal Radiation Group at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University has been working closely with scientists and engineers at NASA's Langley Research Center to develop accurate analytical and numerical models suitable for designing next generation thin-film thermal radiation detectors for earth radiation budget measurement applications. The current study provides an analytical model of the notional thermal radiation detector that takes into account thermal transport phenomena, such as the contact resistance between the layers of the detector, and is suitable for use in parameter estimation. It was found that the responsivity of the detector can increase significantly due to the presence of contact resistance between the layers of the detector. Also presented is the effect of doping the thermal impedance layer of the detector with conducting particles in order to electrically link the two junctions of the detector. It was found that the responsivity and the time response of the doped detector decrease significantly in this case. The corresponding decrease of the electrical resistance of the doped thermal impedance layer is not sufficient to significantly improve the electrical performance of the detector. Finally, the "roughness effect" is shown to be unable to explain the decrease in the thermal conductivity often reported for thin-film layers.
Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for radiative transfer in spherical symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitzmann, D.; Bolte, J.; Patzer, A. B. C.
2016-11-01
The discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) is successfully applied to treat a broad variety of transport problems numerically. In this work, we use the full capacity of the DG-FEM to solve the radiative transfer equation in spherical symmetry. We present a discontinuous Galerkin method to directly solve the spherically symmetric radiative transfer equation as a two-dimensional problem. The transport equation in spherical atmospheres is more complicated than in the plane-parallel case owing to the appearance of an additional derivative with respect to the polar angle. The DG-FEM formalism allows for the exact integration of arbitrarily complex scattering phase functions, independent of the angular mesh resolution. We show that the discontinuous Galerkin method is able to describe accurately the radiative transfer in extended atmospheres and to capture discontinuities or complex scattering behaviour which might be present in the solution of certain radiative transfer tasks and can, therefore, cause severe numerical problems for other radiative transfer solution methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahoo, Rashmi R.; Sarkar, Jahar
2016-12-01
Present study deals with the enhancement of convective heat transfer performance of EG brine based various hybrid nanofluids i.e. Ag, Cu, SiC, CuO and TiO2 in 0-1% volume fraction of Al2O3 nanofluid, as coolants for louvered fin automobile radiator. The effects of nanoparticles combination and operating parameters on thermo physical properties, heat transfer, effectiveness, pumping power and performance index of hybrid nanofluids have been evaluated. Comparison of studied hybrid nanofluids based on radiator size and pumping power has been made as well. Among all studied hybrid nanofluids, 1% Ag hybrid nanofluid (0.5% Ag and 0.5% Al2O3) yields highest effectiveness and heat transfer rate as well as pumping power. However, SiC + Al2O3 dispersed hybrid nanofluid yields maximum performance index and hence this can be recommended for best coolant. For the same radiator size and heat transfer rate, pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to increase in engine thermal efficiency and hence reduction in engine fuel consumption. For same coolant flow rate and heat transfer rate, the radiator size reduces and pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to reduction in radiator size, weight and cost.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahoo, Rashmi R.; Sarkar, Jahar
2017-06-01
Present study deals with the enhancement of convective heat transfer performance of EG brine based various hybrid nanofluids i.e. Ag, Cu, SiC, CuO and TiO2 in 0-1% volume fraction of Al2O3 nanofluid, as coolants for louvered fin automobile radiator. The effects of nanoparticles combination and operating parameters on thermo physical properties, heat transfer, effectiveness, pumping power and performance index of hybrid nanofluids have been evaluated. Comparison of studied hybrid nanofluids based on radiator size and pumping power has been made as well. Among all studied hybrid nanofluids, 1% Ag hybrid nanofluid (0.5% Ag and 0.5% Al2O3) yields highest effectiveness and heat transfer rate as well as pumping power. However, SiC + Al2O3 dispersed hybrid nanofluid yields maximum performance index and hence this can be recommended for best coolant. For the same radiator size and heat transfer rate, pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to increase in engine thermal efficiency and hence reduction in engine fuel consumption. For same coolant flow rate and heat transfer rate, the radiator size reduces and pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to reduction in radiator size, weight and cost.
An efficient algorithm for polarization in the SASKTRAN radiative transfer framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dueck, Seth R. F.; Bourassa, Adam E.; Degenstein, Doug A.
2017-09-01
Techniques for remote sensing of atmospheric composition often involve the minimization of the residual between spectrally-resolved atmospheric radiometry and the output of a radiative transfer model which solves the equations of radiative transfer in a candidate atmosphere. Here, SASKTRAN, a framework of climatologies, optical property calculators, and scalar radiative transfer models specifically designed for modeling limb scattering observations, is upgraded to solve the vector radiative transfer equations. In particular, the Monte Carlo and High Resolution Successive Orders modules of the SASKTRAN framework are extended to handle polarized scattering of light in a fully spherical atmosphere, with the assumption of a Lambertian earth underneath. The fast, polarized, High Resolution module is validated against the statistically exact polarized Monte Carlo module for limb-scatter observations in the UV-visible-NIR spectral range and is found to be accurate to within 0.2% in its fully polarized mode. An approximate method to solve the vector radiative transfer equations is introduced; in this mode, the high resolution engine is accurate for limb-scatter geometries to within about 0.2% in almost all cases with minimal degradation in performance as compared to the scalar mode. The models are used to show that scalar simulations of limb-observed UV-vis radiances may contain absolute radiometric errors of up to 5% for typical stratospheric aerosol loads. Furthermore, limb-observed radiances may have nearly any linear polarization, and this is in general altitude and wavelength dependent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Croize, Laurence; Pierro, Jean; Huet, Thierry; Labarre, Luc
2016-04-01
MATISSE which acronym means Advanced Modeling of the Earth for Environment and Scenes Simulation is developed by ONERA since the mid 1990's. The code main functionality is to compute spectral or integrated natural background radiance images. Natural backgrounds include the atmosphere, low and high altitude clouds, sea and land. It can also provide specific radiative atmospheric terms as path transmission, path radiances, sky radiances or local illumination around a target point. Spectral bandwidth ranges from 700 to 25000 cm-1 wavenumber (i.e. from 0.4 to 14 μm). As far as molecular absorption is concerned, MATISSE v2.0 is based on a correlated K (CK) model and needs a pre-generation of the k-distributions. This method is very precise but is time consuming and is done as an offline calculation. In answer to the increasing need of rapid radiative transfer codes, the future version of the MATISSE v3.0 will include a fast radiative transfer model at low and at medium spectral resolution. This work aims to develop a fast wide band CK model for the acceleration of radiative transfer calculation. As a first step, a statistical k-distributions fast generator was developed. It allows generating k-distributions from 700 to 25000 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 1 cm-1 in less than 30 ms(*) for one altitude (that means about three orders of magnitude faster than before). Such speed allows generating k-distributions online. To validate the model, we have compared the obtained transmission spectra with reference spectra using a mix of 6 molecules (H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CO, CH4) in homogenous atmosphere corresponding to different altitudes from 0 to 105 km. Reference spectra were calculated as the convolution of a spectrum obtained with a line by line model and a gate function of 1 cm-1 wide. An average difference of 3×10-3 % and a standard deviation of 3.3% were typically obtained. As a second step, this method of rapid k-distributions generation is now being coupled with a
Radiation Heat Transfer Between Diffuse-Gray Surfaces Using Higher Order Finite Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gould, Dana C.
2000-01-01
This paper presents recent work on developing methods for analyzing radiation heat transfer between diffuse-gray surfaces using p-version finite elements. The work was motivated by a thermal analysis of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) wing structure which showed the importance of radiation heat transfer throughout the structure. The analysis also showed that refining the finite element mesh to accurately capture the temperature distribution on the internal structure led to very large meshes with unacceptably long execution times. Traditional methods for calculating surface-to-surface radiation are based on assumptions that are not appropriate for p-version finite elements. Two methods for determining internal radiation heat transfer are developed for one and two-dimensional p-version finite elements. In the first method, higher-order elements are divided into a number of sub-elements. Traditional methods are used to determine radiation heat flux along each sub-element and then mapped back to the parent element. In the second method, the radiation heat transfer equations are numerically integrated over the higher-order element. Comparisons with analytical solutions show that the integration scheme is generally more accurate than the sub-element method. Comparison to results from traditional finite elements shows that significant reduction in the number of elements in the mesh is possible using higher-order (p-version) finite elements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Duan; Guzi de Moraes, Elisângela; Guo, Peng; Zou, Ji; Zhang, Junzhan; Colombo, Paolo; Shen, Zhijian
2014-08-01
Silicon nitride foams were prepared by direct foaming and subsequent rapid sintering at 1600 °C. The intense thermal radiation generated under the pressureless spark plasma sintering condition facilitated necking of Si3N4 grains. The prepared foams possessed a porosity of ˜80 vol% and a compressive strength of ˜10 MPa, which required only ˜30 min for the entire sintering processes. Rapid growth of one-dimensional SiC nanowires from the cell walls was also observed. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the vapor-liquid-solid model is applicable to the formation of SiC nanowires under vacuum.
Li, Duan; Guzi de Moraes, Elisângela; Guo, Peng; Zou, Ji; Zhang, Junzhan; Colombo, Paolo; Shen, Zhijian
2014-08-01
Silicon nitride foams were prepared by direct foaming and subsequent rapid sintering at 1600 °C. The intense thermal radiation generated under the pressureless spark plasma sintering condition facilitated necking of Si3N4 grains. The prepared foams possessed a porosity of ∼80 vol% and a compressive strength of ∼10 MPa, which required only ∼30 min for the entire sintering processes. Rapid growth of one-dimensional SiC nanowires from the cell walls was also observed. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the vapor-liquid-solid model is applicable to the formation of SiC nanowires under vacuum.
Repeated divergent selection on pigmentation genes in a rapid finch radiation
Campagna, Leonardo; Repenning, Márcio; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Fontana, Carla Suertegaray; Tubaro, Pablo L.; Lovette, Irby J.
2017-01-01
Instances of recent and rapid speciation are suitable for associating phenotypes with their causal genotypes, especially if gene flow homogenizes areas of the genome that are not under divergent selection. We study a rapid radiation of nine sympatric bird species known as capuchino seedeaters, which are differentiated in sexually selected characters of male plumage and song. We sequenced the genomes of a phenotypically diverse set of species to search for differentiated genomic regions. Capuchinos show differences in a small proportion of their genomes, yet selection has acted independently on the same targets in different members of this radiation. Many divergent regions contain genes involved in the melanogenesis pathway, with the strongest signal originating from putative regulatory regions. Selection has acted on these same genomic regions in different lineages, likely shaping the evolution of cis-regulatory elements, which control how more conserved genes are expressed and thereby generate diversity in classically sexually selected traits. PMID:28560331
Monte Carlo prediction of radiative heat transfer in inhomogeneous, anisotropic, nongray media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farmer, Jeff T.; Howell, John R.
1994-01-01
A Monte Carlo solution technique has been formulated to predict the radiative heat transfer in three-dimensional, inhomogeneous participating media which exhibit spectrally dependent emission and absorption and anisotropic scattering. Details of the technique and selected numerical sensitivities are discussed. The technique was applied to a problem involving a medium composed of a gas mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen and suspended carbon particles. A homogeneous medium was modeled to examine the effect of total pressure and carbon-particle concentration on radiative heat transfer. Variation in total pressure, over the range studied, had minimal effect on the amount of heat radiated to the enclosure walls and on the radiative-flux distribution within the medium. Increases in the carbon particle concentration produced significantly higher heat fluxes at the boundaries and altered the radiative flux distribution. The technique was then applied to an inhomogeneous medium to examine effects of specific temperature and carbon particle concentration distributions on radiative heat transfer. For the inhomogeneous conditions examined, the largest radiative flux divergence occurs near the center of the medium and the regions near some enclosure walls act as energy sinks.
Morrison, Cheryl L; Rios, Rubén; Duffy, J Emmett
2004-03-01
A common challenge in reconstructing phylogenies involves a high frequency of short internal branches, which makes basal relationships difficult to resolve. Often it is not clear whether this pattern results from insufficient or inappropriate data, versus from a rapid evolutionary radiation. The snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus, which contains in excess of 100 species and is a prominent component of coral-reef faunas worldwide, provides an example. Its taxonomy has long been problematic due to the subtlety of diagnostic characters and apparently widespread variability within species. Here we use partial mt COI and 16S rRNA sequences and morphological characters to reconstruct relationships among 31 species in the morphologically well-defined gambarelloides species group, a putative clade of obligate sponge associates that is mostly endemic to the Caribbean and contains the only known eusocial marine animals. Analysis of the combined data produced a single tree with good support for many terminal clades and for relationships with outgroups, but poor support for branches near the base of the gambarelloides group. Most basal branches are extremely short and terminal branches are long, suggesting a relatively ancient, but rapid radiation of the gambarelloides group. This hypothesis is supported by significant departure from a null model of temporally random cladogenesis. Calibration of divergence times among gambarelloides-group species using data from three geminate pairs of Synalpheus species separated by the isthmus of Panamá suggests a major radiation between approximately 5 and 7 Mya, a few My before final closure of the Panamanian seaway during a period of spreading carbonate environments in the Caribbean; a second, smaller radiation occurred approximately 4 Mya. This molecular evidence for a rapid radiation among Caribbean marine organisms in the late Miocene/early Pliocene is strikingly similar to patterns documented from fossil data for several other
Morrison, C.L.; Rios, R.; Duffy, J.E.
2004-01-01
A common challenge in reconstructing phylogenies involves a high frequency of short internal branches, which makes basal relationships difficult to resolve. Often it is not clear whether this pattern results from insufficient or inappropriate data, versus from a rapid evolutionary radiation. The snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus, which contains in excess of 100 species and is a prominent component of coral-reef faunas worldwide, provides an example. Its taxonomy has long been problematic due to the subtlety of diagnostic characters and apparently widespread variability within species. Here we use partial mt COI and 16S rRNA sequences and morphological characters to reconstruct relationships among 31 species in the morphologically well-defined gambarelloides species group, a putative clade of obligate sponge associates that is mostly endemic to the Caribbean and contains the only known eusocial marine animals. Analysis of the combined data produced a single tree with good support for many terminal clades and for relationships with outgroups, but poor support for branches near the base of the gambarelloides group. Most basal branches are extremely short and terminal branches are long, suggesting a relatively ancient, but rapid radiation of the gambarelloides group. This hypothesis is supported by significant departure from a null model of temporally random cladogenesis. Calibration of divergence times among gambarelloides-group species using data from three geminate pairs of Synalpheus species separated by the isthmus of Panama suggests a major radiation between ???5 and 7 Mya, a few My before final closure of the Panamanian seaway during a period of spreading carbonate environments in the Caribbean; a second, smaller radiation occurred ???4 Mya. This molecular evidence for a rapid radiation among Caribbean marine organisms in the late Miocene/early Pliocene is strikingly similar to patterns documented from fossil data for several other Caribbean reef
Radiative transfer in rectangular enclosures - A discretized exchange factor solution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naraghi, M. H. N.; Kassemi, M.
1988-01-01
The discretized exchange factor method is used to analyze radiative exchange in a rectangular enclosure. The results compare excellently with those of other methods, especially the zonal method. Since the direct exchange factors are between nodal points no integration is necessary for evaluation of these factors. It is found that the present approach provides accurate results even when a small number of nodes is used.
Simplified multiple scattering model for radiative transfer in turbid water
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghovanlou, A. H.; Gupta, G. N.
1978-01-01
Quantitative analytical procedures for relating selected water quality parameters to the characteristics of the backscattered signals, measured by remote sensors, require the solution of the radiative transport equation in turbid media. Presented is an approximate closed form solution of this equation and based on this solution, the remote sensing of sediments is discussed. The results are compared with other standard closed form solutions such as quasi-single scattering approximations.
Rapid discharge after transfer: risk factors, incidence, and implications for trauma systems.
Osen, Hayley B; Bass, Robert R; Abdullah, Fizan; Chang, David C
2010-09-01
The occurrence of discharge to home shortly after transfer from another hospital, also termed "secondary overtriage," needs to be analyzed in trauma patients because it helps to assess the efficiency of triage and transfer criteria. The extent of secondary overtriage and factors associated with it remain largely undescribed. A retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2000 to 2004. Inclusion criteria were trauma patients (as identified by ICD-9 diagnosis codes of 800-959 in the primary position, excluding codes representing late effects of injury, foreign body, burn, or early complications) who were admitted as transfers from another hospital. Rapid discharge after transfer (secondary overtriage) was defined as patients who were discharged alive within 1 day after transfer and did not receive any surgical procedure. The overall rate of secondary overtriage was 6.9% (3,291 of 51,278), with an increasing trend over the years. This rate was significantly higher among patients younger than 18 years (19.5% vs. 4.2%). Patients meeting the definition were more likely to be male (68.3% vs. 50.65%), more likely to be black or Hispanic (25.16% vs. 16.8%), more likely to come from ZIP codes with above-median household incomes (43.4% vs. 38.1%), and more likely to be treated at teaching hospitals (77.3% vs. 61.3%). The majority of these patients (98.7%) were insured, although the proportion of uninsured patients was significantly higher among secondary overtriage (1.3% vs. 0.54%). On multivariate analysis, younger age, uninsured status, and being transferred to a teaching hospital were associated with higher likelihood of rapid discharge after transfer. No association was found with gender, race, and urbanicity. Secondary overtriage is more common in pediatric patients than in adults. The underlying causes of this occurrence need to be further investigated (e.g., fear of litigation and uneven distribution of resources). There are significant direct and
Improvements on the ice cloud modeling capabilities of the Community Radiative Transfer Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Liu, Quanhua; Delst, Paul; Boukabara, Sid-Ahmed; Weng, Fuzhong
2016-11-01
Noticeable improvements on the ice cloud modeling capabilities of the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) are reported, which are based on the most recent advances in understanding ice cloud microphysical (particularly, ice particle habit/shape characteristics) and optical properties. The new CRTM ice cloud model is derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 ice cloud habit model, which represents ice particles as severely roughened hexagonal ice column aggregates with a gamma size distribution. The single-scattering properties of the new ice particle model are derived from a state-of-the-art ice optical property library and are constructed as look-up tables for rapid CRTM computations. Various sensitivity studies concerning instrument-specific applications and simulations are performed to validate CRTM against satellite observations. In particular, radiances in a spectral region covering the infrared wavelengths are simulated. Comparisons of brightness temperatures between CRTM simulations and observations (from MODIS, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit) show that the new ice cloud optical property look-up table substantially enhances the performance of the CRTM under ice cloud conditions.
2011-01-01
Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are increasingly used by remote health personnel with minimal training in laboratory techniques. RDTs must, therefore, be as simple, safe and reliable as possible. Transfer of blood from the patient to the RDT is critical to safety and accuracy, and poses a significant challenge to many users. Blood transfer devices were evaluated for accuracy and precision of volume transferred, safety and ease of use, to identify the most appropriate devices for use with RDTs in routine clinical care. Methods Five devices, a loop, straw-pipette, calibrated pipette, glass capillary tube, and a new inverted cup device, were evaluated in Nigeria, the Philippines and Uganda. The 227 participating health workers used each device to transfer blood from a simulated finger-prick site to filter paper. For each transfer, the number of attempts required to collect and deposit blood and any spilling of blood during transfer were recorded. Perceptions of ease of use and safety of each device were recorded for each participant. Blood volume transferred was calculated from the area of blood spots deposited on filter paper. Results The overall mean volumes transferred by devices differed significantly from the target volume of 5 microliters (p < 0.001). The inverted cup (4.6 microliters) most closely approximated the target volume. The glass capillary was excluded from volume analysis as the estimation method used is not compatible with this device. The calibrated pipette accounted for the largest proportion of blood exposures (23/225, 10%); exposures ranged from 2% to 6% for the other four devices. The inverted cup was considered easiest to use in blood collection (206/226, 91%); the straw-pipette and calibrated pipette were rated lowest (143/225 [64%] and 135/225 [60%] respectively). Overall, the inverted cup was the most preferred device (72%, 163/227), followed by the loop (61%, 138/227). Conclusions The performance of blood transfer devices
Radiative transfer theory for active remote sensing of a layer of nonspherical particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.
1984-01-01
The radiative transfer theory is applied to calculate the scattering by a layer of randomly positioned and oriented nonspherical particles. The scattering amplitude functions of each individual particle are calculated with Waterman's T matrix method, which utilizes vector spherical wave functions for expansion of incident, scattered, and surface fields. The orientation of the particles is described by a probability density function of the Eulerian angles of rotation. A rotation matrix is used to relate the T matrix of the principal frame to that of the natural frame of the particle. The extinction matrix and phase matrix of the radiative transfer equations are expressed in terms of the T matrix elements. The extinction matrix for nonspherical particles is generally nondiagonal. There are only two attenuation rates in a specified direction of propagation. The radiative transfer equations are solved by an iterative method to first order in albedo. Numerical results are illustrated as functions of incidence angle and frequency with applications to active remote sensing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hao; Voss, Kenneth J.
2005-02-01
To understand the connection between single-particle optics and the optics of a closely packed surface, controlled laboratory measurements of bidirectional reflectance distribution functions on layers of polymer and glass spheres are carried out. The measurements are compared with predictions from five radiative-transfer models; the Hapke's models, the Lumme-Bowell model, the BRF algorithm of Mishchenko et al., and the discrete ordinate radiative transfer. It is found that models of strict numerical radiative-transfer equations (RTEs) predict measurements well in some regions but have errors in both forward-and backward-scattering directions. The improved Hapke's model, although it has an anisotropic multiple-scattering term, still produces considerable errors compared with the strict RTE. The difference can be attributed to the exclusion of a diffraction contribution in the Hapke model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kloster, Dylan; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kasper, David
2016-01-01
New high resolution images of protoplanetary disks from facilities like ALMA are revealing complex disk structures, possibly due to interactions between the disk and newly forming planets within that disk. Analysis of what the structures in these images reveal about the evolution of protoplanetary disks requires detailed models of disk/planet interaction combined with radiative transfer techniques to calculate observable signatures of these disks. We model this disk-planet interaction as hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations using the PLUTO code. We then apply a modified version of the radiative transfer code PaRTY (Parallel Radiative Transfer in YSOs) to these HD/MHD simulations to calculate the observed intensity of these disks via thermal emission and scattering from the host star. Using a wide variety of stellar properties, disk structures, and planet masses, our goal is to produce a robust set of models that will be essential in analyzing the images taken with this new generation of telescopes.
Giant heat transfer in the crossover regime between conduction and radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kloppstech, Konstantin; Könne, Nils; Biehs, Svend-Age; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Worbes, Ludwig; Hellmann, David; Kittel, Achim
2017-02-01
Heat is transferred by radiation between two well-separated bodies at temperatures of finite difference in vacuum. At large distances the heat transfer can be described by black body radiation, at shorter distances evanescent modes start to contribute, and at separations comparable to inter-atomic spacing the transition to heat conduction should take place. We report on quantitative measurements of the near-field mediated heat flux between a gold coated near-field scanning thermal microscope tip and a planar gold sample at nanometre distances of 0.2-7 nm. We find an extraordinary large heat flux which is more than five orders of magnitude larger than black body radiation and four orders of magnitude larger than the values predicted by conventional theory of fluctuational electrodynamics. Different theories of phonon tunnelling are not able to describe the observations in a satisfactory way. The findings demand modified or even new models of heat transfer across vacuum gaps at nanometre distances.
Heat transfer including radiation and slag particles evolution in MHD channel-I
Im, K H; Ahluwalia, R K
1980-01-01
Accurate estimates of convective and radiative heat transfer in the magnetohydrodynamic channel are provided. Calculations performed for a base load-size channel indicate that heat transfer by gas radiation almost equals that by convection for smooth walls, and amounts to 70% as much as the convective heat transfer for rough walls. Carbon dioxide, water vapor, and potassium atoms are the principal participating gases. The evolution of slag particles by homogeneous nucleation and condensation is also investigated. The particle-size spectrum so computed is later utilized to analyze the radiation enhancement by slag particles in the MHD diffuser. The impact of the slag particle spectrum on the selection of a workable and design of an efficient seed collection system is discussed.
Radiative transfer in the dynamic atmospheres of long period variable stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luttermoser, Donald G.; Bowen, George H.
1990-01-01
An iterative procedure is presented for determining the thermal structure and dynamics of Mira-type stellar atmospheres, where the non-LTE radiative transfer code PANDORA is used in conjunction with the Bowen hydrodynamics code of Iowa State University. Preliminary results are reported for an atmospheric model of a pulsating AGB star of 1 solar mass, 240 solar radii, Teff = 3000 K, and a period of 320 days. At the present time, H, H(-), Mg I, and Mg II radiative transfer calculations have been completed and synthetic spectra are shown for H-alpha. The radiative transfer calculations demonstrate that cooling in the innermost shock of the original Bowen model is underestimated due to the omission of various hydrogen transitions. These initial results suggest that the main shock of the Bowen models are too hot and/or too deep.
Radiative transfer in the dynamic atmospheres of long period variable stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luttermoser, Donald G.; Bowen, George H.
1990-01-01
An iterative procedure is presented for determining the thermal structure and dynamics of Mira-type stellar atmospheres, where the non-LTE radiative transfer code PANDORA is used in conjunction with the Bowen hydrodynamics code of Iowa State University. Preliminary results are reported for an atmospheric model of a pulsating AGB star of 1 solar mass, 240 solar radii, Teff = 3000 K, and a period of 320 days. At the present time, H, H(-), Mg I, and Mg II radiative transfer calculations have been completed and synthetic spectra are shown for H-alpha. The radiative transfer calculations demonstrate that cooling in the innermost shock of the original Bowen model is underestimated due to the omission of various hydrogen transitions. These initial results suggest that the main shock of the Bowen models are too hot and/or too deep.
Hunter, Nezahat; Muirhead, Colin R
2009-03-01
Information on Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to gamma radiation has been used to estimate cancer risks for the whole range of photon (x-rays) and electron energies which are commonly encountered by radiation workers in the work place or by patients and workers in diagnostic radiology. However, there is some uncertainty regarding the radiation effectiveness of various low-linear energy transfer (low-LET) radiations (x-rays, gamma radiation and electrons). In this paper we review information on the effectiveness of low-LET radiations on the basis of epidemiological and in vitro radiobiological studies. Data from various experimental studies for chromosome aberrations and cell transformation in human lymphocytes and from epidemiological studies of the Japanese A-bomb survivors, patients medically exposed to radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and occupational exposures of nuclear workers are considered. On the basis of in vitro cellular radiobiology, there is considerable evidence that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-energy low-LET radiation (gamma radiation, electrons) is less than that of low-energy low-LET radiation (x-rays, betas). This is a factor of about 3 to 4 for 29 kVp x-rays (e.g. as in diagnostic radiation exposures of the female breast) and for tritium beta-rays (encountered in parts of the nuclear industry) relative to Co-60 gamma radiation and 2-5 MeV gamma-rays (as received by the Japanese A-bomb survivors). In epidemiological studies, although for thyroid and breast cancer there appears to be a small tendency for the excess relative risks to decrease as the radiation energy increases for low-LET radiations, it is not statistically feasible to draw any conclusion regarding an underlying dependence of cancer risk on LET for the nominally low-LET radiations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gafni, Ari; Mersol, Joseph V.; Steel, Duncan G.
1990-05-01
Room temperature phosphorescence emitted by tryptophan residues in deoxygenated aqueous solutions of proteins is extremely sensitive to the environment of these residues and can be utilized for the detailed study of protein structure and dynamics. The long decay time of their triplet state makes the phosphorescent tryptophans suitable donors for resonance energy transfer in the rapid diffusion limit. As shown by Stryer et al. (Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 11, 203 (1982)) proper data analysis can then yield the distance of closest approach between the donor-acceptor pair. This method can thus allow one to map the distances of phosphorescent tryptophans from the surface of the protein. In the present study a laser-based photon counting system was used to follow the room-temperature phosphorescence decays of alkaline phosphatase and horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase and to study the quenching of their triplet states by several molecules whose absorption spectra overlap the long-lived emission of these proteins. The results demonstrate the potential applicability of these measurements for the mapping of phosphorescent tryptophan residues and confirm the phosphorescence of alkaline phosphatase to originate in Trp-109. Limitations to the applicability of the energy-transfer approach arise from quenching mechanisms which compete with resonance transfer. Two such processes - electron transfer and exchange interactions - are discussed.
Han, Hongling; Xia, Yu; Yang, Min; McLuckey, Scott A.
2009-01-01
Cation transmission/electron transfer reagent anion storage mode electron transfer ion/ion reactions and beam-type collisional activation of the polypeptide ions are performed in rapid succession in the high pressure collision cell (Q2) of a quadrupole/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer (QqTOF), where the electron transfer reagent anions are accumulated. Duty cycles for both electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments are improved relative to ion trapping approaches since there are no discrete ion storage and reaction steps for ETD experiments and no discrete ion storage step and frequency tuning for CID experiments. For this technique, moderately high resolution and mass accuracy are also obtained due to mass analysis via the TOF analyzer. This relatively simple approach has been demonstrated with a triply charged tryptic peptide, a triply charged tryptic phosphopeptide, and a triply charged tryptic N-linked glycopeptide. For the tryptic peptide, the sequence is identified with more certainty than would be available from a single method alone due to the complementary information provided by these two dissociation methods. Because of the complementary information derived from both ETD and CID dissociation methods, peptide sequence and post-translational modification (PTM) sites for the phosphopeptide are identified. This combined ETD and CID approach is particularly useful for characterizing glycopeptides because ETD generates information about both peptide sequence and locations of the glycosylation sites while CID provides information about the glycan structure. PMID:18396915
Training and Transfer of Training in Rapid Visual Search for Camouflaged Targets
Neider, Mark B.; Ang, Cher Wee; Voss, Michelle W.; Carbonari, Ronald; Kramer, Arthur F.
2013-01-01
Previous examinations of search under camouflage conditions have reported that performance improves with training and that training can engender near perfect transfer to similar, but novel camouflage-type displays [1]. What remains unclear, however, are the cognitive mechanisms underlying these training improvements and transfer benefits. On the one hand, improvements and transfer benefits might be associated with higher-level overt strategy shifts, such as through the restriction of eye movements to target-likely (background) display regions. On the other hand, improvements and benefits might be related to the tuning of lower-level perceptual processes, such as figure-ground segregation. To decouple these competing possibilities we had one group of participants train on camouflage search displays and a control group train on non-camouflage displays. Critically, search displays were rapidly presented, precluding eye movements. Before and following training, all participants completed transfer sessions in which they searched novel displays. We found that search performance on camouflage displays improved with training. Furthermore, participants who trained on camouflage displays suffered no performance costs when searching novel displays following training. Our findings suggest that training to break camouflage is related to the tuning of perceptual mechanisms and not strategic shifts in overt attention. PMID:24386301
Training and transfer of training in rapid visual search for camouflaged targets.
Neider, Mark B; Ang, Cher Wee; Voss, Michelle W; Carbonari, Ronald; Kramer, Arthur F
2013-01-01
Previous examinations of search under camouflage conditions have reported that performance improves with training and that training can engender near perfect transfer to similar, but novel camouflage-type displays [1]. What remains unclear, however, are the cognitive mechanisms underlying these training improvements and transfer benefits. On the one hand, improvements and transfer benefits might be associated with higher-level overt strategy shifts, such as through the restriction of eye movements to target-likely (background) display regions. On the other hand, improvements and benefits might be related to the tuning of lower-level perceptual processes, such as figure-ground segregation. To decouple these competing possibilities we had one group of participants train on camouflage search displays and a control group train on non-camouflage displays. Critically, search displays were rapidly presented, precluding eye movements. Before and following training, all participants completed transfer sessions in which they searched novel displays. We found that search performance on camouflage displays improved with training. Furthermore, participants who trained on camouflage displays suffered no performance costs when searching novel displays following training. Our findings suggest that training to break camouflage is related to the tuning of perceptual mechanisms and not strategic shifts in overt attention.
Multi-Dimensional Simulations of Radiative Transfer in Aspherical Core-Collapse Supernovae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Masaomi; Maeda, Keiichi; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Nomoto, Ken'ichi
2008-05-01
We study optical radiation of aspherical supernovae (SNe) and present an approach to verify the asphericity of SNe with optical observations of extragalactic SNe. For this purpose, we have developed a multi-dimensional Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code, SAMURAI (SupernovA Multidimensional RAdIative transfer code). The code can compute the optical light curve and spectra both at early phases (<~40 days after the explosion) and late phases (~1 year after the explosion), based on hydrodynamic and nucleosynthetic models. We show that all the optical observations of SN 1998bw (associated with GRB 980425) are consistent with polar-viewed radiation of the aspherical explosion model with kinetic energy 20×1051 ergs. Properties of off-axis hypernovae are also discussed briefly.
A convective and radiative heat transfer analysis for the FIRE II forebody
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greendyke, Robert B.; Hartung, Lin C.
1993-01-01
A Navier-Stokes flowfield solution method (LAURA code) using finite-rate chemistry and two-temperature thermal nonequilibrium was used in combination with two nonequilibrium radiative heat transfer codes to calculate heating for the FIRE II vehicle. An axisymmetric model of the actual body shape was used. One radiative heating code (NEQAIR) was used in uncoupled fashion with the flowfield solver's energy equations, while the other code (LORAN) was used in both coupled and uncoupled variations. Several trajectory points ranging from highly nonequilibrium flow to near-equilibrium flow were used for a study of both convective and radiative heating over the vehicle. Considerable variation in radiative heating was seen at the extremes, while agreement was good in the intermediate trajectory points. Total heat transfer calculations gave good comparison until the peak heating trajectory points were encountered, and returned to good agreement for the last two equilibrium points.
A convective and radiative heat transfer analysis for the FIRE II forebody
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greendyke, Robert B.; Hartung, Lin C.
1993-07-01
A Navier-Stokes flowfield solution method (LAURA code) using finite-rate chemistry and two-temperature thermal nonequilibrium was used in combination with two nonequilibrium radiative heat transfer codes to calculate heating for the FIRE II vehicle. An axisymmetric model of the actual body shape was used. One radiative heating code (NEQAIR) was used in uncoupled fashion with the flowfield solver's energy equations, while the other code (LORAN) was used in both coupled and uncoupled variations. Several trajectory points ranging from highly nonequilibrium flow to near-equilibrium flow were used for a study of both convective and radiative heating over the vehicle. Considerable variation in radiative heating was seen at the extremes, while agreement was good in the intermediate trajectory points. Total heat transfer calculations gave good comparison until the peak heating trajectory points were encountered, and returned to good agreement for the last two equilibrium points.
Multi-Dimensional Simulations of Radiative Transfer in Aspherical Core-Collapse Supernovae
Tanaka, Masaomi; Maeda, Keiichi; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Nomoto, Ken'ichi
2008-05-21
We study optical radiation of aspherical supernovae (SNe) and present an approach to verify the asphericity of SNe with optical observations of extragalactic SNe. For this purpose, we have developed a multi-dimensional Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code, SAMURAI (SupernovA Multidimensional RAdIative transfer code). The code can compute the optical light curve and spectra both at early phases (< or approx. 40 days after the explosion) and late phases ({approx}1 year after the explosion), based on hydrodynamic and nucleosynthetic models. We show that all the optical observations of SN 1998bw (associated with GRB 980425) are consistent with polar-viewed radiation of the aspherical explosion model with kinetic energy 20x10{sup 51} ergs. Properties of off-axis hypernovae are also discussed briefly.
A new approach to radiative transfer theory using Jones's vectors. I Fundamentals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fymat, A. L.; Vasudevan, R.
1975-01-01
Radiative transfer of partially polarized radiation in an anisotropically scattering, inhomogeneous atmosphere containing an arbitrary polydispersion of particles is described using Jones's (1941) amplitude vectors and matrices. This approach exploits the close analogy between the quantum-mechanical states of spin 1/2 systems and the polarization states of electromagnetic radiation described by Jones's vector. The complete equivalence between the transport equation for Jones's vectors and the classical radiative-transfer equation for Stokes's intensity vectors is demonstrated in two independent ways after deriving the transport equations for the polarization coherency matrices and for the quaternions corresponding to the Jones's vectors. A compact-operator formulation of the theory is provided and used to derive the necessary equations for both a local and a global description of the transport of Jones's vectors. The integro-differential equations for the amplitude reflection and transmission matrices are derived and related to the usual corresponding equations.
A fast method to compute Three-Dimensional Infrared Radiative Transfer in non scattering medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makke, Laurent; Musson-Genon, Luc; Carissimo, Bertrand
2014-05-01
The Atmospheric Radiation field has seen the development of more accurate and faster methods to take into account absoprtion in participating media. Radiative fog appears with clear sky condition due to a significant cooling during the night, so scattering is left out. Fog formation modelling requires accurate enough method to compute cooling rates. Thanks to High Performance Computing, multi-spectral approach of Radiative Transfer Equation resolution is most often used. Nevertheless, the coupling of three-dimensionnal radiative transfer with fluid dynamics is very detrimental to the computational cost. To reduce the time spent in radiation calculations, the following method uses analytical absorption functions fitted by Sasamori (1968) on Yamamoto's charts (Yamamoto,1956) to compute a local linear absorption coefficient. By averaging radiative properties, this method eliminates the spectral integration. For an isothermal atmosphere, analytical calculations lead to an explicit formula between emissivities functions and linear absorption coefficient. In the case of cooling to space approximation, this analytical expression gives very accurate results compared to correlated k-distribution. For non homogeneous paths, we propose a two steps algorithm. One-dimensional radiative quantities and linear absorption coefficient are computed by a two-flux method. Then, three-dimensional RTE under the grey medium assumption is solved with the DOM. Comparisons with measurements of radiative quantities during ParisFOG field (2006) shows the cability of this method to handle strong vertical variations of pressure/temperature and gases concentrations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cogley, A. C.
1975-01-01
A Green's function formulation is used to derive basic reciprocity relations for planar radiative transfer in a general medium with internal illumination. Reciprocity (or functional symmetry) allows an explicit and generalized development of the equivalence between source and probability functions. Assuming similar symmetry in three-dimensional space, a general relationship is derived between planar-source intensity and point-source total directional energy. These quantities are expressed in terms of standard (universal) functions associated with the planar medium, while all results are derived from the differential equation of radiative transfer.
Upper limits to near-field radiative heat transfer: generalizing the blackbody concept
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Owen D.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Johnson, Steven G.
2016-09-01
For 75 years it has been known that radiative heat transfer can exceed far-field blackbody rates when two bodies are separated by less than a thermal wavelength. Yet an open question has remained: what is the maximum achievable radiative transfer rate? Here we describe basic energy-conservation principles that answer this question, yielding upper bounds that depend on the temperatures, material susceptibilities, and separation distance, but which encompass all geometries. The simple structures studied to date fall far short of the bounds, offering the possibility for significant future enhancement, with ramifications for experimental studies as well as thermophotovoltaic applications.
Radiation effects on stagnation point flow with melting heat transfer and second order slip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mabood, F.; Shafiq, A.; Hayat, T.; Abelman, S.
This article examines the effects of melting heat transfer and thermal radiation in stagnation point flow towards a stretching/shrinking surface. Mathematical formulation is made in the presence of mass transfer and second order slip condition. Numerical solutions to the resulting nonlinear problems are obtained by Runge-Kutta fourth fifth order method. Physical quantities like velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood number are analyzed via sundry parameters for stretching/shrinking, first order slip, second order slip, radiation, melting, Prandtl and Schmidt. A comparative study with the previously published results in limiting sense is made.
Plant architecture, growth and radiative transfer for terrestrial and space environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norman, John M.; Goel, Narendra S.
1993-01-01
The overall objective of this research was to develop a hardware implemented model that would incorporate realistic and dynamic descriptions of canopy architecture in physiologically based models of plant growth and functioning, with an emphasis on radiative transfer while accommodating other environmental constraints. The general approach has five parts: a realistic mathematical treatment of canopy architecture, a methodology for combining this general canopy architectural description with a general radiative transfer model, the inclusion of physiological and environmental aspects of plant growth, inclusion of plant phenology, and integration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsang, L.; Kubacsi, M. C.; Kong, J. A.
1981-01-01
The radiative transfer theory is applied within the Rayleigh approximation to calculate the backscattering cross section of a layer of randomly positioned and oriented small ellipsoids. The orientation of the ellipsoids is characterized by a probability density function of the Eulerian angles of rotation. The radiative transfer equations are solved by an iterative approach to first order in albedo. In the half space limit the results are identical to those obtained via the approach of Foldy's and distorted Born approximation. Numerical results of the theory are illustrated using parameters encountered in active remote sensing of vegetation layers. A distinctive characteristic is the strong depolarization shown by vertically aligned leaves.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, M. D.; HARSHVARDHAN
1986-01-01
Illustrations of both the relative and absolute accuracy of eight different radiative transfer approximations as a function of optical thickness, solar zenith angle and single scattering albedo are given. Computational results for the plane albedo, total transmission and fractional absorption were obtained for plane-parallel atmospheres composed of cloud particles. These computations, which were obtained using the doubling method, are compared with comparable results obtained using selected radiative transfer approximations. Comparisons were made between asymptotic theory for thick layers and the following widely used two stream approximations: Coakley-Chylek's models 1 and 2, Meador-Weaver, Eddington, delta-Eddington, PIFM and delta-discrete ordinates.
Truncation of the scattering phase matrix for vector radiative transfer simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hioki, Souichiro; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Hu, Yongxiang
2016-11-01
This short communication interprets the delta-fit technique in a context of similarity transformation and the correction to the source function, and derives the analogous form of the method to be applied for the scattering phase matrix. To adapt the delta-fit method to vector radiative transfer, the mathematically exact form of the similarity principle is used in the theoretical development. Some examples of relevant radiative transfer simulations are also presented for atmospheric ice particles. The performance of the adopted delta-fit method is comparable to the delta-M method with single scattering correction except for worse delta-fit performance for polarized radiance calculations in forward directions.
DELO-BEZIER FORMAL SOLUTIONS OF THE POLARIZED RADIATIVE TRANSFER EQUATION
De la Cruz Rodriguez, J.; Piskunov, N.
2013-02-10
We present two new accurate and efficient methods to compute the formal solution of the polarized radiative transfer equation. In this work, the source function and the absorption matrix are approximated using quadratic and cubic Bezier spline interpolants. These schemes provide second- and third-order approximations, respectively, and do not suffer from erratic behavior of the polynomial approximation (overshooting). The accuracy and the convergence of the new method are studied along with other popular solutions of the radiative transfer equation, using stellar atmospheres with strong gradients in the line-of-sight velocity and in the magnetic-field vector.
Effect of thermal radiation on unsteady stagnation-point flow with mass transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Md Ali, Fadzilah; Nazar, Roslinda; Md Arifin, Norihan
2013-04-01
In this paper, the effect of thermal radiation on unsteady stagnation-point flow of an incompressible viscous fluid with mass transfer is studied. The governing system of partial differential equations is first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation and is then solved numerically by the shooting method. It is found that the surface heat transfer rate reduces when the thermal radiation is applied and dual solutions exist only for negative unsteadiness parameter while positive unsteadiness parameter produces a unique solution.
An Infrared Radiative Transfer Parameterization For A Venus General Circulation Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eymet, Vincent; Fournier, R.; Lebonnois, S.; Bullock, M. A.; Dufresne, J.; Hourdin, F.
2006-09-01
A new 3-dimensional General Circulation Model (GCM) of Venus'atmosphere is curently under development at the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, in the context of the Venus-Express mission. Special attention was devoted to the parameterization of infrared radiative transfer: this parameterization has to be both very fast and sufficiently accurate in order to provide valid results over extented periods of time. We have developped at the Laboratoire d'Energetique a Monte-Carlo code for computing reference radiative transfer results for optically thick inhomogeneous scattering planetary atmospheres over the IR spectrum. This code (named KARINE) is based on a Net-Exchange Rates formulation, and uses a k-distribution spectral model. The Venus spectral data, that was compiled at the Southwest Research Institute, accounts for gaseous absorption and scattering, typical clouds absorption and scattering, as well as CO2 and H2O absorption continuums. We will present the Net-Exchange Rates matrix that was computed using the Monte-Carlo approach. We will also show how this matrix has been used in order to produce a first-order radiative transfer parameterization that is used in the LMD Venus GCM. In addition, we will present how the proposed radiative transfer model was used in a simple convective-radiative equilibrium model in order to reproduce the main features of Venus' temperature profile.
Numerical non-LTE 3D radiative transfer using a multigrid method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bjørgen, Johan P.; Leenaarts, Jorrit
2017-03-01
Context. 3D non-LTE radiative transfer problems are computationally demanding, and this sets limits on the size of the problems that can be solved. So far, multilevel accelerated lambda iteration (MALI) has been the method of choice to perform high-resolution computations in multidimensional problems. The disadvantage of MALI is that its computing time scales as O(n2), with n the number of grid points. When the grid becomes finer, the computational cost increases quadratically. Aims: We aim to develop a 3D non-LTE radiative transfer code that is more efficient than MALI. Methods: We implement a non-linear multigrid, fast approximation storage scheme, into the existing Multi3D radiative transfer code. We verify our multigrid implementation by comparing with MALI computations. We show that multigrid can be employed in realistic problems with snapshots from 3D radiative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations as input atmospheres. Results: With multigrid, we obtain a factor 3.3-4.5 speed-up compared to MALI. With full-multigrid, the speed-up increases to a factor 6. The speed-up is expected to increase for input atmospheres with more grid points and finer grid spacing. Conclusions: Solving 3D non-LTE radiative transfer problems using non-linear multigrid methods can be applied to realistic atmospheres with a substantial increase in speed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paletou, F.
1995-10-01
We have implemented standard partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in a two-dimensional multilevel non-LTE radiative transfer code. The Multilevel Accelerated Lambda Iteration (MALI) method is used. First, a numerical approach for treating standard PRD effects is described, as well as a simple method for treating an optically thick bound-free transition with MALI. Then, the method is validated in mono-dimensional geometry. Finally, preliminary results from two-dimensional radiative modelling of solar prominences are presented.
The shock breakout in SN1987A modelled with the time-dependent radiative transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blinnikov, S. I.; Nadyoshin, D. K.
1991-01-01
A fully implicit high-order scheme was developed for the independent multi-group radiative transfer coupled with implicit hydrodynamics. The application of this scheme to the SN1987A explosion shows that shortly after the shock breakout a dense shell forms. A gasdynamic code describing the time dependent radiation transport in the multi-group approximation with variable Eddington factors was developed. Results and other aspects of the project are presented.
A Fast Radiative Transfer Parameterization Under Cloudy Condition in Solar Spectral Region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Q.; Liu, X.; Yang, P.; Wang, C.
2014-12-01
The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) system, which is proposed and developed by NASA, will directly measure the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (IR), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (RS), and radio occultation (RO). IR, RS, and RO measurements provide information on the most critical but least understood climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks associated with the vertical distribution of atmospheric temperature and water vapor, broadband reflected and emitted radiative fluxes, cloud properties, surface albedo, and surface skin temperature. To perform Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) for long term climate observations, accurate and fast radiative transfer models are needed. The principal component-based radiative transfer model (PCRTM) is one of the efforts devoted to the development of fast radiative transfer models for simulating radiances and reflecatance observed by various hyperspectral instruments. Retrieval algorithm based on PCRTM forward model has been developed for AIRS, NAST, IASI, and CrIS. It is very fast and very accurate relative to the training radiative transfer model. In this work, we are extending PCRTM to UV-VIS-near IR spectral region. To implement faster cloudy radiative transfer calculations, we carefully investigated the radiative transfer process under cloud condition. The cloud bidirectional reflectance was parameterized based on off-line 36-stream multiple scattering calculations while few other lookup tables were generated to describe the effective transmittance and reflectance of the cloud-clear-sky coupling system in solar spectral region. The bidirectional reflectance or the irradiance measured by satellite may be calculated using a simple fast radiative transfer model providing the type of cloud (ice or water), optical depth of the cloud, optical depth of both atmospheric trace gases above and below clouds, particle size of the cloud, as well
Radiative transfer equations in broad-band, time-varying fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooper, J.; Zoller, P.
1984-01-01
A derivation of the equation of transfer is obtained by starting with Maxwell's equations in the 'slowly varying envelope' form. Particular attention is paid to characterizing the intensity that is 'seen' by the atom (which is found to be related to a Wigner distribution of the electric field). The equation of transfer is found to be valid for 'broad-band' slowly varying radiation fields.
The delta-Eddington approximation for radiative flux transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joseph, J. H.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Weinman, J. A.
1976-01-01
Simple approximations, like the Eddington, are often incapable of coping with the highly asymmetric phase functions typical of particulate scattering. A simple yet accurate method called the delta-Eddington approximation is proposed for determining monochromatic radiative fluxes in an absorbing-scattering atmosphere. In this method, the governing phase function is approximated by a Dirac delta function forward scatter peak and a two-term expansion of the phase function. The fraction of scattering into the truncated forward peak is taken proportional to the square of the phase function asymmetry factor, which distinguishes the delta-Eddington approximation from others of similar nature. The transmission, reflection, and absorption predicted by the delta-Eddington approximation are compared with doubling method calculations for realistic ranges of optical depth, single-scattering albedo, surface albedo, sun angle and asymmetry factor. The approximation is shown to provide an accurate and analytically simple parameterization of radiation to replace the empirism currently encountered in many general circulation and climate models.
Theory of Radiation Transfer in Neutron Star Atmospheres
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zavlin, Vyacheslav
2006-01-01
The possibility for direct investigation of thermal emission from isolated neutron stars opened about a quarter of century ago with the launch of the first X-ray observatories Einstein and EXOSAT stimulated developing models of the neutron star surface radiation which began at the end of 80's. Confronting observational data with theoretical models of thermal emission allows one to infer the surface temperatures, magnetic fields, chemical composition, and neutron star masses and radii. This information, supplemented with the model equations of state and neutron star cooling models, provides an opportunity to understand the fundamental properties of the superdense matter in the stars' interiors. Almost all available models are based on the assumption that thermal radiation emitted by a neutron star is formed in the superficial star's layers--atmosphere. The neutron star atmospheres are very different from those of usual stars due to the immense gravity and huge magnetic fields. In this presentation we review the current status of the neutron star atmosphere modeling, present most important results, discuss problems and possible future developments.
Radiative transfer through an array of discrete surfaces. Final report
Welty, J.R.
1995-08-01
The aim of this research has been to examine how the transfer of radiant energy through a two-dimensional array of typical packing elements is affected by geometric variables (spacing, packing arrangement, and element shapes). The information resulting from this study will be relevant to a spectrum of applications including fibrous insulation, ceramic fabrics, and air heating solar receivers. Computational and experimental results will also be useful in establishing criteria for the valid application of participating media models to systems of discrete surfaces. Additional studies, related to the principal goal, were undertaken as the research effort progressed. These side-issues resulted in three out of the total of 12 publications that resulted from this effort. Collaboration between OSU and PNL has been interactive regarding the experimental and numerical modeling phases of this effort with the results of one group offering guidance to the other. Accomplishments achieved during the course of this effort include the following: (1) a state-of-the-art bidirectional reflectometer was designed, constructed and operated, (2) measurements were made and the results characterized of the bidirectional reflectance of several materials, (3) it was demonstrated that there is a need for information on the full bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BDRF) to describe radiant interchange involving striated surfaces, and (4) validation of results using the two-dimensional Monte Carlo code, developed at PNL, was achieved and the code was used to extend the results of a classic geometric problem in the radiant heat transfer literature.
Radiative heat transfer in molten and glassy obsidian
Gable, C.W.; Shankland, T.J.
1984-08-10
We have measured optical transmittance spectra in rhyolitic obsidian samples in the wavelength range lambda = 380-5500 nm and at temperatures T from 19/sup 0/-1145/sup 0/C, above and below the softening point. From the transmittance, we calculated the absorption coefficient ..cap alpha..(lambda,T) and the radiative thermal conductivity K/sub R/(T). K/sub R/ ranges from 3 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/s/sup -1/K/sup -1/ (1.2Wm/sup -1/K/sup -1/) at 700/sup 0/C to 12 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/s/sup -1/K/sup -1/(5Wm/sup -1/K/sup -1/) at 1145/sup 0/C. The 700/sup 0/C value is comparable with lattice thermal conductivity K/sub L/ of about 4 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/ s/sup -1/K/sup -1/(1.7 Wm/sup -1/K/sup -1/). Removing scattering effects due to bubbles from the transmittance spectra by lowering the absorption baseline increased K/sub R/ to 20 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ K/sup -1/(8.4Wm/sup -1/K/sup -1/) at 1145/sup 0/C. Because scattering bubbles is likely to be small in confined magmas, these numbers are probably minimum values for K/sub R/ and indicate that in active plutons radiative heat transport could be greater than lattice conductivity by more than a factor of 2 at 1000/sup 0/C. Thus melting markedly strengthens K/sub R/, and radiative heat transport is probably the dominant component of the total conductivity K = K/sub L/+K/sub R/ in silicic magmas. These relatively large values of K can be applied to models of the thermal evolution of magma bodies and to cooling of intrusives.
The Radiative Transfer Of CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2} Plasma Arc
Benallal, R.; Liani, B.
2008-09-23
Any physical modelling of a circuit-breaker arc therefore requires an understanding of the radiated energy which is taken into account in the form of a net coefficient. The evaluation of the net emission coefficient is performed by the knowledge of the chemical plasma composition and the resolution of the radiative transfer equation. In this paper, the total radiation which escapes from a CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2} plasma is calculated in the temperature range between 5000 and 30000K on the assumption of a local thermodynamic equilibrium and we have studied the nitrogen effect in the hydrocarbon plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fumeron, S.
The aim of this paper is to determine how the gravitational field inside a massive star affects the propagation of photons, and to investigate the consequences for the radiation field. The chosen approach consists in modeling the curved metric by an effective refractive medium: from this very simple perspective, the energy transport problem is investigated and the new form of the radiative transfer is derived. Then, the main effects of curvature on the energy balance are discussed and, in particular, it is shown that these effects influence the radiative flux emitted by the star.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brandon, S.; Derby, J. J.
1992-01-01
In the present investigation of crystalline phase internal radiation and heat conduction during the vertical Bridgman growth of a YAG-like oxide crystal, where transport through the melt is dominated by convection and conduction, heat is also noted to be conducted through ampoule walls via natural convection and enclosure radiation. The results of a quasi-steady-state axisymmetric Galerkin FEM indicate that heat transfer through the system is powerfully affected by the optical absorption coefficient of the crystal. The coupling of internal radiation through the crystal with conduction through the ampoule walls promotes melt/crystal interface shapes that are highly reflected near the ampoule wall.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Katsev, Iosif; Prikhach, Alexander; Zege, Eleonora
We present the new fast aerosol retrieval technique (FAR) to retrieve the aerosol optical thick-ness (AOT), Angstrom parameter, and land reflectance from spectral satellite data. The most important difference of the proposed techniques from NASA/MODIS, ESA/MERIS and some other well-known AOT retrieval codes is that our retrievals do not use the look-up tables (LUT) technique but instead it is based on our previously developed extremely fast code RAY for ra-diative transfer (RT) computations and includes analytical solutions of radiative transfer. The previous version of the retrieval code (ART) was completely based at the RT computations. The FAR technique is about 100 times faster than ART because of the use combination of the RAY computation and analytical solution of the radiative transfer theory. The accuracy of these approximate solutions is thoroughly checked. Using the RT computations in the course of the AOT retrieval allows one to include any available local models of molecular atmosphere and of aerosol in upper and middle atmosphere layers for the treated area. Any set of wave-lengths from any satellite optical instruments can be processed. Moreover, we use the method of least squares in the retrieval of optical parameters of aerosol because the RAY code pro-vides the derivatives of the radiation characteristics with respect to the parameters in question. This technique allows the optimal use on multi-spectral information. The retrieval methods are flexible and can be used in synergetic algorithms, which couple data of two or more satel-lite receivers. These features may be considered as definite merits in comparison with the LUT technique. The successful comparison of FAR retrieved data with results of some other algorithms and with AERONET measurements will be demonstrated. Beside two important problems, namely, the effect of a priory choice of aerosol model to the retrieved AOT accuracy and effect of adjacent pixels containing clouds or snow spots is
Beschorner, W.E.; Tutschka, P.J.; Santos, G.W.
1983-03-01
Although chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) frequently develops in the long-term rat radiation chimera, we present three additional models in which a histologically similar disease is rapidly induced. These include adoptive transfer of spleen and bone marrow from rats with spontaneous chronic GVHD into lethally irradiated rats of the primary host strain; sublethal irradiation of stable chimeras followed by a booster transplant; and transfer of spleen cells of chimeras recovering from acute GVHD into second-party (primary recipient strain) or third-party hosts. Some immunopathologic and immune abnormalities associated with spontaneous chronic GVHD were not observed in one or more of the induced models. Thus, IgM deposition in the skin, antinuclear antibodies, and vasculitis appear to be paraphenomena. On the other hand, lymphoid hypocellularity of the thymic medulla, immaturity of splenic follicles, and nonspecific suppressor cells were consistently present in the long term chimeras, and in all models. These abnormalities therefore may be pathogenetically important, or closely related to the development of chronic GVHD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.
2015-10-01
Next-generation mesoscale numerical weather prediction system, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, is a designed for dual use for forecasting and research. WRF offers multiple physics options that can be combined in any way. One of the physics options is radiance computation. The major source for energy for the earth's climate is solar radiation. Thus, it is imperative to accurately model horizontal and vertical distribution of the heating. Goddard solar radiative transfer model includes the absorption duo to water vapor,ozone, ozygen, carbon dioxide, clouds and aerosols. The model computes the interactions among the absorption and scattering by clouds, aerosols, molecules and surface. Finally, fluxes are integrated over the entire longwave spectrum.In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The coprocessor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is familiar one to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of MICs will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discusses in this paper. The optimizations improved the performance of the original Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 2.2x. Furthermore, the same optimizations improved the performance of the Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on a dual socket configuration of eight core Intel Xeon E5-2670 CPUs by a factor of 2.1x compared to the original Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme code.
Heng, Kevin; Mendonça, João M.; Lee, Jae-Min E-mail: joao.mendonca@csh.unibe.ch
2014-11-01
We present a comprehensive analytical study of radiative transfer using the method of moments and include the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the coherent limit. Within this unified formalism, we derive the governing equations and solutions describing two-stream radiative transfer (which approximates the passage of radiation as a pair of outgoing and incoming fluxes), flux-limited diffusion (which describes radiative transfer in the deep interior), and solutions for the temperature-pressure profiles. Generally, the problem is mathematically underdetermined unless a set of closures (Eddington coefficients) is specified. We demonstrate that the hemispheric (or hemi-isotropic) closure naturally derives from the radiative transfer equation if energy conservation is obeyed, while the Eddington closure produces spurious enhancements of both reflected light and thermal emission. We concoct recipes for implementing two-stream radiative transfer in stand-alone numerical calculations and general circulation models. We use our two-stream solutions to construct toy models of the runaway greenhouse effect. We present a new solution for temperature-pressure profiles with a non-constant optical opacity and elucidate the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the optical and infrared. We derive generalized expressions for the spherical and Bond albedos and the photon deposition depth. We demonstrate that the value of the optical depth corresponding to the photosphere is not always 2/3 (Milne's solution) and depends on a combination of stellar irradiation, internal heat, and the properties of scattering in both the optical and infrared. Finally, we derive generalized expressions for the total, net, outgoing, and incoming fluxes in the convective regime.
Radiative transfer in astronomical masers. III - Filamentary masers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elitzur, Moshe; Mckee, Christopher F.; Hollenbach, David J.
1991-01-01
The complete solution of a filamentary maser is presented. An integral equation and an iterative procedure are developed to calculate and solve the contribution of rays emanating from the filament sidewall. The solution provides complete expressions for the distributions of intensity and flux across the source as functions of position and direction with regard to the axis. The results are used to find the number distribution of brightness temperature in a large sample of randomly oriented filaments with an arbitrary distribution of lengths. The effects of external radiation on the maser structure and intensity are studied. It is proposed that the two giant bursts of H2O maser emission observed in W49 and Orion resulted from the interaction or two interacting filaments and a foreground slab amplifying a background filament.
Radiative transfer effects on reflected shock waves. II - Absorbing gas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Su, F. Y.; Olfe, D. B.
1972-01-01
Radiative cooling effects behind a reflected shock wave are calculated for an absorbing-emitting gas by means of an expansion procedure in the small density ratio across the shock front. For a gray gas shock layer with an optical thickness of order unity or less the absorption integral is simplified by use of the local temperature approximation, whereas for larger optical thicknesses a Rosseland diffusion type of solution is matched with the local temperature approximation solution. The calculations show that the shock wave will attenuate at first and then accelerate to a constant velocity. Under appropriate conditions the gas enthalpy near the wall may increase at intermediate times before ultimately decreasing to zero. A two-band absorption model yields end-wall radiant-heat fluxes which agree well with available shock-tube measurements.
Radiative transfer in astronomical masers. III - Filamentary masers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elitzur, Moshe; Mckee, Christopher F.; Hollenbach, David J.
1991-01-01
The complete solution of a filamentary maser is presented. An integral equation and an iterative procedure are developed to calculate and solve the contribution of rays emanating from the filament sidewall. The solution provides complete expressions for the distributions of intensity and flux across the source as functions of position and direction with regard to the axis. The results are used to find the number distribution of brightness temperature in a large sample of randomly oriented filaments with an arbitrary distribution of lengths. The effects of external radiation on the maser structure and intensity are studied. It is proposed that the two giant bursts of H2O maser emission observed in W49 and Orion resulted from the interaction or two interacting filaments and a foreground slab amplifying a background filament.
Radiative and free convective heat transfer from a containerless sphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, K.
1979-01-01
A mathematical model is derived for heat loss due to radiation and free convection for a small copper sphere (approximately 0.3 to 0.4 cm diameter) cooled by a helium-argon gas mixture. A FORTRAN program written to simplify calculations and extend the range of applicability to experimentation is presented. Pressures used were less than 400 torr, and resulting temperatures ranged from 500 to 4600 K. Comparison of results for initial cooling by the gas mixture with experimental data showed a 5 percent error for temperature values and a 2.7 percent error for the temperature difference caused by the cooling. Results indicate that the accuracy could be increased significantly by using better estimates for thermal conductivities.
Three-dimensional radiation transfer modeling in a dicotyledon leaf
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govaerts, Yves M.; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Verstraete, Michel M.; Ustin, Susan L.
1996-11-01
The propagation of light in a typical dicotyledon leaf is investigated with a new Monte Carlo ray-tracing model. The three-dimensional internal cellular structure of the various leaf tissues, including the epidermis, the palisade parenchyma, and the spongy mesophyll, is explicitly described. Cells of different tissues are assigned appropriate morphologies and contain realistic amounts of water and chlorophyll. Each cell constituent is characterized by an index of refraction and an absorption coefficient. The objective of this study is to investigate how the internal three-dimensional structure of the tissues and the optical properties of cell constituents control the reflectance and transmittance of the leaf. Model results compare favorably with laboratory observations. The influence of the roughness of the epidermis on the reflection and absorption of light is investigated, and simulation results confirm that convex cells in the epidermis focus light on the palisade parenchyma and increase the absorption of radiation.
Roth, Nathaniel; Kasen, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot; Hopkins, Philip F.
2012-11-01
Observational and theoretical arguments suggest that the momentum carried in mass outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can reach several times L/c, corresponding to outflow rates of hundreds of solar masses per year. Radiation pressure on resonant absorption lines alone may not be sufficient to provide this momentum deposition, and the transfer of reprocessed IR radiation in dusty nuclear gas has been postulated to provide the extra enhancement. The efficacy of this mechanism, however, will be sensitive to multi-dimensional effects such as the tendency for the reprocessed radiation to preferentially escape along sightlines of lower column density. We use Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations to determine the radiation force on dusty gas residing within approximately 30 parsecs from an accreting supermassive black hole. We calculate the net rate of momentum deposition in the surrounding gas and estimate the mass-loss rate in the resulting outflow as a function of solid angle for different black hole luminosities, sightline-averaged column densities, clumping parameters, and opening angles of the dusty gas. We find that these dust-driven winds carry momentum fluxes of 1-5 times L/c and correspond to mass-loss rates of 10-100 M {sub Sun} per year for a 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} black hole radiating at or near its Eddington limit. These results help to explain the origin of high velocity molecular and atomic outflows in local ultraluminous infrared galaxies and can inform numerical simulations of galaxy evolution including AGN feedback.
Subgrid-scale model for radiative transfer in turbulent participating media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soucasse, L.; Rivière, Ph.; Soufiani, A.
2014-01-01
The simulation of turbulent flows of radiating gases, taking into account all turbulence length scales with an accurate radiation transport solver, is computationally prohibitive for high Reynolds or Rayleigh numbers. This is particularly the case when the small structures are not optically thin. We develop in this paper a radiative transfer subgrid model suitable for the coupling with direct numerical simulations of turbulent radiating fluid flows. Owing to the linearity of the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE), the emission source term is spatially filtered to define large-scale and subgrid-scale radiation intensities. The large-scale or filtered intensity is computed with a standard ray tracing method on a coarse grid, and the subgrid intensity is obtained analytically (in Fourier space) from the Fourier transform of the subgrid emission source term. A huge saving of computational time is obtained in comparison with direct ray tracing applied on the fine mesh. Model accuracy is checked for three 3D fluctuating temperature fields. The first field is stochastically generated and allows us to discuss the effects of the filtering level and of the optical thicknesses of the whole medium, of the integral length scale, and of the cutoff wave length. The second and third cases correspond respectively to turbulent natural convection of humid air in a cubical box, and to the flow of hot combustion products inside a channel. In all cases, the achieved accuracy on radiative powers and wall fluxes is about a few percents.
A Model of Radiative and Conductive Energy Transfer in Planetary Regoliths
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hapke, Bruce
1996-01-01
The thermal regime in planetary regoliths involves three processes: propagation of visible radiation, propagation of thermal radiation, and thermal conduction. The equations of radiative transfer and heat conduction are formulated for particulate media composed of anisotropically scattering particles. Although the equations are time dependent, only steady state problems are considered in this paper. Using the two-stream approximation, solutions are obtained for two cases: a layer of powder heated from below and an infinitely thick regolith illuminated by visible radiation. Radiative conductivity, subsurface temperature gradients, and the solid state greenhouse effect all appear intrinsically in the solutions without ad hoc additions. Although the equations are nonlinear, approximate analytic solutions that are accurate to a few percent are obtained. Analytic expressions are given for the temperature distribution, the optical and thermal radiance distributions, the hemispherical albedo, the hemispherical emissivity, and the directional emissivity. Additional applications of the new model to three problems of interest in planetary regoliths are presented by Hapke.
Modeling the film condensate fluid dynamics and heat transfer within the bubble membrane radiator
Pauley, K.A.; Thornborrow, J.O.
1992-01-01
An analytical model of the fluid dynamics and heat transfer characteristics of the condensate within the rotating Bubble Membrane Radiator is developed. The steady-state, three-dimensional heat transfer and flow equations were reduced to a set of third-order ordinary differential equations by employing similarity transformation techniques. These equations are then solved for the radial, axial, and angular flow distributions in the film condensate. Pressure, temperature, heat transfer, film thickness and mass flow rate distributions are also calculated. The analytical model is the basis of the SCRABBLE code which is used both as a zero-g design tool and a ground-test bed analyzer.
Phylogenomics Reveals Three Sources of Adaptive Variation during a Rapid Radiation.
Pease, James B; Haak, David C; Hahn, Matthew W; Moyle, Leonie C
2016-02-01
Speciation events often occur in rapid bursts of diversification, but the ecological and genetic factors that promote these radiations are still much debated. Using whole transcriptomes from all 13 species in the ecologically and reproductively diverse wild tomato clade (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon), we infer the species phylogeny and patterns of genetic diversity in this group. Despite widespread phylogenetic discordance due to the sorting of ancestral variation, we date the origin of this radiation to approximately 2.5 million years ago and find evidence for at least three sources of adaptive genetic variation that fuel diversification. First, we detect introgression both historically between early-branching lineages and recently between individual populations, at specific loci whose functions indicate likely adaptive benefits. Second, we find evidence of lineage-specific de novo evolution for many genes, including loci involved in the production of red fruit color. Finally, using a "PhyloGWAS" approach, we detect environment-specific sorting of ancestral variation among populations that come from different species but share common environmental conditions. Estimated across the whole clade, small but substantial and approximately equal fractions of the euchromatic portion of the genome are inferred to contribute to each of these three sources of adaptive genetic variation. These results indicate that multiple genetic sources can promote rapid diversification and speciation in response to new ecological opportunity, in agreement with our emerging phylogenomic understanding of the complexity of both ancient and recent species radiations.
Phylogenomics Reveals Three Sources of Adaptive Variation during a Rapid Radiation
Pease, James B.; Haak, David C.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Moyle, Leonie C.
2016-01-01
Speciation events often occur in rapid bursts of diversification, but the ecological and genetic factors that promote these radiations are still much debated. Using whole transcriptomes from all 13 species in the ecologically and reproductively diverse wild tomato clade (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon), we infer the species phylogeny and patterns of genetic diversity in this group. Despite widespread phylogenetic discordance due to the sorting of ancestral variation, we date the origin of this radiation to approximately 2.5 million years ago and find evidence for at least three sources of adaptive genetic variation that fuel diversification. First, we detect introgression both historically between early-branching lineages and recently between individual populations, at specific loci whose functions indicate likely adaptive benefits. Second, we find evidence of lineage-specific de novo evolution for many genes, including loci involved in the production of red fruit color. Finally, using a “PhyloGWAS” approach, we detect environment-specific sorting of ancestral variation among populations that come from different species but share common environmental conditions. Estimated across the whole clade, small but substantial and approximately equal fractions of the euchromatic portion of the genome are inferred to contribute to each of these three sources of adaptive genetic variation. These results indicate that multiple genetic sources can promote rapid diversification and speciation in response to new ecological opportunity, in agreement with our emerging phylogenomic understanding of the complexity of both ancient and recent species radiations. PMID:26871574
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toon, Owen B.; Mckay, C. P.; Ackerman, T. P.; Santhanam, K.
1989-01-01
The solution of the generalized two-stream approximation for radiative transfer in homogeneous multiple scattering atmospheres is extended to vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres in a manner which is numerically stable and computationally efficient. It is shown that solar energy deposition rates, photolysis rates, and infrared cooling rates all may be calculated with the simple modifications of a single algorithm. The accuracy of the algorithm is generally better than 10 percent, so that other uncertainties, such as in absorption coefficients, may often dominate the error in calculation of the quantities of interest to atmospheric studies.
Non-Radiative Energy Transfer Mediated by Hybrid Light-Matter States.
Zhong, Xiaolan; Chervy, Thibault; Wang, Shaojun; George, Jino; Thomas, Anoop; Hutchison, James A; Devaux, Eloise; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W
2016-05-17
We present direct evidence of enhanced non-radiative energy transfer between two J-aggregated cyanine dyes strongly coupled to the vacuum field of a cavity. Excitation spectroscopy and femtosecond pump-probe measurements show that the energy transfer is highly efficient when both the donor and acceptor form light-matter hybrid states with the vacuum field. The rate of energy transfer is increased by a factor of seven under those conditions as compared to the normal situation outside the cavity, with a corresponding effect on the energy transfer efficiency. The delocalized hybrid states connect the donor and acceptor molecules and clearly play the role of a bridge to enhance the rate of energy transfer. This finding has fundamental implications for coherent energy transport and light-energy harvesting.
Heat transfer in a gray tube with forced convection, internal radiation and axial wall conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, B. T. F.; Thompson, J. E.
1983-01-01
A method of successive approximations is employed to solve the problem of heat transfer to a transparent gas flowing through a radiating-conducting tube with turbulent forced convection between the tube wall and the gas, and with energy generation in the wall. Emphasis is given to the effect of emissivity of the wall to the tube and gas temperature profiles.
Three numerical algorithms were compared to provide a solution of a radiative transfer equation (RTE) for plane albedo (hemispherical reflectance) in semi-infinite one-dimensional plane-parallel layer. Algorithms were based on the invariant imbedding method and two different var...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinte, C.; Harries, T. J.; Min, M.; Watson, A. M.; Dullemond, C. P.; Woitke, P.; Ménard, F.; Durán-Rojas, M. C.
2009-05-01
Aims: Solving the continuum radiative transfer equation in high opacity media requires sophisticated numerical tools. In order to test the reliability of such tools, we present a benchmark of radiative transfer codes in a 2D disc configuration. Methods: We test the accuracy of seven independently developed radiative transfer codes by comparing the temperature structures, spectral energy distributions, scattered light images, and linear polarisation maps that each model predicts for a variety of disc opacities and viewing angles. The test cases have been chosen to be numerically challenging, with midplane optical depths up 10^6, a sharp density transition at the inner edge and complex scattering matrices. We also review recent progress in the implementation of the Monte Carlo method that allow an efficient solution to these kinds of problems and discuss the advantages and limitations of Monte Carlo codes compared to those of discrete ordinate codes. Results: For each of the test cases, the predicted results from the radiative transfer codes are within good agreement. The results indicate that these codes can be confidently used to interpret present and future observations of protoplanetary discs.
Exact vs. Gauss-Seidel numerical solutions of the non-LTE radiation transfer problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quang, Carine; Paletou, Frédéric; Chevallier, Loïc
2004-12-01
Although published in 1995 (Trujillo Bueno & Fabiani Bendicho, ApJ 455, 646), the Gauss-Seidel method for solving the non-LTE radiative transfer problem has deserved too little attention in the astrophysical community yet. Further tests of the performances and of the accuracy of the numerical scheme are provided.
Laminar Convection in Binary Mixture of Hydromagnetic Flow with Radiative Heat Transfer - Part Two
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogulu, A.; Bestman, A. R.; Alabraba, M. A.
1992-09-01
The hydromagnetic flow in a vertical channel with heat and mass transfer is studied when chemical reaction is present. For the general integral equation for radiative flux and in the absence of the Dufour term, the problem is reduced to a set of coupled integral equations which are solved iteratively. The results are compared with the solutions obtained when chemical reaction is absent.
Influence of absorption by environmental water vapor on radiation transfer in wildland fires
D. Frankman; B. W. Webb; B. W. Butler
2008-01-01
The attenuation of radiation transfer from wildland flames to fuel by environmental water vapor is investigated. Emission is tracked from points on an idealized flame to locations along the fuel bed while accounting for absorption by environmental water vapor in the intervening medium. The Spectral Line Weighted-sum-of-gray-gases approach was employed for treating the...
Several numerical and analytical solutions of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for plane albedo were compared for solar light reflection by sea water. The study incorporated the simplest case, that being a semi-infinite one-dimensional plane-parallel absorbing and scattering...
Principal component-based radiative transfer model for hyperspectral sensors: theoretical concept
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen
2006-01-01
Modern infrared satellite sensors such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), the Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS), and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) are capable of providing high spatial and spectral resolution infrared spectra. To fully exploit the vast amount of spectral information from these instruments, superfast radiative transfer models are needed. We present a novel radiative transfer model based on principal component analysis. Instead of predicting channel radiance or transmittance spectra directly, the principal component-based radiative transfer model (PCRTM) predicts the principal component (PC) scores of these quantities. This prediction ability leads to significant savings in computational time. The parameterization of the PCRTM model is derived from the properties of PC scores and instrument line-shape functions. The PCRTM is accurate and flexible. Because of its high speed and compressed spectral information format, it has great potential for superfast one-dimensional physical retrieval and for numerical weather prediction large volume radiance data assimilation applications. The model has been successfully developed for the NAST-I and AIRS instruments. The PCRTM model performs monochromatic radiative transfer calculations and is able to include multiple scattering calculations to account for clouds and aerosols.
Advances in studies of cloud overlap and its radiative transfer in climate models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hua; Jing, Xianwen
2016-04-01
The latest advances in studies on the treatment of cloud overlap and its radiative transfer in global climate models are summarized. Developments with respect to this internationally challenging problem are described from aspects such as the design of cloud overlap assumptions, the realization of cloud overlap assumptions within climate models, and the data and methods used to obtain consistent observations of cloud overlap structure and radiative transfer in overlapping clouds. To date, there has been an appreciable level of achievement in studies on cloud overlap in climate models, demonstrated by the development of scientific assumptions (e.g., e-folding overlap) to describe cloud overlap, the invention and broad application of the fast radiative transfer method for overlapped clouds (Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation), and the emergence of continuous 3D cloud satellite observation (e.g., CloudSat/CALIPSO) and cloud-resolving models, which provide numerous data valuable for the exact description of cloud overlap structure in climate models. However, present treatments of cloud overlap and its radiative transfer process are far from complete, and there remain many unsettled problems that need to be explored in the future.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bond, Barbara J.; Peterson, David L.
1999-01-01
This project was a collaborative effort by researchers at ARC, OSU and the University of Arizona. The goal was to use a dataset obtained from a previous study to "empirically validate a new canopy radiative-transfer model (SART) which incorporates a recently-developed leaf-level model (LEAFMOD)". The document includes a short research summary.
Infrared Cloudy Radiative Transfer Validation Using Coincident AIRS and MODIS Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fishbein, E.; Schreier, M. M.; Wilson, R. C.; Yue, Q.; Kahn, B. H.
2016-12-01
Modeling observed cloudy radiances of satellite-based infrared sounders is challenging because of scene heterogeneity. Comparisons of observed and calculated AIRS radiances are conditioned against cloud statistics from the MODIS cloud products to characterize the accuracy of the radiative transfer and its dependence of scene complexity. Radiances are calculated with the SARTA fast radiative transfer algorithm using atmospheric temperature, water vapor and ozone profiles from the ECMWF operational forecast, but cloud fields from the ECMWF forecasts, and AIRS L2 and MODIS L2 observational products. The error arising from differences in cloud representations and their translations to input to the radiative transfer models is discussed in the first half of the presentation, while the latter half deals with the treatment of scene heterogeneity and the error this adds to the modeled radiances. Calculated radiances smoothed over an AIRS footprint from high spatial atmospheric states are compared with radiances from smoothed states and observed radiances. The goal of this study is to quantify the improvement in cloudy radiative transfer modeling when external information about scene complexity is applied.
Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code and Application to WASP-43b
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Bowman, Oliver; Rojo, Patricio; Stemm, Madison; Lust, Nathaniel B.; Challener, Ryan; Foster, Austin James; Foster, Andrew S.; Blumenthal, Sarah D.; Bruce, Dylan
2016-01-01
We present a new open-source Bayesian radiative-transfer framework, Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART, https://github.com/exosports/BART), and its application to WASP-43b. BART initializes a model for the atmospheric retrieval calculation, generates thousands of theoretical model spectra using parametrized pressure and temperature profiles and line-by-line radiative-transfer calculation, and employs a statistical package to compare the models with the observations. It consists of three self-sufficient modules available to the community under the reproducible-research license, the Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances module (TEA, https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA, Blecic et al. 2015}, the radiative-transfer module (Transit, https://github.com/exosports/transit), and the Multi-core Markov-chain Monte Carlo statistical module (MCcubed, https://github.com/pcubillos/MCcubed, Cubillos et al. 2015). We applied BART on all available WASP-43b secondary eclipse data from the space- and ground-based observations constraining the temperature-pressure profile and molecular abundances of the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.
Henyey-Greenstein and Mie phase functions in Monte Carlo radiative transfer computations.
Toublanc, D
1996-06-20
Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation of light scattering in planetary atmospheres is not a simple problem, especially the study of angular distribution of light intensity. Approximate phase functions such as Henyey-Greenstein, modified Henyey-Greenstein, or Legendre polynomial decomposition are often used to simulate the Mie phase function. An alternative solution using an exact calculation alleviates these approximations.
Henyey-Greenstein and Mie phase functions in Monte Carlo radiative transfer computations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toublanc, Dominique
1996-06-01
Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation of light scattering in planetary atmospheres is not a simple problem, especially the study of angular distribution of light intensity. Approximate phase functions such as Henyey-Greenstein, modified Henyey-Greenstein, or Legendre polynomial decomposition are often used to simulate the Mie phase function. An alternative solution using an exact calculation alleviates these approximations.
Several numerical and analytical solutions of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for plane albedo were compared for solar light reflection by sea water. The study incorporated the simplest case, that being a semi-infinite one-dimensional plane-parallel absorbing and scattering...
Gorpas, Dimitris; Andersson-Engels, Stefan
2012-12-01
The solution of the forward problem in fluorescence molecular imaging strongly influences the successful convergence of the fluorophore reconstruction. The most common approach to meeting this problem has been to apply the diffusion approximation. However, this model is a first-order angular approximation of the radiative transfer equation, and thus is subject to some well-known limitations. This manuscript proposes a methodology that confronts these limitations by applying the radiative transfer equation in spatial regions in which the diffusion approximation gives decreased accuracy. The explicit integro differential equations that formulate this model were solved by applying the Galerkin finite element approximation. The required spatial discretization of the investigated domain was implemented through the Delaunay triangulation, while the azimuthal discretization scheme was used for the angular space. This model has been evaluated on two simulation geometries and the results were compared with results from an independent Monte Carlo method and the radiative transfer equation by calculating the absolute values of the relative errors between these models. The results show that the proposed forward solver can approximate the radiative transfer equation and the Monte Carlo method with better than 95% accuracy, while the accuracy of the diffusion approximation is approximately 10% lower.
Radiative transfer in the dynamic atmospheres of Mira-type variables
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Luttermoser, Donald G.
1991-01-01
This NASA grant covers our ADP research program, which involved detailed radiative transfer calculations of hydrodynamic models of pulsating asymptotic giant branch stars. Synthetic spectra resulting from these calculations are compared with International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of these stars to test the validity of the models.
Green's function solution to radiative heat transfer between longitudinal gray fins
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frankel, J. I.; Silvestri, J. J.
1991-01-01
A demonstration is presented of the applicability and versatility of a pure integral formulation for radiative-conductive heat-transfer problems. Preliminary results have been obtained which indicate that this formulation allows an accurate, fast, and stable computation procedure to be implemented. Attention is given to the accessory problem defining Green's function.
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Leaf area index (LAI) is a critical variable for predicting the growth and productivity of crops. Remote sensing estimates of LAI have relied upon empirical relationships between spectral vegetation indices and ground measurements that are costly to obtain. Radiative transfer model inversion based o...
A 3D radiative transfer framework . VII. Arbitrary velocity fields in the Eulerian frame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seelmann, A. M.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Baron, E.
2010-11-01
Aims: A solution of the radiative-transfer problem in 3D with arbitrary velocity fields in the Eulerian frame is presented. The method is implemented in our 3D radiative transfer framework and used in the PHOENIX/3D code. It is tested by comparison to our well-tested 1D co-moving frame radiative transfer code, where the treatment of a monotonic velocity field is implemented in the Lagrangian frame. The Eulerian formulation does not need much additional memory and is useable on state-of-the-art computers, even large-scale applications with 1000's of wavelength points are feasible. Methods: In the Eulerian formulation of the problem, the photon is seen by the atom at a Doppler-shifted wavelength depending on its propagation direction, which leads to a Doppler-shifted absorption and emission. This leads to a different source function and a different Λ^* operator in the radiative transfer equations compared to the static case. Results: The results of the Eulerian 3D spherical calculations are compared to our well-tested 1D Lagrangian spherical calculations, the agreement is, up to vmax = 1 × 103 km s-1 very good. Test calculation in other geometries are also shown.