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Sample records for rapid radiometric method

  1. Radiometric Methods for Rapid Diagnosis of Viral Infection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    4, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours postinfection, infection time beginning when the 14C-labeled medium was added. Nucleic acid sT, thesis system. Stationary...coccus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter caloaceticus var. anitratus) had no effect on the DNA synthesis of HSV-1 infected or...7 UNCLASS 41 RADIOMETRIC METHODS FOR RAPID DIAGNIS F VIRA ~ /fl INFECTION (U) JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MDUNC . IFEDH N WAG ER FT AL. NOV 75

  2. Rapid radiometric methods to detect and differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis from other mycobacterial species

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Hwangbo, C.C.; Silcox, V.; Good, R.C.; Snider, D.E. Jr.; Middlebrook, G.

    1984-10-01

    Rapid methods for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis (TB complex) from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli) were developed and evaluated in a three-phase study. In the first phase, techniques for identification of Mycobacterium species were developed by using radiometric technology and BACTEC Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Based on /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution, characteristic growth patterns were established for 13 commonly encountered mycobacterial species. Mycobacteria belonging to the TB complex were differentiated from other mycobacteria by cellular morphology and rate of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution. For further differentiation, radiometric tests for niacin production and inhibition by Q-nitro-alpha-acetyl amino-beta-hydroxy-propiophenone (NAP) were developed. In the second phase, 100 coded specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as members of the TB complex, MOTT bacilli, bacteria other than mycobacteria, or ''no viable organisms'' within 3 to 12 (average 6.4) days of receipt from the Centers for Disease Control. Isolation and identification of mycobacteria from 20 simulated sputum specimens were carried out in phase III. Out of 20 sputum specimens, 16 contained culturable mycobacteria, and all of the positives were detected by the BACTEC method in an average of 7.3 days. The positive mycobacterial cultures were isolated and identified as TB complex or MOTT bacilli in an average of 12.8 days. The radiometric NAP test was found to be highly sensitive and specific for a rapid identification of TB complex, whereas the radiometric niacin test was found to have some inherent problems. Radiometric BACTEC and conventional methodologies were in complete agreement in Phase II as well as in Phase III.

  3. RapidEye constellation relative radiometric accuracy measurement using lunar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, Joe; Tyc, George; Beckett, Keith; Hashida, Yoshi

    2009-09-01

    The RapidEye constellation includes five identical satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Each satellite has a 5-band (blue, green, red, red-edge and near infrared (NIR)) multispectral imager at 6.5m GSD. A three-axes attitude control system allows pointing the imager of each satellite at the Moon during lunations. It is therefore possible to image the Moon from near identical viewing geometry within a span of 80 minutes with each one of the imagers. Comparing the radiometrically corrected images obtained from each band and each satellite allows a near instantaneous relative radiometric accuracy measurement and determination of relative gain changes between the five imagers. A more traditional terrestrial vicarious radiometric calibration program has also been completed by MDA on RapidEye. The two components of this program provide for spatial radiometric calibration ensuring that detector-to-detector response remains flat, while a temporal radiometric calibration approach has accumulated images of specific dry dessert calibration sites. These images are used to measure the constellation relative radiometric response and make on-ground gain and offset adjustments in order to maintain the relative accuracy of the constellation within +/-2.5%. A quantitative comparison between the gain changes measured by the lunar method and the terrestrial temporal radiometric calibration method is performed and will be presented.

  4. Characterization of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by gas-liquid and thin-layer chromatography and rapid demonstration of mycobactin dependence using radiometric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Damato, J.J.; Knisley, C.; Collins, M.T.

    1987-12-01

    Thirty-six Mycobacterium paratuberculosis isolates of bovine, caprine, and ovine origins were evaluated by using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and BACTEC 7H12 Middlebrook TB medium in an effort to more rapidly differentiate this group of organisms from other mycobacteria. Bacterial suspensions (0.1 ml) were inoculated by syringe into 7H12 broth containing 2 micrograms of mycobactin P per ml and control broth without mycobactin P. Cultures were incubated at 37/sup 0/C and read daily with a BACTEC Model 301. After 8 days of incubation, the growth index readings for the test broths containing mycobactin P were twice those of the control broths without mycobactin P. Sixty-five isolates of mycobacteria other than M. paratuberculosis were also examined. No difference was noted between the growth index readings of control and mycobactin-containing broths. Except for Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare, TLC studies differentiated M. paratuberculosis from the other mycobacterial species tested. The GLC data reveal that all M. paratuberculosis isolates had a distinctive peak (14A) which was not found among M. avium-M. intracellulare complex organisms. These data indicate that 7H12 radiometric broth was able to rapidly demonstrate the mycobactin dependence of M. paratuberculosis and GLC and TLC procedures were capable of rapidly differentiating this organism from the other mycobacteria studied.

  5. Detection of coliform organisms in drinking water by radiometric method.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, S J; Bibi, S

    1991-07-01

    The radiometric method has been used for detection of coliform bacteria in water. The method is based on measuring the released metabolic 14CO2 from 14C-lactose in growth media containing coliform organisms incubated at 37 degrees C under continuous shaking. This rapid and sensitive radiometric method permits the detection of even single coliform organisms within 6 hours of incubation. Using this automated method, a total of 102 samples (in duplicate) collected from different areas in and around Rawalpindi and Islamabad were assessed for coliform bacteria. Of these 102 samples, 50 were tap water samples, 40 from wells and 6 each were from Rawal and Simly dams. About 47% and 67% tap water samples, while 62% and 74% well water samples were found unsatisfactory from around Islamabad and Rawalpindi areas, respectively. About 83% and 66% water samples from Rawal dam and Simly dam respectively were found to be unsatisfactory.

  6. Rapid recovery of mycobacteria from clinical specimens using automated radiometric technic

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.H.; Hixon, D.L.; Ferguson, C.B.; Hall, S.L.; Risheim, C.C.; Cook, C.B.

    1984-03-01

    Automated radiometric technic (BACTEC Johnston Laboratories, Towson, MD) was compared with conventional mycobacterial culture procedure (Lowenstein-Jensen plus Gruft modification of Lowenstein-Jensen) in this study of 1,000 clinical specimens. In addition, 8-azaguanine inhibition was tested by radiometric technic as a rapid procedure for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from other mycobacterial species. A total of 59 mycobacteria was recovered. Of 28 clinically significant isolates (M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii, M. avium, M. fortuitum), the BACTEC system detected 26 (93%). Conventional methods recovered 23 (82%). The BACTEC system required an average of seven days to recover M. tuberculosis from smear-positive specimens compared with 18 days required by Lowenstein-Jensen or Gruft slants. From smear-negative specimens, the BACTEC detected M. tuberculosis in an average of 20 days versus 28 days by conventional procedure. All 20 isolates of M. tuberculosis were inhibited by 8-azaguanine, whereas 39 isolates of mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis were not inhibited. The BACTEC system accomplishes more rapid recovery of mycobacteria and provides a higher yield than conventional methods.

  7. MODIS Radiometric Calibration Program, Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Guenther, Bruce; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent; Sun, Junqiang; Wenny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As a key instrument for NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has made significant contributions to the remote sensing community with its unprecedented amount of data products continuously generated from its observations and freely distributed to users worldwide. MODIS observations, covering spectral regions from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR), have enabled a broad range of research activities and applications for studies of the earth s interactive system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. In addition to extensive pre-launch measurements, developed to characterize sensor performance, MODIS carries a set of on-board calibrators (OBC) that can be used to track on-orbit changes of various sensor characteristics. Most importantly, dedicated and continuous calibration efforts have been made to maintain sensor data quality. This paper provides an overview of the MODIS calibration program, on-orbit calibration activities, methods, and performance. Key calibration results and lessons learned from the MODIS calibration effort are also presented in this paper.

  8. Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to cephalosporins by radiometric and conventional methods.

    PubMed Central

    Heifets, L B; Iseman, M D; Cook, J L; Lindholm-Levy, P J; Drupa, I

    1985-01-01

    Among eight cephalosporins and cephamycins tested in preliminary in vitro screening against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most promising for further study was found to be ceforanide, followed by ceftizoxime, cephapirin, and cefotaxime. Moxalactam, cefoxitin, cefamandole, and cephalothin were found to be not active enough against M. tuberculosis to be considered for further in vitro studies. The antibacterial activity of various ceforanide concentrations was investigated by three methods: (i) the dynamics of radiometric readings (growth index) in 7H12 broth; (ii) the number of CFU in the same medium; and (iii) the proportion method on 7H11 agar plates. There was a good correlation among the results obtained with these methods. The MIC for most strains ranged from 6.0 to 25.0 micrograms/ml. The BACTEC radiometric method is a reliable, rapid, and convenient method for preliminary screening and determination of the level of antibacterial activity of drugs not commonly used against M. tuberculosis. PMID:3920957

  9. Recovery and susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from extrapulmonary specimens by the BACTEC radiometric method.

    PubMed Central

    Fadda, G; Roe, S L

    1984-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the sensitivity and rapidity of the BACTEC radiometric techniques for isolation and susceptibility testing of mycobacteria from extrapulmonary specimens. Concentrated specimens of urine, pleural fluid, and blood as well as other extrapulmonary specimens were processed for the recovery of mycobacteria and for drug susceptibility testing, employing conventional and BACTEC radiometric methods. Out of 483 specimens processed, 20 were found to be positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the conventional Lowenstein -Jensen medium, and 19 were found to be positive in the BACTEC 7H12 medium. Average recovery times were 22.5 days for the conventional method and 10.9 days for the BACTEC method. When isolated cultures were tested for susceptibility to streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol, results were reported at an average time of 22 and 5.4 days for the conventional and BACTEC methods, respectively, with good correlation. PMID:6429193

  10. Site characterization for calibration of radiometric sensors using vicarious method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parihar, Shailesh; Rathore, L. S.; Mohapatra, M.; Sharma, A. K.; Mitra, A. K.; Bhatla, R.; Singh, R. S.; Desai, Yogdeep; Srivastava, Shailendra S.

    2016-05-01

    Radiometric performances of earth observation satellite/sensors vary from ground pre-launch calibration campaign to post launch period extended to lifetime of the satellite due to launching vibrations. Therefore calibration is carried out worldwide through various methods throughout satellite lifetime. In India Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) calibrates the sensor of Resourcesat-2 satellite by vicarious method. One of these vicarious calibration methods is the reflectance-based approach that is applied in this study for radiometric calibration of sensors on-board Resouresat-2 satellite. The results of ground-based measurement of atmospheric conditions and surface reflectance are made at Bap, Rajasthan Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) site. Cal/Val observations at site were carried out with hyper-spectral Spectroradiometer covering spectral range of 350nm- 2500nm for radiometric characterization of the site. The Sunphotometer/Ozonometer for measuring the atmospheric parameters has also been used. The calibrated radiance is converted to absolute at-sensor spectral reflectance and Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) radiance. TOA radiance was computed using radiative transfer model `Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum' (6S), which can accurately simulate the problems introduced by the presence of the atmosphere along the path from Sun to target (surface) to Sensor. The methodology for band averaged reflectance retrieval and spectral reflectance fitting process are described. Then the spectral reflectance and atmospheric parameters are put into 6S code to predict TOA radiance which compare with Resourcesat-2 radiance. Spectral signature and its reflectance ratio indicate the uniformity of the site. Thus the study proves that the selected site is suitable for vicarious calibration of sensor of Resourcesat-2. Further the study demonstrates the procedure for similar exercise for site selection for Cal/Val analysis of other satellite over India

  11. Radiometric method for determining solubility of organic solvents in water

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, J.M.; Tseng, C.L.; Yang, J.Y.

    1986-06-01

    Cobalt-60 labeled cobalt(III) pyrrolidinecarbodithioate (/sup 60/Co(PDC)/sub 3/) has a peculiar stability during storage in organic solvent and when its organic solution is shaken with an aqueous solution containing different acids or ions. Using these characteristics, the authors have attempted to use /sup 60/Co(PDC)/sub 3/ as a radioagent for determining solubilities of various organic solvents in water. The radioagent was first dissolved in the organic solvent under investigation before pure water was added. The solution mixture was shaken vigorously in order to let the organic phase contact with water sufficiently. Some of the organic solvent would dissolve in water after shaking, resulting in volume reduction of the organic phase. However, the radioagent was found not to accompany the organic solvent molecules going into water; i.e., all the radioactivity of /sup 60/Co(PDC)/sub 3/ would be retained in the organic phase. Solubility of the organic solvent in water therefore can be calculated from the value of the volume change of the organic phase divided by the water volume. Direct measurement of a small change in volume of organic phase with high accuracy is generally very difficult; alternatively, the authors have measured the specific activities of /sup 60/Co(PDC)/sub 3/ (cpm/mL) in the original and the final organic solutions, and the counting results were used to estimate the decrease in volume of the organic phase. Several commonly used organic solvents were selected to test the applicability of the proposed radiometric method. The solubilities of the organic solvents selected for this study range from very small values (10/sup -4/) to relatively large values (10/sup -2/), 6 references, 1 table.

  12. Interlaboratory drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by a radiometric procedure and two conventional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Hawkins, J.E.; Laszlo, A.

    1985-12-01

    A total of 224 recent isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 163 patients selected to have multidrug resistance were tested against streptomycin (SM), isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol (EMB) by the rapid radiometric BACTEC method and two conventional proportion methods: the World Health Organization (WHO) method, using Lowenstein-Jensen medium; and the Veterans Administration reference laboratory for mycobacteria (VA) method, using Middlebrook 7H10 agar medium. The results were compared, focusing on the concentrations of the drugs in all three methods. Among the four drugs tested, most of the discrepancies in measured activity were observed with SM and EMB, generally because of differences in the drug concentrations used by the three methods. A 4-micrograms amount of SM in the BACTEC method was found to be slightly less active than 10 micrograms in the VA method and significantly more active than 4 micrograms of dihydrostreptomycin in the WHO method. With EMB, 2.5 micrograms in BACTEC was similar to 5 micrograms in the VA method and 2 micrograms in the WHO method, while 10 micrograms in the BACTEC method was found to be more active than 10 and 2 micrograms in the VA and WHO methods, respectively. To attain close agreement, drug concentrations used in the BACTEC method should be carefully selected when a comparison is to be made with any conventional method employed in a laboratory. Standardization of in vitro susceptibility testing is greatly needed to achieve uniformity among the test methods used to evaluate tuberculosis therapeutics.

  13. Interlaboratory drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by a radiometric procedure and two conventional methods.

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, S H; Hawkins, J E; Laszlo, A

    1985-01-01

    A total of 224 recent isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 163 patients selected to have multidrug resistance were tested against streptomycin (SM), isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol (EMB) by the rapid radiometric BACTEC method and two conventional proportion methods: the World Health Organization (WHO) method, using Lowenstein-Jensen medium; and the Veterans Administration reference laboratory for mycobacteria (VA) method, using Middlebrook 7H10 agar medium. The results were compared, focusing on the concentrations of the drugs in all three methods. Among the four drugs tested, most of the discrepancies in measured activity were observed with SM and EMB, generally because of differences in the drug concentrations used by the three methods. A 4-micrograms amount of SM in the BACTEC method was found to be slightly less active than 10 micrograms in the VA method and significantly more active than 4 micrograms of dihydrostreptomycin in the WHO method. With EMB, 2.5 micrograms in BACTEC was similar to 5 micrograms in the VA method and 2 micrograms in the WHO method, while 10 micrograms in the BACTEC method was found to be more active than 10 and 2 micrograms in the VA and WHO methods, respectively. To attain close agreement, drug concentrations used in the BACTEC method should be carefully selected when a comparison is to be made with any conventional method employed in a laboratory. Standardization of in vitro susceptibility testing is greatly needed to achieve uniformity among the test methods used to evaluate tuberculosis therapeutics. PMID:3934209

  14. Experimental methods of indoor millimeter-wave radiometric imaging for personnel concealed contraband detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Taiyang; Xiao, Zelong; Li, Hao; Lv, Rongchuan; Lu, Xuan

    2014-11-01

    The increasingly emerging terrorism attacks and violence crimes around the world have posed severe threats to public security, so carrying out relevant research on advanced experimental methods of personnel concealed contraband detection is crucial and meaningful. All of the advantages of imaging covertly, avoidance of interference with other systems, intrinsic property of being safe to persons under screening , and the superior ability of imaging through natural or manmade obscurants, have significantly combined to enable millimeter-wave (MMW) radiometric imaging to offer great potential in personnel concealed contraband detection. Based upon the current research status of MMW radiometric imaging and urgent demands of personnel security screening, this paper mainly focuses on the experimental methods of indoor MMW radiometric imaging. The reverse radiation noise resulting from super-heterodyne receivers seriously affects the image experiments carried out at short range, so both the generation mechanism and reducing methods of this noise are investigated. Then, the benefit of sky illumination no longer exists for the indoor radiometric imaging, and this leads to the decrease in radiometric temperature contrast between target and background. In order to enhance the radiometric temperature contrast for improving indoor imaging performance, the noise illumination technique is adopted in the indoor imaging scenario. In addition, the speed and accuracy of concealed contraband detection from acquired MMW radiometric images are usually restricted to the deficiencies in traditional artificial interpretation by security inspectors, thus an automatic recognition and location algorithm by integrating improved Fuzzy C-means clustering with moment invariants is put forward. A series of original results are also presented to demonstrate the significance and validity of these methods.

  15. Comparison of diverse methods for the correction of atmospheric effects on LANDSAT and SKYLAB images. [radiometric correction in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Camara, G.; Dias, L. A. V.; Mascarenhas, N. D. D.; Desouza, R. C. M.; Pereira, A. E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Earth's atmosphere reduces a sensors ability in currently discriminating targets. Using radiometric correction to reduce the atmospheric effects may improve considerably the performance of an automatic image interpreter. Several methods for radiometric correction from the open literature are compared leading to the development of an atmospheric correction system.

  16. Direct antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the radiometric method

    SciTech Connect

    Libonati, J.P.; Stager, C.E.; Davis, J.R.; Siddiqi, S.H.

    1988-05-01

    Direct-drug-susceptibility tests were performed on clinical specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by either Ziehl-Neelsen or fluorochrome staining. The results of conventional agar dilution and a modified radiometric (BACTEC) method were compared. A total of 580 smear-positive specimens were tested by the BACTEC method at three separate sites. Three hundred and seventy-seven of these were culture positive for M. tuberculosis, and 343 (91%) yielded acceptable direct-susceptibility-test results. We used the conventional method to determine that 343 of 519 smear-positive specimens were culture positive for M. tuberculosis, and 212 (62%) produced acceptable results within 3 wks. Conventional results were reported in 3-4 wks, while the time required to obtain results with the BACTEC method ranged from 5 to 21 days (average 11.5 days). Results indicate that the radiometric method provides reportable results more frequently with time savings as compared to the conventional method.

  17. Radiometric Methods for Rapid Diagnosis of Viral Infection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    Miller G: Assay for Epstein - Barr virus based on stimulation of DNA synthesis in mixed leukocytes from human umbilical cord blood. J Virol 15: 1065...Activation of Epstein - Barr virus by 5-bromodeoxyuridine in " virus -free" human cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 69: 83-85, 1972. 24. LeMevel BP, Wells SA...Thus, there are viruses , such as West Nile virus , which multiply in the cell culture, but do not produce any cytopathic effect. Our radlometric technique

  18. Radiometric Method for the Research on Geomechanical Parameters of Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonczyk, Michał; Wysocka, Małgorzata; Bukowska, Mirosława; Michalik, Bogusław; Prusek, Stanisław; Wadas, Mariusz

    2017-03-01

    Tests aimed to verify whether there is a correlation between the basic parameters characterizing the mechanical properties of rocks with the properties of ionizing radiation scattered by rocks were performed as part of the research. The positive correlation between the two examined properties would provide the basis for the development of a new method of rock testing using radiation sources or devices generating ionizing radiation. The method could be applied to carry out research in underground boreholes to determine the mechanical properties of the rock mass in situ. The study allowed the verification of the adopted assumptions for the proposed method. The verification was based on the correlation analysis of absorption coefficients of the ionizing radiation of rocks from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin with the results of the research on mechanical and physical properties.

  19. Radiometric calibration of SPOT 2 HRV - A comparison of three methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggar, Stuart F.; Dinguirard, Magdeleine C.; Gellman, David I.; Henry, Patrice; Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. S.; Slater, Philip N.

    1991-01-01

    Three methods for determining an absolute radiometric calibration of a spacecraft optical sensor are compared. They are the well-known reflectance-based and radiance-based methods and a new method based on measurements of the ratio of diffuse-to-global irradiance at the ground. The latter will be described in detail and the comparison of the three approaches will be made with reference to the SPOT-2 HRV cameras for a field campaign 1990-06-19 through 1990-06-24 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico.

  20. NASA Radiometric Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the characterization of radiometric data by NASA. The objective was to perform radiometric vicarious calibrations of imagery and compare with vendor-provided calibration coefficients. The approach was to use multiple, well-characterized sites. These sites are widely used by the NASA science community for radiometric characterization of airborne and space borne sensors. Using the data from these sites, the investigators performed independent characterizations with independent teams. Each team has slightly different measurement techniques and data processing methods.

  1. Separation of secondary refractories by type by radioresonance and x-ray radiometric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Baranovskii, N.I.; Rogozina, V.G.; Bortnikova, N.V.; Koronchevskii, A.V.; Trufanov, A.M.; Fedorov, Yu.O.

    1987-11-01

    The investigations on radiometric methods of beneficiation were made on samples of secondary refractories taken at Orsk-Khalilov Metallurgical Combine which were a mixture of aluminosilicate and magnesia (periclase and periclase-chromite) refractory scrap. The change in quality factor of the circuit under the action on it of secondary refractories was measured at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and the results of the measurements are presented. The periclase, periclase-chromite, and aluminosilicate refractory scrap change the quality factor of the circuit differently. On the basis of these investigations it may be concluded that the radioresonance method of separation may be used for separation of refractory scrap by types.

  2. NASA IKONOS Radiometric Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Frisbee, Troy; Zanoni, Vicki; Blonski, Slawek; Daehler, Erik; Grant, Brennan; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Sellers, Richard; Smith, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this program: Perform radiometric vicarious calibrations of IKQNOS imagery and compare with Space Imaging calibration coefficients The approach taken: utilize multiple well-characterized sites which are widely used by the NASA science community for radiometric characterization of airborne and spaceborne sensors; and to Perform independent characterizations with independent teams. Each team has slightly different measurement techniques and data processing methods.

  3. Radiometric cytolysis inhibition assay, a new rapid test for neutralizing antibodies to intact and trypsin-cleaved poliovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Hovi, T.; Roivainen, M.

    1989-04-01

    We have developed a new rapid test, the radiometric cytolysis inhibition assay (RACINA), for the determination of neutralizing poliovirus antibodies. HeLa cells prelabeled with /sup 51/Cr, (/sup 3/H)leucine, or, preferentially, with (/sup 3/H)uridine are used as sensitive quantitative indicators of residual infectious virus. Both suspensions and monolayer cultures of the indicator cells can be used. Neutralization of a fraction of a high-titer virus preparation can be scored after the first replication cycle at 8 to 10 h. By lowering the incubation temperature to 30/degree/C, the completion of the cytolysis due to the first replication cycle of poliovirus was delayed beyond 21 h. This makes it possible to use the RACINA, unlike the standard microneutralization assay, for measuring antibodies to trypsin-cleaved polioviruses. The RACINA was found to be as sensitive as and more reproducible than the standard microneutralization assay in the measurement of neutralizing poliovirus antibodies. The RACINA is a rapid and reliable test for neutralizing antibodies and in principle it may be applicable for quantitation of neutralizing antibodies to other cytolytic agents as well.

  4. Radiometric method for testing susceptibility of mycobacteria to pyrazinamide in 7H12 broth.

    PubMed Central

    Heifets, L B; Iseman, M D

    1985-01-01

    The test of susceptibility to pyrazinamide requires an acid environment (pH less than or equal to 5.5). This, however, is not favorable to the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, especially in solid agar media. To obviate this difficulty, we developed a testing method with 7H12 broth medium and based on radiometric readings of the growth. The radiometric method employed in this study (BACTEC system) provides an opportunity to detect the dynamics of growth by daily recording of the growth index, which reflects the metabolic activity of the multiplying bacteria. In our technique, M. tuberculosis isolates were initially cultivated at pH 6.8. After logarithmic growth had begun, phosphoric acid solution was added to obtain pH 5.5. When pyrazinamide was added simultaneously with the acid, the growth index of susceptible cultures decreased, whereas it continued to increase in pH 5.5 control vials and in tests with pyrazinamide-resistant strains. PMID:3972987

  5. Photovoltaics radiometric issues and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a summary of issues discussed at the photovoltaic radiometric measurements workshop. Topics included radiometric measurements guides, the need for well-defined goals, documentation, calibration checks, accreditation of testing laboratories and methods, the need for less expensive radiometric instrumentation, data correlations, and quality assurance.

  6. Real-time measurement of camshaft wear in an automotive engine-a radiometric method

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, E.W.; Blossfeld, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    A radiometric method has been developed for the determination of camshaft wear during engine operation. After a radioactive tracer is induced at the tips of one or more cam lobes by the technique of surface layer activation, calibration procedures are performed to determine the amount of radioactive material remaining versus the depth worn. The decrease in {gamma}-ray intensity measured external to the engine is then directly related to cam lobe wear. By incorporating a high-resolution detector and an internal radioactive standard, measurement accuracy better than {plus}{equals}0.2 {mu}m at 95% confidence has been achieved. Without the requirement of engine disassembly, this method has provided unique measurements of break-in wear and wear as a function of operating conditions. Because this approach requires only low levels of radiation, it has significant potential applications in wear control.

  7. Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

    1983-10-01

    The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of (3H)thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of (3H)thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.

  8. Application of a radiometric method for evaluation of loss of salicylic acid during isolation from biologic material.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, A

    1983-01-01

    A radiometric method for evaluation of loss of salicylic acid in the process of isolation from biologic material is described. According to this study the mean loss during the total process of isolation amounts to 33.59%, the specific values being 19.47% during protein precipitation, 10.68% during extraction, and 3.44% during evaporation of solvent.

  9. The Relationship between Balancing Reactions and Reaction Lifetimes: A Consideration of the Potassium-Argon Radiometric Method for Dating Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, William A.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed examination of a commonly accepted practice in geology offers an example of how to stimulate critical thinking, teaches students how to read reactions, and challenges students to formulate better experiments for determining mineral ages more accurately. A demonstration of a Potassium-Argon radiometric method for dating minerals is…

  10. Evaluation of a rapid radiometric differentiation test for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by selective inhibition with p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta-hydroxypropiophenone

    SciTech Connect

    Laszlo, A.; Siddiqi, S.H.

    1984-05-01

    This study is an evaluation of a rapid technique for the differentiation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from other mycobacteria, using p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta- hydroxypropiophenone (NAP) as a selective inhibitory agent. A total of 416 coded cultures, 234 cultures belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex and 182 cultures belonging to 35 other mycobacterial species, were tested in two laboratories for p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta- hydroxypropiophenone inhibition to concentrations of 5 and 10 micrograms of NAP per ml in Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Two testing modes were compared: the indirect, in which a large bacterial inoculum was used from an isolated culture on a solid medium, and the direct, which used a small inoculum from 7H12 medium. A decrease or no increase in daily /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ output as measured by a BACTEC system was considered evidence of inhibition. The data presented show that a concentration of 5 micrograms of NAP per ml can effectively separate the M. tuberculosis complex from other mycobacterial species in 4 to 6 days. The direct test data show that, unlike other conventional biochemical tests, it does not require a heavy inoculum of mycobacteria and can therefore be performed soon after growth is detected by the radiometric method.

  11. Evaluation of a radiometric method for pyrazinamide susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Tarrand, J J; Spicer, A D; Gröschel, D H

    1986-01-01

    Pyrazinamide susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires an acid environment. By controlling the method of acidification and the quality and quantity of the inoculum, the test can be performed with the BACTEC radiometric system (Johnston Laboratories, Towson, Md.). We acidified BACTEC 7H12 medium with buffered phosphoric acid and adjusted the test inoculum to 1/10 of that usually employed in BACTEC protocols; after 5 days of growth we correctly identified 36 of 36 strains susceptible to 50 micrograms of pyrazinamide per ml. All 18 resistant strains were classified as pyrazinamide resistant. (Susceptibility or resistance had been determined by standard plate assays.) The test was able to detect small resistant populations in artificial mixtures of 1 or 2% resistant bacteria with a susceptible strain (10 mixtures each). We tested 70 M. tuberculosis strains in acidified BACTEC 7H12 medium and by the plate dilution test at pH 5.5. All strains grew in the BACTEC medium, but three strains failed to grow on plates and were not tested further; the results of both methods agreed for the remaining strains. PMID:3101586

  12. Rapid detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens by using the automated BACTEC 9000 MB system and comparison with radiometric and solid-culture systems.

    PubMed Central

    Pfyffer, G E; Cieslak, C; Welscher, H M; Kissling, P; Rüsch-Gerdes, S

    1997-01-01

    Recovery rates of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and the mean time to their detection from clinical specimens were determined by using the fluorescent BACTEC 9000 MB system. Data were compared to those assessed by the radiometric BACTEC 460 system and by cultivation on solid media. A total of 3,095 specimens were processed with N-acetyl-L-cysteine-NaOH by two laboratories. The contamination rates for the BACTEC 9000 MB system were 6.8% (center 1) and 9.8% (center 2). A total of 451 mycobacterial isolates were detected (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, n = 296; nontuberculous mycobacteria [NTM], n = 155). These isolates originated from 94 (20.8%) smear-positive and 357 (79.2%) smear-negative specimens. The BACTEC 9000 MB system was significantly better than solid media (P < 0.05) in detecting AFB, but it was less efficient than the radiometric system (P < 0.01). The BACTEC 9000 MB system plus solid media (combination A) recovered 393 (87.1%) of the isolates, while the BACTEC 460 system plus solid media (combination B) detected 430 (95.3%) of all AFB isolates. Between combination A and B there was no statistically significant difference for the detection of isolates from smear-positive specimens (P > 0.05), in contrast to the recovery of AFB from smear-negative specimens for M. tuberculosis complex, P < 0.05; for NTM, P < 0.01). The mean time to detection of M. tuberculosis complex was 12.2 days for smear-positive specimens and 18.1 days for smear-negative specimens with the BACTEC 9000 MB system; 9.3 and 15.6 days, respectively, with the BACTEC 460 system; and 21.2 and 28.4 days, respectively, with solid media. For NTM, the average detection times were 15.1, 17.3, and 31.3 days by the three methods, respectively. In conclusion, the BACTEC 9000 MB system is a rapid, less labor-intensive detection system which allows for higher levels of recovery of AFB than solid media. There is no risk of cross contamination, which is known to be the case for the BACTEC 460 system, and

  13. A simple and effective radiometric correction method to improve landscape change detection across sensors and across time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, X.; Vierling, Lee; Deering, D.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite data offer unrivaled utility in monitoring and quantifying large scale land cover change over time. Radiometric consistency among collocated multi-temporal imagery is difficult to maintain, however, due to variations in sensor characteristics, atmospheric conditions, solar angle, and sensor view angle that can obscure surface change detection. To detect accurate landscape change using multi-temporal images, we developed a variation of the pseudoinvariant feature (PIF) normalization scheme: the temporally invariant cluster (TIC) method. Image data were acquired on June 9, 1990 (Landsat 4), June 20, 2000 (Landsat 7), and August 26, 2001 (Landsat 7) to analyze boreal forests near the Siberian city of Krasnoyarsk using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and reduced simple ratio (RSR). The temporally invariant cluster (TIC) centers were identified via a point density map of collocated pixel VIs from the base image and the target image, and a normalization regression line was created to intersect all TIC centers. Target image VI values were then recalculated using the regression function so that these two images could be compared using the resulting common radiometric scale. We found that EVI was very indicative of vegetation structure because of its sensitivity to shadowing effects and could thus be used to separate conifer forests from deciduous forests and grass/crop lands. Conversely, because NDVI reduced the radiometric influence of shadow, it did not allow for distinctions among these vegetation types. After normalization, correlations of NDVI and EVI with forest leaf area index (LAI) field measurements combined for 2000 and 2001 were significantly improved; the r 2 values in these regressions rose from 0.49 to 0.69 and from 0.46 to 0.61, respectively. An EVI "cancellation effect" where EVI was positively related to understory greenness but negatively related to forest canopy coverage was evident across a

  14. Correction to Method of Establishing the Absolute Radiometric Accuracy of Remote Sensing Systems While On-orbit Using Characterized Stellar Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Howard S.; Cunningham, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Brief history of related events; 2) Overview of original method used to establish absolute radiometric accuracy of remote sensing instruments using stellar sources; and 3) Considerations to improve the stellar calibration approach.

  15. Radiometric Dating Does Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, G. Brent

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the accuracy of dating methods and creationist arguments that radiometric dating does not work. Explains the Manson meteorite impact and the Pierre shale, the ages of meteorites, the K-T tektites, and dating the Mount Vesuvius eruption. (Author/YDS)

  16. A Method to Estimate Uncertainty in Radiometric Measurement Using the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) Method; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Reda, I.

    2015-03-01

    Radiometric data with known and traceable uncertainty is essential for climate change studies to better understand cloud radiation interactions and the earth radiation budget. Further, adopting a known and traceable method of estimating uncertainty with respect to SI ensures that the uncertainty quoted for radiometric measurements can be compared based on documented methods of derivation.Therefore, statements about the overall measurement uncertainty can only be made on an individual basis, taking all relevant factors into account. This poster provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements from radiometers. The approach follows the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). derivation.Therefore, statements about the overall measurement uncertainty can only be made on an individual basis, taking all relevant factors into account. This poster provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements from radiometers. The approach follows the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM).

  17. Simplified Vicarious Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary

    2010-01-01

    A measurement-based radiance estimation approach for vicarious radiometric calibration of spaceborne multispectral remote sensing systems has been developed. This simplified process eliminates the use of radiative transfer codes and reduces the number of atmospheric assumptions required to perform sensor calibrations. Like prior approaches, the simplified method involves the collection of ground truth data coincident with the overpass of the remote sensing system being calibrated, but this approach differs from the prior techniques in both the nature of the data collected and the manner in which the data are processed. In traditional vicarious radiometric calibration, ground truth data are gathered using ground-viewing spectroradiometers and one or more sun photometer( s), among other instruments, located at a ground target area. The measured data from the ground-based instruments are used in radiative transfer models to estimate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) target radiances at the time of satellite overpass. These TOA radiances are compared with the satellite sensor readings to radiometrically calibrate the sensor. Traditional vicarious radiometric calibration methods require that an atmospheric model be defined such that the ground-based observations of solar transmission and diffuse-to-global ratios are in close agreement with the radiative transfer code estimation of these parameters. This process is labor-intensive and complex, and can be prone to errors. The errors can be compounded because of approximations in the model and inaccurate assumptions about the radiative coupling between the atmosphere and the terrain. The errors can increase the uncertainty of the TOA radiance estimates used to perform the radiometric calibration. In comparison, the simplified approach does not use atmospheric radiative transfer models and involves fewer assumptions concerning the radiative transfer properties of the atmosphere. This new technique uses two neighboring uniform

  18. Rapid presumptive identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-bovis complex by radiometric determination of heat stable urease

    SciTech Connect

    Gandy, J.H.; Pruden, E.L.; Cox, F.R.

    1983-12-01

    Simple and rapid Bactec methodologies for the determination of neat (unaltered) and heat stable urease activity of mycobacteria are presented. Clinical isolates (63) and stock cultures (32)--consisting of: M. tuberculosis (19), M. bovis (5), M. kansasii (15), M. marinum (4), M. simiae (3), M. scrofulaceum (16), M. gordonae (6), M. szulgai (6), M. flavescens (1), M. gastri (1), M. intracellulare (6), M. fortuitum-chelonei complex (12), and M. smegmatis (1)--were tested for neat urease activity by Bactec radiometry. Mycobacterial isolates (50-100 mg wet weight) were incubated at 35 degrees C for 30 minutes with microCi14C-urea. Urease-positive mycobacteria gave Bactec growth index (GI) values greater than 100 units, whereas urease-negative species gave values less than 10 GI units. Eighty-three isolates possessing neat urease activity were heated at 80 degrees C for 30 minutes followed by incubation at 35 degrees C for 30 minutes with 1 microCi14C-urea. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-bovis complex demonstrated heat-stable urease activity (GI more than 130 units) and could be distinguished from mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT), which gave GI values equal to or less than 40 units.

  19. Rapid method to determine actinides and 89/90Sr in limestone and marble samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; ...

    2016-04-12

    A new method for the determination of actinides and radiostrontium in limestone and marble samples has been developed that utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the sample. Following rapid pre-concentration steps to remove sample matrix interferences, the actinides and 89/90Sr are separated using extraction chromatographic resins and measured radiometrically. The advantages of sodium hydroxide fusion versus other fusion techniques will be discussed. Lastly, this approach has a sample preparation time for limestone and marble samples of <4 hours.

  20. Radiometric framework for image mosaicking.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Anatoly; Schechner, Yoav Y

    2005-05-01

    Nonuniform exposures often affect imaging systems, e.g., owing to vignetting. Moreover, the sensor's radiometric response may be nonlinear. These characteristics hinder photometric measurements. They are particularly annoying in image mosaicking, in which images are stitched to enhance the field of view. Mosaics suffer from seams stemming from radiometric inconsistencies between raw images. Prior methods feathered the seams but did not address their root cause. We handle these problems in a unified framework. We suggest a method for simultaneously estimating the radiometric response and the camera nonuniformity, based on a frame sequence acquired during camera motion. The estimated functions are then compensated for. This permits image mosaicking, in which no seams are apparent. There is no need to resort to dedicated seam-feathering methods. Fundamental ambiguities associated with this estimation problem are stated.

  1. Airborne microwave radiometric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Zhang, Zuyin; Chen, Zhengwen

    1998-08-01

    A dual channel Airborne Microwave Radiometric Imaging system (AMRI) was designed and constructed for regional environment mapping. The system operates at 35GHz, which collects radiation at horizontal and vertical polarized. It runs at mechanical conical scanning with 45 degrees incidence angle. Two Cassegrain antennas with 1.5 degrees 3 dB beamwidth scan the scene alternately and two pseudo-color images of two channels are displayed on the screen of PC in real time. Simultaneously all parameters of flight and radiometric data are stored in hard disk for postprocessing. The sensitivity of the radiometers of flight and radiometric data are stored in hard disk for postprocessing. The sensitivity of the radiometers (Delta) T equals 0.16K. A new display method, unequal size element arc displaying method, is used in image displaying. Several experiments on mobile tower were carried out and the images demonstrate the AMRI is available to work steadily and accurately.

  2. Detection of circulating immune complexes by Raji cell assay: comparison of flow cytometric and radiometric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsmore, S.F.; Crockard, A.D.; Fay, A.C.; McNeill, T.A.; Roberts, S.D.; Thompson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Several flow cytometric methods for the measurement of circulating immune complexes (CIC) have recently become available. We report a Raji cell flow cytometric assay (FCMA) that uses aggregated human globulin (AHG) as primary calibrator. Technical advantages of the Raji cell flow cytometric assay are discussed, and its clinical usefulness is evaluated in a method comparison study with the widely used Raji cell immunoradiometric assay. FCMA is more precise and has greater analytic sensitivity for AHG. Diagnostic sensitivity by the flow cytometric method is superior in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients: however, diagnostic specificity is similar for both assays, but the reference interval of FCMA is narrower. Significant correlations were found between CIC levels obtained with both methods in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients and in longitudinal studies of two patients with cerebral SLE. The Raji cell FCMA is recommended for measurement of CIC levels to clinical laboratories with access to a flow cytometer.

  3. Rapid Radiochemical Methods for Selected Radionuclides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The rapid methods documents are supplement guidance in a planned series designed to present radioanalytical laboratory personnel, Incident Commanders (and their designees), and other field response personnel.

  4. Comparison of thiaminase activity in fish using the radiometric and 4-nitrothiophenol colorimetric methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Hanes, J.W.; Brown, L.; Kraft, C.E.; Begley, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    Thiaminase induced thiamine deficiency occurs in fish, humans, livestock and wild animals. A non-radioactive thiaminase assay was described in 2007, but a direct comparison with the radioactive 14C-thiamine method which has been in use for more than 30years has not been reported. The objective was to measure thiaminase activity in forage fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, and slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus) consumed by predators that manifest thiamine deficiency using both methods. Modifications were made to the colorimetric assay to improve repeatability. Modification included a change in assay pH, enhanced sample clean-up, constant assay temperature (37??C), increase in the concentration of 4-nitrothiophenol (4NTP) and use of a spectrophotometer fitted with a 0.2cm cell. A strong relationship between the two assays was found for 51 alewife (R2=0.85), 36 smelt (R2=0.87) and 20 sculpin (R2=0.82). Thiaminase activity in the colorimetric assay was about 1000 times higher than activity measured by the radioactive method. Application of the assay to fish species from which no thiaminase activity has previously been reported resulted in no 4NTP thiaminase activity being found in bloater Coregonus hoyi, lake trout Salvelinus namaycusch, steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss or Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. In species previously reported to contain thiaminase, 4NTP thiaminase activity was measured in bacteria Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum, quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis and zebra mussels D. polymorpha. ?? 2010.

  5. Radiometric method for determining concentration of naturally occurring isotopes and device therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Yakubovich, S.L.; Gerling, V.E.; Golubnichy, V.V.; Kotsen, M.E.; Stepanov, J.N.

    1984-10-09

    The proposed method essentially consists in that a sample of a substance is placed between two scintillators in immediate contact therewith whereupon said sample is hermetically sealed. Arranged in close proximity to each scintillator is a photomultiplier tube recording ionizing ..cap alpha..- and b-radiation. A selector is utilized to select pulses corresponding to ..cap alpha..- and b-particles, and delayed coincidence circuits of a recording element separate and record b-..cap alpha.. and ..cap alpha..-..cap alpha.. cascade pairs of delayed coincidences of RaC, ThC, and AcA radionuclides. Flows are measured twice at a predetermined time interval to account for emanation build-up tendency and concentration of isotopes of radium is determined from a formula.

  6. FNAS/Rapid Spectral Inversion Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poularikas, Alexander

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study methods and ways for rapid inversion programs involving the correlated k-method, and to study the infrared observations of Saturn from the Cassini orbiter.

  7. Rapid drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium complex using a fluorescence quenching method.

    PubMed

    Marone, P; Bono, L; Carretto, E; Barbarini, D; Telecco, S

    1997-08-01

    Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) is a recently introduced rapid growth detection method which uses an oxygen quenched fluorescent indicator. The present study evaluated the ability of this new method to determine the drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Thirty strains recovered from patients with AIDS were tested for susceptibility to clarithromycin, rifabutin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and amikacin using MGIT. Results were compared to susceptibilities determined by the agar dilution method. The results obtained showed a 100% correlation between MGIT and the agar dilution method for rifabutin and clarithromycin. There was a 100% correlation between the two methods for azithromycin against 27 strains. MGIT was well correlated with the agar dilution method for detecting resistance to clarithromycin, rifabutin and azithromycin in 4 days, but the correlation was poor when susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin and amikacin were determined. This rapid method is non-radiometric, noninvasive and does not require any special instruments.

  8. Radiometric correction procedure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colby, C.; Sands, R.; Murphrey, S.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of MSS radiometric processing techniques identified as a preferred radiometric processing technique a procedure which equalizes the mean and standard deviation of detector-specific histograms of uncalibrated scene data. Evaluation of MSS calibration data demonstrated that the relationship between detector responses is essentially linear over the range of intensities typically observed in MSS data, and that the calibration wedge data possess a high degree of temporal stability. An analysis of the preferred radiometric processing technique showed that it could be incorporated into the MDP-MSS system without a major redesign of the system, and with minimal impact on system throughput.

  9. Patch Antenna for Measuring the Internal Temperature of Biological Objects Using the Near-Field Microwave Radiometric Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubaichin, A.; Bespalko, A.; Filatov, A.; Alexeev, E.; Zhuk, G.

    2016-01-01

    The near-field microwave antenna with central frequency of 2.23 GHz has been designed and manufactured to be used as a part of the medical microwave radiometric system. Experimental studies of the reflection coefficient in different parts of the human body were conducted using the developed antenna. The experimental studies were carried out in a group of volunteers with normal somatic growth. The results of the experiments were used to perform the analysis of the potential errors in the measurements obtained via the developed antenna.

  10. Airborne microwave radiometric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Futang; Zhang, Zuyin

    1999-09-01

    A dual channel Airborne Microwave Radiometric Imaging system (AMRI) was designed and constructed for regional environment mapping. The system operates at 35GHz, which collects radiation at horizontal and vertical polarized channels. It runs at mechanical conical scanning with 45 degrees incidence angle. Two Cassegrain antennas with 1.5 degrees beamwidth scan the scene alternately and two pseudo- color images of two channels are displayed on the screen of PC in real time. Simultaneously, all parameters of flight and radiometric data are sorted in hard disk for post- processing. The sensitivity of the radiometer (Delta) T equals 0.16K. A new displaying method, unequal size element arc displaying method, is used in image displaying. Several experiments on mobile tower were carried out and the images demonstrate that the AMRI is available to work steadily and accurately.

  11. Rapid extraction methods for organics in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Alsop, G.M.; Conway, R.A.

    1983-03-01

    This article presents rapid methods for the extraction and subsequent analysis of organics in soils potentially contaminated from chemical wastes. A methylene chloride extraction, on both a micro scale in a syringe and a macro scale in a shaken flask, with subsequent gravimetric analysis are described. On wet soils, anhydrous sodium sulfate is added to bind the water before adding methylene chloride and mixing with a vortex touch mixer. A baseline procedure is the direct gravimetric determination of volatile organics corrected with a Karl Fischer determination of water. Estimates of time saved by using the rapid methods, as well as precision and accuracy data, are presented.

  12. Rapid method to determine actinides and 89/90Sr in limestone and marble samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; Sudowe, Ralf; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2016-04-12

    A new method for the determination of actinides and radiostrontium in limestone and marble samples has been developed that utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the sample. Following rapid pre-concentration steps to remove sample matrix interferences, the actinides and 89/90Sr are separated using extraction chromatographic resins and measured radiometrically. The advantages of sodium hydroxide fusion versus other fusion techniques will be discussed. Lastly, this approach has a sample preparation time for limestone and marble samples of <4 hours.

  13. [Manipulation methods of slow-rapid reinforcing-reducing method].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi-Xin; Ran, Peng-Fei; Lü, Xiao-Rui; Wang, Xue-Xia

    2008-06-01

    After consulting literature, following the original meaning of the paper about slow-rapid reinforcing-reducing method in Huangdi's Internal Classic, in combination with explanation of later ages, and comprehension and clinical experience of the authors, it is put forward that the slow-rapid reinforcing-reducing method in Huangdi's Internal Classic is not single manipulation method, but it is a guiding principle for reinforcing-reducing manipulation, it includes many manipulation methods and they were listed, and all of the reinforcing-reducing methods of later ages are developed from these. In the teaching material Acupuncture and Moxibustion Sciences they are included in single reinforcing-reducing method, reducing extension and intension of this definition. The relative description in the teaching material only is slow-rapid reinforcing-reducing method of narrow sense, but the manipulations can be divided into qi-carrying manipulating needle type and three-one pushing-pulling type.

  14. Results of magnetic HGI and radiometric surveys in W. Canada

    SciTech Connect

    LeSchack, L.A.

    1997-05-19

    This article presents four case histories in which ground-based magnetic horizontal gradient intensity (HGI) and radiometric surveys were used in Western Canada for cost-effective geochemical exploration for hydrocarbons. The authors has developed these two surface exploration techniques from published studies and adapted them for use on the prairies the past 7 years. These surveys are used in conjunction with the usual geologic and seismic studies for: (1) evaluating prospects and land; (2) verifying seismic anomalies and inexpensively locating areas for conducting expensive 3D seismic surveys. Occasionally, as in two of the case histories discussed, these surveys were used successfully as stand-alone exploration methods where seismic exploration is not effective. The HGI and radiometric surveys measure, by geophysical methods, those effects associated with geochemical alterations due to vertical microseepage of hydrocarbons. The total cost, including permitting, data acquisition, data processing, and interpretation of the combination HGI and radiometric surveys is about 15% the total cost of a 3D seismic survey. Because of this, the author finds them an attractive and rapid survey adjunct to traditional exploration. They substantially reduce finding costs and significantly raise the probability of financial success.

  15. Methods of Recording Rapid Wind Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan, A

    1932-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to determine the rapid changes of air currents which impose varying stresses on the wings of airplanes. We attempted to express in figures the turbulence of the air, which perhaps plays some role in the behavior of airplanes in flight, as well as in the realization of certain methods of gliding flight. This is the reason which led us to conceive and develop the experimental equipment (hot-wire anemometer) described herein.

  16. Small satellite radiometric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    A critical need for the Mission to Planet Earth is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, flexible radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated data and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs). 12 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Rapid Column Extraction method for SoilRapid Column Extraction method for Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III; Culligan, Brian K.

    2005-11-07

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring as well as for emergency preparedness. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that provides total dissolution of large soil samples, high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu) neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines a rapid fusion step for total dissolution to dissolve refractory analytes and matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  18. Rapid Column Extraction Methods for Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-06-09

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

  19. Fetal magnetocardiography: Methods for rapid data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, John C.; Flynn, Edward R.; Quinn, A.; Weir, A.; Shahani, U.; Bain, R. J. P.; Maas, P.; Donaldson, G. B.

    1997-03-01

    Fetal magnetocardigraphy (fMCG) provides a unique method for noninvasive observations of the fetal heart. Electrical currents generated by excitable tissues within the fetal heart yield measurable external magnetic fields. Measurements are performed with superconducting quantum interference devices inductively coupled to magnetometer or gradiometer coils, and the resulting signals are converted to digital form in the data acquisition system. The measured fields are usually contaminated by fetal and maternal movements (usually respiration), other physiological fields such as skeletal muscle contraction, the maternal cardiac signal, and environmental electromagnetic fields. Sensitivity to relatively distant sources, both physiological and environmental, is substantially reduced by the use of magnetic gradiometers. Other contaminants may be removed by proper signal conditioning which may be automatically applied using "black box" algorithms that are transparent to the user and highly efficient. These procedures can rapidly reduce the complex signal plus noise waveforms to the desired fMCG with minimal operator interference.

  20. Relative radiometric calibration of LANDSAT TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A common scientific methodology and terminology is outlined for characterizing the radiometry of both TM sensors. The magnitude of the most significant sources of radiometric variability are discussed and methods are recommended for achieving the exceptional potential inherent in the radiometric precision and accuracy of the TM sensors.

  1. Radiometric studies of Mycobacterium lepraemurium.

    PubMed

    Camargo, E E; Larson, S M; Tepper, B S; Wagner, H N

    1976-01-01

    The radiometric method has been applied for studying the metabolism of M. lepraemurium and the conditions which might force or inhibit its metabolic activity in vitro. These organisms assimilate and oxidize (U-14C) glycerol, and (U-14C) acetate, but are unable to oxidize (U-14C) glucose, (U-14C) pyruvate, (U-14C) glycine and 14C-formate. When incubated at 30 degrees C M. lepraemurium oxidizes (U-14C) acetate to 14CO2 faster than 37 degrees C. The smae effect was observed with increasing concentrations of polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), or the 14C-substrate. No change in metabolic rate was observed when the organisms were kept at -20 degrees C for 12 days. Although tried several times, it was not possible to demonstrate any "inhibitors" of bacterial metabolism in the reaction system. The radiometric method seems to be an important tool for studying metabolic pathways and the influence of physical and biochemical factors on the metabolism of M. lepraemurium in vitro.

  2. A method for sensible heat flux model parameterization based on radiometric surface temperature and environmental factors without involving the parameter KB-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Qifeng; Wu, Bingfang; Yan, Nana; Zhu, Weiwei; Xing, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Sensible heat flux is a key component of land-atmosphere interaction. In most parameterizations it is calculated with surface-air temperature differences and total aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer (Rae) that is related to the KB-1 parameter. Suitable values are hard to obtain since KB-1 is related both to canopy characteristics and environmental conditions. In this paper, a parameterize method for sensible heat flux over vegetated surfaces (maize field and grass land in the Heihe river basin of northwest China) was proposed based on the radiometric surface temperature, surface resistance (Rs) and vapor pressures (saturated and actual) at the surface and the atmosphere above the canopy. A biophysics-based surface resistance model was revised to compute surface resistance with several environmental factors. The total aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer is directly calculated by combining the biophysics-based surface resistance and vapor pressures. One merit of this method is that the calculation of KB-1 can be avoided. The method provides a new way to estimate sensible heat flux over vegetated surfaces and its performance compares well to the LAS measured sensible heat and other empirical or semi-empirical KB-1 based estimations.

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of the Radiometric Calibration of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J.; Park, W.; Fitzgerald, A.

    1985-01-01

    The radiometric characteristics of the LANDSAT-4 TM sensor are being studied with a view to developing absolute and relative radiometric calibration procedures. Preliminary results from several different approaches to the relative correction of all detectors within each band are reported. Topics covered include: the radiometric correction method; absolute calibration; the relative radiometric calibration algorithm; relative gain and offset calibration; relative gain and offset observations; and residual radiometric stripping.

  4. Fetal magnetocardiography: Methods for rapid data reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.C.; Flynn, E.R.; Quinn, A.; Weir, A.; Shahani, U.; Bain, R.J.; Maas, P.; Donaldson, G.B.

    1997-03-01

    Fetal magnetocardigraphy (fMCG) provides a unique method for noninvasive observations of the fetal heart. Electrical currents generated by excitable tissues within the fetal heart yield measurable external magnetic fields. Measurements are performed with superconducting quantum interference devices inductively coupled to magnetometer or gradiometer coils, and the resulting signals are converted to digital form in the data acquisition system. The measured fields are usually contaminated by fetal and maternal movements (usually respiration), other physiological fields such as skeletal muscle contraction, the maternal cardiac signal, and environmental electromagnetic fields. Sensitivity to relatively distant sources, both physiological and environmental, is substantially reduced by the use of magnetic gradiometers. Other contaminants may be removed by proper signal conditioning which may be automatically applied using {open_quotes}black box{close_quotes} algorithms that are transparent to the user and highly efficient. These procedures can rapidly reduce the complex signal plus noise waveforms to the desired fMCG with minimal operator interference. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Kernel MAD Algorithm for Relative Radiometric Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Tang, Ping; Hu, Changmiao

    2016-06-01

    The multivariate alteration detection (MAD) algorithm is commonly used in relative radiometric normalization. This algorithm is based on linear canonical correlation analysis (CCA) which can analyze only linear relationships among bands. Therefore, we first introduce a new version of MAD in this study based on the established method known as kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA). The proposed method effectively extracts the non-linear and complex relationships among variables. We then conduct relative radiometric normalization experiments on both the linear CCA and KCCA version of the MAD algorithm with the use of Landsat-8 data of Beijing, China, and Gaofen-1(GF-1) data derived from South China. Finally, we analyze the difference between the two methods. Results show that the KCCA-based MAD can be satisfactorily applied to relative radiometric normalization, this algorithm can well describe the nonlinear relationship between multi-temporal images. This work is the first attempt to apply a KCCA-based MAD algorithm to relative radiometric normalization.

  6. COMPARISON BETWEEN ELLMAN AND RADIOMETRIC METHODS FOR ASSESSING CHOLINESTERASE (CHE) INHIBITION IN RATS TREATED WITH N-METHYL CARBAMATE INSECTICIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbamylated ChE is unstable and readily reactivates. This reactivation, promoted by increasing temperature and dilution, could have an impact on ex vivo ChE assays by decreasing apparent ChE inhibition. To assess the best method for measuring ChE inhibition in brain and RBCs f...

  7. [Laser-based radiometric calibration].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-gang; Zheng, Yu-quan

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly higher demands are put forward to spectral radiometric calibration accuracy and the development of new tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration technology is promoted, along with the development of studies of terrestrial remote sensing, aeronautical and astronautical remote sensing, plasma physics, quantitative spectroscopy, etc. Internationally a number of national metrology scientific research institutes have built tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration facilities in succession, which are traceable to cryogenic radiometers and have low uncertainties for spectral responsivity calibration and characterization of detectors and remote sensing instruments in the UK, the USA, Germany, etc. Among them, the facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCCUS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA and the Tunable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany have more representatives. Compared with lamp-monochromator systems, laser based spectral radiometric calibrations have many advantages, such as narrow spectral bandwidth, high wavelength accuracy, low calibration uncertainty and so on for radiometric calibration applications. In this paper, the development of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration and structures and performances of laser-based radiometric calibration facilities represented by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, NIST and PTB are presented, technical advantages of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration are analyzed, and applications of this technology are further discussed. Laser-based spectral radiometric calibration facilities can be widely used in important system-level radiometric calibration measurements with high accuracy, including radiance temperature, radiance and irradiance calibrations for space remote sensing instruments, and promote the

  8. Radiometric Characterization of IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Kelly, Michelle; Holekamp, Kara; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    A radiometric characterization of Space Imaging's IKONOS 4-m multispectral imagery has been performed by a NASA funded team from the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group (UARSG), and South Dakota State University (SDSU). Both intrinsic radiometry and the effects of Space Imaging processing on radiometry were investigated. Relative radiometry was examined with uniform Antarctic and Saharan sites. Absolute radiometric calibration was performed using reflectance-based vicarious calibration methods on several uniform sites imaged by IKONOS, coincident with ground-based surface and atmospheric measurements. Ground-based data and the IKONOS spectral response function served as input to radiative transfer codes to generate a Top-of-Atmosphere radiance estimate. Calibration coefficients derived from each vicarious calibration were combined to generate an IKONOS radiometric gain coefficient for each multispectral band assuming a linear response over the full dynamic range of the instrument. These calibration coefficients were made available to Space Imaging, which subsequently adopted them by updating its initial set of calibration coefficients. IKONOS imagery procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program is processed with or without a Modulation Transfer Function Compensation kernel. The radiometric effects of this kernel on various scene types was also investigated. All imagery characterized was procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program.

  9. An alternative radiometric method for calculating the sedimentation rates: application to an intertidal region (SW of Spain).

    PubMed

    Ligero, R A; Casas-Ruiz, M; Barrera, M; Barbero, L; Meléndez, M J

    2010-09-01

    A new method using the inventory determined for the activity of the radionuclide (137)Cs, coming from global radioactive fallout has been utilised to calculate the sedimentation rates. The method has been applied in a wide intertidal region in the Bay of Cádiz Natural Park (SW Spain). The sedimentation rates estimated by the (137)Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the (210)Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physico-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest. This area, which is representative of common environmental coastal scenarios, is particularly sensitive to perturbations related to climate change, and the results of the study will allow to make short and medium term evaluations of this change.

  10. Dating human skeletal remains using a radiometric method: biogenic versus diagenetic 90Sr and 210Pb in vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Bettina; Uldin, Tanya; Mangin, Patrice; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2012-07-10

    In forensic science, there is a strong interest in determining the post-mortem interval (PMI) of human skeletal remains up to 50 years after death. Currently, there are no reliable methods to resolve PMI, the determination of which relies almost exclusively on the experience of the investigating expert. Here we measured (90)Sr and (210)Pb ((210)Po) incorporated into bones through a biogenic process as indicators of the time elapsed since death. We hypothesised that the activity of radionuclides incorporated into trabecular bone will more accurately match the activity in the environment and the food chain at the time of death than the activity in cortical bone because of a higher remodelling rate. We found that determining (90)Sr can yield reliable PMI estimates as long as a calibration curve exists for (90)Sr covering the studied area and the last 50 years. We also found that adding the activity of (210)Po, a proxy for naturally occurring (210)Pb incorporated through ingestion, to the (90)Sr dating increases the reliability of the PMI value. Our results also show that trabecular bone is subject to both (90)Sr and (210)Po diagenesis. Accordingly, we used a solubility profile method to determine the biogenic radionuclide only, and we are proposing a new method of bone decontamination to be used prior to (90)Sr and (210)Pb dating.

  11. Rapid Radiochemical Method for Plutonium-238 and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 in building materials Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of plutonium-238 and -239 in concrete or brick building materials. Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  12. The radiometric characteristics of KOMPSAT-3A by using reference radiometric tarps and ground measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Jong-Min

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we performed the vicarious radiometric calibration of KOMPSAT-3A multispectral bands by using 6S radiative transfer model, radiometric tarps, MFRSR measurements. Furthermore, to prepare the accurate input parameter, we also did experiment work to measure the BRDF of radiometric tarps based on hyperspectral gonioradiometer to compensate the observation geometry difference between satellite and ASD Fieldspec 3. Also, we measured point spread function (PSF) by using the bright star and corrected multispectral bands based on the Wiener filter. For accurate atmospheric constituent effects such as aerosol optical depth, column water, and total ozone, we used MFRSR instrument and estimated related optical depth of each gases. Based on input parameters for 6S radiative transfer model, we simulated top of atmosphere (TOA) radiance by observed by KOMPSAT-3A and matched-up the digital number. Consequently, DN to radiance coefficients was determined based on aforementioned methods and showed reasonable statistics results.

  13. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-10-27

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  14. Radiometric detection of yeasts in blood cultures of cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hopfer, R.L.; Orengo, A.; Chesnut, S.; Wenglar, M.

    1980-09-01

    During a 12-month period, 19,457 blood cultures were collected. Yeasts were isolated from 193 cultures derived from 76 cancer patients. Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis accounted for 79% of isolates. Of the three methods compared, the radiometric method required 2.9 days to become positive, blind subculture required 2.6 days, and Gram stains required 1 day. However, the radiometric method was clearly superior in detecting positive cultures, since 73% of all cultures were first detected radiometrically, 22% were detected by subculture, and only 5% were detected by Gram stain. Although 93% of the isolates were detected by aerobic culture, five (7%) isolates were obtained only from anaerobic cultures. Seven days of incubation appear to be sufficient for the radiometric detection of yeasts.

  15. Improved detection of Mycobacterium avium complex with the Bactec radiometric system

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffner, S.E.

    1988-05-01

    A reconsideration of the laboratory methods used for primary isolation of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis is needed due to the increasingly recognized importance of such mycobacterial infections in immunocompromised patients. One example of this is the severe opportunistic infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex among AIDS patients. In this study, the Bactec radiometric system was compared to conventional culture on solid medium for the detection of M. avium complex in 3,612 selected clinical specimens, mainly of extrapulmonary origin. Of a total number of 63 M. avium complex isolates, the Bactec system detected 58 (92%), compared to 37 (59%) for conventional culture. A much more rapid detection was attained with radiometric technique than with conventional culture. The mean detection time for the cultures positive with both methods was 7.1 and 28.3 days, respectively. The Bactec radiometric system achieves a rapid and significantly more sensitive detection and seems to be an excellent complement to conventional culture in the laboratory diagnosis of infections with the M. avium complex.

  16. Use of a novel radiometric method to assess the inhibitory effect of donepezil on acetylcholinesterase activity in minimally diluted tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Okamura, Toshimitsu; Arai, Takuya; Obata, Takayuki; Fukushi, Kiyoshi; Irie, Toshiaki; Shiraishi, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Cholinesterase inhibitors have been widely used for the treatment of patients with dementia. Monitoring of the cholinesterase activity in the blood is used as an indicator of the effect of the cholinesterase inhibitors in the brain. The selective measurement of cholinesterase with low tissue dilution is preferred for accurate monitoring; however, the methods have not been established. Here, we investigated the effect of tissue dilution on the action of cholinesterase inhibitors using a novel radiometric method with selective substrates, N-[14C]methylpiperidin-4-yl acetate ([14C]MP4A) and (R)-N-[14C]methylpiperidin-3-yl butyrate ([14C]MP3B_R), for AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) respectively. Experimental approach: We investigated the kinetics of hydrolysis of [14C]-MP4A and [14C]-MP3B_R by cholinesterases, and evaluated the selectivity of [14C]MP4A and [14C]MP3B_R for human AChE and BChE, respectively, compared with traditional substrates. Then, IC50 values of cholinesterase inhibitors in minimally diluted and highly diluted tissues were measured with [14C]MP4A and [14C]MP3B_R. Key results: AChE and BChE activities were selectively measured as the first-order hydrolysis rates of [14C]-MP4A and [14C]MP3B_R respectively. The AChE selectivity of [14C]MP4A was an order of magnitude higher than traditional substrates used for the AChE assay. The IC50 values of specific AChE and BChE inhibitors, donepezil and ethopropazine, in 1.2-fold diluted human whole blood were much higher than those in 120-fold diluted blood. In addition, the IC50 values of donepezil in monkey brain were dramatically decreased as the tissue was diluted. Conclusions and implications: This method would effectively monitor the activity of cholinesterase inhibitors used for therapeutics, pesticides and chemical warfare agents. PMID:20401964

  17. Verification of the radiometric map of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Matolín, Milan

    2017-01-01

    The radiometric map of the Czech Republic is based on uniform regional airborne radiometric total count measurements (1957-1959) which covered 100% of the country. The airborne radiometric instrument was calibrated to a (226)Ra point source. The calibration facility for field gamma-ray spectrometers, established in the Czech Republic in 1975, significantly contributed to the subsequent radiometric data standardization. In the 1990's, the original analogue airborne radiometric data were digitized and using the method of back-calibration (IAEA, 2003) converted to dose rate. The map of terrestrial gamma radiation expressed in dose rate (nGy/h) was published on the scale 1:500,000 in 1995. Terrestrial radiation in the Czech Republic, formed by magmatic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of Proterozoic to Quaternary age, ranges mostly from 6 to 245 nGy/h, with a mean of 65.6 ± 19.0 nGy/h. The elevated terrestrial radiation in the Czech Republic, in comparison to the global dose rate average of 54 nGy/h, reflects an enhanced content of natural radioactive elements in the rocks. The 1995 published radiometric map of the Czech Republic was successively studied and verified by additional ground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements and by comparison to radiometric maps of Germany, Poland and Slovakia in border zones. A ground dose rate intercomparison measurement under participation of foreign and domestic professional institutions revealed mutual dose rate deviations about 20 nGy/h and more due to differing technical parameters of applied radiometric instruments. Studies and verification of the radiometric map of the Czech Republic illustrate the magnitude of current deviations in dose rate data. This gained experience can assist in harmonization of dose rate data on the European scale.

  18. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator.

  19. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ross, M.P.

    1996-08-27

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator is disclosed for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator. 11 figs.

  20. Radiometric and Spectral Measurement Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-18

    NSWCCR/RDTN-92/0003 AD-A250 771LI~ llliii11l li l l iillt111 RADIOMETRIC AND SPECTRAL MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS CRANE DIVISION NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE... INSTRUMENTS 6. AUTHOR(S) B. E. DOUDA H. A. WEBSTER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) a. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NIJMBER...Maxiry-um 200 w ords) THIS IS A DESCRIPTION OF AN ASSORTMENT OF RADIOMETRIC AND SPECTRAL INSTRUMENTATION USED FOR MEASUREMENT OF THE RADIATIVE OUTPUT OF

  1. Method for rapid isolation of sensitive mutants

    DOEpatents

    Freyer, James P.

    1997-01-01

    Sensitive mammalian cell mutants are rapidly isolated using flow cytometry. A first population of clonal spheroids is established to contain both normal and mutant cells. The population may be naturally occurring or may arise from mutagenized cells. The first population is then flow sorted by size to obtain a second population of clonal spheroids of a first uniform size. The second population is then exposed to a DNA-damaging agent that is being investigated. The exposed second population is placed in a growth medium to form a third population of clonal spheroids comprising spheroids of increased size from the mammalian cells that are resistant to the DNA-damaging agent and spheroids of substantially the first uniform size formed from the mammalian cells that are sensitive to the DNA-damaging agent. The third population is not flow sorted to differentiate the spheroids formed from resistant mammalian cells from spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells. The spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells are now treated to recover viable sensitive cells from which a sensitive cell line can be cloned.

  2. Method for rapid isolation of sensitive mutants

    DOEpatents

    Freyer, J.P.

    1997-07-29

    Sensitive mammalian cell mutants are rapidly isolated using flow cytometry. A first population of clonal spheroids is established to contain both normal and mutant cells. The population may be naturally occurring or may arise from mutagenized cells. The first population is then flow sorted by size to obtain a second population of clonal spheroids of a first uniform size. The second population is then exposed to a DNA-damaging agent that is being investigated. The exposed second population is placed in a growth medium to form a third population of clonal spheroids comprising spheroids of increased size from the mammalian cells that are resistant to the DNA-damaging agent and spheroids of substantially the first uniform size formed from the mammalian cells that are sensitive to the DNA-damaging agent. The third population is not flow sorted to differentiate the spheroids formed from resistant mammalian cells from spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells. The spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells are now treated to recover viable sensitive cells from which a sensitive cell line can be cloned. 15 figs.

  3. Rapid Methods for Estimating Navigation Channel Shoaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    of the data dependence and lack of accounting for channel width. Mayor- Mora et al. (1976) developed an analytical method for infilling in a...1.2 cm/day near the end of the monitoring. The predictive expression of Mayor- Mora et al. (1976) is: /(1 ) (1 ) cosa dFh h FR in hdq q e q e...decision-support or initial planning studies that must be done quickly. Vicente and Uva (1984) present a method based on the assumption that a

  4. Rapid vegetative propagation method for carob

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many fruit species are propagated by vegetative methods such as budding, grafting, cutting, suckering, layering etc. to avoid heterozygosity. Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.) are of highly economical value and it is among the most difficult-to-propagate fruit species. In this study, air-layering p...

  5. Method and system rapid piece handling

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1996-01-01

    The advent of high-speed fabric cutters has made necessary the development of automated techniques for the collection and sorting of garment pieces into collated piles of pieces ready for assembly. The present invention enables a new method for such handling and sorting of garment parts, and to apparatus capable of carrying out this new method. The common thread is the application of computer-controlled shuttling bins, capable of picking up a desired piece of fabric and dropping it in collated order for assembly. Such apparatus with appropriate computer control relieves the bottleneck now presented by the sorting and collation procedure, thus greatly increasing the overall rate at which garments can be assembled.

  6. Method for large and rapid terahertz imaging

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Gwyn P.; Neil, George R.

    2013-01-29

    A method of large-scale active THz imaging using a combination of a compact high power THz source (>1 watt), an optional optical system, and a camera for the detection of reflected or transmitted THz radiation, without the need for the burdensome power source or detector cooling systems required by similar prior art such devices. With such a system, one is able to image, for example, a whole person in seconds or less, whereas at present, using low power sources and scanning techniques, it takes several minutes or even hours to image even a 1 cm.times.1 cm area of skin.

  7. Advances in rapid detection methods for foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xihong; Lin, Chii-Wann; Wang, Jun; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2014-03-28

    Food safety is increasingly becoming an important public health issue, as foodborne diseases present a widespread and growing public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The rapid and precise monitoring and detection of foodborne pathogens are some of the most effective ways to control and prevent human foodborne infections. Traditional microbiological detection and identification methods for foodborne pathogens are well known to be time consuming and laborious as they are increasingly being perceived as insufficient to meet the demands of rapid food testing. Recently, various kinds of rapid detection, identification, and monitoring methods have been developed for foodborne pathogens, including nucleic-acid-based methods, immunological methods, and biosensor-based methods, etc. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, and applications of recent rapid detection methods for foodborne pathogens.

  8. Rapid Method for Sodium Hydroxide/Sodium Peroxide Fusion ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 in water and air filters Method Selected for: SAM lists this method as a pre-treatment technique supporting analysis of refractory radioisotopic forms of plutonium in drinking water and air filters using the following qualitative techniques: • Rapid methods for acid or fusion digestion • Rapid Radiochemical Method for Plutonium-238 and Plutonium 239/240 in Building Materials for Environmental Remediation Following Radiological Incidents. Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  9. Lansat MSS, Radiometric Processing Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunier, Sebastien; Salgues, Germain; Gascon, Ferran; Biaasutti, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The reprocessing campaigns of Landsat European Space Agency (ESA) data archive have been initiated since 3 years [1]. As part of this project, the processing algorithms have been upgraded. This article focuses on the radiometric processing of historical data observed with the Multi Spectral Scanner (MSS) instruments on board Landsat 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.The Landsat MSS data have been recorded data from 1972 up to 1990. The MSS instruments have been designed with four visible bands covering the near / infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, allowing the spatial sampling of our Earth surface at 60 meter.The current calibration method has shown some limitations in case of data observed out of mid latitude areas, where the Earth surface is bright because of desert or snow. The resulting image data suffers from saturations and is not fit for the potential application purposes.Although, when saturation exist, further investigations have shown that the radiometry of the raw data involved in the production of the Level 1 images is generally correct. As consequences, experiments have been undertaken to adapt the current processing in order to produce image data saturation free products.

  10. Predictions for rapid methods and automation in food microbiology.

    PubMed

    Fung, Daniel Y C

    2002-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the present status of rapid methods and automation in microbiology. Predictions are also presented for development in the following areas: viable cell counts; real-time monitoring of hygiene; polymerase chain reaction, ribotyping, and genetic tests in food laboratories; automated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunotests; rapid dipstick technology; biosensors for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point programs; instant detection of target pathogens by computer-generated matrix; effective separation and concentration for rapid identification of target cells; microbiological alert systems in food packages; and rapid alert kits for detecting pathogens at home.

  11. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  12. Optical Imaging and Radiometric Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Kong Q.; Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Moiser, Gary E.; Howard, Joseph M.; Le, Chi M.

    2010-01-01

    OPTOOL software is a general-purpose optical systems analysis tool that was developed to offer a solution to problems associated with computational programs written for the James Webb Space Telescope optical system. It integrates existing routines into coherent processes, and provides a structure with reusable capabilities that allow additional processes to be quickly developed and integrated. It has an extensive graphical user interface, which makes the tool more intuitive and friendly. OPTOOL is implemented using MATLAB with a Fourier optics-based approach for point spread function (PSF) calculations. It features parametric and Monte Carlo simulation capabilities, and uses a direct integration calculation to permit high spatial sampling of the PSF. Exit pupil optical path difference (OPD) maps can be generated using combinations of Zernike polynomials or shaped power spectral densities. The graphical user interface allows rapid creation of arbitrary pupil geometries, and entry of all other modeling parameters to support basic imaging and radiometric analyses. OPTOOL provides the capability to generate wavefront-error (WFE) maps for arbitrary grid sizes. These maps are 2D arrays containing digital sampled versions of functions ranging from Zernike polynomials to combination of sinusoidal wave functions in 2D, to functions generated from a spatial frequency power spectral distribution (PSD). It also can generate optical transfer functions (OTFs), which are incorporated into the PSF calculation. The user can specify radiometrics for the target and sky background, and key performance parameters for the instrument s focal plane array (FPA). This radiometric and detector model setup is fairly extensive, and includes parameters such as zodiacal background, thermal emission noise, read noise, and dark current. The setup also includes target spectral energy distribution as a function of wavelength for polychromatic sources, detector pixel size, and the FPA s charge

  13. REVIEW OF RAPID METHODS FOR ASSESSING WETLAND CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated over 40 wetland rapid assessment methods developed for a variety of purposes for their use in the assessment of ecological integrity or ecosystem condition. Four criteria were used to screen methods: 1) the method can be used to measure condition, 2) it is truly rap...

  14. RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RADIOSTRONTIUM IN EMERGENCY MILK SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-07-17

    A new rapid separation method for radiostrontium in emergency milk samples was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Environmental Bioassay Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that will allow rapid separation and measurement of Sr-90 within 8 hours. The new method uses calcium phosphate precipitation, nitric acid dissolution of the precipitate to coagulate residual fat/proteins and a rapid strontium separation using Sr Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Darien, IL, USA) with vacuum-assisted flow rates. The method is much faster than previous method that use calcination or cation exchange pretreatment, has excellent chemical recovery, and effectively removes beta interferences. When a 100 ml sample aliquot is used, the method has a detection limit of 0.5 Bq/L, well below generic emergency action levels.

  15. Rapid methods for detection of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    March-Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto

    2017-03-01

    The most widely used antibiotic susceptibility testing methods in Clinical Microbiology are based on the phenotypic detection of antibiotic resistance by measuring bacterial growth in the presence of the antibiotic being tested. These conventional methods take typically 24hours to obtain results. Here we review the main techniques for rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility. Data obtained with different methods such as molecular techniques, microarrays, commercial methods used in work routine, immunochromatographic methods, colorimetric methods, image methods, nephelometry, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, chemiluminescence and bioluminescence, microfluids and methods based on cell disruption are analysed in detail.

  16. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Donald W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco R.

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  17. Rapid methods and computer assisted diagnosis in medical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Heizmann, W R

    1991-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis and reporting in medical microbiology is becoming more and more important. In recent years, introduction of automated instruments as well as of computer assisted diagnosis contributed to this aim. These methods, however, are very expensive. A more cost efficient and simple to perform method for rapid diagnosis is the use of specific fluorogenic substrates incorporated into culture media (solid or liquid) for identification of the most important pathogens, e.g. Escherichia coli. Investigation of Fluorocult ECD agar and Columbia agar revealed a high sensitivity (85%) and an excellent specificity (greater than 99%) of fluorescence in combination with a positive indole reaction for identification of E. coli.

  18. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  19. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2009-11-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for samples up to 2 grams in emergency response situations. The actinides in soil method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha sources are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency soil samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinides in soil results were reported within 4-5 hours with excellent quality.

  20. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  1. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  2. Rapid-estimation method for assessing scour at highway bridges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holnbeck, Stephen R.

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for rapid estimation of scour at highway bridges using limited site data and analytical procedures to estimate pier, abutment, and contraction scour depths. The basis for the method was a procedure recommended by the Federal Highway Administration for conducting detailed scour investigations, commonly referred to as the Level 2 method. Using pier, abutment, and contraction scour results obtained from Level 2 investigations at 122 sites in 10 States, envelope curves and graphical relations were developed that enable determination of scour-depth estimates at most bridge sites in a matter of a few hours. Rather than using complex hydraulic variables, surrogate variables more easily obtained in the field were related to calculated scour-depth data from Level 2 studies. The method was tested by having several experienced individuals apply the method in the field, and results were compared among the individuals and with previous detailed analyses performed for the sites. Results indicated that the variability in predicted scour depth among individuals applying the method generally was within an acceptable range, and that conservatively greater scour depths generally were obtained by the rapid-estimation method compared to the Level 2 method. The rapid-estimation method is considered most applicable for conducting limited-detail scour assessments and as a screening tool to determine those bridge sites that may require more detailed analysis. The method is designed to be applied only by a qualified professional possessing knowledge and experience in the fields of bridge scour, hydraulics, and flood hydrology, and having specific expertise with the Level 2 method.

  3. Compact radiometric microwave calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Fixsen, D. J.; Wollack, E. J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Fixsen, S. M.

    2006-06-15

    The calibration methods for the ARCADE II instrument are described and the accuracy estimated. The Steelcast coated aluminum cones which comprise the calibrator have a low reflection while maintaining 94% of the absorber volume within 5 mK of the base temperature (modeled). The calibrator demonstrates an absorber with the active part less than one wavelength thick and only marginally larger than the mouth of the largest horn and yet black (less than -40 dB or 0.01% reflection) over five octaves in frequency.

  4. Evaluation of computational radiometric and spectral sensor calibration techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manakov, Alkhazur

    2016-04-01

    Radiometric and spectral calibration are essential for enabling the use of digital sensors for measurement purposes. Traditional optical calibration techniques require expensive equipment such as specialized light sources, monochromators, tunable filters, calibrated photo-diodes, etc. The trade-offs between computational and physics-based characterization schemes are, however, not well understood. In this paper we perform an analysis of existing computational calibration schemes and elucidate their weak points. We highlight the limitations by comparing against ground truth measurements performed in an optical characterization laboratory (EMVA 1288 standard). Based on our analysis, we present accurate and affordable methods for the radiometric and spectral calibration of a camera.

  5. Detection of urinary tract infections by rapid methods.

    PubMed Central

    Pezzlo, M

    1988-01-01

    A review of rapid urine screens for detection of bacteriuria and pyuria demonstrates a number of available alternatives to the culture method. Selection of one or more of these systems for routine use is dependent upon the laboratory and the patient population being tested. The laboratory approach to the diagnosis of urinary tract infection should consider the clinical diagnosis of the patient whenever possible. Keeping in mind that quantitative urine cultures alone cannot be used to detect infection in some patient populations unless lower colony counts are considered, a rapid screen may be a more practical approach. It has become accepted that 10(5) CFU/ml can no longer be used as the standard for all patient groups, that pyuria often is important in making the diagnosis of a urinary tract infection, and that most of the rapid screens are more sensitive than the culture method at 10(5) CFU/ml. Presently, no one approach can be recommended for all laboratories and all patient groups. However, each diagnostic laboratory should select one approach which is best for its situation. It is not practical, efficient, or cost effective to define a protocol for each possible clinical condition; however, all should be considered when developing a protocol. This protocol should be compatible with the patient population and communicated to the physicians. Use of a rapid screen should be beneficial to the patient, the physician, and the laboratory. PMID:3058296

  6. A quantum chemical method for rapid optimization of protein structures.

    PubMed

    Wada, Mitsuhito; Sakurai, Minoru

    2005-01-30

    A quantum chemical method for rapid optimization of protein structures is proposed. In this method, a protein structure is treated as an assembly of amino acid units, and the geometry optimization of each unit is performed with taking the effect of its surrounding environment into account. The optimized geometry of a whole protein is obtained by repeated application of such a local optimization procedure over the entire part of the protein. Here, we implemented this method in the MOPAC program and performed geometry optimization for three different sizes of proteins. Consequently, these results demonstrate that the total energies of the proteins are much efficiently minimized compared with the use of conventional optimization methods, including the MOZYME algorithm (a representative linear-scaling method) with the BFGS routine. The proposed method is superior to the conventional methods in both CPU time and memory requirements.

  7. Radiometric measurements of gap probability in conifer tree canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, Bryan J.; Strahler, Alan H.; Li, Xiaowen; Liang, Shunlin; Clarke, Keith C.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of gap probability were made for some moderate-sized, open-grown conifers of varying species. Results of the radiometric analysis show that the gap probability, which is taken as the mean of the binomial, fits well a negative exponential function of a path length. The conifer shadow, then, is an object of almost uniform darkness with some bright holes or gaps that are found near the shadow's edge and rapidly disappear toward the shadows center.

  8. Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric calibration status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.; Helder, Dennis L.; Hook, Simon J.; Schott, John R.; Haque, Md. Obaidul

    2016-09-01

    Now in its 17th year of operation, the Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM+), on board the Landsat-7 satellite, continues to systematically acquire imagery of the Earth to add to the 40+ year archive of Landsat data. Characterization of the ETM+ on-orbit radiometric performance has been on-going since its launch in 1999. The radiometric calibration of the reflective bands is still monitored using on-board calibration devices, though the Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS) method has proven to be an effective tool as well. The calibration gains were updated in April 2013 based primarily on PICS results, which corrected for a change of as much as -0.2%/year degradation in the worst case bands. A new comparison with the SADE database of PICS results indicates no additional degradation in the updated calibration. PICS data are still being tracked though the recent trends are not well understood. The thermal band calibration was updated last in October 2013 based on a continued calibration effort by NASA/Jet Propulsion Lab and Rochester Institute of Technology. The update accounted for a 0.036 W/m2 sr μm or 0.26K at 300K bias error. The updated lifetime trend is now stable to within +/- 0.4K.

  9. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY AIR FILTER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Noyes, G.; Culligan, B.

    2010-02-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in air filter results were reported in {approx}4 hours with excellent quality.

  10. Turbo FISH: A Method for Rapid Single Molecule RNA FISH

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Sydney M.; Wu, Min-Tzu; Levesque, Marshall J.; Raj, Arjun

    2013-01-01

    Advances in RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (RNA FISH) have allowed practitioners to detect individual RNA molecules in single cells via fluorescence microscopy, enabling highly accurate and sensitive quantification of gene expression. However, current methods typically employ hybridization times on the order of 2–16 hours, limiting its potential in applications like rapid diagnostics. We present here a set of conditions for RNA FISH (dubbed Turbo RNA FISH) that allow us to make accurate measurements with no more than 5 minutes of hybridization time and 3 minutes of washing, and show that hybridization times can go as low as 30 seconds while still producing quantifiable images. We further show that rapid hybridization is compatible with our recently developed iceFISH and SNP FISH variants of RNA FISH that enable chromosome and single base discrimination, respectively. Our method is simple and cost effective, and has the potential to dramatically increase the throughput and realm of applicability of RNA FISH. PMID:24066168

  11. Rapid qualitative method for detecting staphylococcal nuclease in foods.

    PubMed Central

    Koupal, A; Deibel, R H

    1978-01-01

    A rapid method for the detection of heat-stable staphylococcal nuclease in foods is described. The procedure consists of an acid precipitation, boiling, and centrifugation followed by enzyme detection in an agar plate containing deoxyribonucleic acid. To test the efficacy of the procedure, purified Staphylococcus aureus nuclease was added to various foods and recovery experiments were performed. Additionally, foods were inoculated and incubated with S. aureus, and the staphylococcal counts were compared with nuclease activity. The results indicate that the procedure possesses merit for a rapid method that can be incorporated into quality control programs. The procedure requires approximately 2.5 h, and it will detect nuclease levels as low as 10 ng/g of food. Images PMID:677882

  12. JACIE Radiometric Assessment of QuickBird Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Carver, David; Holekamp, Kara; Knowlton, Kelly; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Aaron, David

    2004-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can place confidence in the imagery they use and can fully understand its properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) Earth Science Applications (ESA) directorate,through the Joint Agency for Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) framework, established a commercial imaging satellite radiometric calibration team consisting of two groups: 1) NASA SSC ESA, supported by South Dakota State University, and 2) the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group. The two groups determined the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients of the Digital Globe 4-band, 2.4-m QuickBird multispectral product covering the visible through near-infrared spectral region. For a 2-year period beginning in 2002, both groups employed some variant of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, which required ground-based measurements coincident with QuickBird image acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations. The groups chose several study sites throughout the United States that covered nearly the entire dynamic range of the QuickBird sensor. QuickBird at-sensor radiance values were compared with those estimated by the two independent groups to determine the QuickBird sensor's radiometric accuracy. Approximately 20 at-sensor radiance estimates were vicariously determined each year. The estimates were combined to provide a high-precision radiometric gain calibration coefficient. The results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of the QuickBird sensor's absolute calibration and stability over the 2-year period. While the techniques and method described reflect those developed at the NASA SSC, the results of both JACIE team groups are

  13. A new ultrasound based method for rapid microorganism detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Shiva Kant; Segura, Luis Elvira; Sánchez, Carlos José Sierra; López, Pablo Resa

    2012-05-01

    A new method for rapid detection of catalase positive microorganisms by using an ultrasonic measuring method is proposed in this work. The developed technique is based on the detection of oxygen bubbles produced by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide induced by the enzyme catalase which is present in many microorganisms. The bubbles are trapped in a media based on agar gel which was especially developed for microbiological evaluation. It is found that microorganism concentrations of the order of 105 c.f.u./ml can be detected by using this method. The results obtained show up that the proposed method is competitive with other modern commercial methods like luminescence by ATP system. The method can also be used for characterization of enzyme activity.

  14. A Microwave Radiometric Method to Obtain the Average Path Profile of Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity Structure Parameters and Its Application to Optical Propagation System Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.; Vyhnalek, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The values of the key atmospheric propagation parameters Ct2, Cq2, and Ctq are highly dependent upon the vertical height within the atmosphere thus making it necessary to specify profiles of these values along the atmospheric propagation path. The remote sensing method suggested and described in this work makes use of a rapidly integrating microwave profiling radiometer to capture profiles of temperature and humidity through the atmosphere. The integration times of currently available profiling radiometers are such that they are approaching the temporal intervals over which one can possibly make meaningful assessments of these key atmospheric parameters. Since these parameters are fundamental to all propagation conditions, they can be used to obtain Cn2 profiles for any frequency, including those for an optical propagation path. In this case the important performance parameters of the prevailing isoplanatic angle and Greenwood frequency can be obtained. The integration times are such that Kolmogorov turbulence theory and the Taylor frozen-flow hypothesis must be transcended. Appropriate modifications to these classical approaches are derived from first principles and an expression for the structure functions are obtained. The theory is then applied to an experimental scenario and shows very good results.

  15. Precision radiometric surface temperature (PRST) sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, James T.; Roberts, Carson; Bodkin, Andrew; Sundberg, Robert; Beaven, Scott; Weinheimer, Jeffrey

    2013-05-01

    There is a need for a Precision Radiometric Surface Temperature (PRST) measurement capability that can achieve noncontact profiling of a sample's surface temperature when heated dynamically during laser processing, aerothermal heating or metal cutting/machining. Target surface temperature maps within and near the heated spot provide critical quantitative diagnostic data for laser-target coupling effectiveness and laser damage assessment. In the case of metal cutting, this type of measurement provides information on plastic deformation in the primary shear zone where the cutting tool is in contact with the workpiece. The challenge in these cases is to measure the temperature of a target while its surface's temperature and emissivity are changing rapidly and with incomplete knowledge of how the emissivity and surface texture (scattering) changes with temperature. Bodkin Design and Engineering, LLC (BDandE), with partners Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) and Space Computer Corporation (SCC), has developed a PRST Sensor that is based on a hyperspectral MWIR imager spanning the wavelength range 2-5 μm and providing a hyperspectral datacube of 20-24 wavelengths at 60 Hz frame rate or faster. This imager is integrated with software and algorithms to extract surface temperature from radiometric measurements over the range from ambient to 2000K with a precision of 20K, even without a priori knowledge of the target's emissivity and even as the target emissivity may be changing with time and temperature. In this paper, we will present a description of the PRST system as well as laser heating test results which show the PRST system mapping target surface temperatures in the range 600-2600K on a variety of materials.

  16. The Radiometric Map of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minty, Brian; Franklin, Ross; Milligan, Peter; Richardson, Murray; Wilford, John

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience Australia and the Australian State and Territory Geological Surveys have systematically surveyed most of the Australian continent over the past 40 years using airborne gamma-ray spectrometry to map potassium, uranium and thorium elemental concentrations at the Earth's surface. However, the individual surveys that comprise the national gamma-ray spectrometric radioelement database are not all registered to the same datum. This limits the usefulness of the database as it is not possible to easily combine surveys into regional compilations or make accurate comparisons between radiometric signatures in different survey areas. To solve these problems, Geoscience Australia has undertaken an Australia-Wide Airborne Geophysical Survey (AWAGS), funded under the Australian Government's Onshore Energy Security Program, to serve as a radioelement baseline for all current and future airborne gamma-ray spectrometric surveys in Australia. The AWAGS survey has been back-calibrated to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) radioelement datum. We have used the AWAGS data to level the national radioelement database by estimating survey correction factors that, once applied, minimise both the differences in radioelement estimates between surveys (where these surveys overlap) and the differences between the surveys and the AWAGS traverses. The database is thus effectively levelled to the IAEA datum. The levelled database has been used to produce the first `Radiometric Map of Australia' - levelled and merged composite potassium (% K), uranium (ppm eU) and thorium (ppm eTh) grids over Australia at 100m resolution. Interpreters can use the map to reliably compare the radiometric signatures observed over different parts of Australia. This enables the assessment of key mineralogical and geochemical properties of bedrock and regolith materials from different geological provinces and regions with contrasting landscape histories.

  17. Preparing Silica Aerogel Monoliths via a Rapid Supercritical Extraction Method

    PubMed Central

    Gorka, Caroline A.

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10-3 molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes. PMID:24637334

  18. Preparing silica aerogel monoliths via a rapid supercritical extraction method.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Mary K; Anderson, Ann M; Gorka, Caroline A

    2014-02-28

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10(-3) molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes.

  19. Rapid quantification method for Legionella pneumophila in surface water.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Anika; Torggler, Carmen; Elsässer, Dennis; Lück, Christian; Niessner, Reinhard; Seidel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    World-wide legionellosis outbreaks caused by evaporative cooling systems have shown that there is a need for rapid screening methods for Legionella pneumophila in water. Antibody-based methods for the quantification of L. pneumophila are rapid, non-laborious, and relatively cheap but not sensitive enough for establishment as a screening method for surface and drinking water. Therefore, preconcentration methods have to be applied in advance to reach the needed sensitivity. In a basic test, monolithic adsorption filtration (MAF) was used as primary preconcentration method that adsorbs L. pneumophila with high efficiency. Ten-liter water samples were concentrated in 10 min and further reduced to 1 mL by centrifugal ultrafiltration (CeUF). The quantification of L. pneumophila strains belonging to the monoclonal subtype Bellingham was performed via flow-based chemiluminescence sandwich microarray immunoassays (CL-SMIA) in 36 min. The whole analysis process takes 90 min. A polyclonal antibody (pAb) against L. pneumophila serogroup 1-12 and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against L. pneumophila SG 1 strain Bellingham were immobilized on a microarray chip. Without preconcentration, the detection limit was 4.0 × 10(3) and 2.8 × 10(3) CFU/mL determined by pAb and mAb 10/6, respectively. For samples processed by MAF-CeUF prior to SMIA detection, the limit of detection (LOD) could be decreased to 8.7 CFU/mL and 0.39 CFU/mL, respectively. A recovery of 99.8 ± 15.9% was achieved for concentrations between 1-1000 CFU/mL. The established combined analytical method is sensitive for rapid screening of surface and drinking water to allow fast hygiene control of L. pneumophila.

  20. Evaluation of the enhanced rapid identification method for Gardnerella vaginalis.

    PubMed Central

    Lien, E A; Hillier, S L

    1989-01-01

    The enhanced rapid identification method (RIM; Austin Biological Laboratories), a micromethod for the identification of Gardnerella vaginalis, is based on starch and raffinose fermentation and hippurate hydrolysis. We tested 105 clinical isolates of G. vaginalis with both the RIM and standard biochemical tests. The RIM agreed with the standard biochemical methods for 96 (91.4%) of the strains; nine isolates which were hippurate hydrolysis positive by standard biochemical tests were hippurate hydrolysis negative in the RIM. RIM may serve as a useful adjunct to Gram stain and colony morphology for the identification of G. vaginalis. PMID:2785533

  1. Rapid methods for jugular bleeding of dogs requiring one technician.

    PubMed

    Frisk, C S; Richardson, M R

    1979-06-01

    Two methods were used to collect blood from the jugular vein of dogs. In both techniques, only one technician was required. A rope with a slip knot was placed around the base of the neck to assist in restraint and act as a tourniquet for the vein. The technician used one hand to restrain the dog by the muzzle and position the head. The other hand was used for collecting the sample. One of the methods could be accomplished with the dog in its cage. The bleeding techniques were rapid, requiring approximately 1 minute per dog.

  2. Method for rapidly producing microporous and mesoporous materials

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.; Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Hopper, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    An improved, rapid process is provided for making microporous and mesoporous materials, including aerogels and pre-ceramics. A gel or gel precursor is confined in a sealed vessel to prevent structural expansion of the gel during the heating process. This confinement allows the gelation and drying processes to be greatly accelerated, and significantly reduces the time required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods. Drying may be performed either by subcritical drying with a pressurized fluid to expel the liquid from the gel pores or by supercritical drying. The rates of heating and decompression are significantly higher than for conventional methods.

  3. Method for rapidly producing microporous and mesoporous materials

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, P.R.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Hopper, R.W.

    1997-11-11

    An improved, rapid process is provided for making microporous and mesoporous materials, including aerogels and pre-ceramics. A gel or gel precursor is confined in a sealed vessel to prevent structural expansion of the gel during the heating process. This confinement allows the gelation and drying processes to be greatly accelerated, and significantly reduces the time required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods. Drying may be performed either by subcritical drying with a pressurized fluid to expel the liquid from the gel pores or by supercritical drying. The rates of heating and decompression are significantly higher than for conventional methods. 3 figs.

  4. Rapid method for fabricating polymeric biconvex parabolic lenslets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rongrong; Li, Yang; Li, Lei

    2014-09-15

    Microlenslets as well as microlens arrays have shown tremendous attractions and successes in miniature optical systems in recent decades. However, the fabrication methods for microlenslets and microlenslet arrays are limited. In this Letter, a rapid and low-cost method for fabricating polymeric biconvex lenslets is presented. This newly developed process is simply based on wetting behavior at interface and is able to produce high-quality biconvex lenslets with controllable size and shape. This technology will greatly simplify the production process and reduce the manufacturing costs for micro-optics.

  5. Rapid surface enhanced Raman scattering detection method for chloramphenicol residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei; Yao, Weirong

    2015-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used amide alcohol antibiotics, which has been banned from using in food producing animals in many countries. In this study, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coupled with gold colloidal nanoparticles was used for the rapid analysis of CAP. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted with Gaussian 03 at the B3LYP level using the 3-21G(d) and 6-31G(d) basis sets to analyze the assignment of vibrations. Affirmatively, the theoretical Raman spectrum of CAP was in complete agreement with the experimental spectrum. They both exhibited three strong peaks characteristic of CAP at 1104 cm-1, 1344 cm-1, 1596 cm-1, which were used for rapid qualitative analysis of CAP residues in food samples. The use of SERS as a method for the measurements of CAP was explored by comparing use of different solvents, gold colloidal nanoparticles concentration and absorption time. The method of the detection limit was determined as 0.1 μg/mL using optimum conditions. The Raman peak at 1344 cm-1 was used as the index for quantitative analysis of CAP in food samples, with a linear correlation of R2 = 0.9802. Quantitative analysis of CAP residues in foods revealed that the SERS technique with gold colloidal nanoparticles was sensitive and of a good stability and linear correlation, and suited for rapid analysis of CAP residue in a variety of food samples.

  6. [Methods of rapid diagnosis in clinical microbiology: Clinical needs].

    PubMed

    Vila, Jordi; Gómez, María Dolores; Salavert, Miguel; Bosch, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    The diagnostic methods of infectious diseases should be fast, accurate, simple and affordable. The speed of diagnosis can play a crucial role in healing the patient, allowing the administration of appropriate antibiotic treatment. One aspect that increasingly determines the need for rapid diagnostic techniques is the increased rates of serious infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria, which cause a high probability of error in the empirical treatment. Some of the conventional methods such as Gram staining or antigen detection can generate results in less than 1 hour but lack sensitivity. Today we are witnessing a major change in clinical microbiology laboratories with the technological advances such as molecular diagnostics, digital microbiology and mass spectrometry. There are several studies showing that these changes in the microbiological diagnosis reduce the generation time of the test results, which has an obvious clinical impact. However, if we look into the future, other new technologies which will cover the needs required for a rapid microbiological diagnosis are on the horizon. This review provides an in depth analysis of the clinical impact that the implementation of rapid diagnostic techniques will have on unmet clinical needs.

  7. Rapid and alternative screening methods for microbiological analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, H; Huis in't Veld, J H

    1997-01-01

    Automated analytical instruments for enumerating indicator organisms and diagnostic test kits for pathogens can be used in food microbiology to screen samples and to replace conventional cultural and confirmation steps. Such methods are now available for rapid detection or estimation of groups of (indicator) organisms, pathogenic micro-organisms, bacterial toxins and mycotoxins, and molds. These alternative methods can be classified by the principles on which they are based: modified conventional methods, instrumental measurement of bacterial metabolism, bioluminescence, immunological techniques, DNA techniques, and combinations of these techniques. To meet user expectations, test kits must be accurate, sensitive, specific, rapid (24 h or less), easy to use, and labor-saving. They must also offer the possibility of computerization, a low detection limit, and low investment and running costs. The paper compares the ability of alternative methods to meet these criteria. Variations were found, depending on the techniques used and the target organism of the analysis. Economic reasons can determine whether alternative methods can be used routinely. Adoption of these screening systems also can be hampered by lack of internationally coordinated and accepted validation protocols.

  8. A novel method for rapid in vitro radiobioassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Evan Bogert

    Rapid and accurate analysis of internal human exposure to radionuclides is essential to the effective triage and treatment of citizens who have possibly been exposed to radioactive materials in the environment. The two most likely scenarios in which a large number of citizens would be exposed are the detonation of a radiation dispersal device (RDD, "dirty bomb") or the accidental release of an isotope from an industrial source such as a radioisotopic thermal generator (RTG). In the event of the release and dispersion of radioactive materials into the environment in a large city, the entire population of the city -- including all commuting workers and tourists -- would have to be rapidly tested, both to satisfy the psychological needs of the citizens who were exposed to the mental trauma of a possible radiation dose, and to satisfy the immediate medical needs of those who received the highest doses and greatest levels of internal contamination -- those who would best benefit from rapid, intensive medical care. In this research a prototype rapid screening method to screen urine samples for the presence of up to five isotopes, both individually and in a mixture, has been developed. The isotopes used to develop this method are Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-238, and Am-241. This method avoids time-intensive chemical separations via the preparation and counting of a single sample on multiple detectors, and analyzing the spectra for isotope-specific markers. A rapid liquid-liquid separation using an organic extractive scintillator can be used to help quantify the activity of the alpha-emitting isotopes. The method provides quantifiable results in less than five minutes for the activity of beta/gamma-emitting isotopes when present in the sample at the intervention level as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and quantifiable results for the activity levels of alpha-emitting isotopes present at their respective intervention levels in approximately 30

  9. Rapid Methods for High-Throughput Detection of Sulfoxides▿

    PubMed Central

    Shainsky, Janna; Derry, Netta-Lee; Leichtmann-Bardoogo, Yael; Wood, Thomas K.; Fishman, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Enantiopure sulfoxides are prevalent in drugs and are useful chiral auxiliaries in organic synthesis. The biocatalytic enantioselective oxidation of prochiral sulfides is a direct and economical approach for the synthesis of optically pure sulfoxides. The selection of suitable biocatalysts requires rapid and reliable high-throughput screening methods. Here we present four different methods for detecting sulfoxides produced via whole-cell biocatalysis, three of which were exploited for high-throughput screening. Fluorescence detection based on the acid activation of omeprazole was utilized for high-throughput screening of mutant libraries of toluene monooxygenases, but no active variants have been discovered yet. The second method is based on the reduction of sulfoxides to sulfides, with the coupled release and measurement of iodine. The availability of solvent-resistant microtiter plates enabled us to modify the method to a high-throughput format. The third method, selective inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, was used to rapidly screen highly active and/or enantioselective variants at position V106 of toluene ortho-monooxygenase in a saturation mutagenesis library, using methyl-p-tolyl sulfide as the substrate. A success rate of 89% (i.e., 11% false positives) was obtained, and two new mutants were selected. The fourth method is based on the colorimetric detection of adrenochrome, a back-titration procedure which measures the concentration of the periodate-sensitive sulfide. Due to low sensitivity during whole-cell screening, this method was found to be useful only for determining the presence or absence of sulfoxide in the reaction. The methods described in the present work are simple and inexpensive and do not require special equipment. PMID:19465532

  10. A Non-Radiative Transfer Approach to Radiometric Vicarious Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary; Stanley, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    TOA (top-of-atmosphere) radiance from high-spatial-resolution satellite imagery systems is important for a wide variety of research and applications. Many research initiatives require data with absolute radiometric accuracy better than a few percent. The conversion of satellite digital numbers to radiance depends on accurate radiometric calibration. A common method for determining and validating radiometric calibrations is to rely upon vicarious calibration approaches. Historically, vicarious calibration methods use radiative transfer codes with ground-based atmosphere and surface reflectance or radiance inputs for estimating TOA radiance values. These TOA radiance values are compared against the satellite digital numbers to determine the radiometric calibration. However, the radiative transfer codes used depend on many assumptions about the aerosol properties and the atmospheric point spread function. A measurement-based atmospheric radiance estimation approach for high-spatial-resolution, multispectral, visible/near-infrared sensors is presented that eliminates the use of radiative transfer codes and many of the underlying assumptions. A comparison between the radiative transfer and non-radiative transfer approaches is made.

  11. A rapid DNA extraction method suitable for human papillomavirus detection.

    PubMed

    Brestovac, Brian; Wong, Michelle E; Costantino, Paul S; Groth, David

    2014-04-01

    Infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Testing for HPV DNA from liquid based cervical samples can be used as an adjunct to traditional cytological screening. In addition there are ongoing viral load, genotyping, and prevalence studies. Therefore, a sensitive DNA extraction method is needed to maximize the efficiency of HPV DNA detection. The XytXtract Tissue kit is a DNA extraction kit that is rapid and so could be useful for HPV testing, particularly in screening protocols. This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of this method for HPV detection. DNA extraction from HeLa and Caski cell lines containing HPV 18 and 16 respectively together with DNA from five liquid based cervical samples were used in a HPV PCR assay. DNA was also extracted using the QIAamp DNA mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) as a comparison. DNA extracts were serially diluted and assayed. HPV DNA was successfully detected in cell lines and cervical samples using the XytXtract Tissue kit. In addition, the XytXtract method was found to be more sensitive than the QIAmp method as determined by a dilution series of the extracted DNA. While the XytXtract method is a closed, the QIAamp method uses a spin column with possible loss of DNA through DNA binding competition of the matrix, which could impact on the final extraction efficiency. The XytXtract is a cheap, rapid and efficient method for extracting HPV DNA from both cell lines and liquid based cervical samples.

  12. A Rapid Usability Evaluation (RUE) Method for Health Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Russ, Alissa L; Baker, Darrell A; Fahner, W Jeffrey; Milligan, Bryce S; Cox, Leeann; Hagg, Heather K; Saleem, Jason J

    2010-11-13

    Usability testing can help generate design ideas to enhance the quality and safety of health information technology. Despite these potential benefits, few healthcare organizations conduct systematic usability testing prior to software implementation. We used a Rapid Usability Evaluation (RUE) method to apply usability testing to software development at a major VA Medical Center. We describe the development of the RUE method, provide two examples of how it was successfully applied, and discuss key insights gained from this work. Clinical informaticists with limited usability training were able to apply RUE to improve software evaluation and elected to continue to use this technique. RUE methods are relatively simple, do not require advanced training or usability software, and should be easy to adopt. Other healthcare organizations may be able to implement RUE to improve software effectiveness, efficiency, and safety.

  13. Rapid method for identification of gram-negative, nonfermentative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Otto, L A; Pickett, M J

    1976-01-01

    A rapid system (OA), based on oxidative attack of substrates, was developed for identification of gram-negative, nonfermentative bacillia (NFB). One hundred and twelve strains of NFB from 25 species (representing the genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter, Bordetella, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, and Xanthomonas) were assayed by OA, buffered single substrate, and oxidative/fermentative methods. The 38 substrates consisted of salts of organic acids, nitrogen-containing compounds, alcohols, and carbohydrates. Ninety-four percent of the test strains were identified by the OA method in 24 h, and 99% were identifiable in 48 h. Reproducibility was 99%. Correlation with buffered single substrate was 98% (all substrates) and 90% with the oxidative/fermentative method (carbohydrates only). Biochemical profiles of all strains are presented, as well as tables showing the most useful tests for identification. PMID:780371

  14. A Rapid Method for the Diagnosis of Equine Virus Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Correa, W. M.

    1970-01-01

    Smears and imprints were made from the liver of 27 equine fetuses, believed to have aborted as a result of Equine Virus Abortion (EVA) infection. Several different fixatives and staining techniques were employed for the demonstration of typical intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in these preparations, and the following conclusions were reached. Methanol proved to be the best fixative and Pappenheim's panoptic method was the best staining technique, giving good contrast and definition of the inclusion bodies. Cytological methods provided a simple and rapid means of diagnosis, but histological sections provided evidence of lesions which was most useful when inclusion bodies were very difficult to find. However, cytological methods proved better than histological sections for the demonstration of EVA intranuclear inclusion bodies. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4192198

  15. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    DOEpatents

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  16. Method for producing rapid pH changes

    DOEpatents

    Clark, John H.; Campillo, Anthony J.; Shapiro, Stanley L.; Winn, Kenneth R.

    1981-01-01

    A method of initiating a rapid pH change in a solution by irradiating the solution with an intense flux of electromagnetic radiation of a frequency which produces a substantial pK change to a compound in solution. To optimize the resulting pH change, the compound being irradiated in solution should have an excited state lifetime substantially longer than the time required to establish an excited state acid-base equilibrium in the solution. Desired pH changes can be accomplished in nanoseconds or less by means of picosecond pulses of laser radiation.

  17. Method for producing rapid pH changes

    DOEpatents

    Clark, J.H.; Campillo, A.J.; Shapiro, S.L.; Winn, K.R.

    A method of initiating a rapid pH change in a solution comprises irradiating the solution with an intense flux of electromagnetic radiation of a frequency which produces a substantial pK change to a compound in solution. To optimize the resulting pH change, the compound being irradiated in solution should have an excited state lifetime substantially longer than the time required to establish an excited state acid-base equilibrium in the solution. Desired pH changes can be accomplished in nanoseconds or less by means of picosecond pulses of laser radiation.

  18. Small satellite radiometric measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth`s radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

  19. Small satellite radiometric measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth's radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

  20. A rapid method for the presurgical cleansing of hands.

    PubMed

    Decker, L A; Gross, A; Miller, F C; Read, J A; Cutright, D E; Devine, J

    1978-01-01

    A new rapid method of presurgical cleansing of the hands has been evaluated in a clinical setting. The effectiveness of a 90 second jet wash has been compared with a standard 10-minute presurgical scrub. Bacteriologic cultures were obtained from the fingertips of interns, residents, and staff of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center before and after 90-second jet washings and 10-minute conventional scrubs. The results showed that the 90-second jet wash was more effective in degerming the hands than the 10-minute standard brush scrub. Other advantages of the new method, such as the amount of time saved, the standardization of cleansing, and reduced skin irritation are discussed.

  1. A simple, rapid method for HPLC analysis of lycopene isomers.

    PubMed

    Ishida, B K; Ma, J; Chan, B

    2001-01-01

    A rapid method for the extraction, separation and quantification of the geometric isomers of lycopene and beta-carotene from tomato fruit is described. Carotenoids in tomato were separated and eluted using a reversed-phase HPLC with a C30 column and a mobile phase consisting of methyl-t-butyl ether, methanol and ethyl acetate. The system provided sharp resolution of cis- and trans-isomers of lycopene within approximately 23 min in contrast to the longer and more complex gradient procedures required by previously described methods. Experiments indicate that the stability of extracts of fresh tomato may be improved if stored at -20 degrees C, and that the presence of the antioxidant BHA has no apparent effect on stability.

  2. Rapid broth macrodilution method for determination of MICs for Mycobacterium avium isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, S H; Heifets, L B; Cynamon, M H; Hooper, N M; Laszlo, A; Libonati, J P; Lindholm-Levy, P J; Pearson, N

    1993-01-01

    A multicenter study was done to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of a method for determining the MICs of antimicrobial agents against the Mycobacterium avium complex in 7H12 broth with the BACTEC system. In phase I, with eight drugs and 10 strains, intralaboratory reproducibility was 95.7 to 100%, allowing a 1-dilution difference upon repeat testing. The results of phase II testing with 41 additional strains were consistent with those obtained in phase I, with good interlaboratory reproducibility. The radiometric method was validated by sampling and plating of the same broth cultures and determining, by the number of CFU per milliliter, the lowest drug concentration that inhibited more than 99% of the initial bacterial population. Three test concentrations of each drug and the tentative interpretation of results are proposed. Radiometric MIC determination has the potential to become the method of choice for clinical microbiology laboratories and evaluation of new agents for the treatment of M. avium infections, both pulmonary and disseminated. Images PMID:8408551

  3. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY WATER AND URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-08-27

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2008 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2008. A new rapid column separation method was used for analysis of actinides and {sup 90}Sr the NRIP 2008 emergency water and urine samples. Significant method improvements were applied to reduce analytical times. As a result, much faster analysis times were achieved, less than 3 hours for determination of {sup 90}Sr and 3-4 hours for actinides. This represents a 25%-33% improvement in analysis times from NRIP 2007 and a {approx}100% improvement compared to NRIP 2006 report times. Column flow rates were increased by a factor of two, with no significant adverse impact on the method performance. Larger sample aliquots, shorter count times, faster cerium fluoride microprecipitation and streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation were also employed. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and {sup 90}Sr analyses for NRIP 2008 emergency urine samples. High levels of potential matrix interferences may be present in emergency samples and rugged methods are essential. Extremely high levels of {sup 210}Po were found to have an adverse effect on the uranium results for the NRIP-08 urine samples, while uranium results for NRIP-08 water samples were not affected. This problem, which was not observed for NRIP-06 or NRIP-07 urine samples, was resolved by using an enhanced {sup 210}Po removal step, which will be described.

  4. Method for rapid, high sensitivity tritiated water extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, R.; Belovodsky, L.; Gaevoy, V.; Golubev, A.

    1997-04-20

    We have developed a thermal vacuum desorption process to rapidly extract water from environmental samples for tritium analysis. Thermal vacuum desorption allows for extraction of the moisture from the sample within a few hours in a form and quantity suitable for liquid scintillation counting and allows detection of tritium at the levels of <2 Bq/L of milk, <0.5 Bq/gm of vegetation, and < 0.5 Bq/gin of soil. We developed a prototype unit that can process batches of twenty or more samples within 24 hours. Early data shows that a high percentage of water is extracted reproducibly without enrichment or depletion of the tritium content. The quench coefficient of the extracted water is low allowing for accurate, direct liquid scintillation counting. Excellent comparison has been observed with results using freeze-dry lypholization as the water extraction method.

  5. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1987-10-07

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  6. Statistical Methods for Rapid Aerothermal Analysis and Design Technology: Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DePriest, Douglas; Morgan, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    The cost and safety goals for NASA s next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) will require that rapid high-fidelity aerothermodynamic design tools be used early in the design cycle. To meet these requirements, it is desirable to identify adequate statistical models that quantify and improve the accuracy, extend the applicability, and enable combined analyses using existing prediction tools. The initial research work focused on establishing suitable candidate models for these purposes. The second phase is focused on assessing the performance of these models to accurately predict the heat rate for a given candidate data set. This validation work compared models and methods that may be useful in predicting the heat rate.

  7. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Moyzis, R.K.; Ratliff, R.L.; Shera, E.B.; Stewart, C.C.

    1990-10-09

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed. 2 figs.

  8. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA

    DOEpatents

    Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Martin, John C.; Moyzis, Robert K.; Ratliff, Robert L.; Shera, E. Brooks; Stewart, Carleton C.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for the rapid base sequencing of DNA or RNA fragments wherein a single fragment of DNA or RNA is provided with identifiable bases and suspended in a moving flow stream. An exonuclease sequentially cleaves individual bases from the end of the suspended fragment. The moving flow stream maintains the cleaved bases in an orderly train for subsequent detection and identification. In a particular embodiment, individual bases forming the DNA or RNA fragments are individually tagged with a characteristic fluorescent dye. The train of bases is then excited to fluorescence with an output spectrum characteristic of the individual bases. Accordingly, the base sequence of the original DNA or RNA fragment can be reconstructed.

  9. A simple method for rapidly processing HEU from weapons returns

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    A method based on the use of a high temperature fluidized bed for rapidly oxidizing, homogenizing and down-blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) from dismantled nuclear weapons is presented. This technology directly addresses many of the most important issues that inhibit progress in international commerce in HEU; viz., transaction verification, materials accountability, transportation and environmental safety. The equipment used to carry out the oxidation and blending is simple, inexpensive and highly portable. Mobile facilities to be used for point-of-sale blending and analysis of the product material are presented along with a phased implementation plan that addresses the conversion of HEU derived from domestic weapons and related waste streams as well as material from possible foreign sources such as South Africa or the former Soviet Union.

  10. A rapid protection switching method in carrier ethernet ring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang; Ji, Meng

    2008-11-01

    Abstract: Ethernet is the most important Local Area Network (LAN) technology since more than 90% data traffic in access layer is carried on Ethernet. From 10M to 10G, the improving Ethernet technology can be not only used in LAN, but also a good choice for MAN even WAN. MAN are always constructed in ring topology because the ring network could provide resilient path protection by using less resource (fibre or cable) than other network topologies. In layer 2 data networks, spanning tree protocol (STP) is always used to protect transmit link and preventing the formation of logic loop in networks. However, STP cannot guarantee the efficiency of service convergence when link fault happened. In fact, convergent time of networks with STP is about several minutes. Though Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and Multi-Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) improve the STP technology, they still need a couple of seconds to achieve convergence, and can not provide sub-50ms protection switching. This paper presents a novel rapid ring protection method (RRPM) for carrier Ethernet. Unlike other link-fault detection method, it adopts distributed algorithm to detect link fault rapidly (sub-50ms). When networks restore from link fault, it can revert to the original working state. RRPM can provide single ring protection and interconnected ring protection without the formation of super loop. In normal operation, the master node blocks the secondary port for all non-RRPM Ethernet frames belonging to the given RRPM Ring, thereby avoiding a loop in the ring. When link fault happens, the node on which the failure happens moves from the "ring normal" state to the "ring fault" state. It also sends "link down" frame immediately to other nodes and blocks broken port and flushes its forwarding database. Those who receive "link down" frame will flush forwarding database and master node should unblock its secondary port. When the failure restores, the whole ring will revert to the normal state. That is

  11. A New Rapid Method for Measuring the Vertical Head Profile.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carl

    2017-03-01

    This study describes a new technique for measuring the head profile in a geologic formation. The technique provides rapid, low cost information on the depth of water-producing zones and aquitards in heterogeneous aquifers, yielding estimates of hydraulic heads in each zone while identifying any potential for cross contamination between zones. The measurements can be performed in a typical borehole in just a few hours. The procedure uses both the continuous transmissivity profile obtained by the installation (eversion) of a flexible borehole liner into an open borehole and the subsequent removal (inversion) of the same liner from the borehole. The method is possible because of the continuous transmissivity profile (T profile described by Keller et al. 2014) obtained by measuring the rate of liner eversion under a constant driving head. The hydraulic heads of producing zones are measured using the reverse head profile (RHP) method (patent no. 9,008,971) based on a stepwise inversion of the borehole liner. As each interval of the borehole is uncovered by inversion of the liner, the head beneath the liner is allowed to equilibrate to a steady-state value. The individual hydraulic heads contributing to each measurement are calculated using the measured transmissivity for each zone. Application of the RHP method to a sedimentary bedrock borehole in New Jersey verified that it reproduced the head distribution obtained the same day in the same borehole instrumented with a multilevel sampling system.

  12. High speed radiometric measurements of IED detonation fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spidell, Matthew T.; Gordon, J. Motos; Pitz, Jeremey; Gross, Kevin C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-04-01

    Continuum emission is predominant in fireball spectral phenomena and in some demonstrated cases, fine detail in the temporal evolution of infrared spectral emissions can be used to estimate size and chemical composition of the device. Recent work indicates that a few narrow radiometric bands may reveal forensic information needed for the explosive discrimination and classification problem, representing an essential step in moving from "laboratory" measurements to a rugged, fieldable system. To explore phenomena not observable in previous experiments, a high speed (10μs resolution) radiometer with four channels spanning the infrared spectrum observed the detonation of nine home made explosive (HME) devices in the < 100lb class. Radiometric measurements indicate that the detonation fireball is well approximated as a single temperature blackbody at early time (0 < t <~ 3ms). The effective radius obtained from absolute intensity indicates fireball growth at supersonic velocity during this time. Peak fireball temperatures during this initial detonation range between 3000.3500K. The initial temperature decay with time (t <~ 10ms) can be described by a simple phenomenological model based on radiative cooling. After this rapid decay, temperature exhibits a small, steady increase with time (10 <~ t <~ 50ms) and peaking somewhere between 1000.1500K-likely the result of post-detonation combustion-before subsequent cooling back to ambient conditions . Radius derived from radiometric measurements can be described well (R2 > 0.98) using blast model functional forms, suggesting that energy release could be estimated from single-pixel radiometric detectors. Comparison of radiometer-derived fireball size with FLIR infrared imagery indicate the Planckian intensity size estimates are about a factor of two smaller than the physical extent of the fireball.

  13. In vivo osteogenesis assay: a rapid method for quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dennis, J E; Konstantakos, E K; Arm, D; Caplan, A I

    1998-08-01

    A quantitative in vivo osteogenesis assay is a useful tool for the analysis of cells and bioactive factors that affect the amount or rate of bone formation. There are currently two assays in general use for the in vivo assessment of osteogenesis by isolated cells: diffusion chambers and porous calcium phosphate ceramics. Due to the relative ease of specimen preparation and reproducibility of results, the porous ceramic assay was chosen for the development of a rapid method for quantitating in vivo bone formation. The ceramic cube implantation technique consists of combining osteogenic cells with 27-mm3 porous calcium phosphate ceramics, implanting the cell-ceramic composites subcutaneously into an immuno-tolerant host, and, after 2-6 weeks, harvesting and preparing the ceramic implants for histologic analysis. A drawback to the analysis of bone formation within these porous ceramics is that the entire cube must be examined to find small foci of bone present in some samples; a single cross-sectional area is not representative. For this reason, image analysis of serial sections from ceramics is often prohibitively time-consuming. Two alternative scoring methodologies were tested and compared to bone volume measurements obtained by image analysis. The two subjective scoring methods were: (1) Bone Scale: the amount of bone within pores of the ceramic implant is estimated on a scale of 0-4 based on the degree of bone fill (0=no bone, 1=up to 25%, 2=25 to 75%, 4=75 to 100% fill); and (2) Percentage Bone: the amount of bone is estimated by determining the percentage of ceramic pores which contain bone. Every tenth section of serially sectioned cubes was scored by each of these methods under double-blind conditions, and the Bone Scale and Percentage Bone results were directly compared to image analysis measurements from identical samples. Correlation coefficients indicate that the Percentage Bone method was more accurate than the Bone Scale scoring method. The Bone Scale

  14. Rapid and robust detection methods for poison and microbial contamination.

    PubMed

    Hoehl, Melanie M; Lu, Peter J; Sims, Peter A; Slocum, Alexander H

    2012-06-27

    Real-time on-site monitoring of analytes is currently in high demand for food contamination, water, medicines, and ingestible household products that were never tested appropriately. Here we introduce chemical methods for the rapid quantification of a wide range of chemical and microbial contaminations using a simple instrument. Within the testing procedure, we used a multichannel, multisample, UV-vis spectrophotometer/fluorometer that employs two frequencies of light simultaneously to interrogate the sample. We present new enzyme- and dye-based methods to detect (di)ethylene glycol in consumables above 0.1 wt % without interference and alcohols above 1 ppb. Using DNA intercalating dyes, we can detect a range of pathogens ( E. coli , Salmonella , V. Cholera, and a model for Malaria) in water, foods, and blood without background signal. We achieved universal scaling independent of pathogen size above 10(4) CFU/mL by taking advantage of the simultaneous measurement at multiple wavelengths. We can detect contaminants directly, without separation, purification, concentration, or incubation. Our chemistry is stable to ± 1% for >3 weeks without refrigeration, and measurements require <5 min.

  15. Rapid tooling method for soft customized removable oral appliances.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient's dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance.

  16. Rapid Tooling Method for Soft Customized Removable Oral Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Sirkkanen, Rauno; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally oral appliances i.e. removable orthodontic appliances, bite splints and snoring / sleep apnea appliances are made with alginate impressions and wax registrations. Our aim was to describe the process of manufacturing customized oral appliances with a new technique i.e. rapid tooling method. The appliance should ideally be custom made to match the teeth. An orthodontic patient, scheduled for conventional orthodontic treatment, served as a study subject. After a precise clinical and radiographic examination, the approach was to digitize the patient’s dental arches and then to correct them virtually by computer. Additive manufacturing was then used to fabricate a mould for a soft customized appliance. The mould was manufactured using stereolithography from Somos ProtoGen O-XT 18420 material. Casting material for the mould to obtain the final appliance was silicone. As a result we managed to create a customized soft orthodontic appliance. Also, the accuracy of the method was found to be adequate. Two versions of the described device were manufactured: one with small and one with moderate orthodontic force. The study person also gave information on the subjective patient adaptation aspects of the oral appliance. PMID:22615719

  17. Extended- and Point-Source Radiometric Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-08-08

    Radiometric Measurements of Cs1 37 Sources Made with NaI Detector. . 60 6.2 Aerial Radiometric Measurements of Co 60 Sources Made with Bioplastic ...Hanford aircraft consisted of an NaI scintillator, bioplastic scintillator, and a 40-liter ionization chamber. The aircraft employed was a twin-engine...supply, amplifier, and count rate, was transistorized portable equipment designed and fabricated at Hanford. The bioplastic instrument consisted of a 5

  18. Radiometric calibration updates to the Landsat collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micijevic, Esad; Haque, Md. Obaidul; Mishra, Nischal

    2016-09-01

    The Landsat Project is planning to implement a new collection management strategy for Landsat products generated at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. The goal of the initiative is to identify a collection of consistently geolocated and radiometrically calibrated images across the entire Landsat archive that is readily suitable for time-series analyses. In order to perform an accurate land change analysis, the data from all Landsat sensors must be on the same radiometric scale. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) is calibrated to a radiance standard and all previous sensors are cross-calibrated to its radiometric scale. Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) is calibrated to both radiance and reflectance standards independently. The Landsat 8 OLI reflectance calibration is considered to be most accurate. To improve radiometric calibration accuracy of historical data, Landsat 1-7 sensors also need to be cross-calibrated to the OLI reflectance scale. Results of that effort, as well as other calibration updates including the absolute and relative radiometric calibration and saturated pixel replacement for Landsat 8 OLI and absolute calibration for Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mappers (TM), will be implemented into Landsat products during the archive reprocessing campaign planned within the new collection management strategy. This paper reports on the planned radiometric calibration updates to the solar reflective bands of the new Landsat collection.

  19. Rapid simulation of spatial epidemics: a spectral method.

    PubMed

    Brand, Samuel P C; Tildesley, Michael J; Keeling, Matthew J

    2015-04-07

    Spatial structure and hence the spatial position of host populations plays a vital role in the spread of infection. In the majority of situations, it is only possible to predict the spatial spread of infection using simulation models, which can be computationally demanding especially for large population sizes. Here we develop an approximation method that vastly reduces this computational burden. We assume that the transmission rates between individuals or sub-populations are determined by a spatial transmission kernel. This kernel is assumed to be isotropic, such that the transmission rate is simply a function of the distance between susceptible and infectious individuals; as such this provides the ideal mechanism for modelling localised transmission in a spatial environment. We show that the spatial force of infection acting on all susceptibles can be represented as a spatial convolution between the transmission kernel and a spatially extended 'image' of the infection state. This representation allows the rapid calculation of stochastic rates of infection using fast-Fourier transform (FFT) routines, which greatly improves the computational efficiency of spatial simulations. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this fast spectral rate recalculation (FSR) method with two examples: an idealised scenario simulating an SIR-type epidemic outbreak amongst N habitats distributed across a two-dimensional plane; the spread of infection between US cattle farms, illustrating that the FSR method makes continental-scale outbreak forecasting feasible with desktop processing power. The latter model demonstrates which areas of the US are at consistently high risk for cattle-infections, although predictions of epidemic size are highly dependent on assumptions about the tail of the transmission kernel.

  20. LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. (Editor); Barker, J. (Editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

    1983-01-01

    The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

  1. Transportable high sensitivity small sample radiometric calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, J.R.; Biddle, R.S.; Cordova, B.S.; Sampson, T.E.; Dye, H.R.; McDow, J.G.

    1998-12-31

    A new small-sample, high-sensitivity transportable radiometric calorimeter, which can be operated in different modes, contains an electrical calibration method, and can be used to develop secondary standards, will be described in this presentation. The data taken from preliminary tests will be presented to indicate the precision and accuracy of the instrument. The calorimeter and temperature-controlled bath, at present, require only a 30-in. by 20-in. tabletop area. The calorimeter is operated from a laptop computer system using unique measurement module capable of monitoring all necessary calorimeter signals. The calorimeter can be operated in the normal calorimeter equilibration mode, as a comparison instrument, using twin chambers and an external electrical calibration method. The sample chamber is 0.75 in (1.9 cm) in diameter by 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) long. This size will accommodate most {sup 238}Pu heat standards manufactured in the past. The power range runs from 0.001 W to <20 W. The high end is only limited by sample size.

  2. Milestones: a rapid assessment method for the Clinical Competency Committee

    PubMed Central

    Nabors, Christopher; Forman, Leanne; Peterson, Stephen J.; Gennarelli, Melissa; Aronow, Wilbert S.; DeLorenzo, Lawrence; Chandy, Dipak; Ahn, Chul; Sule, Sachin; Stallings, Gary W.; Khera, Sahil; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Frishman, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Educational milestones are now used to assess the developmental progress of all U.S. graduate medical residents during training. Twice annually, each program’s Clinical Competency Committee (CCC) makes these determinations and reports its findings to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The ideal way to conduct the CCC is not known. After finding that deliberations reliant upon the new milestones were time intensive, our internal medicine residency program tested an approach designed to produce rapid but accurate assessments. Material and methods For this study, we modified our usual CCC process to include pre-meeting faculty ratings of resident milestones progress with in-meeting reconciliation of their ratings. Data were considered largely via standard report and presented in a pre-arranged pattern. Participants were surveyed regarding their perceptions of data management strategies and use of milestones. Reliability of competence assessments was estimated by comparing pre-/post-intervention class rank lists produced by individual committee members with a master class rank list produced by the collective CCC after full deliberation. Results Use of the study CCC approach reduced committee deliberation time from 25 min to 9 min per resident (p < 0.001). Committee members believed milestones improved their ability to identify and assess expected elements of competency development (p = 0.026). Individual committee member assessments of trainee progress agreed well with collective CCC assessments. Conclusions Modification of the clinical competency process to include pre-meeting competence ratings with in-meeting reconciliation of these ratings led to shorter deliberation times, improved evaluator satisfaction and resulted in reliable milestone assessments. PMID:28144272

  3. Dry rehydratable film method for rapid enumeration of coliforms in foods (3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate): collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Kinneberg, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2002-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for coliforms in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate method, was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for nondairy foods and the American Public Health Association's Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) method for dairy foods. Six food types, vanilla ice cream, cheddar cheese, fresh refrigerated uncooked pasta, wheat flour, prepared frozen macaroni and cheese, and frozen hash browns, were analyzed for coliforms by 11 collaborating laboratories. For each food product tested, the collaborators received 8 blind samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count method at 14 and 24 h were not significantly different from those of the standard methods.

  4. A new rapid method for rockfall energies and distances estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomini, Anna; Ferrari, Federica; Thoeni, Klaus; Lambert, Cedric

    2016-04-01

    and distances at the base to block and slope features. The validation of the proposed approach was conducted by comparing predictions to experimental data collected in the field and gathered from the scientific literature. The method can be used for both natural and constructed slopes and easily extended to more complicated and articulated slope geometries. The study shows its great potential for a quick qualitative hazard assessment providing indication about impact energy and horizontal distance of the first impact at the base of a rock cliff. Nevertheless, its application cannot substitute a more detailed quantitative analysis required for site-specific design of mitigation measures. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP). References Dorren, L.K.A. (2003) A review of rockfall mechanics and modelling approaches, Progress in Physical Geography 27(1), 69-87. Agliardi, F., Crosta, G.B., Frattini, P. (2009) Integrating rockfall risk assessment and countermeasure design by 3D modelling techniques. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 9(4), 1059-1073. Ferrari, F., Thoeni, K., Giacomini, A., Lambert, C. (2016) A rapid approach to estimate the rockfall energies and distances at the base of rock cliffs. Georisk, DOI: 10.1080/17499518.2016.1139729.

  5. Radiometric dating of the Siloam Tunnel, Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Amos; Shimron, Aryeh; Rosenbaum, Jeff

    2003-09-11

    The historical credibility of texts from the Bible is often debated when compared with Iron Age archaeological finds (refs. 1, 2 and references therein). Modern scientific methods may, in principle, be used to independently date structures that seem to be mentioned in the biblical text, to evaluate its historical authenticity. In reality, however, this approach is extremely difficult because of poor archaeological preservation, uncertainty in identification, scarcity of datable materials, and restricted scientific access into well-identified worship sites. Because of these problems, no well-identified Biblical structure has been radiometrically dated until now. Here we report radiocarbon and U-Th dating of the Siloam Tunnel, proving its Iron Age II date; we conclude that the Biblical text presents an accurate historic record of the Siloam Tunnel's construction. Being one of the longest ancient water tunnels lacking intermediate shafts, dating the Siloam Tunnel is a key to determining where and when this technological breakthrough took place. Siloam Tunnel dating also refutes a claim that the tunnel was constructed in the second century bc.

  6. Novel techniques for the analysis of the TOA radiometric uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorroño, Javier; Banks, Andrew; Gascon, Ferran; Fox, Nigel P.; Underwood, Craig I.

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of the European Copernicus programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) has launched the Sentinel-2 (S2) Earth Observation (EO) mission which provides optical high spatial -resolution imagery over land and coastal areas. As part of this mission, a tool (named S2-RUT, from Sentinel-2 Radiometric Uncertainty Tool) estimates the radiometric uncertainties associated to each pixel using as input the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance factor images provided by ESA. The initial version of the tool has been implemented — code and user guide available1 — and integrated as part of the Sentinel Toolbox. The tool required the study of several radiometric uncertainty sources as well as the calculation and validation of the combined standard uncertainty in order to estimate the TOA reflectance factor uncertainty per pixel. Here we describe the recent research in order to accommodate novel uncertainty contributions to the TOA reflectance uncertainty estimates in future versions of the tool. The two contributions that we explore are the radiometric impact of the spectral knowledge and the uncertainty propagation of the resampling associated to the orthorectification process. The former is produced by the uncertainty associated to the spectral calibration as well as the spectral variations across the instrument focal plane and the instrument degradation. The latter results of the focal plane image propagation into the provided orthoimage. The uncertainty propagation depends on the radiance levels on the pixel neighbourhood and the pixel correlation in the temporal and spatial dimensions. Special effort has been made studying non-stable scenarios and the comparison with different interpolation methods.

  7. Granite petrogenesis revealed by combined gravimetric and radiometric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartèse, Romain; Boulvais, Philippe; Poujol, Marc; Vigneresse, Jean-Louis

    2011-03-01

    In peneplaned terranes, it is often impossible to get a full 3D view of geological objects. In the case of granitic plutons, for which intrusive relationships between constituent units can provide first order information regarding their petrogenesis, this lack of 3D field evidence is a major issue. Indirect observations can be provided by geophysical surveys. Here, we interpret field gravity data and airborne gamma ray radiometric maps with whole rock geochemistry data in order to obtain information on granite petrogenesis. First, we test our proposed combined geophysical and geochemical approach on the Huelgoat Variscan intrusion (Armorican Massif, France) and we show that ternary radiometric maps are a good proxy for the distribution of K, U and Th radioelements. Then, we apply our method to the Lizio and Questembert Variscan granitic intrusions (Armorican Massif) and show that some features characteristic of the intrusions, such as the feeding zones, can be localised by geophysical imaging. Indeed, radiometric maps constitute a frozen image of the latest stage of the magmatic building of plutons.

  8. User's guide to the Radiometric Age Data Bank (RADB)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, Robert Eugene; Cole, James C.; Marvin, Richard F.

    1976-01-01

    The Radiometric Age Data Bank (RADB) has been established by the U.S. Geological Survey, as a means for collecting and organizing the estimated 100,000 radiometric ages presently published for the United States. RADB has been constructed such that a complete sample description (location, rock type, etc.), literature citation, and extensive analytical data are linked to form an independent record for each sample reported in a published work. Analytical data pertinent to the potassium-argon, rubidium-strontium, uranium-thorium-lead, lead-alpha, and fission-track methods can be accommodated, singly or in combinations, for each record. Data processing is achieved using the GIPSY program (University of Oklahoma) which maintains the data file and builds, updates, searches, and prints the records using simple yet versatile command statements. Searching and selecting records is accomplished by specifying the presence, absence, or (numeric or alphabetic) value of any element of information in the data bank, and these specifications can be logically linked to develop sophisticated searching strategies. Output is available in the form of complete data records, abbreviated tests, or columnar tabulations. Samples of data-reporting forms, GIPSY command statements, output formats, and data records are presented to illustrate the comprehensive nature and versatility of the Radiometric Age Data Bank.

  9. Algorithm Development and Application of High Order Numerical Methods for Shocked and Rapid Changing Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-06

    problems studied in this project involve numerically solving partial differential equations with either discontinuous or rapidly changing solutions ...REPORT Algorithm Development and Application of High Order Numerical Methods for Shocked and Rapid Changing Solutions 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods, for solving partial differential equations with discontinuous or rapidly changing solutions . Algorithm

  10. A multi-channel radiometric profiler of temperature, humidity and cloud liquid.

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, R.; Carpenter, R.; Guldner, J.; Liljegren, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Solheim, F.; Vandenberghe, F.; Environmental Research; Radiometrics Corp.; Univ. Corp. for Atmospheric Research; Weather Decision Technologies Inc.; Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc.; National Center for Atmospheric Research

    2003-07-31

    A microwave radiometer is described that provides continuous thermodynamic (temperature, water vapor, and moisture) soundings during clear and cloudy conditions. The radiometric profiler observes radiation intensity at 12 microwave frequencies, along with zenith infrared and surface meteorological measurements. Historical radiosonde and neural network or regression methods are used for profile retrieval. We compare radiometric, radiosonde, and forecast soundings and evaluate the accuracy of radiometric temperature and water vapor soundings on the basis of statistical comparison with radiosonde soundings. We find that radiometric soundings are equivalent in accuracy to radiosonde soundings when used in numerical weather forecasting. A case study is described that demonstrates improved fog forecasting on the basis of variational assimilation of radiometric soundings. The accuracy of radiometric cloud liquid soundings is evaluated by comparison with cloud liquid sensors carried by radiosondes. Accurate high-resolution three-dimensional water vapor and wind analysis is described on the basis of assimilation of simulated thermodynamic and wind soundings along with GPS slant delays. Examples of mobile thermodynamic and wind profilers are shown. Thermodynamic profiling, particularly when combined with wind profiling and slant GPS, provides continuous atmospheric soundings for improved weather and dispersion forecasting.

  11. A radiometric assay for bacterial growth detection and quantitative antibiotic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Boonkitticharoen, V.; Kirchner, P.T.; Ehrhardt, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Buddemeyer's two-compartment radiometric assay for bacterial growth using respired C-14 carbon dioxide promised major advantages over other available methods, but limitations of the technique have restricted its application. Through a systemic study of relevant physical and chemical factors the authors sought to improve the assay for earlier detection of bacterial growth and to extend its use to measurement of antibiotic drug susceptibility and potency. A 35-fold improvement in count rate response was achieved by a) reversing growth and detector chambers to permit rigorous agitation, b) increasing NaOH quantity and using a supersaturated PPO solution, and c) adding detergent to stabilize NaOH-PPO contact. Bacterial growth may be detected as early as 1/2 hour after inoculation. For rapidly growing bacteria the growth rate constant is defined as the slope of the growth curve (log count rate vs. time). The validity of the growth behavior was verified by measuring growth at several inoculum sizes over 3 orders of magnitude using standard strains of S. aureus and E. coli. The growth rate constant proved to be independent of inoculum size. To test the merit of the system as an antibiotic assay, E. coli were exposed to doses of spectinomycin hydrochloride in the range which yielded a nonlinear dose-response relation by a turbidity assay. The test, however, showed a linear relation between growth rate constant and antibiotic dose. The results clearly indicate the radiometric growth rate assay to be a rapid, valid and objective assay for bacterial growth and antibiotic sensitivity.

  12. A rapid method to improve protein detection by indirect ELISA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) is a rapid, high-throughput, quantitative immunoassay for the selective detection of target antigens. The general principle behind an ELISA is antibody mediated capture and detection of an antigen with a measureable substrate. Numerous incarnations of th...

  13. AIRS radiometric calibration validation for climate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Elliott, Denis; Gaiser, Steve; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Climate research using data from satellite based radiometers makes extreme demands on the traceability and stability of the radiometric calibration. The selection of a cooled grating array spectrometer for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, AIRS, is key, but does not ensured that AIRS data will be of climate quality. Additional design features, plus additional pre-launch testing, and extensive on-orbit calibration subsystem monitoring beyond what would suffice for application of the data to weather forecasting were required to ensure the radiometric data quality required for climate research. Validation that climate data quality are being generated makes use of the sea surface skin temperatures (SST and (obs-calc).

  14. Radiometric selective inhibition tests for differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, and other mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, W M; Hawkins, J E

    1985-01-01

    In the context of a busy reference laboratory, radiometric selective inhibition tests were evaluated for rapid differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis and of the M. tuberculosis complex from other mycobacteria. p-Nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta-hydroxypropiophenone at 5 micrograms and hydroxylamine hydrochloride at 62.5 and 125 micrograms per ml of 7H12 medium were used to separate the M. tuberculosis complex from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli). Since it is important epidemiologically to distinguish M. tuberculosis from M. bovis, susceptibility to 1 microgram of thiophene-2-carboxylic acid per ml was also determined radiometrically. By using these three agents as selective inhibitors, M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and MOTT bacilli were differentiated with a high degree of specificity by a BACTEC radiometric procedure. Results of tests performed on clinical isolates submitted on solid medium to our reference laboratory were available within 5 days. PMID:3921561

  15. Statistical Methods for Rapid Aerothermal Analysis and Design Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Carolyn; DePriest, Douglas; Thompson, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The cost and safety goals for NASA's next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) will require that rapid high-fidelity aerothermodynamic design tools be used early in the design cycle. To meet these requirements, it is desirable to establish statistical models that quantify and improve the accuracy, extend the applicability, and enable combined analyses using existing prediction tools. The research work was focused on establishing the suitable mathematical/statistical models for these purposes. It is anticipated that the resulting models can be incorporated into a software tool to provide rapid, variable-fidelity, aerothermal environments to predict heating along an arbitrary trajectory. This work will support development of an integrated design tool to perform automated thermal protection system (TPS) sizing and material selection.

  16. Evaluation of the Fully Automated BACTEC MGIT 960 System for Testing Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Pyrazinamide, Streptomycin, Isoniazid, Rifampin, and Ethambutol and Comparison with the Radiometric BACTEC 460TB Method

    PubMed Central

    Scarparo, Claudio; Ricordi, Paolo; Ruggiero, Giuliana; Piccoli, Paola

    2004-01-01

    The performance of the fully automated BACTEC MGIT 960 (M960) system for the testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to streptomycin (SM), isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RMP), ethambutol (EMB), and pyrazinamide (PZA) was evaluated with 100 clinical isolates and compared to that of the radiometric BACTEC 460TB (B460) system. The agar proportion method and the B460 system were used as reference methods to resolve the discordant results for SM, INH, RMP, and EMB (a combination known as SIRE) and PZA, respectively. The overall agreements were 96.3% for SIRE and 92% for PZA. For SIRE, a total of 26 discrepancies were found and were resolved in favor of the M960 system in 8 cases and in favor of the B460 system in 18 cases. The M960 system produced 8 very major errors (VME) and 10 major errors (ME), while the B460 system showed 4 VME and 4 ME. No statistically significant differences were found. Both systems exhibited excellent performance, but a higher number of VME was observed with the M960 system at the critical concentrations of EMB and SM. For PZA, a total of eight discrepancies were observed and were resolved in favor of the M960 system in one case and in favor of the B460 system in seven cases; no statistically significant differences were found. The M960 system showed four VME and three ME. The mean times to report overall PZA results and resistant results were 8.2 and 9.8 days, respectively, for the M960 system and 7.4 and 8.1 days, respectively, for the B460 system. Statistically significant differences were found. The mean times to report SIRE results were 8.3 days for the M960 system and 8.2 days for the B460 system. No statistically significant differences were found. Twelve strains tested for SIRE susceptibility and seven strains tested for PZA susceptibility had been reprocessed because of contamination. In conclusion, the M960 system can represent a valid alternative to the B460 for M. tuberculosis susceptibility testing; however, the frequent

  17. Simple and Rapid Method for Detecting Biofilm Forming Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Prakash, Jyotsana; Koul, Shikha; Ray, Subhasree

    2017-03-01

    Biofilm forming bacteria play a vital role in causing infectious diseases and for enhancing the efficiency of the bioremediation process through immobilization. Different media and conditions have been reported for detecting biofilm forming bacteria, however, they are not quite rapid. Here, we propose the use of a simple medium which can be used for detecting biofilm former, and also provide a mechanism to regulate the expression of biofilm formation process.

  18. Rapid Radiochemical Method for Radium-226 in Building ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Radium-226 in building materials Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of radium-226 in concrete or brick building materials Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  19. Rapid Radiochemical Method for Total Radiostrontium (Sr-90) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Beta counting Method Developed for: Strontium-89 and strontium-90 in building materials Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of strontium-89 and strontium-90 in concrete or brick building materials Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  20. [Principle of LAMP method--a simple and rapid gene amplification method].

    PubMed

    Ushikubo, Hiroshi

    2004-06-01

    So far nucleic acid test (NAT) has been employed in various fields, including infectious disease diagnoses. However, due to its complicated procedures and relatively high cost, it has not been widely utilized in many actual diagnostic applications. We have therefore developed a simple and rapid gene amplification technology, Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) method, which has shown prominent results of surpassing the performance of the conventional gene amplification methods. LAMP method acquires three main features: (1) all reaction can be carried out under isothermal conditions; (2) the amplification efficiency is extremely high and tremendous amount of amplification products can be obtained; and (3) the reaction is highly specific. Furthermore, developed from the standard LAMP method, a rapid LAMP method, by adding in the loop primers, can reduce the amplification time from the previous 1 hour to less than 30 minutes. Enormous amount of white precipitate of magnesium pyrophosphate is produced as a by-product of the amplification, therefore, direct visual detection is possible without using any reaction indicators and detection equipments. We believe LAMP technology, with the integration of these features, can rightly apply to clinical genetic testing, food and environmental analysis, as well as NAT in different fields.

  1. A stable, rapidly converging conjugate gradient method for energy minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Watowich, S.J.; Meyer, E.S.; Hagstrom, R.; Josephs, R.

    1989-01-01

    We apply Shanno's conjugate gradient algorithm to the problem of minimizing the potential energy function associated with molecular mechanical calculations. Shanno's algorithm is stable with respect to roundoff errors and inexact line searches and converges rapidly to a minimum. Equally important, this algorithm can improve the rate of convergence to a minimum by a factor of 5 relative to Fletcher-Reeves or Polak-Ribiere minimizers when used within the molecular mechanics package AMBER. Comparable improvements are found for a limited number of simulations when the Polak-Ribiere direction vector is incorporated into the Shanno algorithm. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. A rapid method for hydraulic profiling in unconsolidated formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietrich, P.; Butler, J.J.; Faiss, K.

    2008-01-01

    Information on vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) can often shed much light on how a contaminant will move in the subsurface. The direct-push injection logger has been developed to rapidly obtain such information in shallow unconsolidated settings. This small-diameter tool consists of a short screen located just behind a drive point. The tool is advanced into the subsurface while water is injected through the screen to keep it clear. Upon reaching a depth at which information about K is desired, advancement ceases and the injection rate and pressure are measured on the land surface. The rate and pressure values are used in a ratio that serves as a proxy for K. A vertical profile of this ratio can be transformed into a K profile through regressions with K estimates determined using other techniques. The viability of the approach was assessed at an extensively studied field site in eastern Germany. The assessment demonstrated that this tool can rapidly identify zones that may serve as conduits for or barriers to contaminant movement. ?? 2007 The Author(s).

  3. A rapid method for hydraulic profiling in unconsolidated formations.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Peter; Butler, James J; Faiss, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Information on vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) can often shed much light on how a contaminant will move in the subsurface. The direct-push injection logger has been developed to rapidly obtain such information in shallow unconsolidated settings. This small-diameter tool consists of a short screen located just behind a drive point. The tool is advanced into the subsurface while water is injected through the screen to keep it clear. Upon reaching a depth at which information about K is desired, advancement ceases and the injection rate and pressure are measured on the land surface. The rate and pressure values are used in a ratio that serves as a proxy for K. A vertical profile of this ratio can be transformed into a K profile through regressions with K estimates determined using other techniques. The viability of the approach was assessed at an extensively studied field site in eastern Germany. The assessment demonstrated that this tool can rapidly identify zones that may serve as conduits for or barriers to contaminant movement.

  4. A rapid method to estimate Westergren sedimentation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexy, Tamas; Pais, Eszter; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2009-09-01

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a nonspecific but simple and inexpensive test that was introduced into medical practice in 1897. Although it is commonly utilized in the diagnosis and follow-up of various clinical conditions, ESR has several limitations including the required 60 min settling time for the test. Herein we introduce a novel use for a commercially available computerized tube viscometer that allows the accurate prediction of human Westergren ESR rates in as little as 4 min. Owing to an initial pressure gradient, blood moves between two vertical tubes through a horizontal small-bore tube and the top of the red blood cell (RBC) column in each vertical tube is monitored continuously with an accuracy of 0.083 mm. Using data from the final minute of a blood viscosity measurement, a sedimentation index (SI) was calculated and correlated with results from the conventional Westergren ESR test. To date, samples from 119 human subjects have been studied and our results indicate a strong correlation between SI and ESR values (R2=0.92). In addition, we found a close association between SI and RBC aggregation indices as determined by an automated RBC aggregometer (R2=0.71). Determining SI on human blood is rapid, requires no special training and has minimal biohazard risk, thus allowing physicians to rapidly screen for individuals with elevated ESR and to monitor therapeutic responses.

  5. A Rapid Spectrophotometric Screening Method for 2,4-dinitroanisole in Laboratory Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/EL TN-14-3 July 2014 A Rapid Spectrophotometric Screening Method for 2,4-dinitroanisole...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Rapid Spectrophotometric Screening Method for 2,4-dinitroanisole in...D., A. J. Kennedy, A. R. Poda, and A. L. Russell. 2014. A rapid spectrophotometric screening method for 2,4-dinitroanisole in laboratory water

  6. Operational Evaluation of the Rapid Viability PCR Method for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Journal Article This research work has a significant impact on the use of the RV-PCR method to analyze post-decontamination environmental samples during an anthrax event. The method has shown 98% agreement with the traditional culture based method. With such a success, this method, upon validation, will significantly increase the laboratory throughput/capacity to analyze a large number of anthrax event samples in a relatively short time.

  7. Rapid Method for Sodium Hydroxide Fusion of Concrete and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Americium-241, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, strontium-90, uranium-234, uranium-235 and uranium-238 in concrete and brick samples Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of americium-241, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, strontium-90, uranium-234, uranium-235 and uranium-238 in concrete or brick building materials. Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  8. Radiometric infrared focal plane array imaging system for thermographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, B. J.; Mccafferty, N.; Brown, R.; Tower, J. R.; Kosonocky, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes research performed under the Radiometric Infrared Focal Plane Array Imaging System for Thermographic Applications contract. This research investigated the feasibility of using platinum silicide (PtSi) Schottky-barrier infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs) for NASA Langley's specific radiometric thermal imaging requirements. The initial goal of this design was to develop a high spatial resolution radiometer with an NETD of 1 percent of the temperature reading over the range of 0 to 250 C. The proposed camera design developed during this study and described in this report provides: (1) high spatial resolution (full-TV resolution); (2) high thermal dynamic range (0 to 250 C); (3) the ability to image rapid, large thermal transients utilizing electronic exposure control (commandable dynamic range of 2,500,000:1 with exposure control latency of 33 ms); (4) high uniformity (0.5 percent nonuniformity after correction); and (5) high thermal resolution (0.1 C at 25 C background and 0.5 C at 250 C background).

  9. Branching Ratios for The Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daw, Adrian N.; Bhatia, A. K.; Rabin, Douglas M.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS) sounding rocket instrument is a two-channel imaging spectrograph that observes the solar corona and transition region with high spectral resolution and a rapid cadence made possible by unprecedented sensitivity. The upcoming flight will incorporate a new wavelength channel covering the range 524-630 Angstroms, the previously-flown 300-370 Angstroms channel, and the first flight demonstration of cooled active pixel sensor (APS) arrays. The new 524-630 Angstrom channel incorporates a Toroidal Varied Line Space (TVLS) grating coated with B4C/Ir, providing broad spectral coverage and a wide temperature range of 0.025 to 10 MK. Absolute radiometric calibration of the two channels is being performed using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and NIST-calibrated AXUV-100G photodiode. Laboratory observations of He I 584 Angstroms and He II 304 Angstroms provide absolute radiometric calibrations of the two channels at those two respective wavelengths by using the AXUV photodiode as a transfer standard. The spectral responsivity is being determined by observing line pairs with a common upper state in the spectra of Ne I-III and Ar II-III. Calculations of A-values for the observed branching ratios are in progress.

  10. Rapid method for measuring rotenone in water at piscicidal concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Harman, P.D.; Schultz, D.P.; Allen, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure that is rapid, specific, and sensitive (limit of detection <0.005 mg/liter) was developed for monitoring application and degradation rates of rotenone. For analysis, a water sample is buffered to pH 5 and injected through a Sep Pak(R) C18 disposable cartridge. The cartridge adsorbs and retains the rotenone which then can be eluted quantitatively from the cartridge with a small volume of methanol. This step effectively concentrates the sample and provides sample cleanup. The methanol extract is analyzed directly by HPLC on an MCH 10 reverse-phase column; methanol: water (75:25, volume : volume) is the mobile phase and flow rate is 1.5 ml/minute. The rotenone is detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 295 nm.

  11. Electrical impedance measurements: rapid method for detecting and monitoring microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Cady, P; Dufour, S W; Shaw, J; Kraeger, S J

    1978-01-01

    A conceptually simple and east-to-use technique is described that uses continuous impedance measurements for automated monitoring of microbial growth and metabolism. The method has been applied to a wide range of microorganisms. Optical clarity is not required. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the method are demonstrated. The mechanism whereby microbial growth alters the impedance of the medium is discussed, as well as potential applications of the method to clinical microbiology. Images PMID:348718

  12. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  13. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper multispectral images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    A main problem encountered in radiometric calibration of satellite image data is correcting for atmospheric effects. Without this correction, an image digital number (DN) cannot be converted to a surface reflectance value. In this paper the accuracy of a calibration procedure, which includes a correction for atmospheric scattering, is tested. Two simple methods, a stand-alone and an in situ sky radiance measurement technique, were used to derive the HAZE DN values for each of the six reflectance Thematic Mapper (TM) bands. The DNs of two Landsat TM images of Phoenix, Arizona were converted to surface reflectances. -from Author

  14. A rapid wire-based sampling method for DNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Catcheside, David E A; Stephenson, Alice; Hefford, Chris; Kirkbride, K Paul; Burgoyne, Leigh A

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a commission to develop a field deployable rapid short tandem repeat (STR)-based DNA profiling system to enable discrimination between tissues derived from a small number of individuals. Speed was achieved by truncation of sample preparation and field deployability by use of an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyser(TM). Human blood and tissues were stabbed with heated stainless steel wire and the resulting sample dehydrated with isopropanol prior to direct addition to a PCR. Choice of a polymerase tolerant of tissue residues and cycles of amplification appropriate for the amount of template expected yielded useful profiles with a custom-designed quintuplex primer set suitable for use with the Bioanalyser(TM). Samples stored on wires remained amplifiable for months, allowing their transportation unrefrigerated from remote locations to a laboratory for analysis using AmpFlSTR(®) Profiler Plus(®) without further processing. The field system meets the requirements for discrimination of samples from small sets and retains access to full STR profiling when required.

  15. A rapid cloning method employing orthogonal end protection.

    PubMed

    Jakobi, Arjen J; Huizinga, Eric G

    2012-01-01

    We describe a novel in vitro cloning strategy that combines standard tools in molecular biology with a basic protecting group concept to create a versatile framework for the rapid and seamless assembly of modular DNA building blocks into functional open reading frames. Analogous to chemical synthesis strategies, our assembly design yields idempotent composite synthons amenable to iterative and recursive split-and-pool reaction cycles. As an example, we illustrate the simplicity, versatility and efficiency of the approach by constructing an open reading frame composed of tandem arrays of a human fibronectin type III (FNIII) domain and the von Willebrand Factor A2 domain (VWFA2), as well as chimeric (FNIII)(n)-VWFA2-(FNIII)(n) constructs. Although we primarily designed this strategy to accelerate assembly of repetitive constructs for single-molecule force spectroscopy, we anticipate that this approach is equally applicable to the reconstitution and modification of complex modular sequences including structural and functional analysis of multi-domain proteins, synthetic biology or the modular construction of episomal vectors.

  16. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2010-07-26

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using this two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  17. Rapid Methods for the Detection of General Fecal Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    Specified that EPA should develop: appropriate and effective indicators for improving detection in a timely manner of pathogens in coastal waters appropriate, accurate, expeditious and cost-effective methods for the timely detection of pathogens in coastal waters

  18. [Methods for the rapid preparation of paraffin blocks].

    PubMed

    Shmurun, R I

    1992-01-01

    Two accelerated chloroform-paraffin processings of materials with the use of ultrasound (US) and microwave (MW) irradiation in the stove "Electronica" as well as a combined method with US- and MW-irradiation are proposed to shorten drastically the duration of the prehistologic processing.

  19. Computer Image Analysis Method for Rapid Quantitation of Macrophage Phagocytosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    None- Methods of Enzymology, ( Sabato , D.G., and Everse, J.. Eds.) theless, occasionally an excessive number of micro- New York: Academic Press, vol...heterogeneity in neonates mology ( Sabato , G.D., and Everse, J., Eds.) New York: Aca- and adults. Blood 68,200, 1986. demic Press. Vol. 132, p. 3, 1986. 21

  20. Improved Training Method for Rapid Rehabilitation of Amputees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    lower extremity amputation is falls . Even with the newer technologies, falls and injuries due to falling are still an issue. Falling history and...individuals with lower extremity amputations to reduce falls using a novel training method. We enrolled 25 research subjects with unilateral...immersive virtual environment, since trunk kinematics have been shown to determine fall likelihood. Twenty subjects completed the training. Mean

  1. A rapid chemiluminescent method for quantitation of human DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, P S; Varlaro, J; Reynolds, R

    1992-01-01

    A sensitive and simple method for the quantitation of human DNA is described. This method is based on probe hybridization to a human alpha satellite locus, D17Z1. The biotinylated probe is hybridized to sample DNA immobilized on nylon membrane. The subsequent binding of streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase to the bound probe allows for chemiluminescent detection using a luminol-based reagent and X-ray film. Less than 150 pg of human DNA can easily be detected with a 15 minute exposure. The entire procedure can be performed in 1.5 hours. Microgram quantities of nonhuman DNA have been tested and the results indicate very high specificity for human DNA. The data on film can be scanned into a computer and a commercially available program can be used to create a standard curve where DNA quantity is plotted against the mean density of each slot blot signal. The methods described can also be applied to the very sensitive determination of quantity and quality (size) of DNA on Southern blots. The high sensitivity of this quantitation method requires the consumption of only a fraction of sample for analysis. Determination of DNA quantity is necessary for RFLP and many PCR-based tests where optimal results are obtained only with a relatively narrow range of DNA quantities. The specificity of this quantitation method for human DNA will be useful for the analysis of samples that may also contain bacterial or other non-human DNA, for example forensic evidence samples, ancient DNA samples, or clinical samples. Images PMID:1408822

  2. A rapid chemiluminescent method for quantitation of human DNA.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P S; Varlaro, J; Reynolds, R

    1992-10-11

    A sensitive and simple method for the quantitation of human DNA is described. This method is based on probe hybridization to a human alpha satellite locus, D17Z1. The biotinylated probe is hybridized to sample DNA immobilized on nylon membrane. The subsequent binding of streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase to the bound probe allows for chemiluminescent detection using a luminol-based reagent and X-ray film. Less than 150 pg of human DNA can easily be detected with a 15 minute exposure. The entire procedure can be performed in 1.5 hours. Microgram quantities of nonhuman DNA have been tested and the results indicate very high specificity for human DNA. The data on film can be scanned into a computer and a commercially available program can be used to create a standard curve where DNA quantity is plotted against the mean density of each slot blot signal. The methods described can also be applied to the very sensitive determination of quantity and quality (size) of DNA on Southern blots. The high sensitivity of this quantitation method requires the consumption of only a fraction of sample for analysis. Determination of DNA quantity is necessary for RFLP and many PCR-based tests where optimal results are obtained only with a relatively narrow range of DNA quantities. The specificity of this quantitation method for human DNA will be useful for the analysis of samples that may also contain bacterial or other non-human DNA, for example forensic evidence samples, ancient DNA samples, or clinical samples.

  3. A new rapid method of solar simulator calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.

    1976-01-01

    A quick method for checking solar simulator spectra content is presented. The method is based upon a solar cell of extended spectral sensitivity and known absolute response, and a dichroic mirror with the reflection transmission transition close to the peak wavelength of the Thekaekara AMO distribution. It compromises the need for spectral discrimination with the ability to integrate wide spectral regions of the distribution which was considered important due to the spiky nature of the high pressure xenon lamp in common use. The results are expressed in terms of a single number, the blue/red ratio, which, combined with the total (unfiltered) output, provides a simple adequate characterization. Measurements were conducted at eleven major facilities across the country and a total of eighteen simulators were measured including five pulsed units.

  4. The Candela and Photometric and Radiometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Albert C.

    2001-01-01

    The national measurement system for photometric and radiometric quantities is presently based upon techniques that make these quantities traceable to a high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer. The redefinition of the candela in 1979 provided the opportunity for national measurement laboratories to base their photometric measurements on optical detector technology rather than on the emission from high-temperature blackbody optical sources. The ensuing technical developments of the past 20 years, including the significant improvements in cryogenic radiometer performance, have provided the opportunity to place the fundamental maintenance of photometric quantities upon absolute detector based technology as was allowed by the 1979 redefinition. Additionally, the development of improved photodetectors has had a significant impact on the methodology in most of the radiometric measurement areas. This paper will review the status of the NIST implementation of the technical changes mandated by the 1979 redefinition of the candela and its effect upon the maintenance and dissemination of optical radiation measurements. PMID:27500020

  5. Infrared radiometric technique in temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazer, S.; Madding, R.

    1988-01-01

    One class of commercially available imaging infrared radiometers using cooled detectors is sensitive to radiation over the 3 to 12 micron wavelength band. Spectral filters can tailor instrument sensitivity to specific regions where the target exhibits optimum radiance. The broadband spectral response coupled with real time two-dimensional imaging and emittance/background temperature corrections make the instruments useful for remote measurement of surface temperatures from -20 C to +1500 C. Commonly used radiometric techniques and assumptions are discussed, and performance specifications for a typical modern commercial instrument are presented. The potential usefulness of an imaging infrared radiometer in space laboratories is highlighted through examples of research, nondestructive evaluation, safety, and routine maintenance applications. Future improvements in instrument design and application of the radiometric technique are discussed.

  6. Improved Training Method for Rapid Rehabilitation of Amputees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    ready for use. Patient centered information is also collected several questionnaires. The Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) is used to...functional outcomes , and a subject-specific questionnaire to determine if the training method is effective. Enrollment has begun. Our target is to deliver...a quantitatively derived, deployment-ready, advanced gait rehabilitation system that can improve functional outcomes and/or shorten the time

  7. Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Stuart C.; Partin, Judy K.; Grandy, Jon D.; Jeffery, Charles L.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

  8. Rapid Mapping Method Based on Free Blocks of Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xianwen; Wang, Huiqing; Wang, Jinling

    2016-06-01

    While producing large-scale larger than 1:2000 maps in cities or towns, the obstruction from buildings leads to difficult and heavy tasks of measuring mapping control points. In order to avoid measuring the mapping control points and shorten the time of fieldwork, in this paper, a quick mapping method is proposed. This method adjusts many free blocks of surveys together, and transforms the points from all free blocks of surveys into the same coordinate system. The entire surveying area is divided into many free blocks, and connection points are set on the boundaries between free blocks. An independent coordinate system of every free block is established via completely free station technology, and the coordinates of the connection points, detail points and control points in every free block in the corresponding independent coordinate systems are obtained based on poly-directional open traverses. Error equations are established based on connection points, which are determined together to obtain the transformation parameters. All points are transformed from the independent coordinate systems to a transitional coordinate system via the transformation parameters. Several control points are then measured by GPS in a geodetic coordinate system. All the points can then be transformed from the transitional coordinate system to the geodetic coordinate system. In this paper, the implementation process and mathematical formulas of the new method are presented in detail, and the formula to estimate the precision of surveys is given. An example has demonstrated that the precision of using the new method could meet large-scale mapping needs.

  9. Rapid column heating method for subcritical water chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fogwill, Michael O; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2007-01-19

    A novel resistive heating method is presented for subcritical water chromatography (SWC) that provides higher column heating rates than those conventionally obtained from temperature-programmed gas chromatography (GC) convection ovens. Since the polarity of water reduces dramatically with increasing temperature, SWC employs column heating to achieve gradient elution. As such, the rate at which the mobile phase is heated directly impacts the magnitude of such gradients applied in SWC. Data from the current study demonstrate that the maximum column heating rate attainable in a typical SWC apparatus (i.e. using a GC convection oven) is around 10 degrees C/min, even at instrument oven settings of over three times this value. Conversely, by wrapping the separation column with ceramic insulation and a resistively heated wire, the column heating rates are increased five-fold. As a result, elution times can be greatly decreased in SWC employing gradients. Separations of standard alcohol test mixtures demonstrate that the retention time of the latest eluting component decreases by 35 to 50% using the prototype method. Additionally, solute retention times in this mode deviate by less than 1% RSD over several trials, which compares very well to those obtained using a conventional GC convection oven. Results suggest that the developed method can be a useful alternative heating technique in SWC.

  10. Vicarious absolute radiometric calibration of GF-2 PMS2 sensor using permanent artificial targets in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaokai; Li, Chuanrong; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Ning; Qian, Yonggang; Tang, Lingli

    2016-10-01

    GF-2, launched on August 19 2014, is one of the high-resolution land resource observing satellite of the China GF series satellites plan. The radiometric performance evaluation of the onboard optical pan and multispectral (PMS2) sensor of GF-2 satellite is very important for the further application of the data. And, the vicarious absolute radiometric calibration approach is one of the most useful way to monitor the radiometric performance of the onboard optical sensors. In this study, the traditional reflectance-based method is used to vicarious radiometrically calibrate the onboard PMS2 sensor of GF-2 satellite using three black, gray and white reflected permanent artificial targets located in the AOE Baotou site in China. Vicarious field calibration campaign were carried out in the AOE-Baotou calibration site on 22 April 2016. And, the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients were determined with in situ measured atmospheric parameters and surface reflectance of the permanent artificial calibration targets. The predicted TOA radiance of a selected desert area with our determined calibrated coefficients were compared with the official distributed calibration coefficients. Comparison results show a good consistent and the mean relative difference of the multispectral channels is less than 5%. Uncertainty analysis was also carried out and a total uncertainty with 3.87% is determined of the TOA radiance.

  11. Systems and methods for rapid processing and storage of data

    DOEpatents

    Stalzer, Mark A.

    2017-01-24

    Systems and methods of building massively parallel computing systems using low power computing complexes in accordance with embodiments of the invention are disclosed. A massively parallel computing system in accordance with one embodiment of the invention includes at least one Solid State Blade configured to communicate via a high performance network fabric. In addition, each Solid State Blade includes a processor configured to communicate with a plurality of low power computing complexes interconnected by a router, and each low power computing complex includes at least one general processing core, an accelerator, an I/O interface, and cache memory and is configured to communicate with non-volatile solid state memory.

  12. Geometric and Radiometric Evaluation of Rasat Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cam, Ali; Topan, Hüseyin; Oruç, Murat; Özendi, Mustafa; Bayık, Çağlar

    2016-06-01

    RASAT, the second remote sensing satellite of Turkey, was designed and assembled, and also is being operated by TÜBİTAK Uzay (Space) Technologies Research Institute (Ankara). RASAT images in various levels are available free-of-charge via Gezgin portal for Turkish citizens. In this paper, the images in panchromatic (7.5 m GSD) and RGB (15 m GSD) bands in various levels were investigated with respect to its geometric and radiometric characteristics. The first geometric analysis is the estimation of the effective GSD as less than 1 pixel for radiometrically processed level (L1R) of both panchromatic and RGB images. Secondly, 2D georeferencing accuracy is estimated by various non-physical transformation models (similarity, 2D affine, polynomial, affine projection, projective, DLT and GCP based RFM) reaching sub-pixel accuracy using minimum 39 and maximum 52 GCPs. The radiometric characteristics are also investigated for 8 bits, estimating SNR between 21.8-42.2, and noise 0.0-3.5 for panchromatic and MS images for L1R when the sea is masked to obtain the results for land areas. The analysis show that RASAT images satisfies requirements for various applications. The research is carried out in Zonguldak test site which is mountainous and partly covered by dense forest and urban areas.

  13. Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  14. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Alireza G.; Olsen, Michael J.; Parrish, Christopher E.; Wilson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems also record “intensity”, loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of “normalization”, “correction”, or “calibration” techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration. PMID:26561813

  15. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration.

    PubMed

    Kashani, Alireza G; Olsen, Michael J; Parrish, Christopher E; Wilson, Nicholas

    2015-11-06

    In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems also record "intensity", loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of "normalization", "correction", or "calibration" techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration.

  16. Rapid new methods for paint collection and lead extraction.

    PubMed

    Gutknecht, William F; Harper, Sharon L; Winstead, Wayne; Sorrell, Kristen; Binstock, David A; Salmons, Cynthia A; Haas, Curtis; McCombs, Michelle; Studabaker, William; Wall, Constance V; Moore, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    Chronic exposure of children to lead can result in permanent physiological impairment. In adults, it can cause irritability, poor muscle coordination, and nerve damage to the sense organs and nerves controlling the body. Surfaces coated with lead-containing paints are potential sources of exposure to lead. In April 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized new requirements that would reduce exposure to lead hazards created by renovation, repair, and painting activities, which disturb lead-based paint. On-site, inexpensive identification of lead-based paint is required. Two steps have been taken to meet this challenge. First, this paper presents a new, highly efficient method for paint collection that is based on the use of a modified wood drill bit. Second, this paper presents a novel, one-step approach for quantitatively grinding and extracting lead from paint samples for subsequent lead determination. This latter method is based on the use of a high-revolutions per minute rotor with stator to break up the paint into approximately 50 micron-size particles. Nitric acid (25%, v/v) is used to extract the lead in <3 minutes. Recoveries are consistently >95% for real-world paints, National Institute of Standards and Technology's standard reference materials, and audit samples from the American Industrial Hygiene Association's Environmental Lead Proficiency Analytical Testing Program. This quantitative extraction procedure, when paired with quantitative paint sample collection and lead determination, may enable the development of a lead paint test kit that will meet the specifications of the final EPA rule.

  17. The Rapid-Heat LAMPellet Method: A Potential Diagnostic Method for Human Urogenital Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Vicente, Belén; López-Abán, Julio; Muro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium is a serious underestimated public health problem affecting 112 million people - particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Microscopic examination of urine samples to detect parasite eggs still remains as definitive diagnosis. This work was focussed on developing a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in human urine samples as a high-throughput, simple, accurate and affordable diagnostic tool to use in diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings A LAMP assay targeting a species specific sequence of S. haematobium ribosomal intergenic spacer was designed. The effectiveness of our LAMP was assessed in a number of patients´ urine samples with microscopy confirmed S. haematobium infection. For potentially large-scale application in field conditions, different DNA extraction methods, including a commercial kit, a modified NaOH extraction method and a rapid heating method were tested using small volumes of urine fractions (whole urine, supernatants and pellets). The heating of pellets from clinical samples was the most efficient method to obtain good-quality DNA detectable by LAMP. The detection limit of our LAMP was 1 fg/µL of S. haematobium DNA in urine samples. When testing all patients´ urine samples included in our study, diagnostic parameters for sensitivity and specificity were calculated for LAMP assay, 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 81.32%-100%) and 86.67% specificity (95% CI: 75.40%-94.05%), and also for microscopy detection of eggs in urine samples, 69.23% sensitivity (95% CI: 48.21% -85.63%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 93.08%-100%). Conclusions/Significance We have developed and evaluated, for the first time, a LAMP assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in heated pellets from patients´ urine samples using no complicated requirement procedure for DNA extraction. The procedure has been named the Rapid

  18. Rapid microbiochemical method for presumptive identification of gastroenteritis-associated members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Yong, D C; Thompson, J S; Prytula, A

    1985-06-01

    A method for rapid screening of isolates of pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is described. Flow charts are used in conjunction with triple sugar iron agar, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside-phenylalanine-motility sulfate screening media, oxidase test, and six rapid biochemical tests, namely, lysine decarboxylase, urease, indole, esculin hydrolysis, malonate, and xylose. This scheme is used to provide an inexpensive but rapid presumptive identification of Salmonella, Shigella, Edwardsiella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, Vibrio, and Yersinia isolates from stool cultures.

  19. Radiometric Characterization of Hyperspectral Imagers using Multispectral Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Kurt, Thome; Leisso, Nathan; Anderson, Nikolaus; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona has a long history of using ground-based test sites for the calibration of airborne and satellite based sensors. Often, ground-truth measurements at these test sites are not always successful due to weather and funding availability. Therefore, RSG has also automated ground instrument approaches and cross-calibration methods to verify the radiometric calibration of a sensor. The goal in the cross-calibration method is to transfer the calibration of a well-known sensor to that of a different sensor, This work studies the feasibility of determining the radiometric calibration of a hyperspectral imager using multispectral a imagery. The work relies on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (M0DIS) as a reference for the hyperspectral sensor Hyperion. Test sites used for comparisons are Railroad Valley in Nevada and a portion of the Libyan Desert in North Africa. Hyperion bands are compared to MODIS by band averaging Hyperion's high spectral resolution data with the relative spectral response of M0DlS. The results compare cross-calibration scenarios that differ in image acquisition coincidence, test site used for the calibration, and reference sensor. Cross-calibration results are presented that show agreement between the use of coincident and non-coincident image pairs within 2% in most brands as well as similar agreement between results that employ the different MODIS sensors as a reference.

  20. High throughput microfluidic rapid and low cost prototyping packaging methods.

    PubMed

    Miled, Amine; Sawan, Mohamad

    2013-12-23

    In this work, 3 different packaging and assembly techniques are presented. They can be classified into two categories: one-time use and reusable packaging techniques. The one-time use packaging technique employs UV-based and temperature curing epoxies to connect microtubes to access holes, wire-bonding for integrated circuit connections, and silver epoxy for electrical connections. This method is based on a robust assembly technique that can support relatively high pressure close to 1 psi and does not need any support to strengthen the microfluidic architecture. Reusable packaging techniques consist of PDMS-based microtube interconnectors and anisotropic adhesive films for electrical connections. These devices are more sensitive and fragile. Consequently, Plexiglas support is added to the microfluidic structure to improve the electrical contact when anisotropic adhesive films are used, and also to strengthen the microfluidic architecture. In addition, a micromanipulator is needed to maintain tubes while using a thin PDMS layer to connect them to the access holes. Different PDMS layer thicknesses, ranging from 0.45-3 mm, are tested to compare the best adherence versus injection rates. Applied injection rates are varied from 50-300 μl/hr for 0.45-3 mm PDMS layers, respectively. These techniques are mainly applicable for low-pressure applications. However, they can be extended for high-pressure ones through plasma-oxygen process to permanently seal the PDMS to glass substrates. The main advantage of this technique, besides the fact that it is reusable, consists of keeping the device observable when the microchannel length is very short (in the range of 3 mm or lower).

  1. Detecting payload performance based on relative radiometric characteristic: case of the optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jie; Li, Shengyang; Zhang, Tao; Qin, Bangyong

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for accurately estimating the degree of radiometric non-uniformity in remote sensing images. The algorithm was tested on high-quality images and heavily striping images, and quantitative analyses were conducted to evaluate the performance for each band by measuring the radiometric non-uniformity of the images. The results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm exhibits high accuracy and stability compared with traditional algorithms. The radiometric performance of TianGong-1 short-wave infrared images was calculated using this new method, and it was highly correlated with the solar angle, pitch angle and refrigerator thermal according to the Apriori algorithm. Based on these results, we have proposed a strategy for restricting increases in striping.

  2. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of ALS Intensity Data: Effects on Accuracy and Target Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kaasalainen, Sanna; Pyysalo, Ulla; Krooks, Anssi; Vain, Ants; Kukko, Antero; Hyyppä, Juha; Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of airborne laser scanning (ALS) intensity data aims at retrieving a value related to the target scattering properties, which is independent on the instrument or flight parameters. The aim of a calibration procedure is also to be able to compare results from different flights and instruments, but practical applications are sparsely available, and the performance of calibration methods for this purpose needs to be further assessed. We have studied the radiometric calibration with data from three separate flights and two different instruments using external calibration targets. We find that the intensity data from different flights and instruments can be compared to each other only after a radiometric calibration process using separate calibration targets carefully selected for each flight. The calibration is also necessary for target classification purposes, such as separating vegetation from sand using intensity data from different flights. The classification results are meaningful only for calibrated intensity data. PMID:22346660

  3. Radiometric Calibration of Mars HiRISE High Resolution Imagery Based on Fpga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yifan; Geng, Xun; Xing, Shuai; Tang, Yonghe; Xu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Due to the large data amount of HiRISE imagery, traditional radiometric calibration method is not able to meet the fast processing requirements. To solve this problem, a radiometric calibration system of HiRISE imagery based on field program gate array (FPGA) is designed. The montage gap between two channels caused by gray inconsistency is removed through histogram matching. The calibration system is composed of FPGA and DSP, which makes full use of the parallel processing ability of FPGA and fast computation as well as flexible control characteristic of DSP. Experimental results show that the designed system consumes less hardware resources and the real-time processing ability of radiometric calibration of HiRISE imagery is improved.

  4. Artifact correction and absolute radiometric calibration techniques employed in the Landsat 7 image assessment system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boncyk, Wayne C.; Markham, Brian L.; Barker, John L.; Helder, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    The Landsat-7 Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the Landsat-7 Ground System, will calibrate and evaluate the radiometric and geometric performance of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) instrument. The IAS incorporates new instrument radiometric artifact correction and absolute radiometric calibration techniques which overcome some limitations to calibration accuracy inherent in historical calibration methods. Knowledge of ETM + instrument characteristics gleaned from analysis of archival Thematic Mapper in-flight data and from ETM + prelaunch tests allow the determination and quantification of the sources of instrument artifacts. This a priori knowledge will be utilized in IAS algorithms designed to minimize the effects of the noise sources before calibration, in both ETM + image and calibration data.

  5. NASA IKONOS Multispectral Radiometric Calibration and 3-Year Temporal Stability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Carver, David; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen; Aaran, David

    2003-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can place confidence in the imagery they use and can fully understand its properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other system. In addition, the user community has little or no insight into the design and operation of commercial sensors or into the methods involved in generating commercial products. To address this calibration need, the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) Earth Science Applications (ESA) Directorate established a commercial satellite imaging radiometric calibration team consisting of three independent groups: NASA, SSC,ESA, the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group, and South Dacota State University. Each group determined the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients of the Space Imaging IKONOS 4-band, 4 m multispectral product covering the visible through near-infrared spectral region. For a three year period beginning in 2000, each team employed some variant of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, requiring ground-based measurements coincident with IKONOS image acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations. Several study sites throughout the United States were employed that covered nearly the entire dynamic range of the IKONOS sensor. IKONOS at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent group to determine the IKONOS sensor's radiometric accuracy and stability. Over 10 individual vicariously determined at-sensor radiance estimates were used each year. When combined, these estimates provided a high-precision radiometric gain calibration coefficient. No significant calibration offset was observed. The results of this evaluation provide the scientific community with an independent assessment of the IKONOS sensor's absolute calibration and temporal stability over the 3

  6. Radiometric calibration for MWIR cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyunjin; Chun, Joohwan; Seo, Doo Chun; Yang, Jiyeon

    2012-06-01

    Korean Multi-purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A), which weighing about 1,000 kg is scheduled to be launched in 2013 and will be located at a sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) of 530 km in altitude. This is Korea's rst satellite to orbit with a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) image sensor, which is currently being developed at Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI). The missions envisioned include forest re surveillance, measurement of the ocean surface temperature, national defense and crop harvest estimate. In this paper, we shall explain the MWIR scene generation software and atmospheric compensation techniques for the infrared (IR) camera that we are currently developing. The MWIR scene generation software we have developed taking into account sky thermal emission, path emission, target emission, sky solar scattering and ground re ection based on MODTRAN data. Here, this software will be used for generating the radiation image in the satellite camera which requires an atmospheric compensation algorithm and the validation of the accuracy of the temperature which is obtained in our result. Image visibility restoration algorithm is a method for removing the eect of atmosphere between the camera and an object. This algorithm works between the satellite and the Earth, to predict object temperature noised with the Earth's atmosphere and solar radiation. Commonly, to compensate for the atmospheric eect, some softwares like MODTRAN is used for modeling the atmosphere. Our algorithm doesn't require an additional software to obtain the surface temperature. However, it needs to adjust visibility restoration parameters and the precision of the result still should be studied.

  7. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. PMID:25628612

  8. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases.

  9. Relative radiometric calibration of LANDSAT TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Raw thematic mapper (TM) calibration data from pre-launch tests and in-orbit acquisitions from LANDSAT 4 and 5 satellites are analyzed to assess the radiometric characteristics of the TM sensor. A software program called TM radiometric and algorithmic performance program (TRAPP) was used for the majority of analyses. Radiometric uncertainty in the final TM image originates from: (1) scene variability (solar irradiance and atmospheric scattering); (2) optical and electrical variability of the sensor; and (3) variability introduced during image processing.

  10. Evaluation on Radiometric Capability of Chinese Optical Satellite Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Aixia; Zhong, Bo; Wu, Shanlong; Liu, Qinhuo

    2017-01-01

    The radiometric capability of on-orbit sensors should be updated on time due to changes induced by space environmental factors and instrument aging. Some sensors, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), have onboard calibrators, which enable real-time calibration. However, most Chinese remote sensing satellite sensors lack onboard calibrators. Their radiometric calibrations have been updated once a year based on a vicarious calibration procedure, which has affected the applications of the data. Therefore, a full evaluation of the sensors’ radiometric capabilities is essential before quantitative applications can be made. In this study, a comprehensive procedure for evaluating the radiometric capability of several Chinese optical satellite sensors is proposed. In this procedure, long-term radiometric stability and radiometric accuracy are the two major indicators for radiometric evaluation. The radiometric temporal stability is analyzed by the tendency of long-term top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance variation; the radiometric accuracy is determined by comparison with the TOA reflectance from MODIS after spectrally matching. Three Chinese sensors including the Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera onboard Huan Jing 1 satellite (HJ-1), as well as the Visible and Infrared Radiometer (VIRR) and Medium-Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) onboard the Feng Yun 3 satellite (FY-3) are evaluated in reflective bands based on this procedure. The results are reasonable, and thus can provide reliable reference for the sensors’ application, and as such will promote the development of Chinese satellite data. PMID:28117745

  11. Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.

    1997-04-01

    The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

  12. Evaluation on Radiometric Capability of Chinese Optical Satellite Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aixia; Zhong, Bo; Wu, Shanlong; Liu, Qinhuo

    2017-01-22

    The radiometric capability of on-orbit sensors should be updated on time due to changes induced by space environmental factors and instrument aging. Some sensors, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), have onboard calibrators, which enable real-time calibration. However, most Chinese remote sensing satellite sensors lack onboard calibrators. Their radiometric calibrations have been updated once a year based on a vicarious calibration procedure, which has affected the applications of the data. Therefore, a full evaluation of the sensors' radiometric capabilities is essential before quantitative applications can be made. In this study, a comprehensive procedure for evaluating the radiometric capability of several Chinese optical satellite sensors is proposed. In this procedure, long-term radiometric stability and radiometric accuracy are the two major indicators for radiometric evaluation. The radiometric temporal stability is analyzed by the tendency of long-term top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance variation; the radiometric accuracy is determined by comparison with the TOA reflectance from MODIS after spectrally matching. Three Chinese sensors including the Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera onboard Huan Jing 1 satellite (HJ-1), as well as the Visible and Infrared Radiometer (VIRR) and Medium-Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) onboard the Feng Yun 3 satellite (FY-3) are evaluated in reflective bands based on this procedure. The results are reasonable, and thus can provide reliable reference for the sensors' application, and as such will promote the development of Chinese satellite data.

  13. The importance and attainment of accurate absolute radiometric calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of accurate absolute radiometric calibration is discussed by reference to the needs of those wishing to validate or use models describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the atmosphere and earth surface features. The in-flight calibration methods used for the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and the Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre, Haute Resolution visible (SPOT/HRV) systems are described and their limitations discussed. The questionable stability of in-flight absolute calibration methods suggests the use of a radiative transfer program to predict the apparent radiance, at the entrance pupil of the sensor, of a ground site of measured reflectance imaged through a well characterized atmosphere. The uncertainties of such a method are discussed.

  14. Methods of Rapid Microbiological Assay and Their Application to Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Hideharu

    2016-01-01

     There are several rapid microbiological methods becoming available that have useful applications in pharmaceutical and medical devices. They are ATP bioluminescence, fluorescent labeling, electrical resistance, and nucleic acid probes. In choosing to employ rapid methods, the microbiologist should examine their prospective performances against the specific requirements for that sector. Some methods may require expensive equipment and offer full automation, and others represent only a small investment. The regulatory view of these methods is changing and they still officially have not been approved in medical and pharmaceutical area, but it will still be up to the microbiologist to demonstrate that the method chosen is fit for the purpose intended.

  15. Systematic biases in radiometric diameter determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, John R.; Lebofsky, Larry A.; Sykes, Mark V.

    1989-01-01

    Radiometric diameter determinations are presently shown to often be significantly affected by the effect of rotation. This thermal effect of rotation depends not only on the object's thermal inertia, rotation rate, and pole orientation, but also on its temperature, since colder objects having constant rotation rate and thermal inertia will radiate less of their heat on the diurnal than on the nocturnal hemisphere. A disk-integrated beaming parameter of 0.72 is determined for the moon, and used to correct empirically for the roughness effects in thermophysical models; the standard thermal model is found to systematically underestimate cold object diameters, while overstating their albedos.

  16. Rapid identification of salmonella serotypes with stereo and hyperspectral microscope imaging Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) method can reduce detection time within 8 hours including incubation process. The early and rapid detection with this method in conjunction with the high throughput capabilities makes HMI method a prime candidate for implementation for the food industry. Th...

  17. Rapid Identification of Salmonella Serotypes with Stereo and Hyperspectral Microscope Imaging Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) method can reduce detection time within 8 hours including incubation process. The early and rapid detection with this method in conjunction with the high throughput capabilities makes HMI method a prime candidate for implementation for the food industry. Th...

  18. Field Evaluation of a Semiautomated Method for Rapid and Simple Analysis of Recreational Water Microbiological Quality

    PubMed Central

    Anglès d'Auriac, Marc B.; Roberts, Hildegarde; Shaw, Terri; Sirevåg, Reidun; Hermansen, Leonila Fajardo; Berg, James D.

    2000-01-01

    An early warning system using a rapid enzymatic semiautomated method suitable for fecal coliform detection in recreational waters within 8 h was developed further and evaluated in this study. This rapid method was compared to the standard method followed in the United Kingdom. We used 1,011 samples originating from 206 different locations in Wales. When we assessed the presence or absence of fecal coliforms, targeting very low levels of contamination, we obtained 83.9% agreement between the rapid method and the lauryl sulfate broth-membrane filtration technique, whereas direct confirmation of the samples processed by the rapid method showed 89.3% agreement. Environmental enzymatic background activity was found to be the main limiting factor for this method. Owing to a specific and integrated handling of the results by the software of the instrument, the percentage of false-positive results (a consequence of enzymatic background) was successfully limited to 2.9% by the direct confirmation evaluation. However, 7.8% false-negative results due to “late-growers” had to be accepted in order to produce results within a working day. At present, the method can be used in a more conservative way to assess the environmental threshold of 100 CFU of fecal coliforms per 100 ml in recreational waters. The implications of our findings with regard to the applicability of rapid enzymatic methods are discussed. PMID:11010890

  19. New Sentinel-2 radiometric validation approaches (SEOM program)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruniquel, Véronique; Lamquin, Nicolas; Ferron, Stéphane; Govaerts, Yves; Woolliams, Emma; Dilo, Arta; Gascon, Ferran

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is an ESA program element whose one of the objectives aims at launching state-of-the-art studies for the scientific exploitation of operational missions. In the frame of this program, ESA awarded ACRI-ST and its partners Rayference and National Physical Laboratory (NPL) early 2016 for a R&D study on the development and intercomparison of algorithms for validating the Sentinel-2 radiometric L1 data products beyond the baseline algorithms used operationally in the frame of the S2 Mission Performance Centre. In this context, several algorithms have been proposed and are currently in development: The first one is based on the exploitation of Deep Convective Cloud (DCC) observations over ocean. This method allows an inter-band radiometry validation from the blue to the NIR (typically from B1 to B8a) from a reference band already validated for example with the well-known Rayleigh method. Due to their physical properties, DCCs appear from the remote sensing point of view to have bright and cold tops and they can be used as invariant targets to monitor the radiometric response degradation of reflective solar bands. The DCC approach is statistical i.e. the method shall be applied on a large number of measurements to derive reliable statistics and decrease the impact of the perturbing contributors. The second radiometric validation method is based on the exploitation of matchups combining both concomitant in-situ measurements and Sentinel-2 observations. The in-situ measurements which are used here correspond to measurements acquired in the frame of the RadCalNet networks. The validation is performed for the Sentinel-2 bands similar to the bands of the instruments equipping the validation site. The measurements from the Cimel CE 318 12-filters BRDF Sun Photometer installed recently in the Gobabeb site near the Namib desert are used for this method. A comprehensive verification of the calibration requires an analysis of MSI radiances over the full dynamic range

  20. Real-time adaptive radiometric compensation.

    PubMed

    Grundhöfer, Anselm; Bimber, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Recent radiometric compensation techniques make it possible to project images onto colored and textured surfaces. This is realized with projector-camera systems by scanning the projection surface on a per-pixel basis. Using the captured information, a compensation image is calculated that neutralizes geometric distortions and color blending caused by the underlying surface. As a result, the brightness and the contrast of the input image is reduced compared to a conventional projection onto a white canvas. If the input image is not manipulated in its intensities, the compensation image can contain values that are outside the dynamic range of the projector. These will lead to clipping errors and to visible artifacts on the surface. In this article, we present an innovative algorithm that dynamically adjusts the content of the input images before radiometric compensation is carried out. This reduces the perceived visual artifacts while simultaneously preserving a maximum of luminance and contrast. The algorithm is implemented entirely on the GPU and is the first of its kind to run in real-time.

  1. Radiometric Cross-Calibration of the HJ-1B IRS in the Thermal Infrared Spectral Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, K.

    2012-12-01

    The natural calamities occur continually, environment pollution and destruction in a severe position on the earth presently, which restricts societal and economic development. The satellite remote sensing technology has an important effect on improving surveillance ability of environment pollution and natural calamities. The radiometric calibration is precondition of quantitative remote sensing; which accuracy decides quality of the retrieval parameters. Since the China Environment Satellite (HJ-1A/B) has been launched successfully on September 6th, 2008, it has made an important role in the economic development of China. The satellite has four infrared bands; and one of it is thermal infrared. With application fields of quantitative remote sensing in china, finding appropriate calibration method becomes more and more important. Many kinds of independent methods can be used to do the absolute radiometric calibration. In this paper, according to the characteristic of thermal infrared channel of HJ-1B thermal infrared multi-spectral camera, the thermal infrared spectral band of HJ-1B IRS was calibrated using cross-calibration methods based on MODIS data. Firstly, the corresponding bands of the two sensors were obtained. Secondly, the MONDTRAN was run to analyze the influences of different spectral response, satellite view zenith angle, atmosphere condition and temperature on the match factor. In the end, their band match factor was calculated in different temperature, considering the dissimilar band response of the match bands. Seven images of Lake Qinghai in different time were chosen as the calibration data. On the basis of radiance of MODIS and match factor, the IRS radiance was calculated. And then the calibration coefficients were obtained by linearly regressing the radiance and the DN value. We compared the result of this cross-calibration with that of the onboard blackbody calibration, which consistency was good.The maximum difference of brightness temperature

  2. Best practices for radiometric modeling of imaging spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellinger, Lou; Silny, John F.

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides best practices for the radiometric performance modeling of imaging spectrometers. A set of standard terminology is proposed to use when modeling imaging spectrometers. The calculation of various radiometric sensitivity metrics and their contrast counterparts are outlined. Modeling approaches are described for both solar reflected and thermally emitted bands. Finally, this approach is applied to an example hyperspectral sensor.

  3. Understanding Satellite Characterization Knowledge Gained from Radiometric Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    UNDERSTANDING SATELLITE CHARACTERIZATION KNOWLEDGE GAINED FROM RADIOMETRIC DATA Andrew Harms Princeton University Kris Hamada, Charles J. Wetterer...framework for determining satellite characterization knowledge, in the form of estimated parameter uncertainties, from radiometric observation type...uncer- tainties into satellite characterization parameter space. These parameters can include size, shape, orientation, material properties, etc., and

  4. Framework for the Data-Driven Geographical Expansion of Rapid Ecological Assessment Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands Regulatory Assistance Program ERDC TN-WRAP-14-1 December 2014 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Framework for the...The current study outlines guidance for expanding the geographic extent of existing wetland and stream rapid ecological assessment methods beyond...Evaluation, and Improvement of Rapid Ecological Assessment Methods” and the “Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) Approach to Assessing Wetland Function: Guidelines for

  5. [A rapid method of eddy current compensation in magnetic resonance imaging systems].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng-min; Zhou, He-qin; Wu, Hai-cheng

    2005-11-01

    Imaging objects are spatially encoded by gradient magnetic fields in magnetic resonance imaging systems. The eddy current caused by rapid switches of gradient fields will result in artifacts in the images. A method of eddy current compensation based on pre-emphasis of gradient current is presented in this thesis. The compensation parameters are acquired rapidly utilizing Faraday's induction theorem and data fitting method. The experiments prove that the method is efficient for reduction of the debugging time and for the improvement of the image quality.

  6. Method for the rapid synthesis of large quantities of metal oxide nanowires at low temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Vaddiraju, Sreeram; Mozetic, Miran; Cvelbar, Uros

    2009-09-22

    A process for the rapid synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles at low temperatures and methods which facilitate the fabrication of long metal oxide nanowires. The method is based on treatment of metals with oxygen plasma. Using oxygen plasma at low temperatures allows for rapid growth unlike other synthesis methods where nanomaterials take a long time to grow. Density of neutral oxygen atoms in plasma is a controlling factor for the yield of nanowires. The oxygen atom density window differs for different materials. By selecting the optimal oxygen atom density for various materials the yield can be maximized for nanowire synthesis of the metal.

  7. Methods for separation/purification utilizing rapidly cycled thermal swing sorption

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Monzyk, Bruce F.; Wang, Yong; VanderWiel, David P.; Perry, Steven T.; Fitzgerald, Sean P.; Simmons, Wayne W.; McDaniel, Jeffrey S.; Weller, Jr., Albert E.

    2004-11-09

    The present invention provides apparatus and methods for separating fluid components. In preferred embodiments, the apparatus and methods utilize microchannel devices with small distances for heat and mass transfer to achieve rapid cycle times and surprisingly large volumes of fluid components separated in short times using relatively compact hardware.

  8. A rapid method for determining salinomycin and monensin sensitivity in Eimeria tenella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard methods of determining the ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria rely on infecting chickens with an isolate or a mixture of Eimeria spp. oocysts in the presence of different anti-coccidial drugs. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid in vitro method for assessing salinomycin and mone...

  9. An improved method for rapid generation and screening of Bacillus thuringiensis phage-resistant mutants.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    A simple method to isolate, screen and select phage-resistant mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis was developed. The traditional double-layer agar method was improved by a combination of the spotting assay using a lytic phage, to generate the bacterial-resistant mutants, with an inverted spotting assay (ISA), to rapidly screen the candidate-resistant mutants.

  10. Radiometric performance of the Viking Mars lander cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Burcher, E. E.; Taylor, E. J.; Wall, S. D.

    1975-01-01

    The Viking lander cameras feature an array of 12 silicon photodiodes for electronic focus selection and multispectral imaging. Comparisons of absolute radiometric calibrations of the four cameras selected for the mission to Mars with performance predictions based on their design data revealed minor discrepancies. These discrepancies were caused primarily by the method used to calibrate the photosensor array and apparently also from light reflections internal to the array. The sensitivity and dynamic range of all camera channels are found to be sufficient for high quality pictures, providing that the commandable gains and offsets can be optimized for the scene radiance; otherwise, the quantization noise may be too high or the dynamic range too low for an adequate characterization of the scene.

  11. [In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of UAV multispectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yan, Lei; Gou, Zhi-Yang; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Liu, Da-Ping; Duan, Yi-Ni

    2012-12-01

    Based on the data of the scientific experiment in Urad Front Banner for UAV Remote Sensing Load Calibration Field project, with the help of 6 hyperspectral radiometric targets with good Lambertian property, the wide-view multispectral camera in UAV was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. The result reveals that for green, red and infrared channel, whose images were successfully captured, the linear correlation coefficients between the DN and radiance are all larger than 99%. In final analysis, the comprehensive error is no more than 6%. The calibration results demonstrate that the hyperspectral targets equipped by the calibration field are well suitable for air-borne multispectral load in-flight calibration. The calibration result is reliable and could be used in the retrieval of geophysical parameters.

  12. Active radiometric calorimeter for absolute calibration of radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, K.E.; DeWerd, L.A.; Rudman, D.A.; Schima, S.A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes the design and initial noise floor measurements of a radiometric calorimeter designed to measure therapeutic medical radioactive sources. The instrument demonstrates a noise floor of approximately 2 nW. This low noise floor is achieved by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) transition edge sensor (TES) thermometers in a temperature-control feedback loop. This feedback loop will be used to provide absolute source calibrations based upon the electrical substitution method. Other unique features of the calorimeter are (a) its ability to change sources for calibration without disrupting the vacuum of the instrument, and (b) the ability to measure the emitted power of a source in addition to the total contained source power.

  13. Visible/infrared radiometric calibration station

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, D.A.; Maier, W.B. II; Bender, S.C.; Holland, R.F.; Michaud, F.D.; Luettgen, A.L.; Christensen, R.W.; O`Brian, T.R.

    1994-07-01

    We have begun construction of a visible/infrared radiometric calibration station that will allow for absolute calibration of optical and IR remote sensing instruments with clear apertures less than 16 inches in diameter in a vacuum environment. The calibration station broadband sources will be calibrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and allow for traceable absolute radiometric calibration to within {plus_minus}3% in the visible and near IR (0.4--2.5 {mu}m), and less than {plus_minus}1% in the infrared, up to 12 {mu}m. Capabilities for placing diffraction limited images or for sensor full-field flooding will exist. The facility will also include the calibration of polarization and spectral effects, spatial resolution, field of view performance, and wavefront characterization. The configuration of the vacuum calibration station consists of an off-axis 21 inch, f/3.2, parabolic collimator with a scanning fold flat in collimated space. The sources are placed, via mechanisms to be described, at the focal plane of the off-axis parabola. Vacuum system pressure will be in the 10{sup {minus}6} Torr range. The broadband white-light source is a custom design by LANL with guidance from Labsphere Inc. The continuous operating radiance of the integrating sphere will be from 0.0--0.006 W/cm{sup 2}/Sr/{mu}m (upper level quoted for {approximately}500 nm wavelength). The blackbody source is also custom designed at LANL with guidance from NIST. The blackbody temperature will be controllable between 250--350{degrees}K. Both of the above sources have 4.1 inch apertures with estimated radiometric instability at less than 1%. The designs of each of these units will be described. The monochromator and interferometer light sources are outside the vacuum, but all optical relay and beam shaping optics are enclosed within the vacuum calibration station. These sources are described, as well as the methodology for alignment and characterization.

  14. Thematic mapper: detailed radiometric and geometric characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Hugh

    1983-01-01

    Those radiometric characteristics of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data have been examined. Subscenes of radiometric all raw data (B-data) were examined on an individual detector basis: areas of uniform radiance were used to characterize subtle radiometric differences and noise problems. A variety of anomalies have been discovered with magnitude of a few digital levels or less: the only problem not addressable by ground processing is irregular width of the digital levels. Essentially all of this non-ideal performance is incorporated in the fully processed (P-type) images, but disguised by the geometric resampling procedure. The overall performance of the Thematic Mapper is a great improvement over previous Landsat scanners. The effective resolution in radiance is degraded by about a factor of two by irregular width of the digital levels. Several detectors have a change of gain with a period of several scans, the largest effect is about 4%. These detectors appear to switch between two response levels during scan direction reversal; there is no apparent periodicity to these changes. This can cause small apparent difference between forward and reverse scans for portions of an image. The high-frequency noise level of each detector was characterized by the standard deviation of the first derivative in the sample direction across a flat field. Coherent sinusoidal noise patterns were determined using one-dimensional Fourier transforms. A "stitching" pattern in Band 1 has a period of 13.8 samples with a peak-to-peak amplitude ranging from 1 to 5 DN. Noise with a period of 3.24 samples is pronounced for most detectors in band 1, to a lesser extent in bands 2, 3, and 4, and below background noise levels in bands 5, 6, and 7. The geometric fidelity of the GSFC film writer used for Thematic Mapper (TM) images was assessed by measurement with accuracy bette than three micrometers of a test grid. A set of 55

  15. RAPID FUSION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF PLUTONIUM ISOTOPES IN LARGE RICE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2013-03-01

    A new rapid fusion method for the determination of plutonium in large rice samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used to determine very low levels of plutonium isotopes in rice. The recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid, reliable radiochemical analyses for radionuclides in environmental and food samples. Public concern regarding foods, particularly foods such as rice in Japan, highlights the need for analytical techniques that will allow very large sample aliquots of rice to be used for analysis so that very low levels of plutonium isotopes may be detected. The new method to determine plutonium isotopes in large rice samples utilizes a furnace ashing step, a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with TEVA Resin cartridges. The method can be applied to rice sample aliquots as large as 5 kg. Plutonium isotopes can be determined using alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory plutonium particles are effectively digested. The MDA for a 5 kg rice sample using alpha spectrometry is 7E-5 mBq g{sup -1}. The method can easily be adapted for use by ICP-MS to allow detection of plutonium isotopic ratios.

  16. Scalable method to produce biodegradable nanoparticles that rapidly penetrate human mucus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingguo; Boylan, Nicholas J; Cai, Shutian; Miao, Bolong; Patel, Himatkumar; Hanes, Justin

    2013-09-10

    Mucus typically traps and rapidly removes foreign particles from the airways, gastrointestinal tract, nasopharynx, female reproductive tract and the surface of the eye. Nanoparticles capable of rapid penetration through mucus can potentially avoid rapid clearance, and open significant opportunities for controlled drug delivery at mucosal surfaces. Here, we report an industrially scalable emulsification method to produce biodegradable mucus-penetrating particles (MPP). The emulsification of diblock copolymers of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and polyethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG) using low molecular weight (MW) emulsifiers forms dense brush PEG coatings on nanoparticles that allow rapid nanoparticle penetration through fresh undiluted human mucus. In comparison, conventional high MW emulsifiers, such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), interrupts the PEG coating on nanoparticles, resulting in their immobilization in mucus owing to adhesive interactions with mucus mesh elements. PLGA-PEG nanoparticles with a wide range of PEG MW (1, 2, 5, and 10 kDa), prepared by the emulsification method using low MW emulsifiers, all rapidly penetrated mucus. A range of drugs, from hydrophobic small molecules to hydrophilic large biologics, can be efficiently loaded into biodegradable MPP using the method described. This readily scalable method should facilitate the production of MPP products for mucosal drug delivery, as well as potentially longer-circulating particles following intravenous administration.

  17. GIFTS SM EDU Radiometric and Spectral Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, J.; Reisse, R. a.; Johnson, D. G.; Gazarik, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Sensor Module (SM) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high resolution spectral imager designed to measure infrared (IR) radiance using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The GIFTS instrument gathers measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the processing algorithms involved in the calibration. The calibration procedures can be subdivided into three categories: the pre-calibration stage, the calibration stage, and finally, the post-calibration stage. Detailed derivations for each stage are presented in this paper.

  18. A Radiometric Uncertainty Tool for OLCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, S.; Nieke, J.

    2016-08-01

    With its first satellite launched in February 2016, the Sentinel-3 mission will support Ocean, Land, Atmospheric, Emergency, Security and Cryospheric applications and related Copernicus services (http://www.copernicus.eu). One of the key payloads carried by the satellite, OLCI (Ocean and Land Colour Instrument), is a push-broom imaging spectrometer designed to image the Earth's surface in 21 spectral bands, from the visible to the near infrared, across a 1200 km swath. An understanding of the quality of the Level 1b (L1) data produced by OLCI is important for many of its applications. As such, work has been ongoing to develop a software tool to determine the per pixel uncertainty of these images to be used by L1 product users. This tool has been named OLCI-RUT (OLCI - Radiometric Uncertainty Tool) and this report provides a description of its development.

  19. Enhanced radiometric detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by using filter-concentrated bovine fecal specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, M.T.; Kenefick, K.B.; Sockett, D.C.; Lambrecht, R.S.; McDonald, J.; Jorgensen, J.B. )

    1990-11-01

    A commercial radiometric medium, BACTEC 12B, was modified by addition of mycobactin, egg yolk suspension, and antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid). Decontaminated bovine fecal specimens were filter concentrated by using 3-microns-pore-size, 13-mm-diameter polycarbonate filters, and the entire filter was placed into the radiometric broth. Comparison of the radiometric technique with conventional methods on 603 cattle from 9 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected herds found that of 75 positive specimens, the radiometric technique detected 92% while conventional methods detected 60% (P less than 0.0005). Only 3.9% of radiometric cultures were contaminated. To measure the effect of filter concentration of specimens on the detection rate, 5 cattle with minimal and 5 with moderate ileum histopathology were sampled weekly for 3 weeks. M. paratuberculosis was detected in 33.3% of nonfiltered specimens and 76.7% of filtered specimens (P less than 0.005). Detection rates were directly correlated with the severity of disease, and the advantage of specimen concentration was greatest on fecal specimens from cattle with low-grade infections. Detection times were also correlated with infection severity: 13.4 +/- 5.9 days with smear-positive specimens, 27.9 +/- 8.7 days with feces from cows with typical subclinical infections, and 38.7 +/- 3.8 days with fecal specimens from cows with low-grade infections. Use of a cocktail of vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid for selective suppression of nonmycobacterial contaminants was better than the commercial product PANTA (Becton Dickinson Microbiologic Systems, Towson, Md.) only when specimens contained very low numbers of M. paratuberculosis.

  20. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  1. Radiometric consistency assessment of hyperspectral infrared sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Han, Y.; Jin, X.; Chen, Y.; Tremblay, D. A.

    2015-07-01

    The radiometric and spectral consistency among the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is fundamental for the creation of long-term infrared (IR) hyperspectral radiance benchmark datasets for both inter-calibration and climate-related studies. In this study, the CrIS radiance measurements on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite are directly compared with IASI on MetOp-A and -B at the finest spectral scale and with AIRS on Aqua in 25 selected spectral regions through one year of simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO) observations to evaluate radiometric consistency of these four hyperspectral IR sounders. The spectra from different sounders are paired together through strict spatial and temporal collocation. The uniform scenes are selected by examining the collocated Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) pixels. Their brightness temperature (BT) differences are then calculated by converting the spectra onto common spectral grids. The results indicate that CrIS agrees well with IASI on MetOp-A and IASI on MetOp-B at the longwave IR (LWIR) and middle-wave IR (MWIR) bands with 0.1-0.2 K differences. There are no apparent scene-dependent patterns for BT differences between CrIS and IASI for individual spectral channels. CrIS and AIRS are compared at the 25 spectral regions for both Polar and Tropical SNOs. The combined global SNO datasets indicate that, the CrIS-AIRS BT differences are less than or around 0.1 K among 21 of 25 comparison spectral regions and they range from 0.15 to 0.21 K in the remaining 4 spectral regions. CrIS-AIRS BT differences in some comparison spectral regions show weak scene-dependent features.

  2. Radiometric consistency assessment of hyperspectral infrared sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Han, Y.; Jin, X.; Chen, Y.; Tremblay, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    The radiometric and spectral consistency among the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is fundamental for the creation of long-term infrared (IR) hyperspectral radiance benchmark data sets for both intercalibration and climate-related studies. In this study, the CrIS radiance measurements on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite are directly compared with IASI on MetOp-A and MetOp-B at the finest spectral scale and with AIRS on Aqua in 25 selected spectral regions through simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO) observations in 2013, to evaluate radiometric consistency of these four hyperspectral IR sounders. The spectra from different sounders are paired together through strict spatial and temporal collocation. The uniform scenes are selected by examining the collocated Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) pixels. Their brightness temperature (BT) differences are then calculated by converting the spectra onto common spectral grids. The results indicate that CrIS agrees well with IASI on MetOp-A and IASI on MetOp-B at the long-wave IR (LWIR) and middle-wave IR (MWIR) bands with 0.1-0.2 K differences. There are no apparent scene-dependent patterns for BT differences between CrIS and IASI for individual spectral channels. CrIS and AIRS are compared at the 25 spectral regions for both polar and tropical SNOs. The combined global SNO data sets indicate that the CrIS-AIRS BT differences are less than or around 0.1 K among 21 of 25 spectral regions and they range from 0.15 to 0.21 K in the remaining four spectral regions. CrIS-AIRS BT differences in some comparison spectral regions show weak scene-dependent features.

  3. Rapid radiochemical method for determination of actinides in emergency concrete and brick samples.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Kelsey-Wall, Angel; Shaw, Patrick J

    2011-09-02

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in emergency concrete and brick samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis. If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or nuclear accident occurs, there will be a urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including building materials such as concrete and brick, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean-up. The new method for actinides in concrete and brick method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Alpha emitters are prepared using rare earth microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of actinides in concrete and brick sample analysis can be performed in less than 8h with excellent quality for emergency samples. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory actinide particles are effectively digested.

  4. A parameter control method in reinforcement learning to rapidly follow unexpected environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Murakoshi, Kazushi; Mizuno, Junya

    2004-11-01

    In order to rapidly follow unexpected environmental changes, we propose a parameter control method in reinforcement learning that changes each of learning parameters in appropriate directions. We determine each appropriate direction on the basis of relationships between behaviors and neuromodulators by considering an emergency as a key word. Computer experiments show that the agents using our proposed method could rapidly respond to unexpected environmental changes, not depending on either two reinforcement learning algorithms (Q-learning and actor-critic (AC) architecture) or two learning problems (discontinuous and continuous state-action problems).

  5. Improved capabilities of the Chinese high-resolution remote sensing satellite GF-1 for monitoring suspended particulate matter (SPM) in inland waters: Radiometric and spatial considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Xiaoling; Tian, Liqiao; Huang, Jue; Feng, Lian

    2015-08-01

    Dominated by high dynamic and small-scale variability, remote sensing of inland or coastal waters is frequently impended by insufficient spatial resolutions from conventional ocean color sensors. With the urgent need and the rapid progress in high-resolution earth observation systems (HR), it is critical to assess the capabilities of HR in inland water monitoring. In this study, the radiometric and spatial performance of the Chinese high-resolution GF-1 Wide Field Imager (WFI) data for water quality monitoring were evaluated in term of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), sensitivity to suspended particulate matter (SPM) variations and spatial depiction ability. The SNR was statistically estimated from variable moving window method, and the radiometric sensitivity was simulated using the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN) under varied surface and atmospheric conditions. Results indicated that both the SNR and the radiometric sensitivity of the GF-1 WFI were enhanced by 3-5 times than its predecessor (Chinese HJ-1 CCD) or Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and were comparable to Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) medium-resolution bands (250 and 500 m), which have been extensively applied in inland water environment monitoring. Cross comparisons demonstrated high consistency of the spatial distribution and concentration of SPM maps between GF-1 WFI and Landsat 8 OLI. Furthermore, more than 75% of the spatial variations in high turbid waters were resolved from GF-1 WFI data, whereas the ability dropped to 40% when the spatial resolution was degraded to 250 m (MODIS-like sensors). Overall, GF-1 WFI is extraordinarily promising with an enhanced SNR, an increased spectral sensitivity to SPM variations and an advanced spatial resolution. With the ongoing plans of the successive GF series (2-7), the findings would serve as a reference for forthcoming applications, and are critical

  6. FPGA-based data processing module design of on-board radiometric calibration in visible/near infrared bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Li, Chenyang; Yue, Tao; Liu, Na; Jiang, Linjun; Sun, Yue; Li, Mingyan

    2015-12-01

    FPGA technology has long been applied to on-board radiometric calibration data processing however the integration of FPGA program is not good enough. For example, some sensors compressed remote sensing images and transferred to ground station to calculate the calibration coefficients. It will affect the timeliness of on-board radiometric calibration. This paper designs an integrated flow chart of on-board radiometric calibration. Building FPGA-based radiometric calibration data processing modules uses system generator. Thesis focuses on analyzing the calculation accuracy of FPGA-based two-point method and verifies the feasibility of this method. Calibration data was acquired by hardware platform which was built using integrating sphere, CMOS camera (canon 60d), ASD spectrometers and light filter (center wavelength: 690nm, bandwidth: 45nm). The platform can simulate single-band on-board radiometric calibration data acquisition in visible/near infrared band. Making an experiment of calibration coefficients calculation uses obtained data and FPGA modules. Experimental results show that: the camera linearity is above 99% meeting the experimental requirement. Compares with MATLAB the calculation accuracy of two-point method by FPGA are as follows: the error of gain value is 0.0053%; the error of offset value is 0.00038719%. Those results meet experimental accuracy requirement.

  7. Rapid assessment method for prevalence and intensity of Loa loa infection.

    PubMed Central

    Takougang, Innocent; Meremikwu, Martin; Wandji, Samuel; Yenshu, Emmanuel V.; Aripko, Ben; Lamlenn, Samson B.; Eka, Braide L.; Enyong, Peter; Meli, Jean; Kale, Oladele; Remme, Jan H.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of observations on eye worm and Calabar swellings for the rapid assessment of the prevalence and intensity of loiasis at the community level. METHOD: A total of 12895 individuals over the age of 15 years living in 102 communities in Cameroon and Nigeria took part in the study. A standardized questionnaire was administered to participants from whom finger-prick blood samples were collected and examined for Loa loa microfilariae. Rapid assessments of the prevalence and intensity of loiasis were made on the basis of a history of eye worm or Calabar swellings. FINDINGS: There was a strong correlation between the indices of the rapid assessment procedures and the parasitological indices of L. loa endemicity. The rapid assessment indices were effective in diagnosing high-risk communities (sensitivity 94-100%; specificity 66-92%). The highest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (92%) were obtained with a rapid assessment procedure based on a history of eye worm lasting 1-7 days together with confirmation by the guided recognition of a photograph of adult L. loa in the eye. CONCLUSION: Rapid assessment of the prevalence and intensity of loiasis at the community level can be achieved using a procedure based on the history of eye worm lasting 1-7 days together with confirmation by the guided recognition of a photograph of an adult L. loa in the eye. PMID:12481206

  8. Method for rapid estimation of scour at highway bridges based on limited site data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holnbeck, S.R.; Parrett, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Limited site data were used to develop a method for rapid estimation of scour at highway bridges. The estimates can be obtained in a matter of hours rather than several days as required by more-detailed methods. Such a method is important because scour assessments are needed to identify scour-critical bridges throughout the United States. Using detailed scour-analysis methods and scour-prediction equations recommended by the Federal Highway Administration, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation, obtained contraction, pier, and abutment scour-depth data for sites from 10 States.The data were used to develop relations between scour depth and hydraulic variables that can be rapidly measured in the field. Relations between scour depth and hydraulic variables, in the form of envelope curves, were based on simpler forms of detailed scour-prediction equations. To apply the rapid-estimation method, a 100-year recurrence interval peak discharge is determined, and bridge- length data are used in the field with graphs relating unit discharge to velocity and velocity to bridge backwater as a basis for estimating flow depths and other hydraulic variables that can then be applied using the envelope curves. The method was tested in the field. Results showed good agreement among individuals involved and with results from more-detailed methods. Although useful for identifying potentially scour-critical bridges, themethod does not replace more-detailed methods used for design purposes. Use of the rapid- estimation method should be limited to individuals having experience in bridge scour, hydraulics, and flood hydrology, and some training in use of the method.

  9. Collision-induced fragmentation accurate mass spectrometric analysis methods to rapidly characterize phytochemicals in plant extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rapid advances in analytical chromatography equipment have made the reliable and reproducible measurement of a wide range of plant chemical components possible. Full chemical characterization of a given plant material is possible with the new mass spectrometers currently available. New methods a...

  10. A method for the rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of 4,4-dimethyl sterols.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, G F; Mitropoulos, K A; Ramananda, K

    1973-09-01

    A simple and relatively rapid technique has been developed for the separation of several 4,4-dimethyl steryl acetates, some of which contain sterically hindered nuclear double bonds. The method involves thin-layer chromatography on silver nitrate-impregnated silica gel and silver nitrate-impregnated alumina. The separated steryl acetates may then be analyzed quantitatively by gas-liquid chromatography.

  11. RAPID AND PRECISE METHOD FOR MEASURING STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIOS OF DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe a method for rapid preparation, concentration and stable isotopic analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (d13C-DIC). Liberation of CO2 was accomplished by placing 100 ?l phosphoric acid and 0.9 ml water in an evacuated 1.7-ml gas chromatography (GC) injection vial. Fo...

  12. Establishment and application of an efficient, economic, and rapid rice DNA extraction method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, economic, and efficient method for DNA extraction from rice leaf, root and seed was developed, and the extracted DNA was used as a template to successfully amplify the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta. Profiles of Pi-ta in 165 breeding lines detected by DNA markers were verified using diff...

  13. A Rapid Method for BrdU Immunostaining in Bovine Mammary Cryosections that Retains RNA Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid method of 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunostaining was developed in cryosections of bovine mammary tissue, while preserving RNA quality of the stained section. BrdU is a thymidine analog that is incorporated into DNA of proliferating cells and thus serves as a proliferation marker. Im...

  14. Laboratory Measurement of Bidirectional Reflectance of Radiometric Tarps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowlton, Kelly

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: a) To determine the magnitude of radiometric tarp BRDF; b) To determine whether an ASD FieldSpec Pro spectroradiometer can be used to perform the experiment. Radiometric tarps with nominal reflectance values of 52%, 35%, and 3.5%, deployed for IKONOS. QuickBird, and OrbView-3 overpasses Ground-based spectroradiometric measurements of tarp and Spectralon@ panel taken during overpass using ASD FieldSpec Pro spectroradiometer, and tarp reflectance calculated. Reflectance data used in atmospheric radiative transfer model (MODTRAN) to predict satellite at-sensor radiance for radiometric calibration. Reflectance data also used to validate atmospheric correction of high-spatial-resolution multispectral image products

  15. Radiometric cloud imaging with an uncooled microbolometer thermal infrared camera.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph; Nugent, Paul; Pust, Nathan; Thurairajah, Brentha; Mizutani, Kohei

    2005-07-25

    An uncooled microbolometer-array thermal infrared camera has been incorporated into a remote sensing system for radiometric sky imaging. The radiometric calibration is validated and improved through direct comparison with spectrally integrated data from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). With the improved calibration, the Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) system routinely obtains sky images with radiometric uncertainty less than 0.5 W/(m(2 )sr) for extended deployments in challenging field environments. We demonstrate the infrared cloud imaging technique with still and time-lapse imagery of clear and cloudy skies, including stratus, cirrus, and wave clouds.

  16. Rapid method for determination of carbonyl groups in lignin compounds by headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Hu, Hui-Chao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2015-07-24

    The paper reports on a novel method for rapid determination of carbonyl in lignins by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). The method involves the quantitative carbonyl reduction for aldehydes in 2min at room temperature or for acetones in 30min at 80°C by sodium borohydride solution in a closed headspace sample vial. After the reaction, the solution was acidified by injecting sulfuric acid solution and the hydrogen released to the headspace was determined by GC using thermal-conductivity detector. The results showed that with the addition of SiO2 powder, the reduction reaction of carbonyl groups can be greatly facilitated. The method has a good measurement precision (RSD<7.74%) and accuracy (relative error <10% compared with a reference method) in the carbonyl quantification. It is suitable to be used for rapid determination of carbonyl content in lignin and related materials.

  17. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Marysvale detail survey, Richfield National Topographic Map sheet, Utah. Volume II. Radiometric multi-variable stacked profile data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The results of the analyses of a systematic airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic survey for the area identified as Marysvale, located in southwestern Utah, is presented in Volumes I-IV of this report. The airborne data gathered is reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the equivalent uranium, thorium and potassium gamma radiation intensities, the ratios of these intensities, the total gamma radiation counting rate and the earth's residual magnetic field intensity. Profile plots of the aircraft's altitude above the earth's surface, the ambient temperature and pressure, and the magnetic field data measured by a base station magnetometer is presented also. An evaluation of the distribution of the radiometric data in terms of its established geochemical map units, which were derived via geochemical analysis methods, for the entire survey area has been prepared and is included. The determination of the geochemical units presented has been established principally from the analysis of the radiometric and magnetic contour maps and, more importantly, the multi-variate analysis map. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic and geochemical units, is included within the text. Volume II contains the 10-variable radiometric stacked profile data for the entire survey area.

  18. Adjustment of a rapid method for quantification of Fusarium spp. spore suspensions in plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Caligiore-Gei, Pablo F; Valdez, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The use of a Neubauer chamber is a broadly employed method when cell suspensions need to be quantified. However, this technique may take a long time and needs trained personnel. Spectrophotometry has proved to be a rapid, simple and accurate method to estimate the concentration of spore suspensions of isolates of the genus Fusarium. In this work we present a linear formula to relate absorbance measurements at 530nm with the number of microconidia/ml in a suspension.

  19. Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream

    DOEpatents

    Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.

    2013-01-22

    An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.

  20. Application of a rapid screening method to detect irradiated meat in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H. A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J. J.; Delincée, H.

    2000-03-01

    Based on the enormous potential for food irradiation in Brazil, and to ensure free consumer choice, there is a need to find a convenient and rapid method for detection of irradiated food. Since treatment with ionising radiation causes DNA fragmentation, the analysis of DNA damage might be promising. In this paper, the DNA Comet Assay was used to identify exotic meat (boar, jacaré and capybara), irradiated with 60Co gamma rays. The applied radiation doses were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy. Analysis of the DNA migration enabled a rapid identification of the radiation treatment.

  1. Seed oil polyphenols: rapid and sensitive extraction method and high resolution-mass spectrometry identification.

    PubMed

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Mhemdi, Houcine; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic content is a primary parameter for vegetables oil quality evaluation, and directly involved in the prevention of oxidation and oil preservation. Several methods have been reported in the literature for polyphenols extraction from seed oil but the approaches commonly used remain manually handled. In this work, we propose a rapid and sensitive method for seed oil polyphenols extraction and identification. For this purpose, polyphenols were extracted from Opuntia stricta Haw seed oil, using high frequency agitation, separated, and then identified using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method. Our results showed good sensitivity and reproducibility of the developed methods.

  2. Rapid complementation method for classifying excision repair-defective xeroderma pigmentosum cell strains.

    PubMed

    Cleaver, J E

    1982-11-01

    A rapid method has been developed that permits demonstration of complementation between different cell strains from ultraviolet-sensitive xeroderma pigmentosum patients. Combining polyethylene glycol-mediated cell fusion with low doses of ultraviolet light to eliminate unfused sensitive cells, the method permits assignment of cell strains to complementation groups by visual inspection, avoiding use of laborious methods involving autoradiography. This method can be augmented by measuring DNA repair synthesis, which shows large quantitative differences between fusions that result in complementation and those that do not.

  3. A rapid, quantitative GLC method for the simultaneous determination of nicotine and cotinine.

    PubMed

    Verebey, K G; DePace, A; Mulé, S J; Kanzler, M; Jaffe, J H

    1982-01-01

    Published gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) methods for the determination of nicotine and cotinine have proved impractical for the analysis of a large number of clinical samples. Significant improvements over other methods have been achieved, being low sample volume (0.5 mL plasma), rapid two-step extraction from plasma, no evaporation step, and good separation. The lower limits of sensitivity for nicotine and cotinine were 1 and 5 ng/mL, respectively. The method was validated by the analysis of plasma samples from cigarette-smoking volunteers. The method described permits the quick, routine determination of nicotine and cotinine in a large number of samples.

  4. [A new rapid antibiotic susceptibility test for enteric bacteria using a color change method].

    PubMed

    Kocagöz, T; Hayran, M; Kocagöz, S

    1988-01-01

    The rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests that have been developed so far cannot be used in daily work, because of their many difficulties and disadvantages. We have developed a new antibiotic susceptibility test for enteric bacteria which gives the result in 4 hours, easy to perform and inexpensive. This method depends upon the mechanism which detects the acid formed by the bacteria, by the change of the color of the pH indicator in the medium. The susceptibility of 110 different isolates of enteric bacteria (E. coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Shigella, Proteus, Enterobacter) to ampicillin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, cephradine, cefazolin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and ofloxacin is examined by this new "Rapid Color Change Test" and disc diffusion method. For most organisms tested, there was a good correlation between the results of the two methods. The overall agreement is found to be 91.43%.

  5. Studies on the Rapid Methods for Evaluating Seed Vigor of Sweet Corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guangwu; Yang, Linlin; Wang, Jianhua; Zhu, Zhujun

    Since the germination test is still the main method for evaluating seed vigor of sweet corn, it is necessary to study the rapid methods for evaluating their vigor. First, two vigor levels of 9 super sweet corn and 9 sugar enhanced corn hybrids were distinguished by accelerated ageing treatment. Next, their vigor statuses were tested by rapid methods such as electrical conductivity (EC), soluble sugar (SS), volatile aldehyde (VA), dehydrogenase activity (DA) and Q2 oxygen sensing technology. Correlation relationship was analyzed between the above tested values and vigor performances. The results showed that EC, SS, VA, DA, oxygen metabolism rate (OMR), critical oxygen pressure (COP) were all suitable to evaluate seed vigor of sweet corn. Furthermore, VA was optimal for evaluating seed vigor of super sweet corn. DA was optimal for evaluating sugar enhanced corn.

  6. Relative Radiometric Normalization and Atmospheric Correction of a SPOT 5 Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Hajj, Mahmoud El; Bégué, Agnès; Lafrance, Bruno; Hagolle, Olivier; Dedieu, Gérard; Rumeau, Matthieu

    2008-01-01

    Multi-temporal images acquired at high spatial and temporal resolution are an important tool for detecting change and analyzing trends, especially in agricultural applications. However, to insure a reliable use of this kind of data, a rigorous radiometric normalization step is required. Normalization can be addressed by performing an atmospheric correction of each image in the time series. The main problem is the difficulty of obtaining an atmospheric characterization at a given acquisition date. In this paper, we investigate whether relative radiometric normalization can substitute for atmospheric correction. We develop an automatic method for relative radiometric normalization based on calculating linear regressions between unnormalized and reference images. Regressions are obtained using the reflectances of automatically selected invariant targets. We compare this method with an atmospheric correction method that uses the 6S model. The performances of both methods are compared using 18 images from of a SPOT 5 time series acquired over Reunion Island. Results obtained for a set of manually selected invariant targets show excellent agreement between the two methods in all spectral bands: values of the coefficient of determination (r2 exceed 0.960, and bias magnitude values are less than 2.65. There is also a strong correlation between normalized NDVI values of sugarcane fields (r2 = 0.959). Despite a relative error of 12.66% between values, very comparable NDVI patterns are observed. PMID:27879849

  7. Rapid Column Extraction Method for Actinides and Sr-89/90 in Water Samples

    SciTech Connect

    MAXWELL III, SHERROD L.

    2005-06-15

    The SRS Environmental Laboratory analyzes water samples for environmental monitoring, including river water and ground water samples. A new, faster actinide and strontium 89/90 separation method has been developed and implemented to improve productivity, reduce labor costs and add capacity to this laboratory. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and Sr-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), curium (Cm) and thorium (Th) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized. The method can be used for routine analysis or as a rapid method for emergency preparedness. Thorium and curium are often analyzed separately due to the interference of the daughter of Th-229 tracer, actinium (Ac)-225, on curium isotopes when measured by alpha spectrometry. This new method also adds a separation step using DGA Resin{reg_sign}, (Diglycolamide Resin, Eichrom Technologies) to remove Ac-225 and allow the separation and analysis of thorium isotopes and curium isotopes at the same time.

  8. Determination of rapid chlorination rate constants by a stopped-flow spectrophotometric competition kinetics method.

    PubMed

    Song, Dean; Liu, Huijuan; Qiang, Zhimin; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-05-15

    Free chlorine is extensively used for water and wastewater disinfection nowadays. However, it still remains a big challenge to determine the rate constants of rapid chlorination reactions although competition kinetics and stopped-flow spectrophotometric (SFS) methods have been employed individually to investigate fast reaction kinetics. In this work, we proposed an SFS competition kinetics method to determine the rapid chlorination rate constants by using a common colorimetric reagent, N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD), as a reference probe. A kinetic equation was first derived to estimate the reaction rate constant of DPD towards chlorine under a given pH and temperature condition. Then, on that basis, an SFS competition kinetics method was proposed to determine directly the chlorination rate constants of several representative compounds including tetracycline, ammonia, and four α-amino acids. Although Cl2O is more reactive than HOCl, its contribution to the overall chlorination kinetics of the test compounds could be neglected in this study. Finally, the developed method was validated through comparing the experimentally measured chlorination rate constants of the selected compounds with those obtained or calculated from literature and analyzing with Taft's correlation as well. This study demonstrates that the SFS competition kinetics method can measure the chlorination rate constants of a test compound rapidly and accurately.

  9. PHASS99: A software program for retrieving and decoding the radiometric ages of igneous rocks from the international database IGBADAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mishwat, Ali T.

    2016-05-01

    PHASS99 is a FORTRAN program designed to retrieve and decode radiometric and other physical age information of igneous rocks contained in the international database IGBADAT (Igneous Base Data File). In the database, ages are stored in a proprietary format using mnemonic representations. The program can handle up to 99 ages in an igneous rock specimen and caters to forty radiometric age systems. The radiometric age alphanumeric strings assigned to each specimen description in the database consist of four components: the numeric age and its exponential modifier, a four-character mnemonic method identification, a two-character mnemonic name of analysed material, and the reference number in the rock group bibliography vector. For each specimen, the program searches for radiometric age strings, extracts them, parses them, decodes the different age components, and converts them to high-level English equivalents. IGBADAT and similarly-structured files are used for input. The output includes three files: a flat raw ASCII text file containing retrieved radiometric age information, a generic spreadsheet-compatible file for data import to spreadsheets, and an error file. PHASS99 builds on the old program TSTPHA (Test Physical Age) decoder program and expands greatly its capabilities. PHASS99 is simple, user friendly, fast, efficient, and does not require users to have knowledge of programing.

  10. Adapting and Evaluating a Rapid, Low-Cost Method to Enumerate Flies in the Household Setting.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Marlene K; Dentz, Holly N; Achando, Beryl; Mureithi, MaryAnne; Wolfe, Tim; Null, Clair; Pickering, Amy J

    2017-02-08

    Diarrhea is a leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age worldwide. Flies are important vectors of diarrheal pathogens in settings lacking networked sanitation services. There is no standardized method for measuring fly density in households; many methods are cumbersome and unvalidated. We adapted a rapid, low-cost fly enumeration technique previously developed for industrial settings, the Scudder fly grill, for field use in household settings. We evaluated its performance in comparison to a sticky tape fly trapping method at latrine and food preparation areas among households in rural Kenya. The grill method was more sensitive; it detected the presence of any flies at 80% (433/543) of sampling locations versus 64% (348/543) of locations by the sticky tape. We found poor concordance between the two methods, suggesting that standardizing protocols is important for comparison of fly densities between studies. Fly species identification was feasible with both methods; however, the sticky tape trap allowed for more nuanced identification. Both methods detected a greater presence of bottle flies near latrines compared with food preparation areas (P < 0.01). The grill method detected more flies at the food preparation area compared with near the latrine (P = 0.014) while the sticky tape method detected no difference. We recommend the Scudder grill as a sensitive fly enumeration tool that is rapid and low cost to implement.

  11. Adapting and Evaluating a Rapid, Low-Cost Method to Enumerate Flies in the Household Setting

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Marlene K.; Dentz, Holly N.; Achando, Beryl; Mureithi, MaryAnne; Wolfe, Tim; Null, Clair; Pickering, Amy J.

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhea is a leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age worldwide. Flies are important vectors of diarrheal pathogens in settings lacking networked sanitation services. There is no standardized method for measuring fly density in households; many methods are cumbersome and unvalidated. We adapted a rapid, low-cost fly enumeration technique previously developed for industrial settings, the Scudder fly grill, for field use in household settings. We evaluated its performance in comparison to a sticky tape fly trapping method at latrine and food preparation areas among households in rural Kenya. The grill method was more sensitive; it detected the presence of any flies at 80% (433/543) of sampling locations versus 64% (348/543) of locations by the sticky tape. We found poor concordance between the two methods, suggesting that standardizing protocols is important for comparison of fly densities between studies. Fly species identification was feasible with both methods; however, the sticky tape trap allowed for more nuanced identification. Both methods detected a greater presence of bottle flies near latrines compared with food preparation areas (P < 0.01). The grill method detected more flies at the food preparation area compared with near the latrine (P = 0.014) while the sticky tape method detected no difference. We recommend the Scudder grill as a sensitive fly enumeration tool that is rapid and low cost to implement. PMID:27956654

  12. Calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, J. K.; Schildkraut, Elliot Robert; Bauldree, Russell S.; Goodrich, Shawn M.

    1996-06-01

    The calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer (CIGARS) is a new high performance, multi-purpose, multi- platform Fourier transform spectrometer (FPS) sensor. It covers the waveband from 0.2 to 12 micrometer, has spectral resolution as fine as 0.3 cm-1, and records over 100 spectra per second. Two CIGARS units are being used for observations of target signatures in the air or on the ground from fixed or moving platforms, including high performance jet aircraft. In this paper we describe the characteristics and capabilities of the CIGARS sensor, which uses four interchangeable detector modules (Si, InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe) and two optics modules, with internal calibration. The data recording electronics support observations of transient events, even without precise information on the timing of the event. We present test and calibration data on the sensitivity, spectral resolution, stability, and spectral rate of CIGARS, and examples of in- flight observations of real targets. We also discuss plans for adapting CIGARS for imaging spectroscopy observations, with simultaneous spectral and spatial data, by replacing the existing detectors with a focal plane array (FPA).

  13. Blast investigation by fast multispectral radiometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devir, A. D.; Bushlin, Y.; Mendelewicz, I.; Lessin, A. B.; Engel, M.

    2011-06-01

    Knowledge regarding the processes involved in blasts and detonations is required in various applications, e.g. missile interception, blasts of high-explosive materials, final ballistics and IED identification. Blasts release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some part of this energy is released as intense radiation in the optical spectral bands. This paper proposes to measure the blast radiation by a fast multispectral radiometer. The measurement is made, simultaneously, in appropriately chosen spectral bands. These spectral bands provide extensive information on the physical and chemical processes that govern the blast through the time-dependence of the molecular and aerosol contributions to the detonation products. Multi-spectral blast measurements are performed in the visible, SWIR and MWIR spectral bands. Analysis of the cross-correlation between the measured multi-spectral signals gives the time dependence of the temperature, aerosol and gas composition of the blast. Farther analysis of the development of these quantities in time may indicate on the order of the detonation and amount and type of explosive materials. Examples of analysis of measured explosions are presented to demonstrate the power of the suggested fast multispectral radiometric analysis approach.

  14. Radiometric Measurements of Powerline Cables at 94 GHz

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-01

    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Radiometric Measurements of Powerline Cables at 94 GHz David A. Wikner and Thomas J. Pizzillo ARL-TR-837 February 2001...MD 20783-1197 ARL-TR-837 February 2001 Radiometric Measurements of Powerline Cables at 94 GHz David A. Wikner and Thomas J. Pizzillo Sensors and...collision avoidance system," Proc. SPIE 3088 (April 1997), pp 57-63. 5. D. Wikner and T. Pizzillo, "Measurement of nadir and near-nadir 94-GHz

  15. Quantifying the Dynamic Ocean Surface Using Underwater Radiometric Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Radiometric Measurements Dick K.P. Yue Center for Ocean Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Room 5-321 77 Massachusetts Ave...comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 SEP 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES ...COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantifying the Dynamic Ocean Surface Using Underwater Radiometric Measurements 5a

  16. Quantifying the Dynamic Ocean Surface Using Underwater Radiometric Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Radiometric Measurement Lian Shen Department of Mechanical Engineering & St. Anthony Falls Laboratory University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 SEP 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00...2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantifying the Dynamic Ocean Surface Using Underwater Radiometric Measurement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  17. Rapid diagnostic methods for influenza virus in clinical specimens - A comparative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A. S.; Olson, B.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of five rapid viral diagnostic techniques for identifying influenza virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates has been made on patients with influenza-like illnesses. Initial results with immune electron microscopy were positive in only one of 11 specimens from which virus was isolated and further work abandoned. Four other rapid tests were carried out on 39 specimens from which influenza virus had been isolated in tissue culture in 28. Of these 28 specimens yielding virus, 24 (85.7 percent) were positive by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) on nasopharyngeal cells, 18 (64.3 percent) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 19 (67.8 percent) by enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and 26 (92.8 percent) by a rapid tissue culture amplification method (TCA) in a continuous Rhesus monkey kidney line (LLC-MK2) with identification of virus by fluorescent antibody. In terms of sensitivity, simplicity, and rapidity, a combination of the IFAT and TCA methods seems to be very useful.

  18. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of pigeon circovirus.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shinn Shyong; Chang, Yeng Ling; Huang, Yen Li; Liu, Hung Jen; Ke, Guan Ming; Chiou, Chwei Jang; Hsieh, Yao Ching; Chang, Tsung Chou; Cheng, Li Ting; Chuang, Kuo Pin

    2014-05-01

    There are no effective antiviral treatments for pigeon circovirus (PiCV); thus, rapid diagnosis is critical for effective control of the disease caused by this virus. The recent development of a novel LAMP technique that amplifies nucleic acids rapidly with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions has overcome some of the deficiencies of nucleic-acid-based diagnostic tests. We established a LAMP method for rapid detection of PiCV using two pairs of primers that were designed from PiCV and compared its sensitivity and specificity with that of PCR. Amplification by LAMP was optimal at 63 °C for 60 min. The detection limit was nearly 0.5 pg of PiCV DNA, making it ten times more sensitive than PCR. There was no cross-reaction with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), pigeon Trichomonas gallinae, or pigeon herpesvirus (PHV) under the same conditions. The assay also successfully detected the pathogen DNA in the tissues of infected pigeons. This is the first report indicating that LAMP is a valuable, rapid method of detecting PiCV with high sensitivity and specificity.

  19. Application of Rapid Prototyping Methods to High-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken in MSFC's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel to determine if rapid prototyping methods could be used in the design and manufacturing of high speed wind tunnel models in direct testing applications, and if these methods would reduce model design/fabrication time and cost while providing models of high enough fidelity to provide adequate aerodynamic data, and of sufficient strength to survive the test environment. Rapid prototyping methods utilized to construct wind tunnel models in a wing-body-tail configuration were: fused deposition method using both ABS plastic and PEEK as building materials, stereolithography using the photopolymer SL-5170, selective laser sintering using glass reinforced nylon, and laminated object manufacturing using plastic reinforced with glass and 'paper'. This study revealed good agreement between the SLA model, the metal model with an FDM-ABS nose, an SLA nose, and the metal model for most operating conditions, while the FDM-ABS data diverged at higher loading conditions. Data from the initial SLS model showed poor agreement due to problems in post-processing, resulting in a different configuration. A second SLS model was tested and showed relatively good agreement. It can be concluded that rapid prototyping models show promise in preliminary aerodynamic development studies at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds.

  20. RAPID METHOD FOR PLUTONIUM, AMERICIUM AND CURIUM IN VERY LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S

    2007-01-08

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in very large soil samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multistage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines an acid leach step and innovative matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. This method is unique in that it provides high tracer recoveries and effective removal of interferences with small extraction chromatography columns instead of large ion exchange resin columns that generate large amounts of acid waste. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  1. Rapid method for the determination of 226Ra in hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Warren, Richard A.; ...

    2016-03-24

    A new method that rapidly preconcentrates and measures 226Ra from hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples was developed in the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory. The method improves the quality of 226Ra measurements using gamma spectrometry by providing up to 100x preconcentration of 226Ra from this difficult sample matrix, which contains very high levels of calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium and sodium. The high chemical yield, typically 80-90%, facilitates a low detection limit, important for lower level samples, and indicates method ruggedness. Ba-133 tracer is used to determine chemical yield and correct for geometry-related counting issues. The 226Ra sample preparation takes < 2 hours.

  2. Rapid methods for testing the efficacy of sterilization-grade filter membranes.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M H; Andrew, P W; Ball, P R; Hall, G M

    2000-08-01

    The validation of sterilization-grade membranes is integral to ensuring the efficient and safe use of microfiltration systems. Here validation refers to the production of sterile filtrate for sterilizing-grade membranes under challenge test conditions. Current validation methods require 48 h of culture for results to become available, which creates time delays within the manufacturing process and quality control (QC) backlogs. This work compares four methods for the production of filter challenge test data, to the desired test sensitivity, within 24 h using bioluminescent and fluorescent recombinant strains of the test organism Brevundimonas diminuta. These methods should provide a way to implement more rapid QC test regimens for filters.

  3. Rapid simulation of electromagnetic telemetry using an axisymmetric semianalytical finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiefu; Zeng, Shubin; Dong, Qiuzhao; Huang, Yueqin

    2017-02-01

    An axisymmetric semianalytical finite element method is proposed and employed for rapid simulations of electromagnetic telemetry in layered underground formation. In this method, the layered media is decomposed into several subdomains and the interfaces between subdomains are discretized by conventional finite elements. Then a Riccati equation based high precision integration scheme is applied to exploit the homogeneity along the vertical direction in each layer. This semianalytical finite element scheme is very efficient in modeling electromagnetic telemetry in layered formation. Numerical examples as well as a field case with water based mud as drilling fluid are given to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of this method.

  4. Impact of the cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determining spectral reflectance coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orych, A.; Walczykowski, P.; Jenerowicz, A.; Zdunek, Z.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays remote sensing plays a very important role in many different study fields, i.e. environmental studies, hydrology, mineralogy, ecosystem studies, etc. One of the key areas of remote sensing applications is water quality monitoring. Understanding and monitoring of the water quality parameters and detecting different water contaminants is an important issue in water management and protection of whole environment and especially the water ecosystem. There are many remote sensing methods to monitor water quality and detect water pollutants. One of the most widely used method for substance detection with remote sensing techniques is based on usage of spectral reflectance coefficients. They are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements. These however can be very time consuming, therefore image-based methods are used more and more often. In order to work out the proper methodology of obtaining spectral reflectance coefficients from hyperspectral and multispectral images, it is necessary to verify the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determination of them. This paper presents laboratory experiments that were conducted using two monochromatic XEVA video sensors (400-1700 nm spectral data registration) with two different radiometric resolutions (12 and 14 bits). In view of determining spectral characteristics from images, the research team used set of interferometric filters. All data collected with multispectral digital video cameras were compared with spectral reflectance coefficients obtained with spectroradiometer. The objective of this research is to find the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on reflectance values in chosen wavelength. The main topic of this study is the analysis of accuracy of spectral coefficients from sensors with different radiometric resolution. By comparing values collected from images acquired with XEVA sensors and with the curves obtained with spectroradiometer it

  5. The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Ding, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The need for independent, redundant absolute radiometric calibration methods is discussed with reference to the Thematic Mapper. Uncertainty requirements for absolute calibration of between 0.5 and 4 percent are defined based on the accuracy of reflectance retrievals at an agricultural site. It is shown that even very approximate atmospheric corrections can reduce the error in reflectance retrieval to 0.02 over the reflectance range 0 to 0.4.

  6. Melting Temperature Mapping Method: A Novel Method for Rapid Identification of Unknown Pathogenic Microorganisms within Three Hours of Sample Collection.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Hideki; Ueno, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Shirou; Abe, Akihito; Tsurue, Takahiro; Mori, Masashi; Tabata, Homare; Minami, Hiroshi; Goto, Michihiko; Akiyama, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Saito, Shigeru; Kitajima, Isao

    2015-07-28

    Acquiring the earliest possible identification of pathogenic microorganisms is critical for selecting the appropriate antimicrobial therapy in infected patients. We herein report the novel "melting temperature (Tm) mapping method" for rapidly identifying the dominant bacteria in a clinical sample from sterile sites. Employing only seven primer sets, more than 100 bacterial species can be identified. In particular, using the Difference Value, it is possible to identify samples suitable for Tm mapping identification. Moreover, this method can be used to rapidly diagnose the absence of bacteria in clinical samples. We tested the Tm mapping method using 200 whole blood samples obtained from patients with suspected sepsis, 85% (171/200) of which matched the culture results based on the detection level. A total of 130 samples were negative according to the Tm mapping method, 98% (128/130) of which were also negative based on the culture method. Meanwhile, 70 samples were positive according to the Tm mapping method, and of the 59 suitable for identification, 100% (59/59) exhibited a "match" or "broad match" with the culture or sequencing results. These findings were obtained within three hours of whole blood collection. The Tm mapping method is therefore useful for identifying infectious diseases requiring prompt treatment.

  7. Evaluation of methods for rapid determination of freezing point of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathiprakasam, B.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for identification of the more promising concepts for the development of a portable instrument to rapidly determine the freezing point of aviation fuels are described. The evaluation process consisted of: (1) collection of information on techniques previously used for the determination of the freezing point, (2) screening and selection of these techniques for further evaluation of their suitability in a portable unit for rapid measurement, and (3) an extensive experimental evaluation of the selected techniques and a final selection of the most promising technique. Test apparatuses employing differential thermal analysis and the change in optical transparency during phase change were evaluated and tested. A technique similar to differential thermal analysis using no reference fuel was investigated. In this method, the freezing point was obtained by digitizing the data and locating the point of inflection. Results obtained using this technique compare well with those obtained elsewhere using different techniques. A conceptual design of a portable instrument incorporating this technique is presented.

  8. A modified cluster-sampling method for post-disaster rapid assessment of needs.

    PubMed Central

    Malilay, J.; Flanders, W. D.; Brogan, D.

    1996-01-01

    The cluster-sampling method can be used to conduct rapid assessment of health and other needs in communities affected by natural disasters. It is modelled on WHO's Expanded Programme on Immunization method of estimating immunization coverage, but has been modified to provide (1) estimates of the population remaining in an area, and (2) estimates of the number of people in the post-disaster area with specific needs. This approach differs from that used previously in other disasters where rapid needs assessments only estimated the proportion of the population with specific needs. We propose a modified n x k survey design to estimate the remaining population, severity of damage, the proportion and number of people with specific needs, the number of damaged or destroyed and remaining housing units, and the changes in these estimates over a period of time as part of the survey. PMID:8823962

  9. Ultrasonic-assisted deacetylation of cellulose acetate nanofibers: A rapid method to produce cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Farooq; Ayoub Arbab, Alvira; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Khatri, Muzamil; Memon, Najma; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2017-05-01

    Herein we report a rapid method for deacetylation of cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers in order to produce cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy. The CA nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning thereby treated with NaOH and NaOH/EtOH solutions at various pH levels for 30, 60 and 90min assisted by ultrasonic energy. The nanofiber webs were optimized by degree of deacetylation (DD%) and wicking behavior. The resultant nanofibers were further characterized by FTIR, SEM, WAXD, DSC analysis. The DD% and FTIR results confirmed a complete conversion of CA nanofibers to cellulose nanofibers within 1h with substantial increase of wicking height. Nanofibers morphology under SEM showed slightly swelling and no damage of nanofibers observed by use of ultrasonic energy. The results of ultrasonic-assisted deacetylation are comparable with the conventional deacetylation. Our rapid method offers substantially reduced deacetylation time from 30h to just 1h, thanks to the ultrasonic energy.

  10. Development of a rapid and simple voltammetric method to determine total antioxidative capacity of edible oils.

    PubMed

    Gulaboski, Rubin; Mirčeski, Valentin; Mitrev, Saša

    2013-05-01

    In this work we report on a new, rapid and simple voltammetric method to determine the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the edible oils. The method explores the ABTS radical (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) assay as a redox probe and it relays on measuring catalytic voltammetric currents. The electrocatalysis comprises redox regeneration of the electrochemically created ABTS(+) radical either by Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethychroman-2-carboxylic acid) or by antioxidants present in studied oils. The detection limit of the method is determined to be 0.5 mg/L of Trolox equivalent, being a slightly lower than the corresponding UV-VIS spectrophotometric method. Applying the proposed voltammetric method the total antioxidant capacity of three types of commercially available cold-pressed edible oils are determined, and the results are found to be in a very good agreement with those obtained by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The reported voltammetric method is cheap, rapid and simple, and it can be used as a sustainable alternative to the UV-VIS methods for the determination of total antioxidant capacitance of oils and other liquid lipophilic nutrients. Potent antioxidant capacity of studied oils was also confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of superoxide anion produced by macrophages.

  11. Revised Radiometric Calibration Technique for LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J.; Butlin, T.; Duff, P.; Fitzgerald, A.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for the radiometric correction of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper data was proposed by the Canada Center for Remote Sensing. Subsequent detailed observations of raw image data, raw radiometric calibration data and background measurements extracted from the raw data stream on High Density Tape highlighted major shortcomings in the proposed method which if left uncorrected, can cause severe radiometric striping in the output product. Results are presented which correlate measurements of the DC background with variations in both image data background and calibration samples. The effect on both raw data and on data corrected using the earlier proposed technique is explained, and the correction required for these factors as a function of individual scan line number for each detector is described. It is shown how the revised technique can be incorporated into an operational environment.

  12. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two base labeling

    DOEpatents

    Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Posner, R.G.; Marrone, B.L.; Hammond, M.L.; Simpson, D.J.

    1995-04-11

    A method is described for rapid-base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two-base labeling and employing fluorescent detection of single molecules at two wavelengths. Bases modified to accept fluorescent labels are used to replicate a single DNA or RNA strand to be sequenced. The bases are then sequentially cleaved from the replicated strand, excited with a chosen spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, and the fluorescence from individual, tagged bases detected in the order of cleavage from the strand. 4 figures.

  13. Rapid direct methods for enumeration of specific, active bacteria in water and biofilms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; Pyle, B. H.; Lisle, J. T.; Broadaway, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    Conventional methods for detecting indicator and pathogenic bacteria in water may underestimate the actual population due to sublethal environmental injury, inability of the target bacteria to take up nutrients and other physiological factors which reduce bacterial culturability. Rapid and direct methods are needed to more accurately detect and enumerate active bacteria. Such a methodological advance would provide greater sensitivity in assessing the microbiological safety of water and food. The principle goal of this presentation is to describe novel approaches we have formulated for the rapid and simultaneous detection of bacteria plus the determination of their physiological activity in water and other environmental samples. The present version of our method involves the concentration of organisms by membrane filtration or immunomagnetic separation and combines an intracellular fluorochrome (CTC) for assessment of respiratory activity plus fluorescent-labelled antibody detection of specific bacteria. This approach has also been successfully used to demonstrate spatial and temporal heterogeneities of physiological activities in biofilms when coupled with cryosectioning. Candidate physiological stains include those capable of determining respiratory activity, membrane potential, membrane integrity, growth rate and cellular enzymatic activities. Results obtained thus far indicate that immunomagnetic separation can provide a high degree of sensitivity in the recovery of seeded target bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7) in water and hamburger. The captured and stained target bacteria are then enumerated by either conventional fluorescence microscopy or ChemScan(R), a new instrument that is very sensitive and rapid. The ChemScan(R) laser scanning instrument (Chemunex, Paris, France) provides the detection of individual fluorescently labelled bacterial cells using three emission channels in less than 5 min. A high degree of correlation has been demonstrated between

  14. Method for rapid base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two base labeling

    DOEpatents

    Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Martin, John C.; Posner, Richard G.; Marrone, Babetta L.; Hammond, Mark L.; Simpson, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Method for rapid-base sequencing in DNA and RNA with two-base labeling and employing fluorescent detection of single molecules at two wavelengths. Bases modified to accept fluorescent labels are used to replicate a single DNA or RNA strand to be sequenced. The bases are then sequentially cleaved from the replicated strand, excited with a chosen spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, and the fluorescence from individual, tagged bases detected in the order of cleavage from the strand.

  15. An Innovative Method for Rapid Identification and Detection of Vibrio alginolyticus in Different Infection Models

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kaifei; Li, Jun; Wang, Yuxiao; Liu, Jianfei; Yan, He; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus is one of the most common pathogenic marine Vibrio species, and has been found to cause serious seafood-poisoning or fatal extra-intestinal infections in humans, such as necrotizing soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, septic shock, and multiple organ failures. Delayed accurate diagnosis and treatment of most Vibrio infections usually result to high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid diagnostic method to detect and identify the presence of V. alginolyticus in different samples, so as to facilitate timely treatment. The widely employed conventional methods for detection of V. alginolyticus include biochemical identification and a variety of PCR methods. The former is of low specificity and time-consuming (2–3 days), while the latter has improved accuracy and processing time. Despite such advancements, these methods are still complicated, time-consuming, expensive, require expertise and advanced laboratory systems, and are not optimal for field use. With the goal of providing a simple and efficient way to detect V. alginolyticus, we established a rapid diagnostic method based on loop-mediated Isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology that is feasible to use in both experimental and field environments. Three primer pairs targeting the toxR gene of V. alginolyticus were designed, and amplification was carried out in an ESE tube scanner and Real-Time PCR device. We successfully identified 93 V. alginolyticus strains from a total of 105 different bacterial isolates and confirmed their identity by 16s rDNA sequencing. We also applied this method on infected mouse blood and contaminated scallop samples, and accurate results were both easily and rapidly (20–60 min) obtained. Therefore, the RT-LAMP assay we developed can be conveniently used to detect the presence of V. alginolyticus in different samples. Furthermore, this method will also fulfill the gap for real-time screening of V. alginolyticus infections

  16. A Direct and Rapid Method to Determine Cyanide in Urine by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiyang; Maddukuri, Naveen; Gong, Maojun

    2015-01-01

    Cyanides are poisonous chemicals that widely exist in nature and industrial processes as well as accidental fires. Rapid and accurate determination of cyanide exposure would facilitate forensic investigation, medical diagnosis, and chronic cyanide monitoring. Here, a rapid and direct method was developed for the determination of cyanide ions in urinary samples. This technique was based on an integrated capillary electrophoresis system coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Cyanide ions were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and a primary amine (glycine) for LIF detection. Three separate reagents, NDA, glycine, and cyanide sample, were mixed online, which secured uniform conditions between samples for cyanide derivatization and reduced the risk of precipitation formation of mixtures. Conditions were optimized; the derivatization was completed in 2-4 minutes, and the separation was observed in 25 s. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0 nM at 3-fold signal-to-noise ratio for standard cyanide in buffer. The cyanide levels in urine samples from smokers and non-smokers were determined by using the method of standard addition, which demonstrated significant difference of cyanide levels in urinary samples from the two groups of people. The developed method was rapid and accurate, and is anticipated to be applicable to cyanide detection in waste water with appropriate modification. PMID:26342870

  17. Rapid method to determine 89Sr/90Sr in large concrete samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; ...

    2016-03-24

    Here, a new rapid method has been developed that provides high quality low-level measurements of 89,90Sr in concrete samples with an MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity) of <1 mBq g-1. The new method is fast, meets new decommissioning regulatory limits and is robust even if refractory particles are present. The method utilizes a rapid fusion to ensure total dissolution of samples and rapid preconcentration and separation of 89,90Sr from 5-10 g concrete samples. When, the 89Sr/90Sr ratio is high, Sr can be isolated from up to 5g concrete samples, total 89/90Sr measured, and then 90Sr determined via 90Y separated after amore » period of ingrowth. Another approach allows the immediate determination of 90Sr in 10 g concrete aliquots without waiting for 90Y ingrowth, in instances where the shorter lived 89Sr is unlikely to be encountered.« less

  18. A direct and rapid method to determine cyanide in urine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiyang; Maddukuri, Naveen; Gong, Maojun

    2015-10-02

    Cyanides are poisonous chemicals that widely exist in nature and industrial processes as well as accidental fires. Rapid and accurate determination of cyanide exposure would facilitate forensic investigation, medical diagnosis, and chronic cyanide monitoring. Here, a rapid and direct method was developed for the determination of cyanide ions in urinary samples. This technique was based on an integrated capillary electrophoresis system coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Cyanide ions were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and a primary amine (glycine) for LIF detection. Three separate reagents, NDA, glycine, and cyanide sample, were mixed online, which secured uniform conditions between samples for cyanide derivatization and reduced the risk of precipitation formation of mixtures. Conditions were optimized; the derivatization was completed in 2-4min, and the separation was observed in 25s. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0nM at 3-fold signal-to-noise ratio for standard cyanide in buffer. The cyanide levels in urine samples from smokers and non-smokers were determined by using the method of standard addition, which demonstrated significant difference of cyanide levels in urinary samples from the two groups of people. The developed method was rapid and accurate, and is anticipated to be applicable to cyanide detection in waste water with appropriate modification.

  19. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): reactor-accident assessment methods. Vol. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    As part of the continuing emphasis on emergency preparedness, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the development of a rapid dose assessment system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This system, the Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program for rapidly assessing the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. This document describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations. IRDAM calculates whole body (5-cm depth) and infant thyroid doses at six fixed downwind distances between 500 and 20,000 meters. Radionuclides considered primarily consist of noble gases and radioiodines. In order to provide a rapid assessment capability consistent with the capacity of the Osborne-1 computer, certain simplifying approximations and assumptions are made. These are described, along with default values (assumptions used in the absence of specific input) in the text of this document. Two companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The user's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Scenarios for Comparing Dose Assessment Models (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 3) provides the results of calculations made by IRDAM and other models for specific accident scenarios.

  20. Melting Temperature Mapping Method: A Novel Method for Rapid Identification of Unknown Pathogenic Microorganisms within Three Hours of Sample Collection

    PubMed Central

    Niimi, Hideki; Ueno, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Shirou; Abe, Akihito; Tsurue, Takahiro; Mori, Masashi; Tabata, Homare; Minami, Hiroshi; Goto, Michihiko; Akiyama, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Saito, Shigeru; Kitajima, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring the earliest possible identification of pathogenic microorganisms is critical for selecting the appropriate antimicrobial therapy in infected patients. We herein report the novel “melting temperature (Tm) mapping method” for rapidly identifying the dominant bacteria in a clinical sample from sterile sites. Employing only seven primer sets, more than 100 bacterial species can be identified. In particular, using the Difference Value, it is possible to identify samples suitable for Tm mapping identification. Moreover, this method can be used to rapidly diagnose the absence of bacteria in clinical samples. We tested the Tm mapping method using 200 whole blood samples obtained from patients with suspected sepsis, 85% (171/200) of which matched the culture results based on the detection level. A total of 130 samples were negative according to the Tm mapping method, 98% (128/130) of which were also negative based on the culture method. Meanwhile, 70 samples were positive according to the Tm mapping method, and of the 59 suitable for identification, 100% (59/59) exhibited a “match” or “broad match” with the culture or sequencing results. These findings were obtained within three hours of whole blood collection. The Tm mapping method is therefore useful for identifying infectious diseases requiring prompt treatment. PMID:26218169

  1. Reduction of Striping Noise in Overlapping LIDAR Intensity Data by Radiometric Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wai Yeung; Shaker, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    To serve seamless mapping, airborne LiDAR data are usually collected with multiple parallel strips with one or two cross strip(s). Nevertheless, the overlapping regions of LiDAR data strips are usually found with unbalanced intensity values, resulting in the appearance of stripping noise. Despite that physical intensity correction methods are recently proposed, some of the system and environmental parameters are assumed as constant or not disclosed, leading to such an intensity discrepancy. This paper presents a new normalization technique to adjust the radiometric misalignment found in the overlapping LiDAR data strips. The normalization technique is built upon a second-order polynomial function fitted on the joint histogram plot, which is generated with a set of pairwise closest data points identified within the overlapping region. The method was tested on Teledyne Optech's Gemini dataset (at 1064 nm wavelength), where the LiDAR intensity data were first radiometrically corrected based on the radar (range) equation. Five land cover features were selected to evaluate the coefficient of variation (cv) of the intensity values before and after implementing the proposed method. Reduction of cv was found by 19% to 59% in the Gemini dataset, where the striping noise was significantly reduced in the radiometrically corrected and normalized intensity data. The Gemini dataset was also used to conduct land cover classification, and the overall accuracy yielded a notable improvement of 9% to 18%. As a result, LiDAR intensity data should be pre-processed with radiometric correction and normalization prior to any data manipulation.

  2. Rapid method to detect duplex formation in sequencing by hybridization methods

    DOEpatents

    Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich; Timofeev, Edward Nikolaevich; Florentiev, Vladimer Leonidovich; Kirillov, Eugene Vladislavovich

    1999-01-01

    A method for determining the existence of duplexes of oligonucleotide complementary molecules is provided whereby a plurality of immobilized oligonucleotide molecules, each of a specific length and each having a specific base sequence, is contacted with complementary, single stranded oligonucleotide molecules to form a duplex so as to facilitate intercalation of a fluorescent dye between the base planes of the duplex. The invention also provides for a method for constructing oligonucleotide matrices comprising confining light sensitive fluid to a surface, exposing said light-sensitive fluid to a light pattern so as to cause the fluid exposed to the light to coalesce into discrete units and adhere to the surface; and contacting each of the units with a set of different oligonucleotide molecules so as to allow the molecules to disperse into the units.

  3. Rapid method to detect duplex formation in sequencing by hybridization methods

    DOEpatents

    Mirzabekov, A.D.; Timofeev, E.N.; Florentiev, V.L.; Kirillov, E.V.

    1999-01-19

    A method for determining the existence of duplexes of oligonucleotide complementary molecules is provided. A plurality of immobilized oligonucleotide molecules, each of a specific length and each having a specific base sequence, is contacted with complementary, single stranded oligonucleotide molecules to form a duplex. Each duplex facilitates intercalation of a fluorescent dye between the base planes of the duplex. The invention also provides for a method for constructing oligonucleotide matrices comprising confining light sensitive fluid to a surface and exposing the light-sensitive fluid to a light pattern. This causes the fluid exposed to the light to coalesce into discrete units and adhere to the surface. This places each of the units in contact with a set of different oligonucleotide molecules so as to allow the molecules to disperse into the units. 13 figs.

  4. Multifrequency excitation method for rapid and accurate dynamic test of micromachined gyroscope chips.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yan; Zhou, Bin; Xing, Chao; Zhang, Rong

    2014-10-17

    A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE) method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE) method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes.

  5. A method of rapidly estimating the position of the laminar separation point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Doenhoff, Albert E

    1938-01-01

    A method is described of rapidly estimating the position of the laminar separation point from the given pressure distribution along a body; the method is applicable to a fairly wide variety of cases. The laminar separation point is found by the von Karman-Millikan method for a series of velocity distributions along a flat plate, which consist of a region of uniform velocity followed by a region of uniform decreased velocity. It is shown that such a velocity distribution can frequently replace the actual velocity distribution along a body insofar as the effects on laminar separation are concerned. An example of the application of the method is given by using it to calculate the position of the laminar separation point on the NACA 0012 airfoil section at zero lift. The agreement between the position of the separation point calculated according to the present method and that found from more elaborate computations is very good.

  6. Rapid air titration method for determining SO/sub 2/ concentration in inhalation chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, E.A.; Palmes, E.D.

    1985-06-01

    A rapid air titration method for determining SO/sub 2/ concentration in inhalation chambers has been validated using the pararosaniline-formaldehyde (PRA) method of West and Gaeke. This air-titration (iodate) method is an adaptation of iodometric methods using a starch indicator. Potassium iodate and an excess of potassium iodide are used in the reaction. Sampling is completed in ten minutes or less and concentration is calculated by use of a simple formula. Linear equations were derived over the range of concentrations from 0.5 to 100 ppm SO/sub 2/ for uncorrected iodate bubbler results, data corrected for tandem bubbler concentrations and data corrected for mean iodate bubbler efficiency. Linear correlation with the PRA method over this range was 0.999 for all three sets of data.

  7. Polymerase Chain Reaction/Rapid Methods Are Gaining a Foothold in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Ragheb, Suzan Mohammed; Jimenez, Luis

    Detection of microbial contamination in pharmaceutical raw materials and finished products is a critical factor to guarantee their safety, stability, and potency. Rapid microbiological methods-such as polymerase chain reaction-have been widely applied to clinical and food quality control analysis. However, polymerase chain reaction applications to pharmaceutical quality control have been rather slow and sporadic. Successful implementation of these methods in pharmaceutical companies in developing countries requires important considerations to provide sensitive and robust assays that will comply with good manufacturing practices.

  8. Rapid method for protein quantitation by Bradford assay after elimination of the interference of polysorbate 80.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yongfeng; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    Bradford assay is one of the most common methods for measuring protein concentrations. However, some pharmaceutical excipients, such as detergents, interfere with Bradford assay even at low concentrations. Protein precipitation can be used to overcome sample incompatibility with protein quantitation. But the rate of protein recovery caused by acetone precipitation is only about 70%. In this study, we found that sucrose not only could increase the rate of protein recovery after 1 h acetone precipitation, but also did not interfere with Bradford assay. So we developed a method for rapid protein quantitation in protein drugs even if they contained interfering substances.

  9. Isolation of four ecdysones from Ajuga iva roots and a rapid semiquantitative method for ecdysone determination.

    PubMed

    Sabri, N N; Asaad, A; Khafagy, S M

    1981-07-01

    The ethereal extract of AJUGA IVA (L.) S CHREB. roots, yielded 4 ecdysones. Three were proved to be cyasterone, makisterone A and ecdysterone, by using UV, IR, MS spectral methods and comparison with standard samples. Spectral data indicate that the fourth ecdysone is similar to cyasterone but having an additional hydroxy group in the side-chain. The chromatographic pattern of ecdysone content in roots, stems and leaves is presented as well as a rapid and simple Semiquantitative method for their estimation. The roots had the highest total content (0.381%).

  10. A rapid method for the computation of equilibrium chemical composition of air to 15000 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, Ramadas K.; Erickson, Wayne D.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid computational method has been developed to determine the chemical composition of equilibrium air to 15000 K. Eleven chemically reacting species, i.e., O2, N2, O, NO, N, NO+, e-, N+, O+, Ar, and Ar+ are included. The method involves combining algebraically seven nonlinear equilibrium equations and four linear elemental mass balance and charge neutrality equations. Computational speeds for determining the equilibrium chemical composition are significantly faster than the often used free energy minimization procedure. Data are also included from which the thermodynamic properties of air can be computed. A listing of the computer program together with a set of sample results are included.

  11. Comparison of concentration methods for rapid detection of hookworm ova in wastewater matrices using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, P; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    Hookworm infection contributes around 700 million infections worldwide especially in developing nations due to increased use of wastewater for crop production. The effective recovery of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices is difficult due to their low concentrations and heterogeneous distribution. In this study, we compared the recovery rates of (i) four rapid hookworm ova concentration methods from municipal wastewater, and (ii) two concentration methods from sludge samples. Ancylostoma caninum ova were used as surrogate for human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). Known concentration of A. caninum hookworm ova were seeded into wastewater (treated and raw) and sludge samples collected from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Brisbane and Perth, Australia. The A. caninum ova were concentrated from treated and raw wastewater samples using centrifugation (Method A), hollow fiber ultrafiltration (HFUF) (Method B), filtration (Method C) and flotation (Method D) methods. For sludge samples, flotation (Method E) and direct DNA extraction (Method F) methods were used. Among the four methods tested, filtration (Method C) method was able to recover higher concentrations of A. caninum ova consistently from treated wastewater (39-50%) and raw wastewater (7.1-12%) samples collected from both WWTPs. The remaining methods (Methods A, B and D) yielded variable recovery rate ranging from 0.2 to 40% for treated and raw wastewater samples. The recovery rates for sludge samples were poor (0.02-4.7), although, Method F (direct DNA extraction) provided 1-2 orders of magnitude higher recovery rate than Method E (flotation). Based on our results it can be concluded that the recovery rates of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices, especially sludge samples, can be poor and highly variable. Therefore, choice of concentration method is vital for the sensitive detection of hookworm ova in wastewater matrices.

  12. A Study on Optimal Strategy in Relative Radiometric Calibration for Optical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kai; Liu, Suhong; Zhao, Yongchao

    2017-01-01

    Based on the analysis of three main factors involved in the relative radiometric calibration for optical sensors, namely: the number of radiance level; the number of measurements at each level; and the radiance level grouping method, an optimal strategy is presented in this paper for relative radiometric calibration. First, the maximization to the possible extent of either the number of the radiance level or the number of measurements at each level can improve the precision of the calibration results, where the recommended number of measurements is no less than 20. Second, when the number of the radiance level is divisible by four, dividing all the levels evenly into four groups by intensity gradient order and conducting averages for each group could achieve calibration results with the highest precision, which is higher than the result of no grouping or any other grouping method with the mean square error being 22Mn/IT (where Mn is the mean square error of noise in the calibration data, I is the number of the radiance level, and T is the number of measurements for each level. In this case, the first two factors had an equivalent effect and showed their strongest effect on the precision. Third, when the calibration data were not evenly divided, the number of measurements demonstrated a stronger effect than the number of the radiance level. These cognitions are helping to achieve more precise relative radiometric calibration of optical sensors. PMID:28257083

  13. Rapid methods to detect organic mercury and total selenium in biological samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organic mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant of concern and selenium is believed to afford protection against mercury risk though few approaches exist to rapidly assess both chemicals in biological samples. Here, micro-scale and rapid methods to detect organic mercury (< 1.5 ml total sample volume, < 1.5 hour) and total selenium (Se; < 3.0 ml total volume, < 3 hour) from a range of biological samples (10-50 mg) are described. Results For organic Hg, samples are digested using Tris-HCl buffer (with sequential additions of protease, NaOH, cysteine, CuSO4, acidic NaBr) followed by extraction with toluene and Na2S2O3. The final product is analyzed via commercially available direct/total mercury analyzers. For Se, a fluorometric assay has been developed for microplate readers that involves digestion (HNO3-HClO4 and HCl), conjugation (2,3-diaminonaphthalene), and cyclohexane extraction. Recovery of organic Hg (86-107%) and Se (85-121%) were determined through use of Standard Reference Materials and lemon shark kidney tissues. Conclusions The approaches outlined provide an easy, rapid, reproducible, and cost-effective platform for monitoring organic Hg and total Se in biological samples. Owing to the importance of organic Hg and Se in the pathophysiology of Hg, integration of such methods into established research monitoring efforts (that largely focus on screening total Hg only) will help increase understanding of Hg's true risks. PMID:21232132

  14. A Rapid and Economical Method for Efficient DNA Extraction from Diverse Soils Suitable for Metagenomic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Selvaraju Gayathri; Fathima, Anwar Aliya; Radha, Sudhakar; Arunraj, Rex; Curtis, Wayne R.; Ramya, Mohandass

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, cost effective method of metagenomic DNA extraction from soil is a useful tool for environmental microbiology. The present work describes an improved method of DNA extraction namely “powdered glass method” from diverse soils. The method involves the use of sterile glass powder for cell lysis followed by addition of 1% powdered activated charcoal (PAC) as purifying agent to remove humic substances. The method yielded substantial DNA (5.87 ± 0.04 μg/g of soil) with high purity (A260/280: 1.76 ± 0.05) and reduced humic substances (A340: 0.047 ± 0.03). The quality of the extracted DNA was compared against five different methods based on 16S rDNA PCR amplification, BamHI digestion and validated using quantitative PCR. The digested DNA was used for a metagenomic library construction with the transformation efficiency of 4 X 106 CFU mL-1. Besides providing rapid, efficient and economical extraction of metgenomic DNA from diverse soils, this method’s applicability is also demonstrated for cultivated organisms (Gram positive B. subtilis NRRL-B-201, Gram negative E. coli MTCC40, and a microalgae C. sorokiniana UTEX#1666). PMID:26167854

  15. An evaporation study for phthalic acids--a rapid method for pharmaceutical characterization.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Koustuv; Hazra, Anasuya; Dollimore, David; Alexander, Kenneth S

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and analyze an analytical method in order to evaluate preformulation candidates by their thermodynamic parameters and evaporation characteristics. Ortho, meta and tere-phthalic acids were chosen as model compounds. The relative advantages and disadvantages of a rapid thermogravimetric method have been studied in detail, which would aid in the preformulation characterization for pharmaceuticals. Methyl paraben was taken as the model compound for calibration, as its evaporation characteristics are well known. Using the Antoine and the Langmuir equation for evaporation conjointly, the parameter k, known as the coefficient of evaporation was determined. The value for this constant was validated by three methods simultaneously. Previously the use of such methods for compounds having uninhibited zero order evaporation has been documented. In the present study, phthalic acid was chosen as the model compound since its evaporation is a two-step overlapping phenomenon. In this study we have shown the use of Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry in separating such simultaneous endothermic processes. The Clausius-Clapeyron equation seemingly has anomalous behavior for vapor pressure over high temperature ranges. In this study a modification of the equation has been suggested to take into account the changes in the heat capacities that result due to high temperature effects. This study aims at documenting a concise method for rapid pharmaceutical characterization and suggests modifications for some basic thermodynamic parameters over higher temperature ranges.

  16. Membrane chromatographic immunoassay method for rapid quantitative analysis of specific serum antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Raja

    2006-02-05

    This paper discusses a membrane chromatographic immunoassay method for rapid detection and quantitative analysis of specific serum antibodies. A type of polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membrane was used in the method for its ability to reversibly and specifically bind IgG antibodies from antiserum samples by hydrophobic interaction. Using this form of selective antibody binding and enrichment an affinity membrane with antigen binding ability was obtained in-situ. This was done by passing a pulse of diluted antiserum sample through a stack of microporous PVDF membranes. The affinity membrane thus formed was challenged with a pulse of antigen solution and the amount of antigen bound was accurately determined using chromatographic methods. The antigen binding correlated well with the antibody loading on the membrane. This method is direct, rapid and accurate, does not involve any chemical reaction, and uses very few reagents. Moreover, the same membrane could be repeatedly used for sequential immunoassays on account of the reversible nature of the antibody binding. Proof of concept of this method is provided using human hemoglobin as model antigen and rabbit antiserum against human hemoglobin as the antibody source.

  17. High accuracy in situ radiometric mapping.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Andrew N

    2004-01-01

    In situ and airborne gamma ray spectrometry have been shown to provide rapid and spatially representative estimates of environmental radioactivity across a range of landscapes. However, one of the principal limitations of this technique has been the influence of changes in the vertical distribution of the source (e.g. 137Cs) on the observed photon fluence resulting in a significant reduction in the accuracy of the in situ activity measurement. A flexible approach for single gamma photon emitting radionuclides is presented, which relies on the quantification of forward scattering (or valley region between the full energy peak and Compton edge) within the gamma ray spectrum to compensate for changes in the 137Cs vertical activity distribution. This novel in situ method lends itself to the mapping of activity concentrations in environments that exhibit systematic changes in the vertical activity distribution. The robustness of this approach has been demonstrated in a salt marsh environment on the Solway coast, SW Scotland, with both a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm NaI(Tl) detector and a 35% n-type HPGe detector. Application to ploughed field environments has also been demonstrated using HPGe detector, including its application to the estimation of field moist bulk density and soil erosion measurement. Ongoing research work is also outlined.

  18. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  19. Analysis Of Volatile Fingerprints: A Rapid Screening Method For Antifungal Agents For Efficacy Against Dermatophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naraghi, Kamran; Sahgal, Natasha; Adriaans, Beverley; Barr, Hugh; Magan, Naresh

    2009-05-01

    The potential of using an electronic nose (E. nose) for rapid screening dermatophytes to antifungal agents was studied. In vitro, the 50 and 90% effective concentration (EC) values of five antifungal agents for T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes were obtained by mycelial growth assays. Then, the qualitative volatile production patterns of the growth responses of these fungi to these values were incorporated into solid medium were analysed after 96-120 hrs incubation at 25° C using headspace analyses. Overall, results, using PCA and CA demonstrated that it is possible to differentiate between various treatments within 96-120 hrs. This study showed that potential exists for using qualitative volatile patterns as a rapid screening method for antifungal agents for microorganism. This approach could also facilitate the monitoring of antimicrobial drug activities and infection control programmes and perhaps drug resistance build up in microbial species.

  20. A simple and rapid method for calculating identity-by-descent matrices using multiple markers.

    PubMed

    Pong-Wong, R; George, A W; Woolliams, J A; Haley, C S

    2001-01-01

    A fast, partly recursive deterministic method for calculating Identity-by-Descent (IBD) probabilities was developed with the objective of using IBD in Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping. The method combined a recursive method for a single marker locus with a method to estimate IBD between sibs using multiple markers. Simulated data was used to compare the deterministic method developed in the present paper with a stochastic method (LOKI) for precision in estimating IBD probabilities and performance in the task of QTL detection with the variance component approach. This comparison was made in a variety of situations by varying family size and degree of polymorphism among marker loci. The following were observed for the deterministic method relative to MCMC: (i) it was an order of magnitude faster; (ii) its estimates of IBD probabilities were found to agree closely, even though it does not extract information when haplotypes are not known with certainty; (iii) the shape of the profile for the QTL test statistic as a function of location was similar, although the magnitude of the test statistic was slightly smaller; and (iv) the estimates of QTL variance was similar. It was concluded that the method proposed provided a rapid means of calculating the IBD matrix with only a small loss in precision, making it an attractive alternative to the use of stochastic MCMC methods. Furthermore, developments in marker technology providing denser maps would enhance the relative advantage of this method.

  1. A rapid method for the nonselective enumeration of Yersinia enterocolitica, a foodborne pathogen associated with pork.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoran; Palmer, Jon; Flint, Steve

    2016-03-01

    An impedance method was developed as a rapid, convenient method to enumerate pure culture of Yersinia enterocolitica. Cultures were incubated in trypticase soy broth (TSB) at 30°C. The BacTrac™ 4000 microorganism growth analyser was used to detect impedance change of TSB representing bacteria cell numbers in the samples. Good correlations with standard plate counts were obtained (r(2)>0.95). This method is also reliable to enumerate Y. enterocolitica growing in biofilms attached to stainless steel. Compared with a standard plate count which involves dislodging biofilms from surfaces, this method is more convenient saving both time and effort. Therefore, it will be useful to study the conditions required for the biofilm growth and control of Y. enterocolitica that could be applied to the pork industry.

  2. Rapid microplate, green method for high-throughput evaluation of vinegar acidity using thermal infrared enthalpimetry.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Bruna; Oliveira, Alessandra Stangherlin; Ferreira, Daniele de Freitas; Menezes, Cristiano Ragagnin; Duarte, Fábio Andrei; Wagner, Roger; Barin, Juliano Smanioto

    2017-01-15

    Infrared thermal imaging was combined with disposable microplates to perform enthalpimetric analysis using an infrared camera to monitor temperature without contact. The proposed thermal infrared enthalpimetry (TIE) method was used to determine the total, fixed and volatile acidities of vinegars. Sample preparation and analysis were performed in the same vessel, avoiding excessive sample handling and reducing energy expenditure by more than ten times. The results agreed with those of the conventional method for different kinds of vinegars, with values of 1.7%, and 2.3% for repeatability and intermediate precision, respectively. A linear calibration curve was obtained from 0.040 to 1.30molL(-1). The proposed method provided rapid results (within 10s) for four samples simultaneously, a sample throughput of up to 480 samples per hour. In addition, the method complies with at least eight of twelve recommendations for green analytical chemistry, making TIE a promising tool for routine vinegar analysis.

  3. Rapid quantification of microalgal lipids in aqueous medium by a simple colorimetric method.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sanjiv K; Suh, William I; Farooq, Wasif; Moon, Myounghoon; Shrivastav, Anupama; Park, Min S; Yang, Ji-Won

    2014-03-01

    Identification of novel microalgal strains with high lipid productivity is one of the most important research topics in renewable biofuel research. However, the major bottleneck in the strain screening process is that currently known methods for the estimation of microalgal lipid are laborious and time-consuming. The present study successfully employed sulpho-phospho-vanillin (SPV) colorimetric method for direct quantitative measurement of lipids within liquid microalgal culture. The SPV reacts with lipids to produce a distinct pink color, and its intensity can be quantified using spectrophotometric methods by measuring absorbance at 530nm. This method was employed for a rapid quantification of intracellular lipid contents within Chlorella sp., Monoraphidium sp., Ettlia sp. and Nannochloropsis sp., all of which were found to have lipid contents ranging in between 10% and 30%. Subsequent analysis of the biomass using gas chromatography confirmed that our protocol is highly accurate (R(2)=0.99).

  4. Comparing High-dimensional Confounder Control Methods for Rapid Cohort Studies From Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Low, Yen Sia; Gallego, Blanca; Shah, Nigam Haresh

    2016-01-01

    Aims Electronic health records (EHR), containing rich clinical histories of large patient populations, can provide evidence for clinical decisions when evidence from trials and literature is absent. To enable such observational studies from EHR in real time, particularly in emergencies, rapid confounder control methods that can handle numerous variables and adjust for biases are imperative. This study compares the performance of 19 automatic confounder control methods. Methods Methods include propensity scores, direct adjustment by machine learning, similarity matching and resampling in two simulated and one real-world EHR datasets. Results and conclusions Direct adjustment by lasso regression and ensemble models involving multiple resamples have performance comparable to expert-based propensity scores and thus, may help provide real-time EHR-based evidence for timely clinical decisions. PMID:26634383

  5. Rapid quantitative method for total brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Ashraf A; Abbas, Alaa B; Badawi, Bassam Sh; Al-Jowhar, Wafaa Y; Zain, Esam A; El-Mufti, Seham A

    2012-08-01

    A simple, quantitative and rapid method for total brominated vegetable oil (BVO) using ion chromatography (IC) with suppressed conductivity detection was developed and successfully applied to soft drinks with results expressed as inorganic bromide anion. The procedure involves extraction of BVO with diethyl ether and treatment with zinc dust in a solution of acetic acid, giving recoveries ranging between 92.5 and 98.5%. The calibration curves obtained were linear with correlation coefficients (r²) of 0.998, a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 5% and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 250 and 750 µg l⁻¹, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of BVO in several commercial soft drinks which were found to contain BVO in the range 1.8-14.510 mg l⁻¹. The method has less sources of error compared to previously published methods.

  6. Comparison of rapid methods for chemical analysis of milligram samples of ultrafine clays.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rettig, S.L.; Marinenko, J.W.; Khoury, H.N.; Jones, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    Two rapid methods for the decomposition and chemical analysis of clays were adapted for use with 20-40mg size samples, typical amounts of ultrafine products (< 0.5 micrometer diameter) obtained from modern separation methods for clay minrals. The results of these methods were compared with those of 'classical' rock analyses. The two methods consisted of mixed lithium metaborate fusion and heated decomposition with HF in a closed vessel. The latter technique was modified to include subsequent evaporation with concentrated H2SO4 and re-solution in HCl, which reduced the interference of the fluoride ion in the determination of Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, and K.-from Authors

  7. An Empirical Approach to Ocean Color Data: Reducing Bias and the Need for Post-Launch Radiometric Re-Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Casey, Nancy W.; O'Reilly, John E.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2009-01-01

    A new empirical approach is developed for ocean color remote sensing. Called the Empirical Satellite Radiance-In situ Data (ESRID) algorithm, the approach uses relationships between satellite water-leaving radiances and in situ data after full processing, i.e., at Level-3, to improve estimates of surface variables while relaxing requirements on post-launch radiometric re-calibration. The approach is evaluated using SeaWiFS chlorophyll, which is the longest time series of the most widely used ocean color geophysical product. The results suggest that ESRID 1) drastically reduces the bias of ocean chlorophyll, most impressively in coastal regions, 2) modestly improves the uncertainty, and 3) reduces the sensitivity of global annual median chlorophyll to changes in radiometric re-calibration. Simulated calibration errors of 1% or less produce small changes in global median chlorophyll (less than 2.7%). In contrast, the standard NASA algorithm set is highly sensitive to radiometric calibration: similar 1% calibration errors produce changes in global median chlorophyll up to nearly 25%. We show that 0.1% radiometric calibration error (about 1% in water-leaving radiance) is needed to prevent radiometric calibration errors from changing global annual median chlorophyll more than the maximum interannual variability observed in the SeaWiFS 9-year record (+/- 3%), using the standard method. This is much more stringent than the goal for SeaWiFS of 5% uncertainty for water leaving radiance. The results suggest ocean color programs might consider less emphasis of expensive efforts to improve post-launch radiometric re-calibration in favor of increased efforts to characterize in situ observations of ocean surface geophysical products. Although the results here are focused on chlorophyll, in principle the approach described by ESRID can be applied to any surface variable potentially observable by visible remote sensing.

  8. Rapid-Viability PCR Method for Detection of Live, Virulent Bacillus anthracis in Environmental Samples ▿

    PubMed Central

    Létant, Sonia E.; Murphy, Gloria A.; Alfaro, Teneile M.; Avila, Julie R.; Kane, Staci R.; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M.; Shah, Sanjiv R.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real-time PCR analysis is conducted on samples before and after incubation. The method, referred to as rapid-viability (RV)-PCR, uses the change in cycle threshold after incubation to detect the presence of live organisms. In this article, we report a novel RV-PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis, in which the incubation time was reduced from 14 h to 9 h, bringing the total turnaround time for results below 15 h. The method incorporates a magnetic bead-based DNA extraction and purification step prior to PCR analysis, as well as specific real-time PCR assays for the B. anthracis chromosome and pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids. A single laboratory verification of the optimized method applied to the detection of virulent B. anthracis in environmental samples was conducted and showed a detection level of 10 to 99 CFU/sample with both manual and automated RV-PCR methods in the presence of various challenges. Experiments exploring the relationship between the incubation time and the limit of detection suggest that the method could be further shortened by an additional 2 to 3 h for relatively clean samples. PMID:21764960

  9. Note: Non-invasive optical method for rapid determination of alignment degree of oriented nanofibrous layers

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, M.; Rebicek, J.; Klemes, J.; Kotzianova, A.; Velebny, V.

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents a rapid non-destructive method that provides information on the anisotropic internal structure of nanofibrous layers. A laser beam of a wavelength of 632.8 nm is directed at and passes through a nanofibrous layer prepared by electrostatic spinning. Information about the structural arrangement of nanofibers in the layer is directly visible in the form of a diffraction image formed on a projection screen or obtained from measured intensities of the laser beam passing through the sample which are determined by the dependency of the angle of the main direction of polarization of the laser beam on the axis of alignment of nanofibers in the sample. Both optical methods were verified on Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous layers (fiber diameter of 470 nm) with random, single-axis aligned and crossed structures. The obtained results match the results of commonly used methods which apply the analysis of electron microscope images. The presented simple method not only allows samples to be analysed much more rapidly and without damaging them but it also makes possible the analysis of much larger areas, up to several square millimetres, at the same time.

  10. A novel, rapid method to quantify intraplatelet calcium dynamics by ratiometric flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Assinger, Alice; Volf, Ivo; Schmid, Diethart

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic free calcium ions represent important second-messengers in platelets. Therefore, quantitative measurement of intraplatelet calcium provides a popular and very sensitive tool to evaluate platelet activation and reactivity. Current protocols for determination of intracellular calcium concentrations in platelets have a number of limitations. Cuvette-based methods do not allow measurement of calcium flux in complex systems, such as whole blood, and therefore require isolation steps that potentially interfere with platelet activation. Flow cytometry has the potential to overcome this limitation, but to date the application of calibrated, quantitative readout of calcium kinetics has only been described for Indo-1. As excitation of Indo-1 requires a laser in the ultraviolet range, such measurements cannot be performed with a standard flow cytometer. Here, we describe a novel, rapid calibration method for ratiometric calcium measurement in platelets using both Ar(+)-laser excited fluorescence dyes Fluo-4 and Fura Red. We provide appropriate equations that allow rapid quantification of intraplatelet calcium fluxes by measurement of only two standardisation buffers. We demonstrate that this method allows quantitative calcium measurement in platelet rich plasma as well as in whole blood. Further, we show that this method prevents artefacts due to platelet aggregate formation and is therefore an ideal tool to determine basal and agonist induced calcium kinetics.

  11. Rapid methods for detection and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. in foods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan

    2002-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are the most commonly reported bacterial cause of acute diarrheal disease in humans throughout the world. Traditional cultural methods for the detection and quantitation of Campylobacterspp. are slow and tedious; therefore, specific, sensitive, and rapid methods for campylobacters are needed to collect sufficient data for risk assessment and food safety policy development. We developed several rapid methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA hybridization, hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs), and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). A PCR assay targeting C. jejuni, combined with a simple sample preparation procedure, detects as few as 0.3 most probable number (MPN)/mL C. jejuni in naturally contaminated chicken rinses after 20-24 h enrichment. An HGMF-EIA method using a commercial polyclonal antibody for Campylobacter detects and enumerates thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from spiked chicken rinse and milk, and naturally contaminated chicken rinses. A C. jejuni-specific probe in an HGMF-DNA hybridization protocol specifically detects and quantitates C. jejuni in food samples. A dot-blot EIA combined with an MPN procedure quantitates thermophilic campylobacters from samples that might be difficult to filter through HGMFs.

  12. A Novel, Rapid Method to Quantify Intraplatelet Calcium Dynamics by Ratiometric Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Assinger, Alice; Volf, Ivo; Schmid, Diethart

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic free calcium ions represent important second-messengers in platelets. Therefore, quantitative measurement of intraplatelet calcium provides a popular and very sensitive tool to evaluate platelet activation and reactivity. Current protocols for determination of intracellular calcium concentrations in platelets have a number of limitations. Cuvette-based methods do not allow measurement of calcium flux in complex systems, such as whole blood, and therefore require isolation steps that potentially interfere with platelet activation. Flow cytometry has the potential to overcome this limitation, but to date the application of calibrated, quantitative readout of calcium kinetics has only been described for Indo-1. As excitation of Indo-1 requires a laser in the ultraviolet range, such measurements cannot be performed with a standard flow cytometer. Here, we describe a novel, rapid calibration method for ratiometric calcium measurement in platelets using both Ar+-laser excited fluorescence dyes Fluo-4 and Fura Red. We provide appropriate equations that allow rapid quantification of intraplatelet calcium fluxes by measurement of only two standardisation buffers. We demonstrate that this method allows quantitative calcium measurement in platelet rich plasma as well as in whole blood. Further, we show that this method prevents artefacts due to platelet aggregate formation and is therefore an ideal tool to determine basal and agonist induced calcium kinetics. PMID:25849642

  13. Landsat: radiometric and topographic correction of satellite imagery (R package)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most Geographic Information System software includes routines for atmospheric and topograhic correction of satellite imagery such as that taken by Landsat. Radiometric correction is an active area of research, and new, improved methods are rarely if ever available for testing and application. The R...

  14. Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid, and precipitation, emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band because communication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of water vapor-induced propagation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity wave experiments, and radio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation model development, supported planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  15. Rapid detection and identification of beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria by microcolony method.

    PubMed

    Asano, Shizuka; Iijima, Kazumaru; Suzuki, Koji; Motoyama, Yasuo; Ogata, Tomoo; Kitagawa, Yasushi

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated a microcolony method for the detection and identification of beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this approach, bacterial cells were trapped on a polycarbonate membrane filter and cultured on ABD medium, a medium that allows highly specific detection of beer-spoilage LAB strains. After short-time incubation, viable cells forming microcolonies were stained with carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and counted with muFinder Inspection System. In our study, we first investigated the growth behavior of various beer-spoilage LAB by traditional culture method, and Lactobacillus lindneri and several L. paracollinoides strains were selected as slow growers on ABD medium. Then the detection speeds were evaluated by microcolony method, using these slowly growing strains. As a result, all of the slowly growing beer-spoilage LAB strains were detected within 3 days of incubation. The specificity of this method was found to be exceptionally high and even discriminated intra-species differences in beer-spoilage ability of LAB strains upon detection. These results indicate that our microcolony approach allows rapid and specific detection of beer-spoilage LAB strains with inexpensive CFDA staining. For further confirmation of species status of detected strains, subsequent treatment with species-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes was shown as effective for identifying the CFDA-detected microcolonies to the species level. In addition, no false-positive results arising from noise signals were recognized for CFDA staining and FISH methods. Taken together, the developed microcolony method was demonstrated as a rapid and highly specific countermeasure against beer-spoilage LAB, and compared favorably with the conventional culture methods.

  16. Radiometric Measurement Comparisons Using Transfer Radiometers in Support of the Calibration of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.; Johnson, B. Carol; Brown, Steven W.; Yoon, Howard W.; Barnes, Robert A.; Markham, Brian L.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Zalewski, Edward F.; Spyak, Paul R.; Cooper, John W.; Sakuma, Fumihiro

    1999-01-01

    EOS satellite instruments operating in the visible through the shortwave infrared wavelength regions (from 0.4 micrometers to 2.5 micrometers) are calibrated prior to flight for radiance response using integrating spheres at a number of instrument builder facilities. The traceability of the radiance produced by these spheres with respect to international standards is the responsibility of the instrument builder, and different calibration techniques are employed by those builders. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Earth Observing System (EOS) Project Science Office, realizing the importance of preflight calibration and cross-calibration, has sponsored a number of radiometric measurement comparisons, the main purpose of which is to validate the radiometric scale assigned to the integrating spheres by the instrument builders. This paper describes the radiometric measurement comparisons, the use of stable transfer radiometers to perform the measurements, and the measurement approaches and protocols used to validate integrating sphere radiances. Stable transfer radiometers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center Remote Sensing Group, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and the National Research Laboratory of Metrology in Japan, have participated in these comparisons. The approaches used in the comparisons include the measurement of multiple integrating sphere lamp levels, repeat measurements of select lamp levels, the use of the stable radiometers as external sphere monitors, and the rapid reporting of measurement results. Results from several comparisons are presented. The absolute radiometric calibration standard uncertainties required by the EOS satellite instruments are typically in the +/- 3% to +/- 5% range. Preliminary results reported during eleven radiometric measurement comparisons held between February 1995 and May 1998 have shown the radiance of integrating spheres

  17. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Brook, Edward J

    2014-05-13

    We present successful (81)Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ∼350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The (81)Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 ± 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) (85)Kr and (39)Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the (81)Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130-115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA (81)Kr analysis requires a 40-80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, (81)Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility.

  18. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Brook, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    We present successful 81Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ∼350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The 81Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 ± 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) 85Kr and 39Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the 81Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130–115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA 81Kr analysis requires a 40–80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, 81Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility. PMID:24753606

  19. Microwave-Accelerated Method for Ultra-Rapid Extraction of Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA for Downstream Detection

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Johan H.; Santaus, Tonya M.; Brinsley, Gregory; Kiang, Daniel; Mali, Buddha; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Geddes, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based detection of gonorrhea infections typically require a two-step process involving isolation of the nucleic acid, followed by the detection of the genomic target often involving PCR-based approaches. In an effort to improve on current detection approaches, we have developed a unique two-step microwave-accelerated approach for rapid extraction and detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) DNA. Our approach is based on the use of highly-focused microwave radiation to rapidly lyse bacterial cells, release, and subsequently fragment microbial DNA. The DNA target is then detected by a process known as microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (MAMEF), an ultra-sensitive direct DNA detection analytical technique. In the present study, we show that highly focused microwaves at 2.45 GHz, using 12.3 mm gold film equilateral triangles, are able to rapidly lyse both bacteria cells and fragment DNA in a time- and microwave power-dependent manner. Detection of the extracted DNA can be performed by MAMEF, without the need for DNA amplification in less than 10 minutes total time or by other PCR-based approaches. Collectively, the use of a microwave-accelerated method for the release and detection of DNA represents a significant step forward towards the development of a point-of-care (POC) platform for detection of gonorrhea infections. PMID:27325503

  20. Microwave-accelerated method for ultra-rapid extraction of Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA for downstream detection.

    PubMed

    Melendez, Johan H; Santaus, Tonya M; Brinsley, Gregory; Kiang, Daniel; Mali, Buddha; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Geddes, Chris D

    2016-10-01

    Nucleic acid-based detection of gonorrhea infections typically require a two-step process involving isolation of the nucleic acid, followed by detection of the genomic target often involving polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches. In an effort to improve on current detection approaches, we have developed a unique two-step microwave-accelerated approach for rapid extraction and detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea, GC) DNA. Our approach is based on the use of highly focused microwave radiation to rapidly lyse bacterial cells, release, and subsequently fragment microbial DNA. The DNA target is then detected by a process known as microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (MAMEF), an ultra-sensitive direct DNA detection analytical technique. In the current study, we show that highly focused microwaves at 2.45 GHz, using 12.3-mm gold film equilateral triangles, are able to rapidly lyse both bacteria cells and fragment DNA in a time- and microwave power-dependent manner. Detection of the extracted DNA can be performed by MAMEF, without the need for DNA amplification, in less than 10 min total time or by other PCR-based approaches. Collectively, the use of a microwave-accelerated method for the release and detection of DNA represents a significant step forward toward the development of a point-of-care (POC) platform for detection of gonorrhea infections.

  1. Rapid Method for Ra-226 and Ra-228 in Water Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III

    2006-02-10

    The measurement of radium isotopes in natural waters is important for oceanographic studies and for public health reasons. Ra-226 (1620 year half-life) is one of the most toxic of the long-lived alpha emitters present in the environment due to its long life and its tendency to concentrate in bones, which increases the internal radiation dose of individuals. The analysis of radium-226 and radium-228 in natural waters can be tedious and time-consuming. Different sample preparation methods are often required to prepare Ra-226 and Ra-228 for separate analyses. A rapid method has been developed at the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory that effectively separates both Ra-226 and Ra-228 (via Ac-228) for assay. This method uses MnO{sub 2} Resin from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) to preconcentrate Ra-226 and Ra-228 rapidly from water samples, along with Ba-133 tracer. DGA Resin{reg_sign} (Eichrom) and Ln-Resin{reg_sign} (Eichrom) are employed in tandem to prepare Ra-226 for assay by alpha spectrometry and to determine Ra-228 via the measurement of Ac-228 by gas proportional counting. After preconcentration, the manganese dioxide is dissolved from the resin and passed through stacked Ln-Resin-DGA Resin cartridges that remove uranium and thorium interferences and retain Ac-228 on DGA Resin. The eluate that passed through this column is evaporated, redissolved in a lower acidity and passed through Ln-Resin again to further remove interferences before performing a barium sulfate microprecipitation. The Ac-228 is stripped from the resin, collected using cerium fluoride microprecipitation and counted by gas proportional counting. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  2. Radiometric Calibration of the Earth Observing System's Imaging Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Philip N. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The work on the grant was mainly directed towards developing new, accurate, redundant methods for the in-flight, absolute radiometric calibration of satellite multispectral imaging systems and refining the accuracy of methods already in use. Initially the work was in preparation for the calibration of MODIS and HIRIS (before the development of that sensor was canceled), with the realization it would be applicable to most imaging multi- or hyper-spectral sensors provided their spatial or spectral resolutions were not too coarse. The work on the grant involved three different ground-based, in-flight calibration methods reflectance-based radiance-based and diffuse-to-global irradiance ratio used with the reflectance-based method. This continuing research had the dual advantage of: (1) developing several independent methods to create the redundancy that is essential for the identification and hopefully the elimination of systematic errors; and (2) refining the measurement techniques and algorithms that can be used not only for improving calibration accuracy but also for the reverse process of retrieving ground reflectances from calibrated remote-sensing data. The grant also provided the support necessary for us to embark on other projects such as the ratioing radiometer approach to on-board calibration (this has been further developed by SBRS as the 'solar diffuser stability monitor' and is incorporated into the most important on-board calibration system for MODIS)- another example of the work, which was a spin-off from the grant funding, was a study of solar diffuser materials. Journal citations, titles and abstracts of publications authored by faculty, staff, and students are also attached.

  3. A Rapid and Cost-Effective Method for DNA Extraction from Archival Herbarium Specimens.

    PubMed

    Krinitsina, A A; Sizova, T V; Zaika, M A; Speranskaya, A S; Sukhorukov, A P

    2015-11-01

    Here we report a rapid and cost-effective method for the extraction of total DNA from herbarium specimens up to 50-90-year-old. The method takes about 2 h, uses AMPure XP magnetic beads diluted by PEG-8000- containing buffer, and does not require use of traditional volatile components like chloroform, phenol, and liquid nitrogen. It yields up to 4 µg of total nucleic acid with high purity from about 30 mg of dry material. The quality of the extracted DNA was tested by PCR amplification of 5S rRNA and rbcL genes (nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers) and compared against the traditional chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. Our results demonstrate that the use of the magnetic beads is crucial for extraction of DNA suitable for subsequent PCR from herbarium samples due to the decreasing inhibitor concentrations, reducing short fragments of degraded DNA, and increasing median DNA fragment sizes.

  4. Rapid method for the determination of 226Ra in hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Warren, Richard A.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2016-03-24

    A new method that rapidly preconcentrates and measures 226Ra from hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples was developed in the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory. The method improves the quality of 226Ra measurements using gamma spectrometry by providing up to 100x preconcentration of 226Ra from this difficult sample matrix, which contains very high levels of calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium and sodium. The high chemical yield, typically 80-90%, facilitates a low detection limit, important for lower level samples, and indicates method ruggedness. Ba-133 tracer is used to determine chemical yield and correct for geometry-related counting issues. The 226Ra sample preparation takes < 2 hours.

  5. Rapid detection of human fecal Eubacterium species and related genera by nested PCR method.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, A; Benno, Y

    2001-01-01

    PCR procedures based on 16S rDNA gene sequence specific for seven Eubacterium spp. and Eggerthella lenta that predominate in the human intestinal tract were developed, and used for direct detection of these species in seven human feces samples. Three species of Eggerthella lenta, Eubacterium rectale, and Eubacterium eligens were detected from seven fecal samples. Eubacterium biforme was detected from six samples. It was reported that E. rectale, E. eligens, and E. biforme were difficult to detect by traditional culture method, but the nested PCR method is available for the detection of these species. This result shows that the nested PCR method utilizing a universal primer pair, followed by amplification with species-specific primers, would allow rapid detection of Eubacterium species in human feces.

  6. Rapid method for determining concentrations of Bayer 73 in water during lampricide treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Harman, P.D.; Schultz, D.P.; Allen, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Two simple, rapid, sensitive methods were developed for determining the concentration of the lampricide 2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) in stream water. Bayer 73 was extracted from acidified water samples with chloroform and then hydrolyzed to 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (CNA) with either acid or base. The CNA was diazotized with sodium nitrite, and an azo dye was formed with either N-( 1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (after acid hydrolysis) or 1-naphthol (after base hydrolysis). There was no interference from the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) in either method. Standard curves were prepared with untreated water to compensate for interfering substances that occurred naturally in some streams. The methods were sensitive to about 0.005 mg/L (ppm). Time required for analysis of a sample ranged from 25 min to 1 h.

  7. The method of parallel-hierarchical transformation for rapid recognition of dynamic images using GPGPU technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timchenko, Leonid; Yarovyi, Andrii; Kokriatskaya, Nataliya; Nakonechna, Svitlana; Abramenko, Ludmila; Ławicki, Tomasz; Popiel, Piotr; Yesmakhanova, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a method of parallel-hierarchical transformations for rapid recognition of dynamic images using GPU technology. Direct parallel-hierarchical transformations based on cluster CPU-and GPU-oriented hardware platform. Mathematic models of training of the parallel hierarchical (PH) network for the transformation are developed, as well as a training method of the PH network for recognition of dynamic images. This research is most topical for problems on organizing high-performance computations of super large arrays of information designed to implement multi-stage sensing and processing as well as compaction and recognition of data in the informational structures and computer devices. This method has such advantages as high performance through the use of recent advances in parallelization, possibility to work with images of ultra dimension, ease of scaling in case of changing the number of nodes in the cluster, auto scan of local network to detect compute nodes.

  8. Rapid staining method to detect and identify downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii) in basil1

    PubMed Central

    Koroch, Adolfina R.; Villani, Thomas S.; Pyne, Robert M.; Simon, James E.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Demand for fresh-market sweet basil continues to increase, but in 2009 a new pathogen emerged, threatening commercial field/greenhouse production and leading to high crop losses. This study describes a simple and effective staining method for rapid microscopic detection of basil downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii) from leaves of basil (Ocimum basilicum). • Methods and Results: Fresh leaf sections infected with P. belbahrii were placed on a microscope slide, cleared with Visikol™, and stained with iodine solution followed by one drop of 70% sulfuric acid. Cell walls of the pathogen were stained with a distinct coloration, providing a high-contrast image between the pathogen and plant. • Conclusions: This new staining method can be used successfully to identify downy mildew in basil, which then can significantly reduce its spread if identified early, coupled with mitigation strategies. This technique can facilitate the control of the disease, without expensive and specialized equipment. PMID:25202569

  9. Initial Assessment of a Rapid Method of Calculating CEV Environmental Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickney, John T.; Milliken, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative method for rapidly calculating spacecraft environmental absorbed heats in planetary orbit is described. The method employs reading a database of pre-calculated orbital absorbed heats and adjusting those heats for desired orbit parameters. The approach differs from traditional Monte Carlo methods that are orbit based with a planet centered coordinate system. The database is based on a spacecraft centered coordinated system where the range of all possible sun and planet look angles are evaluated. In an example case 37,044 orbit configurations were analyzed for average orbital heats on selected spacecraft surfaces. Calculation time was under 2 minutes while a comparable Monte Carlo evaluation would have taken an estimated 26 hours

  10. Limits of rapid log P determination methods for highly lipophilic and flexible compounds.

    PubMed

    Martel, Sophie; Begnaud, Frédéric; Schuler, William; Gillerat, Fabrice; Oberhauser, Nils; Nurisso, Alessandra; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain

    2016-04-07

    Lipophilicity is of crucial importance in many fields including pharmaceutical, environmental, cosmetic and food industries. Whereas different experimental strategies have been developed for rapid lipophilicity determination of new chemical entities, log P determination of highly lipophilic compounds is always challenging. In this study, three published chromatographic methods have been compared on a series of phenylalkanoic acids including the pro-perfume HaloscentD (HD-C12). Different log P values were obtained depending on the chromatographic method used for log P estimation. Molecular modelling suggested that log P variations may be due to the chromatographic conditions applied (isocratic or gradient mode, ratio methanol/water in the mobile phase), responsible of specific conformations of the molecule in solution. Thus, for flexible compounds, published methods have to be used with caution and considered as a good tool to estimate a log P range, depending on the molecular conformational state.

  11. A comparison of four relative radiometric normalization (RRN) techniques for mosaicing H-res multi-temporal thermal infrared (TIR) flight-lines of a complex urban scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. M.; Hay, G. J.; Couloigner, I.; Hemachandran, B.; Bailin, J.

    2015-08-01

    High-spatial and -radiometric resolution (H-res) thermal infrared (TIR) airborne imagery, such as the TABI-1800 (Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager) provide unique surface temperature information that can be used for urban heat loss mapping, heat island analysis, and landcover classifications. For mapping large urban areas at a high-spatial resolution (i.e., sub-meter), airborne thermal imagery needs to be acquired over a number of flight-lines and mosaiced together. However, due to radiometric variations between flight-lines the similar objects tend to have different temperature characteristics on the mosaicked image, resulting in reduced visual and radiometric agreement between the flight-lines composing the final mosaiced output. To reduce radiometric variability between airborne TIR flight-lines, with a view to produce a visually seamless TIR image mosaic, we evaluate four relative radiometric normalization techniques including: (i) Histogram Matching, (ii) Pseudo Invariant Feature (PIF) Based Linear Regression, (iii) PIF-Based Theil-Sen Regression, and (iv) No-Change Stratified Random Samples (NCSRS) Based Linear Regression. The techniques are evaluated on two adjacent TABI-1800 airborne flight-lines (each ∼30 km × 0.9 km) collected ∼25 min apart over a portion of The City of Calgary (with ∼30% overlap between them). The performances of these techniques are compared based on four criteria: (i) speed of computation, (ii) ability to automate, (iii) visual assessment, and (iv) statistical analysis. Results show that NCSRS-Based Linear Regression produces the best overall results closely followed by Histogram Matching. Specifically, these two radiometric normalization techniques: (i) increase the visual and statistical agreement between the tested TIR airborne flight-lines (NCSRS Based Linear Regression increases radiometric agreement between flight-lines by 53.3% and Histogram Matching by 52.4%), (ii) produce a visually seamless image mosaic, and (iii) can

  12. Midpalatal suture maturation: Classification method for individual assessment before rapid maxillary expansion

    PubMed Central

    Angelieri, Fernanda; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Franchi, Lorenzo; Gonçalves, João R.; Benavides, Erika; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we present a novel classification method for individual assessment of midpalatal suture morphology. Methods Cone-beam computed tomography images from 140 subjects (ages, 5.6-58.4 years) were examined to define the radiographic stages of midpalatal suture maturation. Five stages of maturation of the midpalatal suture were identified and defined: stage A, straight high-density sutural line, with no or little interdigitation; stage B, scalloped appearance of the high-density sutural line; stage C, 2 parallel, scalloped, high-density lines that were close to each other, separated in some areas by small low-density spaces; stage D, fusion completed in the palatine bone, with no evidence of a suture; and stage E, fusion anteriorly in the maxilla. Intraexaminer and interexaminer agreements were evaluated by weighted kappa tests. Results Stages A and B typically were observed up to 13 years of age, whereas stage C was noted primarily from 11 to 17 years but occasionally in younger and older age groups. Fusion of the palatine (stage D) and maxillary (stage E) regions of the midpalatal suture was completed after 11 years only in girls. From 14 to 17 years, 3 of 13 (23%) boys showed fusion only in the palatine bone (stage D). Conclusions This new classification method has the potential to avoid the side effects of rapid maxillary expansion failure or unnecessary surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion for late adolescents and young adults. PMID:24182592

  13. A method of rapidly evaluating image quality of NED optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Qiu, Chuankai; Yang, Huan

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, with the development of technology of micro-display, advanced optics and the software and hardware, near-to-eye display ( NED) optical system will have a wide range of potential applications in the fields of amusement and virtual reality. However, research on the evaluating image quality of this kind optical system is comparatively lagging behind. Although now there are some methods and equipment for evaluation, they can't be applied in commercial production because of their complex operation and inaccuracy. In this paper, an academic method is proposed and a Rapid Evaluation System (RES) is designed to evaluate the image of optical system rapidly and exactly. Firstly, a set of parameters that eyes are sensitive to and also express the quality of system should be extracted and quantized to be criterion, so the evaluation standards can be established. Then, some parameters can be detected by RES consisted of micro-display, CCD camera and computer and so on. By process of scaling, the measuring results of the RES are exact and creditable, relationship between object measurement, subjective evaluation and the RES will be established. After that, image quality of optical system can be evaluated just by detecting parameters of that. The RES is simple and the results of evaluation are exact and keeping with human vision. So the method can be used not only for optimizing design of optical system, but also for evaluation in commercial production.

  14. A general method for rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility and species in bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Mezger, Anja; Gullberg, Erik; Göransson, Jenny; Zorzet, Anna; Herthnek, David; Tano, Eva; Nilsson, Mats; Andersson, Dan I

    2015-02-01

    To ensure correct antibiotic treatment and reduce the unnecessary use of antibiotics, there is an urgent need for new rapid methods for species identification and determination of antibiotic susceptibility in infectious pathogenic bacteria. We have developed a general method for the rapid identification of the bacterial species causing an infection and the determination of their antibiotic susceptibility profiles. An initial short cultivation step in the absence and presence of different antibiotics was combined with sensitive species-specific padlock probe detection of the bacterial target DNA to allow a determination of growth (i.e., resistance) and no growth (i.e., susceptibility). A proof-of-concept was established for urinary tract infections in which we applied the method to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Escherichia coli for two drugs with 100% accuracy in 3.5 h. The short assay time from sample to readout enables fast appropriate treatment with effective drugs and minimizes the need to prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics due to unknown resistance profiles of the treated infection.

  15. An evaluation of rapid methods for monitoring vegetation characteristics of wetland bird habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tavernia, Brian G; Lyons, James E.; Loges, Brian W; Wilson, Andrew; Collazo, Jaime; Runge, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland managers benefit from monitoring data of sufficient precision and accuracy to assess wildlife habitat conditions and to evaluate and learn from past management decisions. For large-scale monitoring programs focused on waterbirds (waterfowl, wading birds, secretive marsh birds, and shorebirds), precision and accuracy of habitat measurements must be balanced with fiscal and logistic constraints. We evaluated a set of protocols for rapid, visual estimates of key waterbird habitat characteristics made from the wetland perimeter against estimates from (1) plots sampled within wetlands, and (2) cover maps made from aerial photographs. Estimated percent cover of annuals and perennials using a perimeter-based protocol fell within 10 percent of plot-based estimates, and percent cover estimates for seven vegetation height classes were within 20 % of plot-based estimates. Perimeter-based estimates of total emergent vegetation cover did not differ significantly from cover map estimates. Post-hoc analyses revealed evidence for observer effects in estimates of annual and perennial covers and vegetation height. Median time required to complete perimeter-based methods was less than 7 percent of the time needed for intensive plot-based methods. Our results show that rapid, perimeter-based assessments, which increase sample size and efficiency, provide vegetation estimates comparable to more intensive methods.

  16. A method to provide rapid in situ determination of tip radius in dynamic atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sergio; Guang, Li; Souier, Tewfik; Gadelrab, Karim; Chiesa, Matteo; Thomson, Neil H

    2012-04-01

    We provide a method to characterize the tip radius of an atomic force microscopy in situ by monitoring the dynamics of the cantilever in ambient conditions. The key concept is that the value of free amplitude for which transitions from the attractive to repulsive force regimes are observed, strongly depends on the curvature of the tip. In practice, the smaller the value of free amplitude required to observe a transition, the sharper the tip. This general behavior is remarkably independent of the properties of the sample and cantilever characteristics and shows the strong dependence of the transitions on the tip radius. The main advantage of this method is rapid in situ characterization. Rapid in situ characterization enables one to continuously monitor the tip size during experiments. Further, we show how to reproducibly shape the tip from a given initial size to any chosen larger size. This approach combined with the in situ tip size monitoring enables quantitative comparison of materials measurements between samples. These methods are set to allow quantitative data acquisition and make direct data comparison readily available in the community.

  17. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of NDM-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jing; Du, Yijun; Zhu, Xiaoling; Bai, Hua; Luo, Yanbo; Liu, Yuqing

    2012-08-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of the emerging resistance gene New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), with its specificity and sensitivity having been evaluated. Six primers, including a pair of outer primers, a pair of inner primers, and a pair of loop primers, were specially designed for recognizing eight distinct sequences on the target NDM-1 gene. The amplification reaction was performed within only 40 min under isothermal conditions at 65°C in a regular water bath. The LAMP assay showed good specificity and higher sensitivity than the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with a detection limit of 1 pg genomic DNA per tube of one NDM-1-positive reference strain. The detection result for the 345 clinical samples showed 100% consistence with the result by the PCR method, and three contaminated samples could be detected correctly by LAMP assays, while they could not be detected by PCR. The LAMP method reported here demonstrated a potential and valuable means for detection of the NDM-1 gene: easy, rapid, visual, specific, accurate, and sensitive, especially useful for on-the-spot investigation.

  18. Characterization of 3D rapid prototyped polymeric material by ultrasonic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livings, Richard; Dayal, Vinay; Barnard, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Rapid prototyped parts are quickly becoming a viable alternative for manufacturers. Although the polymeric material is initially isotropic, the printing process introduces a level of anisotropy. This work characterizes the elastic and acoustic properties of the material, after printing, using ultrasonic methods. The elastic constants and the level of anisotropy are determined by measuring the ultrasonic wave velocities. It is shown that the material possesses less symmetry than the orthotropic material model. The dispersion and attenuation characteristics are also determined to provide a basis for ultrasonic flaw detection.

  19. A more efficient device for preparing model-membrane liposomes by the rapid solvent exchange method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buboltz, Jeffrey T.

    2009-12-01

    We modified the original design for a rapid solvent exchange (RSE) device with the intent of making the RSE method (i) more efficient and (ii) easier to adopt and implement. Our modifications improved solvent-removal kinetics by a factor of 2, while reducing sample-prep time by a factor of 3. In this paper, we develop the kinetic model that informed the device revision and we address several RSE parameters that have not yet been discussed in the literature. We also provide detailed mechanical drawings and present solvent-removal efficiency data that confirm the improved performance of our device.

  20. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the optical emission produced thereby is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

  1. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.

    1999-06-15

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives. 4 figs.

  2. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

  3. a Method for Preview Vibration Control of Systems Having Forcing Inputs and Rapidly-Switched Dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElBeheiry, E. M.

    1998-07-01

    In a variety of applications, especially in large scale dynamic systems, the mechanization of different vibration control elements in different locations would be decided by limitations placed on the modal vibration of the system and the inherent dynamic coupling between its modes. Also, the quality of vibration control to the economy of producing the whole system would be another trade-off leading to a mix of passive, active and semi-active vibration control elements in one system. This termactiveis limited to externally powered vibration control inputs and the termsemi-activeis limited to rapidly switched dampers. In this article, an optimal preview control method is developed for application to dynamic systems having active and semi-active vibration control elements mechanized at different locations in one system. The system is then a piecewise (bilinear) controller in which two independent sets of control inputs appear additively and multiplicatively. Calculus of variations along with the Hamiltonian approach are employed for the derivation of this method. In essence, it requires the active elements to be ideal force generators and the switched dampers to have the property of on-line variation of the damping characteristics to pre-determined limits. As the dampers switch during operation the whole system's structure differs, and then values of the active forcing inputs are adapted to match these rapid changes. Strictly speaking, each rapidly switched damper has pre-known upper and lower damping levels and it can take on any in-between value. This in-between value is to be determined by the method as long as the damper tracks a pre-known fully active control demand. In every damping state of each semi-active damper the method provides the optimal matching values of the active forcing inputs. The method is shown to have the feature of solving simple standard matrix equations to obtain closed form solutions. A comprehensive 9-DOF tractor semi-trailer model is used

  4. Evaluation of three rapid diagnostic methods for direct identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Raquel M; Bauerle, Elizabeth R; Fang, Ferric C; Butler-Wu, Susan M

    2014-07-01

    The identification of organisms from positive blood cultures generally takes several days. However, recently developed rapid diagnostic methods offer the potential for organism identification within only a few hours of blood culture positivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three commercial methods to rapidly identify organisms directly from positive blood cultures: QuickFISH (AdvanDx, Wolburn, MA), Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with Sepsityper processing (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA). A total of 159 blood cultures (VersaTREK Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) positive for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast were analyzed with QuickFISH and MALDI-TOF MS. In all, 102 blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. For monomicrobial cultures, we observed 98.0% concordance with routine methods for both QuickFISH (143/146) and the BC-GP assay (93/95). MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated 80.1% (117/146) and 87.7% (128/146) concordance with routine methods to the genus and species levels, respectively. None of the methods tested were capable of consistently identifying polymicrobial cultures in their entirety or reliably differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae from viridans streptococci. Nevertheless, the methods evaluated in this study are convenient and accurate for the most commonly encountered pathogens and have the potential to dramatically reduce turnaround time for the provision of results to the treating physician.

  5. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15–150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  6. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15–150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method. PMID:27282822

  7. A Rapid Method for Determining the Concentration of Recombinant Protein Secreted from Pichia pastoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L. W.; Zhao, Y.; Niu, L. P.; Jiang, R.; Song, Y.; Feng, H.; feng, K.; Qi, C.

    2011-02-01

    Pichia secretive expression system is one of powerful eukaryotic expression systems in genetic engineering, which is especially suitable for industrial utilization. Because of the low concentration of the target protein in initial experiment, the methods and conditions for expression of the target protein should be optimized according to the protein yield repetitively. It is necessary to set up a rapid, simple and convenient analysis method for protein expression levels instead of the generally used method such as ultrafiltration, purification, dialysis, lyophilization and so on. In this paper, acetone precipitation method was chosen to concentrate the recombinant protein firstly after comparing with four different protein precipitation methods systematically, and then the protein was analyzed by SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The recombinant protein was determined with the feature of protein band by the Automated Image Capture and 1-D Analysis Software directly. With this method, the optimized expression conditions of basic fibroblast growth factor secreted from pichia were obtained, which is as the same as using traditional methods. Hence, a convenient tool to determine the optimized conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in Pichia was established.

  8. Improved method for rapid detection of phthalates in bottled water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Otero, Paz; Saha, Sushanta Kumar; Moane, Siobhan; Barron, John; Clancy, Gerard; Murray, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    An improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simple, rapid and precise quantification of phthalates in drinking water is presented. This method was validated for bis (2-n-butoxyethyl) phthalate (DBEP), bis (2-n-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dihexyl phthalate (DHP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) and dinonyl phthalate (DINP). Linearity of 0.9984>r(2)>0.9975 in the range of 0.075-4.8μg/mL for the selected phthalates was obtained. Accuracy values were in the range of 93-114% and RSD% for the analysis of 1.2μg/mL of each phthalate was below 2.3% (n=9). This new method design has significantly improved the detection in terms of rapidity, specificity, repeatability and accuracy compared to available methods. The procedure has been applied to the analyses of three different brands of commercially available bottled mineral water and the corresponding plastic bottles. Phthalates were extracted with dichloromethane and re-constituted in cyclohexane prior to GC-MS analysis. When the validated GC-MS method was applied to the quantification of the selected phthalates in the samples, only DBP (up to 0.0675±0.0018μg/mL) and DEHP (up to 1.6848±0.1631μg/mL) were found. Furthermore, we provide specific data about the concentration of DBP and DEHP in bottled water attributable to migration of phthalates from respective plastic bottles.

  9. Rapid Reticulin Fiber Staining Method is Helpful for the Diagnosis of Pituitary Adenoma in Frozen Section.

    PubMed

    Noh, Songmi; Kim, Sun Ho; Cho, Nam Hoon; Kim, Se Hoon

    2015-05-01

    Approximately 90% of neoplasms found in the sellar region are adenoma of the pituitary gland. The use of frozen sections for the diagnosis of pituitary adenomas has an accuracy of 90% and is useful in evaluating complete tumor removal. However, it is sometimes difficult to diagnose pituitary adenomas using frozen sections because of the small sample size and marked artifact, and the contiguity of the pituitary adenoma with normal pituitary gland tissue. In this study, we evaluated the use of our modified reticulin stain to make correct decision in frozen section with reduced stain time and investigated the objective diagnostic criteria of pituitary adenoma with reticulin stain. We used Gomori's silver impregnation methods to stain reticulin fibers in frozen pituitary gland sections of 36 samples from 24 patients. We modified the conventional staining method by reducing the overall staining time. We diagnosed pituitary lesion according to our interpretation criteria and compared the results to those of the conventional method and findings of hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides. Reticulin fiber staining of normal adenohypophysis outlines the supporting stroma around the blood vessels and shows regular of the gland meshwork interconnecting the capillaries. In contrast, reticulin fiber staining of the adenomatous tissue shows loss of meshwork or frequent fragmentation. Our modified reticulin stain is more rapid than the established method and shows similar levels of accuracy. Independent evaluation by two pathologists showed discrepancies in diagnosis in four out of 36 cases with modified reticulin stain. Our rapid modified reticulin staining method for frozen sections may be useful as a diagnostic tool for pituitary adenomas and can complement routine hematoxylin and eosin staining.

  10. Determining the relative sensitivity of benthic diatoms to atrazine using rapid toxicity testing: a novel method.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rebecca J; Mitrovic, Simon M; Kefford, Ben J

    2014-07-01

    Herbicides pose a potential threat to aquatic ecosystems, especially to phototrophic organisms such as benthic diatoms. Benthic diatoms may be a valuable indicator of the toxic impacts of herbicides in aquatic systems. However, this requires information on the herbicide sensitivity of a wide range of freshwater benthic diatom taxa. Unfortunately this information is only available for a limited number of species as current methods of developing new algae toxicity tests on individual taxa are lengthy and costly. To address this issue, we developed a new rapid toxicity test method to test natural benthic communities, from which the relative herbicide sensitivity of many individual taxa can be derived. This involved the collection of natural benthic communities from rocks in situ, which were placed directly into laboratory toxicity tests. Sensitivity data for several diatom genera in a 48 hour exposure toxicity test were produced, without the need for cultures or multiple site visits. After exposure to the highest treatment of atrazine (500 μg L(-1)) there were significant declines of healthy cells in the most sensitive genera: Gomphonema declined by 74%, Amphora by 62%, Cymbella by 54% and Ulnaria by 34% compared to control levels. In contrast, the genera, Eunotia, Achnanthidium and Navicula, had no statistically significant decline in cell health. This method can identify the diatom taxa most at risk of herbicide toxicity within the natural benthic diatom community. The rapid toxicity testing method presented is a simple and effective method to obtain sensitivity data for multiple taxa within a natural benthic diatom community in a relatively short period of time.

  11. Rapid, simple and efficient method for detection of viral genomes on raspberries.

    PubMed

    Perrin, A; Loutreul, J; Boudaud, N; Bertrand, I; Gantzer, C

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, foodborne viruses, especially human noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), have been increasingly reported as the causes of foodborne disease outbreaks. Soft red fruits, especially raspberries, have a high incidence among the types of food concerned. Due to low infectious doses and low concentrations of enteric viruses in food samples, it is necessary to have an efficient and rapid detection method to implement prevention measures. A standard method for virus detection and quantification in food, including raspberries (XP CEN ISO/TS 15216-1 and -2, 2013) is currently available. This method proposes a consensus detection approach by RT-real time PCR (RT-qPCR) but also a virus extraction procedure based on the elution-concentration principle. In this study, an alternative method of extraction in which RNAs are directly extracted from food matrices (based on direct RNA extraction) has been optimized. First, each step was improved to make it a highly rapid, specific and simple method. Second, the standard virus concentration method was compared with the optimized direct RNA extraction one. Human enteric viral surrogates, Murine Norovirus (MNV) and F-specific RNA bacteriophage GA, were selected according to their adhesion properties and resistance to pH close to our main targets (NoV and HAV). Raspberries were artificially contaminated using two different techniques (immersion and spotting) in order to define a recovery rate and the amounts of virus recovered. Results showed that the direct RNA extraction method revealed significantly higher viral extraction efficiency (46.2%) than the elution-concentration method (20.3%), with similar proportions of inhibitors for both. In the same way with inoculation by spotting, the best recovery rate of GA phage (39.7% against 0.7%) and MNV (42.8% against 0.5%) was observed by direct RNA extraction. For the lowest concentrations of phage and virus in the immersion bath, only the direct RNA extraction method

  12. Passive acoustic methods for fine-scale tracking of harbour porpoises in tidal rapids.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, Jamie; Gordon, Jonathan; Gillespie, Douglas; Malinka, Chloë; Northridge, Simon

    2017-02-01

    The growing interest in generating electrical power from tidal currents using tidal turbine generators raises a number of environmental concerns, including the risk that marine mammals might be injured or killed through collision with rotating turbine blades. To understand this risk, information on how marine mammals use tidal rapid habitats and in particular, their underwater movements and dive behaviour is required. Porpoises, which are the most abundant small cetacean at most European tidal sites, are difficult animals to tag, and the limited size of tidal habitats means that any telemetered animal would be likely to spend only a small proportion of time within them. Here, an alternative approach is explored, whereby passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is used to obtain fine scale geo-referenced tracks of harbour porpoises in tidal rapid areas. Large aperture hydrophone arrays are required to obtain accurate locations of animals from PAM data and automated algorithms are necessary to process the large quantities of acoustic data collected on such systems during a typical survey. Methods to automate localisation, including a method to match porpoise detections on different hydrophones and separate different vocalising animals, and an assessment of the localisation accuracy of the large aperture hydrophone array are presented.

  13. A rapid method to characterize seabed habitats and associated macro-organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, T.J.; Cochrane, G.R.; Roberts, D.A.; Chezar, H.; Hatcher, G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a method for rapidly collecting, processing, and interrogating real-time abiotic and biotic seabed data to determine seabed habitat classifications. This is done from data collected over a large area of an acoustically derived seabed map, along multidirectional transects, using a towed small camera-sled. The seabed, within the newly designated Point Harris Marine Reserve on the northern coast of San Miguel Island, California, was acoustically imaged using sidescan sonar then ground-truthed using a towed small camera-sled. Seabed characterizations were made from video observations, and were logged to a laptop computer (PC) in real time. To ground-truth the acoustic mosaic, and to characterize abiotic and biotic aspects of the seabed, a three-tiered characterization scheme was employed that described the substratum type, physical structure (i.e., bedform or vertical relief), and the occurrence of benthic macrofauna and flora. A crucial advantage of the method described here, is that preliminary seabed characterizations can be interrogated and mapped over the sidescan mosaic and other seabed information within hours of data collection. This ability to rapidly process seabed data is invaluable to scientists and managers, particularly in modifying concurrent or planning subsequent surveys.

  14. Rapid fabrication method of a microneedle mold with controllable needle height and width.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Lee, I-Chi; Hsu, Wei-Chieh; Hsu, Ching-Hong; Chang, Kai-Ping; Gao, Shao-Syuan

    2016-10-01

    The main issue of transdermal drug delivery is that macromolecular drugs cannot diffuse through the stratum corneum of skin. Many studies have pursued micro-sized needles encapsulated with drugs to overcome this problem, as these needles can pierce the stratum corneum and allow drugs to enter the circulatory system of the human body. However, most microneedle fabrication processes are time-consuming and require expensive equipment. In this study, we demonstrate a rapid method for fabricating a microneedle mold using drawing lithography and a UV-cured resin. The mold was filled with a water-soluble material, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was then demolded to produce a water-soluble microneedle array. The results of an in vitro skin insertion test using PVP microneedles and pig ear skin demonstrated the feasibility of the microneedle mold. In addition, by controlling the viscosity of the UV-cured resin through various heat treatments, microneedles with different heights and aspect ratios were produced. Compared with other methods, this technology significantly simplifies and accelerates the mold fabrication process. In addition, the required equipment is relatively simple and inexpensive. Through this technology, we can rapidly fabricate microneedle molds with controllable dimensions for various applications.

  15. Development of a rapid RP-HPLC method for the determination of clonazepam in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Bares, Isabelle Forfar; Pehourcq, Fabienne; Jarry, Christian

    2004-11-19

    A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection was developed for the determination of clonazepam in human plasma using 3-methylclonazepam, as internal standard. A one-step extraction of both compounds was performed with a mixture of hexane/ethyl acetate (90:10, v/v). The HPLC analysis was carried out on a Nova Pak((R)) C(18) reversed-phase column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.01 M sodium acetate adjusted to pH 7 with dilute acetic acid (40:60, v/v). A linear response was observed over the concentration range 5-100 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day assay precision and accuracy fulfilled the international requirements. The lower limit of quantification was 5 ng/mL without interference of endogenous components. For analytical purpose, the stability of clonazepam in bidistilled water and plasma has been studied. A rapid degradation was noticed when clonazepam was stored in bidistilled water at the daylight following a first-order kinetic rate with a 87 min half life whereas no significant degradation was observed in plasma. This method was applied to measure plasma concentrations of clonazepam either in patients receiving therapeutic doses or in poisoning cases.

  16. Rapid Analysis of Glibenclamide Using an Environmentally Benign Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Nazrul; Alanazi, Fars Kaed; Alsarra, Ibrahim Abdullah; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2014-01-01

    An environmentally benign RP-HPLC approach for rapid analysis of glibenclamide in pure form, developed nanoemulsion and commercial tablets was developed and validated in present investigation. The green chromatographic identification was performed on Lichrosphere 250 X 4.0 mm RP C8 column having a 5 μm packing as a stationary phase using a combination of ethanol: methanol (50:50 % v/v) as a mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 245 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, robustness, sensitivity and specificity as per international conference on harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The utility of proposed method was verified by assay of glibenclamide in developed nanoemulsion and commercial tablets. The proposed method was found to be satisfactory in terms of selectivity, precision, accuracy, robustness, sensitivity and specificity. The content of glibenclamide in developed nanoemulsion and commercial tablets was found to be 100.50 % and 99.15 % respectively. The proposed method successfully resoled glibenclamide peak in the presence of its all type of degradation products which indicated stability-indicating property of the proposed method. These results indicated that the green chromatographic method could be successfully employed for routine analysis of glibenclamide in pure drug and various commercial formulations. PMID:25276186

  17. A rapid method to assess the stage differentiation in Leishmania donovani by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Dayakar, Alti; Chandrasekaran, Sambamurthy; Prajapati, Vijay Kumar; Veronica, Jalaja; Sundar, Shyam; Maurya, Radheshyam

    2012-12-01

    In this study we describe a rapid and novel method to assess the morphological stage differentiation in Leishmania donovani by flow cytometry (FCM). FCM is fast, accurate, and inexpensive to study the stage differentiation of promastigote into L. donovani axenic amastigote (LdAxAm). The non-flourimetric FCM method is easy to perform; with requirement of little expertise, and provides unambiguous results. It is an advanced tool, requires minimal time, and no fluorescent dyes. The gradual increase of differentiation and reduction in size from promastigote stage to LdAxAm leads to peak shifting from right to left on histogram. Earlier reports assessed the stage differentiation of Leishmania by studying the expression of stage specific markers like surface or secretory proteins and genes. For validation, conventional methods like microscopic analysis are used. These methods are quite expensive, laborious and time consuming. Non-flourimetric morphological parameters were further validated by conventional methods like optical and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, differential expression of stage specific genes (e.g. upregulation of amastin and ATP binding cassette A3 (ABCA3) transporter gene transcripts) and differential activity of enzymes (down regulation of secretory acid phosphatase (SAcP) and 3'-nucleotidase enzyme activity) in LdAxAm suggest stage differentiation. Therefore, we believe that our method is an alternative tool for high reproducibility and reliability in assessment of stage differentiation.

  18. Evaluation of petrifilm series 2000 as a possible rapid method to count coliforms in foods.

    PubMed

    Priego, R; Medina, L M; Jordano, R

    2000-08-01

    This research note is a preliminary comparison between the Petrifilm 2000 method and a widely used traditional enumeration method (on violet red bile agar); six batches of different foods (egg, frozen green beans, fresh sausage, a bakery product, raw minced meat, and raw milk) were studied. The reliability of the presumptive counts taken at 10, 12, and 14 h of incubation using this method was also verified by comparing the counts with the total confirmed counts at 24 h. In all the batches studied, results obtained with Petrifilm 2000 presented a close correlation to those obtained using violet red bile agar (r = 0.860) and greater sensitivity (93.33% of the samples displayed higher counts on Petrifilm 2000), showing that this method is a reliable and efficient alternative. The count taken at 10-h incubation is of clear interest as an early indicator of results in microbiological food control, since it accounted for 90% of the final count in all the batches analyzed. Counts taken at 12 and 14 h bore a greater similarity to those taken at 24 h. The Petrifilm 2000 method provides results in less than 12 h of incubation, making it a possible rapid method that adapts perfectly to hazard analysis critical control point system by enabling the microbiological quality control of the processing.

  19. Developing the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) in the context of impact significance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ijaes, Asko; Kuitunen, Markku T.; Jalava, Kimmo

    2010-02-15

    In this paper the applicability of the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) is evaluated in the context of impact significance assessment. The methodological issues considered in the study are: 1) to test the possibilities of enlarging the scoring system used in the method, and 2) to compare the significance classifications of RIAM and unaided decision-making to estimate the consistency between these methods. The data used consisted of projects for which funding had been applied for via the European Union's Regional Development Trust in the area of Central Finland. Cases were evaluated with respect to their environmental, social and economic impacts using an assessment panel. The results showed the scoring framework used in RIAM could be modified according to the problem situation at hand, which enhances its application potential. However the changes made in criteria B did not significantly affect the final ratings of the method, which indicates the high importance of criteria A1 (importance) and A2 (magnitude) to the overall results. The significance classes obtained by the two methods diverged notably. In general the ratings given by RIAM tended to be smaller compared to intuitive judgement implying that the RIAM method may be somewhat conservative in character.

  20. Rapid Analysis of Glibenclamide Using an Environmentally Benign Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method.

    PubMed

    Haq, Nazrul; Alanazi, Fars Kaed; Alsarra, Ibrahim Abdullah; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2014-01-01

    An environmentally benign RP-HPLC approach for rapid analysis of glibenclamide in pure form, developed nanoemulsion and commercial tablets was developed and validated in present investigation. The green chromatographic identification was performed on Lichrosphere 250 X 4.0 mm RP C8 column having a 5 μm packing as a stationary phase using a combination of ethanol: methanol (50:50 % v/v) as a mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 245 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, robustness, sensitivity and specificity as per international conference on harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The utility of proposed method was verified by assay of glibenclamide in developed nanoemulsion and commercial tablets. The proposed method was found to be satisfactory in terms of selectivity, precision, accuracy, robustness, sensitivity and specificity. The content of glibenclamide in developed nanoemulsion and commercial tablets was found to be 100.50 % and 99.15 % respectively. The proposed method successfully resoled glibenclamide peak in the presence of its all type of degradation products which indicated stability-indicating property of the proposed method. These results indicated that the green chromatographic method could be successfully employed for routine analysis of glibenclamide in pure drug and various commercial formulations.

  1. Rapid method for determination of content of unsaturated hydrocarbons in naphtha cuts

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhaiko, V.N.; Seleznev, V.D.

    1988-03-01

    The method to determine total content of unsaturated hydrocarbons in naphtha cuts from reforming, cracking, and pyrolysis consisted of exhaustive catalytic hydrogenation of the unsaturated hydrocarbons, with detection of the hydrogen consumed in the hydrogenation reaction. The analyses were performed in a KhL-4 chromatography; the gas flow plan is shown. Preliminary experiments with saturated hydrocarbons (hexane, octane, decane) were performed. Naphthene experiments (methylcyclopentane, cyclohexane) showed no peak to indicate an increase in hydrogen concentration. No hydrogenation was observed in experiments with benzene and toluene. A comparison was made from analyses using the GOST 2070-82 and the rapid method as applied to IBP-180/sup 0/C cuts from reformer naphthas produced under varying conditions of severity.

  2. A rapid method for fibronectin purification on nitrocellulose membranes suitable for tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Chifflet, Silvia; Bolatto, Carmen; Tolosa, Susana

    2004-05-31

    We have developed a simple method for plasma fibronectin purification based on the well-known gelatin binding property of fibronectin. In this procedure we immobilize the melted gelatin to nitrocellulose membranes; these are then used to affinity-purify the fibronectin from the plasma sample. The fibronectin is eluted from the membrane by treatment with 8 M urea. The procedure described here gives a yield of up to 60% (from presumed fibronectin concentration) and the fibronectin obtained is homogeneous in SDS-PAGE and biologically active, as assessed by a cell migration assay. The method is rapid, simple, inexpensive, does not require the use of chromatographic equipment and is suitable for tissue culture applications.

  3. A Simple, Rapid, and Convenient Luminex™-Compatible Method of Tissue Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, Derek; Zamora, Ruben; Torres, Andres; Namas, Rajaie; Steed, David; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    Various pathological conditions are associated with changes in multiple protein biomarkers, and these changes can be assessed using xMAP™ beads and the Luminex™ platform. Although this platform is most commonly utilized in the analysis of biomarkers in serum, plasma, or urine, it is often desirable to measure these analytes in tissues (e.g., biopsy specimens). We have developed a simple, rapid method of tissue isolation in which excised tissues are permeabilized in RNAlater ™ at 4°C overnight, followed by Luminex™ analysis for inflammatory biomarkers (cytokines). This method was compared with flash-freezing in both mouse liver and human debrided wound specimens, and may be of utility in other clinical settings. PMID:18623112

  4. A rapid method for isolation of piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum Linn.

    PubMed

    Kanaki, Niranjan; Dave, Mansi; Padh, Harish; Rajani, Mandapati

    2008-07-01

    A simple, rapid and efficient method has been developed for the isolation of piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum. The method involves extraction of the fruit powder with glacial acetic acid, from which piperine is partitioned into chloroform and subsequently crystallized. The identity of the compound was confirmed by its melting point, comparison of UV, IR, and mass spectral data with those from a reference standard, and co-chromatography with the reference standard using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The purity of the compound was ascertained by TLC, by recording UV absorption spectra at the start, middle, and end positions of the spot on the plate, and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  5. A Rapid Colorimetric Method Reveals Fraudulent Substitutions in Sea Urchin Roe Marketed in Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Meloni, Domenico; Spina, Antonio; Satta, Gianluca; Chessa, Vittorio

    2016-06-25

    In recent years, besides the consumption of fresh sea urchin specimens, the demand of minimally-processed roe has grown considerably. This product has made frequent consumption in restaurants possible and frauds are becoming widespread with the partial replacement of sea urchin roe with surrogates that are similar in colour. One of the main factors that determines the quality of the roe is its colour and small differences in colour scale cannot be easily discerned by the consumers. In this study we have applied a rapid colorimetric method for reveal the fraudulent partial substitution of semi-solid sea urchin roe with liquid egg yolk. Objective assessment of whiteness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue (h*), and chroma (C*) was carried out with a digital spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* colour measurement system. The colorimetric method highlighted statistically significant differences among sea urchin roe and liquid egg yolk that could be easily discerned quantitatively.

  6. A Rapid Colorimetric Method Reveals Fraudulent Substitutions in Sea Urchin Roe Marketed in Sardinia (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Domenico; Spina, Antonio; Satta, Gianluca; Chessa, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, besides the consumption of fresh sea urchin specimens, the demand of minimally-processed roe has grown considerably. This product has made frequent consumption in restaurants possible and frauds are becoming widespread with the partial replacement of sea urchin roe with surrogates that are similar in colour. One of the main factors that determines the quality of the roe is its colour and small differences in colour scale cannot be easily discerned by the consumers. In this study we have applied a rapid colorimetric method for reveal the fraudulent partial substitution of semi-solid sea urchin roe with liquid egg yolk. Objective assessment of whiteness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue (h*), and chroma (C*) was carried out with a digital spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* colour measurement system. The colorimetric method highlighted statistically significant differences among sea urchin roe and liquid egg yolk that could be easily discerned quantitatively. PMID:28231142

  7. A rapid, sensitive and economic method for the detection, quantification and confirmation of aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Majerus, P; Zakaria, Z

    1992-10-01

    A rapid, sensitive and economic method for the detection, quantification and confirmation of aflatoxins is described. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, are extracted by methanol/water (85 + 15) and partitioned into methylene dichloride. The methylene dichloride solution is cleaned up on a polypropylene column, filled with 0.5 g silica gel 60. The aflatoxins are eluted with chloroform-acetone (90:10) and are detected using bidirectional thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with aluminium silica gel foil. The mean recovery of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in corn samples was 73, 78, 80, and 64%, respectively; the limit of detection was 0.5 micrograms/kg. The results can also be confirmed by derivative formation using trifluoroacetic acid on the TLC plate. The method has been applied to a wide range of foods with good results.

  8. Response Surface Method for the Rapid Design of Process Parameters in Tube Hydroforming

    SciTech Connect

    Chebbah, M. S.; Hecini, M.; Naceur, H.; Belouettar, S.

    2007-05-17

    This paper deals with the optimization of tube hydroforming parameters in order reduce defects which may occur at the end of forming process such as necking and wrinkling. We propose a specific methodology based on the coupling between an inverse method for the rapid simulation of tube hydroforming process, and a Response Surface Method based on diffuse approximation. The response surfaces are built using Moving Least Squares approximations and constructed within a moving region of interest which moves across a predefined discrete grid of authorized experimental designs. An application of hydroforming of a bulge from aluminium alloy 6061-T6 tubing has been utilized to validate our methodology. The final design is validated with ABAQUS Explicit Dynamic commercial code.

  9. Cellulose acetate fibers prepared from different raw materials with rapid synthesis method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinghuan; Xu, Jikun; Wang, Kun; Cao, Xuefei; Sun, Runcang

    2016-02-10

    Transesterification is a mild process to prepare cellulose acetate (CA) as compared with the traditional method. In this study, CA fibers were produced from six cellulose raw materials based on a simple and rapid transesterification method. The properties of the CA solutions and the obtained CA fibers were investigated in detail. Results showed that all of the cellulose raw materials were esterified within 15 min, and spinning dopes could be obtained by concentrating the CA solutions via vacuum distillation. The XRD, FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C and HSQC NMR analysis confirmed the successful synthesis of CA. The degree of substitution (DS) of the obtained CA was significantly affected by the degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose raw materials, which further influenced the viscosity of CA solutions as well as the structural, thermal and mechanical properties of the CA fibers.

  10. USING AN INTENSIVE ASSESSMENT METHOD TO CALIBRATE A RAPID WETLAND ASSESSMENT METHOD: AN EXAMPLE FROM NANTICOKE BASIN, DELAWARE AND MARYLAND, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of rapid assessment methods has become a priority for many organizations that want to report on the condition of wetlands at larger scales requiring many sampling sites. To have faith in these rapid methods, however, requires that they be verified with more compr...

  11. A rapid and simple method for constructing stable mutants of Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug-resistant bacterium responsible for nosocomial infections in hospitals worldwide. Study of mutant phenotypes is fundamental for understanding gene function. The methodologies developed to inactivate A. baumannii genes are complicated and time-consuming; sometimes result in unstable mutants, and do not enable construction of double (or more) gene knockout mutant strains of A. baumannii. Results We describe here a rapid and simple method of obtaining A. baumannii mutants by gene replacement via double crossover recombination, by use of a PCR product that carries an antibiotic resistance cassette flanked by regions homologous to the target locus. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the approach, we produced mutants of three different chromosomal genes (omp33, oxyR, and soxR) by this method. In addition, we disrupted one of these genes (omp33) by integration of a plasmid into the chromosome by single crossover recombination, the most widely used method of obtaining A. baumannii mutants. Comparison of the different techniques revealed absolute stability when the gene was replaced by a double recombination event, whereas up to 40% of the population reverted to wild-type when the plasmid was disrupting the target gene after 10 passages in broth without selective pressure. Moreover, we demonstrate that the combination of both gene disruption and gene replacement techniques is an easy and useful procedure for obtaining double gene knockout mutants in A. baumannii. Conclusions This study provides a rapid and simple method of obtaining stable mutants of A. baumannii free of foreign plasmidic DNA, which does not require cloning steps, and enables construction of multiple gene knockout mutants. PMID:21062436

  12. Diagnostic Performance of a Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging Method of Measuring Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    House, Michael J.; Gan, Eng K.; Adams, Leon A.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bangma, Sander J.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Olynyk, John K.; St. Pierre, Tim G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Hepatic steatosis is associated with an increased risk of developing serious liver disease and other clinical sequelae of the metabolic syndrome. However, visual estimates of steatosis from histological sections of biopsy samples are subjective and reliant on an invasive procedure with associated risks. The aim of this study was to test the ability of a rapid, routinely available, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to diagnose clinically relevant grades of hepatic steatosis in a cohort of patients with diverse liver diseases. Materials and Methods Fifty-nine patients with a range of liver diseases underwent liver biopsy and MRI. Hepatic steatosis was quantified firstly using an opposed-phase, in-phase gradient echo, single breath-hold MRI methodology and secondly, using liver biopsy with visual estimation by a histopathologist and by computer-assisted morphometric image analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of the MRI method against the biopsy observations. Results The MRI approach had high sensitivity and specificity at all hepatic steatosis thresholds. Areas under ROC curves were 0.962, 0.993, and 0.972 at thresholds of 5%, 33%, and 66% liver fat, respectively. MRI measurements were strongly associated with visual (r2 = 0.83) and computer-assisted morphometric (r2 = 0.84) estimates of hepatic steatosis from histological specimens. Conclusions This MRI approach, using a conventional, rapid, gradient echo method, has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing liver fat at all grades of steatosis in a cohort with a range of liver diseases. PMID:23555650

  13. [Raman spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition methods for rapid identification of crude soybean oil adulteration].

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Ning; Wu, Yan-Wen; Wang, Yu; Zu, Wen-Chuan; Chen, Shun-Cong

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, a non-destructive, simple and rapid analytical method was proposed based on Raman spectroscopy (Raman) combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) as pattern recognition methods for adulteration of crude soybean oil (CSO). Based on fingerprint characteristics of Raman, the spectra of 28 CSOs, 46 refined edible oils (REOs) and 110 adulterated oil samples were analyzed and used for discrimination model establishment. The preprocessing methods include choosing spectral band of 780-1,800 cm(-1), Y-axis intensity correction, baseline correction and normalization in succession. After those series of spectral pretreatment, PCA was usually employed for extracting characteristic variables of all Raman spectral data and 7 principal components which were the highest contributions of all data were used as var- iables for SVM model. The SVM discrimination model was established by randomly picking 20 CSOs and 95 adulterated oils as calibration set, and 8 CSOs and 35 adulterated oils as validation set. There were 4 kinds of kernel function algorithm (linear, polynomial, RBF, sigmoid) respectively used for establishing SVM models and grid-search for optimization of parameters of all the SVM models. The classification results of 4 models were compared by their discrimination performances and the optimal SVM model was based on linear kernel classification algorithm with 100% accuracy rate of calibration set recognition, a zero misjudgment rate and the lowest detection limit of 2.5%. The above results showed that Raman combined PCA-SVM could discriminate CSO adulteration with refined edible oils. Since Raman spectroscopy is simple, rapid, non-destructive, environment friendly, and suitable for field testing, it will provide an alternative method for edible oil adulteration analysis.

  14. Meselect – A Rapid and Effective Method for the Separation of the Main Leaf Tissue Types

    PubMed Central

    Svozil, Julia; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baerenfaller, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Individual tissues of complex eukaryotic organisms have specific gene expression programs that control their functions. Therefore, tissue-specific molecular information is required to increase our understanding of tissue-specific processes. Established methods in plants to obtain specific tissues or cell types from their organ or tissue context typically require the enzymatic degradation of cell walls followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using plants engineered for localized expression of green fluorescent protein. This has facilitated the acquisition of valuable data, mainly on root cell type-specific transcript and protein expression. However, FACS of different leaf cell types is difficult because of chlorophyll autofluorescence that interferes with the sorting process. Furthermore, the cell wall composition is different in each cell type. This results in long incubation times for refractory cell types, and cell sorting itself can take several hours. To overcome these limitations, we developed Meselect (mechanical separation of leaf compound tissues), a rapid and effective method for the separation of leaf epidermal, vascular and mesophyll tissues. Meselect is a novel combination of mechanical separation and rapid protoplasting, which benefits from the unique cell wall composition of the different tissue types. Meselect has several advantages over cell sorting: it does not require expensive equipment such as a cell sorter and does not depend on specific fluorescent reporter lines, the use of blenders as well as the inherent mixing of different cell types and of intact and damaged cells can be avoided, and the time between wounding of the leaf and freezing of the sample is short. The efficacy and specificity of the method to enrich the different leaf tissue types has been confirmed using Arabidopsis leaves, but it has also been successfully used for leaves of other plants such as tomato or cassava. The method is therefore useful for plant

  15. Meselect - A Rapid and Effective Method for the Separation of the Main Leaf Tissue Types.

    PubMed

    Svozil, Julia; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baerenfaller, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Individual tissues of complex eukaryotic organisms have specific gene expression programs that control their functions. Therefore, tissue-specific molecular information is required to increase our understanding of tissue-specific processes. Established methods in plants to obtain specific tissues or cell types from their organ or tissue context typically require the enzymatic degradation of cell walls followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using plants engineered for localized expression of green fluorescent protein. This has facilitated the acquisition of valuable data, mainly on root cell type-specific transcript and protein expression. However, FACS of different leaf cell types is difficult because of chlorophyll autofluorescence that interferes with the sorting process. Furthermore, the cell wall composition is different in each cell type. This results in long incubation times for refractory cell types, and cell sorting itself can take several hours. To overcome these limitations, we developed Meselect (mechanical separation of leaf compound tissues), a rapid and effective method for the separation of leaf epidermal, vascular and mesophyll tissues. Meselect is a novel combination of mechanical separation and rapid protoplasting, which benefits from the unique cell wall composition of the different tissue types. Meselect has several advantages over cell sorting: it does not require expensive equipment such as a cell sorter and does not depend on specific fluorescent reporter lines, the use of blenders as well as the inherent mixing of different cell types and of intact and damaged cells can be avoided, and the time between wounding of the leaf and freezing of the sample is short. The efficacy and specificity of the method to enrich the different leaf tissue types has been confirmed using Arabidopsis leaves, but it has also been successfully used for leaves of other plants such as tomato or cassava. The method is therefore useful for plant

  16. Rapid method for detection, identification, and susceptibility testing of enteric pathogens.

    PubMed

    Stager, C E; Erikson, E; Davis, J R

    1983-01-01

    Three hundred and seven colonies believed to be enteric pathogens were selected from primary plates of MacConkey, xylose desoxycholate, or salmonella-shigella agar for inoculation to lactose-sucrose broth, urea-41 motility medium, modified Andrade glucose broth with inverted Durham tube, pregrowth broth, triple sugar iron agar, lysine iron agar (LIA), and Christensen urea agar. The rapid screen consisted of interpreting the lactose-sucrose, urea-41 motility, and modified Andrade glucose broth gas reactions after 4 to 6 h at 35 degrees C. These rapid screening biochemicals plus LIA were incubated for 24 h if further interpretation was required. Reference biochemicals (triple sugar iron, LIA, and Christensen urea agars) were interpreted at 24 h. Of 307 isolates, 49 (16%) were reported as negative for enteric pathogens after 4 to 6 h because their biochemical profiles were not compatible with those for enteric pathogens. A total of 87 (28.3%) isolates produced biochemical profiles at 4 to 6 h that were presumptive for enteric pathogens. The 87 presumptive pathogens were inoculated into the AutoMicrobic system Gram-Negative General Susceptibility Card and the AutoMicrobic system Enterobacteriaceae-Plus Biochemical Card (AMS-EBC+) after 4 to 6 h of growth in pregrowth broth. Of these isolates, 63 were confirmed to be enteric pathogens, of which 61 (96.8%) were correctly identified by the AMS-EBC+. One isolate was identified as Shigella dysenteriae by AMS-EBC+ but confirmed as Shigella flexneri biotype 6 by a reference laboratory. The other isolate was identified as Arizona hinshawii by AMS-EBC+ but was confirmed as Salmonella enteritidis. Of the 307 isolates, 166 (54.1%) required further interpretation of the rapid screening biochemicals plus LIA at 24 h; 5 of these were detected as enteric pathogens. The same 68 enteric pathogens were detected by both the rapid method and the reference method. The results from the general susceptibility card agreed with agar diffusion

  17. Rapid fusion method for the determination of Pu, Np, and Am in large soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2015-02-14

    A new rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for the preparation of 10-20 g soil samples has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The method enables lower detection limits for plutonium, neptunium, and americium in environmental soil samples. The method also significantly reduces sample processing time and acid fume generation compared to traditional soil digestion techniques using hydrofluoric acid. Ten gram soil aliquots can be ashed and fused using the new method in 1-2 hours, completely dissolving samples, including refractory particles. Pu, Np and Am are separated using stacked 2mL cartridges of TEVA and DGA Resin and measured using alpha spectrometry. The method can be adapted for measurement by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two 10 g soil aliquots of fused soil may be combined prior to chromatographic separations to further improve detection limits. Total sample preparation time, including chromatographic separations and alpha spectrometry source preparation, is less than 8 hours.

  18. A Tree Based Method for the Rapid Screening of Chemical Fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Thomas G.; Nielsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    The fingerprint of a molecule is a bitstring based on its structure, constructed such that structurally similar molecules will have similar fingerprints. Molecular fingerprints can be used in an initial phase for identifying novel drug candidates by screening large databases for molecules with fingerprints similar to a query fingerprint. In this paper, we present a method which efficiently finds all fingerprints in a database with Tanimoto coefficient to the query fingerprint above a user defined threshold. The method is based on two novel data structures for rapid screening of large databases: the kD grid and the Multibit tree. The kD grid is based on splitting the fingerprints into k shorter bitstrings and utilising these to compute bounds on the similarity of the complete bitstrings. The Multibit tree uses hierarchical clustering and similarity within each cluster to compute similar bounds. We have implemented our method and tested it on a large data set from the industry. Our experiments show that our method yields a three-fold speed-up over previous methods.

  19. Method and apparatus for rapidly growing films on substrates using pulsed supersonic jets

    DOEpatents

    Eres, Diula; Lowndes, Douglas H.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the rapid and economical deposition of uniform and high quality films upon a substrate for subsequent use in producing electronic devices, for example. The resultant films are either epitaxial (crystalline) or amorphous depending upon the incidence rate and the temperature and structure of the substrate. The deposition is carried out in a chamber maintained at about 10.sup.-6 Torr. A gaseous source of the material for forming the deposit is injected into the deposition chamber in the form of a pulsed supersonic jet so as to obtain a high incidence rate. The supersonic jet is produced by a pulsed valve between a relatively high presure reservoir, containing the source gaseous molecules, and the deposition chamber; the valve has a small nozzle orifice (e.g., 0.1-1.0 mm diameter). The type of deposit (crystalline amorphous) is then dependent upon the temperature and structure of the substrate. Very high deposition rates are achieved, and the deposit is very smooth and of uniform thickness. Typically the deposition rate is about 100 times that of much more expensive conventional molecular beam methods for deposition, and comparable to certain expensive plasma-assisted CVD methods of the art. The high growth rate of this method results in a reduced contamination of the deposit from other elements in the environment. The method is illustrated by the deposition of epitaxial and amorphour germanium films upon GaAs substrates.

  20. Rapid fusion method for the determination of Pu, Np, and Am in large soil samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; ...

    2015-02-14

    A new rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for the preparation of 10-20 g soil samples has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The method enables lower detection limits for plutonium, neptunium, and americium in environmental soil samples. The method also significantly reduces sample processing time and acid fume generation compared to traditional soil digestion techniques using hydrofluoric acid. Ten gram soil aliquots can be ashed and fused using the new method in 1-2 hours, completely dissolving samples, including refractory particles. Pu, Np and Am are separated using stacked 2mL cartridges of TEVA and DGA Resin and measuredmore » using alpha spectrometry. The method can be adapted for measurement by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two 10 g soil aliquots of fused soil may be combined prior to chromatographic separations to further improve detection limits. Total sample preparation time, including chromatographic separations and alpha spectrometry source preparation, is less than 8 hours.« less

  1. Development of a micropulverized extraction method for rapid toxicological analysis of methamphetamine in hair.

    PubMed

    Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kakuta, Masaya; Iwata, Yuko T; Matsuda, Hideaki; Tazawa, Hidekatsu; Kimura, Hiroko; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2007-09-07

    We developed a rapid sample preparation method for the toxicological analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine (the major metabolite of methamphetamine) in human hair by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), to facilitate fast screening and quantitation. Two milligrams of hair were mechanically micropulverized for 5 min in a 2-ml plastic tube together with 100 microl of an aqueous solvent containing 10% acetonitrile, 100 mM trifluoroacetic acid and the corresponding deuterium analogues as internal standards. The pulverizing highly disintegrated the hair components, simultaneously allowing the extraction of any drugs present in the hair. After filtering the suspension with a membrane-filter unit, the clear filtrate was directly analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. No evaporation processes were required for sample preparation. Method optimization and validation study were carried out using real-case specimens and fortified samples in which the drugs had been artificially absorbed, respectively. Concentration ranges for quantitation were 0.040-125 and 0.040-25 ng/mg for methamphetamine and amphetamine, respectively. Real-case specimens were analyzed by the method presented here and by conventional ones to verify the applicability of our method to real-world analysis. Our method took less than 30 min for a set of chromatograms to be obtained from a washed hair sample.

  2. A sensitive and rapid method for identification and characterization of low abundance receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Sunahara, R.K.; Murphy, B.J.; Tuana, B.S. )

    1990-02-15

    An improved method for detection of low intensity radioligand-receptor complexes resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is described. (3H)Azidopine-labeled 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) receptor from skeletal muscle resolved by SDS-PAGE was transferred to nitrocellulose and cut into strips and individual slices were analyzed for radioincorporation by liquid scintillation counting. (3H)Azidopine-labeled DHP binding subunit migrated as a single entity with a mass of 170 kDa and was confirmed using conventional methods. Results were obtained within 4 h after resolution by SDS-PAGE compared to 3-40 days using conventional methods. In addition, detection of extremely low signals (less than 50 cpm/lane), otherwise overwhelmed by background noise using conventional methods, was possible due to removal of free ligand during electro-transfer to nitrocellulose. This technique offers a rapid sensitive, cost effective alternative to fluorography or other conventional gel slice analysis methods for detecting low intensity radiolabeled complexes resolved by SDS-PAGE.

  3. A Simple and Rapid Identification Method for Mycobacterium bovis BCG with Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Kouzaki, Yuji; Maeda, Takuya; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Tamura, Shinsuke; Hamamoto, Takaaki; Yuki, Atsushi; Sato, Akinori; Miyahira, Yasushi; Kawana, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is widely used as a live attenuated vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is an agent for standard prophylaxis against the recurrence of bladder cancer. Unfortunately, it can cause severe infectious diseases, especially in immunocompromised patients, and the ability to immediately distinguish BCG from other M. tuberculosis complexes is therefore important. In this study, we developed a simple and easy-to-perform identification procedure using loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) to detect deletions within the region of difference, which is deleted specifically in all M. bovis BCG strains. Reactions were performed at 64°C for 30 min and successful targeted gene amplifications were detected by real-time turbidity using a turbidimeter and visual inspection of color change. The assay had an equivalent detection limit of 1.0 pg of genomic DNA using a turbidimeter whereas it was 10 pg with visual inspection, and it showed specificity against 49 strains of 44 pathogens, including M. tuberculosis complex. The expected LAMP products were confirmed through identical melting curves in real-time LAMP procedures. We employed the Procedure for Ultra Rapid Extraction (PURE) kit to isolate mycobacterial DNA and found that the highest sensitivity limit with a minimum total cell count of mycobacterium (including DNA purification with PURE) was up to 1 × 103 cells/reaction, based on color changes under natural light with FDA reagents. The detection limit of this procedure when applied to artificial serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples was also about 1 × 103 cells/reaction. Therefore, this substitute method using conventional culture or clinical specimens followed by LAMP combined with PURE could be a powerful tool to enable the rapid identification of M. bovis BCG as point-of-care testing. It is suitable for practical use not only in resource-limited situations, but also in any clinical situation

  4. Evaluation of growth based rapid microbiological methods for sterility testing of vaccines and other biological products.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Seema; Kaur, Simleen; David, Selwyn A Wilson; Kenney, James L; McCormick, William M; Gupta, Rajesh K

    2011-10-19

    Most biological products, including vaccines, administered by the parenteral route are required to be tested for sterility at the final container and also at various stages during manufacture. The sterility testing method described in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 610.12) and the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP, Chapter <71>) is based on the observation of turbidity in liquid culture media due to growth of potential contaminants. We evaluated rapid microbiological methods (RMM) based on detection of growth 1) by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence technology (Rapid Milliflex(®) Detection System [RMDS]), and 2) by CO(2) monitoring technologies (BacT/Alert and the BACTEC systems), as alternate sterility methods. Microorganisms representing Gram negative, Gram positive, aerobic, anaerobic, spore forming, slow growing bacteria, yeast, and fungi were prepared in aliquots of Fluid A or a biological matrix (including inactivated influenza vaccines) to contain approximately 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 colony forming units (CFU) in an inoculum of 10 ml. These preparations were inoculated to the specific media required for the various methods: 1) fluid thioglycollate medium (FTM) and tryptic soy broth (TSB) of the compendial sterility method (both membrane filtration and direct inoculation); 2) tryptic soy agar (TSA), Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and Schaedler blood agar (SBA) of the RMDS; 3) iAST and iNST media of the BacT/Alert system and 4) Standard 10 Aerobic/F and Standard Anaerobic/F media of the BACTEC system. RMDS was significantly more sensitive in detecting various microorganisms at 0.1CFU than the compendial methods (p<0.05), whereas the compendial membrane filtration method was significantly more sensitive than the BACTEC and BacT/Alert methods (p<0.05). RMDS detected all microorganisms significantly faster than the compendial method (p<0.05). BacT/Alert and BACTEC methods detected most microorganisms significantly faster than the compendial method

  5. [VMTBB-Based Spectral Radiometric Calibration of NIR Fiber Coupled Spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Feng; Liu, Li-ying; Liu, Xiao-xi; Li, Ye; Shi, Xiao-guang; Zhang, Guo-yu; Huan, Ke-wei

    2015-09-01

    The medium temperature black body (MTBB) is conventional high precision equipment used as spectral radiometric scale in infrared spectral region. However, in near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, there are few papers about spectral radiometric calibration by using MTBB, that is because NIR spectral region is the borderland of its effective spectral region. The main research of this paper is spectral radiometric calibration method by using MTBB in NIR spectral region. Accordingly, this paper is devoted mostly to a discussion of how the calibration precision could be affected by selecting different structural parameters of calibration model. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research and provide technical reference for improving the traceability in NIR spectral radiometric calibration. In this paper, a NIR fiber coupled spectrometer, whose wavelength range covers from 950 to 1700 nm, has been calibrated by a MTBB with adjustable temperature range from 50 to 1050 °C. Concentrating on calibration process, two key points have been discussed. For one thing, the geometric factors of radiation transfer model of the calibration systems have been compared between traditional structure and fiber direct-coupled structure. Because the fiber direct-coupled model is simple and effective, it has been selected instead of traditional model based on the radiation transfer between two coaxial discs. So, it is an advantaged radiation transfer model for radiometric calibration of fiber coupled spectrometer. For another thing, the relation between calibration accuracy and structural parameters of calibration model has been analyzed intensively. The root cause is scale feature of attribute of calibration data itself, which is the nonlinear structure in scales of spectral data. So, the high precision calibration needs nonlinear calibration model, and the uniform sampling for scale feature is also very important. Selecting sample is an inevitable problem when the

  6. A rapid and automated relocation method of an AFM probe for high-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peilin; Yu, Haibo; Shi, Jialin; Jiao, Niandong; Wang, Zhidong; Wang, Yuechao; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-09-30

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is one of the most powerful tools for high-resolution imaging and high-precision positioning for nanomanipulation. The selection of the scanning area of the AFM depends on the use of the optical microscope. However, the resolution of an optical microscope is generally no larger than 200 nm owing to wavelength limitations of visible light. Taking into consideration the two determinants of relocation-relative angular rotation and positional offset between the AFM probe and nano target-it is therefore extremely challenging to precisely relocate the AFM probe to the initial scan/manipulation area for the same nano target after the AFM probe has been replaced, or after the sample has been moved. In this paper, we investigate a rapid automated relocation method for the nano target of an AFM using a coordinate transformation. The relocation process is both simple and rapid; moreover, multiple nano targets can be relocated by only identifying a pair of reference points. It possesses a centimeter-scale location range and nano-scale precision. The main advantages of this method are that it overcomes the limitations associated with the resolution of optical microscopes, and that it is label-free on the target areas, which means that it does not require the use of special artificial markers on the target sample areas. Relocation experiments using nanospheres, DNA, SWCNTs, and nano patterns amply demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed method, which provides technical support for mass nanomanipulation and detection based on AFM for multiple nano targets that are widely distributed in a large area.

  7. A Rapid and Improved Method to Generate Recombinant Dengue Virus Vaccine Candidates.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Guan, Liming; Meschino, Steven; Fridman, Arthur; Bagchi, Ansu; Pak, Irene; ter Meulen, Jan; Casimiro, Danilo R; Bett, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne infections accounting for severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, the tetravalent chimeric live attenuated Dengue vaccine Dengvaxia® was approved for use in several dengue endemic countries. In general, live attenuated vaccines (LAV) are very efficacious and offer long-lasting immunity against virus-induced disease. Rationally designed LAVs can be generated through reverse genetics technology, a method of generating infectious recombinant viruses from full length cDNA contained in bacterial plasmids. In vitro transcribed (IVT) viral RNA from these infectious clones is transfected into susceptible cells to generate recombinant virus. However, the generation of full-length dengue virus cDNA clones can be difficult due to the genetic instability of viral sequences in bacterial plasmids. To circumvent the need for a single plasmid containing a full length cDNA, in vitro ligation of two or three cDNA fragments contained in separate plasmids can be used to generate a full-length dengue viral cDNA template. However, in vitro ligation of multiple fragments often yields low quality template for IVT reactions, resulting in inconsistent low yield RNA. These technical difficulties make recombinant virus recovery less efficient. In this study, we describe a simple, rapid and efficient method of using LONG-PCR to recover recombinant chimeric Yellow fever dengue (CYD) viruses as potential dengue vaccine candidates. Using this method, we were able to efficiently generate several viable recombinant viruses without introducing any artificial mutations into the viral genomes. We believe that the techniques reported here will enable rapid and efficient recovery of recombinant flaviviruses for evaluation as vaccine candidates and, be applicable to the recovery of other RNA viruses.

  8. A Method to Represent Heterogeneous Materials for Rapid Prototyping: The Matryoshka Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shuangyan; Frank, Matthew C.; Anderson, Donald D.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for representing heterogeneous materials using nested STL shells, based, in particular, on the density distributions of human bones. Design/methodology/approach Nested STL shells, called Matryoshka models, are described, based on their namesake Russian nesting dolls. In this approach, polygonal models, such as STL shells, are “stacked” inside one another to represent different material regions. The Matryoshka model addresses the challenge of representing different densities and different types of bone when reverse engineering from medical images. The Matryoshka model is generated via an iterative process of thresholding the Hounsfield Unit (HU) data using computed tomography (CT), thereby delineating regions of progressively increasing bone density. These nested shells can represent regions starting with the medullary (bone marrow) canal, up through and including the outer surface of the bone. Findings The Matryoshka approach introduced can be used to generate accurate models of heterogeneous materials in an automated fashion, avoiding the challenge of hand-creating an assembly model for input to multi-material additive or subtractive manufacturing. Originality/Value This paper presents a new method for describing heterogeneous materials: in this case, the density distribution in a human bone. The authors show how the Matryoshka model can be used to plan harvesting locations for creating custom rapid allograft bone implants from donor bone. An implementation of a proposed harvesting method is demonstrated, followed by a case study using subtractive rapid prototyping to harvest a bone implant from a human tibia surrogate. PMID:26120277

  9. A Rapid and Improved Method to Generate Recombinant Dengue Virus Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Guan, Liming; Meschino, Steven; Fridman, Arthur; Bagchi, Ansu; Pak, Irene; ter Meulen, Jan; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Bett, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne infections accounting for severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, the tetravalent chimeric live attenuated Dengue vaccine Dengvaxia® was approved for use in several dengue endemic countries. In general, live attenuated vaccines (LAV) are very efficacious and offer long-lasting immunity against virus-induced disease. Rationally designed LAVs can be generated through reverse genetics technology, a method of generating infectious recombinant viruses from full length cDNA contained in bacterial plasmids. In vitro transcribed (IVT) viral RNA from these infectious clones is transfected into susceptible cells to generate recombinant virus. However, the generation of full-length dengue virus cDNA clones can be difficult due to the genetic instability of viral sequences in bacterial plasmids. To circumvent the need for a single plasmid containing a full length cDNA, in vitro ligation of two or three cDNA fragments contained in separate plasmids can be used to generate a full-length dengue viral cDNA template. However, in vitro ligation of multiple fragments often yields low quality template for IVT reactions, resulting in inconsistent low yield RNA. These technical difficulties make recombinant virus recovery less efficient. In this study, we describe a simple, rapid and efficient method of using LONG-PCR to recover recombinant chimeric Yellow fever dengue (CYD) viruses as potential dengue vaccine candidates. Using this method, we were able to efficiently generate several viable recombinant viruses without introducing any artificial mutations into the viral genomes. We believe that the techniques reported here will enable rapid and efficient recovery of recombinant flaviviruses for evaluation as vaccine candidates and, be applicable to the recovery of other RNA viruses. PMID:27008550

  10. Development and validation of a UPLC method for rapid and simultaneous analysis of proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Addo, Richard T; Davis, Kenneth; Ubale, Ruhi; Owen, Joel S; Watkins, E Blake

    2015-02-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used extensively for the relief of gastroesophageal reflux, peptic ulcers, and other hypersecretory conditions. Some of the commonly used PPIs-omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole-were used in this study with the aim of developing a rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for detecting each and allowing separation and quantification of a mixture of PPIs. An analysis of samples was performed on a UPLC system equipped with a quaternary solvent delivery system, a refrigerated sample manager, a column heater, a photo diode array detector scanning from 210 to 400 nm, and a C18 analytical column (50 mm × 3.0 mm, 1.7-μm particle size). The chromatographic analysis of the PPI samples and standards was performed using gradient elution with acetonitrile and water. The calibration curve range varied for each of the PPIs ranging from a lower limit of 0.75-1.78 μg/mL to a maximum concentration of 200 μg/mL with a regression coefficient (r (2)) of ≥0.98. The accuracy and precision were calculated, and the %RSD was determined to be ≤0.21% (intraday) and ≤5% (interday). The LOD was 0.23-0.59 μg/mL and the LOQ was 0.71-1.78 μg/mL for each of the drugs analyzed. The method was capable of detecting and quantifying each drug in a mixture with good resolution and a total run time of less than 5 min. Herein, we report an efficient and rapid analytical method for the simultaneous detection of multiple PPIs in a mixture.

  11. Rapid and Sensitive Lateral Flow Immunoassay Method for Procalcitonin (PCT) Based on Time-Resolved Immunochromatography

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Cong-Rong; Xie, Chun-Mei; Wang, Xian-Guo; Liang, Rong-Liang; Xu, Wei-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is a current, frequently-used marker for severe bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid quantitative and on-site detection of PCT. To develop the new PCT quantitative detecting kit, a double-antibody sandwich immunofluorescent assay was employed based on time-resolved immunofluorescent assay (TRFIA) combined with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). The performance of the new developed kit was evaluated in the aspects of linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity. Two-hundred thirty-four serum samples were enrolled to carry out the comparison test. The new PCT quantitative detecting kit exhibited a higher sensitivity (0.08 ng/mL). The inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV) and the intra-assay CV were 5.4%–7.7% and 5.7%–13.4%, respectively. The recovery rates ranged from 93% to 105%. Furthermore, a high correlation (n = 234, r = 0.977, p < 0.0001) and consistency (Kappa = 0.875) were obtained when compared with the PCT kit from Roche Elecsys BRAHMS. Thus, the new quantitative method for detecting PCT has been successfully established. The results indicated that the newly-developed system based on TRFIA combined with LFIA was suitable for rapid and on-site detection for PCT, which might be a useful platform for other biomarkers in point-of-care tests. PMID:28264502

  12. A Rapid and Efficient Method for Evaluation of Suspect Testimony: Palynological Scanning.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Patricia E J; Hawksworth, David L; Edwards, Kevin J

    2015-11-01

    A rapid method for evaluating suspect testimony is valuable at any stage in an inquiry and can result in a change of direction in an investigation. Rape cases, in particular, can present problems where a defendant renders DNA analysis redundant by claiming that the claimant consented to have sexual relations. Forensic palynology is valuable in confirming or eliminating locations as being crime scenes, thus checking the testimony of both parties. In contrast to some forensic disciplines, forensic palynology can provide critical information without time-consuming full analysis. Two cases are described where the palynological assemblages from comparator samples of pertinent places were compared with those obtained from clothing of claimants and defendants. The results of rapid microscopical scanning of relevant preparations led to early confessions, thus obviating the need for costly analyses and protracted court proceedings. A third case demonstrates the unbiased nature of this technique where a man, although innocent of any offense, lied about having visited the crime scene for fear of prosecution. This highlights the need for sensitive policing in claims of rape.

  13. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-09

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases.

  14. Performance of a Micro-UAV lifting system built with the usage of rapid prototyping methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalewski, R. T.; Gumowski, K.; Barczak, T.; Godek, J.

    2014-08-01

    This article presents results of the aerodynamic testing of a micro unmanned aerial vehicle rotor efficiency. The rotors were prepared as a set of two rotors in a counter-rotating ducted drive. Prototypes of the drives were made using two rapid prototyping techniques - FDM - fused deposition modelling method and SLS - selective laser sintering. Rotors were made then treated by introducing additional finishing cyanoacrylate coating and abrasive processing. Main differences between those models were observed in fan shape, porosity, surface roughness and mechanical properties - stiffness. An influence of these factors was observed on an aerodynamic efficiency. For the obtained prototypes both simulations and experimental testing were conducted with thrust, power, torque measurements, as well as the measurement of velocity and pressure distribution at the outlet of the duct. The results show the possibility of using rapid prototyping techniques to produce prototypes of drives operating in the low and medium Reynolds numbers (6000-60000), and the aerodynamic shape relevant factors affecting the preparation and performance of such drives. In addition, simulation studies were performed using the Fluent environment where experimental results were confronted with the results of simulation studies.

  15. RAPID QUANTITATIVE METHOD FOR MEASURING THE SENSITIVITY OF BLASTOMYCES DERMATITIDIS TO FUNGISTATIC AGENTS.

    PubMed

    GUIDRY, D J; MAIER, F

    1963-03-01

    Guidry, D. J. (Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans) and Findlay Maier. Rapid quantitative method for measuring the sensitivity of Blastomyces dermatitidis to fungistatic agents. J. Bacteriol. 85:504-508. 1963.-Isolates of Blastomyces dermatitidis (yeast phase) were grown in continuous shake liquid culture. When sufficient cells were added to impart an initial optical density of 0.100 to the inoculated medium, growth was rapid, and the time required to assay fungistatic agents was reduced to 48 hr. Standard curves on light transmittance and direct cell count facilitated preparation of inoculum and measurement of growth. Generation time was determined for various growth phases of B. dermatitidis, and the data were applied to selection of the optimal period of growth for assaying fungistatic agents. Four isolates of B. dermatitidis were tested for their sensitivity to amphotericin and 2-hydroxystilbamidine. An amphotericin B concentration of 1.4 mug/ml was sufficient for maximal inhibition of all isolates tested; there were differences among isolates in sensitivity to lower concentrations of the drug. A 2-hydroxystilbamidine concentration of 62.5 mug/ml was sufficient for maximal inhibition of two isolates; the two remaining isolates required a concentration of 125 mug/ml. A latent period in inhibition of growth occurred when amphotericin B and 2-hydroxystilbamidine were added to cultures of B. dermatitidis. This latent period, together with generation time of the yeast cells, determined the maximal degree of inhibition which could be attained.

  16. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for differentiation and rapid detection of Taenia species.

    PubMed

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Taenia species are required for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in areas where these diseases are endemic. Because of the lower sensitivity and specificity of the conventional diagnosis based on microscopical examination, molecular tools are more reliable for differential diagnosis of these diseases. In this study, we developed and evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for differential diagnosis of infections with Taenia species with cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidase (clp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes. LAMP with primer sets to the cox1 gene could differentiate between three species, and LAMP with primer sets to the clp gene could differentiate Taenia solium from Taenia saginata/Taenia asiatica. Restriction enzyme digestion of the LAMP products from primer set Tsag-clp allowed the differentiation of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica. We demonstrated the high specificity of LAMP by testing known parasite DNA samples extracted from proglottids (n = 100) and cysticerci (n = 68). LAMP could detect one copy of the target gene or five eggs of T. asiatica and T. saginata per gram of feces, showing sensitivity similar to that of PCR methods. Furthermore, LAMP could detect parasite DNA in all taeniid egg-positive fecal samples (n = 6). Due to the rapid, simple, specific, and sensitive detection of Taenia species, the LAMP assays are valuable tools which might be easily applicable for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in countries where these diseases are endemic.

  17. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP) as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Quach, D.T.; Sakoulas, G.; Nizet, V.; Pogliano, J.; Pogliano, K.

    2016-01-01

    Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant (MRSA) clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71) within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS) from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS) S. aureus strains (n = 20) within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice. PMID:26981574

  18. A rapid method for calculating maximal and minimal inter-satellite distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yulin; Dang, Zhaohui; Fan, Li; Wang, Zhaokui

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to rapidly and effectively calculate the maximal and minimal distances between a pair of satellites in which the leader is in an elliptic orbit. The principal idea of this method is simplifying the nonlinear squared distance function into a Taylor series with limited orders and further fitting the trigonometric functions in the derivative function of the simplified squared distance by piece-wise quadratic polynomials. By solving the zero-crossing points of the fitted quadratic curve, the critical points of the original nonlinear distance function are approximately determined. It turns out that the accuracy of the obtained solutions of the extreme distances depends on the number of intervals of the polynomial fitting. The bigger the number of intervals is, the better the accuracy. However, it is also noticed that the number of intervals is not necessary too big. For real applications a small value (e.g. 8) may be enough for the number of intervals. Besides, the method is apparently more effective for the small eccentricity cases. Finally, some simulations are further carried out to demonstrate the performances of this new method.

  19. Rapid fusion method for the determination of refractory thorium and uranium isotopes in soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Hutchison, Jay B.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2015-02-14

    Recently, approximately 80% of participating laboratories failed to accurately determine uranium isotopes in soil samples in the U.S Department of Energy Mixed Analyte Performance Evaluation Program (MAPEP) Session 30, due to incomplete dissolution of refractory particles in the samples. Failing laboratories employed acid dissolution methods, including hydrofluoric acid, to recover uranium from the soil matrix. The failures illustrate the importance of rugged soil dissolution methods for the accurate measurement of analytes in the sample matrix. A new rapid fusion method has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to prepare 1-2 g soil sample aliquots very quickly, with total dissolution of refractory particles. Soil samples are fused with sodium hydroxide at 600 ºC in zirconium crucibles to enable complete dissolution of the sample. Uranium and thorium are separated on stacked TEVA and TRU extraction chromatographic resin cartridges, prior to isotopic measurements by alpha spectrometry on cerium fluoride microprecipitation sources. Plutonium can also be separated and measured using this method. Batches of 12 samples can be prepared for measurement in <5 hours.

  20. Rapid fusion method for the determination of refractory thorium and uranium isotopes in soil samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Hutchison, Jay B.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2015-02-14

    Recently, approximately 80% of participating laboratories failed to accurately determine uranium isotopes in soil samples in the U.S Department of Energy Mixed Analyte Performance Evaluation Program (MAPEP) Session 30, due to incomplete dissolution of refractory particles in the samples. Failing laboratories employed acid dissolution methods, including hydrofluoric acid, to recover uranium from the soil matrix. The failures illustrate the importance of rugged soil dissolution methods for the accurate measurement of analytes in the sample matrix. A new rapid fusion method has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to prepare 1-2 g soil sample aliquots very quickly, withmore » total dissolution of refractory particles. Soil samples are fused with sodium hydroxide at 600 ºC in zirconium crucibles to enable complete dissolution of the sample. Uranium and thorium are separated on stacked TEVA and TRU extraction chromatographic resin cartridges, prior to isotopic measurements by alpha spectrometry on cerium fluoride microprecipitation sources. Plutonium can also be separated and measured using this method. Batches of 12 samples can be prepared for measurement in <5 hours.« less

  1. A rapid method combining Golgi and Nissl staining to study neuronal morphology and cytoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Pilati, Nadia; Barker, Matthew; Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Donga, Revers; Hamann, Martine

    2008-06-01

    The Golgi silver impregnation technique gives detailed information on neuronal morphology of the few neurons it labels, whereas the majority remain unstained. In contrast, the Nissl staining technique allows for consistent labeling of the whole neuronal population but gives very limited information on neuronal morphology. Most studies characterizing neuronal cell types in the context of their distribution within the tissue slice tend to use the Golgi silver impregnation technique for neuronal morphology followed by deimpregnation as a prerequisite for showing that neuron's histological location by subsequent Nissl staining. Here, we describe a rapid method combining Golgi silver impregnation with cresyl violet staining that provides a useful and simple approach to combining cellular morphology with cytoarchitecture without the need for deimpregnating the tissue. Our method allowed us to identify neurons of the facial nucleus and the supratrigeminal nucleus, as well as assessing cellular distribution within layers of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. With this method, we also have been able to directly compare morphological characteristics of neuronal somata at the dorsal cochlear nucleus when labeled with cresyl violet with those obtained with the Golgi method, and we found that cresyl violet-labeled cell bodies appear smaller at high cellular densities. Our observation suggests that cresyl violet staining is inadequate to quantify differences in soma sizes.

  2. [A rapid dialysis method for analysis of artificial sweeteners in food].

    PubMed

    Tahara, Shoichi; Fujiwara, Takushi; Yasui, Akiko; Hayafuji, Chieko; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Uematsu, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    A simple and rapid dialysis method was developed for the extraction and purification of four artificial sweeteners, namely, sodium saccharin (Sa), acesulfame potassium (AK), aspartame (APM), and dulcin (Du), which are present in various foods. Conventional dialysis uses a membrane dialysis tube approximately 15 cm in length and is carried out over many hours owing to the small membrane area and owing to inefficient mixing. In particular, processed cereal products such as cookies required treatment for 48 hours to obtain satisfactory recovery of the compounds. By increasing the tube length to 55 cm and introducing efficient mixing by inversion at half-hour intervals, the dialysis times of the four artificial sweeteners, spiked at 0.1 g/kg in the cookie, were shortened to 4 hours. Recovery yields of 88.9-103.2% were obtained by using the improved method, whereas recovery yields were low (65.5-82.0%) by the conventional method. Recovery yields (%) of Sa, AK, APM, and Du, spiked at 0.1 g/kg in various foods, were 91.6-100.1, 93.9-100.1, 86.7-100.0 and 88.7-104.7 using the improved method.

  3. A rapid method to achieve aero-engine blade form detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bin; Li, Bing

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes a rapid method to detect aero-engine blade form, according to the characteristics of an aero-engine blade surface. This method first deduces an inclination error model in free-form surface measurements based on the non-contact laser triangulation principle. Then a four-coordinate measuring system was independently developed, a special fixture was designed according to the blade shape features, and a fast measurement of the blade features path was planned. Finally, by using the inclination error model for correction of acquired data, the measurement error that was caused by tilt form is compensated. As a result the measurement accuracy of the Laser Displacement Sensor was less than 10 μm. After the experimental verification, this method makes full use of optical non-contact measurement fast speed, high precision and wide measuring range of features. Using a standard gauge block as a measurement reference, the coordinate system conversion data is simple and practical. It not only improves the measurement accuracy of the blade surface, but also its measurement efficiency. Therefore, this method increases the value of the measurement of complex surfaces.

  4. A rapid and scalable density gradient purification method for Plasmodium sporozoites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major human health problem, with no licensed vaccine currently available. Malaria infections initiate when infectious Plasmodium sporozoites are transmitted by Anopheline mosquitoes during their blood meal. Investigations of the malaria sporozoite are, therefore, of clear medical importance. However, sporozoites can only be produced in and isolated from mosquitoes, and their isolation results in large amounts of accompanying mosquito debris and contaminating microbes. Methods Here is described a discontinuous density gradient purification method for Plasmodium sporozoites that maintains parasite infectivity in vitro and in vivo and greatly reduces mosquito and microbial contaminants. Results This method provides clear advantages over previous approaches: it is rapid, requires no serum components, and can be scaled to purify >107 sporozoites with minimal operator involvement. Moreover, it can be effectively applied to both human (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax) and rodent (Plasmodium yoelii) infective species with excellent recovery rates. Conclusions This novel method effectively purifies viable malaria sporozoites by greatly reducing contaminating mosquito debris and microbial burdens associated with parasite isolation. Large-scale preparations of purified sporozoites will allow for enhanced in vitro infections, proteomics, and biochemical characterizations. In conjunction with aseptic mosquito rearing techniques, this purification technique will also support production of live attenuated sporozoites for vaccination. PMID:23244590

  5. A Rapid Method to Achieve Aero-Engine Blade Form Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bin; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a rapid method to detect aero-engine blade form, according to the characteristics of an aero-engine blade surface. This method first deduces an inclination error model in free-form surface measurements based on the non-contact laser triangulation principle. Then a four-coordinate measuring system was independently developed, a special fixture was designed according to the blade shape features, and a fast measurement of the blade features path was planned. Finally, by using the inclination error model for correction of acquired data, the measurement error that was caused by tilt form is compensated. As a result the measurement accuracy of the Laser Displacement Sensor was less than 10 μm. After the experimental verification, this method makes full use of optical non-contact measurement fast speed, high precision and wide measuring range of features. Using a standard gauge block as a measurement reference, the coordinate system conversion data is simple and practical. It not only improves the measurement accuracy of the blade surface, but also its measurement efficiency. Therefore, this method increases the value of the measurement of complex surfaces. PMID:26039420

  6. A rapid and sensitive method for the detection of aromatic amines in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Hailong, Xiao; Fen, Qian; Ying, Xu; Jianhong, Pan; Haiyun, Tu; Hongqing, Wang; Saijun, Lin; Jichun, Han

    2014-02-01

    Aromatic amines (AAs) are common chemical pollutants and banned ingredients in cosmetics. In this study, a rapid, simple and stable method for the detection of nine AAs in cosmetics was established based on the optimization of cation exchange solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method displayed good linearity within a range of 2-1,000 µg/kg, with limits of quantitation at the level of µg/kg for cosmetic samples. The recoveries obtained for all analyzed amines ranged between 83.6 and 97.8%, and the repeatability (r) and reproducibility (R) values indicated that all nine AAs showed good precision (r ≤ 4.5% and R ≤ 7.7%). The method was applied for the detection of 36 cosmetic samples. It was found that the primary pollutants of AAs were 3, 3'-dichlorobenzidine and 4-aminoazobenzene. The total amine concentration in cosmetic samples ranged from 880 to 5,200 µg/kg. The proposed method is applicable for the analysis of most cosmetic samples.

  7. A method for rapid quantitative assessment of biofilms with biomolecular staining and image analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Larimer, Curtis J.; Winder, Eric M.; Jeters, Robert T.; ...

    2015-12-07

    Here, the accumulation of bacteria in surface attached biofilms, or biofouling, can be detrimental to human health, dental hygiene, and many industrial processes. A critical need in identifying and preventing the deleterious effects of biofilms is the ability to observe and quantify their development. Analytical methods capable of assessing early stage fouling are cumbersome or lab-confined, subjective, and qualitative. Herein, a novel photographic method is described that uses biomolecular staining and image analysis to enhance contrast of early stage biofouling. A robust algorithm was developed to objectively and quantitatively measure surface accumulation of Pseudomonas putida from photographs and results weremore » compared to independent measurements of cell density. Results from image analysis quantified biofilm growth intensity accurately and with approximately the same precision of the more laborious cell counting method. This simple method for early stage biofilm detection enables quantifiable measurement of surface fouling and is flexible enough to be applied from the laboratory to the field. Broad spectrum staining highlights fouling biomass, photography quickly captures a large area of interest, and image analysis rapidly quantifies fouling in the image.« less

  8. A method for rapid quantitative assessment of biofilms with biomolecular staining and image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Larimer, Curtis J.; Winder, Eric M.; Jeters, Robert T.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Nettleship, Ian; Addleman, Raymond S.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-12-07

    Here, the accumulation of bacteria in surface attached biofilms, or biofouling, can be detrimental to human health, dental hygiene, and many industrial processes. A critical need in identifying and preventing the deleterious effects of biofilms is the ability to observe and quantify their development. Analytical methods capable of assessing early stage fouling are cumbersome or lab-confined, subjective, and qualitative. Herein, a novel photographic method is described that uses biomolecular staining and image analysis to enhance contrast of early stage biofouling. A robust algorithm was developed to objectively and quantitatively measure surface accumulation of Pseudomonas putida from photographs and results were compared to independent measurements of cell density. Results from image analysis quantified biofilm growth intensity accurately and with approximately the same precision of the more laborious cell counting method. This simple method for early stage biofilm detection enables quantifiable measurement of surface fouling and is flexible enough to be applied from the laboratory to the field. Broad spectrum staining highlights fouling biomass, photography quickly captures a large area of interest, and image analysis rapidly quantifies fouling in the image.

  9. Titan Density Reconstruction Using Radiometric and Cassini Attitude Control Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrade, Luis G., Jr.; Burk, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares three different methods of Titan atmospheric density reconstruction for the Titan 87 Cassini flyby. T87 was a unique flyby that provided independent Doppler radiometric measurements on the ground throughout the flyby including at Titan closest approach. At the same time, the onboard accelerometer provided an independent estimate of atmospheric drag force and density during the flyby. These results are compared with the normal method of reconstructing atmospheric density using thruster on-time and angular momentum accumulation. Differences between the estimates are analyzed and a possible explanation for the differences is evaluated.

  10. Rapid and alternative fabrication method for microfluidic paper based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Malekghasemi, Soheil; Kahveci, Enver; Duman, Memed

    2016-10-01

    A major application of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) includes the field of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. It is important for POC diagnostics to possess properties such as ease-of-use and low cost. However, µPADs need multiple instruments and fabrication steps. In this study, two different chemicals (Hexamethyldisilazane and Tetra-ethylorthosilicate) were used, and three different methods (heating, plasma treatment, and microwave irradiation) were compared to develop µPADs. Additionally, an inkjet-printing technique was used for generating a hydrophilic channel and printing certain chemical agents on different regions of a modified filter paper. A rapid and effective fabrication method to develop µPADs within 10min was introduced using an inkjet-printing technique in conjunction with a microwave irradiation method. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for morphology characterization and determining the surface chemical compositions of the modified filter paper, respectively. Contact angle measurements were used to fulfill the hydrophobicity of the treated filter paper. The highest contact angle value (141°±1) was obtained using the microwave irradiation method over a period of 7min, when the filter paper was modified by TEOS. Furthermore, by using this method, the XPS results of TEOS-modified filter paper revealed Si2p (23%) and Si-O bounds (81.55%) indicating the presence of Si-O-Si bridges and Si(OEt) groups, respectively. The ESEM results revealed changes in the porous structures of the papers and decreases in the pore sizes. Washburn assay measurements tested the efficiency of the generated hydrophilic channels in which similar water penetration rates were observed in the TEOS-modified filter paper and unmodified (plain) filter paper. The validation of the developed µPADs was performed by utilizing the rapid urease test as a model test system. The detection limit of

  11. A Rapid and Scalable Method for Multilocus Species Delimitation Using Bayesian Model Comparison and Rooted Triplets

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Tomochika; Aswad, Amr; Barraclough, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Multilocus sequence data provide far greater power to resolve species limits than the single locus data typically used for broad surveys of clades. However, current statistical methods based on a multispecies coalescent framework are computationally demanding, because of the number of possible delimitations that must be compared and time-consuming likelihood calculations. New methods are therefore needed to open up the power of multilocus approaches to larger systematic surveys. Here, we present a rapid and scalable method that introduces 2 new innovations. First, the method reduces the complexity of likelihood calculations by decomposing the tree into rooted triplets. The distribution of topologies for a triplet across multiple loci has a uniform trinomial distribution when the 3 individuals belong to the same species, but a skewed distribution if they belong to separate species with a form that is specified by the multispecies coalescent. A Bayesian model comparison framework was developed and the best delimitation found by comparing the product of posterior probabilities of all triplets. The second innovation is a new dynamic programming algorithm for finding the optimum delimitation from all those compatible with a guide tree by successively analyzing subtrees defined by each node. This algorithm removes the need for heuristic searches used by current methods, and guarantees that the best solution is found and potentially could be used in other systematic applications. We assessed the performance of the method with simulated, published, and newly generated data. Analyses of simulated data demonstrate that the combined method has favorable statistical properties and scalability with increasing sample sizes. Analyses of empirical data from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes demonstrate its potential for delimiting species in real cases. PMID:27055648

  12. A preliminary study of a very large space radiometric antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, P. K.

    1979-01-01

    An approach used to compute the size of a special radiometric reflector antenna is presented. Operating at 1 GHz, this reflector is required to produce 200 simultaneous contiguous beams, each with a 3 dB footprint of 1 km from an assumed satellite height of 650 km. The overall beam efficiency for each beam is required to be more than 90%.

  13. Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of radiometric tarps

    SciTech Connect

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J

    2008-06-20

    Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of radiometric tarp samples used in the vicarious calibration of Earth remote sensing satellite instruments are presented in this paper. The results illustrate the BRDF dependence on the orientation of the tarps' weft and warp threads. The study was performed using the GSFC scatterometer at incident zenith angles of 0 deg., 10 deg., and 30 deg.; scatter zenith angles from 0 deg. to 60 deg.; and scatter azimuth angles of 0 deg., 45 deg., 90 deg., 135 deg., and 180 deg.. The wavelengths were 485 nm, 550 nm, 633 nm, and 800 nm. The tarp's weft and warp dependence on BRDF is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. The BRDF difference can be as high as 8% at 0 deg. incident angle and 12% at 30 deg. incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps are reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well-pronounced forward scatter. The provided BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps is an excellent reference for anyone interested in using tarps for radiometric calibrations. The results are NIST traceable.

  14. A PCR Detection Method for Rapid Identification of Melissococcus pluton in Honeybee Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Govan, V. A.; Brözel, V.; Allsopp, M. H.; Davison, S.

    1998-01-01

    Melissococcus pluton is the causative agent of European foulbrood, a disease of honeybee larvae. This bacterium is particularly difficult to isolate because of its stringent growth requirements and competition from other bacteria. PCR was used selectively to amplify specific rRNA gene sequences of M. pluton from pure culture, from crude cell lysates, and directly from infected bee larvae. The PCR primers were designed from M. pluton 16S rRNA sequence data. The PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed as originating from M. pluton by sequencing in both directions. Detection was highly specific, and the probes did not hybridize with DNA from other bacterial species tested. This method enabled the rapid and specific detection and identification of M. pluton from pure cultures and infected bee larvae. PMID:9572987

  15. APols-aided protein precipitation: a rapid method for concentrating proteins for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhibin; Hawley, Brett; Seebun, Deeptee; Figeys, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Amphipols (APols) are a newly designed and milder class of detergent. They have been used primarily in protein structure analysis for membrane protein trapping and stabilization. We have recently demonstrated that APols can be used as an alternative detergent for proteome extraction and digestion, to achieve a "One-stop" single-tube workflow for proteomics. In this workflow, APols are removed by precipitation after protein digestion without depleting the digested peptides. Here, we took further advantage of this precipitation characteristic of APols to concentrate proteins from diluted samples. In contrast with tryptic peptides, a decrease in pH leads to the unbiased co-precipitation of APols with proteins, including globular hydrophilic proteins. We demonstrated that this precipitation is a combined effect of acid precipitation and the APols' protein interactions. Also, we have been able to demonstrate that APols-aided protein precipitation works well on diluted samples, such as secretome sample, and provides a rapid method for protein concentration.

  16. Apparatus and method for rapid cooling of large area substrates in vacuum

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2010-09-28

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for rapid cooling of a large substrate in a vacuum environment. A first cooled plate is brought into close proximity with one surface of a flat substrate. The spatial volume between the first cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and brought to a higher pressure than the surrounding vacuum level to increase the cooling efficiency. A second cooled plate is brought into close proximity with the opposite surface of the flat substrate. A second spatial volume between the second cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and the gas pressure is equalized to the gas pressure in the first spatial volume. The equalization of the gas pressure on both sides of the flat substrate eliminates deflection of the substrate and bending stress in the substrate.

  17. Apparatus and method for rapid cooling of large area substrates in vacuum

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2012-11-06

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for rapid cooling of a large substrate in a vacuum environment. A first cooled plate is brought into close proximity with one surface of a flat substrate. The spatial volume between the first cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and brought to a higher pressure than the surrounding vacuum level to increase the cooling efficiency. A second cooled plate is brought into close proximity with the opposite surface of the flat substrate. A second spatial volume between the second cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and the gas pressure is equalized to the gas pressure in the first spatial volume. The equalization of the gas pressure on both sides of the flat substrate eliminates deflection of the substrate and bending stress in the substrate.

  18. Alizarin Red S for Online Pyrophosphate Detection Identified by a Rapid Screening Method

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, Jens; Loh, Qiuting; Bier, Frank F.; Lim, Theam Soon; Frohme, Marcus; Glökler, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    We identified Alizarin Red S and other well known fluorescent dyes useful for the online detection of pyrophosphate in enzymatic assays, including the loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. An iterative screening was used for a selected set of compounds to first secure enzyme compatibility, evaluate inorganic pyrophosphate sensitivity in the presence of manganese as quencher and optimize conditions for an online detection. Of the selected dyes, the inexpensive alizarin red S was found to selectively detect pyrophosphate under LAMP and PCR conditions and is superior with respect to its defined red-shifted spectrum, long shelf life and low toxicity. In addition, the newly identified properties may also be useful in other enzymatic assays which do not generate nucleic acids but are based on inorganic pyrophosphate. Finally, we propose that our screening method may provide a blueprint for rapid screening of compounds for detecting inorganic pyrophosphate. PMID:28338022

  19. A numerical method for generating rapidly rotating bipolytropic structures in equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Kundan; Motl, Patrick M.; Frank, Juhan; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Marcello, Dominic C.

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate that rapidly rotating bipolytropic (composite polytropic) stars and toroidal discs can be obtained using Hachisu's self-consistent field technique. The core and the envelope in such a structure can have different polytropic indices and also different average molecular weights. The models converge for high T/|W| cases, where T is the kinetic energy and W is the gravitational energy of the system. The agreement between our numerical solutions with known analytical as well as previously calculated numerical results is excellent. We show that the uniform rotation lowers the maximum core mass fraction or the Schönberg-Chandrasekhar limit for a bipolytropic sequence. We also discuss the applications of this method to magnetic braking in low-mass stars with convective envelopes.

  20. Rapid method to detect duplex formation in sequencing by hybridization methods, a method for constructing containment structures for reagent interaction

    DOEpatents

    Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich; Yershov, Gennadiy Moiseyevich; Guschin, Dmitry Yuryevich; Gemmell, Margaret Anne; Shick, Valentine V.; Proudnikov, Dmitri Y.; Timofeev, Edward N.

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the existence of duplexes of oligonucleotide complementary molecules is provided whereby a plurality of immobilized oligonucleotide molecules, each of a specific length and each having a specific base sequence, is contacted with complementary, single stranded oligonucleotide molecules to form a duplex so as to facilitate intercalation of a fluorescent dye between the base planes of the duplex. The invention also provides for a method for constructing oligonucleotide matrices comprising confining light sensitive fluid to a surface, exposing said light-sensitive fluid to a light pattern so as to cause the fluid exposed to the light to polymerize into discrete units and adhere to the surface; and contacting each of the units with a set of different oligonucleotide molecules so as to allow the molecules to disperse into the units.

  1. Rapid Estimation of TPH Reduction in Oil-Contaminated Soils Using the MED Method

    SciTech Connect

    Edenborn, H.M.; Zenone, V.A.

    2007-09-01

    Oil-contaminated soil and sludge generated during federal well plugging activities in northwestern Pennsylvania are currently remediated on small landfarm sites in lieu of more expensive landfill disposal. Bioremediation success at these sites in the past has been gauged by the decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations to less than 10,000 mg/kg measured using EPA Method 418.1. We tested the “molarity of ethanol droplet” (MED) water repellency test as a rapid indicator of TPH concentration in soil at one landfarm near Bradford, PA. MED was estimated by determining the minimum ethanol concentration (0 – 6 M) required to penetrate air-dried and sieved soil samples within 10 sec. TPH in soil was analyzed by rapid fluorometric analysis of methanol soil extracts, which correlated well with EPA Method 1664. Uncontaminated landfarm site soil amended with increasing concentrations of waste oil sludge showed a high correlation between MED and TPH. MED values exceeded the upper limit of 6 M as TPH estimates exceed ca. 25,000 mg/kg. MED and TPH at the land farm were sampled monthly during summer months over two years in a grid pattern that allowed spatial comparisons of site remediation effectiveness. MED and TPH decreased at a constant rate over time and remained highly correlated. Inexpensive alternatives to reagent-grade ethanol gave comparable results. The simple MED approach served as an inexpensive alternative to the routine laboratory analysis of TPH during the monitoring of oily waste bioremediation at this landfarm site.

  2. DiScRIBinATE: a rapid method for accurate taxonomic classification of metagenomic sequences

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In metagenomic sequence data, majority of sequences/reads originate from new or partially characterized genomes, the corresponding sequences of which are absent in existing reference databases. Since taxonomic assignment of reads is based on their similarity to sequences from known organisms, the presence of reads originating from new organisms poses a major challenge to taxonomic binning methods. The recently published SOrt-ITEMS algorithm uses an elaborate work-flow to assign reads originating from hitherto unknown genomes with significant accuracy and specificity. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of reads still get misclassified. Besides, the use of an alignment-based orthology step (for improving the specificity of assignments) increases the total binning time of SOrt-ITEMS. Results In this paper, we introduce a rapid binning approach called DiScRIBinATE (Distance Score Ratio for Improved Binning And Taxonomic Estimation). DiScRIBinATE replaces the orthology approach of SOrt-ITEMS with a quicker 'alignment-free' approach. We demonstrate that incorporating this approach reduces binning time by half without any loss in the specificity and accuracy of assignments. Besides, a novel reclassification strategy incorporated in DiScRIBinATE results in reducing the overall misclassification rate to around 3 - 7%. This misclassification rate is 1.5 - 3 times lower as compared to that by SOrt-ITEMS, and 3 - 30 times lower as compared to that by MEGAN. Conclusions A significant reduction in binning time, coupled with a superior assignment accuracy (as compared to existing binning methods), indicates the immense applicability of the proposed algorithm in rapidly mapping the taxonomic diversity of large metagenomic samples with high accuracy and specificity. Availability The program is available on request from the authors. PMID:21106121

  3. Use of predictive models and rapid methods to nowcast bacteria levels at coastal beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    The need for rapid assessments of recreational water quality to better protect public health is well accepted throughout the research and regulatory communities. Rapid analytical methods, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis, are being tested but are not yet ready for widespread use. Another solution is the use of predictive models, wherein variable(s) that are easily and quickly measured are surrogates for concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria. Rainfall-based alerts, the simplest type of model, have been used by several communities for a number of years. Deterministic models use mathematical representations of the processes that affect bacteria concentrations; this type of model is being used for beach-closure decisions at one location in the USA. Multivariable statistical models are being developed and tested in many areas of the USA; however, they are only used in three areas of the Great Lakes to aid in notifications of beach advisories or closings. These "operational" statistical models can result in more accurate assessments of recreational water quality than use of the previous day's Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration as determined by traditional culture methods. The Ohio Nowcast, at Huntington Beach, Bay Village, Ohio, is described in this paper as an example of an operational statistical model. Because predictive modeling is a dynamic process, water-resource managers continue to collect additional data to improve the predictive ability of the nowcast and expand the nowcast to other Ohio beaches and a recreational river. Although predictive models have been shown to work well at some beaches and are becoming more widely accepted, implementation in many areas is limited by funding, lack of coordinated technical leadership, and lack of supporting epidemiological data. ?? 2009 AEHMS.

  4. Development of a rapid method for the detection of biological threats in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.; Wade, Kellie L.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, progress towards the development of real-time sensing of chemical and biological threats in liquid samples will be presented. This overall goal of this work is to combine the selective, molecular recognition of nucleic acid aptamers with a rapid signal transduction using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for a single step identify and detect approach. Of particular interest is the application to whole-cell target recognition of biologicals, such as environmental pathogens (e.g., Campylobacter jejuni), without requiring cell lysis or other complex protocols to access biochemical species internal to the organism. An aptamer staining protocol for whole cell targets is developed and applied to the investigation of aptamers against Campylobacter jejuni cells. A comparison of aptamer binding using this method with and without the primer regions utilized in the aptamer selection process is presented and the primer regions were found to have little impact on binding performance. C. jejuni aptamers exhibited strong binding as evidenced through the fluorescence images acquired and little to no background fluorescence was observed from non-specific binding of the streptavidin-dye conjugate used in the staining method. A thrombin targeted molecular aptamer beacon was also studied and a rapid analysis was demonstrated. A 10 nM sample of thrombin was distinguishable from the fluorescence baseline of the probe alone, when using a 40 nM aptamer probe concentration. The fluorescence intensity was found to increase until saturation of the aptamer probe was achieved. These results show promise for the development of single-step identification of whole-cell targets using an aptamer bioreceptor and fluorescence resonance energy transfer transduction signaling scheme.

  5. Bayesian Morphological Clock Methods Resurrect Placoderm Monophyly and Reveal Rapid Early Evolution in Jawed Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    King, Benedict; Qiao, Tuo; Lee, Michael S Y; Zhu, Min; Long, John A

    2016-12-05

    The phylogeny of early gnathostomes provides an important framework for understanding one of the most significant evolutionary events, the origin and diversification of jawed vertebrates. A series of recent cladistic analyses have suggested that the placoderms, an extinct group of armoured fish, form a paraphyletic group basal to all other jawed vertebrates. We revised and expanded this morphological data set, most notably by sampling autapomorphies in a similar way to parsimony-informative traits, thus ensuring this data (unlike most existing morphological data sets) satisfied an important assumption of Bayesian tip-dated morphological clock approaches. We also found problems with characters supporting placoderm paraphyly, including character correlation and incorrect codings. Analysis of this data set reveals that paraphyly and monophyly of core placoderms (excluding maxillate forms) are essentially equally parsimonious. The two alternative topologies have different root positions for the jawed vertebrates but are otherwise similar. However, analysis using tip-dated clock methods reveals strong support for placoderm monophyly, due to this analysis favoring trees with more balanced rates of evolution. Furthermore, enforcing placoderm paraphyly results in higher levels and unusual patterns of rate heterogeneity among branches, similar to that generated from simulated trees reconstructed with incorrect root positions. These simulations also show that Bayesian tip-dated clock methods outperform parsimony when the outgroup is largely uninformative (e.g., due to inapplicable characters), as might be the case here. The analysis also reveals that gnathostomes underwent a rapid burst of evolution during the Silurian period which declined during the Early Devonian. This rapid evolution during a period with few articulated fossils might partly explain the difficulty in ascertaining the root position of jawed vertebrates. [Bayesian; BEAST; morphological clock; morphology

  6. Rapid methods for extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds in citrus rinds.

    PubMed

    Magwaza, Lembe Samukelo; Opara, Umezuruike Linus; Cronje, Paul J R; Landahl, Sandra; Ortiz, Jose Ordaz; Terry, Leon A

    2016-01-01

    Conventional methods for extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds in citrus rinds are time consuming. Rapid methods for extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds were developed by comparing three extraction solvent combinations (80:20 v/v ethanol:H2O; 70:29.5:0.5 v/v/v methanol:H2O:HCl; and 50:50 v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO):methanol) for effectiveness. Freeze-dried, rind powder was extracted in an ultrasonic water bath at 35°C for 10, 20, and 30 min. Phenolic compound quantification was done with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with diode array detector. Extracting with methanol:H2O:HCl for 30 min resulted in the optimum yield of targeted phenolic acids. Seven phenolic acids and three flavanone glycosides (FGs) were quantified. The dominant phenolic compound was hesperidin, with concentrations ranging from 7500 to 32,000 μg/g DW. The highest yield of FGs was observed in samples extracted, using DMSO:methanol for 10 min. Compared to other extraction methods, methanol:H2O:HCl was efficient in optimum extraction of phenolic acids. The limit of detection and quantification for all analytes were small, ranging from 1.35 to 5.02 and 4.51 to 16.72 μg/g DW, respectively, demonstrating HPLC quantification method sensitivity. The extraction and quantification methods developed in this study are faster and more efficient. Where speed and effectiveness are required, these methods are recommended.

  7. Radiometric Calibration Techniques for Signal-of-Opportunity Reflectometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Shah, Rashmi; Deshpande, Manohar; Johnson, Carey

    2014-01-01

    Bi-static reflection measurements utilizing global navigation satellite service (GNSS) or other signals of opportunity (SoOp) can be used to sense ocean and terrestrial surface properties. End-to-end calibration of GNSS-R has been performed using well-characterized reflection surface (e.g., water), direct path antenna, and receiver gain characterization. We propose an augmented approach using on-board receiver electronics for radiometric calibration of SoOp reflectometers utilizing direct and reflected signal receiving antennas. The method calibrates receiver and correlator gains and offsets utilizing a reference switch and common noise source. On-board electronic calibration sources, such as reference switches, noise diodes and loop-back circuits, have shown great utility in stabilizing total power and correlation microwave radiometer and scatterometer receiver electronics in L-band spaceborne instruments. Application to SoOp instruments is likely to bring several benefits. For example, application to provide short and long time scale calibration stability of the direct path channel, especially in low signal-to-noise ratio configurations, is directly analogous to the microwave radiometer problem. The direct path channel is analogous to the loopback path in a scatterometer to provide a reference of the transmitted power, although the receiver is independent from the reflected path channel. Thus, a common noise source can be used to measure the gain ratio of the two paths. Using these techniques long-term (days to weeks) calibration stability of spaceborne L-band scatterometer and radiometer has been achieved better than 0.1. Similar long-term stability would likely be needed for a spaceborne reflectometer mission to measure terrestrial properties such as soil moisture.

  8. Reintroducing radiometric surface temperature into the Penman-Monteith formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Boegh, Eva; Trebs, Ivonne; Alfieri, Joseph G.; Kustas, William P.; Prueger, John H.; Niyogi, Dev; Das, Narendra; Drewry, Darren T.; Hoffmann, Lucien; Jarvis, Andrew J.

    2015-08-01

    Here we demonstrate a novel method to physically integrate radiometric surface temperature (TR) into the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation for estimating the terrestrial sensible and latent heat fluxes (H and λE) in the framework of a modified Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC). It combines TR data with standard energy balance closure models for deriving a hybrid scheme that does not require parameterization of the surface (or stomatal) and aerodynamic conductances (gS and gB). STIC is formed by the simultaneous solution of four state equations and it uses TR as an additional data source for retrieving the "near surface" moisture availability (M) and the Priestley-Taylor coefficient (α). The performance of STIC is tested using high-temporal resolution TR observations collected from different international surface energy flux experiments in conjunction with corresponding net radiation (RN), ground heat flux (G), air temperature (TA), and relative humidity (RH) measurements. A comparison of the STIC outputs with the eddy covariance measurements of λE and H revealed RMSDs of 7-16% and 40-74% in half-hourly λE and H estimates. These statistics were 5-13% and 10-44% in daily λE and H. The errors and uncertainties in both surface fluxes are comparable to the models that typically use land surface parameterizations for determining the unobserved components (gS and gB) of the surface energy balance models. However, the scheme is simpler, has the capabilities for generating spatially explicit surface energy fluxes and independent of submodels for boundary layer developments. This article was corrected on 27 AUG 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  9. Geostatistical analysis as applied to two environmental radiometric time series.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, Mark; Lind, Bjørn; Gerland, Sebastian; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2003-03-01

    This article details the results of an investigation into the application of geostatistical data analysis to two environmental radiometric time series. The data series employed consist of 99Tc values for seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) and seawater samples taken as part of a marine monitoring program conducted on the coast of northern Norway by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Geostatistical methods were selected in order to provide information on values of the variables at unsampled times and to investigate the temporal correlation exhibited by the data sets. This information is of use in the optimisation of future sampling schemes and for providing information on the temporal behaviour of the variables in question that may not be obtained during a cursory analysis. The results indicate a high degree of temporal correlation within the data sets, the correlation for the seawater and seaweed data being modelled with an exponential and linear function, respectively. The semi-variogram for the seawater data indicates a temporal range of correlation of approximately 395 days with no apparent random component to the overall variance structure and was described best by an exponential function. The temporal structure of the seaweed data was best modelled by a linear function with a small nugget component. Evidence of drift was present in both semi-variograms. Interpolation of the data sets using the fitted models and a simple kriging procedure were compared, using a cross-validation procedure, with simple linear interpolation. Results of this exercise indicate that, for the seawater data, the kriging procedure outperformed the simple interpolation with respect to error distribution and correlation of estimates with actual values. Using the unbounded linear model with the seaweed data produced estimates that were only marginally better than those produced by the simple interpolation.

  10. A fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Huimei; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Ma, Teng; Shang, Jianying; Pan, Duoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71-5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDE 209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2-4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.

  11. A fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water

    DOE PAGES

    Shan, Huimei; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; ...

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71-5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDEmore » 209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2-4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.« less

  12. Method and apparatus using selected superparamagnetic labels for rapid quantification of immunochromatographic tests

    PubMed Central

    Laitinen, Mika PA; Salmela, Jari; Gilbert, Leona; Kaivola, Risto; Tikkala, Topi; Oker-Blom, Christian; Pekola, Jukka; Vuento, Matti

    2009-01-01

    A rapid method and instrumentation for quantification of immunochromatographic tests (ICT) are described. The principle and performance of the method was demonstrated by measuring the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) present in urine. The test format was a sandwich assay using two distinct monoclonal antibodies directed against hCG. The first anti-hCG antibody was labeled with superparamagnetic particles whereas the second was immobilized as a narrow detection zone on a porous membrane. The human urine sample was mixed with superparamagnetic particles coated with the first anti-hCG antibody, and the mixture was allowed to migrate past the detection zone containing the second anti-hCG antibody. Capillary forces facilitated migration of the immune complexes along the porous membrane. The amount of superparamagnetic particle-labelled monoclonal anti-hCG bound to the detection zone was directly proportional to the amount of hCG present in the sample as detected by measuring magnetization in the detector coil. The method had a practical detection limit of 20 U/l (54 nM) of hCG per 5 μl of human urine and a linear range of three decades from 20 U/l to 10 000 U/l. In addition, the analysis was completed within less than 10 minutes. Thus, the test format should be suitable for fast detection and monitoring of a large variety of clinically important parameters and analytes. PMID:24198463

  13. Method and apparatus using selected superparamagnetic labels for rapid quantification of immunochromatographic tests.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Mika Pa; Salmela, Jari; Gilbert, Leona; Kaivola, Risto; Tikkala, Topi; Oker-Blom, Christian; Pekola, Jukka; Vuento, Matti

    2009-01-01

    A rapid method and instrumentation for quantification of immunochromatographic tests (ICT) are described. The principle and performance of the method was demonstrated by measuring the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) present in urine. The test format was a sandwich assay using two distinct monoclonal antibodies directed against hCG. The first anti-hCG antibody was labeled with superparamagnetic particles whereas the second was immobilized as a narrow detection zone on a porous membrane. The human urine sample was mixed with superparamagnetic particles coated with the first anti-hCG antibody, and the mixture was allowed to migrate past the detection zone containing the second anti-hCG antibody. Capillary forces facilitated migration of the immune complexes along the porous membrane. The amount of superparamagnetic particle-labelled monoclonal anti-hCG bound to the detection zone was directly proportional to the amount of hCG present in the sample as detected by measuring magnetization in the detector coil. The method had a practical detection limit of 20 U/l (54 nM) of hCG per 5 μl of human urine and a linear range of three decades from 20 U/l to 10 000 U/l. In addition, the analysis was completed within less than 10 minutes. Thus, the test format should be suitable for fast detection and monitoring of a large variety of clinically important parameters and analytes.

  14. A Rapid and Sensitive Method to Measure the Functional Activity of Shiga Toxins in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Arfilli, Valentina; Carnicelli, Domenica; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Torresani, Erminio; Scavia, Gaia; Brigotti, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxins (Stx) have a definite role in the development of hemolytic uremic syndrome in children with hemorrhagic colitis caused by pathogenic Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. The dramatic effects of these toxins on the microvasculature of different organs, particularly of the kidney, are well known, whereas there is no consensus on the mechanism by which Stx reach the endothelia of target organs and/or indirectly injure these body sites. We hereby describe a quick (4 h), radioactive, Raji cell-based method designed for the detection of Stx in human sera. The assay monitors the translation impairment induced by these powerful inhibitors of protein synthesis, which are identified properly by neutralizing their activity with specific monoclonal antibodies. By this method, we detected for the first time the functional activity of Stx in sera of STEC-infected patients during hemorrhagic colitis. Recent research has pointed to a dynamic process of Stx-induced renal intoxication in which concurrent and interactive steps are involved. Our rapid and specific method could be useful for studying the kinetics of Stx during the natural course of STEC infection and the interplay between Stx activity in serum and Stx presence in different blood fractions (neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, leukocyte-platelet aggregates, microvesicles, lipoproteins). PMID:26556372

  15. Development of a rapid HRM genotyping method for detection of dog-derived Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liping; Yu, Xingang; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Wu, Sheng; Zheng, Guochao; Hu, Wei; Song, Meiran; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Biao; Li, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a zoonotic flagellate protozoan in the intestine of human and many mammals including dogs. To assess a threat of dog-derived G. lamblia to humans, the common dog-derived G. lamblia assemblages A, C, and D were genotyped by high-resolution melting (HRM) technology. According to β-giardin gene sequence, the qPCR-HRM primers BG5 and BG7 were designed. A series of experiments on the stability, sensitivity, and accuracy of the HRM method were also tested. Results showed that the primers BG5 and BG7 could distinguish among three assemblages A, C, and D, which Tm value differences were about 1 °C to each other. The melting curves of intra-assay reproducibility were almost coincided, and those of inter-assay reproducibility were much the same shape. The lowest detection concentration was about 5 × 10(-6)-ng/μL sample. The genotyping results from 21 G. lamblia samples by the HRM method were in complete accordance with sequencing results. It is concluded that the HRM genotyping method is rapid, stable, specific, highly sensitive, and suitable for clinical detection and molecular epidemiological survey of dog-derived G. lamblia.

  16. Rapid Intrinsic Fluorescence Method for Direct Identification of Pathogens in Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, John D.; Hyman, Jay M.; Borzhemskaya, Larisa; Bowen, Ann; McKellar, Caroline; Ullery, Michael; Mathias, Erin; Ronsick, Christopher; Link, John; Wilson, Mark; Clay, Bradford; Robinson, Ron; Thorpe, Thurman; van Belkum, Alex; Dunne, W. Michael

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A positive blood culture is a critical result that requires prompt identification of the causative agent. This article describes a simple method to identify microorganisms from positive blood culture broth within the time taken to perform a Gram stain (<20 min). The method is based on intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy (IFS) of whole cells and required development of a selective lysis buffer, aqueous density cushion, optical microcentrifuge tube, and reference database. A total of 1,121 monomicrobial-positive broth samples from 751 strains were analyzed to build a database representing 37 of the most commonly encountered species in bloodstream infections or present as contaminants. A multistage algorithm correctly classified 99.6% of unknown samples to the Gram level, 99.3% to the family level, and 96.5% to the species level. There were no incorrect results given at the Gram or family classification levels, while 0.8% of results were discordant at the species level. In 8/9 incorrect species results, the misidentified isolate was assigned to a species of the same genus. This unique combination of selective lysis, density centrifugation, and IFS can rapidly identify the most common microbial species present in positive blood cultures. Faster identification of the etiologic agent may benefit the clinical management of sepsis. Further evaluation is now warranted to determine the performance of the method using clinical blood culture specimens. PMID:24255123

  17. Synthesis of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUV) from Liposomes Prepared by the Rapid Solvent Exchange (RSE) Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykal-Caglar, Eda

    2010-10-01

    Lipid bilayers, which is an important constituent of cell membranes, has been extensively studied by biophysicists. Cell membranes perform many vital cell functions such as signal transduction and transportation of materials needed for the functioning of the cell organelles. Understanding the organization and dynamics of lipid bilayers is important for understanding the processes taking place in cell membranes. Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) are cell-sized model systems that allow direct visualization of membrane-related phenomena using fluorescence microscopy. In this study, we investigated the synthesis of GUVs from much smaller liposomes (less than 0.5 microns) produced by the Rapid Solvent Exchange (RSE) method in aqueous solutions of high and low ionic strength. The GUVs synthesized using RSE liposomes are more uniform in lipid composition than that synthesized by other methods. We made a number of modifications to the original electroformation method, and we are able to prepare GUVs from RSE liposomes both in high ionic strength and low ionic strength buffers. Using our optimized procedure, we are also able to produce high quality multi-component GUVs to study the dynamics of lipid domains.

  18. A Rapid and Simple Method for Microscopy-Based Stomata Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Eisele, Jochen F.; Fäßler, Florian; Bürgel, Patrick F.; Chaban, Christina

    2016-01-01

    There are two major methodical approaches with which changes of status in stomatal pores are addressed: indirectly by measurement of leaf transpiration, and directly by measurement of stomatal apertures. Application of the former method requires special equipment, whereas microscopic images are utilized for the direct measurements. Due to obscure visualization of cell boundaries in intact leaves, a certain degree of invasive leaf manipulation is often required. Our aim was to develop a protocol based on the minimization of leaf manipulation and the reduction of analysis completion time, while still producing consistent results. We applied rhodamine 6G staining of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves for stomata visualization, which greatly simplifies the measurement of stomatal apertures. By using this staining protocol, we successfully conducted analyses of stomatal responses in Arabidopsis leaves to both closure and opening stimuli. We performed long-term monitoring of living stomata and were able to document the same leaf before and after treatment. Moreover, we developed a protocol for rapid-fixation of epidermal peels, which enables high throughput data analysis. The described method allows analysis of stomatal apertures with minimal leaf manipulation and usage of the same leaf for sequential measurements, and will facilitate the analysis of several lines in parallel. PMID:27732636

  19. Rapid maxillary expansion effects: An alternative assessment method by means of cone-beam tomography

    PubMed Central

    Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Columbano, José; Jurach, Estela Maris; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study aims to develop a method to assess the changes in palatal and lingual cross-sectional areas in patients submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME). METHODS: The sample comprised 31 Class I malocclusion individuals submitted to RME and divided into two groups treated with Haas (17 patients) and Hyrax (14 patients) expanders. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired at T0 (before expansion ) and T1 (six months after screw stabilization). Maxillary and mandibular cross-sectional areas were assessed at first permanent molars and first premolars regions and compared at T0 and T1. Mandibular occlusal area was also analyzed. RESULTS: Maxillary cross-sectional areas increased in 56.18 mm2 and 44.32 mm2 for the posterior and anterior regions. These values were smaller for the mandible, representing augmentation of 40.32 mm2 and 39.91 mm2 for posterior and anterior sections. No differences were found when comparing both expanders. Mandibular occlusal area increased 43.99mm2 and mandibular incisors proclined. Increments of 1.74 mm and 1.7 mm occurred in mandibular intermolar and interpremolar distances. These same distances presented increments of 5.5 mm and 5.57 mm for the maxillary arch. CONCLUSION: Occlusal and cross-sectional areas increased significantly after RME. The method described seems to be reliable and precise to assess intraoral area changes. PMID:25715721

  20. A rapid method for estimation of baculovirus titer based on viable cell size.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, Vasantharajan; Forrest, William F; Chow, Bernard; Seshagiri, Somasekar

    2006-03-01

    Baculovirus protein expression system is a powerful tool for producing recombinant proteins. To optimize conditions for efficient recombinant protein expression, it is important to determine titer of virus stock for arriving at an optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) that maximizes recombinant protein expression. Traditionally plaque assays have been used for titer determination. Other methods such as endpoint dilution, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry have been developed to aid the determination of virus titers. However, most of these methods are time-consuming and labor intensive. In this regard, a simple and rapid method for determination of virus titers based on the cytopathic effects that lead to viable cell size increase following virus infection is presented in this paper. In this study, the Vi-CELL (Beckman Coulter) was used to measure cell-diameter over a range of virus dilutions, following infection. Applying statistical modeling techniques, the viable cell-diameter data was used to estimate the virus titer. The results indicated that the viable cell-diameter based titer estimation to be reliable and comparable to titers determined by the traditional plaque assay.

  1. A Rapid Method for Optimizing Running Temperature of Electrophoresis through Repetitive On-Chip CE Operations

    PubMed Central

    Kaneda, Shohei; Ono, Koichi; Fukuba, Tatsuhiro; Nojima, Takahiko; Yamamoto, Takatoki; Fujii, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a rapid and simple method to determine the optimal temperature conditions for denaturant electrophoresis using a temperature-controlled on-chip capillary electrophoresis (CE) device is presented. Since on-chip CE operations including sample loading, injection and separation are carried out just by switching the electric field, we can repeat consecutive run-to-run CE operations on a single on-chip CE device by programming the voltage sequences. By utilizing the high-speed separation and the repeatability of the on-chip CE, a series of electrophoretic operations with different running temperatures can be implemented. Using separations of reaction products of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomer, the effectiveness of the presented method to determine the optimal temperature conditions required to discriminate a single-base substitution (SBS) between two different ssDNAs is demonstrated. It is shown that a single run for one temperature condition can be executed within 4 min, and the optimal temperature to discriminate the SBS could be successfully found using the present method. PMID:21845077

  2. A rapid method for detecting protein-nucleic acid interactions by protein induced fluorescence enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Valuchova, Sona; Fulnecek, Jaroslav; Petrov, Alexander P.; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Riha, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Many fundamental biological processes depend on intricate networks of interactions between proteins and nucleic acids and a quantitative description of these interactions is important for understanding cellular mechanisms governing DNA replication, transcription, or translation. Here we present a versatile method for rapid and quantitative assessment of protein/nucleic acid (NA) interactions. This method is based on protein induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE), a phenomenon whereby protein binding increases the fluorescence of Cy3-like dyes. PIFE has mainly been used in single molecule studies to detect protein association with DNA or RNA. Here we applied PIFE for steady state quantification of protein/NA interactions by using microwell plate fluorescence readers (mwPIFE). We demonstrate the general applicability of mwPIFE for examining various aspects of protein/DNA interactions with examples from the restriction enzyme BamHI, and the DNA repair complexes Ku and XPF/ERCC1. These include determination of sequence and structure binding specificities, dissociation constants, detection of weak interactions, and the ability of a protein to translocate along DNA. mwPIFE represents an easy and high throughput method that does not require protein labeling and can be applied to a wide range of applications involving protein/NA interactions. PMID:28008962

  3. Evaluation of a rapid physical-chemical method for the determination of extant soluble COD.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiqiang; Chandran, Kartik; Smets, Barth F; Grasso, Domenico

    2002-02-01

    Characterization of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewater is critical for accurate modeling of constituent biotransformation steps. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of a commonly used soluble COD determination technique (coagulation using ZnSO4 at pH 10.5) in relation to three other physical-chemical separation techniques: destabilization with a non-hydrolyzing trivalent cation (LaCl3), sequential filtration, and ultracentrifugation. Samples of deionized water and domestic wastewater were spiked with aliquots of synthetic soluble COD and recoveries using the different separation methods were compared. Although mechanisms of coagulation using LaCl3 and ZnSO4 are different, the mean COD recoveries using these methods were in close agreement. Further, sorption of soluble COD onto zinc hydroxide precipitate flocs appeared to be negligible. The two coagulation methods yielded statistically different (p = 0.05) soluble COD values when applied to nine independent wastewater samples (obtained on nine different days). but the difference was less than 10%. The COD quantified by the coagulation techniques corresponded most closely with the < 1,000 Da molecular weight fraction defined as "truly soluble COD". Centrifugation of wastewater samples amended with mercuric chloride (HgCl2) at 10 mg/L overestimated the soluble COD concentration. Our results confirm that coagulation using either ZnSO4 or LaCI3 is appropriate for the rapid determination of soluble COD fraction in wastewater matrices.

  4. Rapid Method for the Determination of the Stable Oxygen Isotope Ratio of Water in Alcoholic Beverages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daobing; Zhong, Qiding; Li, Guohui; Huang, Zhanbin

    2015-10-28

    This paper demonstrates the first successful application of an online pyrolysis technique for the direct determination of oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O) of water in alcoholic beverages. Similar water concentrations in each sample were achieved by adjustment with absolute ethyl alcohol, and then a fixed GC split ratio can be used. All of the organic ingredients were successfully separated from the analyte on a CP-PoraBond Q column and subsequently vented out, whereas water molecules were transferred into the reaction furnace and converted to CO. With the system presented, 15-30 μL of raw sample was diluted and can be analyzed repeatedly; the analytical precision was better than 0.4‰ (n = 5) in all cases, and more than 50 injections can be made per day. No apparent memory effect was observed even if water samples were injected using the same syringe; a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.9998) was found between the water δ(18)O of measured sample and that of working standards. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the mean δ(18)O value and that obtained by the traditional method (CO2-water equilibration/isotope ratio mass spectrometry) and the newly developed method in this study. The advantages of this new method are its rapidity and straightforwardness, and less test portion is required.

  5. A Fluorescence-Based Method for Rapid and Direct Determination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Huimei; Ma, Teng; Shang, Jianying; Pan, Duoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71–5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDE 209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2–4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L. PMID:25705548

  6. Evaluation of a rapid PCR-based method for the detection of animal material.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Haile F; Mohla, Anuja; Farrell, Dorothy E; Myers, Michael J

    2005-12-01

    A rapid PCR-based analytical method for detection of animal-derived materials in complete feed was developed. Using a commercially available DNA forensic kit for the extraction of DNA from animal feed, a sensitive method was developed that was capable of detecting as little as 0.03% bovine meat and bone meal in complete feed in under 8 h of total assay time. The reduction in assay time was accomplished by reducing the DNA extraction time to 2 h and using the simpler cleanup procedure of the kit. Assay sensitivity can be increased to 0.006% by increasing the DNA extraction time to an overnight incubation of approximately 16 h. Examination of dairy feed samples containing either bovine meat and bone meal, porcine meat and bone meal, or lamb meal at a level of 0.1% (wt/wt basis) suggested that this method may be suitable for regulatory uses. The adoption of this commercially available kit for use with animal feeds yields an assay that is quicker and simpler to perform than a previously validated assay for the detection of animal proteins in animal feed.

  7. Development of a PCR Method for Rapid Identification of New Streptococcus mutans Serotype k Strains

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Kazuhiko; Nomura, Ryota; Shimizu, Noriko; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Ooshima, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    In a previous study, we isolated and characterized a new serotype k of Streptococcus mutans from human blood and oral cavities. Analysis of the genes involved in biosynthesis of the serotype-specific polysaccharide of serotype k strains revealed that the serotype k-specific nucleotide alignment was commonly present in the 5′ region of the rgpF gene (350 bp from the initial sequence) compared to the reference strains, and then a method for rapid identification of serotype k strains was developed by use of PCR with primers designed on the basis of the sequence of the variable region. PCR assays with primers specific for amplification of serotype k strains showed a negative reaction with serotype c, e, and f strains and a positive reaction with serotype k strains, with the sensitivity for identification of the serotype k strains shown to range from 5 to 50 cells. Next, the frequency of positive reactions for serotype k-specific primers was surveyed with DNA taken from saliva samples from 200 subjects (2 to 18 years of age), and 10 of those showed a positive reaction, which was higher than the frequency in our previous survey with a serological method. In addition, all saliva samples from subjects with serotype k strains in our previous study were shown to be positive with the serotype k-specific primers. These results indicate that this new PCR method is effective for identification of subjects with S. mutans serotype k. PMID:15528675

  8. A Rapid Method for Quantifying Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cellular Infection Assays

    PubMed Central

    Pooley, Hannah B.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Begg, Douglas J.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Determining the viability of bacteria is a key outcome of in vitro cellular infection assays. Currently, this is done by culture, which is problematic for fastidious slow-growing bacteria such as Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, where it can take up to 4 months to confirm growth. This study aimed to identify an assay that can rapidly quantify the number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in a cellular sample. Three commercially available bacterial viability assays along with a modified liquid culture method coupled with high-throughput quantitative PCR growth detection were assessed. Criteria for assessment included the ability of each assay to differentiate live and dead M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms and their accuracy at low bacterial concentrations. Using the culture-based method, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth was reliably detected and quantified within 2 weeks. There was a strong linear association between the 2-week growth rate and the initial inoculum concentration. The number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in an unknown sample was quantified based on the growth rate, by using growth standards. In contrast, none of the commercially available viability assays were suitable for use with samples from in vitro cellular infection assays. IMPORTANCE Rapid quantification of the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in samples from in vitro cellular infection assays is important, as it allows these assays to be carried out on a large scale. In vitro cellular infection assays can function as a preliminary screening tool, for vaccine development or antimicrobial screening, and also to extend findings derived from experimental animal trials. Currently, by using culture, it takes up to 4 months to obtain quantifiable results regarding M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability after an in vitro infection assay; however, with the quantitative PCR and liquid culture method

  9. Rapid and sensitive analytical method for monitoring of 12 organotin compounds in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Vahčič, Mitja; Milačič, Radmila; Sčančar, Janez

    2011-03-01

    A rapid analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 12 different organotin compounds (OTC): methyl-, butyl-, phenyl- and octyl-tins in natural water samples was developed. It comprises of in situ derivatisation (by using NaBEt4) of OTC in salty or fresh water sample matrix adjusted to pH 6 with Tris-citrate buffer, extraction of ethylated OTC into hexane, separation of OTC in organic phase on 15 m GC column and subsequent quantitative determination of separated OTC by ICP-MS. To optimise the pH of ethylation, phosphate, carbonate and Tris-citrate buffer were investigated alternatively to commonly applied sodium acetate - acetic acid buffer. The ethylation yields in Tris-citrate buffer were found to be better for TBT, MOcT and DOcT in comparison to commonly used acetate buffer. Iso-octane and hexane were examined as organic phase for extraction of ethylated OTC. The advantage of hexane was in its ability for quantitative determination of TMeT. GC column of 15 m in length was used for separation of studied OTC under the optimised separation conditions and its performances compared to 30 m column. The analytical method developed enables sensitive simultaneous determination of 12 different OTC and appreciably shortened analysis time in larger series of water samples. LOD's obtained for the newly developed method ranged from 0.05-0.06 ng Sn L-1 for methyl-, 0.11-0.45 ng Sn L-1 for butyl-, 0.11-0.16 ng Sn L-1 for phenyl-, and 0.07-0.10 ng Sn L-1 for octyl-tins. By applying the developed analytical method, marine water samples from the Northern Adriatic Sea containing mainly butyl- and methyl-tin species were analysed to confirm the proposed method's applicability.

  10. Development of a rapid, 96-well alkaline based differential DNA extraction method for sexual assault evidence.

    PubMed

    Hudlow, William R; Buoncristiani, Martin R

    2012-01-01

    We present a rapid alkaline lysis procedure for the extraction of DNA from sexual assault evidence that generates purified sperm fraction extracts that yield STR typing results similar to those obtained from the traditional organic/dithiothreitol differential extraction. Specifically, a sodium hydroxide based differential extraction method has been developed in a single-tube format and further optimized in a 96-well format. The method yields purified extracts from a small sample set (≈ 2-6 swabs) in approximately 2h and from a larger sample set (up to 96 swabs) in approximately 4h. While conventional differential extraction methods require vigorous sample manipulation to remove the spermatozoa from the substrate, the method described here exploits the propensity of sperm to adhere to a substrate and does not require any manipulation of the substrate after it is sampled. For swabs, sample handling is minimized by employing a process where the tip of the swab, including the shaft, is transferred to the appropriate vessel eliminating the need for potentially hazardous scalpels to separate the swab material from the shaft. The absence of multiple handling steps allows the process to be semi-automated, however the procedure as described here does not require use of a robotic system. This method may provide forensic laboratories a cost-effective tool for the eradication of backlogs of sexual assault evidence, and more timely service to their client agencies. In addition, we have demonstrated that a modification of the procedure can be used to retrieve residual sperm-cell DNA from previously extracted swabs.

  11. Improved Savitzky-Golay-method-based fluorescence subtraction algorithm for rapid recovery of Raman spectra.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun; Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2014-08-20

    In this paper, we propose an improved subtraction algorithm for rapid recovery of Raman spectra that can substantially reduce the computation time. This algorithm is based on an improved Savitzky-Golay (SG) iterative smoothing method, which involves two key novel approaches: (a) the use of the Gauss-Seidel method and (b) the introduction of a relaxation factor into the iterative procedure. By applying a novel successive relaxation (SG-SR) iterative method to the relaxation factor, additional improvement in the convergence speed over the standard Savitzky-Golay procedure is realized. The proposed improved algorithm (the RIA-SG-SR algorithm), which uses SG-SR-based iteration instead of Savitzky-Golay iteration, has been optimized and validated with a mathematically simulated Raman spectrum, as well as experimentally measured Raman spectra from non-biological and biological samples. The method results in a significant reduction in computing cost while yielding consistent rejection of fluorescence and noise for spectra with low signal-to-fluorescence ratios and varied baselines. In the simulation, RIA-SG-SR achieved 1 order of magnitude improvement in iteration number and 2 orders of magnitude improvement in computation time compared with the range-independent background-subtraction algorithm (RIA). Furthermore the computation time of the experimentally measured raw Raman spectrum processing from skin tissue decreased from 6.72 to 0.094 s. In general, the processing of the SG-SR method can be conducted within dozens of milliseconds, which can provide a real-time procedure in practical situations.

  12. Field Measurement of Sand Dune Bidirectional Reflectance Characteristics for Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Optical Remote Sensing Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, C. A.; Logie, G.; Beaver, J.; Helder, D.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Pseudo Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS) for establishing the radiometric trending of optical remote sensing systems has a long history of successful implementation. Past studies have shown that the PICS method is useful for evaluating the trend of sensors over time or cross-calibration of sensors but was not considered until recently for deriving absolute calibration. Current interest in using this approach to establish absolute radiometric calibration stems from recent research that indicates that with empirically derived models of the surface properties and careful atmospheric characterisation Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance values can be predicted and used for absolute sensor radiometric calibration. Critical to the continued development of this approach is the accurate characterization of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of PICS sites. This paper presents the field data collected by a high-performance portable goniometer system in order to develop a BRDF model for the Algodones Dunes in California. These BRDF data are part of a larger study that is seeking to evaluate and quantify all aspects of this dune system (from regional effects to the micro scale optical properties of the sand) in order to provide an absolute radiometric calibration PICS. This paper presents the results of a dense temporal measurement sequence (several measurements per hour with high angular resolution), to yield detailed information on the nature of the surface reflectance properties. The BRDF data were collected covering typical view geometry of space borne sensors and will be used to close the loop on the calibration to create an absolute calibration target for optical satellite absolute radiometric calibration.

  13. A Novel and Simple Method for Rapid Generation of Recombinant Porcine Adenoviral Vectors for Transgene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Wang, Wenbin; Zhang, Lu; Tikoo, Suresh K.; Yang, Zengqi

    2015-01-01

    Many human (different serotypes) and nonhuman adenovirus vectors are being used for gene delivery. However, the current system for isolating recombinant adenoviral vectors is either time-consuming or expensive, especially for the generation of recombinant non-human adenoviral vectors. We herein report a new and simple cloning approach for the rapid generation of a porcine adenovirus (PAdV-3) vector which shows promise for gene transfer to human cells and evasion of human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5) immunity. Based on the final cloning plasmid, pFPAV3-CcdB-Cm, and our modified SLiCE strategy (SLiCE cloning and lethal CcdB screening), the process for generating recombinant PAdV-3 plasmids required only one step in 3 days, with a cloning efficiency as high as 620±49.56 clones/ng and zero background (100% accuracy). The recombinant PAdV-3 plasmids could be successfully rescued in porcine retinal pigment epithelium cells (VR1BL), which constitutively express the HAdV-5 E1 and PAdV-3 E1B 55k genes, and the foreign genes were highly expressed at 24 h after transduction into swine testicle (ST) cells. In conclusion, this strategy for generating recombinant PAdV-3 vectors based on our modified SLiCE cloning system was rapid and cost-efficient, which could be used as universal cloning method for modification the other regions of PAdV-3 genome as well as other adenoviral genomes. PMID:26011074

  14. Development of a rapid cyprinid herpesvirus 2 detection method by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Liang, L-G; Xie, J; Luo, D

    2014-10-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) is a pathogen that causes severe disease and high mortality in goldfish and Prussian carp. We developed a six primer loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the intercapsomeric triplex protein gene. CyHV-2 DNA was 10-fold serially diluted (10(8)-10(0) copies μl(-1)) and was used as the template to determine primer sensitivity. LAMP assays were performed with DNA templates from other pathogens to determine specificity. The LAMP assay had an unequivocal detection limit of 10 copies μl(-1), which was 100 times lower than that of the polymerase chain reaction. Other pathogen strains were not amplified by the LAMP primers, indicating good specificity. SYBR Green I was added to visually detect the amplification products. Assay applicability was evaluated in 120 samples of Carassius auratus gibelio, and a positive rate of 92·5% was obtained. In conclusion, a conventional LAMP assay has high convenience, rapidity, sensitivity and specificity for detecting CyHV-2 in infected aquatic organisms. Significance and impact of the study: Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis, caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), is a severe disease of goldfish and Prussian carp associated with high mortality. We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect CyHV-2 at relatively low plasmid DNA copy levels. The results show that the LAMP assay has a number of advantages (simple, sensitive, rapid and specific) over the conventional polymerase chain reaction and can be applied in the laboratory and field. Particularly, the method is highly applicable to facilitate surveillance and early diagnosis of CyHV-2.

  15. A rapid method for determining salinomycin and monensin sensitivity in Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, M C; O'Brien, C N; Fuller, L; Mathis, G F; Fetterer, R

    2014-12-15

    Standard methods of determining the ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria rely on infecting chickens with an isolate or a mixture of Eimeria spp. oocysts in the presence of different anti-coccidial drugs. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid in vitro method for assessing salinomycin and monensin sensitivity in Eimeria tenella. Cultures of MDBK cells were grown to 85% confluency, and then inoculated with excysted E. tenella laboratory strain (APU-1) sporozoites in the presence of different concentrations of salinomycin or monensin. At various timepoints, the monolayers were fixed for counting intraceullar sporozoites, or were subjected to DNA extraction, followed by molecular analysis using quantitative (qPCR) or semi-quantitative PCR (sqPCR). Preliminary experiments showed that 24h was the optimum time for harvesting the E. tenella-infected cell cultures. The average number of E. tenella sporozoites relative to untreated controls displayed a linear decrease between 0.3 and 33.0 μg/ml salinomycin and between 0.3 and 3.3 μg/ml monensin. A similar pattern was observed in the relative amount of E. tenella DNA as measured by sqPCR. A linear decrease in the relative amount of E. tenella DNA was observed over the entire range of salinomycin and monensin concentrations as measured by qPCR possibly reflecting the greater sensitivity of this assay. Comparison of sporozoite counting, sqPCR, and qPCR signals using a criterion of 50% inhibition in sporozoite numbers or level of PCR amplification product showed good agreement between the three assays. E. tenella field isolates (FS-1 and FS-2) displaying resistance to salinomycin and monensin were evaluated in the in vitro assay using qPCR and sqPCR. Compared to E. tenella APU-1, the E. tenella FS-1 and FS-2 isolates showed higher levels of E. tenella DNA at 24h by both qPCR and sqPCR. This in vitro assay represents a significant advance in developing rapid, cost-effective methods for assessing ionophore sensitivity in E

  16. A simple and rapid method for optical visualization and quantification of bacteria on textiles

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Philipp; Schneider, Jana; Amberg, Caroline; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    To prevent bacterial contamination on textiles and the associated undesired effects different biocidal coatings have been investigated and applied. However, due to health and environmental concerns anti-adhesive coatings preventing the binding of bacteria would be favored. To develop such anti-adhesive coatings simple assays for reliable and fast screening are beneficial. Here an easy-to-handle, robust and rapid assay to assess bacteria on textiles utilizing a tetrazolium salt was reported. The assay allowed direct eye visualization of the color change of the textiles containing bacteria, facilitating fast screening. Quantification of the adhered bacteria could be done by generating standard curves which correlate the staining intensity to cell numbers. An additional advantage of the described assay is that with the same detection method anti-adhesive and biocidal effects can be investigated. The method was applied to different coatings, using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as model organisms. The detection limit was found to be between 2.5 * 106 and 9.4 * 108 for P. aeruginosa and between 1 * 106 and 3.3 * 108 for S. aureus. The anti-adhesive coating PLUMA was demonstrated to reduce bacterial adhesion without killing them, whereas the biocidal coating TH22-27 caused a clear reduction in the number of viable cells. PMID:28004762

  17. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods.

    PubMed

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  18. A rapid, simple method for determining formaldehyde in drinking water using colorimetric-solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Hill, April A; Lipert, Robert J; Fritz, James S; Porter, Marc D

    2009-02-15

    Formaldehyde has been detected in drinking water supplies across the globe and on board NASA spacecraft. A rapid, simple, microgravity-compatible technique for measuring this contaminant in water supplies using colorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE) is described. This method involves collecting a water sample into a syringe by passage through a cartridge that contains sodium hydroxide, to adjust pH, and Purpald, which is a well-established colorimetric reagent for aldehydes. After completing the reaction in the syringe by agitating for 2 min on a shaker at 400 rpm, the 1.0-mL alkaline sample is passed through an extraction disk that retains the purple product. The amount of concentrated product is then measured on-disk using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and compared to a calibration plot generated from Kubelka-Munk transformations of the reflectance data at 700 nm to determine the formaldehyde concentration. This method is capable of determining formaldehyde concentrations from 0.08 to 20 ppm with a total work-up time of less than 3 min using only 1-mL samples.

  19. A SCAR-based method for rapid identification of four major lepidopterous stored-product pests.

    PubMed

    Yao, Me-Chi; Chang, Shu-Chen; Lee, Chi-Yang; Lu, Kuang-Hui

    2012-06-01

    Since Taiwan became a World Trade Organization member in 2002, large quantities of grain have been imported from different countries, and insect pests are frequently intercepted from these imported commodities in quarantine inspection. Because most insects are intercepted as immature forms, morphological identification is problematic; therefore, we developed a DNA identification method based on a sequence-characterized amplified region- polymerase chain reaction (SCAR-PCR). Three sets of multiplex SCAR-PCR mixtures, namely SCAR-I, -II, and -III, were developed with each set composed of four species-specific primer pairs derived from the genomic DNA of four major lepidopterous stored-product pests: Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton), Cadra cautella (Walker), Sitotroga cerealella Oliver, and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). The SCAR-I amplicons of C. cephalonica, C. cautella, S. cerealella, and P. interpunctella were 205, 550, 324, 382 bp, respectively, while those of SCAR-II were 341, 565, 261, and 170 bp, and those of SCAR-III were 514, 555, 445, and 299 bp. These multiplex PCR mixtures could sensitively and unambiguously detect and identify in approximately 5 h individuals among the four lepidopterous pests intercepted in imported stored-products. In summary, the SCAR-PCR method we developed represents a rapid, sensitive and accurate technique for identifying insect species of stored products in plant quarantine operation.

  20. A rapid method to authenticate vegetable oils through surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ming Yang; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Hai Rui; Liu, Luo; Zhao, Yong Mei; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Zheng Long; Liu, Li Min; Xu, Hai Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oils are essential in our daily diet. Among various vegetable oils, the major difference lies in the composition of fatty acids, including unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). USFA include oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while SFA are mainly palmitic acid (PA). In this study, the most typical and abundant USFA present with PA in vegetable oils were quantified. More importantly, certain proportional relationships between the integrated intensities of peaks centered at 1656 cm−1 (S1656) in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of different USFA were confirmed. Therefore, the LA or ALA content could be converted into an equivalent virtual OA content enabling the characterization of the USFA content in vegetable oils using the equivalent total OA content. In combination with the S1656 of pure OA and using peanut, sesame, and soybean oils as examples, the ranges of S1656 corresponding to the National Standards of China were established to allow the rapid authentication of vegetable oils. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses verified the accuracy of the method, with relative errors of less than 5%. Moreover, this method can be extended to other detection fields, such as diseases. PMID:26987802