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Sample records for rapid response system

  1. Rapid response deluge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mille, J. R.

    1984-08-01

    The development of a rapid response deluge system by the Ammunition Equipment Directorate (AED) for use in suppressing propellant fires during demilitarization shows great promise. Prototype systems have been tested and data acquired on their efficiencies. Present system vs previous generations and lessons learned are discussed.

  2. Design and Development of a Proactive Rapid Response System.

    PubMed

    Heal, Michelle; Silvest-Guerrero, Sarah; Kohtz, Cindy

    2017-02-01

    Timely identification of patient deterioration can prompt intervention and prevent the escalation of care and unplanned intensive care admissions. However, both personal experience and professional literature reveals that staff nurses in the acute care setting may not notice subtle signs of patient deterioration or may be reluctant to activate the rapid response system. To overcome these barriers, a proactive rapid response system with early warning signs was created and studied. Using a quasi-experimental design, data were collected from two medical-surgical nursing units at one large tertiary medical center over a 6-month period. One unit used the new rapid response system and early warning sign criteria with real-time data entry and trigger activation. A second unit served as the control and relied on the nurse for rapid response system activation. Findings revealed that the use of the newly developed rapid response system demonstrated significantly greater sensitivity to subtle signs of patient deterioration and prompted early evaluation and intervention.

  3. Point-of-Care Ultrasound and the Rapid Response System.

    PubMed

    Lakoff, Daniel J; Barghash, Maya H; Lorin, Scott; Ungaro, Ryan; Nguyen, Vinh-Tung; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Nelson, Bret P; Narula, Jagat

    2013-12-01

    Over the years, the use of ultrasound has moved solely from the domain of the radiologist to that of the intensivist and emergentologist for use in acute care settings. By virtue of its ease of use and rapid learning curve to proficiency, we are now seeing an increased desire by internists to learn the modality and apply it at the patient's bedside. The rapid response system represents a rational starting point for the introduction of point-of-care ultrasound to the inpatient ward setting. Copyright © 2013 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The limitations in implementing and operating a rapid response system.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, A; Botha, J; Tiruvoipati, R

    2016-10-01

    Despite the widespread introduction of rapid response systems (RRS)/medical emergency teams (MET), there is still controversy regarding how effective they are. While there are some observational studies showing improved outcomes with RRS, there are no data from randomised controlled trials to support the effectiveness. Nevertheless, the MET system has become a standard of care in many healthcare organisations. In this review, we present an overview of the limitations in implementing and operating a RRS in modern healthcare. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Rapid Responses of Groundwater Systems in Reservoir Sediment Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnevskiy, M.; Freyberg, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Phreatic aquifers that develop within reservoir sediment deposits contribute to the water and mass balances of reservoir systems and in turn strongly influence their ecology. As a case study, we examine the response of an aquifer formed within the sediment deposit of Searsville Reservoir (California, U.S.A.) using data from a set of 18 piezometers installed in the deposit and the adjacent native material. Searsville Reservoir is located in the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve of Stanford University in the low foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains. As is typical of Mediterranean climates, almost all precipitation occurs as rain in the winters, and summers are dry. Approximately weekly data are available from the piezometers, in addition to high-frequency streamflow and meteorological data collected in the vicinity of the reservoir. High-frequency pressure head data at some of the piezometer locations are also available for portions of the record. We combine time series and spatial analysis to explore how the water table responds to precipitation and evaporation patterns. Analysis reveals that fluctuations in the water table are highly responsive to precipitation and evaporation stimuli, with more muted responses to reservoir water surface elevation and streamflow across the sediment surface. Spatially, we see distinct patterns across the sediment body, along with consistent, periodic reversals in direction of groundwater flow at some locations. Temporally, in addition to rapid responses during rainfall events, we observe diurnal fluctuations due to evapotranspiration and a seasonal signal tempered by water surface regulation at the dam. Taken together, our data reveal reservoir sediment deposits to be dynamic ecohydrologic environments over multiple scales.

  6. Effectiveness Analysis of a Part-Time Rapid Response System During Operation Versus Nonoperation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youlim; Lee, Dong Seon; Min, Hyunju; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Inae; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Jo, You Hwan; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Do, Sang Hwan; Lee, Yeon Joo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a part-time rapid response system on the occurrence rate of cardiopulmonary arrest by comparing the times of rapid response system operation versus nonoperation. Retrospective cohort study. A 1,360-bed tertiary care hospital. Adult patients admitted to the general ward were screened. Data were collected over 36 months from rapid response system implementation (October 2012 to September 2015) and more than 45 months before rapid response system implementation (January 2009 to September 2012). None. The rapid response system operates from 7 AM to 10 PM on weekdays and from 7 AM to 12 PM on Saturdays. Primary outcomes were the difference of cardiopulmonary arrest incidence between pre-rapid response system and post-rapid response system periods and whether the rapid response system operating time affects the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence. The overall cardiopulmonary arrest incidence (per 1,000 admissions) was 1.43. Although the number of admissions per month and case-mix index were increased (3,555.18 vs 4,564.72, p < 0.001; 1.09 vs 1.13, p = 0.001, respectively), the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence was significantly decreased after rapid response system (1.60 vs 1.23; p = 0.021), and mortality (%) was unchanged (1.38 vs 1.33; p = 0.322). After rapid response system implementation, the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence significantly decreased by 40% during rapid response system operating times (0.82 vs 0.49/1,000 admissions; p = 0.001) but remained similar during rapid response system nonoperating times (0.77 vs 0.73/1,000 admissions; p = 0.729). The implementation of a part-time rapid response system reduced the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence based on the reduction of cardiopulmonary arrest during rapid response system operating times. Further analysis of the cost effectiveness of part-time rapid response system is needed.

  7. Effectiveness of Kanban Approaches in Systems Engineering within Rapid Response Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    University of Science and Technology Effectiveness of kanban approaches in systems engineering within rapid response environments Richard Turner...examines one of those approaches, kanban (pull) scheduling techniques, to determine its applicability to systems and software engineering in a rapid...response environment. The paper describes work in progress defining a general systems engineering kanban approach, a specific kanban process for rapid

  8. Rapid Prototyping of Simulated VIIRS Data in the SERVIR Fire Rapid Response System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easson, G.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Yarbrough, L. D.; Irwin, D.; Cherrington, E.

    2006-12-01

    A rapid prototyping capability experiment has been established involving the application of the SERVIR (Sistema Regional de Visualización y Monitoreo) decision support tool, which is NASA's and its partner agencies' tool to monitor groundcover and climatic conditions in Mesoamerica. As an information system, the SERVIR tool processes data products from multiple sources and the outcome is visualized through interactive digital maps, standard view map outputs or 3D real-time visualization. The focus of this research is one of the SERVIR Fire Rapid Response products known as the MODIS SERVIR Fire Extent Product, which was developed to meet the requirements of the Guatemalan Park Service. The credibility of SERVIR's monitoring tools currently depends upon NASA's MODIS data, which is nearing the end of its availability. This will make it necessary to transition to the planned replacement sensor, VIIRS. The impact of this transition on the performance of SERVIR's fire detection tools is the current focus of our investigation. A quantitative assessment of fire conditions in Guatemala is made using MODIS data and is compared to the anticipated performance using simulated data that would have been produced by a VIIRS-like sensor. Using a low-density geospatial database, the comparison is made for a number of dates from the 2003 Guatemalan fire season, where ground validation data is available. A comparative assessment is also made using the kappa statistic applied to the land classifications resulting from both the MODIS- and VIIRS- based fire detection algorithms.

  9. Early warning systems and rapid response to the deteriorating patient in hospital: A systematic realist review.

    PubMed

    McGaughey, Jennifer; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-07-20

    To determine the Rapid Response System programme theory and investigate how the mechanisms of implementation and the characteristics of context combine to enable or constrain the implementation of Rapid Response Systems and the achievement of desired outcomes. Rapid Response Systems have been implemented internationally to improve the recognition and management of patient deterioration, reduce the need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and improve patient outcomes. Realist review. We searched DARE, CENTRAL, NHSEED, MEDLINE, Medline In Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, The Web of Science and PychInfo databases from 1997 - 2017 in addition to purposively searching the grey literature looking for articles supporting, refuting or explaining Rapid Response System programme theories. Included studies were critically appraised and graded using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Data extraction and synthesis investigated the Rapid Response System theoretical propositions against the empirical evidence to refine Rapid Response System programme theories. The review found that the Rapid Response System programme theory achieved desired outcomes when there were sufficient skills mix of experienced staff, EWS protocols were used flexibly alongside clinical judgement and staff had access to ongoing, multiprofessional, competency-based education. However, ward cultures, hierarchical referral systems, workload and staffing resources had a negative impact on the implementation of the Rapid Response System. To improve the recognition and management of patient deterioration, policymakers need to address those cultural, educational and organizational factors that have an impact on the successful implementation of Rapid Response Systems in practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A More Rapid, Rapid Response.

    PubMed

    Robison, Justin; Slamon, Nicholas B

    2016-09-01

    Critical care physicians' standard for arrival to a rapid response team activation is 10 minutes or less at this institution. This study proposes that a FaceTime (Apple, Cupertino, CA) video call between the staff at the bedside and the critical care physician will allow the implementation of potentially life-saving therapies earlier than the current average response (4.5 min). Prospective cohort study. Freestanding, tertiary-care children's hospital. Pediatric patients ages 0-17. Six units were chosen as matched pairs. In the telemedicine units, after notification of an rapid response team, the critical care intensivist established a FaceTime video call with the nurse at the bedside and gathered history, visually assessed the patient, and suggested interventions. Simultaneously, the rapid response nurse, respiratory therapist, and fellow were dispatched to respond to the bedside. After the video call, the intensivist also reported to the bedside. The control units followed the standard rapid response team protocol: the intensivist physically responded to the bedside. Differences in response time, number of interventions, Pediatric Early Warning System scores, and disposition were measured, and the PICU course of those transferred was evaluated. The telemedicine group's average time to establish FaceTime interface was 2.6 minutes and arrival at bedside was 3.7 minutes. The control group average arrival time was 3.6 minutes. The difference between FaceTime interface and physical arrival in the control group was statistically significant (p = 0.012). Physical arrival times between the telemedicine and control groups remained consistent. Fifty-eight percent of the telemedicine patients and 73% of the control patients were admitted to the PICU (p = 0.13). Of patients transferred to the PICU, there was no difference in rate of intubation, initiation of bilevel positive airway pressure, central line placement, or vasopressors. The study group averaged 1.4 interventions

  11. Improving Systems Engineering Effectiveness in Rapid Response Development Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-02

    software engineering processes. The framework is based on a services approach to systems engineering and the use of kanban techniques to schedule...systems engineering; value-based engineering; integrating software and systems engineering; kanban processes I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND... kanban , to create a radical departure from the normal concepts of systems engineering. In an environment where there is an existing complex system

  12. Rapid response to systemic bevacizumab therapy in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    MOHR, MICHAEL; SCHLIEMANN, CHRISTOPH; BIERMANN, CHRISTOPH; SCHMIDT, LARS-HENNING; KESSLER, TORSTEN; SCHMIDT, JOACHIM; WIEBE, KARSTEN; MÜLLER, KLAUS-MICHAEL; HOFFMANN, THOMAS K.; GROLL, ANDREAS H.; WERNER, CLAUDIUS; KESSLER, CHRISTINA; WIEWRODT, RAINER; RUDACK, CLAUDIA; BERDEL, WOLFGANG E.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a primary benign disease, which is characterized by papillomatous growth in the respiratory tract. Malignant transformation occurs in only 3–5% of cases, however, local growth of the benign papillomas is interpreted as clinically malignant in a markedly higher proportion of patients. Local surgical or endoscopic interventional debulking or excision is currently the commonly selected treatment method and antiviral therapy is a potential adjuvant approach. However, the long-term management of RRP patients, who commonly require multiple procedures over numerous years, is challenging and the overall therapeutic armamentarium remains unsatisfactory. The administration of systemic bevacizumab treatment in a series of five patients with long histories of RRP, who required repeated local interventions to control papilloma growth is evaluated. Treatment with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab was administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg (n=1), 10 mg/kg (n=3) or 15 mg/kg (n=1) intravenously to the five RRP patients, who were clinically classified as exhibiting progressive disease. Endoscopic evaluations were performed prior to the first infusion of bevacizumab and intermittently at variable time points during the course of therapy. Histopathological analyses were performed using pre- and post-treatment papilloma biopsies, including immunohistochemical analyses of VEGF and phosphorylated VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 expression. The patients received between three and 16 courses of bevacizumab (median, six courses). The first course was initiated when progression following the previous intervention was observed. An immediate response to bevacizumab treatment was demonstrated in all five RRP patients. While the cumulative number of interventions in the five patients was 18 throughout the 12 months prior to the initiation of bevacizumab treatment, only one patient required interventional treatment due to a

  13. Rapid response of a hydrologic system to volcanic activity: Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, S.C.P.; Connor, C.B.; Sanford, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrologic systems change in response to volcanic activity, and in turn may be sensitive indicators of volcanic activity. Here we investigate the coupled nature of magmatic and hydrologic systems using continuous multichannel time series of soil temperature collected on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, one of the most active volcanoes in Central America. The soil temperatures were measured in a low-temperature fumarole field located 3.5 km down the flanks of the volcano. Analysis of these time series reveals that they respond extremely rapidly, on a time scale of minutes, to changes in volcanic activity also manifested at the summit vent. These rapid temperature changes are caused by increased flow of water vapor through flank fumaroles during volcanism. The soil temperature response, ~5 °C, is repetitive and complex, with as many as 13 pulses during a single volcanic episode. Analysis of the frequency spectrum of these temperature time series shows that these anomalies are characterized by broad frequency content during volcanic activity. They are thus easily distinguished from seasonal trends, diurnal variations, or individual rainfall events, which triggered rapid transient increases in temperature during 5% of events. We suggest that the mechanism responsible for the distinctive temperature signals is rapid change in pore pressure in response to magmatism, a response that can be enhanced by meteoric water infiltration. Monitoring of distal fumaroles can therefore provide insight into coupled volcanic-hydrologic-meteorologic systems, and has potential as an inexpensive monitoring tool.

  14. A volcano-seismic event spotting system for the use in rapid response systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Conny; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    The classification of seismic signals of volcanic origin is an important task in monitoring active volcanoes. The number and size of certain types of seismic events usually increase before periods of volcanic crisis and can be used to quantify the volcanic activity. Due to the advantage of providing consistent, objective and time-invariant results automatic classification systems are preferred. Most automatic classification systems are trained in a supervised fashion from a sufficiently large pre-classified data set. The setup of an automatic classification system thus requires the pre-existence of these training data. For a rapid volcano-response team, however, the situation is often different. In the worst case, no prior observations exist (e.g. re-awakening of a dormant volcano). More frequently, archive data exist for a particular observatory network, but no record of seismicity for a high volcanic activity level exists and new seismicity patterns occur. Usually, the networks are additionally sparse and new equipment will be installed for better surveillance during the actual crisis. For the new recording sites again no prior example data is available. Finally, due to the imminent crisis there might be no time for the time-consuming and tedious process of preparing a training data set. For all these reasons a classification system which allows a "learning-while-recording" approach would be very advantageous for use in rapid response systems. Within this study, we show a novel seismic event spotting approach in order to reduce the dependency on the existence of previously acquired data bases and classification schemes. One main goal is therefore to provide the observatory staff with a robust event classification system based on a minimum number of reference waveforms and thus allowing for a fast build-up of a volcanic signal classification scheme as early as interesting events have been identified. For implementation issues we make use of the Hidden Markov

  15. The 6 "ws" of rapid response systems: best practices for improving development, implementation, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Benishek, Lauren E; Sonesh, Shirley C; Patzer, Brady; Robinson, Patricia; Wallace, Ruth; Salas, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Delays in care have been cited as one of the primary contributors of preventable mortality; thus, quality patient safety is often contingent upon the delivery of timely clinical care. Rapid response systems (RRSs) have been touted as one mechanism to improve the ability of suitable staff to respond to deteriorating patients quickly and appropriately. Rapid response systems are defined as highly skilled individual(s) who mobilize quickly to provide medical care in response to clinical deterioration. While there is mounting evidence that RRSs are a valid strategy for managing obstetric emergencies, reducing adverse events, and improving patient safety, there remains limited insight into the practices underlying the development and execution of these systems. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to synthesize the literature and answer the primary questions necessary for successfully developing, implementing, and evaluating RRSs within inpatient settings-the Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How of RRSs.

  16. Early warning systems and rapid response to the deteriorating patient in hospital: A realist evaluation.

    PubMed

    McGaughey, Jennifer; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam; Trinder, John; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-06-21

    To test the Rapid Response Systems programme theory against actual practice components of the Rapid Response Systems implemented to identify those contexts and mechanisms which have an impact on the successful achievement of desired outcomes in practice. Rapid Response Systems allow deteriorating patients to be recognized using Early Warning Systems, referred early via escalation protocols and managed at the bedside by competent staff. Realist evaluation. The research design was an embedded multiple case study approach of four wards in two hospitals in Northern Ireland which followed the principles of Realist Evaluation. We used various mixed methods including individual and focus group interviews, observation of nursing practice between June-November 2010 and document analysis of Early Warning Systems audit data between May-October 2010 and hospital acute care training records over 4.5 years from 2003-2008. Data were analysed using NiVivo8 and SPPS. A cross-case analysis highlighted similar patterns of factors which enabled or constrained successful recognition, referral and response to deteriorating patients in practice. Key enabling factors were the use of clinical judgement by experienced nurses and the empowerment of nurses as a result of organizational change associated with implementation of Early Warning System protocols. Key constraining factors were low staffing and inappropriate skill mix levels, rigid implementation of protocols and culturally embedded suboptimal communication processes. Successful implementation of Rapid Response Systems was dependent on adopting organizational and cultural changes that facilitated staff empowerment, flexible implementation of protocols and ongoing experiential learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  18. A Stimuli-Responsive, Binary Reagent System for Rapid Isolation of Protein Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Nehilla, Barrett J; Hill, John J; Srinivasan, Selvi; Chen, Yen-Chi; Schulte, Thomas H; Stayton, Patrick S; Lai, James J

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic microbeads exhibit rapid separation characteristics and are widely employed for biomolecule and cell isolations in research laboratories, clinical diagnostics assays, and cell therapy manufacturing. However, micrometer particle diameters compromise biomarker recognition, which leads to long incubation times and significant reagent demands. Here, a stimuli-responsive binary reagent system is presented that combines the nanoscale benefits of efficient biomarker recognition and the microscale benefits of rapid magnetic separation. This system comprises magnetic nanoparticles and polymer-antibody (Ab) conjugates that transition from hydrophilic nanoscale reagents to microscale aggregates in response to temperature stimuli. The binary reagent system was benchmarked against Ab-labeled Dynabeads in terms of biomarker isolation kinetics, assay speed, and reagent needs. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements showed that polymer conjugation did not significantly alter the Ab's binding affinity or kinetics. ELISA analysis showed that the unconjugated Ab, polymer-Ab conjugates, and Ab-labeled Dynabeads exhibited similar equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd), ∼2 nM. However, the binary reagent system isolated HIV p24 antigen from spiked serum specimens (150 pg/mL) much more quickly than Dynabeads, which resulted in shorter binding times by tens of minutes, or about 30-50% shorter overall assay times. The binary reagent system showed improved performance because the Ab molecules were not conjugated to large, solid microparticle surfaces. This stimuli-responsive binary reagent system illustrates the potential advantages of nanoscale reagents in molecule and cell isolations for both research and clinical applications.

  19. NIR responsive liposomal system for rapid release of drugs in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Mao; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Su, Guang-Hao; Song, Fei-Fei; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2017-01-01

    To design a rapid release liposomal system for cancer therapy, a NIR responsive bubble-generating thermosensitive liposome (BTSL) system combined with photothermal agent (Cypate), doxorubicin (DOX), and NH4HCO3 was developed. Cypate/DOX-BTSL exhibited a good aqueous stability, photostability, and photothermal effect. In vitro release suggested that the amounts of DOX released from BTSL were obviously higher than that of (NH4)2SO4 liposomes at 42°C. After NIR irradiation, the hyperthermic temperature induced by Cypate led to the decomposition of NH4HCO3 and the generation of a large number of CO2 bubbles, triggering a rapid release of drugs. Confocal laser scanning microscope and acridine orange staining indicated that Cypate/DOX-BTSL upon irradiation could facilitate to disrupt the lysosomal membranes and realize endolysosomal escape into cytosol, improving the intracellular uptake of DOX clearly. MTT and trypan blue staining implied that the cell damage of Cypate/DOX-BTSL with NIR irradiation was more severe than that in the groups without irradiation. In vivo results indicated that Cypate/DOX-BTSL with irradiation could dramatically increase the accumulation of DOX in tumor, inhibit tumor growth, and reduce systemic side effects of DOX. These data demonstrated that Cypate/DOX-BTSL has the potential to be used as a NIR responsive liposomal system for a rapid release of drugs in thermochemotherapy. PMID:28652729

  20. A Rapidly Deployable Operational Mesoscale Modeling System for Emergency-Response Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Thomas T.; Bowers, James F.; Swerdlin, Scott P.; Beitler, Brian A.

    2004-05-01

    An operational mesoscale model based forecasting system has been developed for use by U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command meteorologists in their support of test-range operations. This paper reports on the adaptation of this system to permit its rapid deployment in support of a variety of civilian and military emergency-response applications. The innovation that allows for this rapid deployment is an intuitive graphical user interface that permits a non-expert to quickly configure the model for a new application, and launch the forecast system to produce operational products without further intervention. The graphical interface is Web based and can be run on a wireless laptop or a personal digital assistant in the field. The instructions for configuring the modeling system are transmitted to a compute engine [generally a personal computer (PC) cluster], and forecast products are placed on a Web site that can be accessed by emergency responders or other forecast users. This system has been used operationally for predicting the potential transport and dispersion of hazardous material during the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah, and during military operations in Afghanistan. It has also been used operationally to satisfy the rapidly evolving needs of wildfire managers. Continued use of the modeling system by nonexperts will allow developers to refine the graphical interface and make the model and the interface more fault tolerant with respect to the decisions of model users.(The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation

  1. Modular, Reconfigurable, and Rapid Response Space Systems: The Remote Sensing Advanced Technology Microsatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime; Andary, Jim; Oberright, John; So, Maria; Wegner, Peter; Hauser, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Modular, Reconfigurable, and Rapid-response (MR(sup 2)) space systems represent a paradigm shift in the way space assets of all sizes are designed, manufactured, integrated, tested, and flown. This paper will describe the MR(sup 2) paradigm in detail, and will include guidelines for its implementation. The Remote Sensing Advanced Technology microsatellite (RSAT) is a proposed flight system test-bed used for developing and implementing principles and best practices for MR(sup 2) spacecraft, and their supporting infrastructure. The initial goal of this test-bed application is to produce a lightweight (approx. 100 kg), production-minded, cost-effective, and scalable remote sensing micro-satellite capable of high performance and broad applicability. Such applications range from future distributed space systems, to sensor-webs, and rapid-response satellite systems. Architectures will be explored that strike a balance between modularity and integration while preserving the MR(sup 2) paradigm. Modularity versus integration has always been a point of contention when approaching a design: whereas one-of-a-kind missions may require close integration resulting in performance optimization, multiple and flexible application spacecraft benefit &om modularity, resulting in maximum flexibility. The process of building spacecraft rapidly (< 7 days), requires a concerted and methodical look at system integration and test processes and pitfalls. Although the concept of modularity is not new and was first developed in the 1970s by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft), it was never modernized and was eventually abandoned. Such concepts as the Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) became the preferred method for acquiring satellites. Notwithstanding, over the past 30 years technology has advanced considerably, and the time is ripe to reconsider modularity in its own right, as enabler of R(sup 2), and as a key element of transformational systems. The

  2. a Uav Based Close-Range Rapid Aerial Monitoring System for Emergency Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K.; Lee, I.

    2011-09-01

    As the occurrences and scales of disasters and accidents have been increased due to the global warming, the terrorists' attacks, and many other reasons, the demand for rapid responses for the emergent situations also has been thus ever-increasing. These emergency responses are required to be customized to each individual site for more effective management of the emergent situations. These requirements can be satisfied with the decisions based on the spatial changes on the target area, which should be detected immediately or in real-time. Aerial monitoring without human operators is an appropriate means because the emergency areas are usually inaccessible. Therefore, a UAV is a strong candidate as the platform for the aerial monitoring. In addition, the sensory data from the UAV system usually have higher resolution than other system because the system can operate at a lower altitude. If the transmission and processing of the data could be performed in real-time, the spatial changes of the target area can be detected with high spatial and temporal resolution by the UAV rapid mapping systems. As a result, we aim to develop a rapid aerial mapping system based on a UAV, whose key features are the effective acquisition of the sensory data, real-time transmission and processing of the data. In this paper, we will introduce the general concept of our system, including the main features, intermediate results, and explain our real-time sensory data georeferencing algorithm which is a core for prompt generation of the spatial information from the sensory data.

  3. Rapid response calculation of LNG cargo containment system under sloshing load using wavelet transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yooil

    2013-06-01

    Reliable strength assessment of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cargo containment system under the sloshing impact load is very difficult task due to the complexity of the physics involved in, both in terms of the hydrodynamics and structural mechanics. Out of all those complexities, the proper selection of the design sloshing load which is applied to the structural model of the LNG cargo containment system, is one of the most challenging one due to its inherent randomness as well as the statistical analysis which is tightly linked to the design sloshing load selection. In this study, the response based strength assessment procedure of LNG cargo containment system has been developed and proposed as an alternative design methodology. Sloshing pressure time history, measured from the model test, is decomposed into wavelet basis function targeting the minimization of the number of the basis function together with the maximization of the numerical efficiency. Then the response of the structure is obtained using the finite element method under each wavelet basis function of different scale. Finally, the response of the structure under entire sloshing impact time history is rapidly calculated by synthesizing the structural response under wavelet basis function. Through this analysis, more realistic response of the system under sloshing impact pressure can be obtained without missing the details of pressure time history such as rising pattern, oscillation due to air entrapment and decay pattern and so on. The strength assessment of the cargo containment system is then performed based on the statistical analysis of the stress peaks selected out of the obtained stress time history.

  4. Exploring interprofessional practices in rapid response systems: a case study protocol.

    PubMed

    Allen, Emily; Jackson, Debra; Elliott, Doug

    2015-01-01

    To describe the development of a proposed case study protocol investigating interprofessional relationships in a rapid response system (RRS) in a socioculturally complex clinical environment. Suboptimal care of deteriorating ward patients remains a concern for many acute healthcare organisations. Despite the advent of RRSs, emergency response teams are not always used to their full potential. How and why interprofessional relationships influence practices associated with the care and management of ward patients at risk of clinical deterioration requires investigation. Theoretical and empirical literature describing case study research and RRSs. Review methods An integrative review approach of the literature, focusing on key terms relating to 'case study research' and 'rapid response system', provided context and informed development of the study protocol. A single-site mixed-method instrumental case study protocol was developed using methodological triangulation and a multi-level model to examine interprofessional relationships between a broad range of stakeholders. Concurrent data collection and analysis will occur using document review of clinical scenarios, non-participant observations and semi-structured interviews. Case study research is an effective method for investigating socioculturally complex clinical environments. A strength of this approach is the flexibility in the choice of methods, which allows the researcher to build the design most suitable for the subjects or phenomena being investigated. Although this flexibility may be considered a potential weakness, rigour can be achieved by application of the strategies described. Findings from this research will provide rich descriptive insights into RRS relationships and healthcare professional practices during day-to-day management of acute ward patients at risk of or experiencing clinical deterioration. Description of this structured case study research approach will also inform other researchers.

  5. Effect of a 2-tier rapid response system on patient outcome and staff satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Leanne M; Chaboyer, Wendy; Vaux, Amanda; Crouch, Shannon; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Daly, Michael; Joyce, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Rapid response systems (RRS) have been recommended as a strategy to prevent and treat deterioration in acute care patients. Questions regarding the most effective characteristics of RRS and strategies for implementing these systems remain. The aims of this study were to (i) describe the structures and processes used to implement a 2-tier RRS, (ii) determine the comparative prevalence of deteriorating patients and incidence of unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) admission and cardiac arrest prior to and after implementation of the RRS, and (iii) determine clinician satisfaction with the RRS. A quasi-experimental pre-test, post-test design was used to assess patient related outcomes and clinician satisfaction prior to and after implementation of a 2-tier RRS in a tertiary metropolitan hospital. Primary components of the RRS included an ICU Outreach Nurse and a Rapid Response Team. Prevalence of deteriorating patients was assessed through a point prevalence assessment and chart audit. Incidence of unplanned admission to ICU and cardiac arrests were accessed from routine hospital databases. Clinician satisfaction was measured through surveys. Prevalence of patients who met medical emergency call criteria without current treatment reduced from 3% prior to RRS implementation to 1% after implementation; a similar reduction from 9% to 3% was identified on chart review. The number of unplanned admissions to ICU increased slightly from 17.4/month prior to RRS implementation to 18.1/month after implementation (p=0.45) while cardiac arrests reduced slightly from 7.5/month to 5.6/month (p=0.22) but neither of these changes were statistically significant. Staff satisfaction with the RRS was generally high. The 2-tier RRS was accessed by staff to assist with care of deteriorating patients in a large, tertiary hospital. High levels of satisfaction have been reported by clinical staff. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Consumer participation in early detection of the deteriorating patient and call activation to rapid response systems: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vorwerk, Jane; King, Lindy

    2016-01-01

    This review investigated the impact of consumer participation in recognition of patient deterioration and response through call activation in rapid response systems. Nurses and doctors have taken the main role in recognition and response to patient deterioration through hospital rapid response systems. Yet patients and visitors (consumers) have appeared well placed to notice early signs of deterioration. In response, many hospitals have sought to partner health professionals with consumers in detection and response to early deterioration. However, to date, there have been no published research-based reviews to establish the impact of introducing consumer involvement into rapid response systems. A critical research-based review was undertaken. A comprehensive search of databases from 2006-2014 identified 11 studies. Critical appraisal of these studies was undertaken and thematic analysis of the findings revealed four major themes. Following implementation of the consumer activation programmes, the number of calls made by the consumers following detection of deterioration increased. Interestingly, the number of staff calls also increased. Importantly, mortality numbers were found to decrease in one major study following the introduction of consumer call activation. Consumer and staff knowledge and satisfaction with the new programmes indicated mixed results. Initial concerns of the staff over consumer involvement overwhelming the rapid response systems did not eventuate. Evaluation of successful consumer-activated programmes indicated the importance of: effective staff education and training; ongoing consumer education by nurses and clear educational materials. Findings indicated positive patient outcomes following introduction of consumer call activation programmes within rapid response systems. Effective consumer programmes included information that was readily accessible, easy-to-understand and available in a range of multimedia materials accompanied by the

  7. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch - Rapid Response System for Local Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, T.; Sawada, Y.; Kamei, A.; Uchiyama, A.

    2015-12-01

    GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) launched in 2009 and its successor, GOSAT-2, to be launched in FY 2017, have push-broom imaging systems with more than one UV band with higher spatial resolution than OMI, MODIS, and VIIRS. Such imaging systems are useful for mapping the spatial extent of the optically thick air mass with particulate matters. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch, a rapid response system mainly using GOSAT CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) data for local air pollution issues is being developed in NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) GOSAT-2 Project. The current design of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch has three data processing steps as follows: Step 1) Making a cloud mask Step 2) Estimating AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) in the UV region (380 nm for CAI) Step 3) Converting AOT to atmospheric pollution parameters such as PM2.5 concentration Data processing algorithms in GOSAT Air Pollution Watch are based on GOSAT/GOSAT-2 algorithms for aerosol product generation with some modification for faster and timely data processing. Data from GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be used to inform the general public the current distribution of the polluted air. In addition, they will contribute to short term prediction of the spatial extent of the polluted air using atmospheric transport models. In this presentation, the background, the current status, and the future prospect of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be reported together with the development status of GOSAT-2.

  8. Vapor containment tests of the rapid response system glovebox. Final report, December 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Arca, V.J.; Blewett, W.K.; Kinne, W.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Rapid Response System (RRS) is a trailer-mounted facility for demilitarizing Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS), obsolete training kits containing ampules and/or bottles of chemical warfare agents (mustard and lewisite), or other industrial chemical compounds. The main component of the RRS is a glovebox divided into three areas - an airlock station, unpack station, and neutralization station, and the CAIS items are processed through each station by use of 11 glove ports. The glovebox is maintained at negative pressure differential by a gas-particulate filter-blower unit. To measure the performance of the glovebox in containing chemical vapors/gases, a series of tests was conducted on 811 April 1996 at Tooele Army Depot, UT, with methyl salicylate, a simulant for mustard. This testing addressed performance in steady state operation, airlock cycling, waste barrel changeout, and glove changeout. Two trials were also conducted in a simulated power-failure condition to determine the rate of leakage if system airflow is interrupted. The glovebox and its engineering controls provided a very high level of protection. Some procedural changes were recommended to increase the protection factor in glove and barrel changeout operations.

  9. Building a rapid response team.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  10. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    response program described in this chapter also improves the temporal resolution of the ASTER instrument. ASTER has been acquiring images of volcanic eruptions since soon after its launch in December 1999. An early example included the observations of the large pyroclastic flow deposit emplaced at Bezymianny volcano in Kamchatka, Russia. The first images in March 2000, just weeks after the eruption, revealed the extent, composition, and cooling history of this large deposit and of the active lava dome (Ramsey and Dehn, 2004). The initial results from these early datasets spurred interest in using ASTER data for expanded volcano monitoring in the north Pacific. It also gave rise to the multi-year NASA-funded programs of rapid response scheduling and imaging throughout the Aleutian, Kamchatka and Kurile arcs. Since the formal establishment of the programs, the data have provided detailed descriptions of the eruptions of Augustine, Bezymianny, Kliuchevskoi and Sheveluch volcanoes over the past nine years (Wessels et al., in press; Carter et al., 2007, 2008; Ramsey et al., 2008; Rose and Ramsey, 2009). The initial research focus of this rapid response program was specifically on automating the ASTER sensor’s ability for targeted observational scheduling using the expedited data system. This urgent request protocol is one of the unique characteristics of ASTER. It provides a limited number of emergency observations, typically at a much-improved temporal resolution and quicker turnaround with data processing in the United States rather than in Japan. This can speed the reception of the processed data by several days to a week. The ongoing multi-agency research and operational collaboration has been highly successful. AVO serves as the primary source for status information on volcanic activity, working closely with the National Weather Service (NWS), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), military and other state and federal emergency services. Collaboration with the Russian

  11. Utility and assessment of non-technical skills for rapid response systems and medical emergency teams.

    PubMed

    Chalwin, R P; Flabouris, A

    2013-09-01

    Efforts are ongoing to improve outcomes from cardiac arrest and medical emergencies. A promising quality improvement modality is use of non-technical skills (NTS) that aim to address human factors through improvements in performance of leadership, communication, situational awareness and decision-making. Originating in the airline industry, NTS training has been successfully introduced into anaesthesia, surgery, emergency medicine and other acute medical specialities. Some aspects of NTS have already achieved acceptance for cardiac arrest teams. Leadership skills are emphasised in advanced life support training and have shown favourable results when employed in simulated and clinical resuscitation scenarios. The application of NTS in medical emergency teams as part of a rapid response system attending medical emergencies is less certain; however, observations of simulations have also shown promise. This review highlights the potential benefits of NTS competency for cardiac arrest teams and, more importantly, medical emergency teams because of the diversity of clinical scenarios encountered. Discussion covers methods to assess and refine NTS and NTS training to optimise performance in the clinical environment. Increasing attention should be applied to yielding meaningful patient and organisational outcomes from use of NTS. Similarly, implementation of any training course should receive appropriate scrutiny to refine team and institutional performance.

  12. CE: Original research: hospital system barriers to rapid response team activation: a cognitive work analysis.

    PubMed

    Braaten, Jane Saucedo

    2015-02-01

    The goal of rapid response team (RRT) activation in acute care facilities is to decrease mortality from preventable complications, but such efforts have been only moderately successful. Although recent research has shown decreased mortality when RRTs are activated more often, many hospitals have low activation rates. This has been linked to various hospital, team, and nursing factors. Yet there is a dearth of research examining how hospital systems shape nurses' behavior with regard to RRT activation. Making systemic constraints visible and modifying them may be the key to improving RRT activation rates and saving more lives. The purpose of this study was to use cognitive work analysis to describe factors within the hospital system that shape medical-surgical nurses' RRT activation behavior. Cognitive work analysis offers a framework for the study of complex sociotechnical systems. This framework was used as the organizing element of the study. Qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain data to fill the framework's five domains: resources, tasks, strategies, social systems, and worker competency. Data were obtained from interviews with 12 medical-surgical nurses and document review. Directed content analysis was used to place the obtained data into the framework's predefined domains. Many system factors affected participants' decisions to activate or not activate an RRT. Systemic constraints, especially in cases of subtle or gradual clinical changes, included a lack of adequate information, the availability of multiple strategies, the need to justify RRT activation, a scarcity of human resources, and informal hierarchical norms in the hospital culture. The most profound constraint was the need to justify the call. Justification was based on the objective or subjective nature of clinical changes, whether the nurse expected to be able to "handle" these changes, the presence or absence of a physician, and whether there was an expectation of support from the RRT

  13. Mature rapid response system and potentially avoidable cardiopulmonary arrests in hospital

    PubMed Central

    Galhotra, Sanjay; DeVita, Michael A; Simmons, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study the incidence, outcome and potentially avoidable causes of inpatient cardiopulmonary arrests in a hospital with a “mature” rapid response system (RRS). Design Retrospective observational study of all cardiopulmonary arrest events in 2005. Setting University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Presbyterian Hospital, a 730‐bed academic, urban, tertiary care adult hospital in the USA. Interventions None. Results During the calendar year 2005, the 16th year since the establishment of a medical emergency team (MET)/RRS, the MET was activated 1942 times; 111 of these events were cardiopulmonary arrest events (3.26 arrest events/1000 patient admissions), and 1831 were non‐arrest patient crisis events (53.8 crisis events/1000 patient admissions). A review of the 104 index cardiopulmonary arrest events revealed that 26 (25%) patients survived to discharge. Event survival decreased as the intensity of patient monitoring decreased (83% in intensive care units, 69% in monitored, and 36% in unmonitored units; p = 0.002), but the rate of subsequent inhospital death was higher in the more intensely monitored settings (60%, 38%, 23%, respectively; p = 0.022). Nineteen (18%) arrests were deemed to be “potentially avoidable”. Avoidable arrests were classified as: failure to adhere to established hospital patient care guideline or policy; inadequate monitoring or surveillance; or delays in dealing with patient needs including delay in MET/RRS activation. Conclusions In spite of the high crisis event rate and a low rate of cardiac arrests, potentially avoidable cardiopulmonary arrests still occurred. According to the present study more cardiopulmonary arrest events might be avoided by better adherence to hospital patient care policies, by closer monitoring on floors and by preventing delays in addressing deterioration in patient condition. PMID:17693672

  14. Improving Pediatric Survival from Resuscitation Events: The Role and Organization of Hospital-based Rapid Response Systems and Code Teams.

    PubMed

    Jagt, Elise Willem van der

    2013-01-01

    During the past 10-15 years it has become evident that in spite of the sophistication of medicine, hospitalized patients frequently experience cardiac arrests from which the majority do not survive. A substantial number of these arrests occur on general inpatient units where patients begin to deteriorate but there is a failure of timely recognition so that appropriate intervention can be instituted before the arrest takes place. Much work has been done to determine how survival from adult in-hospital cardiac arrests can be improved by (1) teaching health care providers about resuscitation management using a team approach and (2) more recently, by developing rapid response systems to recognize deteriorating patients early and intervening to prevent the cardiac arrest. The purpose of this review is to outline what is known about the use and organization of resuscitation teams (code teams) and rapid response systems as they apply to pediatric patients. Effort has been made to include the most current pediatric science available as a basis for encouraging the ongoing implementation of hospital team-based systems which appear to be able to improve the outcomes of pediatric in-hospital cardiac and respiratory arrests. Practical suggestions, implementation strategies, potential barriers, and ways to integrate pediatric code teams and rapid response systems into the quality and safety fabric of the hospital are provided.

  15. AFRPL Rapid Indexing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alfred A.

    A modified Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) system was developed to gain rapid control over more than 8,000 scattered, unindexed documents. This was the first step in providing the technical information support required by Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory scientists and engineers. Implementation of the KWOC system, computer routines, and…

  16. AFRPL Rapid Indexing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alfred A.

    A modified Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) system was developed to gain rapid control over more than 8,000 scattered, unindexed documents. This was the first step in providing the technical information support required by Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory scientists and engineers. Implementation of the KWOC system, computer routines, and…

  17. Diurnal variation in the performance of rapid response systems: the role of critical care services-a review article.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Krishnaswamy; Flabouris, Arthas; Thompson, Campbell

    2016-01-01

    The type of medical review before an adverse event influences patient outcome. Delays in the up-transfer of patients requiring intensive care are associated with higher mortality rates. Timely detection and response to a deteriorating patient constitute an important function of the rapid response system (RRS). The activation of the RRS for at-risk patients constitutes the system's afferent limb. Afferent limb failure (ALF), an important performance measure of rapid response systems, constitutes a failure to activate a rapid response team (RRT) despite criteria for calling an RRT. There are diurnal variations in hospital staffing levels, the performance of rapid response systems and patient outcomes. Fewer ward-based nursing staff at night may contribute to ALF. The diurnal variability in RRS activity is greater in unmonitored units than it is in monitored units for events that should result in a call for an RRT. RRT events include a significant abnormality in either the pulse rate, blood pressure, conscious state or respiratory rate. There is also diurnal variation in RRT summoning rates, with most activations occurring during the day. The reasons for this variation are mostly speculative, but the failure of the afferent limb of RRT activation, particularly at night, may be a factor. The term "circadian variation/rhythm" applies to physiological variations over a 24-h cycle. In contrast, diurnal variation applies more accurately to extrinsic systems. Circadian rhythm has been demonstrated in a multitude of bodily functions and disease states. For example, there is an association between disrupted circadian rhythms and abnormal vital parameters such as anomalous blood pressure, irregular pulse rate, aberrant endothelial function, myocardial infarction, stroke, sleep-disordered breathing and its long-term consequences of hypertension, heart failure and cognitive impairment. Therefore, diurnal variation in patient outcomes may be extrinsic, and more easily modifiable

  18. Automated Formosat Image Processing System for Rapid Response to International Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, M. C.; Chou, S. C.; Chen, Y. C.; Chen, B.; Liu, C.; Yu, S. J.

    2016-06-01

    FORMOSAT-2, Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite, was successfully launched in May of 2004 into the Sun-synchronous orbit at 891 kilometers of altitude. With the daily revisit feature, the 2-m panchromatic, 8-m multi-spectral resolution images captured have been used for researches and operations in various societal benefit areas. This paper details the orchestration of various tasks conducted in different institutions in Taiwan in the efforts responding to international disasters. The institutes involved including its space agency-National Space Organization (NSPO), Center for Satellite Remote Sensing Research of National Central University, GIS Center of Feng-Chia University, and the National Center for High-performance Computing. Since each institution has its own mandate, the coordinated tasks ranged from receiving emergency observation requests, scheduling and tasking of satellite operation, downlink to ground stations, images processing including data injection, ortho-rectification, to delivery of image products. With the lessons learned from working with international partners, the FORMOSAT Image Processing System has been extensively automated and streamlined with a goal to shorten the time between request and delivery in an efficient manner. The integrated team has developed an Application Interface to its system platform that provides functions of search in archive catalogue, request of data services, mission planning, inquiry of services status, and image download. This automated system enables timely image acquisition and substantially increases the value of data product. Example outcome of these efforts in recent response to support Sentinel Asia in Nepal Earthquake is demonstrated herein.

  19. Human adaptation responses to a rapidly changing Arctic: A research context for building system resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapin, T.; Brinkman, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Although human behavior accounts for more uncertainty in future trajectories in climate change than do biophysical processes, most climate-change research fails to include human actions in research design and implementation. This is well-illustrated in the Arctic. At the global scale, arctic processes strongly influence the strength of biophysical feedbacks between global human emissions and the rate of climate warming. However, most human actions in the arctic have little effect on these feedbacks, so research can contribute most effectively to reduction in arctic warming through improved understanding of the strength of arctic-global biophysical feedbacks, as in NASA's ABoVE program, and its effective communication to policy makers and the public. In contrast, at the local to regional scale within the arctic, human actions may influence the ecological and societal consequences of arctic warming, so research benefits from active stakeholder engagement in research design and implementation. Human communities and other stakeholders (government and NGOs) respond heterogeneously to socioeconomic and environmental change, so research that documents the range of historical and current adaptive responses to change provides insights on the resilience (flexibility of future options) of social-ecological processes in the arctic. Alaskan communities have attempted a range of adaptive responses to coastal erosion (e.g., seasonal migration, protection in place, relocation), wildfire (fire suppression to use of fire to manage wildlife habitat or landscape heterogeneity), declining sea ice (e.g., new hunting technology, sea ice observations and predictions), and changes in wildlife and fish availability (e.g., switch to harvest of alternative species, harvest times, or harvest locations). Research that draws on both traditional and western knowledge facilitates adaptation and predictions of the likely societal consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Effective inclusion of

  20. A Mixed Stimuli-Responsive Magnetic and Gold Nanoparticle System for Rapid Purification, Enrichment, and Detection of Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Michael A.; Yager, Paul; Hoffman, Allan S.; Stayton, Patrick S.

    2010-01-01

    A new diagnostic system for the enrichment and detection of protein biomarkers from human plasma is presented. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were surface-modified with a diblock copolymer synthesized using reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The diblock copolymer contained a thermally-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) block, a cationic amine-containing block, and a semi-telechelic PEG2-biotin end group. When a mixed suspension of 23 nm pNIPAAm-modified AuNPs was heated with pNIPAAm-coated 10 nm iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) in human plasma, the thermally-responsive pNIPAAm directed the formation of mixed AuNP/mNP aggregates that could be separated efficiently with a magnet. Model studies showed that this mixed nanoparticle system could efficiently purify and strongly enrich the model biomarker protein streptavidin in spiked human plasma. A 10 ng/mL streptavidin sample was mixed with the biotinylated and pNIPAAm modified AuNP and magnetically separated in the mixed nanoparticle system with pNIPAAm mNPs. The aggregates were concentrated into a 50-fold smaller fluid volume at room temperature where the gold nanoparticle reagent redissolved with the streptavidin target still bound. The concentrated gold-labeled streptavidin could be subsequently analyzed directly using lateral flow immunochromatography. This rapid capture and enrichment module thus utilizes the mixed stimuli-responsive nanoparticle system to achieve direct concentration of a gold-labeled biomarker that can be directly analyzed using lateral flow or other rapid diagnostic strategies. PMID:21070026

  1. "Identifying the hospitalised patient in crisis"--a consensus conference on the afferent limb of rapid response systems.

    PubMed

    DeVita, Michael A; Smith, Gary B; Adam, Sheila K; Adams-Pizarro, Inga; Buist, Michael; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Bonello, Robert; Cerchiari, Erga; Farlow, Barbara; Goldsmith, Donna; Haskell, Helen; Hillman, Kenneth; Howell, Michael; Hravnak, Marilyn; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Hvarfner, Andreas; Kellett, John; Lighthall, Geoffrey K; Lippert, Anne; Lippert, Freddy K; Mahroof, Razeen; Myers, Jennifer S; Rosen, Mark; Reynolds, Stuart; Rotondi, Armando; Rubulotta, Francesca; Winters, Bradford

    2010-04-01

    Most reports of Rapid Response Systems (RRS) focus on the efferent, response component of the system, although evidence suggests that improved vital sign monitoring and recognition of a clinical crisis may have outcome benefits. There is no consensus regarding how best to detect patient deterioration or a clear description of what constitutes patient monitoring. A consensus conference of international experts in safety, RRS, healthcare technology, education, and risk prediction was convened to review current knowledge and opinion on clinical monitoring. Using established consensus procedures, four topic areas were addressed: (1) To what extent do physiologic abnormalities predict risk for patient deterioration? (2) Do workload changes and their potential stresses on the healthcare environment increase patient risk in a predictable manner? (3) What are the characteristics of an "ideal" monitoring system, and to what extent does currently available technology meet this need? and (4) How can monitoring be categorized to facilitate comparing systems? The major findings include: (1) vital sign aberrations predict risk, (2) monitoring patients more effectively may improve outcome, although some risk is random, (3) the workload implications of monitoring on the clinical workforce have not been explored, but are amenable to study and should be investigated, (4) the characteristics of an ideal monitoring system are identifiable, and it is possible to categorize monitoring modalities. It may also be possible to describe monitoring levels, and a system is proposed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A study of rapid engine response systems for an advanced high subsonic, long range commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, J. H.; Bennett, G. W.; Derosier, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    A dynamic model representing the characteristics of an advanced technology study engine (1985 certification time period) was constructed and programmed on an analogue/digital computer. This model was then exercised to study and evaluate a large number of techniques, singly and in combination, to improve engine response. Several effective methods to reduce engine accelerating time are identified.

  3. 'Score to Door Time', a benchmarking tool for rapid response systems: a pilot multi-centre service evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Rapid Response Systems were created to minimise delays in recognition and treatment of deteriorating patients on general wards. Physiological 'track and trigger' systems are used to alert a team with critical care skills to stabilise patients and expedite admission to intensive care units. No benchmarking tool exists to facilitate comparison for quality assurance. This study was designed to create and test a tool to analyse the efficiency of intensive care admission processes. Methods We conducted a pilot multicentre service evaluation of patients admitted to 17 intensive care units from the United Kingdom, Ireland, Denmark, United States of America and Australia. Physiological abnormalities were recorded via a standardised track and trigger score (VitalPAC™ Early Warning Score). The period between the time of initial physiological abnormality (Score) and admission to intensive care (Door) was recorded as 'Score to Door Time'. Participants subsequently suggested causes for admission delays. Results Score to Door Time for 177 admissions was a median of 4:10 hours (interquartile range (IQR) 1:49 to 9:10). Time from physiological trigger to activation of a Rapid Response System was a median 0:47 hours (IQR 0:00 to 2:15). Time from call-out to intensive care admission was a median of 2:45 hours (IQR 1:19 to 6:32). A total of 127 (71%) admissions were deemed to have been delayed. Stepwise linear regression analysis yielded three significant predictors of longer Score to Door Time: being treated in a British centre, higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and increasing age. Binary regression analysis demonstrated a significant association (P < 0.045) of APACHE II scores >20 with Score to Door Times greater than the median 4:10 hours. Conclusions Score to Door Time seemed to be largely independent of illness severity and, when combined with qualitative feedback from centres, suggests that admission delays could be due to

  4. 'Score to Door Time', a benchmarking tool for rapid response systems: a pilot multi-centre service evaluation.

    PubMed

    Oglesby, Kieran J; Durham, Lesley; Welch, John; Subbe, Christian P

    2011-07-27

    Rapid Response Systems were created to minimise delays in recognition and treatment of deteriorating patients on general wards. Physiological 'track and trigger' systems are used to alert a team with critical care skills to stabilise patients and expedite admission to intensive care units. No benchmarking tool exists to facilitate comparison for quality assurance. This study was designed to create and test a tool to analyse the efficiency of intensive care admission processes. We conducted a pilot multicentre service evaluation of patients admitted to 17 intensive care units from the United Kingdom, Ireland, Denmark, United States of America and Australia. Physiological abnormalities were recorded via a standardised track and trigger score (VitalPAC™ Early Warning Score). The period between the time of initial physiological abnormality (Score) and admission to intensive care (Door) was recorded as 'Score to Door Time'. Participants subsequently suggested causes for admission delays. Score to Door Time for 177 admissions was a median of 4:10 hours (interquartile range (IQR) 1:49 to 9:10). Time from physiological trigger to activation of a Rapid Response System was a median 0:47 hours (IQR 0:00 to 2:15). Time from call-out to intensive care admission was a median of 2:45 hours (IQR 1:19 to 6:32). A total of 127 (71%) admissions were deemed to have been delayed. Stepwise linear regression analysis yielded three significant predictors of longer Score to Door Time: being treated in a British centre, higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and increasing age. Binary regression analysis demonstrated a significant association (P < 0.045) of APACHE II scores >20 with Score to Door Times greater than the median 4:10 hours. Score to Door Time seemed to be largely independent of illness severity and, when combined with qualitative feedback from centres, suggests that admission delays could be due to organisational issues, rather than patient

  5. Sensibility Study of St Andrew Bay Rapid Response System for Naval Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    But because rain can be significant in St Andrew Bay system, Florida, fresh water, even when rivers lack, is a prevailing salinity regulator through...significant in St Andrew Bay system, Florida, fresh water, even when rivers lack, is a prevailing salinity regulator through ground seepage. Therefore...

  6. Strategies for rapid global earthquake impact estimation: the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the state-of-the-art for rapid earthquake impact estimation. It details the needs and challenges associated with quick estimation of earthquake losses following global earthquakes, and provides a brief literature review of various approaches that have been used in the past. With this background, the chapter introduces the operational earthquake loss estimation system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) known as PAGER (for Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response). It also details some of the ongoing developments of PAGER’s loss estimation models to better supplement the operational empirical models, and to produce value-added web content for a variety of PAGER users.

  7. Rapid Assessment Response (RAR) study: drug use, health and systemic risks—Emthonjeni Correctional Centre, Pretoria, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Correctional centre populations are one of the populations most at risk of contracting HIV infection for many reasons, such as unprotected sex, violence, rape and tattooing with contaminated equipment. Specific data on drug users in correctional centres is not available for the majority of countries, including South Africa. The study aimed to identify the attitudes and knowledge of key informant (KI) offender and correctional centre staff regarding drug use, health and systemic-related problems so as to facilitate the long-term planning of activities in the field of drug-use prevention and systems strengthening in correctional centres, including suggestions for the development of appropriate intervention and rehabilitation programmes. Method A Rapid Assessment Response (RAR) methodology was adopted which included observation, mapping of service providers (SP), KI interviews (staff and offenders) and focus groups (FGs). The study was implemented in Emthonjeni Youth Correctional Centre, Pretoria, South Africa. Fifteen KI staff participants were interviewed and 45 KI offenders. Results Drug use is fairly prevalent in the centre, with tobacco most commonly smoked, followed by cannabis and heroin. The banning of tobacco has also led to black-market features such as transactional sex, violence, gangsterism and smuggling in order to obtain mainly prohibited tobacco products, as well as illicit substances. Conclusion HIV, health and systemic-related risk reduction within the Correctional Service sector needs to focus on measures such as improvement of staff capacity and security measures, deregulation of tobacco products and the development and implementation of comprehensive health promotion programmes. PMID:24708609

  8. Rapid Assessment Response (RAR) study: drug use, health and systemic risks--Emthonjeni Correctional Centre, Pretoria, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Monika M L; Trautmann, Franz; Wolvaardt, Gustaaf; Palakatsela, Romeo

    2014-04-03

    Correctional centre populations are one of the populations most at risk of contracting HIV infection for many reasons, such as unprotected sex, violence, rape and tattooing with contaminated equipment. Specific data on drug users in correctional centres is not available for the majority of countries, including South Africa. The study aimed to identify the attitudes and knowledge of key informant (KI) offender and correctional centre staff regarding drug use, health and systemic-related problems so as to facilitate the long-term planning of activities in the field of drug-use prevention and systems strengthening in correctional centres, including suggestions for the development of appropriate intervention and rehabilitation programmes. A Rapid Assessment Response (RAR) methodology was adopted which included observation, mapping of service providers (SP), KI interviews (staff and offenders) and focus groups (FGs). The study was implemented in Emthonjeni Youth Correctional Centre, Pretoria, South Africa. Fifteen KI staff participants were interviewed and 45 KI offenders. Drug use is fairly prevalent in the centre, with tobacco most commonly smoked, followed by cannabis and heroin. The banning of tobacco has also led to black-market features such as transactional sex, violence, gangsterism and smuggling in order to obtain mainly prohibited tobacco products, as well as illicit substances. HIV, health and systemic-related risk reduction within the Correctional Service sector needs to focus on measures such as improvement of staff capacity and security measures, deregulation of tobacco products and the development and implementation of comprehensive health promotion programmes.

  9. Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER): A System for Rapidly Determining the Impact of Earthquakes Worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, Paul S.; Wald, David J.; Jaiswal, Kishor S.; Allen, Trevor I.; Hearne, Michael G.; Marano, Kristin D.; Hotovec, Alicia J.; Fee, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Within minutes of a significant earthquake anywhere on the globe, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system assesses its potential societal impact. PAGER automatically estimates the number of people exposed to severe ground shaking and the shaking intensity at affected cities. Accompanying maps of the epicentral region show the population distribution and estimated ground-shaking intensity. A regionally specific comment describes the inferred vulnerability of the regional building inventory and, when available, lists recent nearby earthquakes and their effects. PAGER's results are posted on the USGS Earthquake Program Web site (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/), consolidated in a concise one-page report, and sent in near real-time to emergency responders, government agencies, and the media. Both rapid and accurate results are obtained through manual and automatic updates of PAGER's content in the hours following significant earthquakes. These updates incorporate the most recent estimates of earthquake location, magnitude, faulting geometry, and first-hand accounts of shaking. PAGER relies on a rich set of earthquake analysis and assessment tools operated by the USGS and contributing Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks. A focused research effort is underway to extend PAGER's near real-time capabilities beyond population exposure to quantitative estimates of fatalities, injuries, and displaced population.

  10. Interagency partnering for weed prevention--progress on development of a National Early Detection and Rapid Response System for Invasive Plants in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, R.; Westbrooks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, experience has shown that interagency groups provide an effective forum for addressing various invasive species issues and challenges on multiple land units. However, more importantly, they can also provide a coordinated framework for early detection, reporting, identification and vouchering, rapid assessment, and rapid response to new and emerging invasive plants in the United States. Interagency collaboration maximizes the use of available expertise, resources, and authority for promoting early detection and rapid response (EDRR) as the preferred management option for addressing new and emerging invasive plants. Currently, an interagency effort is underway to develop a National EDRR System for Invasive Plants in the United States. The proposed system will include structural and informational elements. Structural elements of the system include a network of interagency partner groups to facilitate early detection and rapid response to new invasive plants, including the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), State Invasive Species Councils, State Early Detection and Rapid Response Coordinating Committees, State Volunteer Detection and Reporting Networks, Invasive Plant Task Forces, and Cooperative Weed Management Areas. Informational elements and products being developed include Regional Invasive Plant Atlases, and EDRR Guidelines for EDRR Volunteer Network Training, Rapid Assessment and Rapid Response, and Criteria for Selection of EDRR Species. System science and technical support elements which are provided by cooperating state and federal scientists, include EDRR guidelines, training curriculum for EDRR volunteers and agency field personnel, plant identification and vouchering, rapid assessments, as well as predictive modeling and ecological range studies for invasive plant species.

  11. Early detection and rapid response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, Randy G.; Eplee, Robert E.; Simberloff, Daniel; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Prevention is the first line of defense against introduced invasive species - it is always preferable to prevent the introduction of new invaders into a region or country. However, it is not always possible to detect all alien hitchhikers imported in cargo, or to predict with any degree of certainty which introduced species will become invasive over time. Fortunately, the majority of introduced plants and animals don't become invasive. But, according to scientists at Cornell University, costs and losses due to species that do become invasive are now estimated to be over $137 billion/year in the United States. Early detection and rapid response (EDRR) is the second line of defense against introduced invasive species - EDRR is the preferred management strategy for preventing the establishment and spread of invasive species. Over the past 50 years, there has been a gradual shift away from large and medium scale federal/state single-agency-led weed eradication programs in the United States, to smaller interagency-led projects involving impacted and potential stakeholders. The importance of volunteer weed spotters in detecting and reporting suspected new invasive species has also been recognized in recent years.

  12. Excessive Cytokine Response to Rapid Proliferation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Leads to Fatal Systemic Capillary Leakage in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kuribayashi, Saya; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Naoki; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Isoda, Norikazu; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Sunden, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi; Nakajima, Noriko; Hasegawa, Hideki; Kida, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) cause lethal infection in chickens. Severe cases of HPAIV infections have been also reported in mammals, including humans. In both mammals and birds, the relationship between host cytokine response to the infection with HPAIVs and lethal outcome has not been well understood. In the present study, the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses A/turkey/Italy/4580/1999 (H7N1) (Ty/Italy) and A/chicken/Netherlands/2586/2003 (H7N7) (Ck/NL) and the low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2) (Ck/Ibaraki) were intranasally inoculated into chickens. Ty/Italy replicated more extensively than Ck/NL in systemic tissues of the chickens, especially in the brain, and induced excessive mRNA expression of inflammatory and antiviral cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-α) in proportion to its proliferation. Using in situ hybridization, IL-6 mRNA was detected mainly in microglial nodules in the brain of the chickens infected with Ty/Italy. Capillary leakage assessed by Evans blue staining was observed in multiple organs, especially in the brains of the chickens infected with Ty/Italy, and was not observed in those infected with Ck/NL. In contrast, LPAIV caused only local infection in the chickens, with neither apparent cytokine expression nor capillary leakage in any tissue of the chickens. The present results indicate that an excessive cytokine response is induced by rapid and extensive proliferation of HPAIV and causes fatal multiple organ failure in chickens. PMID:23874602

  13. Rapid Data Delivery System (RDDS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cress, Jill J.; Goplen, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Since the start of the active 2000 summer fire season, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) has been actively engaged in providing crucial and timely support to Federal, State, and local natural hazards monitoring, analysis, response, and recovery activities. As part of this support, RMGSC has developed the Rapid Data Delivery System (RDDS) to provide emergency and incident response teams with timely access to geospatial data. The RDDS meets these needs by combining a simple web-enabled data viewer for the selection and preview of vector and raster geospatial data with an easy to use data ordering form. The RDDS viewer also incorporates geospatial locations for current natural hazard incidents, including wildfires, earthquakes, hurricanes, and volcanoes, allowing incident responders to quickly focus on their area of interest for data selection.

  14. Differences in the Clinical Characteristics of Rapid Response System Activation in Patients Admitted to Medical or Surgical Services

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Variability in rapid response system (RRS) characteristics based on the admitted wards is unknown. We aimed to compare differences in the clinical characteristics of RRS activation between patients admitted to medical versus surgical services. We reviewed patients admitted to the hospital who were detected by the RRS from October 2012 to February 2014 at a tertiary care academic hospital. We compared the triggers for RRS activation, interventions performed, and outcomes of the 2 patient groups. The RRS was activated for 460 patients, and the activation rate was almost 2.3 times higher for surgical services than that for medical services (70% vs. 30%). The triggers for RRS activation significantly differed between patient groups (P = 0.001). They included abnormal values for the respiratory rate (23.2%) and blood gas analysis (20.3%), and low blood pressure (18.8%) in the medical group; and low blood pressure (32.0%), low oxygen saturation (20.8%), and an abnormal heart rate (17.7%) in the surgical group. Patients were more likely classified as do not resuscitate or required intensive care unit admission in the medical group compared to those in the surgical group (65.3% vs. 54.7%, P = 0.045). In multivariate analysis, whether the patient belongs to medical services was found to be an independent predictor of mortality after adjusting for the modified early warning score, Charlson comorbidity index, and intervention performed by the RRS team. Our data suggest that RRS triggers, interventions, and outcomes greatly differ between patient groups. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of an RRS approach tailored to specific patient groups. PMID:28244298

  15. The habitus of 'rescue' and its significance for implementation of rapid response systems in acute health care.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Nicola; Humphrey, Charlotte; Sandall, Jane

    2014-11-01

    The need to focus on patient safety and improve the quality and consistency of medical care in acute hospital settings has been highlighted in a number of UK and international reports. When patients on a hospital ward become acutely unwell there is often a window of opportunity for staff, patients and relatives to contribute to the 'rescue' process by intervening in the trajectory of clinical deterioration. This paper explores the social and institutional processes associated with the practice of rescue, and implications for the implementation and effectiveness of rapid response systems (RRSs) within acute health care. An ethnographic case study was conducted in 2009 in two UK hospitals (focussing on the medical directorates in each organisation). Data collection involved 180 h of observation, 35 staff interviews (doctors, nurses, health care assistants and managers) and documentary review. Analysis was informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice and his relational concept of the 'field' of the general medical ward. Three themes illustrated the nature of rescue work within the field and collective rules which guided associated occupational distinction practices: (1) the 'dirty work' of vital sign recording and its distinction from diagnostic (higher order) interpretive work; (2) the moral order of legitimacy claims for additional help; and (3) professional deference and the selective managerial control of rescue work. The discourse of rescue provided a means of exercising greater control over clinical uncertainty. The acquisition of 'rescue capital' enabled the social positioning of health care assistants, nurses and doctors, and shaped use of the RRS on the wards. Boundary work, professional legitimation and jurisdictional claims defined the social practice of rescue, as clinical staff had to balance safety, professional and organisational concerns within the field. This paper offers a nuanced understanding of patient safety on the front-line, challenging notions of

  16. Optical coherence tomography captures rapid hemodynamic responses to acute hypoxia in the cardiovascular system of early embryos.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shi; Jenkins, Michael W; Peterson, Lindsy M; Doughman, Yong-Qiu; Rollins, Andrew M; Watanabe, Michiko

    2012-03-01

    The trajectory to heart defects may start in tubular and looping heart stages when detailed analysis of form and function is difficult by currently available methods. We used a novel method, Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT), to follow changes in cardiovascular function in quail embryos during acute hypoxic stress. Chronic fetal hypoxia is a known risk factor for congenital heart diseases (CHDs). Decreased fetal heart rates during maternal obstructive sleep apnea suggest that studying fetal heart responses under acute hypoxia is warranted. We captured responses to hypoxia at the critical looping heart stages. Doppler OCT revealed detailed vitelline arterial pulsed Doppler waveforms. Embryos tolerated 1 hr of hypoxia (5%, 10%, or 15% O(2) ), but exhibited changes including decreased systolic and increased diastolic duration in 5 min. After 5 min, slower heart rates, arrhythmic events and an increase in retrograde blood flow were observed. These changes suggested slower filling of the heart, which was confirmed by four-dimensional Doppler imaging of the heart itself. Doppler OCT is well suited for rapid noninvasive screening for functional changes in avian embryos under near physiological conditions. Analysis of the accessible vitelline artery sensitively reflected changes in heart function and can be used for rapid screening. Acute hypoxia caused rapid hemodynamic changes in looping hearts and may be a concern for increased CHD risk. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  18. Rapid Response Teams: Policy Implications and Recommendations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Stolldorf, Deonni

    2008-07-01

    Health care organizations are continually challenged with improving the safety of and the quality of care delivered to patients. Research studies often bring to the forefront interventions that health care organizations may choose to institute in an effort to provide evidence-based, quality care. Rapid response teams are one such intervention. Rapid response teams were introduced by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement as part of their "100,000 Lives" Campaign. Rapid response teams are one initiative health care organizations can implement in an effort to improve the quality of care delivered to patients. This article uses Donabedian's model of structure, process, and outcomes to discuss the United States health care systems, rapid response teams, and the outcomes of rapid response teams. National and organizational policy implications associated with rapid response teams are discussed and recommendations made for future research.

  19. Rapid response teams seen through the eyes of the nurse.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Susan E; Donaldson, Nancy E; Scott, Mary B

    2010-06-01

    This article reports on the findings of an evaluation project that explored the impact of rapid response teams from the perspective of the nurses who use them-to give voice to the experience of nurses. Interviews with 56 staff nurses were analyzed, using thematic analysis, to describe the impact of rapid response teams on staff nurses' practice; the nurses' perspectives on what constitutes a successful rapid response team; their experiences before, during, and after activating a rapid response team; and the challenges they encountered when rapid response teams were used. Nurses described rapid response teams as quickly bringing needed resources to patients and, when necessary, facilitating patients' transfer to ICUs. They especially appreciated the ability to gather these resources with a single phone call. Nurses also expressed profound relief that rapid response teams were available to expedite patient care; this was so important that some stated they wouldn't work in a facility that didn't have a rapid response team. Successful rapid response systems were described as those in which nurses activated the team without hesitation when they felt it was needed. Challenges to successful use of rapid response teams included mixed messages from leadership about when to activate the team and the need for nurses who were themselves on a rapid response team to leave their patients in order to respond to an activation. Despite some limitations, this evaluation provides much-needed insight into the effects of rapid response teams on nurses' work environment. Further research is needed to explicate how having a successful rapid response team influences nurse recruitment and retention, as well as how such teams affect patient outcomes.

  20. A Spatial Correlation Model of Peak Ground Acceleration and Response Spectra Based on Data of the Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, Thomas; Goda, Katsuichiro; Erdik, Mustafa; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    Ground motion intensity measures such as the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and the pseudo spectral acceleration (PSA) at two sites due to the same seismic event are correlated. The spatial correlation needs to be considered when modelling ground-motion fields for seismic loss assessments, since it can have a significant influence on the statistical moments and probability distribution of aggregated seismic loss of a building portfolio. Empirical models of spatial correlation of ground motion intensity measures exist only for a few seismic regions in the world such as Japan, Taiwan and California, since for this purpose a dense observation network of earthquake ground motion is required. The Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System (IERREWS) provides one such dense array with station spacing of typically 2 km in the urban area of Istanbul. Based on the records of eight small to moderate (Mw3.5 - Mw5.1) events, which occurred since 2003 in the Marmara region, we establish a model of intra-event spatial correlation for PGA and PSA up to the natural period of 1.0 s. The results indicate that the correlation coefficients of PGA and short-period PSA decay rapidly with increasing interstation distance, resulting in correlation lengths of approximately 2-3 km, while correlation lengths at longer natural periods (above 0.5 s) exceed 5 km. Finally, we implement the correlation model in a Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate economic loss in Istanbul's district Zeytinburnu due to an Mw7.2 scenario earthquake.

  1. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  2. Rapidly Deployed Modular Telemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a telemetry system, and more specifically is a rapidly deployed modular telemetry apparatus which utilizes of SDR technology and the FPGA programming capability to reduce the number of hardware components and programming required to deploy a telemetry system.

  3. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1998-02-10

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies have to be able to respond quickly with improved, high quality, cost efficient products. Because companies and their suppliers are geographically distributed, rapid product realization is dependent on the development of a secure integrated concurrent engineering environment operating across multiple business entities. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies implemented in a secure environment. This documents the work done under this CRADA to develop capabilities, which permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), through a CRADA with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), worked within a consortium of major industrial firms--Ford, General Motors, Texas Instruments, United Technologies, and Eastman Kodak--and several small suppliers of advanced manufacturing technology--MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., Teknowledge Corp., Cimplex Corp., Concentra, Spatial Technology, and Structural Dynamics Research Corp. (SDRC)--to create infrastructure to support the development and implementation of secure engineering environments for Rapid Response Manufacturing. The major accomplishment achieved under this CRADA was the demonstration of a prototypical implementation of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined parts in a secure NWC compliant environment. Specifically, methods needed to permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process were developed and demonstrated. An important aspect of this demonstration was

  4. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood.

  5. A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-15

    A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System Gareth R. Thomas1 and Bernard J. Sia2 1ATA Engineering, 11995 El Camino Real, San Diego, CA 92130; PH (858) 480...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) ATA Engineering,11995 El Camino Real,San Diego,CA,92130 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  6. Rapid Response Reforestation: Studies in Fire Restoration

    Treesearch

    Robin Rose; Diane L. Haase

    2005-01-01

    The Nursery Technology Cooperative has been conducting projects to examine forest seedling quality and reforestation success in the Pacific Northwest for more than 20 years. Because of the large wildfires in recent years, there is a growing interest in studying reforestation strategies for optimum restoration following a fire. We have developed 2 “Rapid Response...

  7. Blackbody cavity radiometer has rapid response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, F. C.

    1966-01-01

    Fast response, spectrally linear standard detector in the form of a blackbody cavity radiometer calibrates rapidly responding photodetectors against a calibrated standard detector. A power amplifier with maximum available gain reduces error signal without stability loss. It may be used as a blackbody radiator by manipulation of the bridge variable arm.

  8. Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles and the California Current System: Planktonic foraminiferal response to rapid climate change in Santa Barbara Basin, Ocean Drilling Program Hole 893A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendy, Ingrid L.; Kennett, James P.

    2000-02-01

    High-resolution planktonic foraminiferal census data from Santa Barbara Basin (Ocean Drilling Program hole 893A) demonstrate major assemblage switches between 25 and 60 ka that were associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles. Stadials dominated by Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral), and Globigerinoides glutinata suggest a strong subpolar California Current influence, while interstadials marked by abundant N. pachyderma (dextral) and G. bulloides indicate a relative increase in subtropical countercurrent influence. Modern analog technique and transfer function (F-20RSC) temperature reconstructions support δ18O evidence of large rapid (70 years or less) sea surface temperature shifts (3° to 5°C) between stadials and interstadials. Changes in the vertical temperature gradient and water column structure (thermocline depth) are recorded by planktonic faunal oscillations suggest bimodal stability in the organization of North Pacific surface ocean circulation. Santa Barbara Basin surface water demonstrates the rapid response of the California Current System to reorganization of North Pacific atmospheric circulation during rapid climate change. Supporting assemblage data are, available on diskette or via Anonymous FTP from Kosmos.agu.org, Directory APEND (username = anonymous, Password = guest). Diskette may be ordered from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by phone at 800-966-2481; $5.00. Payment must accompany order.

  9. Rapid GRB Afterglow Response With SARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, K. V.; Homewood, A. L.; Hartmann, D. H.; Riddle, C.; Fuller, S.; Manning, A.; McIntyre, T.; Henson, G.

    2006-05-01

    The Clemson GRB Follow-Up program utilizes the SARA 0.9-m telescope to observe optical afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts. SARA is not yet robotic; it operates under direct and Target-of-Opportunity (ToO) interrupt modes. To facilitate rapid response and timely reporting of data analysis results, we developed a software suite that operates in two phases: first, to notify observers of a burst and assist in data collection, and second, to quickly analyze the images.

  10. Rapid cooling after acute hyperthermia alters intestinal tissue morphology and increases the systemic inflammatory response in pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Acute hyperthermia can result in mortality if recovery is not appropriately managed. The study objective was to determine the effects of heatstroke recovery methods on the physiological response in pigs. In four repetitions, 36 male pigs (88.7 ± 1.6 kg BW) were exposed to thermoneutral conditions (T...

  11. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  12. Systemic short-chain fatty acids rapidly alter gastrointestinal structure, function, and expression of early response genes.

    PubMed

    Tappenden, K A; McBurney, M I

    1998-07-01

    Luminal and systemic short chain fatty acids (SCFA) stimulate mucosal proliferation but the mechanism(s) is unclear. This study examined acute effects of systemic SCFAs on gastrointestinal structure and function and signals potentially mediating SCFA-induced mucosal proliferation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (246+/-2 g) received nutrients as either standard total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or an isoenergetic, isonitrogenous formulation containing SCFAs (TPN + SCFA). Animals were randomized to one of five treatments: standard TPN for 72 hr, TPN + SCFA for 72 hr, or standard TPN followed by TPN + SCFA for the final 6, 12, and 24 hr. SCFAs reduced (P < 0.003) ileal protein within 6 hr. Jejunal GLUT2 expression was increased (P=0.0001) in all SCFA groups and ileal GLUT2 protein in the 6-, 12-, and 24-hr SCFA groups (P < 0.05). SCFAs increased (P < 0.003) ileal proglucagon abundance following 6, 12, and 24 hr, and plasma GLP-2 concentration following 12 hr (P < 0.03). Jejunal c-myc expression was increased (P < 0.001) following 6, 12, and 24 hr of SCFAs. SCFAs increased ileal c-myc, c-jun, and c-fos expression following 24 hr (P < 0.02), 12 hr (P < 0.05) and 6, 12, and 24 hr (P=0.0001), respectively. In conclusion, systemic SCFAs increase plasma GLP-2 and ileal proglucagon mRNA, GLUT2 expression and protein, and c-myc, c-jun, and c-fos expression.

  13. Creative education for rapid response team implementation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    The Institute for Healthcare Improvement advocates implementation of rapid response teams (RRTs) to bring experts to the bedside to assist with patient assessment and treatment. Due to shrinking budgets and limited resources, initiating new programs and policies can be challenging in the health care environment. This article highlights a creative approach that a community hospital used to provide staff education during the RRT implementation process. This education plan includes a review of learning considerations, creation of a video, and other strategies that could be used by staff development educators for a variety of other topics.

  14. N-myristoylated proteins, key components in intracellular signal transduction systems enabling rapid and flexible cell responses

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHI, Nobuhiro; TITANI, Koiti

    2010-01-01

    N-myristoylation, one of the co- or post-translational modifications of proteins, has so far been regarded as necessary for anchoring of proteins to membranes. Recently, we have revealed that Nα-myristoylation of several brain proteins unambiguously regulates certain protein–protein interactions that may affect signaling pathways in brain. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of myristoylated proteins including those in other organs suggests that this regulation is involved in signaling pathways not only in brain but also in other organs. Thus, it has been shown that myristoylated proteins in cells regulate the signal transduction between membranes and cytoplasmic fractions. An algorithm we have developed to identify myristoylated proteins in cells predicts the presence of hundreds of myristoylated proteins. Interestingly, a large portion of the myristoylated proteins thought to take part in signal transduction between membranes and cytoplasmic fractions are included in the predicted myristoylated proteins. If the proteins functionally regulated by myristoylation, a posttranslational protein modification, were understood as cross-talk points within the intracellular signal transduction system, known signaling pathways could thus be linked to each other, and a novel map of this intracellular network could be constructed. On the basis of our recent results, this review will highlight the multifunctional aspects of protein N-myristoylation in brain. PMID:20467215

  15. Response of a coastal hydrogeological system to a rapid decline in sea level; the case of Zuqim springs - The largest discharge area along the Dead Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burg, Avihu; Yechieli, Yoseph; Galili, Udi

    2016-05-01

    The almost instantaneous response of a natural on-shore groundwater system to an extremely rapid drop in the level of an adjacent lake is described in this study. The study is focused on the Zuqim (Feshcha) spring complex located on the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, which exhibits a drop of tens of meters in its water level over the last few decades. In this exceptional "field lab", fluctuations and trends in the flow regime are recognized, as well as the contemporaneous geochemical variations. Lithological facies variations have a pronounced effect on the underground flow regime. The following main processes were recognized: (a) slight shifting of the long-standing springs eastward, following the retreating shore; (b) extension of the hydrologic system southward without significant change in the total discharge of the entire spring complex. The new seepages are characterized by high variability in salinity; and (c) continuous refreshing of the spring water as a result of prolonged flushing of old trapped brines. The water of the Zuqim springs lie on mixing lines between two local brine types and diluted brine of the Lisan Lake - the precursor of the Dead Sea. Based on our findings, future development processes in the spring complex are predicted, which is essential because of their impact on the endemic ecosystem that relies on this water. In addition, continuation of the rapid drop in lake level is expected to cause intensification of erosional processes, such as deepening of flow gullies. Shifting of the entire hydrological system southward and migration along with the retreating shore is also expected to continue, as well as the continuous decrease in the water salinity.

  16. Standardized measurement of the Modified Early Warning Score results in enhanced implementation of a Rapid Response System: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ludikhuize, Jeroen; Borgert, Marjon; Binnekade, Jan; Subbe, Christian; Dongelmans, Dave; Goossens, Astrid

    2014-05-01

    To study the effect of protocolized measurement (three times daily) of the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) versus measurement on indication on the degree of implementation of the Rapid Response System (RRS). A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a University Hospital in Amsterdam between September and November 2011. Patients who were admitted for at least one overnight stay were included. Wards were randomized to measure the MEWS three times daily ("protocolized") versus measuring the MEWS "when clinically indicated" in the control group. At the end of each month, for an entire seven-day week, all vital signs recorded for patients were registered. The outcomes were categorized into process measures including the degree of implementation and compliance to set monitoring standards and secondly, outcomes such as the degree of delay in physician notification and Rapid Response Team (RRT) activation in patients with raised MEWS (MEWS≥3). MEWS calculations from vital signs occurred in 70% (2513/3585) on the protocolized wards versus 2% (65/3013) in the control group. Compliance with the protocolized regime was presents in 68% (819/1205), compliance in the control group was present in 4% (47/1232) of the measurements. There were 90 calls to primary physicians on the protocolized and 9 calls on the control wards. Additionally on protocolized wards, there were twice as much RRT calls per admission. Vital signs and MEWS determination three times daily, results in better detection of physiological abnormalities and more reliable activations of the RRT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid response oxygen-sensing nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ruipeng; Behera, Prajna; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Lannutti, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular oxygen has profound effects on cell and tissue viability. Relevant sensor forms that can rapidly determine dissolved oxygen levels under biologically relevant conditions provide critical metabolic information. Using 0.5 μm diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber containing an oxygen-sensitive probe, tris (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride, we observed a response time of 0.9±0.12 seconds – 4–10 times faster than previous reports – while the t95 for the corresponding film was more than two orders of magnitude greater. Interestingly, the response and recovery times of slightly larger diameter PCL fibers were 1.79±0.23 s and 2.29±0.13 s, respectively, while the recovery time was not statistically different likely due to the more limited interactions of nitrogen with the polymer matrix. A more than 10-fold increase in PCL fiber diameter reduces oxygen sensitivity while having minor effects on response time; conversely, decreases in fiber diameter to less than 0.5 μm would likely decrease response times even further. In addition, a 50°C heat treatment of the electrospun fiber resulted in both increased Stern-Volmer slope and linearity likely due to secondary recrystallization that further homogenized the probe microenvironment. At exposure times up to 3600 s in length, photobleaching was observed but was largely eliminated by the use of either polyethersulfone (PES) or a PES-PCL core-shell composition. However, this resulted in 2- and 3-fold slower response times. Finally, even the non-core shell compositions containing the Ru oxygen probe result in no apparent cytotoxicity in representative glioblastoma cell populations. PMID:23706233

  18. (Fuel efficient rapid response water heating module)

    SciTech Connect

    Ripka, C.D.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a fuel efficient rapid response water heating module. It comprises: a water heating tank; a burner cavity disposed within the water heating tank; a burner disposed within the burner cavity; means for supplying a mixture of fuel and air to the burner; preheater jacket means, surrounding the water heating tank; flue means disposed within the water heating tank forming a path for the transfer of combustion gases from the burner cavity to the preheater jacket means; means for supplying cold water to the module; outlet means for providing service hot water from the module; preheater means disposed within the preheater jacket means both to preheat water coming into the module from the cold water supply means and to condense combustion gases within the jacket means; means for transferring preheated water from the preheater jacket means to the water heating tank; means, in flow communication with the preheater jacket means, for draining condensate from the preheater jacket means; and means for causing a flow of the fuel and air mixture to the burner and for causing a flow of combustion gases from the burner cavity, through the flue means and through the preheater jacket means to the atmosphere.

  19. Principles of Rapid Acquisition and Systems Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    PRINCIPLES OF RAPID ACQUISITION AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Jennifer...United States Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. ii PRINCIPLES OF RAPID ACQUISITION AND SYSTEMS...Major, USAF June 2012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED iii PRINCIPLES

  20. Rapid response of thermo-sensitive hydrogels with porous structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Shingo; Kato, Terukazu; Kogure, Hikaru; Hosoya, Naoki

    2015-04-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAAm) hydrogel is thermo-sensitive, and undergoes a volume phase transition from a swollen state to a shrunken state. Typically, after immersing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels into hot water above the critical temperature, they undergo a two-step shrinking process, which leads to very slow dynamics. However, potential applications, including soft actuators, drug delivery systems, and cell cultures, demand a quick response. Herein, we synthesize chemically crosslinked PNIPAAm porous hydrogels made of nanofiber mats. Our hydrogels rapidly shrink without the two-step shrinking. The response of this porous gel is over 100 times faster than that of the typical gel.

  1. 3D printed rapid disaster response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Mottern, Edward; Corley, Katrina; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2014-05-01

    Under the Department of Homeland Security-sponsored Sensor-smart Affordable Autonomous Robotic Platforms (SAARP) project, Robotic Research, LLC is developing an affordable and adaptable method to provide disaster response robots developed with 3D printer technology. The SAARP Store contains a library of robots, a developer storefront, and a user storefront. The SAARP Store allows the user to select, print, assemble, and operate the robot. In addition to the SAARP Store, two platforms are currently being developed. They use a set of common non-printed components that will allow the later design of other platforms that share non-printed components. During disasters, new challenges are faced that require customized tools or platforms. Instead of prebuilt and prepositioned supplies, a library of validated robots will be catalogued to satisfy various challenges at the scene. 3D printing components will allow these customized tools to be deployed in a fraction of the time that would normally be required. While the current system is focused on supporting disaster response personnel, this system will be expandable to a range of customers, including domestic law enforcement, the armed services, universities, and research facilities.

  2. Hospitalized Patients at High Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Have More Rapid Response System Events and Intervention Is Associated with Reduced Events

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Chowdhury, Anindita; Tang, Lili; Willes, Leslee; Glynn, Brian; Quan, Stuart F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid response system (RRS) is a safety tool designed for early detection and intervention of a deteriorating patient on the general floor in the hospital. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with significant cardiovascular complications. We hypothesized that patients with high-risk of OSA have higher rate of RRS events and intervention with positive airway pressure therapy in these patients can mitigate the RRS events. Methods As part of a clinical pathway, during a 15 month period, patients with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 in select medical services were screened with a validated sleep questionnaire. Patients were characterized as high or low risk based on the screening questionnaire. RRS rates were compared between the groups. Subsequently the impact of PAP therapy on RRS events was evaluated. Results Out of the 2,590 patients screened, 1,973 (76%) were identified as high-risk. RRS rates calculated per 1,000 admissions, were 43.60 in the High-Risk OSA group versus 25.91 in the Low-Risk OSA Group. The PAP therapy compliant group had significantly reduced RRS event rates compared to non-compliant group and group with no PAP therapy (16.99 vs. 53.40 vs. 56.21) (p < 0.01). Conclusion In a large cohort of patients at a tertiary care hospital, we show an association of increased rate of RRS events in high-risk OSA patients and reduction of the risk with PAP intervention in the compliant group. PMID:27168330

  3. Characteristics and outcomes of pediatric rapid response teams before and after mandatory triggering by an elevated Pediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) score.

    PubMed

    Panesar, Rahul; Polikoff, Lee A; Harris, David; Mills, Barbara; Messina, Catherine; Parker, Margaret M

    2014-05-01

    The Pediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) was created to identify unstable patients before their deterioration. Rapid response teams (RRTs) were developed to assist with management of such patients. In 2009, our institution mandated the activation of RRTs if a PEWS score was elevated (ie, ≥5). The goal of this study was to examine changes in characteristics of RRT calls before and after the implementation of a mandatory hospital policy requiring RRT activation due to an elevated PEWS score. This study was a retrospective database review, with RRT data from June 2007 to December 2010 examined. A total of 44 RRTs were recorded before mandatory triggering and 69 RRTs afterward in the study period (P = .32). Compared with the premandatory group, the mandatory triggering group found that tachycardia was a more frequent trigger for RRTs, with an increase of 26.1% (P = .004). RRTs triggered by a change in mental status/agitation decreased by 22.9% (P = .009). An increase of 15.1% of RRTs required no interventions with mandatory triggering. Nighttime RRTs increased by17.5% (P = .07). There was a trend toward decreased PICU transfers in the mandatory triggering group, with no significant change in code blue calls. A hospital policy of mandating RRT activation based on PEWS scores increased nighttime calls and altered the primary reasons for RRT activation in our center, with no evidence of improvements in patient care. These findings should be interpreted with caution given the relatively rare outcomes the policy is intended to prevent; however, our findings highlight the difficulties inherent in evaluating methods to improve pediatric patient safety.

  4. Rapidly Customizable Spoken Dialogue Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-28

    Human-Centered Computing , Language Models, Domain-independent grammar 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT u c. THIS PAGE u...many applications, including dialogue-based human- computer interfaces to intelligent systems/agents, tutoring and advice-giving systems, systems...variety of ex- ternal resources. We built a subsystem for unknown word lookup that accesses lexical resources such as Wordnet (Miller, 1995) and Comlex

  5. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  6. Strengthening the afferent limb of rapid response systems: an educational intervention using web-based learning for early recognition and responding to deteriorating patients.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Sok Ying; Wong, Lai Fun; Ang, Sophia Bee Leng; Ho, Jasmine Tze Yin; Siau, Chiang; Ang, Emily Neo Kim

    2016-06-01

    The timely recognition and response to patients with clinical deteriorations constitute the afferent limb failure of a rapid response system (RRS). This area is a persistent problem in acute healthcare settings worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the effect of an educational programme on improving the nurses' knowledge and performances in recognising and responding to clinical deterioration. The interactive web-based programme addressed three areas: (1) early detection of changes in vital signs; (2) performance of nursing assessment and interventions using airway, breathing, circulation, disability and expose/examine and (3) reporting clinical deterioration using identity, situation, background, assessment and recommendation. Sixty-seven registered nurses participated in the randomised control study. The experimental group underwent a 3 h programme while the control group received no intervention. Pretests and post-tests, a mannequin-based assessment and a multiple-choice knowledge questionnaire were conducted. We evaluated the participants' performances in assessing, managing and reporting the deterioration of a patient using a validated performance tool. A significantly higher number of nurses from the experimental group than the control group monitored respiratory rates (48.2% vs 25%, p<0.05) and pulse rates (74.3% vs 37.5%, p<0.01) in the simulated environment, after the intervention. The post-test mean scores of the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group for knowledge (21.29 vs 18.28, p<0.001), performance in assessing and managing clinical deterioration (25.83 vs 19.50, p<0.001) and reporting clinical deterioration (12.83 vs 10.97, p<0.001). A web-based educational programme developed for hospital nurses to strengthen the afferent limb of the RRS significantly increased their knowledge and performances in assessing, managing and reporting clinical deterioration. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  7. Rapid response learning of brand logo priming: Evidence that brand priming is not dominated by rapid response learning.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Stephan G; Smith, Ciaran; Muench, Niklas; Noble, Kirsty; Atherton, Catherine

    2017-08-31

    Repetition priming increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Repetition priming can result from two complementary sources: rapid response learning and facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks. In conceptual classification tasks, rapid response learning dominates priming of object recognition, but it does not dominate priming of person recognition. This suggests that the relative engagement of network facilitation and rapid response learning depends on the stimulus domain. Here, we addressed the importance of the stimulus domain for rapid response learning by investigating priming in another domain, brands. In three experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions for brand logos. Strong priming was present, but it was not dominated by rapid response learning. These findings add further support to the importance of the stimulus domain for the relative importance of network facilitation and rapid response learning, and they indicate that brand priming is more similar to person recognition priming than object recognition priming, perhaps because priming of both brands and persons requires individuation.

  8. Rapid response radiation sensors for homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul

    2014-09-01

    The National Security Technologies, LLC, Remote Sensing Laboratory is developing a rapid response radiation detection system for homeland security field applications. The intelligence-driven system is deployed only when non-radiological information about the target is verifiable. The survey area is often limited, so the detection range is small; in most cases covering a distance of 10 meters or less suffices. Definitive response is required in no more than 3 seconds and should minimize false negative alarms, but can err on the side of positive false alarms. The detection system is rapidly reconfigurable in terms of size, shape, and outer appearance; it is a plug-and-play system. Multiple radiation detection components (viz., two or more sodium iodide scintillators) are used to independently "over-determine" the existence of the threat object. Rapid response electronic dose rate meters are also included in the equipment suite. Carefully studied threat signatures are the basis of the decision making. The use of Rad-Detect predictive modeling provides information on the nature of the threat object. Rad-Detect provides accurate dose rate from heavily shielded large sources; for example those lost in Mexico were Category 1 radiation sources (~3,000 Ci of 60Co), the most dangerous of five categories defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Taken out of their shielding containers, Category 1 sources can kill anyone who is exposed to them at close range for a few minutes to an hour. Whenever possible sub-second data acquisition will be attempted, and, when deployed, the system will be characterized for false alarm rates. Although the radiation detection materials selected are fast (viz., faster scintillators), their speed is secondary to sensitivity, which is of primary importance. Results from these efforts will be discussed and demonstrated.

  9. Rapidly deployable emergency communication system

    DOEpatents

    Gladden, Charles A.; Parelman, Martin H.

    1979-01-01

    A highly versatile, highly portable emergency communication system which permits deployment in a very short time to cover both wide areas and distant isolated areas depending upon mission requirements. The system employs a plurality of lightweight, fully self-contained repeaters which are deployed within the mission area to provide communication between field teams, and between each field team and a mobile communication control center. Each repeater contains a microcomputer controller, the program for which may be changed from the control center by the transmission of digital data within the audible range (300-3,000 Hz). Repeaters are accessed by portable/mobile transceivers, other repeaters, and the control center through the transmission and recognition of digital data code words in the subaudible range.

  10. Sensitivity and rapidity of vegetational response to abrupt climate change.

    PubMed

    Peteet, D

    2000-02-15

    Rapid climate change characterizes numerous terrestrial sediment records during and since the last glaciation. Vegetational response is best expressed in terrestrial records near ecotones, where sensitivity to climate change is greatest, and response times are as short as decades.

  11. Sensitivity and rapidity of vegetational response to abrupt climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, D.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid climate change characterizes numerous terrestrial sediment records during and since the last glaciation. Vegetational response is best expressed in terrestrial records near ecotones, where sensitivity to climate change is greatest, and response times are as short as decades.

  12. Rapid Response to Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, Terence G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response among 108 patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 16-week treatments: fluoxetine, placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus fluoxetine, or CBT plus placebo. Rapid response, defined as 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, was determined…

  13. Rapid Response to Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, Terence G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response among 108 patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 16-week treatments: fluoxetine, placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus fluoxetine, or CBT plus placebo. Rapid response, defined as 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, was determined…

  14. Classroom Evaluation of a Rapid Prototyping System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Stephen A.; Krueger, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces rapid prototyping which creates virtual models through a variety of automated material additive processes. Relates experiences using JP System 5 in freshman and sophomore engineering design graphics courses. Analyzes strengths and limitations of the JP System 5 and discusses how to use it effectively. (Contains 15 references.)…

  15. Rapid response, flow diversion saves wildlife habitat after oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Oil spills can create operational, financial and public relations nightmares for petroleum companies. Fast, effective response in the hours following a spill can minimize the impacts and ensure that biological recovery can proceed without residual effects. Such a rapid, successful response was made to one of California`s largest inland oil spills by ARCO Pipe Line Co., its consultants, Kennedy/Jenks Consultants, and its contractors. The spill occurred about 70 miles north of Los Angeles in a pipeline designed to transport oil to Los angeles-area refineries from the San Joaquin Valley. The pipeline ruptured on April 6, 1993, spraying 6,200 barrels of blended crude oil onto the northbound lanes of a major freeway. The crude oil flowed through the freeway`s stormwater collection system and into a nearby creek. Because response to the spill was rapid and appropriate, all cleanup activities were completed and approved by the California Department of Fish and Game within 21 days of the release. In addition, a sensitive wildlife habitat recovered quickly after floating oil, oil-contaminated soil and vegetation were removed. Follow-up soil and water samples and biological surveys confirmed that plant and animal life had suffered only short-term, localized impacts.

  16. UAS Photogrammetry for Rapid Response Characterization of Subaerial Coastal Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, C.; Anarde, K.; Figlus, J.; Prouse, W.; Bedient, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) provide an exciting new platform for rapid response measurement of subaerial coastal change. Here we validate the use of a coupled hobbyist UAS and optical photogrammetry framework for high-resolution mapping of portions of a low-lying barrier island along the Texas Gulf Coast. A DJI Phantom 3 Professional was used to capture 2D nadir images of the foreshore and back-beach environments containing both vegetated and non-vegetated features. The images were georeferenced using ground-truth markers surveyed via real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS and were then imported into Agisoft Photoscan, a photo-processing software, to generate 3D point clouds and digital elevation maps (DEMs). The georeferenced elevation models were then compared to RTK measurements to evaluate accuracy and precision. Thus far, DEMs derived from UAS photogrammetry show centimeter resolution for renderings of non-vegetated landforms. High-resolution renderings of vegetated and back-barrier regions have proven more difficult due to interstitial wetlands (surface reflectance) and uneven terrain for GPS backpack surveys. In addition to producing high-quality models, UAS photogrammetry has demonstrated to be more time-efficient than traditional mapping methods, making it advantageous for rapid response deployments. This study is part of a larger effort to relate field measurements of storm hydrodynamics to subaerial evidence of geomorphic change to better understand barrier island response to extreme storms.

  17. Correlates of rapid neuroleptic response in male patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Petrie, E C; Faustman, W O; Moses, J A; Lombrozo, L; Csernansky, J G

    1990-08-01

    Correlates of neuroleptic response latency were assessed in 16 male schizophrenic inpatients during 4 weeks of fixed dose (20 mg/day) haloperidol treatment. Rapid responders showed a mean 40% reduction in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) positive symptom scores by day 10 of treatment. Rapid responders had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations compared to non-rapid responders during week 4 of haloperidol treatment. However, rapid versus non-rapid responders did not differ with respect to demographics, baseline positive or negative BPRS symptom scores, performance on tests of neuropsychological function, or mean plasma haloperidol concentrations.

  18. Guatemala’s Ministry of Health Rapid Response Team Manuals

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Luis; Hanson, Kimberly M.; Martel, Lise D.

    2017-01-01

    The function of public health rapid response teams (RRTs) is to quickly identify, investigate, and control an outbreak before it can spread. The Central America Regional Office in Guatemala provided assistance to the Guatemalan Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSPAS) to develop RRT manuals at the district and regional levels. The manuals are divided into 4 sections: background, activity lists, standard operating procedures, and annexes. The manuals outline Guatemala’s RRT members’ responsibilities and will be tested in the near future through tabletop exercises. The development of the manuals is a concrete and significant step toward the attainment of Guatemala’s IHR goals and should be integrated into a larger emergency management system to promote “a world safe and secure from global health threats posed by infectious diseases.” PMID:25254918

  19. Guatemala's ministry of health rapid response team manuals.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Luis; Hanson, Kimberly M; Martel, Lise D

    2014-01-01

    The function of public health rapid response teams (RRTs) is to quickly identify, investigate, and control an outbreak before it can spread. The Central America Regional Office in Guatemala provided assistance to the Guatemalan Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSPAS) to develop RRT manuals at the district and regional levels. The manuals are divided into 4 sections: background, activity lists, standard operating procedures, and annexes. The manuals outline Guatemala's RRT members' responsibilities and will be tested in the near future through tabletop exercises. The development of the manuals is a concrete and significant step toward the attainment of Guatemala's IHR goals and should be integrated into a larger emergency management system to promote "a world safe and secure from global health threats posed by infectious diseases."

  20. Rapid Response Small Machining NNR Project 703025

    SciTech Connect

    Kanies, Tim

    2008-12-05

    This project was an effort to develop a machining area for small sized parts that is capable of delivering product with a quick response time. This entailed focusing efforts on leaning out specific work cells that would result in overall improvement to the entire machining area. This effort involved securing the most efficient available technologies for these areas. In the end, this incorporated preparing the small machining area for transformation to a new facility.

  1. Rapid response in psychological treatments for binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E; Wilson, G Terence

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across 3 different treatments for binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; APA, 1994) criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by Week 4, was determined for remission from binge eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-ups. Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and nonrapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than nonrapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and nonrapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based, stepped-care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and nonrapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of nonrapid response to first-line CBTgsh. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Capturing early signs of deterioration: the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score and its value in the Rapid Response System.

    PubMed

    Douw, Gooske; Huisman-de Waal, Getty; van Zanten, Arthur R H; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2017-09-01

    To determine the predictive value of individual and combined dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators at various Early Warning Score levels, differentiating between Early Warning Scores reaching the trigger threshold to call a rapid response team and Early Warning Score levels not reaching this point. Dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score comprises nine indicators underlying nurses' 'worry' about a patient's condition. All indicators independently show significant association with unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admission or unexpected mortality. Prediction of this outcome improved by adding the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators to an Early Warning Score based on vital signs. An observational cohort study was conducted on three surgical wards in a tertiary university-affiliated teaching hospital. Included were surgical, native-speaking, adult patients. Nurses scored presence of 'worry' and/or dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators every shift or when worried. Vital signs were measured according to the prevailing protocol. Unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admission or unexpected mortality was the composite endpoint. Percentages of 'worry' and dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators were calculated at various Early Warning Score levels in control and event groups. Entering all dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators in a multiple logistic regression analysis, we calculated a weighted score and calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value and negative predicted value for each possible total score. In 3522 patients, 102 (2·9%) had an unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admissions (n = 97) or unexpected mortality (n = 5). Patients with such events and only slightly changed vital signs had significantly higher percentages of 'worry' and dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators expressed than patients in the control group. Increasing number

  3. Lessons learned from Rapid Response Research on wildland fires

    Treesearch

    Leigh Lentile; Penny Morgan; Colin Hardy; Andrew Hudak; Robert Means; Roger Ottmar; Peter Robichaud; Elaine Sutherland; Frederick Way; Sarah Lewis

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, more researchers are collecting data either on active wildfires or immediately after wildfire occurrence. Known as Rapid Response Research, this important undertaking provides real-time information, useful data, and improved tools for managers.

  4. Waking State: Rapid Variations Modulate Neural and Behavioral Responses

    PubMed Central

    McGinley, Matthew J.; Vinck, Martin; Reimer, Jacob; Batista-Brito, Renata; Zagha, Edward; Cadwell, Cathryn R.

    2015-01-01

    The state of the brain and body constantly varies on rapid and slow time scales. These variations contribute to the apparent noisiness of sensory responses at both the neural and behavioral level. Recent investigations of rapid state changes in awake, behaving animals have provided insight into the mechanisms by which optimal sensory encoding and behavioral performance are achieved. Fluctuations in state, as indexed by pupillometry, impact both the “signal” (sensory evoked response) and the “noise” (spontaneous activity) of cortical responses. By taking these fluctuations into account, neural response (co-)variability is significantly reduced, revealing the brain to be more reliable and predictable than previously thought. PMID:26402600

  5. Sensor web enables rapid response to volcanic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, Ashley G.; Chien, Steve; Wright, Robert; Miklius, Asta; Kyle, Philip R.; Welsh, Matt; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Tran, Daniel; Schaffer, Steven R.; Sherwood, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Rapid response to the onset of volcanic activity allows for the early assessment of hazard and risk [Tilling, 1989]. Data from remote volcanoes and volcanoes in countries with poor communication infrastructure can only be obtained via remote sensing [Harris et al., 2000]. By linking notifications of activity from ground-based and spacebased systems, these volcanoes can be monitored when they erupt.Over the last 18 months, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has implemented a Volcano Sensor Web (VSW) in which data from ground-based and space-based sensors that detect current volcanic activity are used to automatically trigger the NASA Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft to make highspatial-resolution observations of these volcanoes.

  6. Rapid evolutionary response to a transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Brendan; Jones, Menna; Hamede, Rodrigo; Hendricks, Sarah; McCallum, Hamish; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Schönfeld, Barbara; Wiench, Cody; Hohenlohe, Paul; Storfer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Although cancer rarely acts as an infectious disease, a recently emerged transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) is virtually 100% fatal. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) has swept across nearly the entire species' range, resulting in localized declines exceeding 90% and an overall species decline of more than 80% in less than 20 years. Despite epidemiological models that predict extinction, populations in long-diseased sites persist. Here we report rare genomic evidence of a rapid, parallel evolutionary response to strong selection imposed by a wildlife disease. We identify two genomic regions that contain genes related to immune function or cancer risk in humans that exhibit concordant signatures of selection across three populations. DFTD spreads between hosts by suppressing and evading the immune system, and our results suggest that hosts are evolving immune-modulated resistance that could aid in species persistence in the face of this devastating disease. PMID:27575253

  7. Applying Bayesian belief networks in rapid response situations

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, William L; Deborah, Leishman, A.; Van Eeckhout, Edward

    2008-01-01

    The authors have developed an enhanced Bayesian analysis tool called the Integrated Knowledge Engine (IKE) for monitoring and surveillance. The enhancements are suited for Rapid Response Situations where decisions must be made based on uncertain and incomplete evidence from many diverse and heterogeneous sources. The enhancements extend the probabilistic results of the traditional Bayesian analysis by (1) better quantifying uncertainty arising from model parameter uncertainty and uncertain evidence, (2) optimizing the collection of evidence to reach conclusions more quickly, and (3) allowing the analyst to determine the influence of the remaining evidence that cannot be obtained in the time allowed. These extended features give the analyst and decision maker a better comprehension of the adequacy of the acquired evidence and hence the quality of the hurried decisions. They also describe two example systems where the above features are highlighted.

  8. Rapid Enzymatic Response to Compensate UV Radiation in Copepods

    PubMed Central

    Souza, María Sol; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Hylander, Samuel; Modenutti, Beatriz; Balseiro, Esteban

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) causes physical damage to DNA, carboxylation of proteins and peroxidation of lipids in copepod crustaceans, ubiquitous and abundant secondary producers in most aquatic ecosystems. Copepod adaptations for long duration exposures include changes in behaviour, changes in pigmentation and ultimately changes in morphology. Adaptations to short-term exposures are little studied. Here we show that short-duration exposure to UVR causes the freshwater calanoid copepod, Eudiaptomus gracilis, to rapidly activate production of enzymes that prevent widespread collateral peroxidation (glutathione S-transferase, GST), that regulate apoptosis cell death (Caspase-3, Casp-3), and that facilitate neurotransmissions (cholinesterase-ChE). None of these enzyme systems is alone sufficient, but they act in concert to reduce the stress level of the organism. The interplay among enzymatic responses provides useful information on how organisms respond to environmental stressors acting on short time scales. PMID:22384136

  9. Rapid evolutionary response to a transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Brendan; Jones, Menna; Hamede, Rodrigo; Hendricks, Sarah; McCallum, Hamish; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Schönfeld, Barbara; Wiench, Cody; Hohenlohe, Paul; Storfer, Andrew

    2016-08-30

    Although cancer rarely acts as an infectious disease, a recently emerged transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) is virtually 100% fatal. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) has swept across nearly the entire species' range, resulting in localized declines exceeding 90% and an overall species decline of more than 80% in less than 20 years. Despite epidemiological models that predict extinction, populations in long-diseased sites persist. Here we report rare genomic evidence of a rapid, parallel evolutionary response to strong selection imposed by a wildlife disease. We identify two genomic regions that contain genes related to immune function or cancer risk in humans that exhibit concordant signatures of selection across three populations. DFTD spreads between hosts by suppressing and evading the immune system, and our results suggest that hosts are evolving immune-modulated resistance that could aid in species persistence in the face of this devastating disease.

  10. Sensitivity and rapidity of vegetational response to abrupt climate change

    PubMed Central

    Peteet, Dorothy

    2000-01-01

    Rapid climate change characterizes numerous terrestrial sediment records during and since the last glaciation. Vegetational response is best expressed in terrestrial records near ecotones, where sensitivity to climate change is greatest, and response times are as short as decades. PMID:10677467

  11. Employment Threat, Equality of Opportunities and Educators' Response to the Rapid Feminization of School Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Michael; Addi, Audrey

    This paper examines the responses of men and women in the Israeli educational system toward the rapid feminization of school administration. Two theoretical perspectives--the "enlightened" approach and conflict theory--provide a framework for understanding the responses. Data were obtained from the responses to a questionnaire of 156…

  12. Information needs for the rapid response team electronic clinical tool.

    PubMed

    Barwise, Amelia; Caples, Sean; Jensen, Jeffrey; Pickering, Brian; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2017-10-02

    Information overload in healthcare is dangerous. It can lead to critical errors and delays. During Rapid Response Team (RRT) activations providers must make decisions quickly to rescue patients from physiological deterioration. In order to understand the clinical data required and how best to present that information in electronic systems we aimed to better assess the data needs of providers on the RRT when they respond to an event. A web based survey to evaluate clinical data requirements was created and distributed to all RRT providers at our institution. Participants were asked to rate the importance of each data item in guiding clinical decisions during a RRT event response. There were 96 surveys completed (24.5% response rate) with fairly even distribution throughout all clinical roles on the RRT. Physiological data including heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were ranked by more than 80% of responders as being critical information. Resuscitation status was also considered critically useful by more than 85% of providers. There is a limited dataset that is considered important during an RRT. The data is widely available in EMR. The findings from this study could be used to improve user-centered EMR interfaces.

  13. Changes in Sensory Evoked Responses Coincide with Rapid Improvement in Speech Identification Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alain, Claude; Campeanu, Sandra; Tremblay, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual learning is sometimes characterized by rapid improvements in performance within the first hour of training (fast perceptual learning), which may be accompanied by changes in sensory and/or response pathways. Here, we report rapid physiological changes in the human auditory system that coincide with learning during a 1-hour test session…

  14. MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Laboratory is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified, all without the interference of a container or data-gathering instrument. The ESL main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to 8 quench vessels can be loaded into the quench wheel, which is indexed with LabVIEW control software. This allows up to 8 samples to be rapidly quenched before having to open the chamber. The system has been tested successfully on several zirconium samples. Future work will be done with other materials using different quench mediums. Microstructural analysis will also be done on successfully quench samples.

  15. Energy-beam-driven rapid fabrication system

    DOEpatents

    Keicher, David M.; Atwood, Clinton L.; Greene, Donald L.; Griffith, Michelle L.; Harwell, Lane D.; Jeantette, Francisco P.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.; Schmale, David T.

    2002-01-01

    An energy beam driven rapid fabrication system, in which an energy beam strikes a growth surface to form a molten puddle thereon. Feed powder is then injected into the molten puddle from a converging flow of feed powder. A portion of the feed powder becomes incorporated into the molten puddle, forcing some of the puddle contents to freeze on the growth surface, thereby adding an additional layer of material. By scanning the energy beam and the converging flow of feed powder across the growth surface, complex three-dimensional shapes can be formed, ready or nearly ready for use. Nearly any class of material can be fabricated using this system.

  16. A New Procedure for Detection of Students' Rapid Guessing Responses Using Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Hongwen; Rios, Joseph A.; Haberman, Shelby; Liu, Ou Lydia; Wang, Jing; Paek, Insu

    2016-01-01

    Unmotivated test takers using rapid guessing in item responses can affect validity studies and teacher and institution performance evaluation negatively, making it critical to identify these test takers. The authors propose a new nonparametric method for finding response-time thresholds for flagging item responses that result from rapid-guessing…

  17. Rapid response teams in adult hospitals: time for another look?

    PubMed

    White, K; Scott, I A; Vaux, A; Sullivan, C M

    2015-12-01

    Rapid response teams (RRT), alternatively termed medical emergency teams, have become part of the clinical landscape in the majority of adult hospitals throughout Australia and New Zealand. These teams aim to bring critical care expertise to the bedside of clinically deteriorating patients residing in general hospital wards with the aim of preventing adverse outcomes, in particular death or cardiorespiratory arrests. While the concept of RRT has considerable face validity, there is little high quality evidence of their effectiveness and much uncertainty as to the optimal methods for identifying patients in need of RRT and calling the RRT (afferent limb) and how, and with whom, the RRT should then respond (efferent limb). Adverse unintended consequences of RRT systems and the opportunity costs involved in maintaining such systems have not been subject to study, amid concerns RRT may be compensating for other potentially remediable system of care failures. This article presents an overview of the current state of play of RRT in hospital practice as they pertain to the care of adult patients and identifies several issues around their implementation and evaluation that should be subject to further research.

  18. Procalcitonin as a rapid diagnostic biomarker to differentiate between culture-negative bacterial sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome: a prospective, observational, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Anand, Dimple; Das, Sabari; Bhargava, Seema; Srivastava, Lalit Mohan; Garg, Ashish; Tyagi, Niraj; Taneja, Saurabh; Ray, Sumit

    2015-02-01

    Differentiation between culture-negative sepsis and noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) remains a diagnostic challenge for clinicians, both conditions having similar clinical presentations. Therefore, a swift accurate diagnostic tool, which helps differentiate these 2 conditions would immensely aid appropriate therapeutic continuum. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the potential diagnostic role of biomarkers, procalcitonin (PCT) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), in culture-negative sepsis patients. Enrolled patients (208) included 46 noninfectious SIRS, 90 culture-negative sepsis, and 72 culture-positive sepsis. Culture, PCT, and IL-6 estimations were performed on day 1 of intensive care unit admission. Procalcitonin and IL-6 levels were significantly higher (P < .001) in both culture-negative and culture-positive groups as compared with SIRS group. Procalcitonin was a better predictor of sepsis in both culture-negative (area under curves 0.892 vs 0.636) and culture-positive (area under curves 0.959 vs 0.784) groups as compared with IL-6. In culture-negative group, the best cutoff point for PCT was at 1.43 ng/mL (92% sensitivity; 83% negative predictive value), best cutoff point for IL-6 was at 219.85 pg/mL (47% sensitivity and 42% negative predictive value). Procalcitonin can accurately differentiate culture-negative sepsis from noninfectious SIRS and thereby contribute to early diagnosis and effective management of these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid response teams: qualitative analysis of their effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Leach, Linda Searle; Mayo, Ann M

    2013-05-01

    Multidisciplinary rapid response teams focus on patients' emergent needs and manage critical situations to prevent avoidable deaths. Although research has focused primarily on outcomes, studies of the actual team effectiveness within the teams from multiple perspectives have been limited. To describe effectiveness of rapid response teams in a large teaching hospital in California that had been using such teams for 5 years. The grounded-theory method was used to discover if substantive theory might emerge from interview and/or observational data. Purposeful sampling was used to conduct in-person semistructured interviews with 17 key informants. Convenience sampling was used for the 9 observed events that involved a rapid response team. Analysis involved use of a concept or indicator model to generate empirical results from the data. Data were coded, compared, and contrasted, and, when appropriate, relationships between concepts were formed. Results Dimensions of effective team performance included the concepts of organizational culture, team structure, expertise, communication, and teamwork. Professionals involved reported that rapid response teams functioned well in managing patients at risk or in crisis; however, unique challenges were identified. Teams were loosely coupled because of the inconsistency of team members from day to day. Team members had little opportunity to develop relationships or team skills. The need for team training may be greater than that among teams that work together regularly under less time pressure to perform. Communication between team members and managing a crisis were critical aspects of an effective response team.

  20. Reward prospect rapidly speeds up response inhibition via reactive control.

    PubMed

    Boehler, Carsten N; Schevernels, Hanne; Hopf, Jens-Max; Stoppel, Christian M; Krebs, Ruth M

    2014-06-01

    Response inhibition is an important cognitive-control function that allows for already-initiated or habitual behavioral responses to be promptly withheld when needed. A typical paradigm to study this function is the stop-signal task. From this task, the stop-signal response time (SSRT) can be derived, which indexes how rapidly an already-initiated response can be canceled. Typically, SSRTs range around 200 ms, identifying response inhibition as a particularly rapid cognitive-control process. Even so, it has recently been shown that SSRTs can be further accelerated if successful response inhibition is rewarded. Since this earlier study effectively ruled out differential preparatory (proactive) control adjustments, the reward benefits likely relied on boosted reactive control. Yet, given how rapidly such control processes would need to be enhanced, alternative explanations circumventing reactive control are important to consider. We addressed this question with an fMRI study by gauging the overlap of the brain networks associated with reward-related and response-inhibition-related processes in a reward-modulated stop-signal task. In line with the view that reactive control can indeed be boosted swiftly by reward availability, we found that the activity in key brain areas related to response inhibition was enhanced for reward-related stop trials. Furthermore, we observed that this beneficial reward effect was triggered by enhanced connectivity between task-unspecific (reward-related) and task-specific (inhibition-related) areas in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The present data hence suggest that reward information can be translated very rapidly into behavioral benefits (here, within ~200 ms) through enhanced reactive control, underscoring the immediate responsiveness of such control processes to reward availability in general.

  1. Rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V; Tibrea, Steven L; Shull, Davis J; Coleman, Jerry T; Shuler, James M

    2015-04-28

    A rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system and associated methods of operation are provided. An exemplary system includes a central command, a wireless backhaul network, and a remote monitoring unit. The remote monitoring unit can include a positioning system configured to determine a position of the remote monitoring unit based on one or more signals received from one or more satellites located in Low Earth Orbit. The wireless backhaul network can provide bidirectional communication capability independent of cellular telecommunication networks and the Internet. An exemplary method includes instructing at least one of a plurality of remote monitoring units to provide an alert based at least in part on a location of a hazard and a plurality of positions respectively associated with the plurality of remote monitoring units.

  2. RAPID MANUFACTURING SYSTEM OF ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Relvas, Carlos; Reis, Joana; Potes, José Alberto Caeiro; Fonseca, Fernando Manuel Ferreira; Simões, José Antonio Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This study, aimed the development of a methodology for rapid manufacture of orthopedic implants simultaneously with the surgical intervention, considering two potential applications in the fields of orthopedics: the manufacture of anatomically adapted implants and implants for bone loss replacement. This work innovation consists on the capitation of the in situ geometry of the implant by direct capture of the shape using an elastomeric material (polyvinylsiloxane) which allows fine detail and great accuracy of the geometry. After scanning the elastomeric specimen, the implant is obtained by machining using a CNC milling machine programmed with a dedicated CAD/CAM system. After sterilization, the implant is able to be placed on the patient. The concept was developed using low cost technology and commercially available. The system has been tested in an in vivo hip arthroplasty performed on a sheep. The time increase of surgery was 80 minutes being 40 minutes the time of implant manufacturing. The system developed has been tested and the goals defined of the study achieved enabling the rapid manufacture of an implant in a time period compatible with the surgery time. PMID:27004181

  3. Waking State: Rapid Variations Modulate Neural and Behavioral Responses.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Matthew J; Vinck, Martin; Reimer, Jacob; Batista-Brito, Renata; Zagha, Edward; Cadwell, Cathryn R; Tolias, Andreas S; Cardin, Jessica A; McCormick, David A

    2015-09-23

    The state of the brain and body constantly varies on rapid and slow timescales. These variations contribute to the apparent noisiness of sensory responses at both the neural and the behavioral level. Recent investigations of rapid state changes in awake, behaving animals have provided insight into the mechanisms by which optimal sensory encoding and behavioral performance are achieved. Fluctuations in state, as indexed by pupillometry, impact both the "signal" (sensory evoked response) and the "noise" (spontaneous activity) of cortical responses. By taking these fluctuations into account, neural response (co)variability is significantly reduced, revealing the brain to be more reliable and predictable than previously thought. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    A recent six month investigation focused on: "Determining the benefits of propelling a scientific spacecraft by an 'Electric Sail' propulsion system to the edge of our solar system (the Heliopause), a distance of 100 to 120 AU, in ten years or less" has recently been completed by the Advance Concepts Office at NASA's MSFC. The concept investigated has been named the Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) by the MSFC team. The HERTS is a revolutionary propellant-less propulsion concept that is ideal for deep space missions to the Outer Planets, Heliopause, and beyond. It is unique in that it uses momentum exchange from naturally occurring solar wind protons to propel a spacecraft within the heliosphere. The propulsion system consists of an array of electrically positively-biased wires that extend outward 20 km from a rotating (one revolution per hour) spacecraft. It was determined that the HERTS system can accelerate a spacecraft to velocities as much as two to three times that possible by any realistic extrapolation of current state-of-the-art propulsion technologies- including solar electric and solar sail propulsion systems. The data produced show that a scientific spacecraft could reach distances of 100AU in less than 10 years. Moreover, it can be reasonably expected that this system could be developed within a decade and provide meaningful Heliophysics Science and Outer Planetary Science returns in the 2025-2035 timeframe.

  5. High-temperature rapid-response thermocouple for reducing atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, C. M.; Hoff, R. G.

    1970-01-01

    Thermocouple measures continuously in flowing gaseous hydrogen at temperatures up to 4000 deg F, in environments made hazardous by radiation, and where rapid response and calibration reproducibility are critically important. Thermocouple wires extend continuously, without splice or foreign material, from cold junction to probe's tip.

  6. Notification: Administration of Emergency and Rapid Response Services Contracts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY13-0046, October 23, 2012. The EPA OIG’s Office of Audit plans to begin the preliminary research phase of an audit evaluating Region 6’s administration and management of the Emergency and Rapid Response Services (ERRS) contracts.

  7. Experience with family activation of rapid response teams.

    PubMed

    Bogert, Soudi; Ferrell, Carmen; Rutledge, Dana N

    2010-01-01

    Condition H allows family activation of a rapid response team in a hospital setting. Systematic implementation of Condition H at a 500-bed Magnet community hospital led to varied types of calls, all of which met the policy criteria. Many communication issues were discovered through this process.

  8. Rapid response teams: a proactive strategy for improving patient care.

    PubMed

    Garretson, Sharon; Rauzi, Mary Beth; Meister, Janice; Schuster, Janet

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation success rates have not changed in 30 years. Patient outcomes may improve if changes in a patient's condition are addressed at the onset of subtle deteriorations, rather than at the point of cardiac arrest. The rapid response team involves early intervention that demonstrates the ability to decrease cardiac arrest rates and improve patient mortality.

  9. Role of vestibular information in initiation of rapid postural responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, C. F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Zajac, F. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    the sensorimotor consequences of the system alterations imposed by the postural tasks used in those studies. Preliminary results from two younger patients who lost vestibular function as infants indicate that age, duration of vestibular loss, and/or the timing of the loss may also be factors that can influence the use of hip strategy as a rapid postural response.

  10. Role of vestibular information in initiation of rapid postural responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, C. F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Zajac, F. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    the sensorimotor consequences of the system alterations imposed by the postural tasks used in those studies. Preliminary results from two younger patients who lost vestibular function as infants indicate that age, duration of vestibular loss, and/or the timing of the loss may also be factors that can influence the use of hip strategy as a rapid postural response.

  11. Role of vestibular information in initiation of rapid postural responses.

    PubMed

    Runge, C F; Shupert, C L; Horak, F B; Zajac, F E

    1998-10-01

    the sensorimotor consequences of the system alterations imposed by the postural tasks used in those studies. Preliminary results from two younger patients who lost vestibular function as infants indicate that age, duration of vestibular loss, and/or the timing of the loss may also be factors that can influence the use of hip strategy as a rapid postural response.

  12. Science Partnerships Enabling Rapid Response: Designing a Strategy for Improving Scientific Collaboration during Crisis Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mease, L.; Gibbs, T.; Adiseshan, T.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster required unprecedented engagement and collaboration with scientists from multiple disciplines across government, academia, and industry. Although this spurred the rapid advancement of valuable new scientific knowledge and tools, it also exposed weaknesses in the system of information dissemination and exchange among the scientists from those three sectors. Limited government communication with the broader scientific community complicated the rapid mobilization of the scientific community to assist with spill response, evaluation of impact, and public perceptions of the crisis. The lessons and new laws produced from prior spills such as Exxon Valdez were helpful, but ultimately did not lead to the actions necessary to prepare a suitable infrastructure that would support collaboration with non-governmental scientists. As oil demand pushes drilling into increasingly extreme environments, addressing the challenge of effective, science-based disaster response is an imperative. Our study employs a user-centered design process to 1) understand the obstacles to and opportunity spaces for effective scientific collaboration during environmental crises such as large oil spills, 2) identify possible tools and strategies to enable rapid information exchange between government responders and non-governmental scientists from multiple relevant disciplines, and 3) build a network of key influencers to secure sufficient buy-in for scaled implementation of appropriate tools and strategies. Our methods include user ethnography, complex system mapping, individual and system behavioral analysis, and large-scale system design to identify and prototype a solution to this crisis collaboration challenge. In this talk, we will present out insights gleaned from existing analogs of successful scientific collaboration during crises and our initial findings from the 60 targeted interviews we conducted that highlight key collaboration challenges that government

  13. Rapid response to artificial selection on flower size in Phlox.

    PubMed

    Lendvai, G; Levin, D A

    2003-04-01

    Quantitative characters are often said to evolve rather slowly, taking many generations to exhibit appreciable differences among populations. We tested this notion experimentally by performing bi-directional selection on corolla diameter of plants from a wild population of Phlox drummondii for three generations. By monitoring flower size, tube length and stigma-anther proximity of flowers, we obtained the direct and indirect responses to selection, and calculated genetic correlations, realized and narrow sense heritabilities using offspring-mother regression. Realized heritability of flower size was high (0.83), whereas genetic correlations among traits were weak or not significant. The per-generation average of the response in corolla diameter was about 5%. We found that P. drummondii has a great capacity to respond rapidly to selection, and this capacity may be in part responsible for the observed high degree of differentiation within the species. We also concluded that rapid evolution of morphological floral traits is possible.

  14. Malignant melanoma showing a rapid response to nivolumab.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Miho; Asai, Jun; Wada, Makoto; Takenaka, Hideya; Katoh, Norito

    2016-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive skin tumour, with a recent rise in incidence. Nivolumab is a recently developed anti-programmed cell death-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor and its usage has resulted in a significant improvement in the overall survival of patients with metastatic melanomas. We report a case of advanced melanoma that showed a significant and rapid response to nivolumab treatment. The patient displayed multiple melanoma-associated vitiligo prior to treatment; this symptom was theorised to indicate potentially immunoreactive melanoma and the need for nivolumab. In addition, interferon-β was injected prior to nivolumab treatment. The significant rapid response to nivolumab suggested the induction of a marked immune response against melanoma by interferon-β. Therefore, interferon-β could be a useful and effective adjuvant for nivolumab therapy.

  15. Rapid response to coastal upwelling in a semienclosed bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilcoto, Miguel; Largier, John L.; Barton, Eric D.; Piedracoba, Silvia; Torres, Ricardo; Graña, Rocío.; Alonso-Pérez, Fernando; Villacieros-Robineau, Nicolás.; de la Granda, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    Bays/estuaries forced by local wind show bidirectional exchange flow. When forced by remote wind, they exhibit unidirectional flow adjustment to coastal sea level. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observations over 1 year show that the Ria de Vigo (Iberian Upwelling) responds to coastal wind events with bidirectional exchange flow. The duration of the upwelling and downwelling events, estimated from the current variability, was 3.3 days and 2.6 days, respectively. Vectorial correlations reveal a rapid response to upwelling/downwelling, in which currents lag local wind by <6 h and remote wind by <14 h, less than the Ekman spinup (17.8 h). This rapidity arises from the ria's narrowness (nonrotational local response), equatorward orientation (additive remote and local wind responses), depth greater than the Ekman depth (penetration of shelf circulation into the interior), and vertical stratification (shear reinforcing shelf circulation). Similar rapid responses are expected in other narrow bays where local and remote winds act together and stratification enhances bidirectional flow.

  16. Rapid response teams in hospitals: improving quality of care for patients and quality of the work environment for nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Terry

    2006-01-01

    As the healthcare delivery system continues to evolve in the new millennium, initiatives such as the Institute for HealthCare Improvement's 100,000 Lives Campaign include the development of rapid response teams in hospitals. Introduction of rapid response teams provides nurses assistance in difficult clinical situations and provides early clinical intervention to mitigate negative patient outcomes and save lives. Development, implementation strategies, and benefits of rapid response teams are described.

  17. RAPID DYNAMICAL CHAOS IN AN EXOPLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Deck, Katherine M.; Winn, Joshua N.; Holman, Matthew J.; Carter, Joshua A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Agol, Eric; Lissauer, Jack J.

    2012-08-10

    We report on the long-term dynamical evolution of the two-planet Kepler-36 system, which consists of a super-Earth and a sub-Neptune in a tightly packed orbital configuration. The orbits of the planets, which we studied through numerical integrations of initial conditions that are consistent with observations of the system, are chaotic with a Lyapunov time of only {approx}10 years. The chaos is a consequence of a particular set of orbital resonances, with the inner planet orbiting 34 times for every 29 orbits of the outer planet. The rapidity of the chaos is due to the interaction of the 29:34 resonance with the nearby first-order 6:7 resonance, in contrast to the usual case in which secular terms in the Hamiltonian play a dominant role. Only one contiguous region of phase space, accounting for {approx}4.5% of the sample of initial conditions studied, corresponds to planetary orbits that do not show large-scale orbital instabilities on the timescale of our integrations ({approx}200 million years). Restricting the orbits to this long-lived region allows a refinement of estimates of the masses and radii of the planets. We find that the long-lived region consists of the initial conditions that satisfy the Hill stability criterion by the largest margin. Any successful theory for the formation of this system will need to account for why its current state is so close to unstable regions of phase space.

  18. A Rapid Turnaround Cryogenic Detector Characterization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic j.; Dipirro, Michael J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Jackson, Clifton E.; Jackson, Michael L.; Kogut, Al; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shirron, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Upcoming major NASA missions such as the Einstein Inflation Probe and the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory require arrays of detectors with thousands of elements, operating at temperatures near l00 mK and sensitive to wavelengths from approx. 100 microns to approx. 3 mm. Such detectors represent a substantial enabling technology for these missions, and must be demonstrated soon in order for them to proceed. In order to make rapid progress on detector development, the cryogenic testing cycle must be made convenient and quick. We have developed a cryogenic detector characterization system capable of testing superconducting detector arrays in formats up to 8 x 32, read out by SQUID multiplexers. The system relies on the cooling of a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator immersed in a liquid helium bath. This approach permits a detector to be cooled from 300K to 50 mK in about 4 hours, so that a test cycle begun in the morning will be over by the end of the day. Tine system is modular, with two identical immersible units, so that while one unit is cooling, the second can be reconfigured for the next battery of tests. We describe the design, construction, and performance of this cryogenic detector testing facility.

  19. A Rapid Turnaround Cryogenic Detector Characterization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic j.; Dipirro, Michael J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Jackson, Clifton E.; Jackson, Michael L.; Kogut, Al; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shirron, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Upcoming major NASA missions such as the Einstein Inflation Probe and the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory require arrays of detectors with thousands of elements, operating at temperatures near l00 mK and sensitive to wavelengths from approx. 100 microns to approx. 3 mm. Such detectors represent a substantial enabling technology for these missions, and must be demonstrated soon in order for them to proceed. In order to make rapid progress on detector development, the cryogenic testing cycle must be made convenient and quick. We have developed a cryogenic detector characterization system capable of testing superconducting detector arrays in formats up to 8 x 32, read out by SQUID multiplexers. The system relies on the cooling of a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator immersed in a liquid helium bath. This approach permits a detector to be cooled from 300K to 50 mK in about 4 hours, so that a test cycle begun in the morning will be over by the end of the day. Tine system is modular, with two identical immersible units, so that while one unit is cooling, the second can be reconfigured for the next battery of tests. We describe the design, construction, and performance of this cryogenic detector testing facility.

  20. Nicolaus Copernicus and the rapid vascular responses to aldosterone.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias; Meyer, Matthias R

    2015-08-01

    For decades, rapid steroid responses initiated by membrane receptors have been a primary research focus. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is activated by 17β-estradiol and participates in functional crosstalk with other steroid receptors. With reference to the physician and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), who used rigorous scientific approaches to shift paradigms and change dogma, we discuss whether GPER can also be considered an aldosterone receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Implementation and outcomes of a rapid response team.

    PubMed

    McFarlan, Susan J; Hensley, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Adverse events in hospitalized patients are preceded by clinical signs of decline. Thus, early recognition and intervention should improve patient outcomes. At the University of Kentucky Hospital, the impetus to start a rapid response team (RRT) was to decrease unplanned admissions to ICU, adverse events, and mortality overall. On the basis of the outcomes at our hospital, we conclude that there is benefit to having an RRT. The following article outlines processes for RRT implementation and our outcomes to date.

  2. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  3. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  4. Rapid Dynamics of Contrast Responses in the Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming; Wang, Yong; Wang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The visual information we receive during natural vision changes rapidly and continuously. The visual system must adapt to the spatiotemporal contents of the environment in order to efficiently process the dynamic signals. However, neuronal responses to luminance contrast are usually measured using drifting or stationary gratings presented for a prolonged duration. Since motion in our visual field is continuous, the signals received by the visual system contain an abundance of transient components in the contrast domain. Here using a modified reverse correlation method, we studied the properties of responses of neurons in the cat primary visual cortex to different contrasts of grating stimuli presented statically and transiently for 40 ms, and showed that neurons can effectively discriminate the rapidly changing contrasts. The change in the contrast response function (CRF) over time mainly consisted of an increment in contrast gain (CRF shifts to left) in the developing phase of temporal responses and a decrement in response gain (CRF shifts downward) in the decay phase. When the distribution range of stimulus contrasts was increased, neurons demonstrated decrement in contrast gain and response gain. Our results suggest that contrast gain control (contrast adaptation) and response gain control mechanisms are well established during the first tens of milliseconds after stimulus onset and may cooperatively mediate the rapid dynamic responses of visual cortical neurons to the continuously changing contrast. This fast contrast adaptation may play a role in detecting contrast contours in the context of visual scenes that are varying rapidly. PMID:21998655

  5. The Status of Rapid Response Learning in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Ilana T. Z.; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2010-01-01

    Strong evidence exists for an age-related impairment in associative processing under intentional encoding and retrieval conditions, but the status of incidental associative processing has been less clear. Two experiments examined the effects of age on rapid response learning – the incidentally learned stimulus-response association that results in a reduction in priming when a learned response becomes inappropriate for a new task. Specifically, we tested whether priming was equivalently sensitive in both age groups to reversing the task-specific decision cue. Experiment 1 showed that cue inversion reduced priming in both age groups using a speeded inside/outside classification task, and in Experiment 2 cue inversion eliminated priming on an associative version of this task. Thus, the ability to encode an association between a stimulus and its initial task-specific response appears to be preserved in aging. These findings provide an important example of a form of associative processing that is unimpaired in older adults. PMID:20853961

  6. Storey building early monitoring based on rapid seismic response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julius, Musa, Admiral; Sunardi, Bambang; Rudyanto, Ariska

    2016-05-01

    Within the last decade, advances in the acquisition, processing and transmission of data from seismic monitoring has contributed to the growth in the number structures instrumented with such systems. An equally important factor for such growth can be attributed to the demands by stakeholders to find rapid answers to important questions related to the functionality or state of "health" of structures during and immediately of a seismic events. Consequently, this study aims to monitor the storey building based on seismic response i. e. earthquake and tremor analysis at short time lapse using accelerographs data. This study used one of storey building (X) in Jakarta city that suffered the effects of Kebumen earthquake January 25th 2014, Pandeglang earthquake July 9th 2014, and Lebak earthquake November 8th 2014. Tremors used in this study are tremors after the three following earthquakes. Data processing used to determine peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), peak ground displacement (PGD), spectral acceleration (SA), spectral velocity (SV), spectral displacement (SD), A/V ratio, acceleration amplification and effective duration (te). Then determine the natural frequency (f0) and peak of H/V ratio using H/V ratio method.The earthquakes data processing result shows the value of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio and acceleration amplification increases with height, while the value of the effective duration give a different viewpoint of building dynamic because duration of Kebumen earthquake shows the highest energy in the highest floor but Pandeglang and Lebak earthquake in the lowest floor. Then, tremors data processing result one month after each earthquakes shows the natural frequency of building in constant value. Increasing of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio, acceleration amplification, then decrease of effective duration following the increase of building floors shows that the building construction supports the

  7. The Wallops Flight Facility Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Bruce E.; Kremer, Steven E.

    2004-01-01

    becomes how can a launch site provide acceptably responsive mission services to a particular customer without dedicating extensive resources and while continuing to serve other projects? NASA's Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) is pursuing solutions to exactly this challenge. NASA, in partnership with the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, has initiated the Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative (R3Ops). R3Ops is a multi-phased effort to incrementally establish and demonstrate increasingly responsive launch operations, with an ultimate goal of providing ELV-class services in a maximum of 7-10 days from initial notification routinely, and shorter schedules possible with committed resources. This target will be pursued within the reality of simultaneous concurrent programs, and ideally, largely independent of specialized flight system configurations. WFF has recently completed Phase 1 of R3Ops, an in-depth collection (through extensive expert interviews) and software modeling of individual steps by various range disciplines. This modeling is now being used to identify existing inefficiencies in current procedures, to identify bottlenecks, and show interdependencies. Existing practices are being tracked to provide a baseline to benchmark against as new procedures are implemented. This paper will describe in detail the philosophies behind WFF's R3Ops, the data collected and modeled in Phase 1, and strategies for meeting responsive launch requirements in a multi-user range environment planned for subsequent phases of this initiative.

  8. The Wallops Flight Facility Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Bruce E.; Kremer, Steven E.

    2004-01-01

    becomes how can a launch site provide acceptably responsive mission services to a particular customer without dedicating extensive resources and while continuing to serve other projects? NASA's Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) is pursuing solutions to exactly this challenge. NASA, in partnership with the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, has initiated the Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative (R3Ops). R3Ops is a multi-phased effort to incrementally establish and demonstrate increasingly responsive launch operations, with an ultimate goal of providing ELV-class services in a maximum of 7-10 days from initial notification routinely, and shorter schedules possible with committed resources. This target will be pursued within the reality of simultaneous concurrent programs, and ideally, largely independent of specialized flight system configurations. WFF has recently completed Phase 1 of R3Ops, an in-depth collection (through extensive expert interviews) and software modeling of individual steps by various range disciplines. This modeling is now being used to identify existing inefficiencies in current procedures, to identify bottlenecks, and show interdependencies. Existing practices are being tracked to provide a baseline to benchmark against as new procedures are implemented. This paper will describe in detail the philosophies behind WFF's R3Ops, the data collected and modeled in Phase 1, and strategies for meeting responsive launch requirements in a multi-user range environment planned for subsequent phases of this initiative.

  9. A new, rapid in vivo method to evaluate allergic responses through distinctive distribution of a fluorescent-labeled immune complex: Potential to investigate anti-allergic effects of compounds administered either systemically or topically to the skin.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Kouya; Yoshino, Shin

    2016-01-01

    We herein established a new method to evaluate allergic responses in mice rapidly and easily with ethical improvement by reducing the number of animals used. A single intravenous injection of a mixture of anti-OVA monoclonal IgE and fluorescein-ovalbumin (FITC-OVA) induced the distinctive spotted distribution of FITC-OVA in skin, named "ASDIS (Anaphylaxis-dependent Spotted Distribution of a fluorescent-labeled Immune complex in Skin)", and this was easily detected by in vivo imaging. The parallel induction of hypothermia, scratching, serum histamine increases, and ASDIS as well as the inhibition of ASDIS by either the systemic administration of a histamine H1 receptor antagonist or mast cell-depleting antibody suggested that our method, which only required 15 min, induced these allergic responses including ASDIS. Relatively mild but significant ASDIS was induced also in mice with passive systemic anaphylaxis by the method, requiring 2 separate days. The painting of anti-histamines on the skin markedly reduced ASDIS in the painted area only, suggesting the potential of this model to simultaneously compare the anti-allergic effects of several candidate compounds with control drugs in the same mice. ASDIS was suggested to originate from extravasated FITC-OVA/OE-1 immune complexes from blood to skin tissues other than mast cells. Our new method has the advantages of rapidity, easy method, and lower animal numbers to evaluate anti-allergic compounds as well as the characteristics of the used antibody, antigen, labeling molecules, additives, and other formulations. Our model for inducing ASDIS may contribute to the development of anti-allergic drugs, especially those intended for application to the skin.

  10. Rapid acid treatment of Escherichia coli: transcriptomic response and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Geetha; Wilks, Jessica C; Fitzgerald, Devon M; Jones, Brian D; BonDurant, Sandra S; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2008-01-01

    Background Many E. coli genes show pH-dependent expression during logarithmic growth in acid (pH 5–6) or in base (pH 8–9). The effect of rapid pH change, however, has rarely been tested. Rapid acid treatment could distinguish between genes responding to external pH, and genes responding to cytoplasmic acidification, which occurs transiently following rapid external acidification. It could reveal previously unknown acid-stress genes whose effects are transient, as well as show which acid-stress genes have a delayed response. Results Microarray hybridization was employed to observe the global gene expression of E. coli K-12 W3110 following rapid acidification of the external medium, from pH 7.6 to pH 5.5. Fluorimetric observation of pH-dependent tetR-YFP showed that rapid external acidification led to a half-unit drop in cytoplasmic pH (from pH 7.6 to pH 6.4) which began to recover within 20 s. Following acid treatment, 630 genes were up-regulated and 586 genes were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes included amino-acid decarboxylases (cadA, adiY, gadA), succinate dehydrogenase (sdhABCD), biofilm-associated genes (bdm, gatAB, and ymgABC), and the Gad, Fur and Rcs regulons. Genes with response patterns consistent with cytoplasmic acid stress were revealed by addition of benzoate, a membrane-permeant acid that permanently depresses cytoplasmic pH without affecting external pH. Several genes (yagU, ygiN, yjeI, and yneI) were up-regulated specifically by external acidification, while other genes (fimB, ygaC, yhcN, yhjX, ymgABC, yodA) presented a benzoate response consistent with cytoplasmic pH stress. Other genes (the nuo operon for NADH dehydrogenase I, and the HslUV protease) showed delayed up-regulation by acid, with expression rising by 10 min following the acid shift. Conclusion Transcriptomic profiling of E. coli K-12 distinguished three different classes of change in gene expression following rapid acid treatment: up-regulation with or without recovery, and

  11. Automated emergency meteorological response system

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D W

    1980-01-01

    A sophisticated emergency response system was developed to aid in the evaluation of accidental releases of hazardous materials from the Savannah River Plant to the environment. A minicomputer system collects and archives data from both onsite meteorological towers and the National Weather Service. In the event of an accidental release, the computer rapidly calculates the trajectory and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Computer codes have been developed which provide a graphic display of predicted concentration profiles downwind from the source, as functions of time and distance.

  12. Acute incident rapid response at a mass-gathering event through comprehensive planning systems: a case report from the 2013 Shamrock Shuffle.

    PubMed

    Başdere, Mehmet; Ross, Colleen; Chan, Jennifer L; Mehrotra, Sanjay; Smilowitz, Karen; Chiampas, George

    2014-06-01

    Planning and execution of mass-gathering events involves various challenges. In this case report, the Chicago Model (CM), which was designed to organize and operate such events and to maintain the health and wellbeing of both runners and the public in a more effective way, is described. The Chicago Model also was designed to prepare for unexpected incidents, including disasters, during the marathon event. The model has been used successfully in the planning and execution stages of the Bank of America Shamrock Shuffle and the Bank of America Chicago Marathon since 2008. The key components of the CM are organizational structure, information systems, and communication. This case report describes how the organizers at the 2013 Shamrock Shuffle used the key components of the CM approach in order to respond to an acute incident caused by a man who was threatening to jump off the State Street Bridge. The course route was changed to accommodate this unexpected event, while maintaining access to key health care facilities. The lessons learned from the incident are presented and further improvements to the existing model are proposed.

  13. Forecasting wildlife response to rapid warming in the Alaskan Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Flint, Paul L.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Koch, Joshua C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Oakley, Karen L.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Arctic wildlife species face a dynamic and increasingly novel environment because of climate warming and the associated increase in human activity. Both marine and terrestrial environments are undergoing rapid environmental shifts, including loss of sea ice, permafrost degradation, and altered biogeochemical fluxes. Forecasting wildlife responses to climate change can facilitate proactive decisions that balance stewardship with resource development. In this article, we discuss the primary and secondary responses to physical climate-related drivers in the Arctic, associated wildlife responses, and additional sources of complexity in forecasting wildlife population outcomes. Although the effects of warming on wildlife populations are becoming increasingly well documented in the scientific literature, clear mechanistic links are often difficult to establish. An integrated science approach and robust modeling tools are necessary to make predictions and determine resiliency to change. We provide a conceptual framework and introduce examples relevant for developing wildlife forecasts useful to management decisions.

  14. Design for a Rapid Automatic Sync Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O.; Gallo, A. J.

    1969-01-01

    System provides rapid command sync acquisition between widely separated transmitter-receivers. It is based on a rapid, automatic range-adjustment approach rather than the time-consuming cycle slipping or stepping techniques of conventional phase-locked loops.

  15. Rapid geometrical chaotization in slow-fast Hamiltonian systems.

    PubMed

    Artemyev, A V; Neishtadt, A I; Zelenyi, L M

    2014-06-01

    In this Rapid Communication we demonstrate effects of a new mechanism of adiabaticity destruction in Hamiltonian systems with a separatrix in the phase space. In contrast to the slow diffusive-like destruction typical for many systems, this new mechanism is responsible for very fast chaotization in a large phase volume. To investigate this mechanism we consider a Hamiltonian system with two degrees of freedom and with a separatrix in the phase plane of fast variables. The fast chaotization is due to an asymmetry of the separatrix and corresponding geometrical jumps of an adiabatic invariant. This system describes the motion of charged particles in a inhomogeneous electromagnetic field with a specific configuration. We show that geometrical jumps of the adiabatic invariant result in a very fast chaotization of particle motion.

  16. Fractionation of muscle activity in rapid responses to startling cues

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Lauren R.

    2017-01-01

    Movements in response to acoustically startling cues have shorter reaction times than those following less intense sounds; this is known as the StartReact effect. The neural underpinnings for StartReact are unclear. One possibility is that startling cues preferentially invoke the reticulospinal tract to convey motor commands to spinal motoneurons. Reticulospinal outputs are highly divergent, controlling large groups of muscles in synergistic patterns. By contrast the dominant pathway in primate voluntary movement is the corticospinal tract, which can access small groups of muscles selectively. We therefore hypothesized that StartReact responses would be less fractionated than standard voluntary reactions. Electromyogram recordings were made from 15 muscles in 10 healthy human subjects as they carried out 32 varied movements with the right forelimb in response to startling and nonstartling auditory cues. Movements were chosen to elicit a wide range of muscle activations. Multidimensional muscle activity patterns were calculated at delays from 0 to 100 ms after the onset of muscle activity and subjected to principal component analysis to assess fractionation. In all cases, a similar proportion of the total variance could be explained by a reduced number of principal components for the startling and the nonstartling cue. Muscle activity patterns for a given task were very similar in response to startling and nonstartling cues. This suggests that movements produced in the StartReact paradigm rely on similar contributions from different descending pathways as those following voluntary responses to nonstartling cues. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrate that the ability to activate muscles selectively is preserved during the very rapid reactions produced following a startling cue. This suggests that the contributions from different descending pathways are comparable between these rapid reactions and more typical voluntary movements. PMID:28003416

  17. Response variability in rapid automatized naming predicts reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Li, James J; Cutting, Laurie E; Ryan, Matthew; Zilioli, Monica; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2009-10-01

    A total of 37 children ages 8 to 14 years, screened for word-reading difficulties (23 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; 14 controls) completed oral reading and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tests. RAN trials were segmented into pause and articulation time and intraindividual variability. There were no group differences on reading or RAN variables. Color- and letter-naming pause times and number-naming articulation time were significant predictors of reading fluency. In contrast, number and letter pause variability were predictors of comprehension. Results support analysis of subcomponents of RAN and add to literature emphasizing intraindividual variability as a marker for response preparation, which has relevance to reading comprehension.

  18. 20 CFR 665.300 - What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them? 665.300 Section 665.300 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... INVESTMENT ACT Rapid Response Activities § 665.300 What are rapid response activities and who is...

  19. 20 CFR 665.300 - What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them? 665.300 Section 665.300 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Rapid Response Activities § 665.300 What are rapid response activities and who...

  20. Rapid flow-induced responses in endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatas, G. N.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Endothelial cells alter their morphology, growth rate, and metabolism in response to fluid shear stress. To study rapid flow-induced responses in the 3D endothelial cell morphology and calcium distribution, coupled fluorescence microscopy with optical sectioning, digital imaging, and numerical deconvolution techniques have been utilized. Results demonstrate that within the first minutes of flow application nuclear calcium is increasing. In the same time frame whole cell height and nuclear height are reduced by about 1 microm. Whole cell height changes may facilitate reduction of shear stress gradients on the luminal surface, whereas nuclear structural changes may be important for modulating endothelial growth rate and metabolism. To study the role of the cytoskeleton in these responses, endothelial cells have been treated with specific disrupters (acrylamide, cytochalasin D, and colchicine) of each of the cytoskeleton elements (intermediate filaments, microfilaments, and microtubules, respectively). None of these compounds had any effect on the shear-induced calcium response. Cytochalasin D and acrylamide did not affect the shear-induced nuclear morphology changes. Colchicine, however, completely abrogated the response, indicating that microtubules may be implicated in force transmission from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. A pedagogical model based on tensegrity theory principles is presented that is consistent with the results on the 3D endothelial morphology.

  1. Rapid flow-induced responses in endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatas, G. N.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Endothelial cells alter their morphology, growth rate, and metabolism in response to fluid shear stress. To study rapid flow-induced responses in the 3D endothelial cell morphology and calcium distribution, coupled fluorescence microscopy with optical sectioning, digital imaging, and numerical deconvolution techniques have been utilized. Results demonstrate that within the first minutes of flow application nuclear calcium is increasing. In the same time frame whole cell height and nuclear height are reduced by about 1 microm. Whole cell height changes may facilitate reduction of shear stress gradients on the luminal surface, whereas nuclear structural changes may be important for modulating endothelial growth rate and metabolism. To study the role of the cytoskeleton in these responses, endothelial cells have been treated with specific disrupters (acrylamide, cytochalasin D, and colchicine) of each of the cytoskeleton elements (intermediate filaments, microfilaments, and microtubules, respectively). None of these compounds had any effect on the shear-induced calcium response. Cytochalasin D and acrylamide did not affect the shear-induced nuclear morphology changes. Colchicine, however, completely abrogated the response, indicating that microtubules may be implicated in force transmission from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. A pedagogical model based on tensegrity theory principles is presented that is consistent with the results on the 3D endothelial morphology.

  2. Rapid Response to the Howard Hanson Dam Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, F. M.; Carter, G.; White, A.; Neiman, P. J.; King, C.; Jankov, I.; Colman, B.; Cook, K.; Buehner, T.

    2010-12-01

    Dedicated in 1962, the Howard A. Hanson Dam (HHD) brought necessary flood relief to the Green River Valley in the Metropolitan Area of Seattle, Washington, and opened the way for increased valley development. For example, the flood damage prevented by HHD during the extreme precipitation event in early January 2009 is estimated to be about $4 billion. However, following the record high level of water behind HHD caused by this event, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) became concerned about the Dam’s safety. Despite short-term measures to improve HHD during 2009, the chance for a significant Green River Valley flood event was estimated by the ACE to be 1 in 25 for the 2009/10 winter season. In response to this elevated risk, NOAA organized a coordinated effort across research and forecast operations to implement new observations, modeling and dissemination tools, and knowledge of the role of atmospheric rivers (ARs) in producing extreme precipitation, prototyped in California within NOAA’s Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT; hmt.noaa.gov). Fortunately, although seasonal observed precipitation (October 2009 through March 2010) in the Seattle area was slightly greater than normal (e.g., 112% of normal at the Seattle National Weather Service Forecast Office), there were no threatening floods observed along the Green River. This outcome was influenced by a synoptic pattern that was progressive, i.e., storms did not stall over this vulnerable watershed, which reduced the chance for an extensive (time and space) extreme event. More than a decade of West Coast winter storm research conducted primarily in California by NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory/Physical Sciences Division (ESRL/PSD) has identified atmospheric rivers (ARs), narrow regions of enhanced water vapor transport, as the culprits that cause extreme precipitation events, such as the January 2009 event that stressed HHD. ESRL/PSD extended this AR research to the coast of Washington by deploying a

  3. Rapid Response Team Activations in Pediatric Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Acker, Shannon N; Wathen, Beth; Roosevelt, Genie E; Hill, Lauren R S; Schubert, Anna; Reese, Jenny; Bensard, Denis D; Kulungowski, Ann M

    2017-02-01

    Introduction The rapid response team (RRT) is a multidisciplinary team who evaluates hospitalized patients for concerns of nonemergent clinical deterioration. RRT evaluations are mandatory for children whose Pediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) score (assessment of child's behavior, cardiovascular and respiratory status) is ≥4. We aimed to determine if there were differences in characteristics of RRT calls between children who were admitted primarily to either medical or surgical services. We hypothesized that RRT activations would be called for less severely ill children with lower PEWS score on surgical services compared with children admitted to a medical service. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of all children with RRT activations between January 2008 and April 2015 at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. We evaluated the characteristics of RRT calls and made comparisons between RRT calls made for children admitted primarily to medical or surgical services. Results A total of 2,991 RRT activations were called, and 324 (11%) involved surgical patients. Surgical patients were older than medical patients (median: 7 vs. 4 years; p < 0.001). RRT evaluations were called for lower PEWS score in surgical patients compared with medical (median: 3 vs. 4, p < 0.001). Surgical patients were more likely to remain on the inpatient ward following the RRT (51 vs. 39%, p < 0.001) and were less likely to require an advanced airway than medical patients (0.9 vs. 2.1%; p = 0.412). RRT evaluations did not differ between day and night shifts (52% day vs. 48% night; p = 0.17). All surgical patients and all but one medical patient survived the event; surgical patients were more likely to survive to hospital discharge (97 vs. 91%, p < 0.001) Conclusions RRT activations are rare events among pediatric surgical patients. When compared with medical patients, RRT evaluation is requested for surgical patients with a lower PEWS

  4. Rapid versus Non-rapid Cycling Bipolar II Depression: Response to Venlafaxine and Lithium and Hypomanic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Soeller, Irene; DeRubeis, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the safety and effectiveness of antidepressant versus mood stabilizer monotherapy in rapid versus non-rapid cycling bipolar II disorder. Method Subjects ≥18 years old with bipolar II depression (n=129) were randomized to double-blind venlafaxine or lithium carbonate monotherapy for 12 weeks. Responders (n=59) received continuation monotherapy for 6 additional months. Results Rapid cycling did not affect frequency of response or change over time in depressive symptoms. Rapid cycling status did not affect frequency of depressive relapse or sustained treatment response. Rapid cyclers were more likely to experience hypomanic symptoms (p=0.005) during continuation monotherapy; however, rates were similar in venlafaxine (17.6%) and lithium (42.9%) (p=0.31). Conclusion Rapid cycling status may not be associated with an increased risk of diminished response or greater depressive relapse during venlafaxine, relative to lithium monotherapy, in bipolar II subjects. Additional randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26803764

  5. Responsive systems for cell sheet detachment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nikul G; Zhang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Cell sheet engineering has been progressing rapidly during the past few years and has emerged as a novel approach for cell based therapy. Cell sheet harvest technology enables fabrication of viable, transplantable cell sheets for various tissue engineering applications. Currently, the majority of cell sheet studies use thermo-responsive systems for cell sheet detachment. However, other responsive systems began showing their potentials for cell sheet harvest. This review provides an overview of current techniques in creating cell sheets using different types of responsive systems including thermo-responsive, electro-responsive, photo-responsive, pH-responsive and magnetic systems. Their mechanism, approach, as well as applications for cell detachment have been introduced. Further development of these responsive systems will allow efficient cell sheet harvesting and patterning of cells to reconstruct complex tissue for broad clinical applications.

  6. Device for rapid quantification of human carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprenkle, J. M.; Eckberg, D. L.; Goble, R. L.; Schelhorn, J. J.; Halliday, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    A new device has been designed, constructed, and evaluated to characterize the human carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex response relation rapidly. This system was designed for study of reflex responses of astronauts before, during, and after space travel. The system comprises a new tightly sealing silicon rubber neck chamber, a stepping motor-driven electrodeposited nickel bellows pressure system, capable of delivering sequential R-wave-triggered neck chamber pressure changes between +40 and -65 mmHg, and a microprocessor-based electronics system for control of pressure steps and analysis and display of responses. This new system provokes classic sigmoid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses with threshold, linear, and saturation ranges in most human volunteers during one held expiration.

  7. Addressing Patient Safety in Rapid Response Activations for Nonhospitalized Persons.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayana, Pradeep H; Darby, Joseph M; Simmons, Richard L

    2017-03-01

    Rapid response teams (RRTs) have been widely accepted as useful adjuncts to the care of inpatients with unanticipated emergencies. One study suggested that leadership of such teams could be assigned to midlevel providers, especially when nonhospitalized person (NHP)-related emergencies occur. However, in our tertiary medical center, a critical care medicine (CCM) physician always leads all RRT events including those related to NHPs. In this study, we postulate reasons in favor of a single structured RRT led by an intensivist for both inpatients and NHPs. An observational study conducted at an academic medical center. Demographic and clinical characteristics of NHP-related RRT events were evaluated over a 9-month period. Rapid response teams were activated 1,952 times, of which, 154 events were NHP related. Only 42 RRT activations occurred for employees and visitors. Most of the NHP activations (112 events) occurred in response to events involving persons who were on the premises because of preexisting illnesses, either visiting physician offices (46 events), undergoing ambulatory diagnostic procedures (30 events), in transit to the emergency department (13 events), or undergoing emergency psychiatry evaluation (11 events). Most patients (83 NHPs) required admission to the hospital including 22 NHPs to intensive care units (ICUs) either directly from the event location or subsequently from the emergency department. The physician team leader admitted 20 NHPs directly from the scene, of which, 13 were admitted directly to ICUs. Nonhospitalized patients requiring RRT activation often have complex pre-existent illnesses. A standardized team composition for both inpatients and NHPs in crisis is an appropriate administrative structure enhancing patient safety in hospitals where ambulatory and inpatient facilities are combined.

  8. Rapid scanning system for fuel drawers

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, John T.; Fehlau, Paul E.; France, Stephen W.

    1981-01-01

    A nondestructive method for uniqely distinguishing among and quantifying the mass of individual fuel plates in situ in fuel drawers utilized in nuclear reactors is described. The method is both rapid and passive, eliminating the personnel hazard of the commonly used irradiation techniques which require that the analysis be performed in proximity to an intense neutron source such as a reactor. In the present technique, only normally decaying nuclei are observed. This allows the analysis to be performed anywhere. This feature, combined with rapid scanning of a given fuel drawer (in approximately 30 s), and the computer data analysis allows the processing of large numbers of fuel drawers efficiently in the event of a loss alert.

  9. Rapid scanning system for fuel drawers

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, J.T.; Fehlau, P.E.; France, S.W.

    A nondestructive method for uniquely distinguishing among and quantifying the mass of individual fuel plates in situ in fuel drawers utilized in nuclear reactors is described. The method is both rapid and passive, eliminating the personnel hazard of the commonly used irradiation techniques which require that the analysis be performed in proximity to an intense neutron source such as a reactor. In the present technique, only normally decaying nuclei are observed. This allows the analysis to be performed anywhere. This feature, combined with rapid scanning of a given fuel drawer (in approximately 30 s), and the computer data analysis allows the processing of large numbers of fuel drawers efficiently in the event of a loss alert.

  10. A Rapidly Relocatable Ocean Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 ...information if it does not display a currently valid 0MB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1 . REPORT DATE (DD...MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 13-02-2007 Conference Proceeding 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Rapidly

  11. Designing light responsive bistable arches for rapid, remotely triggered actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew L.; Shankar, M. Ravi; Backman, Ryan; Tondiglia, Vincent P.; Lee, Kyung Min; McConney, Michael E.; Wang, David H.; Tan, Loon-Seng; White, Timothy J.

    2014-03-01

    Light responsive azobenzene functionalized polymer networks enjoy several advantages as actuator candidates including the ability to be remotely triggered and the capacity for highly tunable control via light intensity, polarization, wavelength and material alignments. One signi cant challenge hindering these materials from being employed in applications is their often relatively slow actuation rates and low power densities, especially in the absence of photo-thermal e ects. One well known strategy employed in nature for increasing actuation rate and power output is the storage and quick release of elastic energy (e.g., the Venus ytrap). Using nature as inspiration we have conducted a series of experiments and developed an equilibrium mechanics model for investigating remotely triggered snap-through of bistable light responsive arches made from glassy azobenzene functionalized polymers. After brie y discussing experimental observations we consider in detail a geometrically exact, planar rod model of photomechanical snap-through. Theoretical energy release characteristics and unique strain eld pro les provide insight toward design strategies for improved actuator performance. The bistable light responsive arches presented here are potentially a powerful option for remotely triggered, rapid motion from apparently passive structures in applications such as binary optical switches and positioners, surfaces with morphing topologies, and impulse locomotion in micro or millimeter scale robotics.

  12. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response.

    PubMed

    Bari, A; Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Syed, U-F; Roselan, A; Haines, D K; Roth, G; West, L; Arndt, M

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with (241)Am (alpha radioactivity), (90)Sr/(90)Y (beta radioactivity), and (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity.

  13. Tibolone Rapidly Attenuates the GABAB Response in Hypothalamic Neurones

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jian; Bosch, Martha A.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kloosterboer, Helenius J.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Tibolone is primarily used for the treatment of climacteric symptoms. Tibolone is rapidly converted into three major metabolites: 3α- and 3β-hydroxy-tibolone (3α- and 3βOH-tibolone), which have oestrogenic effects, and the Δ4-isomer (Δ4-tibolone), which has progestogenic and androgenic effects. Since tibolone is effective in treating climacteric symptoms, the effects on the brain may be explained by the oestrogenic activity of tibolone. Previously using whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found that 17β-oestradiol (E2) rapidly altered GABA neurotransmission in hypothalamic neurones through a membrane oestrogen receptor (mER). E2 reduced the potency of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen to activate G-protein-coupled, inwardly rectifying K+ channels in hypothalamic neurones. Therefore, we hypothesized that tibolone may have some rapid effects through the mER and sought to elucidate the signalling pathway of tibolone’s action using selective inhibitors and whole cell recording in ovariectomized female guinea pigs and mice. A sub-population of neurones was identified post hoc as proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones by immunocytochemical staining. Similar to E2, we have found that tibolone and its active metabolite 3βOH-tibolone rapidly reduced the potency of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen to activate GIRK channels in POMC neurones. The effects were blocked by the ER antagonist ICI 182,780. Other metabolites of tibolone (3αOH-tibolone and Δ4-tibolone) had no effect. Furthermore, tibolone (and 3βOH-tibolone) was fully efficacious in ERαKO and ERβKO mice to attenuate GABAB responses. The effects of tibolone were blocked by phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. However, in contrast to E2, the effects of tibolone were not blocked by protein kinase C inhibitors or protein kinase A inhibitors. It appears that tibolone (and 3βOH-tibolone) activates phospholipase C leading to PIP2 metabolism and direct alteration of GIRK channel function. Therefore, tibolone

  14. A rapid top-down response of the ocean carbon system at the onset of the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum from stable isotopes and first principal carbon cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, M. F.; Wright, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    We present the largest carbon isotope excursion (CIE) yet identified for the onset of the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) from shallow-water shelf localities on the Atlantic Margin, exceeding those of any other marine or terrestrial record. The excursion observed on the shelf at multiple localities is contained by the rhythmically bedded Marlboro Clay, which provides a powerful and precise chronometer sequencing the onset of the CIE. The magnitude of this excursion at the shallowest shelf sites suggests that the total atmospheric excursion was much larger than previously estimated. Furthermore, the magnitude of the observed δ13C anomaly is strongly correlated to site water depth along a shelf transect with deep sites showing the smallest excursions and shallow sites showing the largest. Such a response is only expected from a top-down propagation of a carbon isotope anomaly, and using our corrected timescale for the onset, is identical to the invasion of bomb-produced radiocarbon into the surface water system. Further, we use the observed difference between the δ13C and CaCO3 responses on the shelf, combined with first principal carbon cycling from the surface water invasion of bomb radiocarbon, to estimate the size of the initial atmospheric pulse over it's decadal invasion time. Unlike shelf sites, open ocean surface water localities are hopelessly overprinted by old carbon, due to the constant mixing between the surface and deep carbon reservoirs. A simple relationship with oceanographic parameters, such as water depth, carbon reservoir size and age shows a tight correlation with the total magnitude of the CIE at each site. However, this relationship is only quantitatively meaningful in light of our new data, which constrain the most extreme marine end-member. Only a rapid carbon injection, propagating from the atmosphere into the oceans, can explain the observed trends with reservoir size and age. The total magnitude of the carbon anomaly is

  15. A perspective on multisensory integration and rapid perturbation responses.

    PubMed

    Cluff, Tyler; Crevecoeur, Frédéric; Scott, Stephen H

    2015-05-01

    In order to perform accurate movements, the nervous system must transform sensory feedback into motor commands that compensate for errors caused by motor variability and external disturbances. Recent studies focusing on the importance of sensory feedback in motor control have illustrated that the brain generates highly flexible responses to visual perturbations (hand-cursor or target jumps), or following mechanical loads applied to the limb. These parallel approaches have emphasized sophisticated, goal-directed feedback control, but also reveal that flexible perturbation responses are expressed at different latencies depending on what sensory system is engaged by the perturbation. Across studies, goal-directed visuomotor responses consistently emerge in muscle activity ∼100ms after a perturbation, while mechanical perturbations evoke goal-directed muscle responses in as little as ∼60ms (long-latency responses). We discuss the limitation of current models of multisensory integration in light of these asynchronous processing delays, and suggest that understanding how the brain performs real-time multisensory integration is an open question for future studies.

  16. Disruption of the neural response to rapid acoustic stimuli in dyslexia: Evidence from functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Temple, E.; Poldrack, R. A.; Protopapas, A.; Nagarajan, S.; Salz, T.; Tallal, P.; Merzenich, M. M.; Gabrieli, J. D. E.

    2000-01-01

    The biological basis for developmental dyslexia remains unknown. Research has suggested that a fundamental deficit in dyslexia is the inability to process sensory input that enters the nervous system rapidly and that deficits in processing rapid acoustic information are associated with impaired reading. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify the brain basis of rapid acoustic processing in normal readers and to discover the status of that response in dyslexic readers. Normal readers showed left prefrontal activity in response to rapidly changing, relative to slowly changing, nonlinguistic acoustic stimuli. Dyslexic readers showed no differential left frontal response. Two dyslexic readers participated in a remediation program and showed increased activity in left prefrontal cortex after training. These fMRI results identify left prefrontal regions as normally being sensitive to rapid relative to slow acoustic stimulation, insensitive to the difference between such stimuli in dyslexic readers, and plastic enough in adulthood to develop such differential sensitivity after intensive training. PMID:11095716

  17. A review of rapid response team activation parameters in New Zealand hospitals.

    PubMed

    Psirides, Alex; Hill, Jennifer; Hurford, Sally

    2013-08-01

    To review current systems for recognising and responding to clinically deteriorating patients in all New Zealand public hospitals. A cross-sectional study of recognition and response systems in all New Zealand public hospitals was conducted in October 2011. Copies of all current vital sign charts and/or relevant policies were requested. These were examined for vital sign based recognition and response systems. The charts or policies were also used to determine the type of system in use and the vital sign parameters and trigger thresholds that provoke a call to the rapid response team. All New Zealand District Health Boards (DHBs). Physiological parameters used to trigger rapid response, the weighting of any early warning score assigned to them, type of system used, values of physiological derangement that trigger maximal system response. All DHBs use aggregate scoring systems to assess deterioration and respond. A total of 9 different physiological parameters were scored with most charts (21%) scoring 6 different parameters. All scored respiratory rate, heart rate, systolic blood pressure and conscious level. 86% scored oliguria, 14% polyuria, 33% oxygen saturation and 24% oxygen administration. All systems used either aggregate scores or a single extreme parameter to elicit a maximal system response. The extremes of physiological derangement to which scores were assigned varied greatly with bradypnoea having the greatest range for what was considered grossly abnormal. A large variance exists in the criteria used to detect deteriorating patients within New Zealand hospitals. Standardising both the vital signs chart and escalation criteria is likely to be of significant benefit in the early detection of and response to patient deterioration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Specialized Mechanosensory Nociceptors Mediating Rapid Responses to Hair Pull.

    PubMed

    Ghitani, Nima; Barik, Arnab; Szczot, Marcin; Thompson, James H; Li, Chia; Le Pichon, Claire E; Krashes, Michael J; Chesler, Alexander T

    2017-08-16

    The somatosensory system provides animals with the ability to detect, distinguish, and respond to diverse thermal, mechanical, and irritating stimuli. While there has been progress in defining classes of neurons underlying temperature sensation and gentle touch, less is known about the neurons specific for mechanical pain. Here, we use in vivo functional imaging to identify a class of cutaneous sensory neurons that are selectively activated by high-threshold mechanical stimulation (HTMRs). We show that their optogenetic excitation evokes rapid protective and avoidance behaviors. Unlike other nociceptors, these HTMRs are fast-conducting Aδ-fibers with highly specialized circumferential endings wrapping the base of individual hair follicles. Notably, we find that Aδ-HTMRs innervate unique but overlapping fields and can be activated by stimuli as precise as the pulling of a single hair. Together, the distinctive features of this class of Aδ-HTMRs appear optimized for accurate and rapid localization of mechanical pain. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system

    SciTech Connect

    Barren, E.; Penney, C.M.; Sheldon, R.B.

    1995-10-01

    A number of contamination sites exist in this country where the area and volume of material to be remediated is very large, approaching or exceeding 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} and 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Typically, only a small fraction of this material is actually contaminated. In such cases there is a strong economic motivation to test the material with a sufficient density of measurements to identify which portions are uncontaminated, so extensively they be left in place or be disposed of as uncontaminated waste. Unfortunately, since contamination often varies rapidly from position to position, this procedure can involve upwards of one million measurements per site. The situation is complicated further in many cases by the difficulties of sampling porous surfaces, such as concrete. This report describes a method for sampling concretes in which an immediate distinction can be made between contaminated and uncontaminated surfaces. Sample acquisition and analysis will be automated.

  20. Rapid E-Learning Simulation Training and User Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rackler, Angeline

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in e-learning development is to have subject matter experts use rapid development tools to create training simulations. This type of training is called rapid e-learning simulation training. Though companies are using rapid development tools to create training quickly and cost effectively, there is little empirical research to indicate…

  1. Rapid E-Learning Simulation Training and User Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rackler, Angeline

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in e-learning development is to have subject matter experts use rapid development tools to create training simulations. This type of training is called rapid e-learning simulation training. Though companies are using rapid development tools to create training quickly and cost effectively, there is little empirical research to indicate…

  2. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  3. Air elimination capability in rapid infusion systems.

    PubMed

    Zoremba, N; Gruenewald, C; Zoremba, M; Rossaint, R; Schaelte, G

    2011-11-01

    Pressure infusion devices are used in clinical practice to apply large volumes of fluid over a short period of time. Although air infusion is a major complication, they have limited capability to detect and remove air during pressure infusion. In this investigation, we tested the air elimination capabilities of the Fluido(®) (The Surgical Company), Level 1(®) (Level 1 Technologies Inc.) and Ranger(®) (Augustine Medical GmbH) pressure infusion devices. Measurements were undertaken with a crystalloid solution during an infusion flow of 100, 200, 400 and 800 ml.min(-1). Four different volumes of air (25, 50, 100 and 200 ml) were injected as boluses in one experimental setting, or infused continuously over the time needed to perfuse 2 l saline in the other setting. The perfusion fluid was collected in an airtight infusion bag and the amount of air obtained in the bag was measured. The delivered air volume was negligible and would not cause any significant air embolism in all experiments. In our experimental setting, we found, during high flow, an increased amount of uneliminated air in all used devices compared with lower perfusion flows. All tested devices had a good air elimination capability. The use of ultrasonic air detection coupled with an automatic shutoff is a significant safety improvement and can reliably prevent accidental air embolism at rapid flows. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Sensor Webs: Autonomous Rapid Response to Monitor Transient Science Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan; Grosvenor, Sandra; Frye, Stu; Sherwood, Robert; Chien, Steve; Davies, Ashley; Cichy, Ben; Ingram, Mary Ann; Langley, John; Miranda, Felix

    2005-01-01

    To better understand how physical phenomena, such as volcanic eruptions, evolve over time, multiple sensor observations over the duration of the event are required. Using sensor web approaches that integrate original detections by in-situ sensors and global-coverage, lower-resolution, on-orbit assets with automated rapid response observations from high resolution sensors, more observations of significant events can be made with increased temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution. This paper describes experiments using Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) along with other space and ground assets to implement progressive mission autonomy to identify, locate and image with high resolution instruments phenomena such as wildfires, volcanoes, floods and ice breakup. The software that plans, schedules and controls the various satellite assets are used to form ad hoc constellations which enable collaborative autonomous image collections triggered by transient phenomena. This software is both flight and ground based and works in concert to run all of the required assets cohesively and includes software that is model-based, artificial intelligence software.

  5. Rapid Response Team composition, resourcing and calling criteria in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daryl; Drennan, Kelly; Hart, Graeme K; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Web, Steven A R

    2012-05-01

    Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) have been introduced into at least 60% of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) - equipped Australian hospitals to review deteriorating ward patients. Most studies have assessed their impact on patient outcome and less information exists on team composition or aspects of their calling criteria. We obtained information on team composition, resourcing and details of activation criteria from 39 of 108 (36.1%) RRT-equipped Australian hospitals. We found that all 39 teams operated 24/7 (h/days), but only 10 (25.6%) had received additional funding for the service. Although 38/39 teams, were physician-led medical emergency teams, in 7 (17.9%) sites the most senior member would be unlikely to have advanced airway skills. Three quarters of calling criteria were structured into "ABCD", and approximately 40% included cardiac and/or respiratory arrest as a calling criterion. Thresholds for calling criteria varied widely (particularly for respiratory rate and heart rate), as did the wording of the worried/concerned criterion. There was also wide variation in the number and nature of additional activation criteria. Our findings imply the likelihood of significant practice variation in relation to RRT composition, staff skill set and activation criteria between hospitals. We recommend improved resourcing of RRTs, training of the team members, and consideration for improved standardisation of calling criteria across institutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Collaborative Intervention of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Rapid Response Team.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacob; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-06-01

    On May 20th 2015, a 68 year old man was the first to be diagnosed with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) in Korea. He travelled to Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar for 16 days. On May 4th 2015, the patient entered Korea, with febrile sense and respiratory symptoms that appeared on May 11th. The MERS-CoV Outbreak became worse and several patients had to be admitted throughout various hospitals starting at the beginning of June. This situation led to a nationwide chaos. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) was organized after the Korean government's calling for specialists that were composed of 15 Infectious disease Doctors and 2 Infection Control professionals on the 8th of June 2015. The main purpose of the RRT were: 1) consultation to the Government controlling MERS-CoV outbreak. 2) Visit hospitals that were exposed to MERS-CoV infected patients, and to provide advice regarding infection control strategy for rehabilitating of the exposed hospitals. Since June 8th, the RRT visited more than 10 hospitals and an effective consultation was carried out. Most of the hospitals were recovering from the MERS outbreak since early July. Cooperation between the government and private sector experts was very effective. The efforts of government and private sector experts overcame the initial chaos situation. It could prevent further deterioration of the MERS outbreak.

  7. The epidemiology of adult Rapid Response Team patients in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jones, D

    2014-03-01

    Rapid Response Teams (RRT) are specialised teams that review deteriorating ward patients in an attempt to prevent morbidity and mortality. Most studies have assessed the effect of implementing an RRT into a hospital. There is much less literature on the characteristics and outcomes of RRT patients themselves. This article reviews the epidemiology of adult RRT patients in Australia and proposes three models of RRT syndromes. The number of RRT calls varies considerably in Australian hospitals from 1.35 to 71.3/1000 hospital admissions. Common causes of RRT calls include sepsis, atrial fibrillation, seizures and pulmonary oedema. Approximately 20% of patients to whom an RRT has responded have more than one RRT call, and up to one-third have issues around end-of-life care. Calls are least common overnight. Between 10 to 25% of patients are admitted to a critical care area after the call. The in-hospital mortality for RRT patients is approximately 25% overall but only 15% in patients without a limitation of medical therapy. RRT syndromes can be conceptually described by the trigger for the call (e.g. hypotension) or the clinical condition causing the call (e.g. sepsis). Alternatively, the RRT call can be described by the major theme of the call: "end-of-life care", "requiring critical care" and "stable enough to initially remain on the ward". Based on these themes, education strategies and quality improvement initiatives may be developed to reduce the incidence of RRT calls, further improving patient outcome.

  8. The Simulation-Based Assessment of Pediatric Rapid Response Teams.

    PubMed

    Fehr, James J; McBride, Mary E; Boulet, John R; Murray, David J

    2017-09-01

    To create scenarios of simulated decompensating pediatric patients to train pediatric rapid response teams (RRTs) and to determine whether the scenario scores provide a valid assessment of RRT performance with the hypothesis that RRTs led by intensivists-in-training would be better prepared to manage the scenarios than teams led by nurse practitioners. A set of 10 simulated scenarios was designed for the training and assessment of pediatric RRTs. Pediatric RRTs, comprising a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) registered nurse and respiratory therapist, led by a PICU intensivist-in-training or a pediatric nurse practitioner, managed 7 simulated acutely decompensating patients. Two raters evaluated the scenario performances and psychometric analyses of the scenarios were performed. The teams readily managed scenarios such as supraventricular tachycardia and opioid overdose but had difficulty with more complicated scenarios such as aortic coarctation or head injury. The management of any particular scenario was reasonably predictive of overall team performance. The teams led by the PICU intensivists-in-training outperformed the teams led by the pediatric nurse practitioners. Simulation provides a method for RRTs to develop decision-making skills in managing decompensating pediatric patients. The multiple scenario assessment provided a moderately reliable team score. The greater scores achieved by PICU intensivist-in-training-led teams provides some evidence to support the validity of the assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Design Concept for a Rapid Automatic Sync Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O.; Gallo, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    A design has been conceived for a system intended to provide rapid command sync acquisition between widely separated transmitter-receivers, such as between a spacecraft telemetry transmitter, and a ground-based receiver. Use of the system in commercial satellite communications would facilitate rapid sync acquisition between stations and regaining of data lock after interruption or equipment failure. The system is based on a rapid, automatic range-adjustment approach rather than the time-consuming cycle slipping or stepping techniques of conventional phase-locked loops.

  10. A rapid, precise, reciprocating-movement color filter system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillipps, P. G.; Epstein, P.; Donovan, G.; Lawhite, E.

    1972-01-01

    Unit was designed for moving color filters in and out of position in less than 46 ms. System may be used to record previously derived colors on photorecorder or to scan different color or wavelength components of rapidly passing scene, as in aerial reconnaissance. Rapid, precise reciprocating movement may be useful in purely mechanical and chemical applications.

  11. Nanostructured microfluidic digestion system for rapid high-performance proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gong; Hao, Si-Jie; Yu, Xu; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2015-02-07

    A novel microfluidic protein digestion system with a nanostructured and bioactive inner surface was constructed by an easy biomimetic self-assembly strategy for rapid and effective proteolysis in 2 minutes, which is faster than the conventional overnight digestion methods. It is expected that this work would contribute to rapid online digestion in future high-throughput proteomics.

  12. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  13. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  14. Are there rapid feedback effects on Approximate Number System acuity?

    PubMed

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Humans are believed to be equipped with an Approximate Number System (ANS) that supports non-symbolic representations of numerical magnitude. Correlations between individual measures of the precision of the ANS and mathematical ability have raised the question of whether the precision can be improved by feedback training. A study (DeWind and Brannon, 2012) reported improvement in discrimination precision occurring within 600-700 trials of feedback, suggesting ANS malleability with rapidly improving acuity in response to feedback. We tried to replicate the rapid improvement in a control group design, while controlling for the use of perceptual cues. The results indicate no learning effects, but a minor constant advantage for the feedback group. The measures of motivation suggest that feedback has a positive effect on motivation and that the difference in discrimination is due to the greater motivation of participants with feedback. These results suggest that at least for adults the number sense may not respond to feedback in the short-term.

  15. Camera Systems Rapidly Scan Large Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Needing a method to quickly scan large structures like an aircraft wing, Langley Research Center developed the line scanning thermography (LST) system. LST works in tandem with a moving infrared camera to capture how a material responds to changes in temperature. Princeton Junction, New Jersey-based MISTRAS Group Inc. now licenses the technology and uses it in power stations and industrial plants.

  16. Backflushing system rapidly cleans fluid filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descamp, V. A.; Boex, M. W.; Hussey, M. W.; Larson, T. P.

    1973-01-01

    Self contained unit can backflush filter elements in fraction of the time expended by presently used equipment. This innovation may be of interest to manufacturers of hydraulic and pneumatic systems as well as to chemical, food, processing, and filter manufacturing industries.

  17. Rapid Training System Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flesher, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A systematic self-assessment mirrors quality system and certification models, thus making a strong argument for high-quality design, control, and management of the training function. Accomplished for the ongoing betterment of the function, not as a summative judgment of conformance, it discovers strengths and weaknesses and results in a common…

  18. Rapid Training System Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flesher, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A systematic self-assessment mirrors quality system and certification models, thus making a strong argument for high-quality design, control, and management of the training function. Accomplished for the ongoing betterment of the function, not as a summative judgment of conformance, it discovers strengths and weaknesses and results in a common…

  19. The MODIS Rapid Response Project: Near-Real-Time Processing for Fire Monitoring and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descloitres, J.; Justice, C.; Sohlberg, R.; Giglio, L.; Schmaltz, J.; Seaton, J.; Davies, D.; Anyamba, A.; Hansen, M.; Carroll, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the Terra and Aqua satellites offers an unprecedented combination of daily spatial coverage, spatial resolution, and spectral characteristics. These capabilities make MODIS ideal to observe a variety of rapid events: active fires, floods, smoke transport, dust storms, severe storms, iceberg calving, and volcanic eruptions. The MODIS Rapid Response System (http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov) was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a rapid response to those events, with initial emphasis on active fire detection and 250m-resolution imagery. MODIS data for most of the Earth's land surface is processed just a few hours after data acquisition. A collaboration between NASA, the University of Maryland and the U.S.D.A. Forest Service has been developed to provide fire information derived from MODIS to federal fire managers. Active fire locations in the conterminous United States are produced by the MODIS Rapid Response System and communicated to the Forest Service within a few minutes of production. The MODIS Rapid Response processing was also adapted to Direct Broadcast to reduce the product turn-around to just minutes after data acquisition regionally. MODIS active fire locations are used by the Forest Service to generate regional fire maps over the United States, updated twice daily and provided to the fire managers to help them allocate firefighting resources. Active fire locations are also distributed in near-real-time to the Global Observation of Forest Cover (G.O.F.C.) user community through a web interface integrating MODIS active fire locations and Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) datasets. The suite of MODIS rapid fire products is currently being complemented with a Smoke Index product and a Burned Area product that will represent two new key tools available to the fire community. Finally a new collaboration with the U.S.D.A. Foreign Agricultural Service was

  20. ESTRADIOL RAPIDLY MODULATES ODOR RESPONSES IN MOUSE VOMERONASAL SENSORY NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    CHERIAN, S.; LAM, Y. WAI; MCDANIELS, I.; STRUZIAK, M.; DELAY, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    In rodents, many social behaviors are driven by the sense of smell. The vomeronasal organ (VNO), part of the accessory olfactory system mediates many of these chemically driven behaviors. The VNO is heavily vascularized, and is readily accessible to circulating peptide or steroid hormones. Potentially, this allows circulating hormones to alter behavior through modulating the output of the primary sensory neurons in the VNO, the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs). Based on this, we hypothesized that steroid hormones, in particular 17β-estradiol, would modulate activity of VSNs. In this paper, we show that the estrogen receptors, GPR30 and ERα, were present in VSNs and that estradiol may be synthesized locally in the VNO. Our results also showed that 17β-estradiol decreased responses of isolated VSNs to dilute urine, a potent natural stimulus, with respect to current amplitudes and depolarization. Further, 17β-estradiol increased the latency of the first action potential (AP) and the AP amplitude. Additionally, calcium responses to sulfated steroids (present in the low molecular weight fraction of urine) that act as ligands for apical vomeronasal receptors were decreased by 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, we show that estradiol modulates odorant responses mediated by VSNs and hence paves the way for future studies to better understand the mechanisms by which odorant mediated behavior is altered by endocrine status of the animal. PMID:24680884

  1. Rapid micro-PCR system for hepatitis C virus amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Young, Kung-Chia; Chang, Ting-Tsung; Wu, Ching-Yi

    2000-08-01

    A rapid micro-polymerase chain reaction ((mu) -PCR) system was integrated to amplify the complementary DNA (cDNA) molecules of hepatitis C virus (HCV). This system consists of a rapid thermal cycling system and a (mu) PCR chip fabricated by MEMS fabrication techniques. This rapid (mu) PCR system is verified by using serum samples from patients with chronic hepatitis C. The HCV amplicon of the rapid (mu) PCR system was analyzed by slab gel electrophoresis with separation of DNA marker in parallel. The (mu) PCR chip was fabricated on silicon wafer and Pyrex glass using photolithography, wet etching, and anodic bonding methods. Using silicon material to fabricate the raction well improves the temperature uniformity of sample and helps to reach the desired temperature faster. The rapid close loop thermal cycling system comprises power supplies, a thermal generator, a computer control PID controller, and a data acquisition subsystem. The thermoelectric (T.E.) cooler is used to work as the thermal generator and a heat sink by controlling the polarity of supplied power. The (mu) PCR system was verified with traditional PCR equipment by loading the same PCR mixture with HCV cDNA and running the same cycle numbers, then comparing both HCV amplicon slab gel electrophoresis. The HCV amplicon from the (mu) PCR system shows a DNA fragment with an expected size of 145 base pairs. The background is lower with the (mu) PCR system than that with the tradional PCR equipment. Comparing the traditional PCR equipment which spends 5.5 hours for 30 cycles to gain the detectable amount of HCV amplicon in slab gel separation, this (mu) PCR system takes 30 minutes to finish the 30 thermal cycles. This work has demonstrated that this rapid (mu) PCR system can provide rapid heat generation and dissipation, improved temperature uniformity in DNA amplification.

  2. Application of NASA technology to a rapid transit system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, E. R.; Beck, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    NASA has established a new technology utilization program which involves full time, on-site contact with the user and is currently being applied in the development of the Metropolitan Dade County (Florida) Rapid Transit System. The NASA representative identifies technical problems while participating in daily activities and then draws on the agency's expertise to assist in solutions. NASA expertise assists in the construction of the rapid transit system in the areas of corrosion, solar energy utilization, quality assurance, and fire retardation.

  3. Acute Decompensation in Pediatric Cardiac Patients: Outcomes After Rapid Response Events.

    PubMed

    Bavare, Aarti C; Rafie, Kimia S; Bastero, Patricia X; Hagan, Joseph L; Checchia, Paul A

    2017-05-01

    We studied rapid response events after acute clinical instability outside ICU settings in pediatric cardiac patients. Our objective was to describe the characteristics and outcomes after rapid response events in this high-risk cohort and elucidate the cardiac conditions and risk factors associated with worse outcomes. A retrospective single-center study was carried out over a 3-year period from July 2011 to June 2014. Referral high-volume pediatric cardiac center located within a tertiary academic pediatric hospital. All rapid response events that occurred during the study period were reviewed to identify rapid response events in cardiac patients. None. We reviewed 1,906 rapid response events to identify 152 rapid response events that occurred in 127 pediatric cardiac patients. Congenital heart disease was the baseline diagnosis in 74% events (single ventricle, 28%; biventricle physiology, 46%). Seventy-four percent had a cardiac surgery before rapid response, 37% had ICU stay within previous 7 days, and acute kidney injury was noted in 41% post rapid response. Cardiac and/or pulmonary arrest occurred during rapid response in 8.5%. Overall, 81% were transferred to ICU, 22% had critical deterioration (ventilation or vasopressors within 12 hr of transfer), and 56% received such support and/or invasive procedures within 72 hours. Mortality within 30 days post event was 14%. Significant outcome associations included: single ventricle physiology-increased need for invasive procedures and mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 2.58; p = 0.02); multiple rapid response triggers-increased ICU transfer and interventions at 72 hours; critical deterioration-cardiopulmonary arrest and mortality; and acute kidney injury-cardiopulmonary arrest and need for hemodynamic support. Congenital heart disease, previous cardiac surgery, and recent discharge from ICU were common among pediatric cardiac rapid responses. Progression to cardiopulmonary arrest during rapid response, need for ICU

  4. Spectrophotometric Rapid-Response Classification of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Butler, Nat; Axelrod, Tim; Moskovitz, Nick; Jedicke, Robert; Pichardo, Barbara; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Small NEOs are, as a whole, poorly characterized, and we know nothing about the physical properties of the majority of all NEOs. The rate of NEO discoveries is increasing each year, and projects to determine the physical properties of NEOs are lagging behind. NEOs are faint, and generally even fainter by the time that follow-up characterizations can be made days or weeks after their discovery. There is a need for a high-throughput, high-efficiency physical characterization strategy in which hundreds of faint NEOs can be characterized each year. Broadband photometry in the near-infrared is sufficiently diagnostic to assign taxonomic types, and hence constrain both the individual and ensemble properties of NEOs.We present results from our rapid response near-infrared spectrophotometric characterization program of NEOs. We are using UKIRT (on Mauna Kea) and the RATIR instrument on the 1.5m telescope at the San Pedro Martir Observatory (Mexico) to allow us to make observations most nights of the year in robotic/queue mode. We derive taxonomic classifications for our targets using machine-learning techniques that are trained on a large sample of measured asteroid spectra. For each target we assign a probability for it to belong to a number of different taxa. Target selection, observation, data reduction, and analysis are highly automated, requiring only a minimum of user interaction, making this technique powerful and fast. Our targets are NEOs that are generally too faint for other characterization techniques, or would require many hours of large telescope time.

  5. Stigma in Canada: Results From a Rapid Response Survey

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Heather; Patten, Scott B; Koller, Michelle; Modgill, Geeta; Liinamaa, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our paper presents findings from the first population survey of stigma in Canada using a new measure of stigma. Empirical objectives are to provide a descriptive profile of Canadian’s expectations that people will devalue and discriminate against someone with depression, and to explore the relation between experiences of being stigmatized in the year prior to the survey among people having been treated for a mental illness with a selected number of sociodemographic and mental health–related variables. Method: Data were collected by Statistics Canada using a rapid response format on a representative sample of Canadians (n = 10 389) during May and June of 2010. Public expectations of stigma and personal experiences of stigma in the subgroup receiving treatment for a mental illness were measured. Results: Over one-half of the sample endorsed 1 or more of the devaluation discrimination items, indicating that they believed Canadians would stigmatize someone with depression. The item most frequently endorsed concerned employers not considering an application from someone who has had depression. Over one-third of people who had received treatment in the year prior to the survey reported discrimination in 1 or more life domains. Experiences of discrimination were strongly associated with perceptions that Canadians would devalue someone with depression, younger age (12 to 15 years), and self-reported poor general mental health. Conclusions: The Mental Health Experiences Module reflects an important partnership between 2 national organizations that will help Canada fulfill its monitoring obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and provide a legacy to researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monitoring changes in stigma over time. PMID:25565699

  6. Rapid-Response Impulsivity: Definitions, Measurement Issues, and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Kristen R.; Littlefield, Andrew K.; Anastasio, Noelle C.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.; Fink, Latham H.; Wing, Victoria C.; Mathias, Charles W.; Lane, Scott D.; Schutz, Christian; Swann, Alan C.; Lejuez, C.W.; Clark, Luke; Moeller, F. Gerard; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity is a multi-faceted construct that is a core feature of multiple psychiatric conditions and personality disorders. However, progress in understanding and treating impulsivity in the context of these conditions is limited by a lack of precision and consistency in its definition and assessment. Rapid-response-impulsivity (RRI) represents a tendency toward immediate action that occurs with diminished forethought and is out of context with the present demands of the environment. Experts from the International Society for Research on Impulsivity (InSRI) met to discuss and evaluate RRI-measures in terms of reliability, sensitivity, and validity with the goal of helping researchers and clinicians make informed decisions about the use and interpretation of findings from RRI-measures. Their recommendations are described in this manuscript. Commonly-used clinical and preclinical RRI-tasks are described, and considerations are provided to guide task selection. Tasks measuring two conceptually and neurobiologically distinct types of RRI, “refraining from action initiation” (RAI) and “stopping an ongoing action” (SOA) are described. RAI and SOA-tasks capture distinct aspects of RRI that may relate to distinct clinical outcomes. The InSRI group recommends that: 1) selection of RRI-measures should be informed by careful consideration of the strengths, limitations, and practical considerations of the available measures; 2) researchers use both RAI and SOA tasks in RRI studies to allow for direct comparison of RRI types and examination of their associations with clinically relevant measures; and, 3) similar considerations should be made for human and non-human studies in an effort to harmonize and integrate pre-clinical and clinical research. PMID:25867840

  7. Stigma in Canada: results from a rapid response survey.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather; Patten, Scott B; Koller, Michelle; Modgill, Geeta; Liinamaa, Tiina

    2014-10-01

    Our paper presents findings from the first population survey of stigma in Canada using a new measure of stigma. Empirical objectives are to provide a descriptive profile of Canadian's expectations that people will devalue and discriminate against someone with depression, and to explore the relation between experiences of being stigmatized in the year prior to the survey among people having been treated for a mental illness with a selected number of sociodemographic and mental health-related variables. Data were collected by Statistics Canada using a rapid response format on a representative sample of Canadians (n = 10 389) during May and June of 2010. Public expectations of stigma and personal experiences of stigma in the subgroup receiving treatment for a mental illness were measured. Over one-half of the sample endorsed 1 or more of the devaluation discrimination items, indicating that they believed Canadians would stigmatize someone with depression. The item most frequently endorsed concerned employers not considering an application from someone who has had depression. Over one-third of people who had received treatment in the year prior to the survey reported discrimination in 1 or more life domains. Experiences of discrimination were strongly associated with perceptions that Canadians would devalue someone with depression, younger age (12 to 15 years), and self-reported poor general mental health. The Mental Health Experiences Module reflects an important partnership between 2 national organizations that will help Canada fulfill its monitoring obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and provide a legacy to researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monitoring changes in stigma over time.

  8. Rapid versus non-rapid cycling bipolar II depression: response to venlafaxine and lithium and hypomanic risk.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Luaces, L; Amsterdam, J D; Soeller, I; DeRubeis, R J

    2016-06-01

    To examine the safety and effectiveness of antidepressant versus mood stabilizer monotherapy in rapid versus non-rapid cycling bipolar II disorder. Subjects ≥18 years old with bipolar II depression (n = 129) were randomized to double-blind venlafaxine or lithium carbonate monotherapy for 12 weeks. Responders (n = 59) received continuation monotherapy for six additional months. Rapid cycling did not affect frequency of response or change over time in depressive symptoms. Rapid cycling status did not affect frequency of depressive relapse or sustained treatment response. Rapid cyclers were more likely to experience hypomanic symptoms (P = 0.005) during continuation monotherapy; however, rates were similar in venlafaxine (17.6%) and lithium (42.9%) (P = 0.31). Rapid cycling status may not be associated with an increased risk of diminished response or greater depressive relapse during venlafaxine, relative to lithium monotherapy, in bipolar II subjects. Additional randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Biological and psychological responses to two rapid shiftwork schedules.

    PubMed

    Lac, G; Chamoux, A

    2004-10-10

    This study presents the biological responses to shiftwork in two groups of workers with different shiftwork rotas. Biological responses were studied by recording the heart rate and the changes in the circadian profile of salivary cortisol over 24 h (RIA assays). Various items were recorded through questionnaires aimed at determining self appreciation of sleep quantity, stress, health, satisfaction at work and in private lives. Thirty two male subjects aged from 23 to 56, working for the same company, having given their informed consent, took part in the study. The study was carried out under realistic conditions (at the work place) under the control of an occupational physician. Sixteen day-workers (8 am-6 pm) served as a reference group. Eight shiftworkers included in alternate schedules (morning M 4 am-12 am, evening E 12 am-8 pm, night N 8 pm-4 am) according to a system M, S, N 3/2, (3 work, 2 rest) and eight according to a system 7/5 (3M/2S/2N/5R, 2/3/2/5, 2/2/3/5) constituted the groups of shiftworkers respectively named 3/2 and 7/5. All subjects had comparable ages and BMIs. Shiftworkers expressed a higher stress level and frequency of health problems and a lower satisfaction at work than the control. Among the three groups, the 7/5 group had the best health and fitness score and was in need of less sleep. Heart rate was not affected by shift work. Conversely, consistent changes appeared in cortisol circadian profiles, the greatest changes appearing for the night shift and among the two groups of shiftworkers, more particularly for the 7/5 group. These changes correlated with self-perceived constraints of work and showed the difficulties of adaptation to shiftwork.

  10. NASA MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic levitation, a form of containerless processing, is an important tool in materials research. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container; therefore, heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is not possible. This allows studies of deeply undercooled melts. Furthermore, studies of high-temperature, highly reactive materials are also possible. Studies of the solidification and crystallization of undercooled melts is vital to the understanding of microstructure development, particularly the formation of alloys with unique properties by rapid solidification. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) lab has recently been upgraded to allow for rapid quenching of levitated materials. The ESL Rapid Quench System uses a small crucible-like vessel that can be partially filled with a low melting point material, such as a Gallium alloy, as a quench medium. An undercooled sample can be dropped into the vessel to rapidly quench the sample. A carousel with nine vessels sits below the bottom electrode assembly. This system allows up to nine rapid quenches before having to break vacuum and remove the vessels. This new Rapid Quench System will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and initial results are presented.

  11. Rapid Response Measurements of Hurricane Waves and Storm Surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravois, U.

    2010-12-01

    Andrew (1992), Katrina (2005), and Ike (2008) are recent examples of extensive damage that resulted from direct hurricane landfall. Some of the worst damages from these hurricanes are caused by wind driven waves and storm surge flooding. The potential for more hurricane disasters like these continues to increase as a result of population growth and real estate development in low elevation coastal regions. Observational measurements of hurricane waves and storm surge play an important role in future mitigation efforts, yet permanent wave buoy moorings and tide stations are more sparse than desired. This research has developed a rapid response method using helicopters to install temporary wave and surge gauges ahead of hurricane landfall. These temporary installations, with target depths from 10-15 m and 1-7 km offshore depending on the local shelf slope, increase the density of measurement points where the worst conditions are expected. The method has progressed to an operational state and has successfully responded to storms Ernesto (2006), Noel (2007), Fay (2008), Gustav (2008), Hanna (2008) and Ike (2008). The temporary gauges are pressure data loggers that measure at 1 Hz continuously for 12 days and are post-processed to extract surge and wave information. For the six storms studied, 45 out of 49 sensors were recovered by boat led scuba diver search teams, with 43 providing useful data for an 88 percent success rate. As part of the 20 sensor Hurricane Gustav response, sensors were also deployed in lakes and bays inLouisiana, east of the Mississippi river delta. Gustav was the largest deployment to date. Generally efforts were scaled back for storms that were not anticipated to be highly destructive. For example, the cumulative total of sensors deployed for Ernesto, Noel, Fay and Hanna was only 20. Measurement locations for Gustav spanned over 800 km of exposed coastline from Louisiana to Florida with sensors in close proximity to landfall near Cocodrie

  12. Animation of Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transport System (HERTS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-20

    Animation of Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transport System (HERTS) concept. NASA engineers are conducting tests to develop models for the Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transport System. HERTS builds upon the electric sail invention of Dr. Pekka Janhunen of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. An electric sail could potentially send scientific payloads to the edge of our solar system, the heliopause, in less than 10 years. The research is led by Bruce M. Wiegmann, an engineer in the Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The HERTS E-Sail development and testing is funded by NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate through the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts Program.

  13. Multi-agent System for Rapid TST Decision Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    13th ICCRTS: C2 for Complex Endeavors “ Multi - agent System for Rapid TST Decision Support” Topic #5, #8 and #9 Joseph Barker, Dr. Robert...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multi - agent System for...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 13th ICCRTS: C2 for Complex Endeavors Multi - agent System for Rapid TST Decision

  14. RapidEye satellite based geo-information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischke, M.; Niemeyer, W.; Scherer, S.

    2000-03-01

    It has been found that the ability to offer a guaranteed delivery of information products is the key for any successful commercial Earth observation service. This understanding led to the definition of the RapidEye system and the foundation of the RapidEye AG. RapidEye is a satellite based remote sensing system which permits to have from any point on Earth, at least daily a multispectral (and optionally stereo) imaging capability with a resolution of 5-7 m. It is aimed at establishing an efficient operation for the rapid and accurate reception and processing of thematic information of the Earth's surface and to establish a reliable and sustained service for customers. RapidEye is set up in several steps. The individual steps can be realised according to the system's acceptance on the market. Four satellites are planned already for the first step which permits a revisiting rate of 1/day. In its final configuration, RapidEye consists of a chain of Earth observation satellites which optionally communicate with one another via communication links.

  15. Developing an Inclusive System in a Rapidly Changing European Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drudy, Sheelagh; Kinsella, William

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses Ireland--one of Europe's most rapidly changing societies--as a case study and examines progress towards an inclusive education system. It explores policy and progress on developing an inclusive system under a number of key headings: social class, ethnicity, gender and disability. On the basis of analysis of official statistics and…

  16. Research and Development of Rapid Design Systems for Aerospace Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffer, Harry G.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of research activities associated with the development of rapid design systems for aerospace structures in support of the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). The specific subsystems investigated were the interface between model assembly and analysis; and, the high performance NASA GPS equation solver software system in the Windows NT environment on low cost high-performance PCs.

  17. A Rapid Response Study of the Hercules Gas Well Blowout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joye, Samantha B.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Murawski, Steven A.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.; Wade, Terry L.; Montuoro, Raffaele; Roberts, Brian J.; Hollander, David J.; Jeffrey, Wade H.; Chanton, Jeffery P.

    2014-09-01

    On 20 April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig lost well control while drilling at the Macondo prospect in the Gulf of Mexico. At the time of the Macondo blowout, the academic scientific community was ill prepared to initiate and rapidly conduct the necessary coordinated interdisciplinary studies of the environments around the discharge area.

  18. Near-infrared instrumentation for rapid-response astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, John Isaac

    gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the Universe's most luminous transient events. Since the discovery of GRBs was announced in 1973, efforts have been ongoing to obtain data over a broader range of the electromagnetic spectrum at the earliest possible times following the initial detection. The discovery of the theorized "afterglow'' emission in radio through X-ray bands in the late 1990s confirmed the cosmological nature of these events. At present, GRB afterglows are among the best probes of the early Universe (z ≥ 9). In addition to informing theories about GRBs themselves, observations of afterglows probe the circum-burst medium (CBM), properties of the host galaxies and the progress of cosmic reionization. To explore the early-time variability of afterglows, I have developed a generalized analysis framework which models near-infrared (NIR), optical, ultra-violet (UV) and X-ray light curves without assuming an underlying model. These fits are then used to construct the spectral energy distribution (SED) of afterglows at arbitrary times within the observed window. Physical models are then used to explore the evolution of the SED parameter space with time. I demonstrate that this framework produces evidence of the photodestruction of dust in the CBM of GRB 120119A, similar to the findings from a previous study of this afterglow. The framework is additionally applied to the afterglows of GRB 140419A and GRB 080607. In these cases the evolution of the SEDs appears consistent with the standard fireball model. Having introduced the scientific motivations for early-time observations, I introduce the Rapid Infrared Imager-Spectrometer (RIMAS). Once commissioned on the 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT), RIMAS will be used to study the afterglows of GRBs through photometric and spectroscopic observations beginning within minutes of the initial burst. The instrument will operate in the NIR, from 0.97 microm to 2.37 microm, permitting the detection of very high

  19. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Donald W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco R.

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  20. The Requirements and Design of the Rapid Prototyping Capabilities System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, T. A.; Moorhead, R.; O'Hara, C.; Anantharaj, V.

    2006-12-01

    cyberinfrastructure must support organizing computations (or "data transformations" in general) into complex workflows with resource discovery, automatic resource allocation, monitoring, preserving provenance as well as to aggregate heterogeneous, distributed data into knowledge databases. Such service orchestration is the responsibility of the "collective services" layer. For RPC, this layer will be based on Java Business Integration (JBI, [JSR-208]) specification which is a standards-based integration platform that combines messaging, web services, data transformation, and intelligent routing to reliably connect and coordinate the interaction of significant numbers of diverse applications (plug-in components) across organizational boundaries. JBI concept is a new approach to integration that can provide the underpinnings for loosely coupled, highly distributed integration network that can scale beyond the limits of currently used hub-and-spoke brokers. This presentation discusses the requirements, design and early prototype of the NASA-sponsored RPC system under development at Mississippi State University, demonstrating the integration of data provisioning mechanisms, data transformation tools and computational models into a single interoperable system enabling rapid execution of RPC experiments.

  1. Effectiveness of rapid rail transit system in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hui-Min; Ning, Yi-Zi; Ma, Xiaoke; Liu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, and the benefit of different regions from RRTS is gradually decreased from the north to the south. The paper concluded with some policy suggestions regarding how to promote the system. This study offered significant insight that can help understand the public transportation better. The methodology can be easily applied to analyze other urban public systems, such as electricity grid, water system, to develop more livable cities. PMID:28704376

  2. Effectiveness of rapid rail transit system in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hui-Min; Ning, Yi-Zi; Ma, Xiaoke; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, and the benefit of different regions from RRTS is gradually decreased from the north to the south. The paper concluded with some policy suggestions regarding how to promote the system. This study offered significant insight that can help understand the public transportation better. The methodology can be easily applied to analyze other urban public systems, such as electricity grid, water system, to develop more livable cities.

  3. Structure Design and Realization of Rapid Medicine Dispensing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangquan

    In this paper, the main components and function of rapid medicine dispensing system is analyzed, structure design of automatic feeding device, sloping storeroom, automatic dispensing device and automatic sorting device is completed. The system adopts medicine conveyer working in with manipulator to realize automatic batch supply of the boxed medicine, adopts sloping storeroom as warehouse of medicine to realize dense depositing, adopts dispensing mechanism which includes elevator, turning panel and electric magnet to realize rapid medicine dispensing, adopts sorting conveyor belt and sorting device to send medicine to designated outlet.

  4. Rapid Response Predicts Treatment Outcomes in Binge Eating Disorder: Implications for Stepped Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response in 75 overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments (cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBTgsh] and behavioral weight loss [BWLgsh]). Rapid response, defined as a 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week,…

  5. Rapid Response Predicts Treatment Outcomes in Binge Eating Disorder: Implications for Stepped Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response in 75 overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments (cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBTgsh] and behavioral weight loss [BWLgsh]). Rapid response, defined as a 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week,…

  6. Rapid response to eating disorder treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Linardon, Jake; Brennan, Leah; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl

    2016-10-01

    This review aimed to (a) examine the effects of rapid response on behavioral, cognitive, and weight-gain outcomes across the eating disorders, (b) determine whether diagnosis, treatment modality, the type of rapid response (changes in disordered eating cognitions or behaviors), or the type of behavioral outcome moderated this effect, and (c) identify factors that predict a rapid response. Thirty-four articles met inclusion criteria from six databases. End of treatment and follow-up outcomes were divided into three categories: Behavioral (binge eating/purging), cognitive (EDE global scores), and weight gain. Average weighted effect sizes(r) were calculated. Rapid response strongly predicted better end of treatment and follow-up cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Moderator analyses showed that the effect size for rapid response on behavioral outcomes was larger when studies included both binge eating and purging (as opposed to just binge eating) as a behavioral outcome. Diagnosis, treatment modality, and the type of rapid response experienced did not moderate the relationship between early response and outcome. The evidence for weight gain was mixed. None of the baseline variables analyzed (eating disorder psychopathology, demographics, BMI, and depression scores) predicted a rapid response. As there is a solid evidence base supporting the prognostic importance of rapid response, the focus should shift toward identifying the within-treatment mechanisms that predict a rapid response so that the effectiveness of eating disorder treatment can be improved. There is a need for future research to use theories of eating disorders as a guide to assess within-treatment predictors of rapid response. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:905-919. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Rapid calcitonin response to experimental hypercalcemia in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Rourke, K M; Kohn, C W; Levine, A L; Rosol, T J; Toribio, R E

    2009-05-01

    Calcium has important physiological functions, and disorders of calcium homeostasis are frequent in horses. We have made important progress understanding equine calcium homeostasis; however, limited information on equine calcitonin (CT) is available, in part because of the lack of validated CT assays. To determine the CT response to high ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations in healthy horses, we induced hypercalcemia in 10 healthy horses using a calcium gluconate 23% solution (5mg/kg; 120 mL/500 kg horse) infused over 4 min. Four horses were infused with 120 mL of 0.9% NaCl and used as controls. We validated a human-specific CT radioimmunoassay for use in horses. Serum Ca(2+) concentrations increased from 6.2+/-0.3mg/dL to 9.9+/-0.5mg/dL (4 min; P<0.01). Serum CT increased from 16.7+/-8.0 pg/mL to 87.1+/-55.8 pg/mL at 2 min, and 102.5+/-51.1 pg/mL at 4 min (P<0.01). Serum CT returned to baseline by 20 min, whereas serum Ca(2+) returned to baseline by 40 min. Of interest, CT concentrations returned to baseline despite hypercalcemia, suggesting thyroid gland C-cell CT depletion. Resting CT values higher than 40 pg/mL were considered abnormally elevated. No significant changes in serum Ca(2+) or CT concentrations were found in control horses. The coefficients of variation for the CT radioimmunoassay were lower than 11.9%. We conclude that the equine thyroid gland C-cell responds quickly to changes in extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations by secreting large quantities of CT into the systemic circulation, indicating that CT is important in equine calcium homeostasis. The human CT radioimmunoassay can be used to measure changes in equine CT.

  8. Hyperspectral Cubesat Constellation for Rapid Natural Hazard Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, D.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Ly, V. T.; Handy, M.; Ong, L.; Crum, G.

    2015-12-01

    With the advent of high performance space networks that provide total coverage for Cubesats, the paradigm for low cost, high temporal coverage with hyperspectral instruments becomes more feasible. The combination of ground cloud computing resources, high performance with low power consumption onboard processing, total coverage for the cubesats and social media provide an opprotunity for an architecture that provides cost-effective hyperspectral data products for natural hazard response and decision support. This paper provides a series of pathfinder efforts to create a scalable Intelligent Payload Module(IPM) that has flown on a variety of airborne vehicles including Cessna airplanes, Citation jets and a helicopter and will fly on an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) hexacopter to monitor natural phenomena. The IPM's developed thus far were developed on platforms that emulate a satellite environment which use real satellite flight software, real ground software. In addition, science processing software has been developed that perform hyperspectral processing onboard using various parallel processing techniques to enable creation of onboard hyperspectral data products while consuming low power. A cubesat design was developed that is low cost and that is scalable to larger consteallations and thus can provide daily hyperspectral observations for any spot on earth. The design was based on the existing IPM prototypes and metrics that were developed over the past few years and a shrunken IPM that can perform up to 800 Mbps throughput. Thus this constellation of hyperspectral cubesats could be constantly monitoring spectra with spectral angle mappers after Level 0, Level 1 Radiometric Correction, Atmospheric Correction processing. This provides the opportunity daily monitoring of any spot on earth on a daily basis at 30 meter resolution which is not available today.

  9. Nursing students' clinical judgment regarding rapid response: the influence of a clinical simulation education intervention.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Pamela L; Jenkins, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a novel educational intervention on student nurses' clinical judgment regarding the management of patients experiencing rapid clinical deterioration. A randomized sample of baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in the final semester of their program at a midwestern public university participated. All students (N = 79) were pretested; the control group (n = 39) was posttested after receiving traditional code blue and rapid response education. The intervention group (n = 40) was posttested after receiving a novel education intervention. An independent t-test revealed that nursing students who received the innovative education intervention had significantly higher posttest scores (M = 90.91, standard deviation [SD] = 8.73) than did the nursing students who had not received the intervention (M = 64.80, SD = 19.69), t(77) = 7.65, p <.001). The findings demonstrate that clinical simulation is effective in improving students' knowledge and clinical judgment, specifically concerning rapid response systems. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2004-09-14

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  11. Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System

    SciTech Connect

    Rue, David M.

    2015-06-17

    This report describes work on Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System under US Department of Energy Contract DE-FC36-06GO16010. The project lead was the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). Partners included Owens Corning and Johns Manville. Cost share for this project was provided by NYSERDA (the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority), Owens Corning, Johns Manville, Owens Illinois, and the US natural gas industry through GTI’s SMP and UTD programs. The overreaching focus of this project was to study and develop rapid refining approaches for segmented glass manufacturing processes using high-intensity melters such as the submerged combustion melter. The objectives of this project were to 1) test and evaluate the most promising approaches to rapidly condition the homogeneous glass produced from the submerged combustion melter, and 2) to design a pilot-scale NGMS system for fiberglass recycle.

  12. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Doan, Tien M.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  13. Caspase-11 stimulates rapid flagellin-independent pyroptosis in response to Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Case, Christopher L; Kohler, Lara J; Lima, Jonilson B; Strowig, Till; de Zoete, Marcel R; Flavell, Richard A; Zamboni, Dario S; Roy, Craig R

    2013-01-29

    A flagellin-independent caspase-1 activation pathway that does not require NAIP5 or NRLC4 is induced by the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Here we demonstrate that this pathway requires caspase-11. Treatment of macrophages with LPS up-regulated the host components required for this caspase-11 activation pathway. Activation by Legionella differed from caspase-11 activation using previously described agonists in that Legionella caspase-11 activation was rapid and required bacteria with a functional type IV secretion system called Dot/Icm. Legionella activation of caspase-11 induced pyroptosis by a mechanism independent of the NAIP/NLRC4 and caspase-1 axis. Legionella activation of caspase-11 stimulated activation of caspase-1 through NLRP3 and ASC. Induction of caspase-11-dependent responses occurred in macrophages deficient in the adapter proteins TRIF or MyD88 but not in macrophages deficient in both signaling factors. Although caspase-11 was produced in macrophages deficient in the type-I IFN receptor, there was a severe defect in caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis in these cells. These data indicate that macrophages respond to microbial signatures to produce proteins that mediate a capsase-11 response and that the caspase-11 system provides an alternative pathway for rapid detection of an intracellular pathogen capable of evading the canonical caspase-1 activation system that responds to bacterial flagellin.

  14. Developing Collective Learning Extension for Rapidly Evolving Information System Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Nitin; Ahmed, Faysal

    2017-01-01

    Due to rapidly evolving Information System (IS) technologies, instructors find themselves stuck in the constant game of catching up. On the same hand students find their skills obsolete almost as soon as they graduate. As part of IS curriculum and education, we need to emphasize more on teaching the students "how to learn" while keeping…

  15. Developing Collective Learning Extension for Rapidly Evolving Information System Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Nitin; Ahmed, Faysal

    2017-01-01

    Due to rapidly evolving Information System (IS) technologies, instructors find themselves stuck in the constant game of catching up. On the same hand students find their skills obsolete almost as soon as they graduate. As part of IS curriculum and education, we need to emphasize more on teaching the students "how to learn" while keeping…

  16. Preliminary results using a rapid photographic wake traverse system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earnshaw, P. B.

    1983-11-01

    A rapid photographic wake traverse system was constructed for a 4 ft x 3 ft wind tunnel in order to assess the feasibility of, and design requirements for, a similar equipment to suit a 5 m wind tunnel. Sample photographs using a gothic wing and a Harrier model with and without stores show the ease with which useful information can be acquired.

  17. [Responses of tomato leaf photosynthesis to rapid water stress].

    PubMed

    Han, Guo-Jun; Chen, Nian-lai; Huang, Hai-xia; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Yan-hong

    2013-04-01

    By using polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) solution to regulate the water potential of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) rhizosphere to simulate water stress, this paper studied the dynamic changes of net photosynthetic rate, dark respiratory rate and CO2 compensatory concentration of detached tomato leaves in the process of photosynthetic induction. Under 1000 micromol m-2 s-1 of light induction, the time required to reach the maximum net photosynthetic rate of water-stressed tomato leaves was shortened by 1/3, while the stomatal conductance was increased by 1.5 times, as compared to the non-stress control. Also, the light saturation point (LSP) of water-stressed tomato leaves was lowered by 65% to 85%, and the light compensation point (LCP) was increased by 75% to 100%, suggesting that the effective range of light utilized by tomato leaves was reduced. Furthermore, water stress decreased the maximum photosynthetic capacity of tomato leaves by 40%, but increased the dark respiration rate by about 45% . It was suggested that rapid water stress made the stomata of tomato leaves quickly opened, without initial photosynthetic induction stage. In conclusion, water stress could induce the decrease of plant light-energy use efficiency and potential, being the main reason for the decrease of plant productivity, and stomatal regulation could be the main physiological mechanism of tomato plants to adapt to rapid water stress.

  18. Microelectromechanical high-density energy storage/rapid release system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    1999-08-01

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  19. Modular, Rapid Propellant Loading System/Cryogenic Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Walter, Sr.; Jumper, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Cryogenic Test Laboratory (CTL) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has designed, fabricated, and installed a modular, rapid propellant-loading system to simulate rapid loading of a launch-vehicle composite or standard cryogenic tank. The system will also function as a cryogenic testbed for testing and validating cryogenic innovations and ground support equipment (GSE) components. The modular skid-mounted system is capable of flow rates of liquid nitrogen from 1 to 900 gpm (approx equals 3.8 to 3,400 L/min), of pressures from ambient to 225 psig (approx equals 1.5 MPa), and of temperatures to -320 F (approx equals -195 C). The system can be easily validated to flow liquid oxygen at a different location, and could be easily scaled to any particular vehicle interface requirements

  20. An allele-specific PCR system for rapid detection and discrimination of the CYP2C19∗4A, ∗4B, and ∗17 alleles: implications for clopidogrel response testing.

    PubMed

    Scott, Stuart A; Tan, Qian; Baber, Usman; Yang, Yao; Martis, Suparna; Bander, Jeffrey; Kornreich, Ruth; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Desnick, Robert J

    2013-11-01

    CYP2C19 is involved in the metabolism of clinically relevant drugs, including the antiplatelet prodrug clopidogrel, which has prompted interest in clinical CYP2C19 genotyping. The CYP2C19∗4B allele is defined by both gain-of-function [c.-806C>T (∗17)] and loss-of-function [c.1A>G (∗4)] variants on the same haplotype; however, current genotyping and sequencing assays are unable to determine the phase of these variants. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop an assay that could rapidly detect and discriminate the related ∗4A, ∗4B, and ∗17 alleles. An allele-specific PCR assay, composed of four unique primer mixes that specifically interrogate the defining ∗17 and ∗4 variants, was developed by using samples (n = 20) with known genotypes, including the ∗4A, ∗4B, and/or ∗17 alleles. The assay was validated by testing 135 blinded samples, and the results were correlated with CYP2C19 genotyping and allele-specific cloning/sequencing. Importantly, among the six ∗4 carriers in the validation cohort, after allele-specific PCR testing both samples with a ∗1/∗4 genotype were reclassified to ∗1/∗4A, all three samples with a ∗4/∗17 genotype were reclassified to ∗1/∗4B, and a sample with a ∗4/∗17/∗17 genotype was reclassified to ∗4B/∗17. In conclusion, this rapid and robust allele-specific PCR assay can refine CYP2C19 genotyping and metabolizer phenotype classification by determining the phase of the defining ∗17 and ∗4 variants, which may have utility when testing CYP2C19 for clopidogrel response.

  1. RAPID: A random access picture digitizer, display, and memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakimovsky, Y.; Rayfield, M.; Eskenazi, R.

    1976-01-01

    RAPID is a system capable of providing convenient digital analysis of video data in real-time. It has two modes of operation. The first allows for continuous digitization of an EIA RS-170 video signal. Each frame in the video signal is digitized and written in 1/30 of a second into RAPID's internal memory. The second mode leaves the content of the internal memory independent of the current input video. In both modes of operation the image contained in the memory is used to generate an EIA RS-170 composite video output signal representing the digitized image in the memory so that it can be displayed on a monitor.

  2. Rapid eco-evolutionary responses in perturbed phytoplankton communities.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Geneviève; Walsh, David A; Beisner, Beatrix E

    2015-09-07

    Biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats owing to species extinctions. Ecologically, compensatory dynamics can ensure stable community biomass following perturbation. However, whether there is a contribution of genetic diversity to community responses is an outstanding question. To date, the contribution of evolutionary processes through genotype shifts has not been assessed in naturally co-occurring multi-species communities in the field. We examined the mechanisms contributing to the response of a lake phytoplankton community exposed to either a press or pulse acidification perturbation in lake mesocosms. To assess community shifts in the ecological response of morphospecies, we identified taxa microscopically. We also assessed genotype shifts by sequencing the ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA. We observed ecological and genetic contributions to community responses. The ecological response was attributed to compensatory morphospecies dynamics and occurred primarily in the Pulse perturbation treatment. In the Press treatments, in addition to compensatory dynamics, we observed evidence for genotype selection in two species of chlorophytes, Desmodesmus cuneatus and an unidentified Chlamydomonas. Our study demonstrates that while genotype selection may be rare, it is detectable and occurs especially when new environmental conditions are maintained for long enough to force selection processes on standing variation.

  3. Rapid eco-evolutionary responses in perturbed phytoplankton communities

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Geneviève; Walsh, David A.; Beisner, Beatrix E.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats owing to species extinctions. Ecologically, compensatory dynamics can ensure stable community biomass following perturbation. However, whether there is a contribution of genetic diversity to community responses is an outstanding question. To date, the contribution of evolutionary processes through genotype shifts has not been assessed in naturally co-occurring multi-species communities in the field. We examined the mechanisms contributing to the response of a lake phytoplankton community exposed to either a press or pulse acidification perturbation in lake mesocosms. To assess community shifts in the ecological response of morphospecies, we identified taxa microscopically. We also assessed genotype shifts by sequencing the ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA. We observed ecological and genetic contributions to community responses. The ecological response was attributed to compensatory morphospecies dynamics and occurred primarily in the Pulse perturbation treatment. In the Press treatments, in addition to compensatory dynamics, we observed evidence for genotype selection in two species of chlorophytes, Desmodesmus cuneatus and an unidentified Chlamydomonas. Our study demonstrates that while genotype selection may be rare, it is detectable and occurs especially when new environmental conditions are maintained for long enough to force selection processes on standing variation. PMID:26311667

  4. Suitability of rapid energy magnitude determinations for emergency response purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Parolai, Stefano; Bormann, Peter; Grosser, Helmut; Saul, Joachim; Wang, Rongjiang; Zschau, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    It is common practice in the seismological community to use, especially for large earthquakes, the moment magnitude Mw as a unique magnitude parameter to evaluate the earthquake's damage potential. However, as a static measure of earthquake size, Mw does not provide direct information about the released seismic wave energy and its high frequency content, which is the more interesting information both for engineering purposes and for a rapid assessment of the earthquake's shaking potential. Therefore, we recommend to provide to disaster management organizations besides Mw also sufficiently accurate energy magnitude determinations as soon as possible after large earthquakes. We developed and extensively tested a rapid method for calculating the energy magnitude Me within about 10-15 min after an earthquake's occurrence. The method is based on pre-calculated spectral amplitude decay functions obtained from numerical simulations of Green's functions. After empirical validation, the procedure has been applied offline to a large data set of 767 shallow earthquakes that have been grouped according to their type of mechanism (strike-slip, normal faulting, thrust faulting, etc.). The suitability of the proposed approach is discussed by comparing our rapid Me estimates with Mw published by GCMT as well as with Mw and Me reported by the USGS. Mw is on average slightly larger than our Me for all types of mechanisms. No clear dependence on source mechanism is observed for our Me estimates. In contrast, Me from the USGS is generally larger than Mw for strike-slip earthquakes and generally smaller for the other source types. For ~67 per cent of the event data set our Me differs <= +/-0.3 magnitude units (m.u.) from the respective Me values published by the USGS. However, larger discrepancies (up to 0.8 m.u.) may occur for strike-slip events. A reason of that may be the overcorrection of the energy flux applied by the USGS for this type of earthquakes. We follow the original

  5. Findings of the first ANZICS conference on the role of intensive care in Rapid Response Teams.

    PubMed

    Jones, D; Hicks, P; Currey, J; Holmes, J; Fennessy, G J; Hillman, K; Psirides, A; Rai, S; Singh, M Y; Pilcher, D V; Bhonagiri, D; Hart, G K; Fugaccia, E

    2015-05-01

    Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) are specialised teams introduced into hospitals to improve the outcomes of deteriorating ward patients. Although Rapid Response Systems (RRSs) were developed by the intensive care unit (ICU) community, there is variability in their delivery, and consultant involvement, supervision and leadership appears to be relatively infrequent. In July 2014, the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) convened the first conference on the role of intensive care medicine in RRTs in Australia and New Zealand. The conference explored RRSs in the broader role of patient safety, resourcing and staffing of RRTs, effect on ICU workload, different RRT models, the outcomes of RRT patients and original research projects in the area of RRSs. Issues around education and training of both ICU registrars and nurses were examined, and the role of team training explored. Measures to assess the effectiveness of the RRS and RRT at the level of health system and hospital, team performance and team effectiveness were discussed, and the need to develop a bi-national ANZICS RRT patient database was presented. Strategies to prevent patient deterioration in the 'pre-RRT' period were discussed, including education of ward nurses and doctors, as well as an overarching governance structure. The role of the ICU in deteriorating ward patients was debated and an integrated model of acute care presented. This article summarises the findings of the conference and presents recommendations on the role of intensive care medicine in RRTs in Australia and New Zealand.

  6. Sialoadhesin Promotes Rapid Proinflammatory and Type I IFN Responses to a Sialylated Pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Klaas, Mariliis; Oetke, Cornelia; Lewis, Leanne E.; Erwig, Lars P.; Heikema, Astrid P.; Easton, Alistair; Willison, Hugh J.

    2012-01-01

    Sialoadhesin (Sn) is a macrophage (Mϕ)-restricted receptor that recognizes sialylated ligands on host cells and pathogens. Although Sn is thought to be important in cellular interactions of Mϕs with cells of the immune system, the functional consequences of pathogen engagement by Sn are unclear. As a model system, we have investigated the role of Sn in Mϕ interactions with heat-killed Campylobacter jejuni expressing a GD1a-like, sialylated glycan. Compared to Sn-expressing bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild-type mice, BMDM from mice either deficient in Sn or expressing a non-glycan–binding form of Sn showed greatly reduced phagocytosis of sialylated C. jejuni. This was accompanied by a strong reduction in MyD88-dependent secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-10. In vivo studies demonstrated that functional Sn was required for rapid TNF-α and IFN-β responses to i.v.-injected sialylated C. jejuni. Bacteria were captured within minutes after i.v. injection and were associated with Mϕs in both liver and spleen. In the spleen, IFN-β–reactive cells were localized to Sn+ Mϕs and other cells in the red pulp and marginal zone. Together, these studies demonstrate that Sn plays a key role in capturing sialylated pathogens and promoting rapid proinflammatory cytokine and type I IFN responses. PMID:22851711

  7. 77 FR 11517 - Rapid Response Team for Transmission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Response Team for Transmission AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Department of Energy, DoE. ACTION: Request for information. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity... be addressed to: Lamont Jackson, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Mail Code:...

  8. Robust Research and Rapid Response: The Plum Pox Virus Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Theodore R.; Bridger, Jeffrey C.; Travis, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Universities are frequently criticized for being unresponsive to the needs of their stakeholders. In response to this perception, many institutions of higher learning have taken steps to become more productively engaged with the people, organizations, and communities they serve. In this article, we analyze the process of engagement by focusing on…

  9. Rapid Educational Response in Complex Emergencies: A Discussion Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Pilar; Retamal, Gonzalo

    On-going political and economic instability impede access to regular education for large numbers of war-affected children and young adults. This brochure represents an effort to consolidate a systematic response to the special needs of children from the outset of the crisis until they can attend regular basic education. Attempts are made to ensure…

  10. MedRapid--medical community & business intelligence system.

    PubMed

    Finkeissen, E; Fuchs, H; Jakob, T; Wetter, T

    2002-01-01

    currently, it takes at least 6 months for researchers to communicate their results. This delay is caused (a) by partial lacks of machine support for both representation as well as communication and (b) by media breaks during the communication process. To make an integrated communication between researchers and practitioners possible, a general structure for medical content representation has been set up. The procedure for data entry and quality management has been generalized and implemented in a web-based authoring system. The MedRapid-system supports the medical experts in entering their knowledge into a database. Here, the level of detail is still below that of current medical guidelines representation. However, the symmetric structure for an area-wide medical knowledge representation is highly retrievable and thus can quickly be communicated into daily routine for the improvement of the treatment quality. In addition, other sources like journal articles and medical guidelines can be references within the MedRapid-system and thus be communicated into daily routine. The fundamental system for the representation of medical reference knowledge (from reference works/books) itself is not sufficient for the friction-less communication amongst medical staff. Rather, the process of (a) representing medical knowledge, (b) refereeing the represented knowledge, (c) communicating the represented knowledge, and (d) retrieving the represented knowledge has to be unified. MedRapid will soon support the whole process on one server system.

  11. Increasing Responsiveness of the Army Rapid Acquisition Process: The Army Rapid Equipping Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Operational Assessment. 91 Interview by the authors with JNBCRS2 ATEC System Team: Mr. Dough Cunningham, DTC, and Ms. Emily Yost, AEC, Aberdeen...Mr. Dough Cunningham, DTC, and Ms. Emily Yost, AEC, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, October 2010. 110 Major Scott Schroer, JNBCRS2 Team Lead, and the

  12. Rapid response to climate change in a marginal sea.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, K; Chiggiato, J; Josey, S A; Borghini, M; Aracri, S; Sparnocchia, S

    2017-06-22

    The Mediterranean Sea is a mid-latitude marginal sea, particularly responsive to climate change as reported by recent studies. The Sicily Channel is a choke point separating the sea in two main basins, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Western Mediterranean Sea. Here, we report and analyse a long-term record (1993-2016) of the thermohaline properties of the Intermediate Water that crosses the Sicily Channel, showing increasing temperature and salinity trends much stronger than those observed at intermediate depths in the global ocean. We investigate the causes of the observed trends and in particular determine the role of a changing climate over the Eastern Mediterranean, where the Intermediate Water is formed. The long-term Sicily record reveals how fast the response to climate change can be in a marginal sea like the Mediterranean Sea compared to the global ocean, and demonstrates the essential role of long time series in the ocean.

  13. Rapid post-earthquake modelling of coseismic landslide intensity and distribution for emergency response decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tom R.; Rosser, Nicholas J.; Densmore, Alexander L.; Williams, Jack G.; Kincey, Mark E.; Benjamin, Jessica; Bell, Heather J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Current methods to identify coseismic landslides immediately after an earthquake using optical imagery are too slow to effectively inform emergency response activities. Issues with cloud cover, data collection and processing, and manual landslide identification mean even the most rapid mapping exercises are often incomplete when the emergency response ends. In this study, we demonstrate how traditional empirical methods for modelling the total distribution and relative intensity (in terms of point density) of coseismic landsliding can be successfully undertaken in the hours and days immediately after an earthquake, allowing the results to effectively inform stakeholders during the response. The method uses fuzzy logic in a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to quickly assess and identify the location-specific relationships between predisposing factors and landslide occurrence during the earthquake, based on small initial samples of identified landslides. We show that this approach can accurately model both the spatial pattern and the number density of landsliding from the event based on just several hundred mapped landslides, provided they have sufficiently wide spatial coverage, improving upon previous methods. This suggests that systematic high-fidelity mapping of landslides following an earthquake is not necessary for informing rapid modelling attempts. Instead, mapping should focus on rapid sampling from the entire affected area to generate results that can inform the modelling. This method is therefore suited to conditions in which imagery is affected by partial cloud cover or in which the total number of landslides is so large that mapping requires significant time to complete. The method therefore has the potential to provide a quick assessment of landslide hazard after an earthquake and may therefore inform emergency operations more effectively compared to current practice.

  14. Database Development for Ocean Impacts: Imaging, Outreach, and Rapid Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    butterflyfishes: ‘Hearing generalists’ on noisy coral reefs ? Journal of Fish Biology, 77: 1434-1451. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2010.02765[published, refereed...at the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium 9-13 July 2012 Cairns, Queensland, Australia[refereed] 2012 Shorter, K. A. , T. Hurst, M. Johnson...implications for reef responses to climatechange. Paper presented at the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium 9-13 July 2012 Cairns, Queensland

  15. Rapid innate defensive responses of mice to looming visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Melis; Meister, Markus

    2013-10-21

    Much of brain science is concerned with understanding the neural circuits that underlie specific behaviors. While the mouse has become a favorite experimental subject, the behaviors of this species are still poorly explored. For example, the mouse retina, like that of other mammals, contains ∼20 different circuits that compute distinct features of the visual scene [1, 2]. By comparison, only a handful of innate visual behaviors are known in this species--the pupil reflex [3], phototaxis [4], the optomotor response [5], and the cliff response [6]--two of which are simple reflexes that require little visual processing. We explored the behavior of mice under a visual display that simulates an approaching object, which causes defensive reactions in some other species [7, 8]. We show that mice respond to this stimulus either by initiating escape within a second or by freezing for an extended period. The probability of these defensive behaviors is strongly dependent on the parameters of the visual stimulus. Directed experiments identify candidate retinal circuits underlying the behavior and lead the way into detailed study of these neural pathways. This response is a new addition to the repertoire of innate defensive behaviors in the mouse that allows the detection and avoidance of aerial predators.

  16. Treatment of Rapidly Progressive Systemic Sclerosis: Current and Futures Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Fabian A.; Mansoor, Maryah; Jimenez, Sergio A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by severe and often progressive cutaneous, pulmonary, cardiac and gastrointestinal tract fibrosis, cellular and humoral immunologic alterations, and pronounced fibroproliferative vasculopathy. There is no effective SSc disease modifying therapy. Patients with rapidly progressive SSc have poor prognosis with frequent disability and very high mortality. Areas Covered This paper reviews currently available therapeutic approaches for rapidly progressive SSc and discuss novel drugs under study for SSc disease modification. Expert Opinion The extent, severity, and rate of progression of SSc skin and internal organ involvement determines the optimal therapeutic interventions for SSc. Cyclophosphamide for progressive SSc-associated interstitial lung disease and mycophenolate for rapidly progressive cutaneous involvement have shown effectiveness. Methotrexate has been used for less severe skin progression and for patients unable to tolerate mycophenolate. Rituximab was shown to induce improvement in SSc-cutaneous and lung involvement. Autologous bone marrow transplantation is reserved for selected cases in whom poor survival risk outweighs the high mortality rate of the procedure. Novel agents capable of modulating fibrotic and inflammatory pathways involved in SSc pathogenesis, including tocilizumab, pirfenidone, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, lipid lysophosphatidic acid 1, and NOX4 inhibitors are currently under development for the treatment of rapidly progressive SSc. PMID:27812432

  17. Dissociation of rapid response learning and facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks of person recognition.

    PubMed

    Valt, Christian; Klein, Christoph; Boehm, Stephan G

    2015-08-01

    Repetition priming is a prominent example of non-declarative memory, and it increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Major long-hold memory theories posit that repetition priming results from facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks for stimulus recognition and categorization. Stimuli can also be bound to particular responses, and it has recently been suggested that this rapid response learning, not network facilitation, provides a sound theory of priming of object recognition. Here, we addressed the relevance of network facilitation and rapid response learning for priming of person recognition with a view to advance general theories of priming. In four experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions like occupation or nationality judgments for famous faces. The magnitude of rapid response learning varied across experiments, and rapid response learning co-occurred and interacted with facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks. These findings indicate that rapid response learning and facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks are complementary rather than competing theories of priming. Thus, future memory theories need to incorporate both rapid response learning and network facilitation as individual facets of priming.

  18. Rapid Response Sensor for Analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. The key challenge is isolating these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, but this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM

  19. Zinc rapidly induces a metal response element-binding factor.

    PubMed Central

    Czupryn, M; Brown, W E; Vallee, B L

    1992-01-01

    Metal activation of metallothionein gene transcription is mediated by specific promoter sequences, termed metal regulatory elements (MREs). Nuclear extracts prepared from various human cell lines were assayed for their capacity to bind to a synthetic human MREa (hMREa) oligomer. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays with extracts from control cells detected a single hMREa-containing complex. Addition to the growth medium of zinc, cadmium, or copper--metals known to induce MT biosynthesis in vivo--resulted in the rapid but reversible appearance of a second distinct hMREa-protein complex in all cell lines studied. This result was not seen when the metals were added directly to the extracts from control cells. DNA-binding protein blotting, UV crosslinking, and electroelution experiments were used to characterize the two hMREa-binding factors, termed BF1 and BF2. MRE-BF1 has an apparent molecular mass of approximately 86 kDa and binds to the hMREa in control cells, whereas MRE-BF2 consists of two molecules of approximately 28 kDa and binds to the hMREa in metal-treated cells. EDTA and o-phenanthroline inhibited binding of both factors to hMREa in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that a metal atom or atoms are essential for interaction of the factors with DNA. Images PMID:1332048

  20. Automating Hyperspectral Data for Rapid Response in Volcanic Emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Ashley G.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Chien, Steve A.

    2013-01-01

    In a volcanic emergency, time is of the essence. It is vital to quantify eruption parameters (thermal emission, effusion rate, location of activity) and distribute this information as quickly as possible to decision-makers in order to enable effective evaluation of eruption-related risk and hazard. The goal of this work was to automate and streamline processing of spacecraft hyperspectral data, automate product generation, and automate distribution of products. Visible and Short-Wave Infrared Images of volcanic eruption in Iceland in May 2010." class="caption" align="right">The software rapidly processes hyperspectral data, correcting for incident sunlight where necessary, and atmospheric transmission; detects thermally anomalous pixels; fits data with model black-body thermal emission spectra to determine radiant flux; calculates atmospheric convection thermal removal; and then calculates total heat loss. From these results, an estimation of effusion rate is made. Maps are generated of thermal emission and location (see figure). Products are posted online, and relevant parties notified. Effusion rate data are added to historical record and plotted to identify spikes in activity for persistently active eruptions. The entire process from start to end is autonomous. Future spacecraft, especially those in deep space, can react to detection of transient processes without the need to communicate with Earth, thus increasing science return. Terrestrially, this removes the need for human intervention.

  1. Rapid response sensor for analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.

    2015-06-18

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. Thus, the key challenge is isolating these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, however this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM.

  2. Rapid response sensor for analyzing Special Nuclear Material

    DOE PAGES

    Mitra, S. S.; Doron, O.; Chen, A. X.; ...

    2015-06-18

    Rapid in-situ analytical techniques are attractive for characterizing Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Present techniques are time consuming, and require sample dissolution. Proof-of-principal studies are performed to demonstrate the utility of employing low energy neutrons from a portable pulsed neutron generator for non-destructive isotopic analysis of nuclear material. In particular, time-sequenced data acquisition, operating synchronously with the pulsing of a neutron generator, partitions the characteristic elemental prompt gamma-rays according to the type of the reaction; inelastic neutron scattering reactions during the ON state and thermal neutron capture reactions during the OFF state of the generator. Thus, the key challenge is isolatingmore » these signature gamma- rays from the prompt fission and β-delayed gamma-rays that are also produced during the neutron interrogation. A commercial digital multi-channel analyzer has been specially customized to enable time-resolved gamma-ray spectral data to be acquired in multiple user-defined time bins within each of the ON/OFF gate periods of the neutron generator. Preliminary results on new signatures from depleted uranium as well as modeling and benchmarking of the concept are presented, however this approach should should be applicable for virtually all forms of SNM.« less

  3. Data bases for rapid response to power reactor problems

    SciTech Connect

    Maskewitz, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    The urgency of the TMI-2 incident demanded prompt answers to an imperious situation. In responding to these challenging circumstances, both government and industry recognized deficiencies in both availability of essential retrievable data and calculational capabilities designed to respond immediately to actual abnormal events. Each responded by initiating new programs to provide a remedy for the deficiencies and to generally improve all safety measures in the nuclear power industry. Many data bases and information centers offer generic data and other technology resources which are generally useful in support of nuclear safety programs. A few centers can offer rapid access to calculational methods and associated data and more will make an effort to do so. As a beneficial spin-off from the lessons learned from TMI-2, more technical effort and financial resources will be devoted to the prevention of accidents, and to improvement of safety measures in the immediate future and for long term R and D programs by both government and the nuclear power industry.

  4. Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

  5. An FPGA-Based Rapid Wheezing Detection System

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bor-Shing; Yen, Tian-Shiue

    2014-01-01

    Wheezing is often treated as a crucial indicator in the diagnosis of obstructive pulmonary diseases. A rapid wheezing detection system may help physicians to monitor patients over the long-term. In this study, a portable wheezing detection system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is proposed. This system accelerates wheezing detection, and can be used as either a single-process system, or as an integrated part of another biomedical signal detection system. The system segments sound signals into 2-second units. A short-time Fourier transform was used to determine the relationship between the time and frequency components of wheezing sound data. A spectrogram was processed using 2D bilateral filtering, edge detection, multithreshold image segmentation, morphological image processing, and image labeling, to extract wheezing features according to computerized respiratory sound analysis (CORSA) standards. These features were then used to train the support vector machine (SVM) and build the classification models. The trained model was used to analyze sound data to detect wheezing. The system runs on a Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA ML605 platform. The experimental results revealed that the system offered excellent wheezing recognition performance (0.912). The detection process can be used with a clock frequency of 51.97 MHz, and is able to perform rapid wheezing classification. PMID:24481034

  6. An FPGA-based rapid wheezing detection system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bor-Shing; Yen, Tian-Shiue

    2014-01-29

    Wheezing is often treated as a crucial indicator in the diagnosis of obstructive pulmonary diseases. A rapid wheezing detection system may help physicians to monitor patients over the long-term. In this study, a portable wheezing detection system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is proposed. This system accelerates wheezing detection, and can be used as either a single-process system, or as an integrated part of another biomedical signal detection system. The system segments sound signals into 2-second units. A short-time Fourier transform was used to determine the relationship between the time and frequency components of wheezing sound data. A spectrogram was processed using 2D bilateral filtering, edge detection, multithreshold image segmentation, morphological image processing, and image labeling, to extract wheezing features according to computerized respiratory sound analysis (CORSA) standards. These features were then used to train the support vector machine (SVM) and build the classification models. The trained model was used to analyze sound data to detect wheezing. The system runs on a Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA ML605 platform. The experimental results revealed that the system offered excellent wheezing recognition performance (0.912). The detection process can be used with a clock frequency of 51.97 MHz, and is able to perform rapid wheezing classification.

  7. National Response System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NRS, a multi-layered system of individuals and teams, routinely and effectively responds to a wide range of oil and hazardous substance releases. The National Contingency Plan (NCP) provides the framework for NRS and establishes how it works.

  8. [Rapid serological diagnosis systems for human leptospirosis screening in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Obregón Fuentes, C Ana Margarita; Fernandez Molina, Carmen; Martínez Motas, C Isabel; Llop Hernández, C Alina; Rodríguez González, Islay; Rodríguez Silveira, José; Rodríguez, Yaindrys; Valdés, Yanais

    2011-01-01

    human leptospirosis requires rapid and early microbiological diagnosis since it is a common lethal disease worldwide. to increase the quality of microbiological diagnosis of this infection, to expand the knowledge on the circulation of groups of leptospiras in Cuba and to show the benefits of an agglutination assay using Cuban latex particles and of commercial immunochromatogenic systems LEPTO Dipstick, Lepto Tek Lateral Flow, Lepto Tek Dri Dot and SD Leptospira IgM-IgG. this descriptive research used sera from positive and negative control cases to evaluate and measure the diagnostic value of rapid serological diagnosis systems with respect to the microagglutination method of reference (MAT). All the techniques used in this report are described in the Manual of Operations and Procedures of the Leptospira Lab in "Pedro Kourí" Institute of Tropical Medicine. all the studied diagnosis systems exhibited acceptable values of sensitivity, specificity and agreement when compared to the international microagglutination method of reference with live microorganisms. The great selectivity (antigen reactivity) and the diagnostic reliability of the diagnostic systems were confirmed; particularly the mixed Cuban-made latex, the LEPTO Dipstick and the SD Leptospira IgM-IgG. the procedures used in this research work exceeded the traditional methods including the microagglutination method of reference in terms of easiness, rapidity, technical simplicity and level of performance, and all were useful for the screening of antibodies to leptospiras.

  9. System Composer: Technology for rapid system integration and remote collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Palmquist, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed an approach to the design, evaluation, deployment and operation of intelligent systems which is called System Composer. This toolkit provides an infrastructure and architecture for robot and automation system users to readily integrate system components and share mechatronic, sensor, and information resources over networks. The technology described in this paper provides a framework for real-time collaboration between researchers, manufacturing entities, design entities, and others without regard to relative location. An overview of the toolkit including its elements and architecture is provided along with examples of its use.

  10. Rapid adaptive responses to climate change in corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torda, Gergely; Donelson, Jennifer M.; Aranda, Manuel; Barshis, Daniel J.; Bay, Line; Berumen, Michael L.; Bourne, David G.; Cantin, Neal; Foret, Sylvain; Matz, Mikhail; Miller, David J.; Moya, Aurelie; Putnam, Hollie M.; Ravasi, Timothy; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.; Thurber, Rebecca Vega; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Voolstra, Christian R.; Watson, Sue-Ann; Whitelaw, Emma; Willis, Bette L.; Munday, Philip L.

    2017-09-01

    Pivotal to projecting the fate of coral reefs is the capacity of reef-building corals to acclimatize and adapt to climate change. Transgenerational plasticity may enable some marine organisms to acclimatize over several generations and it has been hypothesized that epigenetic processes and microbial associations might facilitate adaptive responses. However, current evidence is equivocal and understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we discuss prospects for observing transgenerational plasticity in corals and the mechanisms that could enable adaptive plasticity in the coral holobiont, including the potential role of epigenetics and coral-associated microbes. Well-designed and strictly controlled experiments are needed to distinguish transgenerational plasticity from other forms of plasticity, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and their relative importance compared with genetic adaptation.

  11. Notification: Audit of Region 6's Emergency and Rapid Response Services Contracts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY13-0046, March 20, 2013. The Office of Inspector General plans to begin the fieldwork phase of our audit of Region 6’s management of the Emergency and Rapid Response Services contracts.

  12. Calling for a rapid recognition and response program for stroke in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Renyu

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we provide evidences indicating that a a rapid recognition and response program based on FAST (face, Arm, Speech, Time) for stroke suitable for China is desperately needed. PMID:28105445

  13. Autonomous Robotic Refueling System (ARRS) for rapid aircraft turnaround

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, O. R.; Jackson, E.; Rueb, K.; Thompson, B.; Powell, K.

    An autonomous robotic refuelling system is being developed to achieve rapid aircraft turnaround, notably during combat operations. The proposed system includes a gantry positioner with sufficient reach to position a robotic arm that performs the refuelling tasks; a six degree of freedom manipulator equipped with a remote center of compliance, torque sensor, and a gripper that can handle standard tools; a computer vision system to locate and guide the refuelling nozzle, inspect the nozzle, and avoid collisions; and an operator interface with video and graphics display. The control system software will include components designed for trajectory planning and generation, collision detection, sensor interfacing, sensory processing, and human interfacing. The robotic system will be designed so that upgrading to perform additional tasks will be relatively straightforward.

  14. Rapid alpha spectroscopy of evaporated liquid residues for emergency response.

    PubMed

    Semkow, T M; Khan, A J; Haines, D K; Bari, A

    2009-04-01

    A new method for alpha spectroscopy of evaporated water residues was developed, consisting of evaporation of drinking water, flaming of the planchets, and alpha-spectroscopic measurements using a grid ionization chamber. The method can identify and quantify radioactivity concentrations > or =3 mBq L-1 in a matter of several hours, whereas determination of sub-mBq L-1 levels is achievable in 1 day. Detailed investigations of flaming of the planchets, the humidity effect, and alpha spectroscopy of thick sources are described. A three-dimensional calibration of the method was performed using standards containing 238U, 230Th, 239Pu, 241Am, and 244Cm radionuclides. In addition to its application to evaporated drinking water, this calibration is common for any environmental sample that can be prepared as a uniform layer, such as the residues from surface water, acidic washing or leaching from materials, as well as biological fluids such as urine. The developed method serves as a fast identifying or screening technique for emergency response involving alpha radioactivity.

  15. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Rapid Near Surface Geophysical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, J. B.

    2013-08-01

    This paper looks at some of the unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) options and deals with a magnetometer sensor system which might be of interest in conducting rapid near surface geophysical measurements. Few of the traditional airborne geophysical sensors are now capable of being miniaturized to sizes and payload within mini UAS limits (e.g. airborne magnetics, gamma ray spectrometer). Here the deployment of a fluxgate magnetometer mounted on an UAS is presented demonstrating its capability of detecting metallic materials that are buried in the soil. The effectiveness in finding ferrous objects (e.g. UXO, landslides) is demonstrated in two case studies.

  16. Rapid assessment of Malawi's civil registration and vital statistics system

    PubMed Central

    Giles, D.; Kang'oma, S.; Mwalwanda, L.; Onaka, A.; Notzon, F.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, Malawi adopted a National Registration Act, making the registration of births and deaths compulsory, and efforts to improve Malawi's civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system are underway. During a participatory-style workshop, stakeholders completed a rapid assessment of the national civil registration and vital statistics systems. While participants discussed and scored each item in a standard tool, the workshop focused on sharing of partners' roles and challenges. The workshop has enhanced receptiveness in collaboration, and an inter-ministerial technical working group has now been formed to develop a strategic plan and conduct a comprehensive assessment to guide future improvements. PMID:26399284

  17. Rapid assessment of Malawi's civil registration and vital statistics system.

    PubMed

    Nichols, E K; Giles, D; Kang'oma, S; Mwalwanda, L; Onaka, A; Notzon, F

    2015-09-21

    In 2010, Malawi adopted a National Registration Act, making the registration of births and deaths compulsory, and efforts to improve Malawi's civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system are underway. During a participatory-style workshop, stakeholders completed a rapid assessment of the national civil registration and vital statistics systems. While participants discussed and scored each item in a standard tool, the workshop focused on sharing of partners' roles and challenges. The workshop has enhanced receptiveness in collaboration, and an inter-ministerial technical working group has now been formed to develop a strategic plan and conduct a comprehensive assessment to guide future improvements.

  18. System for rapidly tuning a low pressure pulsed laser

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.A.; Ahl, J.L.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes a system for rapidly tuning a low pressure pulsed laser over multiple wavelengths. The system comprising: a low pressure one electrode pair discharge region in a laser cavity having a laser trigger means connected to the electrode pair for initiating low pressure discharge within the discharge region; a quarterwave plate and a Q-switch in optical alignment with the one electrode pair discharge region along the laser optical axis; a fixed laser output coupler at the discharge region end of the laser cavity; and a rotatable grating means for wavelength switching the at least two high gain Q-switched pulses.

  19. Glyphosate resistance in Ambrosia trifida: Part 2. Rapid response physiology and non-target-site resistance.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Marcelo L; Van Horn, Christopher R; Robertson, Renae; Segobye, Kabelo; Weller, Stephen C; Young, Bryan G; Johnson, William G; Douglas Sammons, R; Wang, Dafu; Ge, Xia; d' Avignon, André; Gaines, Todd A; Westra, Philip; Green, Amanda C; Jeffery, Taylor; Lespérance, Mackenzie A; Tardif, François J; Sikkema, Peter H; Christopher Hall, J; McLean, Michael D; Lawton, Mark B; Schulz, Burkhard

    2017-03-08

    The glyphosate-resistant rapid response (GR RR) resistance mechanism in Ambrosia trifida is not due to target-site resistance (TSR) mechanisms. This study explores the physiology of the rapid response and the possibility of reduced translocation and vacuolar sequestration as non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanisms. GR RR leaf discs accumulated hydrogen peroxide within minutes of glyphosate exposure, but only in mature leaf tissue. The rapid response required energy either as light or exogenous sucrose. The combination of phenylalanine and tyrosine inhibited the rapid response in a dose-dependent manner. Reduced glyphosate translocation was observed in GR RR, but only when associated with tissue death caused by the rapid response. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicated that glyphosate enters the cytoplasm and reaches chloroplasts, and it is not moved into the vacuole of GR RR, GR non-rapid response or glyphosate-susceptible A. trifida. The GR RR mechanism of resistance is not associated with vacuole sequestration of glyphosate, and the observed reduced translocation is likely a consequence of rapid tissue death. Rapid cell death was inhibited by exogenous application of aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. The mechanism by which these amino acids inhibit rapid cell death in the GR RR phenotype remains unknown, and it could involve glyphosate phytotoxicity or other agents generating reactive oxygen species. Implications of these findings are discussed. The GR RR mechanism is distinct from the currently described glyphosate TSR or NTSR mechanisms in other species. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The Hydrologic Cycle Response to Rapid Arctic Vegetation Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    Over the last fifty years, the Northern Hemisphere high latitude land areas have warmed at rates well in excess of what can be explained by the atmospheric rise in greenhouse gases alone. Changes in the albedo of the ocean and land, whether from the loss of Arctic Ocean sea ice, changes in land cover, or changes in winter precipitation patterns account for much of the amplified warming. Although the loss of sea ice is directly related to greenhouse gas warming and low-level winds, changes in the discharge of freshwater from Arctic river basins are also responsible. While changes in river discharge can be related to precipitation, snow and ice melt, and human modification of the landscape, natural vegetation changes due to warming may also be altering the land surface hydrologic cycle and contributing to changes in the flux of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. Satellite imagery has shown that the Arctic is becoming greener, which not only affects the surface and lower-tropospheric energy budget, but also modifies the hydrologic cycle through altering the partitioning of transpiration and plant-soil evaporation. This leads to changes in precipitation recycling and runoff, which can ultimately affect the discharge of freshwater. To illustrate this mechanism, results of a land cover change and precipitation-recycling analysis using North American Regional Reanalysis data will be presented for the Mackenzie Basin in North America. Additionally, results from a dynamic global vegetation model will be presented to evaluate the potential consequences of continued extreme warming and land cover changes to the discharge of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean.

  1. Clinical Usefulness of Response Profiles to Rapidly Incremental Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Roberta P.; Alencar, Maria Clara N.; Treptow, Erika; Arbex, Flávio; Ferreira, Eloara M. V.; Neder, J. Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The advent of microprocessed “metabolic carts” and rapidly incremental protocols greatly expanded the clinical applications of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). The response normalcy to CPET is more commonly appreciated at discrete time points, for example, at the estimated lactate threshold and at peak exercise. Analysis of the response profiles of cardiopulmonary responses at submaximal exercise and recovery, however, might show abnormal physiologic functioning which would not be otherwise unraveled. Although this approach has long been advocated as a key element of the investigational strategy, it remains largely neglected in practice. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to highlight the usefulness of selected submaximal metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiovascular variables in different clinical scenarios and patient populations. Special care is taken to physiologically justify their use to answer pertinent clinical questions and to the technical aspects that should be observed to improve responses' reproducibility and reliability. The most recent evidence in favor of (and against) these variables for diagnosis, impairment evaluation, and prognosis in systemic diseases is also critically discussed. PMID:23766901

  2. Systemic response to excretory urography: work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, H.W.; Katzberg, R.W.; Morris, T.W.; Spataro, R.F.

    1984-04-01

    Ninety-seven patients who were undergoing excretory urography for suspected genitourinary tract abnormalities were continuously monitored for systemic blood pressure and pulse rates before (control) and after rapid intravenous injections of contrast material using a Bard pressure monitor. The authors report the systemic responses observed. Clinically obvious reactions to contrast medium were recorded and compared with the blood pressure and pulse rate responses. The most common response to rapid infusion of contrast medium was a transient hypotension. An increase in systemic pressure had a high association with nausea and vomiting. Significant hypotension was observed in six patients (6%), but no overt clinical manifestations were present.

  3. Rapid cycling medical synchrotron and beam delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Peggs, Stephen G.; Brennan, J. Michael; Tuozzolo, Joseph E.; Zaltsman, Alexander

    2008-10-07

    A medical synchrotron which cycles rapidly in order to accelerate particles for delivery in a beam therapy system. The synchrotron generally includes a radiofrequency (RF) cavity for accelerating the particles as a beam and a plurality of combined function magnets arranged in a ring. Each of the combined function magnets performs two functions. The first function of the combined function magnet is to bend the particle beam along an orbital path around the ring. The second function of the combined function magnet is to focus or defocus the particle beam as it travels around the path. The radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a ferrite loaded cavity adapted for high speed frequency swings for rapid cycling acceleration of the particles.

  4. Utilization of rapid response resources and outcomes in a comprehensive cancer center*.

    PubMed

    Austin, Charles A; Hanzaker, Chris; Stafford, Renae; Mayer, Celeste; Culp, Loc; Lin, Feng-Chang; Chang, Lydia

    2014-04-01

    To compare the differences in characteristics and outcomes of cancer center patients with other subspecialty medical patients reviewed by rapid response teams. A retrospective cohort study of hospitalized general medicine patients, subspecialty medicine patients, and oncology patients requiring rapid response team activation over a 2-year period from September 2009 to August 2011. Five hundred fifty-seven subspecialty medical patients required rapid response team intervention. A single academic medical center in the southeastern United States (800+ bed) with a dedicated 50-bed inpatient comprehensive cancer care center. Data abstraction from computerized medical records and a hospital quality improvement rapid response database. Of the 557 patients, 135 were cancer center patients. Cancer center patients had a significantly higher Charlson Comorbidity Score (4.4 vs 2.9, < 0.001). Cancer center patients had a significantly longer hospitalization period prior to rapid response team activation (11.4 vs 6.1 d, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between proportions of patients requiring ICU transfer between the two groups (odds ratio, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8-1.8). Cancer center patients had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared with the other subspecialty medical patients (33% vs 18%; odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.50-3.5). If the rapid response team event required an ICU transfer, this finding was more pronounced (56% vs 23%; odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 2.0-7.8). The utilization of rapid response team resources during the 2-year period studied was also much higher for the oncology patients with 37.34 activations per 1,000 patient discharges compared with 20.86 per 1,000 patient discharges for the general medical patients. Oncology patients requiring rapid response team activation have a significantly higher in-hospital mortality rate, particularly if the rapid response team requires ICU transfer. Oncology patients also utilize rapid response team

  5. An Integrated Rapid Mapping System for Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, D.; Bayer, S.; Berger, R.; Kraft, T.; Lesmeister, D.

    2017-05-01

    Natural disasters as well as major man made incidents are an increasingly serious threat for civil society. Effective, fast and coordinated disaster management crucially depends on the availability of a real-time situation picture of the affected area. However, in situ situation assessment from the ground is usually time-consuming and of limited effect, especially when dealing with large or inaccessible areas. A rapid mapping system based on aerial images can enable fast and effective assessment and analysis of medium to large scale disaster situations. This paper presents an integrated rapid mapping system that is particularly designed for real-time applications, where comparatively large areas have to be recorded in short time. The system includes a lightweight camera system suitable for UAV applications and a software tool for generating aerial maps from recorded sensor data within minutes after landing. The paper describes in particular which sensors are applied and how they are operated. Furthermore it outlines the procedure, how the aerial map is generated from image and additional gathered sensor data.

  6. First results from the rapid-response spectrophotometric characterization of Near-Earth objects using RATIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Meza, Samuel; Mommert, Michael; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Trilling, David E.; Butler, Nathaniel; Pichardo, Barbara; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Jedicke, Robert

    2016-10-01

    We are carrying out a program to obtain rapid-response spectrophotometric characterization of newly discovered Near Earth Objects. Our first results, based on observations made with WFCAM on UKIRT, are presented in Mommert et al. (2016). Here we present a preliminary analysis of the r-i distribution of ~140 small (<500m) NEOs observed with the RATIR instrument on the 1.5-m telescope on San Pedro Martir. The observations are made in queue mode, and the data processing is carried out autonomously. Our goals are to derive coarse taxonomic and therefore compositional classifications for each of these objects, which will allow us to derive composition as a function of NEO size. This work is part of a collaboration in which we will characterize hundreds of NEOs that are generally too faint for other characterization techniques (down to V~21). This work is supported by funding from NASA's Solar System Observations program.

  7. 20 CFR 671.160 - What rapid response activities are required before a national emergency grant application is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What rapid response activities are required... § 671.160 What rapid response activities are required before a national emergency grant application is submitted? (a) Rapid response is a required Statewide activity under WIA section 134(a)(2)(A), to be carried...

  8. Rapid laser prototyping of valves for microfluidic autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, M. I.; Abraham, E.; Y Desmulliez, M. P.

    2013-03-01

    Capillary forces in microfluidics provide a simple yet elegant means to direct liquids through flow channel networks. The ability to manipulate the flow in a truly automated manner has proven more problematic. The majority of valves require some form of flow control devices, which are manually, mechanically or electrically driven. Most demonstrated capillary systems have been manufactured by photolithography, which, despite its high precision and repeatability, can be labour intensive, requires a clean room environment and the use of fixed photomasks, limiting thereby the agility of the manufacturing process to readily examine alternative designs. In this paper, we describe a robust and rapid CO2 laser manufacturing process and demonstrate a range of capillary-driven microfluidic valve structures embedded within a microfluidic network. The manufacturing process described allows for advanced control and manipulation of fluids such that flow can be halted, triggered and delayed based on simple geometrical alterations to a given microchannel. The rapid prototyping methodology has been employed with PMMA substrates and a complete device has been created, ready for use, within 2-3 h. We believe that this agile manufacturing process can be applied to produce a range of complex autonomous fluidic platforms and allows subsequent designs to be rapidly explored.

  9. Periodic response of nonlinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nataraj, C.; Nelson, H. D.

    1988-01-01

    A procedure is developed to determine approximate periodic solutions of autonomous and non-autonomous systems. The trignometric collocation method (TCM) is formalized to allow for the analysis of relatively small order systems directly in physical coordinates. The TCM is extended to large order systems by utilizing modal analysis in a component mode synthesis strategy. The procedure was coded and verified by several check cases. Numerical results for two small order mechanical systems and one large order rotor dynamic system are presented. The method allows for the possibility of approximating periodic responses for large order forced and self-excited nonlinear systems.

  10. Rapid identification of Listeria spp.: an AOAC performance test of the MIT 1000 rapid microbial identification system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methods that rapidly confirm the identification of foodborne pathogens are highly desired. The Micro Imaging Technology (MIT) 1000 Rapid Microbial Identification (RMID) System is a benchtop instrument that detects laser light scattered from individual bacterial cells in solution with an array of 35 ...

  11. Association Between Survival and Time of Day for Rapid Response Team Calls in a National Registry.

    PubMed

    Churpek, Matthew Michael; Edelson, Dana P; Lee, Ji Yeon; Carey, Kyle; Snyder, Ashley

    2017-10-01

    Decreased staffing at nighttime is associated with worse outcomes in hospitalized patients. Rapid response teams were developed to decrease preventable harm by providing additional critical care resources to patients with clinical deterioration. We sought to determine whether rapid response team call frequency suffers from decreased utilization at night and how this is associated with patient outcomes. Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected registry database. National registry database of inpatient rapid response team calls. Index rapid response team calls occurring on the general wards in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Medical Emergency Team database between 2005 and 2015 were analyzed. None. The primary outcome was inhospital mortality. Patient and event characteristics between the hours with the highest and lowest mortality were compared, and multivariable models adjusting for patient characteristics were fit. A total of 282,710 rapid response team calls from 274 hospitals were included. The lowest frequency of calls occurred in the consecutive 1 AM to 6:59 AM period, with 266 of 274 (97%) hospitals having lower than expected call volumes during those hours. Mortality was highest during the 7 AM hour and lowest during the noon hour (18.8% vs 13.8%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.41 [1.31-1.52]; p < 0.001). Compared with calls at the noon hour, those during the 7 AM hour had more deranged vital signs, were more likely to have a respiratory trigger, and were more likely to have greater than two simultaneous triggers. Rapid response team activation is less frequent during the early morning and is followed by a spike in mortality in the 7 AM hour. These findings suggest that failure to rescue deteriorating patients is more common overnight. Strategies aimed at improving rapid response team utilization during these vulnerable hours may improve patient outcomes.

  12. Trajectories of bodies in zones of rapidly decaying triple systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynova, A. I.; Orlov, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    The general three-body problem with equal masses and zero initial velocities is considered. Zones in which the triple systems decay over short times T < 10 T cr are distinguished in the domain of the initial conditions, where T cr is the mean crossing time for a component of the triple system. These zones form distinct families of structures. Properties of the trajectories of bodies within these structures are described. The structures often display a layered character, with each layer corresponding to triple systems in which a particular body departs during the decay. These layers alternate with zones in which the decay does not occur on such short time scales, and the bodies are flung outward without this leading to a departure, or undergo simple interactions. In the zones of rapid decay, the departure of one of the bodies occurs after one or a few triple encounters between the components.

  13. Setting the Response Time Threshold Parameter to Differentiate Solution Behavior from Rapid-Guessing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Xiaojing J.; Wise, Steven L.; Bhola, Dennison S.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared four methods for setting item response time thresholds to differentiate rapid-guessing behavior from solution behavior. Thresholds were either (a) common for all test items, (b) based on item surface features such as the amount of reading required, (c) based on visually inspecting response time frequency distributions, or (d)…

  14. Position paper: Rapid responses to steroids: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wendler, Alexandra; Baldi, Elisabetta; Harvey, Brian J; Nadal, Angel; Norman, Anthony; Wehling, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Steroids exert their actions through several pathways. The classical genomic pathway, which involves binding of steroids to receptors and subsequent modulation of gene expression, is well characterized. Besides this, rapid actions of steroids have been shown to exist. Since 30 years, research on rapid actions of steroids is an emerging field of science. Today, rapid effects of steroids are well established, and are shown to exist for every type of steroid. The classical steroid receptors have been shown to be involved in rapid actions, but there is also strong evidence that unrelated structures mediate these rapid effects. Despite increasing knowledge about the mechanisms and structures which mediate these actions, there is still no unanimous acceptance of this category. This article briefly reviews the history of the field including current controversies and challenges. It is not meant as a broad review of literature, but should increase the awareness of the endocrinology society for rapid responses to steroids. As members of the organizing committee of the VI International Meeting on Rapid Responses to Steroid Hormones 2009, we propose a research agenda focusing on the identification of new receptoral structures and the identification of mechanisms of actions at physiological steroid concentrations. Additionally, efforts for the propagation of translational studies, which should finally lead to clinical benefit in the area of rapid steroid action research, should be intensified.

  15. Interactive mixture as a rapid drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chin Chiat; Ong, Charlene Li Ching; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Lai Wah; Wong, Tin Wui

    2008-02-01

    The effectiveness of an interactive mixture as a rapid drug delivery system is compared with that of a solid dispersion. The influences of drug load, particle size, and crystallinity of these test systems are investigated. The interactive mixtures and solid dispersions were prepared from polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 and hydrophobic nifedipine drug by means of physical mixing and melting methods, respectively. The formed products were subjected to drug particle size and crystallinity analyses, and dissolution tests. In comparison with the interactive mixtures, the solid dispersions with low drug load were more effective as a rapid drug delivery system, as the size of a given batch of drug particles was markedly reduced by the molten PEG 3350. The rate and extent of drug dissolution were mainly promoted by decreasing effective drug particle size. However, these were lower in the solid dispersions than in the interactive mixtures when a high load of fine drug particles was used as the starting material. This was attributed to drug coarsening during the preparation of the solid dispersion. Unlike solid dispersions, the interactive mixtures could accommodate a high load of fine drug particles without compromising its capacity to enhance the rate and extent of drug dissolution. The interactive mixture is appropriate for use to deliver a fine hydrophobic drug in a formulation requiring a high drug load.

  16. Aging and aerobic fitness affect the contribution of noradrenergic sympathetic nerves to the rapid cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating.

    PubMed

    Tew, Garry A; Saxton, John M; Klonizakis, Markos; Moss, James; Ruddock, Alan D; Hodges, Gary J

    2011-05-01

    Sedentary aging results in a diminished rapid cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating. We investigated whether this diminished response was due to altered contributions of noradrenergic sympathetic nerves by assessing 1) the age-related decline and 2) the effect of aerobic fitness. Using laser-Doppler flowmetry, we measured skin blood flow (SkBF) in young (24 ± 1 yr) and older (64 ± 1 yr) endurance-trained and sedentary men (n = 7 per group) at baseline and during 35 min of local skin heating to 42°C at 1) untreated forearm sites, 2) forearm sites treated with bretylium tosylate (BT), which prevents neurotransmitter release from noradrenergic sympathetic nerves, and 3) forearm sites treated with yohimbine + propranolol (YP), which antagonizes α- and β-adrenergic receptors. SkBF was converted to cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC = SkBF/mean arterial pressure) and normalized to maximal CVC (%CVC(max)) achieved by skin heating to 44°C. Pharmacological agents were administered using microdialysis. In the young trained group, the rapid vasodilator response was reduced at BT and YP sites (P < 0.05); by contrast, in the young sedentary and older trained groups, YP had no effect (P > 0.05), but BT did (P > 0.05). Neither BT nor YP affected the rapid vasodilator response in the older sedentary group (P > 0.05). These data suggest that the age-related reduction in the rapid vasodilator response is due to an impairment of sympathetic-dependent mechanisms, which can be partly attenuated with habitual aerobic exercise. Rapid vasodilation involves noradrenergic neurotransmitters in young trained men and nonadrenergic sympathetic cotransmitters (e.g., neuropeptide Y) in young sedentary and older trained men, possibly as a compensatory mechanism. Finally, in older sedentary men, the rapid vasodilation appears not to involve the sympathetic system.

  17. Strong Motion Networks - Rapid Response and Early Warning Applications in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, C.; Alcik, H.; Ozel, O.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years several strong motion networks have been established in Istanbul with a preparation purpose for future probable earthquake. This study addresses the introduction of current seismic networks and presentation of some recent results recorded in these networks. Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System has ten strong motion stations which were installed as close as possible to Marmara Sea main fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous earthquakes. Considering the complexity of fault rupture and the short fault distances involved, a simple and robust Early Warning algorithm, based on the exceedance of specified threshold time domain amplitude levels is implemented. The current algorithm compares the band-pass filtered accelerations and the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) with specified threshold levels. Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response System Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response System has one hundred 18 bit-resolution strong motion accelerometers which were placed in quasi-free field locations (basement of small buildings) in the populated areas of the city, within an area of approximately 50x30km, to constitute a network that will enable early damage assessment and rapid response information after a damaging earthquake. Early response information is achieved through fast acquisition and analysis of processed data obtained from the network. The stations are routinely interrogated on regular basis by the main data center. After triggered by an earthquake, each station processes the streaming strong motion data to yield the spectral accelerations at specific periods and sends these parameters in the form of SMS messages at every 20s directly to the main data center through a designated GSM network and through a microwave system. A shake map and damage distribution map (using aggregate building inventories and fragility curves

  18. Rapid Evolution of Primate Type 2 Immune Response Factors Linked to Asthma Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Matthew F.; Lee, Elliott M.; Griffin, Hayden

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Host immunity pathways evolve rapidly in response to antagonism by pathogens. Microbial infections can also trigger excessive inflammation that contributes to diverse autoimmune disorders including asthma, lupus, diabetes, and arthritis. Definitive links between immune system evolution and human autoimmune disease remain unclear. Here we provide evidence that several components of the type 2 immune response pathway have been subject to recurrent positive selection in the primate lineage. Notably, substitutions in the central immune regulator IL13 correspond to a polymorphism linked to asthma susceptibility in humans. We also find evidence of accelerated amino acid substitutions as well as gene gain and loss events among eosinophil granule proteins, which act as toxic antimicrobial effectors that promote asthma pathology by damaging airway tissues. These results support the hypothesis that evolutionary conflicts with pathogens promote tradeoffs for increasingly robust immune responses during animal evolution. Our findings are also consistent with the view that natural selection has contributed to the spread of autoimmune disease alleles in humans. PMID:28854632

  19. Recent Ground Hold and Rapid Depressurization Testing of Multilayer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley L.

    2014-01-01

    In the development of flight insulation systems for large cryogenic orbital storage (spray on foam and multilayer insulation), testing need include all environments that are experienced during flight. While large efforts have been expended on studying, bounding, and modeling the orbital performance of the insulation systems, little effort has been expended on the ground hold and ascent phases of a mission. Historical cryogenic in-space systems that have flown have been able to ignore these phases of flight due to the insulation system being within a vacuum jacket. In the development phase of the Nuclear Mars Vehicle and the Shuttle Nuclear Vehicle, several insulation systems were evaluated for the full mission cycle. Since that time there had been minimal work on these phases of flight until the Constellation program began investigating cryogenic service modules and long duration upper stages. With the inception of the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission, a specific need was seen for the data and as such, several tests were added to the Cryogenic Boil-off Reduction System liquid hydrogen test matrix to provide more data on a insulation system. Testing was attempted with both gaseous nitrogen (GN2) and gaseous helium (GHe) backfills. The initial tests with nitrogen backfill were not successfully completed due to nitrogen liquefaction and solidification preventing the rapid pumpdown of the vacuum chamber. Subsequent helium backfill tests were successful and showed minimal degradation. The results are compared to the historical data.

  20. Rapid Global Calibration Technology for Hybrid Visual Inspection System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Yin, Shibin; Guo, Yin; Zhu, Jigui

    2017-06-19

    Vision-based methods for product quality inspection are playing an increasingly important role in modern industries for their good performance and high efficiency. A hybrid visual inspection system, which consists of an industrial robot with a flexible sensor and several stationary sensors, has been widely applied in mass production, especially in automobile manufacturing. In this paper, a rapid global calibration method for the hybrid visual inspection system is proposed. Global calibration of a flexible sensor is performed first based on the robot kinematic. Then, with the aid of the calibrated flexible sensor, stationary sensors are calibrated globally one by one based on homography. Only a standard sphere and an auxiliary target with a 2D planar pattern are applied during the system global calibration, and the calibration process can be easily re-performed during the system's periodical maintenance. An error compensation method is proposed for the hybrid inspection system, and the final accuracy of the hybrid system is evaluated with the deviation and correlation coefficient between the measured results of the hybrid system and Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). An accuracy verification experiment shows that deviation of over 95% of featured points are less than ±0.3 mm, and the correlation coefficients of over 85% of points are larger than 0.7.

  1. Synthetic generation of influenza vaccine viruses for rapid response to pandemics.

    PubMed

    Dormitzer, Philip R; Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Gibson, Daniel G; Wentworth, David E; Stockwell, Timothy B; Algire, Mikkel A; Alperovich, Nina; Barro, Mario; Brown, David M; Craig, Stewart; Dattilo, Brian M; Denisova, Evgeniya A; De Souza, Ivna; Eickmann, Markus; Dugan, Vivien G; Ferrari, Annette; Gomila, Raul C; Han, Liqun; Judge, Casey; Mane, Sarthak; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Merryman, Chuck; Palladino, Giuseppe; Palmer, Gene A; Spencer, Terika; Strecker, Thomas; Trusheim, Heidi; Uhlendorff, Jennifer; Wen, Yingxia; Yee, Anthony C; Zaveri, Jayshree; Zhou, Bin; Becker, Stephan; Donabedian, Armen; Mason, Peter W; Glass, John I; Rappuoli, Rino; Venter, J Craig

    2013-05-15

    During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, vaccines for the virus became available in large quantities only after human infections peaked. To accelerate vaccine availability for future pandemics, we developed a synthetic approach that very rapidly generated vaccine viruses from sequence data. Beginning with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences, we combined an enzymatic, cell-free gene assembly technique with enzymatic error correction to allow rapid, accurate gene synthesis. We then used these synthetic HA and NA genes to transfect Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were qualified for vaccine manufacture with viral RNA expression constructs encoding HA and NA and plasmid DNAs encoding viral backbone genes. Viruses for use in vaccines were rescued from these MDCK cells. We performed this rescue with improved vaccine virus backbones, increasing the yield of the essential vaccine antigen, HA. Generation of synthetic vaccine seeds, together with more efficient vaccine release assays, would accelerate responses to influenza pandemics through a system of instantaneous electronic data exchange followed by real-time, geographically dispersed vaccine production.

  2. The Rapid Response Radiation Survey (R3S) Mission Using the HISat Conformal Satellite Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Nathanael

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Response Radiation Survey (R3S) experiment, designed as a quick turnaround mission to make radiation measurements in LEO, will fly as a hosted payload in partnership with NovaWurks using their Hyper-integrated Satlet (HiSat) architecture. The need for the mission arises as the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionization Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model moves from a research effort into an operational radiation assessment tool. The data collected by R3S, in addition to the complementary data from a NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) atmospheric balloon mission entitled Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaDX), will validate exposure prediction capabilities of NAIRAS. This paper discusses the development of the R3S experiment as made possible by use of the HiSat architecture. The system design and operational modes of the experiment are described, as well as the experiment interfaces to the HiSat satellite via the user defined adapter (UDA) provided by NovaWurks. This paper outlines the steps taken by the project to execute the R3S mission in the 4 months of design, build, and test. Finally, description of the engineering process is provided, including the use of facilitated rapid/concurrent engineering sessions, the associated documentation, and the review process employed.

  3. The ARIA project: Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis for Natural Hazard Monitoring and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, S. E.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Cruz, J.; Yun, S.; Fielding, E. J.; Moore, A. W.; Hua, H.; Agram, P.; Lundgren, P.

    2012-12-01

    ARIA is a joint JPL/Caltech coordinated effort to automate geodetic imaging capabilities for hazard response and societal benefit. Over the past decade, space-based geodetic measurements such as InSAR and GPS have provided new assessment capabilities and situational awareness on the size and location of earthquakes following seismic disasters and on volcanic eruptions following magmatic events. Geodetic imaging's unique ability to capture surface deformation in high spatial and temporal resolution allow us to resolve the fault geometry and distribution of slip associated with any given earthquake in correspondingly high spatial & temporal detail. In addition, remote sensing with radar provides change detection and damage assessment capabilities for earthquakes, floods and other disasters that can image even at night or through clouds. These data sets are still essentially hand-crafted, and thus are not generated rapidly and reliably enough for informing decision-making agencies and the public following an earthquake. We are building an end-to-end prototype geodetic imaging data system that would form the foundation for an envisioned operational hazard response center integrating InSAR, GPS, seismology, and modeling to deliver monitoring, actionable science, and situational awareness products. This prototype exploits state-of-the-art analysis algorithms from technologists and scientists, These algorithms enable the delivery of actionable products from larger data sets with enhanced modeling and interpretation, and the development of next generation techniques. We are collaborating with USGS scientists in both the earthquake and volcano science program for our initial data product infusion. We present our progress to date on development of prototype data system and demonstration data products, and example responses we have run such as generating products for the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-oki, M6.3 Christchurch earthquakes, the 2011 M7.1 Van earthquake, and several simulated

  4. Innate lymphoid cells: models of plasticity for immune homeostasis and rapid responsiveness in protection.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F F; Belz, G T

    2016-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have stormed onto the immune landscape as "newly discovered" cell types. These tissue-resident sentinels are enriched at mucosal surfaces and engage in complex cross talk with elements of the adaptive immune system and microenvironment to orchestrate immune homeostasis. Many parallels exist between innate cells and T cells leading to the initial partitioning of ILCs into rather rigid subsets that reflect their "adaptive-like" effector cytokines profiles. ILCs themselves, however, have unique attributes that are only just beginning to be elucidated. These features result in complementarity with, rather than complete duplication of, functions of the adaptive immune system. Key transcription factors determine the pathway of differentiation of progenitors towards an ILC1, ILC2, or ILC3 subset. Once formed, flexibility in the responses of these subsets to stimuli unexpectedly allows transdifferentation between the different subsets and the acquisition of altered phenotypes and function. This provides a mechanism for rapid innate immune responsiveness. Here, we discuss the models of differentiation for maintenance and activation of tissue-resident ILCs in maintaining immune homeostasis and protection.

  5. NOAA Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic Monitoring Using UASs (including Rapid Response)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, J. J.; Jacobs, T.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned systems have the potential to efficiently, effectively, economically, and safely bridge critical observation requirements in an environmentally friendly manner. As the United States' Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic areas of interest expand and include hard-to-reach regions of the Earth (such as the Arctic and remote oceanic areas) optimizing unmanned capabilities will be needed to advance the United States' science, technology and security efforts. Through increased multi-mission and multi-agency operations using improved inter-operable and autonomous unmanned systems, the research and operations communities will better collect environmental intelligence and better protect our Country against hazardous weather, environmental, marine and polar hazards. This presentation will examine NOAA's Atmospheric, Marine and Arctic Monitoring Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) strategies which includes developing a coordinated effort to maximize the efficiency and capabilities of unmanned systems across the federal government and research partners. Numerous intra- and inter-agency operational demonstrations and assessments have been made to verify and validated these strategies. This includes the introduction of the Targeted Autonomous Insitu Sensing and Rapid Response (TAISRR) with UAS concept of operations. The presentation will also discuss the requisite UAS capabilities and our experience in using them.

  6. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  7. Rapid Global Calibration Technology for Hybrid Visual Inspection System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Yin, Shibin; Guo, Yin; Zhu, Jigui

    2017-01-01

    Vision-based methods for product quality inspection are playing an increasingly important role in modern industries for their good performance and high efficiency. A hybrid visual inspection system, which consists of an industrial robot with a flexible sensor and several stationary sensors, has been widely applied in mass production, especially in automobile manufacturing. In this paper, a rapid global calibration method for the hybrid visual inspection system is proposed. Global calibration of a flexible sensor is performed first based on the robot kinematic. Then, with the aid of the calibrated flexible sensor, stationary sensors are calibrated globally one by one based on homography. Only a standard sphere and an auxiliary target with a 2D planar pattern are applied during the system global calibration, and the calibration process can be easily re-performed during the system’s periodical maintenance. An error compensation method is proposed for the hybrid inspection system, and the final accuracy of the hybrid system is evaluated with the deviation and correlation coefficient between the measured results of the hybrid system and Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). An accuracy verification experiment shows that deviation of over 95% of featured points are less than ±0.3 mm, and the correlation coefficients of over 85% of points are larger than 0.7. PMID:28629198

  8. Desiccation enhances rapid cold-hardening in the flesh fly Sarcophaga bullata: evidence for cross tolerance between rapid physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Yi, Shu-Xia; Gantz, J D; Lee, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Many insects use rapid cold-hardening (RCH), a physiological response to sub-lethal exposure to stressors, such as chilling and desiccation, to enhance their cold tolerance within minutes. Recently, drought-induced RCH, triggered by brief, mild desiccation, was described in larvae of the freeze-tolerant gall fly (Eurosta solidaginis). However, its prevalence and ecological significance in other insects is not known. Consequently, we used a freeze-intolerant model, the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, to investigate the effects and mechanisms of drought-induced RCH. In addition, we investigated how drought- and cold-induced RCH interact by exposing flies to both desiccation and chilling. Desiccation for 3 h increased larval pupariation after cold shock from 28 to 40 %-the first example of drought-induced RCH in both a freeze-intolerant insect and in a non-overwintering life stage. We also found that desiccation and chilling together enhanced the cold hardiness of larvae and adults more than either did separately, suggesting that drought and cold trigger distinct physiological mechanisms that interact to afford greater cold tolerance. These results suggest that drought-induced RCH is a highly conserved response used by insects with diverse life history strategies. Furthermore, the protective interaction between drought- and cold-induced RCH suggests that, in nature, insects use multiple cues and physiological mechanisms to fine-tune their response to changing ambient conditions.

  9. Rapid progression of ocean acidification in the California Current System.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Nicolas; Hauri, Claudine; Lachkar, Zouhair; Loher, Damian; Frölicher, Thomas L; Plattner, Gian-Kasper

    2012-07-13

    Nearshore waters of the California Current System (California CS) already have a low carbonate saturation state, making them particularly susceptible to ocean acidification. We used eddy-resolving model simulations to study the potential development of ocean acidification in this system up to the year 2050 under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios. In both scenarios, the saturation state of aragonite Ω(arag) is projected to drop rapidly, with much of the nearshore region developing summer-long undersaturation in the top 60 meters within the next 30 years. By 2050, waters with Ω(arag) above 1.5 will have largely disappeared, and more than half of the waters will be undersaturated year-round. Habitats along the sea floor will become exposed to year-round undersaturation within the next 20 to 30 years. These projected events have potentially major implications for the rich and diverse ecosystem that characterizes the California CS.

  10. Rapid multiexcitation fluorescence spectroscopy system for in vivo tissue diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zângaro, Renato Amaro; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.; Manoharan, Ramasamy; Zonios, George; Itzkan, Irving; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; van Dam, Jacques; Feld, Michael S.

    1996-09-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a compact, transportable, excitation-emission spectrofluorimeter with optical-fiber light delivery and collection for use in rapid analysis of tissues in a clinical setting. This system provides up to eleven different excitation wavelengths, permitting collection of all the corresponding emission spectra in approximately 600 ms. It uses a N2 laser that pumps a sequence of dyes placed in cuvettes on a rotating wheel. A white-light excitation source permits acquisition of the tissue's diffuse reflectance spectrum on each cycle. Return fluorescence and reflected light are dispersed by a small spectrograph and detected by a photodiode-array detector. The system can collect a single-shot spectrum from biological tissue with a signal-to-noise ratio in excess of 50:1.

  11. A versatile modular vector system for rapid combinatorial mammalian genetics

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Joachim; Danzer, Claudia; Rechsteiner, Markus; Lehmann, Holger; Brandt, Laura P.; Hejhal, Tomas; Catalano, Antonella; Busenhart, Philipp; Gonçalves, Ana Filipa; Brandt, Simone; Bode, Peter K.; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata; Wild, Peter J.; Frew, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we describe the multiple lentiviral expression (MuLE) system that allows multiple genetic alterations to be introduced simultaneously into mammalian cells. We created a toolbox of MuLE vectors that constitute a flexible, modular system for the rapid engineering of complex polycistronic lentiviruses, allowing combinatorial gene overexpression, gene knockdown, Cre-mediated gene deletion, or CRISPR/Cas9-mediated (where CRISPR indicates clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) gene mutation, together with expression of fluorescent or enzymatic reporters for cellular assays and animal imaging. Examples of tumor engineering were used to illustrate the speed and versatility of performing combinatorial genetics using the MuLE system. By transducing cultured primary mouse cells with single MuLE lentiviruses, we engineered tumors containing up to 5 different genetic alterations, identified genetic dependencies of molecularly defined tumors, conducted genetic interaction screens, and induced the simultaneous CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of 3 tumor-suppressor genes. Intramuscular injection of MuLE viruses expressing oncogenic H-RasG12V together with combinations of knockdowns of the tumor suppressors cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (Cdkn2a), transformation-related protein 53 (Trp53), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) allowed the generation of 3 murine sarcoma models, demonstrating that genetically defined autochthonous tumors can be rapidly generated and quantitatively monitored via direct injection of polycistronic MuLE lentiviruses into mouse tissues. Together, our results demonstrate that the MuLE system provides genetic power for the systematic investigation of the molecular mechanisms that underlie human diseases. PMID:25751063

  12. The integrated blast effects sensor suite: a rapidly developed, complex, system of systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Brian; Medda, Alessio; Woods, Douglas; Phelps, Shean; Fain, Walter

    2015-03-01

    Spurned by the increasing concern and consciousness of traumatic brain injuries in deployed U.S. service members, the U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force sought help from the Georgia Tech Research Institute to rapidly develop and deploy a system capable of gathering relevant soldier-centric data-the Integrated Blast Effects Sensor Suite. To meet aggressive program milestones and requirements, Georgia Tech Research Institute engaged in rapid systems engineering efforts focused on leveraging iterative development and test methodologies. Ultimately, an integrated system of systems composed of vehicle systems, soldier-worn headset and torso systems, and data retrieval systems was deployed to troops in Afghanistan for an operational assessment. The Integrated Blast Effects Sensor Suite development process and parallel efforts investigating injury dosimetry methodologies have yielded unique findings and lessons learned, which should be incorporated into future evolutions of similar systems.

  13. Monitoring and evaluation of disaster response efforts undertaken by local health departments: a rapid realist review.

    PubMed

    Gossip, Kate; Gouda, Hebe; Lee, Yong Yi; Firth, Sonja; Bermejo, Raoul; Zeck, Willibald; Jimenez Soto, Eliana

    2017-06-29

    Local health departments are often at the forefront of a disaster response, attending to the immediate trauma inflicted by the disaster and also the long term health consequences. As the frequency and severity of disasters are projected to rise, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) efforts are critical to help local health departments consolidate past experiences and improve future response efforts. Local health departments often conduct M&E work post disaster, however, many of these efforts fail to improve response procedures. We undertook a rapid realist review (RRR) to examine why M&E efforts undertaken by local health departments do not always result in improved disaster response efforts. We aimed to complement existing frameworks by focusing on the most basic and pragmatic steps of a M&E cycle targeted towards continuous system improvements. For these purposes, we developed a theoretical framework that draws on the quality improvement literature to 'frame' the steps in the M&E cycle. This framework encompassed a M&E cycle involving three stages (i.e., document and assess, disseminate and implement) that must be sequentially completed to learn from past experiences and improve future disaster response efforts. We used this framework to guide our examination of the literature and to identify any context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations which describe how M&E may be constrained or enabled at each stage of the M&E cycle. This RRR found a number of explanatory CMO configurations that provide valuable insights into some of the considerations that should be made when using M&E to improve future disaster response efforts. Firstly, to support the accurate documentation and assessment of a disaster response, local health departments should consider how they can: establish a culture of learning within health departments; use embedded training methods; or facilitate external partnerships. Secondly, to enhance the widespread dissemination of lessons learned and facilitate

  14. Thermodynamic responses of electronic systems.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W; Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto

    2017-09-07

    We present how the framework of the temperature-dependent chemical reactivity theory can describe the panorama of different types of interactions between an electronic system and external reagents. The key reactivity indicators are responses of an appropriate state function (like the energy or grand potential) to the variables that determine the state of the system (like the number of electrons/chemical potential, external potential, and temperature). We also consider the response of the average electron density to appropriate perturbations. We present computable formulas for these reactivity indicators and discuss their chemical utility for describing electronic, electrostatic, and thermal changes associated with chemical processes.

  15. Thermodynamic responses of electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W.; Gázquez, José L.; Vela, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    We present how the framework of the temperature-dependent chemical reactivity theory can describe the panorama of different types of interactions between an electronic system and external reagents. The key reactivity indicators are responses of an appropriate state function (like the energy or grand potential) to the variables that determine the state of the system (like the number of electrons/chemical potential, external potential, and temperature). We also consider the response of the average electron density to appropriate perturbations. We present computable formulas for these reactivity indicators and discuss their chemical utility for describing electronic, electrostatic, and thermal changes associated with chemical processes.

  16. Design review report for the SY-101 RAPID mitigation system

    SciTech Connect

    SCHLOSSER, R.L.

    1999-05-24

    This report documents design reviews conducted of the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Mitigation System. As part of the SY-101 Surface-Level-Rise Remediation Project, the SY-101 WID Mitigation System will reduce the potential unacceptable consequences of crust growth in Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). Projections of the crust growth rate indicate that the waste level in the tank may reach the juncture of the primary and secondary confinement structures of the tank late in 1999. Because of this time constraint, many design activities are being conducted in parallel and design reviews were conducted for system adequacy as well as design implementation throughout the process. Design implementation, as used in this design review report, is the final component selection (e.g., which circuit breaker, valve, or thermocouple) that meets the approved design requirements, system design, and design and procurement specifications. Design implementation includes the necessary analysis, testing, verification, and qualification to demonstrate compliance with the system design and design requirements. Design implementation is outside the scope of this design review. The design activities performed prior to detailed design implementation (i.e., system mission requirements, functional design requirements, technical criteria, system conceptual design, and where design and build contracts were placed, the procurement specification) have been reviewed and are within the scope of this design review report. Detailed design implementation will be controlled, reviewed, and where appropriate, approved in accordance with Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) engineering procedures. Review of detailed design implementation will continue until all components necessary to perform the transfer function are installed and tested.

  17. Seismogeodesy for Rapid Response: The 2014 Mw 6 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgar, D.; Geng, J.; Bock, Y.; Haase, J. S.; Goldberg, D.; Saunders, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid assessment of medium to large events with finite source models at regional scales has traditionally been delayed by limitations in seismic-only monitoring systems. Broadband and short period sensors saturate and strong motion sensors are affected by baseline offsets. In practice, this means that strong motion data must be high pass filtered. This approximation breaks down as the earthquakes get larger since the long period band of the spectrum best characterizes these events. In contrast geodetic data record long period motions down to the coseismic offset. They are however less sensitive, with single-epoch noise levels of the order of 1cm. With data from 34 collocated GPS/strong motion stations around the South Napa earthquake, we demonstrate a seismogeodetic algorithm that produces broadband strong motion velocity and displacements. We further show that these data can be ingested into source modeling algorithms with minimal operator interaction. Through retrospective analysis off the South Napa data, we show that one can produce a full suite of models from rapid moment tensors to kinematic slip inversions. While displacement amplitudes are small, often below GPS noise levels, the seismogeodetic solution provides an objective constraint on the accelerometer integration. The rapid inversion to find shallow slip can provide an indication of surface rupture and indicate that enhanced response is likely for road repairs and such. We quantify the improvements and advantages to using 5Hz GPS over 1Hz data.There are over 600 real-time monitoring GPS stations in the western US maintained by several operators; the NASA-sponsored READI project aims to unify these into a network of networks for prototyping earthquake and tsunami warning systems. We argue that the results shown here demonstrate the need for full integration of geodetic networks into seismic monitoring systems and that with current deployed stations this is within reach. However, only a small number of

  18. Flying experience and cardiovascular response to rapid head-up tilt in fighter pilots.

    PubMed

    Newman, David G; Callister, Robin

    2009-08-01

    Fighter pilots report G tolerance increases with regular exposure. Our previous work has shown that the cardiovascular system of +Gz-adapted fighter pilots responds differently to orthostatic challenges than that of non-pilots. A +Gz training effect in pilots after repetitive +Gz exposure has also been shown. Individual pilot factors such as flying experience may have a role in +Gz adaptation. In this study, we investigated the relationship between flying hours (a marker of cumulative +Gz exposure) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) response to head-up tilt (HUT; a marker of enhanced cardiovascular performance). There were 14 male fighter pilots who participated: 9 had over 1000 h jet flying experience and 5 had less than 500 h. Subjects underwent rapid (approximately 4 s) +75 degrees HUT. Beat-to-beat MAP was measured noninvasively. For each subject, change in MAP from resting values was obtained for the first 30 heart beats of the HUT period. MAP responses to tilt were compared between the experienced and less experienced pilots, and the averages of the MAP deviation values were plotted against flying hours. There was a strong correlation (r = 0.87, P < 0.01) between the MAP response to tilt and jet flying hours. Comparison of the MAP responses to tilt indicates that the experienced pilots increased MAP more (+8 +/- 1.7 vs 5 +/- 1.5 mmHg) and maintained MAP at a higher level during the HUT than the less experienced pilots. The results suggest that flying experience in the high +Gz environment is strongly correlated with enhanced cardiovascular performance under conditions of accelerative stress.

  19. Providing Real-Time Response, State Recency and Temporal Consistency in Databases for Rapidly Changing Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Anindya; Viguier, Igor R.

    1997-01-01

    In environments where the state of the system changes rapidly, such as stock trading, air traffic control, network management, and process control, databases have been proposed as the platform to develop automated control systems. Information in such systems consists of "updates," reporting on the state of the environment and…

  20. Providing Real-Time Response, State Recency and Temporal Consistency in Databases for Rapidly Changing Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Anindya; Viguier, Igor R.

    1997-01-01

    In environments where the state of the system changes rapidly, such as stock trading, air traffic control, network management, and process control, databases have been proposed as the platform to develop automated control systems. Information in such systems consists of "updates," reporting on the state of the environment and…

  1. In situ response of phytoplankton fluorescence to rapid variations in light

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, M.R.; Richerson, P.J.; Powell, T.M.

    1982-03-01

    Phytoplankton chlorophyll a fluorescence responded to rapid fluctuations in light intensity in Lake Tahoe at three depths: 10, 35, and 60 m. Fluroescence yield was negatively correlated with surface irradiance at all depths, but there was a strong depth dependence in the intensity of this response. Phytoplankton at 35 m reacted more strongly to fluctuations than those at 10 or 60 m and therefore could show a noticeable response to more rapid variations. This may have been due to near-optimal light levels at 35 m, light inhibition at 10, and light limitation at 60 m.

  2. Biofilm streamers cause rapid clogging of flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yi; Drescher, Knut; Wingreen, Ned; Bassler, Bonnie; Stone, Howard

    2012-11-01

    Biofilms are antibiotic-resistant, sessile bacterial communities that are found on most surfaces on Earth. In addition to constituting the most abundant form of bacterial life, biofilms also cause chronic and medical device-associated infections. Despite their importance, basic information about how biofilms behave in common ecological environments is lacking. Here we demonstrate that flow through soil-like porous materials, industrial filters, and medical stents dramatically modifies the morphology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms to form streamers which over time bridge the space between obstacles and corners in non-uniform environments. Using a microfluidic model system we find that, contrary to the accepted paradigm, the accumulation of surface-attached bacterial biofilm has little effect on flow resistance whereas the formation of biofilm streamers causes sudden and rapid clogging. The time at which clogging happens depends on bacterial growth, while the duration of the clogging transition is driven by flow-mediated transport of bacteria to the clogging site. Flow-induced shedding of extracellular matrix from the resident biofilm generates a sieve-like network that catches bacteria flowing by, which add to the network of extracellular matrix, to cause exponentially rapid clogging. We expect these biofilm streamers to be ubiquitous in nature, and to have profound effects on flow through porous materials in environmental, industrial, and medical environments.

  3. Modeled rapid adjustments in diurnal temperature range response to CO2 and solar forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Lawrence S.; Forster, Piers M.

    2013-03-01

    We used the National Center for Atmospheric Research single column climate model to determine if rapid adjustments to surface heat fluxes contribute to a change in skin surface or surface air diurnal temperature range (DTR) under 2 × CO2 and -2% solar forcings. An ensemble of model runs was employed with locations selected to represent a range of different climatic conditions and with forcing implemented hourly throughout the diurnal cycle. The change in skin surface DTR and surface energy fluxes during the 3 days after forcing were used to quantify the rapid adjustment response and temperature related feedback. Averaged over all locations, skin surface DTR reduced by 0.01°C after CO2 forcing and included a rapid adjustment to skin surface DTR of -0.12°C. Skin surface DTR reduced by 0.17°C after solar forcing and included a rapid adjustment of -0.01°C. The rapid adjustments in skin surface DTR were associated with rapid adjustments in surface sensible and latent heat fluxes necessary to balance the energy budget immediately after forcing. We find that the sensitivity of skin surface DTR to mean temperature related feedback is the same for CO2 and solar forcings when skin surface DTR rapid adjustments are allowed for. Rapid adjustments played a key role in the geographic variation of the skin surface DTR response to forcing. Our results suggest that diurnal variations in trends of downwelling longwave radiation and rapid reductions in DTR associated with CO2 forcing potentially contributed to the observed global trend in surface air DTR.

  4. Rapid Evolution of Manifold CRISPR Systems for Plant Genome Editing

    PubMed Central

    Lowder, Levi; Malzahn, Aimee; Qi, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Advanced CRISPR-Cas9 based technologies first validated in mammalian cell systems are quickly being adapted for use in plants. These new technologies increase CRISPR-Cas9's utility and effectiveness by diversifying cellular capabilities through expression construct system evolution and enzyme orthogonality, as well as enhanced efficiency through delivery and expression mechanisms. Here, we review the current state of advanced CRISPR-Cas9 and Cpf1 capabilities in plants and cover the rapid evolution of these tools from first generation inducers of double strand breaks for basic genetic manipulations to second and third generation multiplexed systems with myriad functionalities, capabilities, and specialized applications. We offer perspective on how to utilize these tools for currently untested research endeavors and analyze strengths and weaknesses of novel CRISPR systems in plants. Advanced CRISPR functionalities and delivery options demonstrated in plants are primarily reviewed but new technologies just coming to the forefront of CRISPR development, or those on the horizon, are briefly discussed. Topics covered are focused on the expansion of expression and delivery capabilities for CRISPR-Cas9 components and broadening targeting range through orthogonal Cas9 and Cpf1 proteins. PMID:27895652

  5. Rapid protein crystallization by a micro osmotic screening system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Po-Hsiung; Su, Yu-Chuan

    2007-03-01

    This work presents a micro osmotic screening system that grows protein crystals in hours while consuming only micrograms of samples. Throughout the crystallization process, water can be driven in or out of a protein solution (across a semi-permeable membrane) to adjust its concentrations as desired. With the bi-directional and adjustable flow control realized by osmosis, each protein sample can be screened for crystallization conditions over a highly extended range. In the prototype demonstration, 6 × 8 screening arrays having an overall size of 20 × 24 × 2.5 mm3 were fabricated and characterized with crystallization experiments. In these experiments, crystallization conditions for four proteins, including lysozyme, catalase, thaumatin and xylanase, were identified within 2-6 h while consuming less than 20 µl of sample solution for each protein. Furthermore, it was also demonstrated that diffraction-quality crystals may be grown and harvested from the prototype system. As such, this osmotic system pioneers a new class of rapid screening schemes for high-throughput protein crystallization. A portion of this paper was presented at the 10th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan, November 2006.

  6. Use of conditioned media is critical for studies of regulation in response to rapid heat shock.

    PubMed

    Mahat, Dig B; Lis, John T

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock response (HSR) maintains and restores protein homeostasis when cells are exposed to proteotoxic heat stress. Heat shock (HS) triggers a rapid and robust change in genome-wide transcription, protein synthesis, and chaperone activity; and therefore, the HSR has been widely used as a model system in these studies. The conventional method of performing instantaneous HS in the laboratory uses heated fresh media to induce HSR when added to cells. However, addition of fresh media to cells may evoke additional cellular responses and signaling pathways. Here, we compared the change in global transcription profile when HS is performed with either heated fresh media or heated conditioned media. We found that the use of heated fresh media induces transcription of hundreds of genes that HS alone does not induce, and masks or partially masks HS-mediated downregulation of thousands of genes. The fresh-media-dependent upregulated genes encode ribosomal subunit proteins involved in translation and RNA processing factors. More importantly, fresh media also induce transcription of several heat shock protein genes (Hsps) in a heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-independent manner. Thus, we conclude that a conventional method of HS with heated fresh media causes changes in transcription regulation that confound the actual change caused solely by elevated temperature of cells.

  7. Rapid identification of Candida dubliniensis with commercial yeast identification systems.

    PubMed

    Pincus, D H; Coleman, D C; Pruitt, W R; Padhye, A A; Salkin, I F; Geimer, M; Bassel, A; Sullivan, D J; Clarke, M; Hearn, V

    1999-11-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a newly described species that is closely related phylogenetically to Candida albicans and that is commonly associated with oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Several recent studies have attempted to elucidate phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of use in separating the two species. However, results obtained with simple phenotypic tests were too variable and tests that provided more definitive data were too complex for routine use in the clinical laboratory setting. The objective of this study was to determine if reproducible identification of C. dubliniensis could be obtained with commercial identification kits. The substrate reactivity profiles of 80 C. dubliniensis isolates were obtained by using the API 20C AUX, ID 32 C, RapID Yeast Plus, VITEK YBC, and VITEK 2 ID-YST systems. The percentages of C. dubliniensis isolates capable of assimilating or hydrolyzing each substrate were compared with the percentages from the C. albicans profiles in each kit's database, and the results were expressed as percent C. dubliniensis and percent C. albicans. Any substrate that showed >50% difference in reactivity was considered useful in differentiating the species. In addition, assimilation of methyl-alpha-D-glucoside (MDG), D-trehalose (TRE), and D-xylose (XYL) by the same isolates was investigated by the traditional procedure of Wickerham and Burton (L. J. Wickerham and K. A. Burton, J. Bacteriol. 56:363-371, 1948). At 48 h (the time recommended by the manufacturer for its new database), we found that the assimilation of four carbohydrates in the API 20C AUX system could be used to distinguish the species, i.e., glycerol (GLY; 88 and 14%), XYL (0 and 88%), MDG (0 and 85%), and TRE (15 and 97%). Similarly, results with the ID 32 C system at 48 h showed that XYL (0 and 98%), MDG (0 and 98%), lactate (LAT; 0 and 96%), and TRE (30 and 96%) could be used to separate the two species. Phosphatase (PHS; 9 and 76%) and

  8. Time-Critical Studies: Rapid response to Transient Dynamic Mid-Ocean Ridge Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, R. P.; Cowen, J. P.; Baker, E. T.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Time-Critical Studies (TCS) Theme of Ridge 2000 focuses on observations of the immediate geochemical and geobiological consequences of magmatic and tectonic events along the global mid-ocean ridge system. NOAA's T-Phase Monitoring Program has accessed the U.S. Navy's NE SOSUS data in real-time since 1993, providing the TCS community with detection of seismicity associated with eruptive or tectonic activity along the Juan de Fuca (JFR) and Gorda Ridges. This remote detection of earthquake swarms, coupled to NSF and NOAA funding for pre-event staging of equipment and supplies, allows directed and increasingly well-organized field responses to event sites. On 27 February 2005, one of the largest submarine earthquake sequences recorded with SOSUS occurred at the Endeavour segment of the JFR. The swarm met all criteria for magmatic earthquake sequences (see Dziak et al. poster and upcoming EOS article). This swarm differed from other plume-producing swarms in that it migrated more slowly (< 0.1 m/s) and over less distance (< 30 km) and occurred entirely within an overlap zone rather than within the bathymetric minimum of a segment. Despite the ambiguous character of the earthquake swarm, the Event Response Community responded since: (1) Although the swarm appeared to be magmatic, there is no way to confirm seafloor or water-column effects without in situ observations; and (2) absent a seafloor eruption, the physical process of injecting magma into the crust should cause significant faulting and fissuring that could result in the release of hydrothermal fluids. The high intensity of the earthquake swarm greatly increased this possibility. This response effort marked the sixth time since 1993 that a research cruise was organized for rapid response to the site of earthquake activity. The response team was on station just 6 days after notification of the seismic swarm, the fastest response yet mounted. Although the team detected no evidence of a new lava flow, or event

  9. Axion response in gapless systems.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Doron L

    2011-10-21

    The strong topological insulator in 3D is expected to realize a quantized magnetoelectric response, the so-called axion response. However, many of the materials predicted to be topological insulators have turned out to be metallic, with bulk Fermi surfaces. Following the result of Bergman and Refael [Phys. Rev. B 82, 195417 (2010)] that the surface states of the topological insulator persist even when the band structure gap is closed, we explore the fate of the magnetoelectric response in such systems. We find that a nonquantized magnetoelectric coupling remains once a bulk Fermi surface opens. More generally, we find higher-dimensional analogs of the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect for all Chern forms-quantized transport coefficients in the gapped case become nonquantized when the gap is closed. In particular, the nonquantized magnetoelectric response in 3D descends from the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect analog in 4D.

  10. Rapid evaluation of potential fields in particle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Greengard, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    The evaluation of Coulombic or gravitational interactions in large-scale ensembles of particles is an integral part of the numerical simulation of a large number of physical processes. Examples include celestial mechanics, plasma physics, the vortex method in fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, and the solution of the Laplace equation via potential theory. In a typical application, a numerical model follows the trajectories of a number of particles moving in accordance with Newton's second law of motion in a field generated by the whole ensemble. In many situations, in order to be of physical interest, the simulation has to involve thousands of particles (or more), and the fields have to be evaluated for a large number of configurations. An algorithm is presented here for the rapid evaluation of the potential and force fields in large-scale systems of particles. Both two- and three-dimensional versions of the algorithm were constructed,and various applications are discussed.

  11. The design of rapid MicroRNA detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanfei; Yu, Dongsheng; Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhanying; Fang, Weikai; Lu, Zeyuan; Li, Yanlei; Ji, Yufeng; Guan, Yifu; Xu, Chidong; Jiang, Haihe

    2016-01-01

    In order to detect miRNA quickly, we designed a new portable device for the rapid detection of miRNA, using Opto-electronic detection technology, marking miRNA and isothermal rolling circle amplification and detecting markers which excite fluorescence intensity, the recognition system of characteristic fluorescence analysis was established. By changing the excitation light intensity, miRNA reagent concentration and other parameters, we arrive at the conclusion that there is the linear relationship (R2=0.9947) between miRNA concentration and fluorescence intensity when the miRNA concentration range the instrument can measure is in the range of 0.01-0.1mol and the lowest values measured by the instrument in theory is 7 copies.

  12. Controlled Rapid Adiabatic Passage in a V-Type System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yunheung; Lee, Han-Gyeol; Jo, Hanlae; Ahn, Jaewook

    2016-05-01

    In chirped rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), chirp sign determines the final state to which the complete population transfer (CPT) occurs in a three-level V-type system. In this study, we show that laser intensity can be alternatively used as a control means in RAP, when the laser pulse is chirped and of a spectral hole resonant to one of the excited states. We verified such excitation selectivity in the experiment performed as-shaped femtosecond laser pulses interacting with the lowest three levels (5S, 5 P1/2, and 5 P3/2) of atomic rubidium. The successful demonstration implies that this intensity-dependent RAP in conjunction with laser beam profile programming may allow excitation selectivity for atoms or ions arranged in space.

  13. UMTS rapid response real-time seismic networks: implementation and strategies at INGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, Aladino; Margheriti, Lucia; Moretti, Milena; Lauciani, Valentino; Sensale, Gianpaolo; Bucci, Augusto; Criscuoli, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    The benefits of portable real-time seismic networks are several and well known. During the management of a temporary experiment from the real-time data it is possible to detect and fix rapidly problems with power supply, time synchronization, disk failures and, most important, seismic signal quality degradation due to unexpected noise sources or sensor alignment/tampering. This usually minimizes field maintenance trips and maximizes both the quantity and the quality of the acquired data. When the area of the temporary experiment is not well monitored by the local permanent network, the real-time data from the temporary experiment can be fed to the permanent network monitoring system improving greatly both the real-time hypocentral locations and the final revised bulletin. All these benefits apply also in case of seismic crises when rapid deployment stations can significantly contribute to the aftershock analysis. Nowadays data transmission using meshed radio networks or satellite systems is not a big technological problem for a permanent seismic network where each site is optimized for the device power consumption and is usually installed by properly specialized technicians that can configure transmission devices and align antennas. This is not usually practical for temporary networks and especially for rapid response networks where the installation time is the main concern. These difficulties are substantially lowered using the now widespread UMTS technology for data transmission. A small (but sometimes power hungry) properly configured device with an omnidirectional antenna must be added to the station assembly. All setups are usually configured before deployment and this allows for an easy installation also by untrained personnel. We describe here the implementation of a UMTS based portable seismic network for both temporary experiments and rapid response applications developed at INGV. The first field experimentation of this approach dates back to the 2009 L

  14. 75 FR 11938 - Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination... Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, Michigan (Meridian Automotive). The petitioning group of workers...

  15. Normal Evoked Response to Rapid Sequences of Tactile Pulses in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Santosh; Khan, Sheraz; Garel, Keri-Lee A.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Kenet, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder diagnosed behaviorally, with many documented neurophysiological abnormalities in cortical response properties. While abnormal sensory processing is not considered core to the disorder, most ASD individuals report sensory processing abnormalities. Yet, the neurophysiological correlates of these abnormalities have not been fully mapped. In the auditory domain, studies have shown that cortical responses in the early auditory cortex in ASD are abnormal in multiple ways. In particular, it has been shown that individuals with ASD have abnormal cortical auditory evoked responses to rapid, but not slow, sequences of tones. In parallel, there is substantial evidence of somatosensory processing abnormalities in ASD, including in the temporal domain. Here, we tested the somatosensory domain in ASD for abnormalities in rapid processing of tactile pulses, to determine whether abnormalities there parallel those observed in the auditory domain. Specifically, we tested the somatosensory cortex response to a sequence of two tactile pulses with different (short and long) temporal separation. We analyzed the responses in cortical space, in primary somatosensory cortex. As expected, we found no group difference in the evoked response to pulses with long (700 ms) temporal separation. Contrary to findings in the auditory domain, we also found no group differences in the evoked responses to the sequence with a short (200 ms) temporal separation. These results suggest that rapid temporal processing deficits in ASD are not generalized across multiple sensory domains, and are unlikely to underlie the behavioral somatosensory abnormalities observed in ASD. PMID:27695402

  16. Rapid prototyping in the development of image processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Fecht, Arno; Kelm, Claus Thomas

    2004-08-01

    This contribution presents a rapid prototyping approach for the real-time demonstration of image processing algorithms. As an example EADS/LFK has developed a basic IR target tracking system implementing this approach. Traditionally in research and industry time-independent simulation of image processing algorithms on a host computer is processed. This method is good for demonstrating the algorithms' capabilities. Rarely done is a time-dependent simulation or even a real-time demonstration on a target platform to prove the real-time capabilities. In 1D signal processing applications time-dependent simulation and real-time demonstration has already been used for quite a while. For time-dependent simulation Simulink from The MathWorks has established as an industry standard. Combined with The MathWorks' Real-Time Workshop the simulation model can be transferred to a real-time target processor. The executable is generated automatically by the Real-Time Workshop directly out of the simulation model. In 2D signal processing applications like image processing The Mathworks' Matlab is commonly used for time-independent simulation. To achieve time-dependent simulation and real-time demonstration capabilities the algorithms can be transferred to Simulink, which in fact runs on top of Matlab. Additionally to increase the performance Simulink models or parts of them can be transferred to Xilinx FPGAs using Xilinx' System Generator. With a single model and the automatic workflow both, a time-dependant simulation and the real-time demonstration, are covered leading to an easy and flexible rapid prototyping approach. EADS/LFK is going to use this approach for a wider spectrum of IR image processing applications like automatic target recognition or image based navigation or imaging laser radar target recognition.

  17. Rapid aneurysm growth and rupture in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Graffeo, Christopher S.; Tanweer, Omar; Nieves, Cesar Fors; Belmont, H. Michael; Izmirly, Peter M.; Becske, Tibor; Huang, Paul P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to intracranial aneurysm rupture is a major neurosurgical emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Rapid aneurysm growth is associated with rupture. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system autoimmune disorder whose complications can include cerebral vasculitis and vasculopathy. Intracranial aneurysms are not known to occur more frequently in SLE patients than the general population; however, aneurysm growth rates have not been studied in SLE. Case Description: We present a 43-year-old female with SLE on prednisone, hydroxychloroquine, and azathioprine with moderate disease activity who presented with severe, acute-onset headache and was found to have Hunt and Hess grade II SAH due to rupture of an 8 mm saccular anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm. The patient developed severe vasospasm, re-ruptured, and was taken for angiography and embolization, which was challenging due to a high degree of vasospasm and arterial stenosis. Review of imaging from less than 2 years prior demonstrated a normal ACoA complex without evidence of an aneurysm. Conclusion: We review the literature and discuss the risk factors and pathophysiology of rapid aneurysm growth and rupture, as well as the pathologic vascular changes associated with SLE. Although SLE patients do not develop intracranial aneurysm at an increased rate, these changes may predispose them to higher incidence of growth and rupture. This possibility-coupled with increased morbidity and mortality of SAH in SLE-suggests that SAH should be considered in SLE patients presenting with headache, and advocates for more aggressive treatment of SLE patients with unruptured aneurysms. PMID:25657862

  18. Applying Lean: Implementation of a Rapid Triage and Treatment System

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Karen L.; Offerman, Steven R.; Kauffman, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Emergency department (ED) crowding creates issues with patient satisfaction, long wait times and leaving the ED without being seen by a doctor (LWBS). Our objective was to evaluate how applying Lean principles to develop a Rapid Triage and Treatment (RTT) system affected ED metrics in our community hospital. Methods: Using Lean principles, we made ED process improvements that led to the RTT system. Using this system, patients undergo a rapid triage with low-acuity patients seen and treated by a physician in the triage area. No changes in staffing, physical space or hospital resources occurred during the study period. We then performed a retrospective, observational study comparing hospital electronic medical record data six months before and six months after implementation of the RTT system. Results: ED census was 30,981 in the six months prior to RTT and 33,926 after. Ambulance arrivals, ED patient acuity and hospital admission rates were unchanged throughout the study periods. Mean ED length of stay was longer in the period before RTT (4.2 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.2–4.3; standard deviation [SD] = 3.9) than after (3.6 hours, 95% CI = 3.6–3.7; SD = 3.7). Mean ED arrival to physician start time was 62.2 minutes (95% CI = 61.5–63.0; SD = 58.9) prior to RTT and 41.9 minutes (95% CI = 41.5–42.4; SD = 30.9) after. The LWBS rate for the six months prior to RTT was 4.5% (95% CI = 3.1–5.5) and 1.5% (95% CI = 0.6–1.8) after RTT initiation. Conclusion: Our experience shows that changes in ED processes using Lean thinking and available resources can improve efficiency. In this community hospital ED, use of an RTT system decreased patient wait times and LWBS rates. PMID:21691524

  19. Switched reluctance motor systems poised for rapid growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lovins, A.B.; Howe, B.

    1992-12-31

    The emergence of a rugged, versatile, and highly efficient alternative to conventional electric motors promises to have a major impact on drivepower markets over the next decade. Although switched reluctance drives are not yet available ``off the shelf`` from major motor manufacturers, they are likely to compete favorably across a broad range of applications, due to their superior performance characteristics. Switched reluctance drives maintain higher torque and efficiency over broader speed ranges than can be achieved with other advanced variable-speed systems, can be programmed to precisely match the loads they serve and, in high-volume production, are likely to be less expensive than competing systems. The principal obstacle to rapid commercialization of switched reluctance motors is the fact that few engineers are trained to perform the exacting and specialized design that this technology requires. This hurdle is gradually being overcome as over two dozen firms now design or manufacture switched reluctance drives, and several are moving into mass production applications. As these and other firms gain experience with the technology, new opportunities will arise for utilities, energy users, and original equipment manufacturers to capture the benefits of switched reluctance motor systems. This report appraises recent progress toward moving switched reluctance drives to mass production and provides an inventory of major manufacturers.

  20. Osteopontin: a rapid and sensitive response to dioxin exposure in the osteoblastic cell line UMR-106.

    PubMed

    Wejheden, Carolina; Brunnberg, Sara; Hanberg, Annika; Lind, P Monica

    2006-03-03

    2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an endocrine disrupting environmental pollutant that, among other effects, affects bone tissue. TCDD modulates the transcription of various genes, e.g., CYP1A1, and the present study is a part of a project aiming at developing an in vitro model system for identifying biomarkers specific for dioxin-induced effects in osteoblasts. Osteopontin (OPN) is an adhesion protein, suggested to be important in bone remodeling and our results indicate that TCDD down-regulates the transcription of OPN in the osteoblastic cell line, UMR-106. The present study shows that UMR-106 expresses the AhR and that the expression of CYP1A1 is induced after exposure to TCDD, while down-regulation of OPN is an even more rapid response and a sensitive biomarker to TCDD exposure in this osteoblastic cell line. In conclusion, this osteoblastic cell line may be used as an in vitro model-system for studying dioxin-induced effects on osteoblasts.

  1. 49 CFR 37.47 - Key stations in light and rapid rail systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Key stations in light and rapid rail systems. 37... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.47 Key stations in light and rapid rail... rapid rail system shall make key stations on its system readily accessible to and usable by individuals...

  2. Value and challenges of conducting rapid response research on wildland fires

    Treesearch

    L. Lentile; P. Morgan; C. Hardy; A. Hudak; R. Means; R. Ottmar; P. Robichaud; E. Kennedy Sutherland; J. Szymoniak; F. Way; J. Fites-Kaufman; S. Lewis; E. Mathews; H. Shovik; K. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Rapid Response Research is conducted during and immediately after wildland fires, in coordination with fire management teams, in order to collect information that can best be garnered in situ and in real-time. This information often includes fire behavior and fire effects data, which can be used to generate practical tools such as predictive fire models for managers....

  3. Rapid is relative until clearly defined: A response to Kleindl et al.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The response to Kleindl et al. replies to their claims that an analysis of rapid assessments published in an Environmental Protection Agency report and then in the peer-reviewed journal, Wetlands, wrongly eliminated the Hydrogeomorphic Assessment Method (HGM) from consideration. ...

  4. Sustaining innovations in complex healthcare environments: A multiple-case study of rapid response teams

    PubMed Central

    Stolldorf, Deonni P; Havens, Donna S.; Jones, Cheryl B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Rapid response teams are one innovation previously deployed in U.S. hospitals with the goal to improve the quality of care. Sustaining rapid response teams is important to achieve the desired implementation outcomes, reduce the risk of program investments losses, and prevent employee disillusionment and dissatisfaction. This study sought to examine factors that do and do not support the sustainability of Rapid Response Teams. Methods The study was conceptually guided by an adapted version of the Planning Model of Sustainability. A multiple-case study was conducted using a purposive sample of two hospitals with high RRT sustainability scores and two hospitals with low RRT sustainability scores. Data collection methods included: (a) a hospital questionnaire that was completed by a nurse administrator at each hospital; (b) semi-structured interviews with leaders, RRT members, and those activating RRT calls; and, (c) review of internal documents. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics; qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. Results Few descriptive differences were found between hospitals. However, there were notable differences in the operationalization of certain factors between high- and low-sustainability hospitals. Additional sustainability factors other than those captured by the Planning Model of Sustainability were also identified. Conclusions The sustainability of rapid response teams is optimized through effective operationalization of organizational and project design and implementation factors. Two additional factors—individual and team characteristics—should be included in the Planning Model of Sustainability and considered as potential facilitators (or inhibitors) of RRT sustainability. PMID:26756725

  5. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  6. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  7. Setting the Response Time Threshold Parameter to Differentiate Solution Behavior from Rapid-Guessing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Xiaojing J.; Bhola, Dennison S.; Wise, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    In this study four methods were compared for setting a response time threshold that differentiates rapid-guessing behavior from solution behavior when examinees are obliged to complete a low-stakes test. The four methods examined were: (1) a fixed threshold for all test items; (2) thresholds based on item surface features such as the amount of…

  8. Rapid is relative until clearly defined: A response to Kleindl et al.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The response to Kleindl et al. replies to their claims that an analysis of rapid assessments published in an Environmental Protection Agency report and then in the peer-reviewed journal, Wetlands, wrongly eliminated the Hydrogeomorphic Assessment Method (HGM) from consideration. ...

  9. Evaluation of a hospice rapid response community service: a controlled evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While most people faced with a terminal illness would prefer to die at home, less than a third in England are enabled to do so with many dying in National Health Service hospitals. Patients are more likely to die at home if their carers receive professional support. Hospice rapid response teams, which provide specialist palliative care at home on a 24/7 on-call basis, are proposed as an effective way to help terminally ill patients die in their preferred place, usually at home. However, the effectiveness of rapid response teams has not been rigorously evaluated in terms of patient, carer and cost outcomes. Methods/Design The study is a pragmatic quasi-experimental controlled trial. The primary outcome for the quantitative evaluation for patients is dying in their preferred place of death. Carers’ quality of life will be evaluated using postal questionnaires sent at patient intake to the hospice service and eight months later. Carers’ perceptions of care received and the patient’s death will be assessed in one to one interviews at 6 to 8 months post bereavement. Service utilisation costs including the rapid response intervention will be compared to those of usual care. Discussion The study will contribute to the development of the evidence base on outcomes for patients and carers and costs of hospice rapid response teams operating in the community. Trial registration: Current controlled trials ISRCTN32119670. PMID:22846107

  10. Rapid Response of the Yeast Plasma Membrane Proteome to Salt Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Szopinska, Aleksandra; Degand, Hervé; Hochstenbach, Jean-François; Nader, Joseph; Morsomme, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cell from the external environment and plays an important role in the stress response of the cell. In this study, we compared plasma membrane proteome modifications of yeast cells exposed to mild (0.4 m NaCl) or high (1 m NaCl) salt stress for 10, 30, or 90 min. Plasma membrane-enriched fractions were isolated, purified, and subjected to iTRAQ labeling for quantitative analysis. In total, 88–109 plasma membrane proteins were identified and quantified. The quantitative analysis revealed significant changes in the abundance of several plasma membrane proteins. Mild salt stress caused an increase in abundance of 12 plasma membrane proteins, including known salt-responsive proteins, as well as new targets. Interestingly, 20 plasma membrane proteins, including the P-type H+-ATPase Pma1, ABC transporters, glucose and amino acid transporters, t-SNAREs, and proteins involved in cell wall biogenesis showed a significant and rapid decrease in abundance in response to both 0.4 m and 1 m NaCl. We propose that rapid protein internalization occurs as a response to hyper-osmotic and/or ionic shock, which might affect plasma membrane morphology and ionic homeostasis. This rapid response might help the cell to survive until the transcriptional response takes place. PMID:21825281

  11. Communication at pediatric rapid response events: a survey of health care providers.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Michael C; Aboumatar, Hanan A; Hunt, Elizabeth A

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore perceptions of communication quality at pediatric rapid response events and to determine whether these perceptions differed between rapid response team (RRT) members (RRTm) and floor providers (FP). This survey study was conducted of clinical providers involved in RRT events at a tertiary care children's hospital. Perceptions of RRT communication were assessed by using a 5-point Likert scale, and qualitative comments were collected. Responses were compared between RRTm (responder nurses and intensive care fellows) and FP (floor nurses and resident physicians). Survey response was 64% (18 of 28) for RRTm and 70% (194 of 278) for FP. RRTm gave lower ratings than FP for communication of: (1) the purpose of the call; (2) airway and breathing; (3) circulation; (4) background information; and (5) possible diagnosis and treatment. RRTm were more likely than FP to indicate that description of background information delayed communication of critical management problems ("often": RRTm, 7 of 17 [41%]; FP, 23 of 175 [13%]; "always": RRTm, 2 of 18 [12%]; FP, 19 of 175 [11%]; P=.001 for overall comparison). A structured approach for communication was generally supported, although less strongly among floor nurses. Themes from qualitative responses included role confusion, fractured room entry, and a dismissive attitude by RRTm. A disconnect in perceived quality of communication was observed between RRTm and FP at pediatric rapid response events. A structured approach with well-defined roles may improve communication quality. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Time Lapse Storey Building Early Monitoring Based on Rapid Seismic Response Analysis in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julius, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Within the last decade, advances in the acquisition, processing and transmission of data from seismic monitoring has contributed to the growth in the number structures instrumented with such systems. An equally important factor for such growth can be attributed to the demands by stakeholders to find rapid answers to important questions related to the functionality or state of "health" of structures during and immediately of a seismic events. Consequently, this study aims to monitor the storey building based on seismic response i. e. earthquake and tremor analysis at short time lapse using accelerographs data. This study used one of storey building (X) in Jakarta city that suffered the effects of Kebumen earthquake January 25th 2014, Pandeglang earthquake July 9th 2014, and Lebak earthquake November 8th 2014. Tremors used in this study are tremors after the three following earthquakes. Data processing used to determine peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), peak ground displacement (PGD), spectral acceleration (SA), spectral velocity (SV), spectral displacement (SD), A/V ratio, acceleration amplification and effective duration (te). Then determine the natural frequency (f0) and peak of H/V ratio using H/V ratio method. The earthquakes data processing result shows the value of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio and acceleration amplification increases with height, while the value of the effective duration decreases. Then, tremors data processing result one month after each earthquakes shows the natural frequency of building in constant value. Increasing of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio, acceleration amplification, then decrease of effective duration following the increase of building floors shows that the building construction supports the increasing of shaking and strongly influenced by local site effect. The constant value of building natural frequency shows the building still in good performance. This

  13. A rapid prototyping facility for flight research in advanced systems concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.; Disbrow, James D.

    1989-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center is developing a rapid prototyping facility for flight research in flight systems concepts that are based on artificial intelligence (AI). The facility will include real-time high-fidelity aircraft simulators, conventional and symbolic processors, and a high-performance research aircraft specially modified to accept commands from the ground-based AI computers. This facility is being developed as part of the NASA-DARPA automated wingman program. This document discusses the need for flight research and for a national flight research facility for the rapid prototyping of AI-based avionics systems and the NASA response to those needs.

  14. Rapid prototyping facility for flight research in artificial-intelligence-based flight systems concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.; Deets, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center is developing a rapid prototyping facility for flight research in flight systems concepts that are based on artificial intelligence (AI). The facility will include real-time high-fidelity aircraft simulators, conventional and symbolic processors, and a high-performance research aircraft specially modified to accept commands from the ground-based AI computers. This facility is being developed as part of the NASA-DARPA automated wingman program. This document discusses the need for flight research and for a national flight research facility for the rapid prototyping of AI-based avionics systems and the NASA response to those needs.

  15. Effects of rapid antigen degradation and VEE glycoprotein specificity on immune responses induced by a VEE replicon vaccine.

    PubMed

    Fluet, M E; Whitmore, A C; Moshkoff, D A; Fu, K; Tang, Y; Collier, M L; West, A; Moore, D T; Swanstrom, R; Johnston, R E; Davis, N L

    2008-01-05

    Genetic vaccines are engineered to produce immunogens de novo in the cells of the host for stimulation of a protective immune response. In some of these systems, antigens engineered for rapid degradation have produced an enhanced cellular immune response by more efficient entry into pathways for processing and presentation of MHC class I peptides. VEE replicon particles (VRP), single cycle vaccine vectors derived from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE), are examined here for the effect of an increased rate of immunogen degradation on VRP vaccine efficacy. VRP expressing the matrix capsid (MA/CA) portion of SIV Gag were altered to promote rapid degradation of MA/CA by various linkages to co-translated ubiquitin or by destabilizing mutations and were used to immunize BALB/c mice for quantitation of anti-MA/CA cellular and humoral immune responses. Rapid degradation by the N-end rule correlated with a dampened immune response relative to unmodified MA/CA when the VRP carried a glycoprotein spike from an attenuated strain of VEE. In contrast, statistically equivalent numbers of IFNgamma(+)T-cells resulted when VRP expressing unstable MA/CA were packaged with the wild-type VEE glycoproteins. These results suggest that the cell types targeted in vivo by VRP carrying mutant or wild type glycoprotein spikes are functionally different, and are consistent with previous findings suggesting that wild-type VEE glycoproteins preferentially target professional antigen presenting cells that use peptides generated from the degraded antigen for direct presentation on MHC.

  16. Neuromechanical response of musculo-skeletal structures in cockroaches during rapid running on rough terrain.

    PubMed

    Sponberg, S; Full, R J

    2008-02-01

    A musculo-skeletal structure can stabilize rapid locomotion using neural and/or mechanical feedback. Neural feedback results in an altered feedforward activation pattern, whereas mechanical feedback using visco-elastic structures does not require a change in the neural motor code. We selected musculo-skeletal structures in the cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis) because their single motor neuron innervation allows the simplest possible characterization of activation. We ran cockroaches over a track with randomized blocks of heights up to three times the animal's ;hip' (1.5 cm), while recording muscle action potentials (MAPs) from a set of putative control musculo-skeletal structures (femoral extensors 178 and 179). Animals experienced significant perturbations in body pitch, roll and yaw, but reduced speed by less than 20%. Surprisingly, we discovered no significant difference in the distribution of the number of MAPs, the interspike interval, burst phase or interburst period between flat and rough terrain trials. During a few very large perturbations or when a single leg failed to make contact throughout stance, neural feedback was detectable as a phase shift of the central rhythm and alteration of MAP number. System level responses of appendages were consistent with a dominant role of mechanical feedback. Duty factors and gait phases did not change for cockroaches running on flat versus rough terrain. Cockroaches did not use a follow-the-leader gait requiring compensatory corrections on a step-by-step basis. Arthropods appear to simplify control on rough terrain by rapid running that uses kinetic energy to bridge gaps between footholds and distributed mechanical feedback to stabilize the body.

  17. Tissue mechanics govern the rapidly adapting and symmetrical response to touch

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Amy L.; Sanzeni, Alessandro; Petzold, Bryan C.; Park, Sung-Jin; Vergassola, Massimo; Pruitt, Beth L.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions with the physical world are deeply rooted in our sense of touch and depend on ensembles of somatosensory neurons that invade and innervate the skin. Somatosensory neurons convert the mechanical energy delivered in each touch into excitatory membrane currents carried by mechanoelectrical transduction (MeT) channels. Pacinian corpuscles in mammals and touch receptor neurons (TRNs) in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes are embedded in distinctive specialized accessory structures, have low thresholds for activation, and adapt rapidly to the application and removal of mechanical loads. Recently, many of the protein partners that form native MeT channels in these and other somatosensory neurons have been identified. However, the biophysical mechanism of symmetric responses to the onset and offset of mechanical stimulation has eluded understanding for decades. Moreover, it is not known whether applied force or the resulting indentation activate MeT channels. Here, we introduce a system for simultaneously recording membrane current, applied force, and the resulting indentation in living C. elegans (Feedback-controlled Application of mechanical Loads Combined with in vivo Neurophysiology, FALCON) and use it, together with modeling, to study these questions. We show that current amplitude increases with indentation, not force, and that fast stimuli evoke larger currents than slower stimuli producing the same or smaller indentation. A model linking body indentation to MeT channel activation through an embedded viscoelastic element reproduces the experimental findings, predicts that the TRNs function as a band-pass mechanical filter, and provides a general mechanism for symmetrical and rapidly adapting MeT channel activation relevant to somatosensory neurons across phyla and submodalities. PMID:26627717

  18. On- versus off-responses of raccoon glabrous skin rapidly adapting cutaneous mechanoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Pubols, B H

    1980-06-01

    1. The on- and off-responses of 50 raccoon median nerve fibers associated with rapidly adapting cutaneous mechanoreceptors in glabrous skin were examined under experimental conditions designed to allow comparable opportunities for on- and off-responses to occur. Trapezoidal stimuli were utilized, providing for equal stimulus indentation and retraction velocities and equal static displacement times and intertrial intervals. Principal findings were as follows: 2. At stimulus levels well above displacement and velocity thresholds for on-responses, 80% of units yielded a more vigorous on-response than off-response (as measured by the total number of ramp impulses); in 6%, the reverse was true; while in the remaining 14%, the off-discharge was absent. 3. On and off displacement thresholds were approximately equal (on median, 43 micron; off median, 42 micron). However, on velocity thresholds were significantly lower than off velocity thresholds (on median, 1.0 micron/ms; off median, 3.8 micron/ms). 4. Exponents (b) of power functions relating discharge rate to ramp velocity (frequency = a x velocityb) were consistently greater for on-responses than for off-responses, but intercept constants (a) were consistently greater for off-responses than for on-responses. 5. Previous findings that mammalian rapidly adapting (RA) mechanoreceptors possess a "linear directionality" generally favoring on-responses were confirmed. 6. Results are discussed in relation to the role of viscoelastic properties of RA mechanoreceptors and neighboring skin. It is suggested that, when considerations is also given to the mechanical properties of surrounding tissues, the Loewenstein and Skalak (18) analysis of the mode of operation of Pacinian corpuscles might also apply, at least qualitatively, to the simple dermal (rapidly adapting) corpuscle of raccoon glabrous skin.

  19. Rapid detection of microbial cell abundance in aquatic systems

    DOE PAGES

    Rocha, Andrea M.; Yuan, Quan; Close, Dan M.; ...

    2016-06-01

    The detection and quantification of naturally occurring microbial cellular densities is an essential component of environmental systems monitoring. While there are a number of commonly utilized approaches for monitoring microbial abundance, capacitance-based biosensors represent a promising approach because of their low-cost and label-free detection of microbial cells, but are not as well characterized as more traditional methods. Here, we investigate the applicability of enhanced alternating current electrokinetics (ACEK) capacitive sensing as a new application for rapidly detecting and quantifying microbial cellular densities in cultured and environmentally sourced aquatic samples. ACEK capacitive sensor performance was evaluated using two distinct and dynamicmore » systems the Great Australian Bight and groundwater from the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, TN. Results demonstrate that ACEK capacitance-based sensing can accurately determine microbial cell counts throughout cellular concentrations typically encountered in naturally occurring microbial communities (103 – 106 cells/mL). A linear relationship was observed between cellular density and capacitance change correlations, allowing a simple linear curve fitting equation to be used for determining microbial abundances in unknown samples. As a result, this work provides a foundation for understanding the limits of capacitance-based sensing in natural environmental samples and supports future efforts focusing on evaluating the robustness ACEK capacitance-based within aquatic environments.« less

  20. Modularized compact positron emission tomography detector for rapid system development.

    PubMed

    Xi, Daoming; Liu, Xiang; Zeng, Chen; Liu, Wei; Li, Yanzhao; Hua, Yuexuan; Mei, Xiongze; Kim, Heejong; Xiao, Peng; Kao, Chien-Min; Xie, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    We report the development of a modularized compact positron emission tomography (PET) detector that outputs serial streams of digital samples of PET event pulses via an Ethernet interface using the UDP/IP protocol to enable rapid configuration of a PET system by connecting multiple such detectors via a network switch to a computer. Presently, the detector is [Formula: see text] in extent (excluding I/O connectors) and contains an [Formula: see text] array of [Formula: see text] one-to-one coupled lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate/silicon photomultiplier pixels. It employs cross-wire and stripline readouts to merge the outputs of the 216 detector pixels to 24 channels. Signals at these channels are sampled using a built-in 24-ch, 4-level field programmable gate arrays-only multivoltage threshold digitizer. In the computer, software programs are implemented to analyze the digital samples to extract event information and to perform energy qualification and coincidence filtering. We have developed two such detectors. We show that all their pixels can be accurately discriminated and measure a crystal-level energy resolution of 14.4% to 19.4% and a detector-level coincidence time resolution of 1.67 ns FWHM. Preliminary imaging results suggests that a PET system based on the detectors can achieve an image resolution of [Formula: see text].

  1. Rapid detection of microbial cell abundance in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Andrea M; Yuan, Quan; Close, Dan M; O'Dell, Kaela B; Fortney, Julian L; Wu, Jayne; Hazen, Terry C

    2016-11-15

    The detection and quantification of naturally occurring microbial cellular densities is an essential component of environmental systems monitoring. While there are a number of commonly utilized approaches for monitoring microbial abundance, capacitance-based biosensors represent a promising approach because of their low-cost and label-free detection of microbial cells, but are not as well characterized as more traditional methods. Here, we investigate the applicability of enhanced alternating current electrokinetics (ACEK) capacitive sensing as a new application for rapidly detecting and quantifying microbial cellular densities in cultured and environmentally sourced aquatic samples. ACEK capacitive sensor performance was evaluated using two distinct and dynamic systems - the Great Australian Bight and groundwater from the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, TN. Results demonstrate that ACEK capacitance-based sensing can accurately determine microbial cell counts throughout cellular concentrations typically encountered in naturally occurring microbial communities (10(3)-10(6) cells/mL). A linear relationship was observed between cellular density and capacitance change correlations, allowing a simple linear curve fitting equation to be used for determining microbial abundances in unknown samples. This work provides a foundation for understanding the limits of capacitance-based sensing in natural environmental samples and supports future efforts focusing on evaluating the robustness ACEK capacitance-based within aquatic environments. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Searching for Rapid Optical Transients with Both Eyes Open: The RAPTOR Stereoscopic Sky Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestrand, W. T.; Borozdin, K.; Brumby, S.; Casperson, D.; Fenimore, E.; Galassi, M.; McGowan, K.; Priedhorsky, W.; Starr, D.; Wozniak, P.; White, R.; Wren, J.

    2003-03-01

    A largely unexplored area in astronomy is the study of explosive optical transients with durations of minutes or less.The existence of spectacular rapid optical transients was clearly demonstrated by the detections of bright optical transients associated with gamma ray bursts 990123 and 021211. Those detections were only possible because they occurred in the field-of-view of a high-energy satellite that was able to identify them in real time and cue robotic optical telescopes to slew to the correct position. But there are reasons to suspect the existence of explosive optical transients that cannot be detected by high-energy satellites---the optical emission might have a broader beaming pattern or could be a precursor to the high-energy emission. The RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) experiment is an autonomous closed-loop monitoring system that identifies and makes follow-up observations of rapid optical transients in real time. The system is composed of two telescope arrays, separated by 38 kilometers, that stereoscopically monitor a field of about 1300 square degrees for celestial transients down to about 12th magnitude in 30 seconds. The absence of measurable parallax is used to distinguish celestial transients from the "forest" non-celestial transients. Each array also contains a sensitive, higher resolution "fovea" telescope, capable of imaging at a faster cadence and providing color information. In a manner analogous to human vision, both arrays are mounted on rapidly slewing mounts so that the "fovea" of the array can be rapidly directed for follow-up observations of any interesting transient identified by the wide-field system. We discuss the initial results from this new wide-field optical monitoring system.

  3. Rapid, reliable geodetic data analysis for hazard response: Results from the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, S. E.; Simons, M.; Hua, H.; Yun, S.; Cruz, J.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Fielding, E. J.; Moore, A. W.; Polet, J.; Liu, Z.; Agram, P. S.; Lundgren, P.

    2013-12-01

    ARIA is a joint JPL/Caltech coordinated project to automate InSAR and GPS imaging capabilities for scientific understanding, hazard response, and societal benefit. Geodetic imaging's unique ability to capture surface deformation in high spatial and temporal resolution allows us to resolve the fault geometry and distribution of slip associated with earthquakes in high spatial & temporal detail. In certain cases, it can be complementary to seismic data, providing constraints on location, geometry, or magnitude that is difficult to determine with seismic data alone. In addition, remote sensing with SAR provides change detection and damage assessment capabilities for earthquakes, floods and other disasters that can image even at night or through clouds. We have built an end-to-end prototype geodetic imaging data system that forms the foundation for a hazard response and science analysis capability that integrates InSAR, high-rate GPS, seismology, and modeling to deliver monitoring, science, and situational awareness products. This prototype incorporates state-of-the-art InSAR and GPS analysis algorithms from technologists and scientists. The products have been designed and a feasibility study conducted in collaboration with USGS scientists in the earthquake and volcano science programs. We will present results that show the capabilities of this data system in terms of latency, data processing capacity, quality of automated products, and feasibility of use for analysis of large SAR and GPS data sets and for earthquake response activities.

  4. Rapid Stress System Drives Chemical Transfer of Fear from Sender to Receiver

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Jasper H. B.; Smeets, Monique A. M.; Semin, Gün R.

    2015-01-01

    Humans can register another person’s fear not only with their eyes and ears, but also with their nose. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to body odors from fearful individuals elicited implicit fear in others. The odor of fearful individuals appears to have a distinctive signature that can be produced relatively rapidly, driven by a physiological mechanism that has remained unexplored in earlier research. The apocrine sweat glands in the armpit that are responsible for chemosignal production contain receptors for adrenalin. We therefore expected that the release of adrenalin through activation of the rapid stress response system (i.e., the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system) is what drives the release of fear sweat, as opposed to activation of the slower stress response system (i.e., hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis). To test this assumption, sweat was sampled while eight participants prepared for a speech. Participants had higher heart rates and produced more armpit sweat in the fast stress condition, compared to baseline and the slow stress condition. Importantly, exposure to sweat from participants in the fast stress condition induced in receivers (N = 31) a simulacrum of the state of the sender, evidenced by the emergence of a fearful facial expression (facial electromyography) and vigilant behavior (i.e., faster classification of emotional facial expressions). PMID:25723720

  5. Rapid density-measurement system with vibrating-tube densimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayukawa, Yohei; Hasumoto, Masaya; Watanabe, Koichi

    2003-09-01

    Concerning an increasing demand for environmentally friendly refrigerants including hydrocarbons, thermodynamic properties of such new refrigerants, especially densities, are essential information for refrigeration engineering. A rapid density-measurement system with vibrating-tube densimeter was developed in the present study with an aim to supply large numbers of high-quality PVT property data in a short period. The present system needs only a few minutes to obtain a single datum, and requires less than 20 cm3 sample fluid. PVT properties in the entire fluid-phase, vapor-pressures, saturated-liquid densities for pure fluid are available. Liquid densities, bubble-point pressures and saturated-liquid densities for mixture can be obtained. The measurement range is from 240 to 380 K for temperature and up to 7 MPa for pressure. By employing a new calibration function, density can be precisely obtained even at lower densities. The densimeter is calibrated with pure water and iso-octane which is one of the density-standard fluids, and then measurement uncertainty was evaluated to be 0.1 kg m-3 or 0.024% whichever greater in density, 0.26 kPa or 0.022% whichever greater in pressure and 3 mK for temperature, respectively. The performance of the present measurement system was examined by measuring thermodynamic properties for refrigerant R134a. The experimental results were compared with available equation of state and confirmed to agree with it within ±0.05% for liquid densities while ±0.5% in pressure for the gas phase.

  6. Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA 2.0) System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papale, William; O'Coin, James; Wichowski, Robert; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system is a low-power assembly capable of simultaneously removing carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity from an influent air steam and subsequent regeneration when exposed to a vacuum source. Two solid amine sorbent beds are alternated between an uptake mode and a regeneration mode. During the uptake mode, the sorbent is exposed to an air steam (ventilation loop) to adsorb CO2 and water (H2O) vapor, whereas during the regeneration mode, the sorbent rejects the adsorbed CO2 and H2O vapor to a vacuum source. The two beds operate such that while one bed is in the uptake mode, the other is in the regeneration mode, thus continuously providing an on-service sorbent bed by which CO2 and humidity may be removed. A novel valve assembly provides a simple means of diverting the process air flow through the uptake bed while simultaneously directing the vacuum source to the regeneration bed. Additionally, the valve assembly is designed to allow for switching between uptake and regeneration modes with only one moving part while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source by means of an internal pressure equalization step during actuation. The process can be controlled by a compact, low-power controller design with several modes of operation available to the user. Together with NASA Johnson Space Center, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International, Inc. has been developing RCA 2.0 based on performance and design feedback on several sorbent bed test articles and valve design concepts. A final design of RCA 2.0 was selected in November 2011 and fabricated and assembled between March and August 2012, with delivery to NASA Johnson Space Center in September 2012. This paper provides an overview of the RCA system design and results of pre-delivery testing.

  7. Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA 2.0) System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papale, William; O'Coin, James; Wichowski, Robert; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system is a low power assembly capable of simultaneously removing carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity from an influent air steam and subsequent regeneration when exposed to a vacuum source. Two solid amine sorbent beds are alternated between an uptake mode and a regeneration mode. During the uptake mode, the sorbent is exposed to an air steam (ventilation loop) to adsorb CO2 and water vapor, while during the regeneration mode, the sorbent rejects the adsorbed CO2 and water vapor to a vacuum source. The two beds operate such that while one bed is in the uptake mode, the other is in the regeneration mode, thus continuously providing an on-service sorbent bed by which CO2 and humidity may be removed. A novel valve assembly provides a simple means of diverting the process air flow through the uptake bed while simultaneously directing the vacuum source to the regeneration bed. Additionally, the valve assembly is designed to allow for switching between uptake and regeneration modes with only one moving part while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source by means of an internal pressure equalization step during actuation. The process can be controlled by a compact, low power controller design with several modes of operation available to the user. Together with NASA, United Technologies Corporation Aerospace Systems has been developing RCA 2.0 based on performance and design feedback on several sorbent bed test articles and valve design concepts. A final design was selected in November 2011 and fabricated and assembled between March and August 2012, with delivery to NASA-JSC in September 2012. This paper will provide an overview on the RCA system design and results of pre-delivery testing.

  8. The rapid A-Ci response: photosynthesis in the phenomic era.

    PubMed

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Morgan, Patrick B; Lynch, Douglas J; Saathoff, Aaron J; McDermitt, Dayle K; Hanson, David T

    2017-03-01

    Phenotyping for photosynthetic gas exchange parameters is limiting our ability to select plants for enhanced photosynthetic carbon gain and to assess plant function in current and future natural environments. This is due, in part, to the time required to generate estimates of the maximum rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) carboxylation (Vc,max ) and the maximal rate of electron transport (Jmax ) from the response of photosynthesis (A) to the CO2 concentration inside leaf air spaces (Ci ). To relieve this bottleneck, we developed a method for rapid photosynthetic carbon assimilation CO2 responses [rapid A-Ci response (RACiR)] utilizing non-steady-state measurements of gas exchange. Using high temporal resolution measurements under rapidly changing CO2 concentrations, we show that RACiR techniques can obtain measures of Vc,max and Jmax in ~5 min, and possibly even faster. This is a small fraction of the time required for even the most advanced gas exchange instrumentation. The RACiR technique, owing to its increased throughput, will allow for more rapid screening of crops, mutants and populations of plants in natural environments, bringing gas exchange into the phenomic era.

  9. Understanding the Rapid Precipitation Response to CO2 and Aerosol Forcing on a Regional Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Thomas; Forster, Piers; Parker, Doug; Andrews, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Regional precipitation change is one of the most uncertain aspects of climate change prediction, and can have major societal implications. On a global scale, precipitation is tightly constrained by the radiative cooling of the troposphere. As a result, precipitation exhibits a significant rapid adjustment in response to certain forcing agents, which is important for understanding long term climate change. However, the mechanisms which drive the spatial pattern of rapid adjustment are not well understood. In this study we analyze the spatial pattern of rapid precipitation change using simulations with fixed sea surface temperature. Using data obtained from sixteen models participating in the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we investigate the response to three different forcing scenarios; an abrupt quadrupling of CO2, an increase in all aerosols, and an increase in sulphate aerosol from pre-industrial to present day levels. Analysis of the local atmospheric energy budget is used to understand the observed changes. We find that the spatial pattern of rapid precipitation adjustment due to forcing is primarily driven by the rapid land surface response. As a result, the spatial pattern due to quadrupling CO2 opposes that due to increased sulphate and increased all aerosols. Increasing CO2 levels causes warming of the land surface, due to enhanced downwelling longwave radiation. This destabilizes the atmosphere by warming the lower troposphere, producing an overall shift of convection and precipitation to over land. The reverse is observed for increased sulphate and increased all aerosols. Changes in tropospheric cooling are important in determining the magnitude of regional precipitation change, thereby satisfying global energy budget constraints. We find the spatial pattern of rapid precipitation change due to quadrupling CO2 levels is robust between models. The most significant precipitation changes occur in the tropics, with significant

  10. A High-performance Service-Oriented Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Rapid Disaster Response and Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Ren, Y.

    2013-12-01

    High population growth, urbanization and global climate change have resulted in more frequent occurrences of disasters, affecting people's life and property safety all over the world. Worse than the disaster it is the vulnerability of existing disaster management systems that are failed to realize timely collection of disaster-related data, estimation of damage, evacuation planning, resource scheduling and to make other decisions in the disastrous situation. The emerging geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) provides a promising solution to address these issues. This paper reports our efforts in establishing a high-performance cyberinfrastructure for rapid disaster response and decision-making. This GCI is built upon a service-oriented architecture, with improved performance supported by a distributed computing cluster for efficient data transmission and rendering. Different from most works in literature in improving the client-side performance of geospatial web services, this cluster solves the fundamental performance issue on the server side. A web portal is also developed to integrate the real-time geospatial web services reporting disaster related information for integral analysis and collaborative decision-making. We expect this work to contribute to effective disaster management and geospatial interoperability.

  11. Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Hawes, Kevin; Wichowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 system is currently under development by NASA, the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in conjunction with United Technologies Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS). The RCA technology is a new carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity removal system that has been baselined for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System. The evolution of the RCA development has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0 test articles. The RCA is an advancement over currently technologies due to its unique regeneration capability. The RCA is capable of simultaneously removing CO2 and humidity from an influent air steam and subsequent regeneration when exposed to a vacuum source. The RCA technology uses two solid amine sorbent beds in an alternating fashion to adsorb CO2 and water (uptake mode) and desorb CO2 and water (regeneration mode) at the same time. The two beds operate in an efficient manner so that while one bed is in the uptake mode, the other is in the regeneration mode, thus continuously providing an on-service sorbent bed by which CO2 and humidity may be removed. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a novel valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes with only one moving part while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source by means of an internal pressure equalization step during actuation. The RCA technology also is low power, small, and has performed extremely well in all development testing thus far. A final design was selected for the RCA 3.0, fabricated, assembled, and performance tested in 2014 with delivery to NASAJSC in January 2015. This paper will provide an overview on the RCA 3.0 system design and results of pre-delivery testing with references to the development of RCA 1.0 and RCA 2.0.

  12. Interactive terrain visualization enables virtual field work during rapid scientific response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowgill, Eric; Bernardin, Tony S.; Oskin, Michael E.; Bowles, Christopher; Yikilmaz, M. Burak; Kreylos, Oliver; Elliott, Austin J.; Bishop, Scott; Gold, Ryan D.; Morelan, Alexander; Bawden, Gerald W.; Hamann, Bernd; Kellogg, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The moment magnitude (Mw) 7.0 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake is the first major earthquake for which a large-footprint LiDAR (light detection and ranging) survey was acquired within several weeks of the event. Here, we describe the use of virtual reality data visualization to analyze massive amounts (67 GB on disk) of multiresolution terrain data during the rapid scientific response to a major natural disaster. In particular, we describe a method for conducting virtual field work using both desktop computers and a 4-sided, 22 m3 CAVE immersive virtual reality environment, along with KeckCAVES (Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences) software tools LiDAR Viewer, to analyze LiDAR point-cloud data, and Crusta, for 2.5 dimensional surficial geologic mapping on a bare-earth digital elevation model. This system enabled virtual field work that yielded remote observations of the topographic expression of active faulting within an ∼75-km-long section of the eastern Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault spanning the 2010 epicenter. Virtual field observations indicated that the geomorphic evidence of active faulting and ancient surface rupture varies along strike. Landform offsets of 6–50 m along the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault east of the 2010 epicenter and closest to Port-au-Prince attest to repeated recent surface-rupturing earthquakes there. In the west, the fault trace is well defined by displaced landforms, but it is not as clear as in the east. The 2010 epicenter is within a transition zone between these sections that extends from Grand Goâve in the west to Fayette in the east. Within this transition, between L'Acul (lat 72°40′W) and the Rouillone River (lat 72°35′W), the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault is undefined along an embayed low-relief range front, with little evidence of recent surface rupture. Based on the geometry of the eastern and western faults that show evidence of recent surface rupture, we propose that the 2010

  13. Rapid estimation of drifting parameters in continuously measured quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, Luis; Chantasri, Areeya; García-Pintos, Luis Pedro; Dressel, Justin; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the determination of a Hamiltonian parameter in a quantum system undergoing continuous measurement. We demonstrate a computationally rapid method to estimate an unknown and possibly time-dependent parameter, where we maximize the likelihood of the observed stochastic readout. By dealing directly with the raw measurement record rather than the quantum-state trajectories, the estimation can be performed while the data are being acquired, permitting continuous tracking of the parameter during slow drifts in real time. Furthermore, we incorporate realistic nonidealities, such as decoherence processes and measurement inefficiency. As an example, we focus on estimating the value of the Rabi frequency of a continuously measured qubit and compare maximum likelihood estimation to a simpler fast Fourier transform. Using this example, we discuss how the quality of the estimation depends on both the strength and the duration of the measurement; we also discuss the trade-off between the accuracy of the estimate and the sensitivity to drift as the estimation duration is varied.

  14. Responsive etalon based on PNIPAM@SiO2 composite spacer with rapid response rate and excellent repeatability for sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tieqiang; Wang, Shuli; Zhang, Xun; Song, Guoshuai; Yu, Ye; Chen, Xinyang; Fu, Yu; Zhang, Junhu; Yang, Bai

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a responsive etalon fabricated through combining colloidal lithography and surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The responsive etalon is simply constructed with one responsive spacer sandwiched by two reflective layers, and the middle responsive spacer is constructed by grafting thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) brushes on a SiO2 nanosphere array. The etalon possesses one single interference peak in the visible region, and the interference peak changes sensitively against the concentration of the external stimulant (water vapor) or the temperature of the system, owing to the responsiveness of the PNIPAM brush. Importantly, the as-prepared etalon shows a rapid response rate and excellent stability, and it is also handy to realize the miniaturization and integration of the responsive etalon based on a conventional micro-fabrication method. These features all make the as-prepared responsive etalon an attractive candidate for future sensing applications. We believe such responsive etalons are promising for the fabrication of smart photonic materials and optical sensors that may be useful in tissue engineering, medical diagnosis, public security, and biochip areas.

  15. Label-free, rapid and quantitative phenotyping of stress response in E. coli via ramanome

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Lin; Wang, Xian; Wang, Xiaojun; Gou, Honglei; Ren, Lihui; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Yun; Ji, Yuetong; Huang, Wei E.; Xu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Rapid profiling of stress-response at single-cell resolution yet in a label-free, non-disruptive and mechanism-specific manner can lead to many new applications. We propose a single-cell-level biochemical fingerprinting approach named “ramanome”, which is the collection of Single-cell Raman Spectra (SCRS) from a number of cells randomly selected from an isogenic population at a given time and condition, to rapidly and quantitatively detect and characterize stress responses of cellular population. SCRS of Escherichia coli cells are sensitive to both exposure time (eight time points) and dosage (six doses) of ethanol, with detection time as early as 5 min and discrimination rate of either factor over 80%. Moreover, the ramanomes upon six chemical compounds from three categories, including antibiotics of ampicillin and kanamycin, alcohols of ethanol and n-butanol and heavy metals of Cu2+ and Cr6+, were analyzed and 31 marker Raman bands were revealed which distinguish stress-responses via cytotoxicity mechanism and variation of inter-cellular heterogeneity. Furthermore, specificity, reproducibility and mechanistic basis of ramanome were validated by tracking stress-induced dynamics of metabolites and by contrasting between cells with and without genes that convey stress resistance. Thus ramanome enables rapid prediction and mechanism-based screening of cytotoxicity and stress-response programs at single-cell resolution. PMID:27756907

  16. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  17. Improving Resident Performance Through a Simulated Rapid Response Team: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Burke, Peter A; Vest, Michael T; Kher, Hemant; Deutsch, Joseph; Daya, Sneha

    2015-07-01

    The Joint Commission requires hospitals to develop systems in which a team of clinicians can rapidly recognize and respond to changes in a patient's condition. The rapid response team (RRT) concept has been widely adopted as the solution to this mandate. The role of house staff in RRTs and the impact on resident education has been controversial. At Christiana Care Health System, eligible residents in their second through final years lead the RRTs. To evaluate the use of a team-based, interdisciplinary RRT training program for educating and training first-year residents in an effort to improve global RRT performance before residents start their second year. This pilot study was administered in 3 phases. Phase 1 provided residents with classroom-based didactic sessions using case-based RRT scenarios. Multiple choice examinations were administered, as well as a confidence survey based on a Likert scale before and after phase 1 of the program. Phase 2 involved experiential training in which residents engaged as mentored participants in actual RRT calls. A qualitative survey was used to measure perceived program effectiveness after phase 2. In phase 3, led by senior residents, simulated RRTs using medical mannequins were conducted. Participants were divided into 5 teams, in which each resident would rotate in the roles of leader, nurse, and respiratory therapist. This phase measured resident performance with regard to medical decision making, data gathering, and team behaviors during the simulated RRT scenarios. Performance was scored by an attending and a senior resident. A total of 18 residents were eligible (N=18) for participation. The average multiple choice test score improved by 20% after didactic training. The average confidence survey score before training was 3.44 out of 5 (69%) and after training was 4.13 (83%), indicating a 14% improvement. High-quality team behaviors correlated with medical decision making (0.92) more closely than did high-quality data

  18. A Data System for a Rapid Evaluation Class of Subscale Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogge, Edward F.; Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Hill, Boyd L.

    2011-01-01

    A low cost, rapid evaluation, test aircraft is used to develop and test airframe damage diagnosis algorithms at Langley Research Center as part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program. The remotely operated subscale aircraft is instrumented with sensors to monitor structural response during flight. Data is collected for good and compromised airframe configurations to develop data driven models for diagnosing airframe state. This paper describes the data acquisition system (DAS) of the rapid evaluation test aircraft. A PC/104 form factor DAS was developed to allow use of Matlab, Simulink simulation code in Langley's existing subscale aircraft flight test infrastructure. The small scale of the test aircraft permitted laboratory testing of the actual flight article under controlled conditions. The low cost and modularity of the DAS permitted adaptation to various flight experiment requirements.

  19. Scopolamine rapidly increases mTORC1 signaling, synaptogenesis, and antidepressant behavioral responses

    PubMed Central

    Voleti, Bhavya; Navarria, Andrea; Liu, Rong-Jian; Banasr, Mounira; Li, Nanxin; Terwilliger, Rose; Sanacora, Gerard; Eid, Tore; Aghajanian, George; Duman, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies report that scopolamine, an acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonist, produces rapid antidepressant effects in depressed patients, but the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response have not been determined. The present study examines the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and synaptogenesis, which have been implicated in the rapid actions of NMDA receptor antagonists. Methods The influence of scopolamine on mTORC1 signaling was determined by analysis of the phosphorylated and activated forms of mTORC1 signaling proteins in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The numbers and function of spine synapses were analyzed by whole cell patch clamp recording and 2-photon image analysis of PFC neurons. The actions of scopolamine were examined in the forced swim test in the absence or presence of selective mTORC1 and AMPA receptor inhibitors. Results The results demonstrate that a single, low dose of scopolamine rapidly increases mTORC1 signaling and the number and function of spine synapses in layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC. Scopolamine administration also produces an antidepressant response in the forced swim test that is blocked by pretreatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor or by a glutamate AMPA receptor antagonist. Conclusions Taken together, the results demonstrate that the antidepressant actions of scopolamine require mTORC1 signaling and are associated with increased glutamate transmission, and synaptogenesis, similar to NMDA receptor antagonists. These findings provide novel targets for safer and more efficacious rapid acting antidepressant agents. PMID:23751205

  20. Drought-induced shift of a forest-woodland ecotone: rapid landscape response to climate variation.

    PubMed

    Allen, C D; Breshears, D D

    1998-12-08

    In coming decades, global climate changes are expected to produce large shifts in vegetation distributions at unprecedented rates. These shifts are expected to be most rapid and extreme at ecotones, the boundaries between ecosystems, particularly those in semiarid landscapes. However, current models do not adequately provide for such rapid effects-particularly those caused by mortality-largely because of the lack of data from field studies. Here we report the most rapid landscape-scale shift of a woody ecotone ever documented: in northern New Mexico in the 1950s, the ecotone between semiarid ponderosa pine forest and pinon-juniper woodland shifted extensively (2 km or more) and rapidly (<5 years) through mortality of ponderosa pines in response to a severe drought. This shift has persisted for 40 years. Forest patches within the shift zone became much more fragmented, and soil erosion greatly accelerated. The rapidity and the complex dynamics of the persistent shift point to the need to represent more accurately these dynamics, especially the mortality factor, in assessments of the effects of climate change.

  1. Drought-induced shift of a forest–woodland ecotone: Rapid landscape response to climate variation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Craig D.; Breshears, David D.

    1998-01-01

    In coming decades, global climate changes are expected to produce large shifts in vegetation distributions at unprecedented rates. These shifts are expected to be most rapid and extreme at ecotones, the boundaries between ecosystems, particularly those in semiarid landscapes. However, current models do not adequately provide for such rapid effects—particularly those caused by mortality—largely because of the lack of data from field studies. Here we report the most rapid landscape-scale shift of a woody ecotone ever documented: in northern New Mexico in the 1950s, the ecotone between semiarid ponderosa pine forest and piñon–juniper woodland shifted extensively (2 km or more) and rapidly (<5 years) through mortality of ponderosa pines in response to a severe drought. This shift has persisted for 40 years. Forest patches within the shift zone became much more fragmented, and soil erosion greatly accelerated. The rapidity and the complex dynamics of the persistent shift point to the need to represent more accurately these dynamics, especially the mortality factor, in assessments of the effects of climate change. PMID:9843976

  2. Drought-induced shift of a forest-woodland ecotone: Rapid landscape response to climate variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.D.; Breshears, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    In coming decades, global climate changes are expected to produce large shifts in vegetation distributions at unprecedented rates. These shifts are expected to be most rapid and extreme at ecotones, the boundaries between ecosystems, particularly those in semiarid landscapes. However, current models do not adequately provide for such rapid effects - particularly those caused by mortality - largely because of the lack of data from field studies. Here we report the most rapid landscape-scale shift of a woody ecotone ever documented: in northern New Mexico in the 1950s, the ecotone between semiarid ponderosa pine forest and pinon-juniper woodland shifted extensively (2 km or more) and rapidly (<5 years) through mortality of ponderosa pines in response to a severe drought. This shift has persisted for 40 years. Forest patches within the shift zone became much more fragmented, and soil erosion greatly accelerated. The rapidity and the complex dynamics of the persistent shift point to the need to represent more accurately these dynamics, especially the mortality factor, in assessments of the effects of climate change.

  3. Rapid Prototyping and Evaluation of Control System Designs for Manned and Unmanned Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansur, M. Hossein; Frye, Michael; Montegut, Michael; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The development and optimization of flight control systems for modem fixed- and rotary- wing aircraft consume significant time and cost during aircraft development. Similarly, as unmanned aerial vehicles perform more complex tasks, sometimes autonomously, the control system design requirements for this class of vehicles, and the corresponding time and cost requirements, are also becoming significant. Therefore, for both manned and unmanned vehicles, substantial program savings can be achieved if integrated design and optimization tools are employed to shorten the design and flight-test cycle for new or upgraded,pontrol systems. To bring about this reduction in the length of the design-cycle, and therefore its cost, Madab and Simulink are being used to implement block diagrams and to rapidly evaluate the expected responses of the completed systems. In conjunction, CONDUIT (CONtrol Designer's Unified InTerface) is being used to enable the controls engineers to optimize their control laws and ensure that all the relevant quantitative criteria are satisfied.

  4. Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System (ORCAS) Percy L. Donaghay Graduate School of Oceanography University of Rhode Island Narragansett...making decisions in coastal waters. 3 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 5 10 15 JULIAN DAY D E P TH (M ) 0 5 10 15 ATTENUATION COEFFICIENT @ 440 NM (1/M...220 221 222 223 224 225 226 5 10 15 JULIAN DAY D E P TH (M ) 0e+00 2e+14 4e+14 6e+14 BIOLUMINESCENCE (PHOTONS / CUBIC METER) Figure 1

  5. BlueSky Cloud - rapid infrastructure capacity using Amazon's Cloud for wildfire emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haderman, M.; Larkin, N. K.; Beach, M.; Cavallaro, A. M.; Stilley, J. C.; DeWinter, J. L.; Craig, K. J.; Raffuse, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    During peak fire season in the United States, many large wildfires often burn simultaneously across the country. Smoke from these fires can produce air quality emergencies. It is vital that incident commanders, air quality agencies, and public health officials have smoke impact information at their fingertips for evaluating where fires and smoke are and where the smoke will go next. To address the need for this kind of information, the U.S. Forest Service AirFire Team created the BlueSky Framework, a modeling system that predicts concentrations of particle pollution from wildfires. During emergency response, decision makers use BlueSky predictions to make public outreach and evacuation decisions. The models used in BlueSky predictions are computationally intensive, and the peak fire season requires significantly more computer resources than off-peak times. Purchasing enough hardware to run the number of BlueSky Framework runs that are needed during fire season is expensive and leaves idle servers running the majority of the year. The AirFire Team and STI developed BlueSky Cloud to take advantage of Amazon's virtual servers hosted in the cloud. With BlueSky Cloud, as demand increases and decreases, servers can be easily spun up and spun down at a minimal cost. Moving standard BlueSky Framework runs into the Amazon Cloud made it possible for the AirFire Team to rapidly increase the number of BlueSky Framework instances that could be run simultaneously without the costs associated with purchasing and managing servers. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the features of BlueSky Cloud, describe how the system uses Amazon Cloud, and discuss the costs and benefits of moving from privately hosted servers to a cloud-based infrastructure.

  6. Rapid assembly and use of robotic systems: Saving time and money in new applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.

    1995-10-01

    High costs and low productivity of manual operations in radiation, chemical, explosive and other hazardous environments have mandated the use of remote means to accomplish many tasks. However, traditional remote operations have proven to have very low productivity when compared with unencumbered humans. To improve the performance of these systems, computer models augmented by sensors, and modular computing environments are being utilized to automate many unstructured hazardous tasks. Establishment of a common structure for developments of modules such as the Generic Intelligent System Controller (GISC), have allowed many independent groups to develop specialized components that can be rapidly integrated into purpose-built robotic systems. The drawback in using this systems is that the equipment investments for such robotic systems can be substantial. In a resource-competitive environment, the ability to readily and reliably reconfigure and reuse assets operated by other industries, universities, research labs, government entities, etc., is proving to be a crucial advantage. Timely and efficient collaboration between entities has become increasingly important as monetary resources of government programs and entire industries expand or contract in response to rapid changes in production demand, dissolution of political barriers, and adoption of stringent environmental and commercial legislation. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed the System Composer, Virtual Collaborative Environment (VCE) and A{sup primed} technologies described in this paper that demonstrate an environment for flexible and efficient integration, interaction, and information exchange between disparate entities.

  7. The Development of a Programming Support System for Rapid Prototyping.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-20

    Harvard University and will include the tools provided by the PDS plus a number of new ones specifically supporting rapid prototyping. The goals of Task 1 were to improve two tools in the PDS - the authors needed to improve

  8. Use of nutrient response techniques to assess the effectiveness of chlorination of rapid sand filter gravel.

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, M S; Adams, J C; Dickman, D G; Bressler, W R

    1989-01-01

    A direct viable counting method was used to rapidly assess the effectiveness of chlorination of biofilms on rapid sand filter gravel. A total of 50% of the cells were nutrient responsive after exposure to 0.5 mg of chlorine per liter, while this value was 25% after exposure to 25 mg of chlorine per liter. A large variation was seen in the numbers of nutrient-responsive cells on different rocks. More cells attached to the sandblasted side of marbles than to the smooth side, but there was no difference in eight of nine cases in the proportion of survival to chlorination between the two different sides. The effectiveness of chlorination appeared to be influenced by the species of bacterium in the biofilm. PMID:2705772

  9. Preparation for malaria resurgence in China: approach in risk assessment and rapid response.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ying-Jun; Zhang, Li; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Vong, Sirenda; Yang, Wei-Zhong; Wang, Duo-Quan; Xiao, Ning

    2014-01-01

    With the shrinking of indigenous malaria cases and endemic areas in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), imported malaria predominates over all reported cases accounting for more than 90% of the total. On the way to eliminate malaria, prompt detection and rapid response to the imported cases are crucial for the prevention of secondary transmission in previous endemic areas. Through a comprehensive literature review, this chapter aims to identify risk determinants of potential local transmission caused by the imported malaria cases and discusses gaps to be addressed to reach the elimination goal by 2020. Current main gaps with respect to dealing with potential malaria resurgence in P.R. China include lack of cross-sectoral cooperation, lack of rapid response and risk assessment, poor public awareness, and inadequate research and development in the national malaria elimination programme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Communication and general concern criterion prior to activation of the rapid response team: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Martland, Jarrad; Chamberlain, Diane; Hutton, Alison; Smigielski, Michael

    2015-11-30

    Objective Patients commonly show signs and symptoms of deterioration for hours or days before cardiorespiratory arrest. Rapid response teams (RRT) were created to improve recognition and response to patient deterioration in these situations. Activation criteria include vital signs or 'general concern' by a clinician or family member. The general concern criterion for RRT activation accounts for nearly one-third of all RRT activity, and although it is well established that communication deficits between staff can contribute to poorer outcomes for patients, there is little evidence pertaining to communication and its effects on the general concern RRT activation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a substantive grounded theory related to the communication process between clinicians that preceded the activation of an RRT when general concern criterion was used.Methods Qualitative grounded theory involved collection of three types of data details namely personal notes from participants in focus groups with white board notes from discussions and audio recordings of the focus groups sessions. Focus groups were conducted with participants exploring issues associated with clinician communication and how it related to the activation of an RRT using the general concern criterion.Results The three main phases of coding (i.e. open, axial and selective coding) analysis identified 322 separate open codes. The strongest theme contributed to a theory of ineffective communication and decreased psychological safety, namely that 'In the absence of effective communication there is a subsequent increase in anxiety, fear or concern that can be directly attributed to the activation of an RRT using the 'general concern' criterion'. The RRT filled cultural and process deficiencies in the compliance with an escalation protocol. Issues such as 'not for resuscitation documentation' and 'inability to establish communication with and between medical or nursing personnel' rated

  11. Rapid Active Power Control of Photovoltaic Systems for Grid Frequency Support

    SciTech Connect

    Hoke, Anderson; Shirazi, Mariko; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Muljadi, Eduard; Maksimovic, Dragan

    2017-01-01

    As deployment of power electronic coupled generation such as photovoltaic (PV) systems increases, grid operators have shown increasing interest in calling on inverter-coupled generation to help mitigate frequency contingency events by rapidly surging active power into the grid. When responding to contingency events, the faster the active power is provided, the more effective it may be for arresting the frequency event. This paper proposes a predictive PV inverter control method for very fast and accurate control of active power. This rapid active power control method will increase the effectiveness of various higher-level controls designed to mitigate grid frequency contingency events, including fast power-frequency droop, inertia emulation, and fast frequency response, without the need for energy storage. The rapid active power control method, coupled with a maximum power point estimation method, is implemented in a prototype PV inverter connected to a PV array. The prototype inverter's response to various frequency events is experimentally confirmed to be fast (beginning within 2 line cycles and completing within 4.5 line cycles of a severe test event) and accurate (below 2% steady-state error).

  12. Rapid building damage assessment system using mobile phone technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimellaro, Gian Paolo; Scura, G.; Renschler, C. S.; Reinhorn, A. M.; Kim, H. U.

    2014-09-01

    One common scenario during disasters such as earthquakes is that the activity of damage field reconnaissance on site is not well-coordinated. For example in Italy the damage assessment of structures after an earthquake is managed from the Italian Emergency Authority, using printed forms (AeDES) which are filled by experts on site generating a lot of confusion in filling and transferring the forms to the Disaster Management Operative Center. Because of this, the paper explores the viability of using mobile communication technologies (smart phones) and the Web to develop response systems that would aid communities after a major disaster, providing channels for allowing residents and responders of uploading and distributing information, related to structural damages coordinating the damage field reconnaissance. A mobile application that can be run by residents on smart phones has been developed, to give an initial damage evaluation of the area, which is going to be very useful when resources (e.g. the number of experts is limited). The mobile application has been tested for the first time during 2012 Emilia earthquake to enhance the emergency response, showing the efficiency of the proposed method in statistical terms comparing the proposed procedure with the standard procedure.

  13. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T; Andres, A Scott; Finsterle, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO₃ removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO₃ removal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Observed and self-perceived teamwork in a rapid response team.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Pattie; Bawel-Brinkley, Karen; O'Leary-Kelley, Colleen

    2012-07-01

    Teamwork and communication between healthcare workers are vital for patient safety in the high-risk environment of health care. The purpose of this descriptive study was to measure the teamwork among members of the rapid response team (RRT) to design teamwork communication training for team members. Data were collected via live observation of RRT events and from RRT team member ratings of teamwork during events.

  15. Rapid continental-scale vegetation response to the Younger Dryas Cool Episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peros, M.; Gajewski, K.; Viau, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Younger Dryas Cool Episode had rapid and widespread effects on flora and fauna throughout the Americas. Fossil pollen records document how plant communities responded to this event, although such data are generally only representative of changes at local- to regional-scales. We use a new approach to provide insight into vegetation responses to the Younger Dryas at a continental-scale, by focusing on data extracted for a single taxon (Populus poplar, cottonwood, aspen) from pollen diagrams throughout North America. We show that Populus underwent a rapid and continent-wide decline as the climate rapidly cooled and dried. At the termination of the Younger Dryas, Populus underwent another widespread decline, this time in response to competition from boreal and temperate taxa as the climate abruptly warmed. Late glacial-early Holocene pollen assemblages with high quantities of Populus pollen often lack modern analogues and thus confound quantitative paleoclimatic reconstructions; our results provide a context to interpret these assemblages. Furthermore, while Populus may continue to expand in the future in response to human disturbance and increasing temperatures, its sensitivity to competition may eventually put it at risk as global warming accelerates.

  16. Rapid Vegetational Change in Coastal North America: The Response to Climate Since the LGM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, Dorothy; Kneller, Margaret

    1999-01-01

    The late-glacial interval provided rapid shifts in climate which are mirrored by dramatic vegetational changes in North America. Through a transect of lake and mire sites from Connecticut to Virginia on the east coast and Kodiak Island on the western coast, we trace the warming following the LGM with the response of forests and tundra. A brief cold reversal in Virginia is seen from 12,260 to 12,200. The subsequent longer and extreme Younger Dryas event is marked in the southern New England - New Jersey region by dramatic boreal and deciduous forest changes. In the southeastern US, forests also change rapidly, with hemlock forest expansion suggesting increased moisture. In Kodiak Island, the warm, moist tundra of the Bolling/Allerod is replaced by colder, windswept Empetrum-dominated tundra during the Younger Dryas. The Pleistocene/Holocene shift in vegetation is remarkably pronounced in eastern North America as well as the Alaskan coastline. Response time of vegetation to climate change appears to be on the order of decades throughout these coastal locations, probably because of the proximity of sites to important ecotonal boundaries, and the magnitude of the events. Even in Virginia's Holocene record, a cold reversal inferred from increases in spruce and fir is noted at 7500 C14 yr BP. This response of the forests to a short-lived cooling shows the sensitivity of the biosphere to a rapid climate shifts.

  17. Rapid Vegetational Change in Coastal North America: The Response to Climate Since the LGM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, Dorothy; Kneller, Margaret

    1999-01-01

    The late-glacial interval provided rapid shifts in climate which are mirrored by dramatic vegetational changes in North America. Through a transect of lake and mire sites from Connecticut to Virginia on the east coast and Kodiak Island on the western coast, we trace the warming following the LGM with the response of forests and tundra. A brief cold reversal in Virginia is seen from 12,260 to 12,200. The subsequent longer and extreme Younger Dryas event is marked in the southern New England - New Jersey region by dramatic boreal and deciduous forest changes. In the southeastern US, forests also change rapidly, with hemlock forest expansion suggesting increased moisture. In Kodiak Island, the warm, moist tundra of the Bolling/Allerod is replaced by colder, windswept Empetrum-dominated tundra during the Younger Dryas. The Pleistocene/Holocene shift in vegetation is remarkably pronounced in eastern North America as well as the Alaskan coastline. Response time of vegetation to climate change appears to be on the order of decades throughout these coastal locations, probably because of the proximity of sites to important ecotonal boundaries, and the magnitude of the events. Even in Virginia's Holocene record, a cold reversal inferred from increases in spruce and fir is noted at 7500 C14 yr BP. This response of the forests to a short-lived cooling shows the sensitivity of the biosphere to a rapid climate shifts.

  18. MODIS Rapid Response: On-the-ground, real time applications of scientific satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Riebeek, H.; Kendall, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2001, NASA’s MODIS Rapid Response Project has been providing fire detections and imagery in near real time for a wide variety of application users. The project web site provides MODIS imagery in true color and false color band combinations, a vegetation index, and land surface temperature - in both uncorrected swath format and geographically corrected subset regions within a few hours of data acquisition. The uncorrected swath format data is available worldwide. Geographically corrected subset images cover the world's land areas and adjoining waters, as well as the entire Arctic and Antarctic. Images are available twice daily, in the morning from the Terra satellite and in the afternoon from the Aqua satellite. A wide range of user communities access this information to get a rapid, 250 meter-resolution overview of ground conditions for fire management, crop and famine monitoring and forecasting, disaster response (floods, storms), dust and aerosol monitoring, aviation (tracking volcanic ash), monitoring sea ice conditions, environmental monitoring, and more. The scientific community uses imagery to locate phenomena of interest prior to ordering and processing data and to support the day-to-day planning of field campaigns. Rapid Response imagery is used extensively to support education and public outreach, both by NASA and other organizations, and is frequently found in newspapers, books, TV, and the web. California wildfires, 26 October 2003, Terra MODIS

  19. Rapid estimation of frequency response functions by close-range photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The accuracy of a rapid method which estimates the frequency response function from stereoscopic dynamic data is computed. It is shown that reversal of the order of the operations of coordinate transformation and Fourier transformation, which provides a significant increase in computational speed, introduces error. A portion of the error, proportional to the perturbation components normal to the camera focal planes, cannot be eliminated. The remaining error may be eliminated by proper scaling of frequency data prior to coordinate transformation. Methods are developed for least squares estimation of the full 3x3 frequency response matrix for a three dimensional structure.

  20. Rapid acquisition of an alarm response by a neotropical primate to a newly introduced avian predator.

    PubMed Central

    Gil-da-Costa, Ricardo; Palleroni, Alberto; Hauser, Marc D; Touchton, Janeene; Kelley, J Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Predation is an important selective pressure in natural ecosystems. Among non-human primates, relatively little is known about how predators hunt primate prey and how primates acquire adaptive responses to counteract predation. In this study we took advantage of the recent reintroduction of radio-tagged harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja) to Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama to explore how mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata), one of their primary prey, acquire anti-predator defences. Based on the observation that harpies follow their prey prior to attack, and often call during this pursuit period, we broadcast harpy eagle calls to howlers on BCI as well as to a nearby control population with no harpy predation. Although harpies have been extinct from this area for 50-100 years, results indicate that BCI howlers rapidly acquired an adaptive anti-predator response to harpy calls, while showing no response to other avian vocalizations; howlers maintained this response several months after the removal of the eagles. These results not only show that non-human primates can rapidly acquire an alarm response to a newly introduced predator, but that they can detect and identify predators on the basis of acoustic cues alone. These findings have significant implications both for the role of learning mechanisms in the evolution of prey defence and for conservation strategies, suggesting that the use of 'probing' approaches, such as auditory playbacks, may highly enhance an a priori assessment of the impact of species reintroduction. PMID:12769460

  1. VAPI: low-cost, rapid automated visual inspection system for Petri plate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatburn, L. T.; Kirkup, B. C.; Polz, M. F.

    2007-09-01

    Most culture-based microbiology tasks utilize a petri plate during processing, but rarely do the scientists capture the full information available from the plate. In particular, visual analysis of plates is an under-developed rich source of data that can be rapid and non-invasive. However, collecting this data has been limited by the difficulties of standardizing and quantifying human observations, by the limits of a scientists' fatigue, and by the cost of automating the process. The availability of specialized counting equipment and intelligent camera systems has not changed this - they are prohibitively expensive for many laboratories, only process a limited number of plate types, are often destructive to the sample, and have limited accuracy. This paper describes an automated visual inspection solution, VAPI, that employs inexpensive consumer computing hardware and digital cameras along with custom cross-platform open-source software written in C++, combining Trolltech's Qt GUI toolkit with Intel's OpenCV computer vision library. The system is more accurate than common commercial systems costing many times as much, while being flexible in use and offering comparable responsiveness. VAPI not only counts colonies but also sorts and enumerates colonies by morphology, tracks colony growth by time series analysis, and provides other analytical resources. Output to XML files or directly to a database provides data that can be easily maintained and manipulated by the end user, offering ready access for system enhancement, interaction with other software systems, and rapid development of advanced analysis applications.

  2. The 117 call alert system in Sierra Leone: from rapid Ebola notification to routine death reporting.

    PubMed

    Alpren, Charles; Jalloh, Mohamed F; Kaiser, Reinhard; Diop, Mariam; Kargbo, Sas; Castle, Evelyn; Dafae, Foday; Hersey, Sara; Redd, John T; Jambai, Amara

    2017-01-01

    A toll-free, nationwide phone alert system was established for rapid notification and response during the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone. The system remained in place after the end of the epidemic under a policy of mandatory reporting and Ebola testing for all deaths, and, from June 2016, testing only in case of suspected Ebola. We describe the design, implementation and changes in the system; analyse calling trends during and after the Ebola epidemic; and discuss strengths and limitations of the system and its potential role in efforts to improve death reporting in Sierra Leone. Numbers of calls to report deaths of any cause (death alerts) and persons suspected of having Ebola (live alerts) were analysed by province and district and compared with numbers of Ebola cases reported by the WHO. Nearly 350 000 complete, non-prank calls were made to 117 between September 2014 and December 2016. The maximum number of daily death and live alerts was 9344 (October 2014) and 3031 (December 2014), respectively. Call volumes decreased as Ebola incidence declined and continued to decrease in the post-Ebola period. A national social mobilisation strategy was especially targeted to influential religious leaders, traditional healers and women's groups. The existing infrastructure and experience with the system offer an opportunity to consider long-term use as a death reporting tool for civil registration and mortality surveillance, including rapid detection and control of public health threats. A routine social mobilisation component should be considered to increase usage.

  3. Rapid fabrication system for three-dimensional tissues using cell sheet engineering and centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Akiyuki; Haraguchi, Yuji; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissues can be reconstructed by cell sheet technology, and various clinical researches using these constructed tissues have already been initiated to regenerate damaged tissues. While 3D tissues can be easily fabricated by layering cell sheets, the attachment period for cell adhesion between a cell sheet and a culture dish, or double-layered cell sheets normally takes 20-30 min. This study proposed a more rapid fabrication system for bioengineered tissue using cell sheet technology and centrifugation. A C2C12 mouse myoblast sheet harvested from a temperature-responsive culture dish will attach tightly to a culture dish or another cell sheet at 37°C after a 20 min-incubation. However, the same cell sheet centrifuged (12-34 × g) for 3 min also attached tightly to a dish or another cell sheet at 37°C after only a 3 min-incubation. The manipulation time was reduced by approximately two-thirds by centrifugation. The rapid attachments were also cross-sectionally confirmed by optical coherence tomography. These rapidly constructed cell sheet-tissues using centrifugation showed active cell metabolism, cell viability, and very high production of vascular endothelial growth factor, like those prepared by the conventional method; indicating complete cell sheet-attachment without any cell damage. This new system will be a powerful tool in the fields of cell sheet-based tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, and accelerate the use of cell sheets in clinical applications.

  4. E-DECIDER Rapid Response to the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Parker, J. W.; Pierce, M. E.; Wang, J.; Eguchi, R. T.; Huyck, C. K.; Hu, Z.; Chen, Z.; Yoder, M. R.; Rundle, J. B.; Rosinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    E-DECIDER initiated rapid response mode when the California Earthquake Clearinghouse was activated the morning following the M6 Napa earthquake. Data products, including: 1) rapid damage and loss estimates, 2) deformation magnitude and slope change maps, and 3) aftershock forecasts were provided to the Clearinghouse partners within 24 hours of the event via XchangeCore Web Service Data Orchestration sharing. NASA data products were provided to end-users via XchangeCore, EERI and Clearinghouse websites, and ArcGIS online for Napa response, reaching a wide response audience. The E-DECIDER team helped facilitate rapid delivery of NASA products to stakeholders and participated in Clearinghouse Napa earthquake briefings to update stakeholders on product information. Rapid response products from E-DECIDER can be used to help prioritize response efforts shortly after the event has occurred. InLET (Internet Loss Estimation Tool) post-event damage and casualty estimates were generated quickly after the Napa earthquake. InLET provides immediate post-event estimates of casualties and building damage by performing loss/impact simulations using USGS ground motion data and FEMA HAZUS damage estimation technology. These results were provided to E-DECIDER by their collaborators, ImageCat, Inc. and the Community Stakeholder Network (CSN). Strain magnitude and slope change maps were automatically generated when the Napa earthquake appeared on the USGS feed. These maps provide an early estimate of where the deformation has occurred and where damage may be localized. Using E-DECIDER critical infrastructure overlays with damage estimates, decision makers can direct response effort that can be verified later with field reconnaissance and remote sensing-based observations. Earthquake aftershock forecast maps were produced within hours of the event. These maps highlight areas where aftershocks are likely to occur and can also be coupled with infrastructure overlays to help direct response

  5. Rapid Detection of Neutrophil Oxidative Burst Capacity is Predictive of Whole Blood Cytokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Philip J.; Schaub, Leasha J.; Dallelucca, Jurandir J.; Pusateri, Anthony E.; Sheppard, Forest R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maladaptive immune responses, particularly cytokine and chemokine-driven, are a significant contributor to the deleterious inflammation present in many types of injury and infection. Widely available applications to rapidly assess individual inflammatory capacity could permit identification of patients at risk for exacerbated immune responses and guide therapy. Here we evaluate neutrophil oxidative burst (NOX) capacity measured by plate reader to immuno-type Rhesus Macaques as an acute strategy to rapidly detect inflammatory capacity and predict maladaptive immune responses as assayed by cytokine array. Methods Whole blood was collected from anesthetized Rhesus Macaques (n = 25) and analyzed for plasma cytokine secretion (23-plex Luminex assay) and NOX capacity. For cytokine secretion, paired samples were either unstimulated or ex-vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated (100μg/mL/24h). NOX capacity was measured in dihydrorhodamine-123 loaded samples following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin treatment. Pearson’s test was utilized to correlate NOX capacity with cytokine secretion, p<0.05 considered significant. Results LPS stimulation induced secretion of the inflammatory molecules G-CSF, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12/23(p40), IL-18, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNFα. Although values were variable, several cytokines correlated with NOX capacity, p-values≤0.0001. Specifically, IL-1β (r = 0.66), IL-6 (r = 0.74), the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12/23(p40) (r = 0.78), and TNFα (r = 0.76) were strongly associated with NOX. Conclusion NOX capacity correlated with Th1-polarizing cytokine secretion, indicating its ability to rapidly predict inflammatory responses. These data suggest that NOX capacity may quickly identify patients at risk for maladaptive immune responses and who may benefit from immuno-modulatory therapies. Future studies will assess the in-vivo predictive value of NOX in animal models of immune-mediated pathologies. PMID

  6. Studies for determining rapid thrust response requirements and techniques for use in a long range transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newirth, D. M.; Ferguson, W. W.

    1973-01-01

    Propulsion systems proposed for the next generation of long-range transport aircraft will utilize advanced technology to reduce the noise to levels that will be inoffensive to the community. Additional reductions can be realized by adopting steeper glide slopes during the landing approach. The aircraft dynamic characteristics and methods of obtaining rapid engine response during the go-around maneuver from an aborted landing approach are identified and discussed. The study concludes that the present levels of flight safety will not be compromised by the steeper approach.

  7. Biotic response to late Quaternary rapid climate switches in Santa Barbara Basin: Ecological and evolutionary implications

    SciTech Connect

    Cannariato, K.G.; Kennett, J.P.; Behl, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages from Santa Barbara Basin exhibit major faunal and ecological switches associated with late Quaternary millennial- to decadal-scale global climate oscillations. Repeated turnovers of entire faunas occurred rapidly (<40--400 yr) without extinction or speciation in conjunction with Dansgaard-Oeschger shifts in thermohaline circulation, ventilation, and climate, confirming evolutionary model predictions of Roy et al. Consistent faunal successions of dysoxic taxa during successive interstadials reflect the extreme sensitivity and adaptation of the benthic ecosystem to the rapid environmental changes that marked the late Quaternary and possibly other transitional intervals in the history of the Earth`s ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere system. These data support the hypothesis that broad segments of the biosphere are well adapted to rapid climate change.

  8. Workstation-Based Simulation for Rapid Prototyping and Piloted Evaluation of Control System Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansur, M. Hossein; Colbourne, Jason D.; Chang, Yu-Kuang; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The development and optimization of flight control systems for modem fixed- and rotary-. wing aircraft consume a significant portion of the overall time and cost of aircraft development. Substantial savings can be achieved if the time required to develop and flight test the control system, and the cost, is reduced. To bring about such reductions, software tools such as Matlab/Simulink are being used to readily implement block diagrams and rapidly evaluate the expected responses of the completed system. Moreover, tools such as CONDUIT (CONtrol Designer's Unified InTerface) have been developed that enable the controls engineers to optimize their control laws and ensure that all the relevant quantitative criteria are satisfied, all within a fully interactive, user friendly, unified software environment.

  9. Rapid dendritic cell recruitment is a hallmark of the acute inflammatory response at mucosal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of challenge sites such as skin and the peritoneal cavity has identified neutrophils as virtually the sole cellular participants in acute bacterial inflammation, peak influx occurring 24-48 h in advance of mononuclear cell populations associated with adaptive immunity. This study challenges the general applicability of this paradigm. We demonstrate here that the earliest detectable cellular response after inhalation of Moraxella catarrhalis organisms is the recruitment of putative class II major histocompatibility complex-bearing dendritic cell (DC) precursors into the airway epithelium, the initial wave arriving in advance of the neutrophil influx. Unlike the neutrophils which rapidly transit into the airway lumen, the DC precursors remain within the epithelium during the acute inflammatory response where they differentiate, and develop the dendriform morphology typical of resident DC found in the normal epithelium. During the ensuing 48-h period, these cells then migrate to the regional lymph nodes. No comparable DC response was observed after epidermal or intraperitoneal challenge, and it may be that mucosal surfaces are unique in their requirement for rapid DC responses during acute inflammation. We hypothesize that the role of the DC influx during acute inflammation may be surveillance for opportunistic viruses, and that this covert protective mechanism is operative at a restricted number of mucosal tissue sites. PMID:8145044

  10. Genetic response to rapid climate change: it's seasonal timing that matters.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, W E; Holzapfel, C M

    2008-01-01

    The primary nonbiological result of recent rapid climate change is warming winter temperatures, particularly at northern latitudes, leading to longer growing seasons and new seasonal exigencies and opportunities. Biological responses reflect selection due to the earlier arrival of spring, the later arrival of fall, or the increasing length of the growing season. Animals from rotifers to rodents use the high reliability of day length to time the seasonal transitions in their life histories that are crucial to fitness in temperate and polar environments: when to begin developing in the spring, when to reproduce, when to enter dormancy or when to migrate, thereby exploiting favourable temperatures and avoiding unfavourable temperatures. In documented cases of evolutionary (genetic) response to recent, rapid climate change, the role of day length (photoperiodism) ranges from causal to inhibitory; in no case has there been demonstrated a genetic shift in thermal optima or thermal tolerance. More effort should be made to explore the role of photoperiodism in genetic responses to climate change and to rule out the role of photoperiod in the timing of seasonal life histories before thermal adaptation is assumed to be the major evolutionary response to climate change.

  11. Characterization of the rapid transcriptional response to long-term sensitization training in Aplysia californica

    PubMed Central

    Herdegen, Samantha; Holmes, Geraldine; Cyriac, Ashly; Calin-Jageman, Irina E.; Calin-Jageman, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We used a custom-designed microarray and quantitative PCR to characterize the rapid transcriptional response to long-term sensitization training in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Aplysia were exposed to repeated noxious shocks to one side of the body, a procedure known to induce a longlasting, transcription-dependent increase in reflex responsiveness that is restricted to the side of training. One hour after training, pleural ganglia from the trained and untrained sides of the body were harvested; these ganglia contain the sensory nociceptors which help mediate the expression of longterm sensitization memory. Microarray analysis from 8 biological replicates suggests that long-term sensitization training rapidly regulates at least 81 transcripts. We used qPCR to test a subset of these transcripts and found that 83% were confirmed in the same samples, and 86% of these were again confirmed in an independent sample. Thus, our new microarray design shows strong convergent and predictive validity for analyzing the transcriptional correlates of memory in Aplysia. Fully validated transcripts include some previously identified as regulated in this paradigm (ApC/EBP and ApEgr) but also include novel findings. Specifically, we show that long-term sensitization training rapidly upregulates the expression of transcripts which may encode Aplysia homologs of a C/EBPγ transcription factor, a glycine transporter (GlyT2), and a vacuolar-protein-sorting-associated protein (VPS36). PMID:25117657

  12. Characterization of the rapid transcriptional response to long-term sensitization training in Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Herdegen, Samantha; Holmes, Geraldine; Cyriac, Ashly; Calin-Jageman, Irina E; Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    We used a custom-designed microarray and quantitative PCR to characterize the rapid transcriptional response to long-term sensitization training in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Aplysia were exposed to repeated noxious shocks to one side of the body, a procedure known to induce a long-lasting, transcription-dependent increase in reflex responsiveness that is restricted to the side of training. One hour after training, pleural ganglia from the trained and untrained sides of the body were harvested; these ganglia contain the sensory nociceptors which help mediate the expression of long-term sensitization memory. Microarray analysis from 8 biological replicates suggests that long-term sensitization training rapidly regulates at least 81 transcripts. We used qPCR to test a subset of these transcripts and found that 83% were confirmed in the same samples, and 86% of these were again confirmed in an independent sample. Thus, our new microarray design shows strong convergent and predictive validity for analyzing the transcriptional correlates of memory in Aplysia. Fully validated transcripts include some previously identified as regulated in this paradigm (ApC/EBP and ApEgr) but also include novel findings. Specifically, we show that long-term sensitization training rapidly up-regulates the expression of transcripts which may encode Aplysia homologs of a C/EBPγ transcription factor, a glycine transporter (GlyT2), and a vacuolar-protein-sorting-associated protein (VPS36). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Urgent Need to Orient Public Health Response to Rapid Nutrition Transition

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Umesh; Sachdev, Harsh Pal Singh

    2012-01-01

    India is currently undergoing a rapid transition on economic, demographic, epidemiologic, nutrition, and sociological fronts. There is evidence of a decline in undernutrition with a simultaneous escalation in overnutrition and associated non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, the current concern and national policy response for tackling malnutrition in India is still primarily restricted to undernutrition diagnosed on the basis of body size (anthropometry). A complex range of interacting factors have been linked to the rising trend of overnutrition and associated NCDs from a global perspective. The burden of overnutrition and associated morbidities is rapidly escalating to alarming proportions, particularly in urban areas and high socio-economic status groups. The poor are not spared from this transition. It is predicted that a more rapid transition may occur amongst poor populations in future with higher economic development. The need of the hour is to launch an integrated public health response to the dual burden beginning from pregnancy and early life. This will obviously require careful deliberation of the strategy and interventions, and a multi-sectoral approach, especially involving the health, women and child development, nutrition, education, agriculture, food processing, trade, architecture, water supply and sanitation, community and non-governmental organizations. PMID:23293431

  14. Cost-effectiveness of truncated therapy for hepatitis C based on rapid virologic response.

    PubMed

    Gellad, Ziad F; Muir, Andrew J; McHutchison, John G; Sievert, William; Sharara, Ala I; Brown, Kimberly A; Flisiak, Robert; Jacobson, Ira M; Kershenobich, David; Manns, Michael P; Schulman, Kevin A; Reed, Shelby D

    2012-01-01

    Shortened courses of treatment with pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin for patients with hepatitis C virus infection who experience rapid virologic response can be effective in appropriately selected patients. The cost-effectiveness of truncated therapy is not known. To assess the cost-effectiveness of response-guided therapy versus standard-duration therapy on the basis of best available evidence. We developed a decision model for chronic hepatitis C virus infection representing two treatment strategies: 1) standard-duration therapy with pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin for 48 weeks in patients with genotype 1 or 4 and for 24 weeks in patients with genotype 2 or 3 and 2) truncated therapy (i.e., 50% decrease in treatment duration) in patients with rapid virologic response. Patients for whom truncated therapy failed began standard-duration therapy guided by genotype. We used a Markov model to estimate lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years. In the base-case analysis, mean lifetime costs were $46,623 ± $2,483 with standard-duration therapy and $42,354 ± $2,489 with truncated therapy. Mean lifetime quality-adjusted life-years were similar between the groups (17.1 ± 0.7 with standard therapy; 17.2 ± 0.7 with truncated therapy). Across model simulations, the probability of truncated therapy being economically dominant (i.e., both cost saving and more effective) was 78.6%. The results were consistent when we stratified the data by genotype. In one-way sensitivity analyses, the results were sensitive only to changes in treatment efficacy. Truncated therapy based on rapid virologic response is likely to be cost saving for treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Cost-effectiveness varied with small changes in relative treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Contemporary glacier retreat triggers a rapid landslide response, Great Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos, Andrew; Amann, Florian; Strozzi, Tazio; Delaloye, Reynald; Ruette, Jonas; Springman, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    The destabilization and catastrophic failure of landslides triggered by retreating glaciers is an expected outcome of global climate change and poses a significant threat to inhabitants of glaciated mountain valleys around the globe. Of particular importance are the formation of landslide-dammed lakes, outburst floods, and related sediment entrainment. Based on field observations and remote sensing of a deep-seated landslide, located at the present-day terminus of the Great Aletsch Glacier, we show that the spatiotemporal response of the landslide to glacier retreat is rapid, occurring within a decade. Our observations uniquely capture the critical period of increase in slope deformations, onset of failure, and show that measured displacements at the crown and toe regions of the landslide demonstrate a feedback mechanism between glacier ice reduction and response of the entire landslide body. These observations shed new light on the geomorphological processes of landslide response in paraglacial environments, which were previously understood to occur over significantly longer time periods.

  16. Responsive systems - The challenge for the nineties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malek, Miroslaw

    1990-01-01

    A concept of responsive computer systems will be introduced. The emerging responsive systems demand fault-tolerant and real-time performance in parallel and distributed computing environments. The design methodologies for fault-tolerant, real time and responsive systems will be presented. Novel techniques of introducing redundancy for improved performance and dependability will be illustrated. The methods of system responsiveness evaluation will be proposed. The issues of determinism, closed and open systems will also be discussed from the perspective of responsive systems design.

  17. Contrasting ice sheet response to early and late summer rapid supraglacial lake drainage events on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, L. A.; Behn, M. D.; Das, S. B.; Joughin, I. R.; Herring, T.; King, M. A.; McGuire, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Across much of the ablation region of the western Greenland Ice Sheet, hydro-fracture events related to supraglacial lake drainages rapidly deliver large volumes of meltwater to the bed and create conduits providing efficient surface-to-bed drainage networks for the remainder of the summer melt season. Using a network of 20 GPS stations installed in 2011, and supplemented with a smaller network operating back to 2006, we observe ice surface motion during a series of lake draining hydro-fracture events. These data are used to investigate (1) the location and propagation geometry of the fracture opening and (2) the acceleration of ice in response to the rapid input of surface meltwater to the bed. Observations at the same location show varying surface motion following early versus late summer rapid lake drainage events from multiple years. During a late-season (July 29) rapid drainage in 2006, results from a single GPS station show velocity in the direction of mean ice flow and surface uplift returned to pre-drainage values within ~24 hours (Das et al., 2008), indicating the large subglacial meltwater pulse was efficiently dissipated into the subglacial hydrologic network. In contrast, an early-season (June 11) rapid drainage at the same lake in 2011 induced uplift that persisted for much longer. Specifically, we find that elevations at stations nearest the moulin did not return to pre-drainage elevations for 4 to 8 days post-drainage, suggesting a more inefficient subglacial hydrologic system during the early summer season. These results indicate that the ice-sheet response is modulated, at least in part, by the seasonal evolution of the subglacial hydrological system. We also plan to investigate new GPS data from 2 rapid drainage events in the early portion of the melt season in 2012 and 2013. Findings from these events will ultimately improve our understanding of the mechanics of ice-sheet hydro-fracture and the influence of surface meltwater on ice-sheet flow.

  18. The NOAA El Niño Rapid Response Field Campaign: Science Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dole, R. M.; Spackman, J. R.; Webb, R. S.; Barnet, C.; Cifelli, R.; Compo, G. P.; Fairall, C. W.; Hartten, L. M.; Hoell, A.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kiladis, G. N.; Johnston, P. E.; Hoerling, M. P.; Newman, M.; Smith, C. A.; Wick, G. A.; Wolfe, D. E.; Wolter, K.

    2016-12-01

    Forecasts by mid-summer 2015 indicated the likelihood of a strong and potentially record El Niño for the upcoming winter. The forecasts posed a fundamental challenge to NOAA: To what extent could the agency adapt its research and services, given advance information of a potentially extreme climate event? Taking a proactive approach, NOAA initiated the NOAA El Niño Rapid Response (ENRR) project. The ENRR included an observational field campaign led by the ESRL Physical Sciences Division together with model experiments performed to optimize observational strategies and support NOAA services in anticipating risks and impacts related to this event. The full ENRR ultimately involved contributions from across NOAA as well as from external partners. This presentation focuses on the ENRR field campaign. It summarizes the primary drivers for the campaign, questions, hypotheses, and objectives, a few surprises and lessons learned, and concludes with thoughts on future directions. The main aim of the field campaign was to determine the initial tropical atmospheric response linking this El Niño to its global impacts. Intensive observations were conducted in a data-sparse region over the central Pacific Ocean near the heart of El Niño, using NOAA's Gulfstream IV (G-IV) to obtain wind, temperature, moisture, and precipitation profiles from dropsondes, tail Doppler radar, and flight level observations. Most flights were over the central tropical Pacific, sampling organized tropical convection and convective outflow. The G-IV data were augmented in the central Pacific by radiosonde launches from Kiritimati and in the eastern tropical Pacific from the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown. In the extratropics, a scanning X-band radar was deployed in Santa Clara CA. Additional extratropical flights were conducted by NOAA with the Global Hawk, and by partners at NASA Ames and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Data from the ENRR campaign were provided in real-time for assimilation into

  19. Instantaneous response of elastic thin-walled structures with arbitrary open cross section to rapid heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xiaoqin; Mohan, Ram V.; Tamma, Kumar K.

    1992-01-01

    A generalized modeling and analysis approach of thermally-induced coupled vibrations of elastic thin-walled configurations with arbitrary open cross sections are presented in conjunction with a unified implicit transient methodology. Limited research appears in literature which takes into account the influence of rapid thermal heating effects on structures involving various forms of coupling. As a consequence, the dynamic response of such thin-walled structures of arbitrary open cross section due to rapid heating are described here. Effects involving triple, double, and no coupling between bending and torsional vibrations caused by sudden heating on these structures are examined. Numerical test cases are presented which describe the influence of sudden heating on elastic thin-walled structures of arbitrary open cross sections.

  20. Development of the Counselor Response Observation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantanen, Antti P.; Soini, Hannu S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the measures included in the Counselor Response Observation System. The Counselor Response Observation System consists of the Counselor Response Coding System and the Skilled Verbal Responding Scale. Detailed results of their validity and reliability are presented.

  1. A rapid transcriptome response is associated with desiccation resistance in aerially-exposed killifish embryos.

    PubMed

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Lozano, Juan-José; Zapater, Cinta; Otero, David; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Cerdà, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Delayed hatching is a form of dormancy evolved in some amphibian and fish embryos to cope with environmental conditions transiently hostile to the survival of hatchlings or larvae. While diapause and cryptobiosis have been extensively studied in several animals, very little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensing and response of fish embryos to environmental cues. Embryos of the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus advance dvelopment when exposed to air but hatching is suspended until flooding with seawater. Here, we investigated how transcriptome regulation underpins this adaptive response by examining changes in gene expression profiles of aerially incubated killifish embryos at ∼100% relative humidity, compared to embryos continuously flooded in water. The results confirm that mid-gastrula embryos are able to stimulate development in response to aerial incubation, which is accompanied by the differential expression of at least 806 distinct genes during a 24 h period. Most of these genes (∼70%) appear to be differentially expressed within 3 h of aerial exposure, suggesting a broad and rapid transcriptomic response. This response seems to include an early sensing phase, which overlaps with a tissue remodeling and activation of embryonic development phase involving many regulatory and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, we found fast (0.5-1 h) transcriptional differences in representatives of classical "stress" proteins, such as some molecular chaperones, members of signalling pathways typically involved in the transduction of sensor signals to stress response genes, and oxidative stress-related proteins, similar to that described in other animals undergoing dormancy, diapause or desiccation. To our knowledge, these data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with desiccation resistance during delayed hatching in non-mammalian vertebrates. The exceptional transcriptomic plasticity

  2. A Rapid Transcriptome Response Is Associated with Desiccation Resistance in Aerially-Exposed Killifish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Lozano, Juan-José; Zapater, Cinta; Otero, David; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Cerdà, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Delayed hatching is a form of dormancy evolved in some amphibian and fish embryos to cope with environmental conditions transiently hostile to the survival of hatchlings or larvae. While diapause and cryptobiosis have been extensively studied in several animals, very little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensing and response of fish embryos to environmental cues. Embryos of the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus advance dvelopment when exposed to air but hatching is suspended until flooding with seawater. Here, we investigated how transcriptome regulation underpins this adaptive response by examining changes in gene expression profiles of aerially incubated killifish embryos at ∼100% relative humidity, compared to embryos continuously flooded in water. The results confirm that mid-gastrula embryos are able to stimulate development in response to aerial incubation, which is accompanied by the differential expression of at least 806 distinct genes during a 24 h period. Most of these genes (∼70%) appear to be differentially expressed within 3 h of aerial exposure, suggesting a broad and rapid transcriptomic response. This response seems to include an early sensing phase, which overlaps with a tissue remodeling and activation of embryonic development phase involving many regulatory and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, we found fast (0.5–1 h) transcriptional differences in representatives of classical “stress” proteins, such as some molecular chaperones, members of signalling pathways typically involved in the transduction of sensor signals to stress response genes, and oxidative stress-related proteins, similar to that described in other animals undergoing dormancy, diapause or desiccation. To our knowledge, these data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with desiccation resistance during delayed hatching in non-mammalian vertebrates. The exceptional transcriptomic plasticity

  3. Rapid Response Team Calls and Unplanned Transfers to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in a Pediatric Hospital.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Stacey; Totapally, Balagangadhar R

    2016-01-01

    Variability in disposition of children according to the time of rapid response calls is unknown. To evaluate times and disposition of rapid response alerts and outcomes for children transferred from acute care to intensive care. Deidentified data on demographics, time and disposition of the child after activation of a rapid response, time of transfer to intensive care, and patient outcomes were reviewed retrospectively. Data for rapid-response patients on time of activation of the response and unplanned transfers to the intensive care unit were compared with data on other patients admitted to the unit. Of 542 rapid responses activated, 321 (59.2%) were called during the daytime. Out of all rapid response activations, 323 children (59.6%) were transferred to intensive care, 164 (30.3%) remained on the general unit, and 19 (3.5%) required resuscitation. More children were transferred to intensive care after rapid response alerts (P = .048) during the daytime (66%) than at night (59%). During the same period, 1313 patients were transferred to intensive care from acute care units. Age, sex, risk of mortality, length of stay, and mortality rate did not differ according to the time of transfer. Mortality among unplanned transfers (3.8%) was significantly higher (P < .001) than among other intensive care patients (1.4%). Only 25% of transfers from acute care units to the intensive care unit occurred after activation of a rapid response team. Most rapid responses were called during daytime hours. Mortality was significantly higher among unplanned transfers from acute care than among other intensive care admissions. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  4. M-dwarf rapid rotators and the detection of relatively young multiple M-star systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaport, S.; Joss, M.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R. E-mail: mattjoss@mit.edu; and others

    2014-06-20

    We have searched the Kepler light curves of ∼3900 M-star targets for evidence of periodicities that indicate, by means of the effects of starspots, rapid stellar rotation. Several analysis techniques, including Fourier transforms, inspection of folded light curves, 'sonograms', and phase tracking of individual modulation cycles, were applied in order to distinguish the periodicities due to rapid rotation from those due to stellar pulsations, eclipsing binaries, or transiting planets. We find 178 Kepler M-star targets with rotation periods, P {sub rot}, of <2 days, and 110 with P {sub rot} < 1 day. Some 30 of the 178 systems exhibit two or more independent short periods within the same Kepler photometric aperture, while several have 3 or more short periods. Adaptive optics imaging and modeling of the Kepler pixel response function for a subset of our sample support the conclusion that the targets with multiple periods are highly likely to be relatively young physical binary, triple, and even quadruple M star systems. We explore in detail the one object with four incommensurate periods all less than 1.2 days, and show that two of the periods arise from one of a close pair of stars, while the other two arise from the second star, which itself is probably a visual binary. If most of these M-star systems with multiple periods turn out to be bound M stars, this could prove a valuable way discovering young hierarchical M-star systems; the same approach may also be applicable to G and K stars. The ∼5% occurrence rate of rapid rotation among the ∼3900 M star targets is consistent with spin evolution models that include an initial contraction phase followed by magnetic braking, wherein a typical M star can spend several hundred Myr before spinning down to periods longer than 2 days.

  5. The Rapid Atmospheric Monitoring System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U. /Campinas State U.

    2012-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a facility built to detect air showers produced by cosmic rays above 10{sup 17} eV. During clear nights with a low illuminated moon fraction, the UV fluorescence light produced by air showers is recorded by optical telescopes at the Observatory. To correct the observations for variations in atmospheric conditions, atmospheric monitoring is performed at regular intervals ranging from several minutes (for cloud identification) to several hours (for aerosol conditions) to several days (for vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, and humidity). In 2009, the monitoring program was upgraded to allow for additional targeted measurements of atmospheric conditions shortly after the detection of air showers of special interest, e. g., showers produced by very high-energy cosmic rays or showers with atypical longitudinal profiles. The former events are of particular importance for the determination of the energy scale of the Observatory, and the latter are characteristic of unusual air shower physics or exotic primary particle types. The purpose of targeted (or 'rapid') monitoring is to improve the resolution of the atmospheric measurements for such events. In this paper, we report on the implementation of the rapid monitoring program and its current status. The rapid monitoring data have been analyzed and applied to the reconstruction of air showers of high interest, and indicate that the air fluorescence measurements affected by clouds and aerosols are effectively corrected using measurements from the regular atmospheric monitoring program. We find that the rapid monitoring program has potential for supporting dedicated physics analyses beyond the standard event reconstruction.

  6. Avoiding math on a rapid timescale: Emotional responsivity and anxious attention in math anxiety.

    PubMed

    Pizzie, Rachel G; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-11-01

    Math anxiety (MA) is characterized by negative feelings towards mathematics, resulting in avoidance of math classes and of careers that rely on mathematical skills. Focused on a long timescale, this research may miss important cognitive and affective processes that operate moment-to-moment, changing rapid reactions even when a student simply sees a math problem. Here, using fMRI with an attentional deployment paradigm, we show that MA influences rapid spontaneous emotional and attentional responses to mathematical stimuli upon brief presentation. Critically, participants viewed but did not attempt to solve the problems. Indicating increased threat reactivity to even brief presentations of math problems, increased MA was associated with increased amygdala response during math viewing trials. Functionally and anatomically defined amygdala ROIs yielded similar results, indicating robustness of the finding. Similar to the pattern of vigilance and avoidance observed in specific phobia, behavioral results of the attentional paradigm demonstrated that MA is associated with attentional disengagement for mathematical symbols. This attentional avoidance is specific to math stimuli; when viewing negatively-valenced images, MA is correlated with attentional engagement, similar to other forms of anxiety. These results indicate that even brief exposure to mathematics triggers a neural response related to threat avoidance in highly MA individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid access to speech gestures in perception: Evidence from choice and simple response time tasks☆

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Carol A.; Brown, Julie M.; Sabadini, Laura; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Participants took part in two speech tests. In both tests, a model speaker produced vowel–consonant–vowels (VCVs) in which the initial vowel varied unpredictably in duration. In the simple response task, participants shadowed the initial vowel; when the model shifted to production of any of three CVs (/pa/, /ta/ or /ka/), participants produced a CV that they were assigned to say (one of /pa/, /ta/ or /ka/). In the choice task, participants shadowed the initial vowel; when the model shifted to a CV, participants shadowed that too. We found that, measured from the model’s onset of closure for the consonant to the participant’s closure onset, response times in the choice task exceeded those in the simple task by just 26 ms. This is much shorter than the canonical difference between simple and choice latencies [100–150 ms according to Luce (1986)] and is near the fastest simple times that Luce reports. The findings imply rapid access to articulatory speech information in the choice task. A second experiment found much longer choice times when the perception–production link for speech could not be exploited. A third experiment and an acoustic analysis verified that our measurement from closure in Experiment 1 provided a valid marker of speakers’ onsets of consonant production. A final experiment showed that shadowing responses are imitations of the model’s speech. We interpret the findings as evidence that listeners rapidly extract information about speakers’ articulatory gestures. PMID:20622982

  8. Rapid three-dimensional functional magnetic resonance imaging of the initial negative BOLD response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, Martin A.; Zhang, Cun-Hui; Glover, Gary; Shepp, Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    Functional MRI is most commonly used to study the local changes in blood flow that accompanies neuronal activity. In this work we introduce a new approach towards acquiring and analyzing fMRI data that instead provides the potential to study the initial oxygen consumption in the brain that accompanies activation. As the oxygen consumption is closer in timing to the underlying neuronal activity than the subsequent blood flow, this approach promises to provide more precise information about the location and timing of activity. Our approach is based on using a new single shot 3D echo-volumar imaging sequence which samples a small central region of 3D k-space every 100 ms, thereby giving a low spatial resolution snapshot of the brain with extremely high temporal resolution. Explicit and simple rules for implementing the trajectory are provided, together with a straightforward reconstruction algorithm. Using our approach allows us to effectively study the behavior of the brain in the time immediately following activation through the initial negative BOLD response, and we discuss new techniques for detecting the presence of the negative response across the brain. The feasibility and efficiency of the approach is confirmed using data from a visual-motor task and an auditory-motor-visual task. The results of these experiments provide a proof of concept of our methodology, and indicate that rapid imaging of the initial negative BOLD response can serve an important role in studying cognition tasks involving rapid mental processing in more than one region.

  9. Glyphosate resistance in Ambrosia trifida: Part 1. Novel rapid cell death response to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, Christopher R; Moretti, Marcelo L; Robertson, Renae R; Segobye, Kabelo; Weller, Stephen C; Young, Bryan G; Johnson, William G; Schulz, Burkhard; Green, Amanda C; Jeffery, Taylor; Lespérance, Mackenzie A; Tardif, François J; Sikkema, Peter H; Hall, J Christopher; McLean, Michael D; Lawton, Mark B; Sammons, R Douglas; Wang, Dafu; Westra, Philip; Gaines, Todd A

    2017-03-07

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Ambrosia trifida is now present in the midwestern United States and in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Two distinct GR phenotypes are known, including a rapid response (GR RR) phenotype, which exhibits cell death within hours after treatment, and a non-rapid response (GR NRR) phenotype. The mechanisms of resistance in both GR RR and GR NRR remain unknown. Here, we present a description of the RR phenotype and an investigation of target-site mechanisms on multiple A. trifida accessions. Glyphosate resistance was confirmed in several accessions, and whole-plant levels of resistance ranged from 2.3- to 7.5-fold compared with glyphosate-susceptible (GS) accessions. The two GR phenotypes displayed similar levels of resistance, despite having dramatically different phenotypic responses to glyphosate. Glyphosate resistance was not associated with mutations in EPSPS sequence, increased EPSPS copy number, EPSPS quantity, or EPSPS activity. These encompassing results suggest that resistance to glyphosate in these GR RR A. trifida accessions is not conferred by a target-site resistance mechanism. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. 'Discovery learning': an account of rapid curriculum change in response to accreditation.

    PubMed

    White, J; Paslawski, T; Kearney, R

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and experiences of leaders responsible for making rapid changes to a medical school curriculum in response to an adverse accreditation report. The new curriculum was based on the principles of problem-based learning ('Discovery Learning'), with changes to the way that students were assessed. We conducted semi-structured interviews with leaders responsible for education at the school two and a half years after the adoption of the new curriculum. We coded the resulting transcripts to identify major and minor themes expressed by participants. Thirty-five senior leaders, administrators and course directors were invited for the interview; 14 (40%) were interviewed. Five main themes were noted in the data: (1) organization and control of the curriculum; (2) changes in the practices of teaching and learning; (3) effects on faculty members; (4) sources of resistance and (5) attitudes to curriculum change in general. This study demonstrates that major curriculum change can be achieved successfully in a short period of time. This study also illustrates some of the problems associated with making rapid changes to the medical school curriculum, and highlights the importance of attitudes to change amongst the leadership of a medical school.

  11. Rapid response to Ebola outbreaks in remote areas - Liberia, July-November 2014.

    PubMed

    Kateh, Francis; Nagbe, Thomas; Kieta, Abraham; Barskey, Albert; Gasasira, Alex Ntale; Driscoll, Anne; Tucker, Anthony; Christie, Athalia; Karmo, Ben; Scott, Colleen; Bowah, Collin; Barradas, Danielle; Blackley, David; Dweh, Emmanuel; Warren, Felicia; Mahoney, Frank; Kassay, Gabriel; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Castro, Georgina; Logan, Gorbee; Appiah, Grace; Kirking, Hannah; Koon, Hawa; Papowitz, Heather; Walke, Henry; Cole, Isaac B; Montgomery, Joel; Neatherlin, John; Tappero, Jordan W; Hagan, Jose E; Forrester, Joseph; Woodring, Joseph; Mott, Joshua; Attfield, Kathleen; DeCock, Kevin; Lindblade, Kim A; Powell, Krista; Yeoman, Kristin; Adams, Laura; Broyles, Laura N; Slutsker, Laurence; Larway, Lawrence; Belcher, Lisa; Cooper, Lorraine; Santos, Marjorie; Westercamp, Matthew; Weinberg, Meghan Pearce; Massoudi, Mehran; Dea, Monica; Patel, Monita; Hennessey, Morgan; Fomba, Moses; Lubogo, Mutaawe; Maxwell, Nikki; Moonan, Patrick; Arzoaquoi, Sampson; Gee, Samuel; Zayzay, Samuel; Pillai, Satish; Williams, Seymour; Zarecki, Shauna Mettee; Yett, Sheldon; James, Stephen; Grube, Steven; Gupta, Sundeep; Nelson, Thelma; Malibiche, Theophil; Frank, Wilmont; Smith, Wilmot; Nyenswah, Tolbert

    2015-02-27

    West Africa is experiencing its first epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola). As of February 9, Liberia has reported 8,864 Ebola cases, of which 3,147 were laboratory-confirmed. Beginning in August 2014, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), supported by CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and others, began systematically investigating and responding to Ebola outbreaks in remote areas. Because many of these areas lacked mobile telephone service, easy road access, and basic infrastructure, flexible and targeted interventions often were required. Development of a national strategy for the Rapid Isolation and Treatment of Ebola (RITE) began in early October. The strategy focuses on enhancing capacity of county health teams (CHT) to investigate outbreaks in remote areas and lead tailored responses through effective and efficient coordination of technical and operational assistance from the MOHSW central level and international partners. To measure improvements in response indicators and outcomes over time, data from investigations of 12 of 15 outbreaks in remote areas with illness onset dates of index cases during July 16-November 20, 2014, were analyzed. The times to initial outbreak alerts and durations of the outbreaks declined over that period while the proportions of patients who were isolated and treated increased. At the same time, the case-fatality rate in each outbreak declined. Implementation of strategies, such as RITE, to rapidly respond to rural outbreaks of Ebola through coordinated and tailored responses can successfully reduce transmission and improve outcomes.

  12. Mechanosensitivity of a Rapid Bioluminescence Reporter System Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tesson, Benoit; Latz, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Cells are sophisticated integrators of mechanical stimuli that lead to physiological, biochemical, and genetic responses. The bioluminescence of dinoflagellates, alveolate protists that use light emission for predator defense, serves as a rapid noninvasive whole-cell reporter of mechanosensitivity. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the relationship between cell mechanical properties and mechanosensitivity in live cells of the dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula. Cell stiffness was 0.56 MPa, consistent with cells possessing a cell wall. Cell response depended on both the magnitude and velocity of the applied force. At the maximum stimulation velocity of 390 μm s−1, the threshold response occurred at a force of 7.2 μN, resulting in a contact time of 6.1 ms and indentation of 2.1 μm. Cells did not respond to a low stimulation velocity of 20 μm s−1, indicating a velocity dependent response that, based on stress relaxation experiments, was explained by the cell viscoelastic properties. This study demonstrates the use of AFM to study mechanosensitivity in a cell system that responds at fast timescales, and provides insights into how viscoelastic properties affect mechanosensitivity. It also provides a comparison with previous studies using hydrodynamic stimulation, showing the discrepancy in cell response between direct compressive forces using AFM and those within flow fields based on average flow properties. PMID:25809248

  13. Mechanosensitivity of a rapid bioluminescence reporter system assessed by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tesson, Benoit; Latz, Michael I

    2015-03-24

    Cells are sophisticated integrators of mechanical stimuli that lead to physiological, biochemical, and genetic responses. The bioluminescence of dinoflagellates, alveolate protists that use light emission for predator defense, serves as a rapid noninvasive whole-cell reporter of mechanosensitivity. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the relationship between cell mechanical properties and mechanosensitivity in live cells of the dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula. Cell stiffness was 0.56 MPa, consistent with cells possessing a cell wall. Cell response depended on both the magnitude and velocity of the applied force. At the maximum stimulation velocity of 390 μm s(-1), the threshold response occurred at a force of 7.2 μN, resulting in a contact time of 6.1 ms and indentation of 2.1 μm. Cells did not respond to a low stimulation velocity of 20 μm s(-1), indicating a velocity dependent response that, based on stress relaxation experiments, was explained by the cell viscoelastic properties. This study demonstrates the use of AFM to study mechanosensitivity in a cell system that responds at fast timescales, and provides insights into how viscoelastic properties affect mechanosensitivity. It also provides a comparison with previous studies using hydrodynamic stimulation, showing the discrepancy in cell response between direct compressive forces using AFM and those within flow fields based on average flow properties. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid response predicts 12-month post-treatment outcomes in binge-eating disorder: theoretical and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, C. M.; White, M. A.; Wilson, G. T.; Gueorguieva, R.; Masheb, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined rapid response in obese patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) in a clinical trial testing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss (BWL). Method Altogether, 90 participants were randomly assigned to CBT or BWL. Assessments were performed at baseline, throughout and post-treatment and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by week four, was determined by receiver operating characteristic curves and used to predict outcomes. Results Rapid response characterized 57% of participants (67% of CBT, 47% of BWL) and was unrelated to most baseline variables. Rapid response predicted greater improvements across outcomes but had different prognostic significance and distinct time courses for CBT versus BWL. Patients receiving CBT did comparably well regardless of rapid response in terms of reduced binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology but did not achieve weight loss. Among patients receiving BWL, those without rapid response failed to improve further. However, those with rapid response were significantly more likely to achieve binge-eating remission (62% v. 13%) and greater reductions in binge-eating frequency, eating disorder psychopathology and weight loss. Conclusions Rapid response to treatment in BED has prognostic significance through 12-month follow-up, provides evidence for treatment specificity and has clinical implications for stepped-care treatment models for BED. Rapid responders who receive BWL benefit in terms of both binge eating and short-term weight loss. Collectively, these findings suggest that BWL might be a candidate for initial intervention in stepped-care models with an evaluation of progress after 1 month to identify non-rapid responders who could be advised to consider a switch to a specialized treatment. PMID:21923964

  15. UMTS rapid response real-time seismic networks: implementation and strategies at INGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, A.; Margheriti, L.; Moretti, M.; Lauciani, V.; Sensale, G.; Bucci, A.; Criscuoli, F.

    2015-12-01

    Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and its evolutions are nowadays the most affordable and widespread data communication infrastructure available almost world wide. Moreover the always growing cellular phone market is pushing the development of new devices with higher performances and lower power consumption. All these characteristics make UMTS really useful for the implementation of an "easy to deploy" temporary real-time seismic station. Despite these remarkable features, there are many drawbacks that must be properly taken in account to effectively transmit the seismic data: Internet security, signal and service availability, power consumption. - Internet security: exposing seismological data services and seismic stations to the Internet is dangerous, attack prone and can lead to downtimes in the services, so we setup a dedicated Virtual Private Network (VPN) service to protect all the connected devices. - Signal and service availability: while for temporary experiment a carefull planning and an accurate site selection can minimize the problem, this is not always the case with rapid response networks. Moreover, as with any other leased line, the availability of the UMTS service during a seismic crisis is basically unpredictable. Nowadays in Italy during a major national emergency a Committee of the Italian Civil Defense ensures unified management and coordination of emergency activities. Inside it the telecom companies are committed to give support to the crisis management improving the standards in their communication networks. - Power consumption: it is at least of the order of that of the seismic station and, being related to data flow and signal quality is largely unpredictable. While the most secure option consists in adding a second independent solar power supply to the seismic station, this is not always a very convenient solution since it doubles the cost and doubles the equipment on site. We found that an acceptable trade-off is to add an

  16. Local-Rapid Evaluation of Atmospheric Conditions (L-REAC (trademark)) System, Volume 4 (System Evaluation)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    designing the Local-Rapid Evaluation of Atmospheric Conditions (L-REAC™)* System. From 2009 to 2011, ARL went from a sketched L-REAC™ System concept...Students drew the results on a worksheet, where they also sketched a projected ―plume‖ cloud based on their observed airflow. Their wind and plume... sketches were then compared to the ―live‖ wind field and plume model outputs of the L-REAC™ System simultaneously displayed in the building’s lobby. The

  17. Rapid Development of gp120-Focused Neutralizing B Cell Responses during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Amos, Joshua D.; Himes, Jonathon E.; Armand, Lawrence; Gurley, Thaddeus C.; Martinez, David R.; Colvin, Lisa; Beck, Krista; Overman, R. Glenn; Liao, Hua-Xin; Moody, M. Anthony

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The initial phases of acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection may be critical for development of effective envelope (Env)-specific antibodies capable of impeding the establishment of the latent pool of HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells, preventing virus-induced immune hyperactivation to limit disease progression and blocking vertical virus transmission. However, the initial systemic HIV-1 Env-specific antibody response targets gp41 epitopes and fails to control acute-phase viremia. African-origin, natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) hosts do not typically progress to AIDS and rarely postnatally transmit virus to their infants, despite high milk viral loads. Conversely, SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs), Asian-origin nonnatural SIV hosts, sustain pathogenic SIV infections and exhibit higher rates of postnatal virus transmission. In this study, of acute SIV infection, we compared the initial systemic Env-specific B cell responses of AGMs and RMs in order to probe potential factors influencing the lack of disease progression observed in AGMs. AGMs developed higher-magnitude plasma gp120-specific IgA and IgG responses than RMs, whereas RMs developed more robust gp140-directed IgG responses. These gp120-focused antibody responses were accompanied by rapid autologous neutralizing responses during acute SIV infection in AGMs compared to RMs. Moreover, acute SIV infection elicited a higher number of circulating Env-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood of AGMs than in the blood of RMs. These findings indicate that AGMs have initial systemic Env-specific B cell responses to SIV infection distinct from those of a nonnatural SIV host, resulting in more functional SIV-specific humoral responses, which may be involved in impairing pathogenic disease progression and minimizing postnatal transmission. IMPORTANCE Due to the worldwide prevalence of HIV-1 infections, development of a vaccine to prevent infection or limit the viral reservoir

  18. [Rapid Response obstetrics Team at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social,enabling factors].

    PubMed

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José de Jesús; Ruíz-Rosas, Roberto Aguli; Cruz-Cruz, Polita Del Rocío; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    There are barriers and enablers for the implementation of Rapid Response Teams in obstetric hospitals. The enabling factors were determined at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational, retrospective study was conducted by analysing the emergency obstetric reports sent by mobile technology and e-mail to the Medical Care Unit of the IMSS in 2013. Frequency and mean was obtained using the Excel 2010 program for descriptive statistics. A total of 164,250 emergency obstetric cases were reported, and there was a mean of 425 messages per day, of which 32.2% were true obstetric emergencies and required the Rapid Response team. By e-mail, there were 73,452 life threatening cases (a mean of 6 cases per day). A monthly simulation was performed in hospitals (480 in total). Enabling factors were messagés synchronisation among the participating personnel,the accurate record of the obstetrics, as well as the simulations performed by the operational staff. The most common emergency was pre-eclampsia-eclampsia with 3,351 reports, followed by obstetric haemorrhage with 2,982 cases. The enabling factors for the implementation of a rapid response team at IMSS were properly timed communication between the central delegation teams, as they allowed faster medical and administrative management and participation of hospital medical teams in the process. Mobile technology has increased the speed of medical and administrative management in emergency obstetric care. However, comparative studies are needed to determine the statistical significance. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  19. Implementing a rapid response team to decrease emergencies outside the ICU: one hospital's experience.

    PubMed

    Hatler, Carol; Mast, Deanna; Bedker, Debbie; Johnson, Rachel; Corderella, Jeannie; Torres, Jorge; King, Diane; Plueger, Madona

    2009-01-01

    The literature describes use of a rapid response team (RRT) of critical care nurses and respiratory therapists who arrive at medical-surgical patients' bedsides within minutes of a crisis situation, yet, few articles detail the processes necessary for implementation. The rationale, planning, and evaluation of such an effort at a large, tertiary care hospital in the urban Southwest is described. By describing the development and phased deployment of the RRT, the authors provide key insights into the processes used as well as structures needed and lessons learned.

  20. Golden bullet-denosumab: early rapid response of metastatic giant cell tumor of the bone.

    PubMed

    Demirsoy, Ugur; Karadogan, Meriban; Selek, Özgür; Anik, Yonca; Aksu, Görkem; Müezzinoglu, Bahar; Corapcioglu, Funda

    2014-03-01

    Giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB) is usually a benign, locally aggressive tumor with metastatic potential. Histogenesis of GCTB is unknown and a correlation has not been found between histologic and clinical course. For this reason, many authors consider its prognosis unpredictable. Lung metastasis after GCTB treatment is well known and generally has unfavorable outcome, despite varied chemotherapy regimens. Denosumab, which inhibits RANK-RANKL interaction, is a new, promising actor among targeted therapeutic agents for GCTB. In this report, we emphasize on early rapid response to denosumab in metastatic GCTB.

  1. Functional recognition imaging using artificial neural networks: applications to rapid cellular identification via broadband electromechanical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, M. P.; Reukov, V. V.; Thompson, G. L.; Vertegel, A. A.; Guo, S.; Kalinin, S. V.; Jesse, S.

    2009-10-01

    Functional recognition imaging in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) using artificial neural network identification is demonstrated. This approach utilizes statistical analysis of complex SPM responses at a single spatial location to identify the target behavior, which is reminiscent of associative thinking in the human brain, obviating the need for analytical models. We demonstrate, as an example of recognition imaging, rapid identification of cellular organisms using the difference in electromechanical activity over a broad frequency range. Single-pixel identification of model Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria is achieved, demonstrating the viability of the method.

  2. Rapid fluvial aggradation in response to climate change in northwestern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickert, Andrew; Schildgen, Taylor; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    River channels near the edge of the northwestern Argentine Andes are rapidly aggrading at present, with preliminary estimates suggesting rates of ~20 cm yr-1. This mirrors cycles of extensive aggradation over the past 100,000 years that formed pronounced fill terraces along regional valley networks and record periods in which in which climate-driven sediment supply overcame uplift-driven river incision (Robinson et al, 2005). Here we use the new SedFlow model (Heimann et al., 2014) to help us understand the causes and spread of aggradation across these basins in the modern system, with the additional eventual goal to better interpret the geologic record. We provide field-derived grain-size distributions, field-measured and remotely-sensed channel widths and valley slopes, and a variety of possible sediment source locations and amounts as inputs to SedFlow, which routes sediment through the fluvial channel network to produce time-evolving predictions of aggradation and incision. We compare these predictions against changes in topography measured by IceSAT (Zwally et al., 2014) and field surveys. We initially test the system response to a series of isolated sediment inputs to observe interactions between tributary systems and the mainstem river. Recent observations indicate that debris-flow induced landslides are important contributors to aggradation in these rivers (Cencetti and Rivelli, 2011). These and other sediment production and transport processes are likely driven by variations in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (Bookhagen and Strecker, 2009). Therefore, we then run SedFlow with sediment inputs distributed across the landscape based on locations where ENSO influences may trigger enhanced landsliding. These model experiments help us towards our end goal of providing a more quantitative basis to interpret field observations of landscape response to changing patterns of precipitation. References: Bookhagen, B. and Strecker, M.: Amazonia: Landscape and

  3. Emerging evidence of the importance of rapid, non-nuclear estrogen receptor signaling in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazutaka; Karas, Richard H

    2013-06-01

    Estrogen receptors are classically known as ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate gene transcription in cells in response to hormone binding. In addition to this "genomic" signaling pathway, a "rapid, non-nuclear" signaling pathway mediated by cell membrane-associated estrogen receptors also has been recognized. Although for many years there was little evidence to support any physiological relevance of rapid-signaling, very recently evidence has been accumulating supporting the importance of the rapid, non-nuclear signaling as potentially critical for the protective effects of estrogen in the cardiovascular system. Better understanding of the rapid, non-nuclear signaling potentially provides an opportunity to design "pathway-specific" selective estrogen receptor modulators capable of differentially regulating non-nuclear vs. genomic effects that may prove useful ultimately as specific therapies for cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Appendix C: Rapid development approaches for system engineering and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Conventional system architectures, development processes, and tool environments often produce systems which exceed cost expectations and are obsolete before they are fielded. This paper explores some of the reasons for this and provides recommendations for how we can do better. These recommendations are based on DoD and NASA system developments and on our exploration and development of system/software engineering tools.

  5. A web-based rapid prototyping and clinical conversational system that complements electronic patient record system.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Ferziger, R; Kawaloff, H B; Sands, D Z; Safran, C; Slack, W V

    2001-01-01

    Even the most extensive hospital information system cannot support all the complex and ever-changing demands associated with a clinical database, such as providing department or personal data forms, and rating scales. Well-designed clinical dialogue programs may facilitate direct interaction of patients with their medical records. Incorporation of extensive and loosely structured clinical data into an existing medical record system is an essential step towards a comprehensive clinical information system, and can best be achieved when the practitioner and the patient directly enter the contents. We have developed a rapid prototyping and clinical conversational system that complements the electronic medical record system, with its generic data structure and standard communication interfaces based on Web technology. We believe our approach can enhance collaboration between consumer-oriented and provider-oriented information systems.

  6. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  7. Rapid neuroinflammatory response localized to injured neurons after diffuse traumatic brain injury in swine.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Kathryn L; Harris, James P; Browne, Kevin D; Brown, Daniel P; Grovola, Michael R; Mietus, Constance J; Wolf, John A; Duda, John E; Putt, Mary E; Spiller, Kara L; Cullen, D Kacy

    2017-04-01

    Despite increasing appreciation of the critical role that neuroinflammatory pathways play in brain injury and neurodegeneration, little is known about acute microglial reactivity following diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) - the most common clinical presentation that includes all concussions. Therefore, we investigated acute microglial reactivity using a porcine model of closed-head rotational velocity/acceleration-induced TBI that closely mimics the biomechanical etiology of inertial TBI in humans. We observed rapid microglial reactivity within 15min of both mild and severe TBI. Strikingly, microglial activation was restrained to regions proximal to individual injured neurons - as denoted by trauma-induced plasma membrane disruption - which served as epicenters of acute reactivity. Single-cell quantitative analysis showed that in areas free of traumatically permeabilized neurons, microglial density and morphology were similar between sham or following mild or severe TBI. However, microglia density increased and morphology shifted to become more reactive in proximity to injured neurons. Microglial reactivity around injured neurons was exacerbated following repetitive TBI, suggesting further amplification of acute neuroinflammatory responses. These results indicate that neuronal trauma rapidly activates microglia in a highly localized manner, and suggest that activated microglia may rapidly influence neuronal stability and/or pathophysiology after diffuse TBI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Attenuating the alcohol allure: attentional broadening reduces rapid motivational response to alcohol pictures.

    PubMed

    Ryerson, Nicole C; Neal, Lauren B; Gable, Philip A

    2017-04-01

    Past research has found that exposure to alcohol cues causes a narrowing of attentional scope and enhances the neural responses associated with approach motivation. The current research sought to determine if a manipulated broadened (global) attentional scope would reduce approach-motivated neural reactivity to alcohol pictures. In the current study, participants (n = 82) were exposed to alcohol and neutral pictures following either a global or local attentional scope manipulation. Early motivated attentional processing was assessed using the N1 event-related potential (ERP), a neurophysiological marker of rapid motivated attention. A global attentional scope reduced N1 amplitudes to alcohol pictures as compared to a local attentional scope. Self-reported binge drinking related to larger N1 amplitudes to alcohol pictures, but not to neutral pictures. Individuals with greater binge drinking experience demonstrated increased rapid motivated attentional processing to alcohol pictures. These results suggest that enhancing a global (vs. local) attentional scope attenuates rapid motivated attentional processing of alcohol pictures in comparison to neutral pictures. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  9. Metagenomic analysis of a permafrost microbial community reveals a rapid response to thaw.

    PubMed

    Mackelprang, Rachel; Waldrop, Mark P; DeAngelis, Kristen M; David, Maude M; Chavarria, Krystle L; Blazewicz, Steven J; Rubin, Edward M; Jansson, Janet K

    2011-11-06

    Permafrost contains an estimated 1672 Pg carbon (C), an amount roughly equivalent to the total currently contained within land plants and the atmosphere. This reservoir of C is vulnerable to decomposition as rising global temperatures cause the permafrost to thaw. During thaw, trapped organic matter may become more accessible for microbial degradation and result in greenhouse gas emissions. Despite recent advances in the use of molecular tools to study permafrost microbial communities, their response to thaw remains unclear. Here we use deep metagenomic sequencing to determine the impact of thaw on microbial phylogenetic and functional genes, and relate these data to measurements of methane emissions. Metagenomics, the direct sequencing of DNA from the environment, allows the examination of whole biochemical pathways and associated processes, as opposed to individual pieces of the metabolic puzzle. Our metagenome analyses reveal that during transition from a frozen to a thawed state there are rapid shifts in many microbial, phylogenetic and functional gene abundances and pathways. After one week of incubation at 5 °C, permafrost metagenomes converge to be more similar to each other than while they are frozen. We find that multiple genes involved in cycling of C and nitrogen shift rapidly during thaw. We also construct the first draft genome from a complex soil metagenome, which corresponds to a novel methanogen. Methane previously accumulated in permafrost is released during thaw and subsequently consumed by methanotrophic bacteria. Together these data point towards the importance of rapid cycling of methane and nitrogen in thawing permafrost.

  10. Rapid Myeloid Cell Transcriptional and Proteomic Responses to Periodontopathogenic Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Nares, Salvador; Moutsopoulos, Niki M.; Angelov, Nikola; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.; Sinha, Neha; Wahl, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Long-lived monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) are Toll-like receptor-expressing, antigen-presenting cells derived from a common myeloid lineage that play key roles in innate and adaptive immune responses. Based on immunohistochemical and molecular analyses of inflamed tissues from patients with chronic destructive periodontal disease, these cells, found in the inflammatory infiltrate, may drive the progressive periodontal pathogenesis. To investigate early transcriptional signatures and subsequent proteomic responses to the periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, donor-matched human blood monocytes, differentiated DCs, and macrophages were exposed to P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gene expression levels were measured by oligonucleotide microarrays. In addition to striking differences in constitutive transcriptional profiles between these myeloid populations, we identify a P. gingivalis LPS-inducible convergent, transcriptional core response of more than 400 annotated genes/ESTs among these populations, reflected by a shared, but quantitatively distinct, proteomic response. Nonetheless, clear differences emerged between the monocytes, DCs, and macrophages. The finding that long-lived myeloid inflammatory cells, particularly DCs, rapidly and aggressively respond to P. gingivalis LPS by generating chemokines, proteases, and cytokines capable of driving T-helper cell lineage polarization without evidence of corresponding immunosuppressive pathways highlights their prominent role in host defense and progressive tissue pathogenesis. The shared, unique, and/or complementary transcriptional and proteomic profiles may frame the context of the host response to P. gingivalis, contributing to the destructive nature of periodontal inflammation. PMID:19264901

  11. Rapid laser induced energy transfer in atomic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of the rapid transfer of stored populations from metastable states to selected target states of a different species are reported. Both laser-induced or laser-switched collision and laser-induced two-photon spontaneous emission are described. It is shown that the laser-induced collision method is particularly useful in the visible and UV spectral regions. It has applications in photochemistry, gas-phase kinetics, and in high-power, high-energy gas-phase lasers. The anti-Stokes source is useful in the VUV and soft X-ray spectral regions.

  12. Rapid wave and storm surge warning system for tropical cyclones in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appendini, C. M.; Rosengaus, M.; Meza, R.; Camacho, V.

    2015-12-01

    The National Hurricane Center (NHC) in Miami, is responsible for the forecast of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific basins. As such, Mexico, Central America and Caribbean countries depend on the information issued by the NHC related to the characteristics of a particular tropical cyclone and associated watch and warning areas. Despite waves and storm surge are important hazards for marine operations and coastal dwellings, their forecast is not part of the NHC responsibilities. This work presents a rapid wave and storm surge warning system based on 3100 synthetic tropical cyclones doing landfall in Mexico. Hydrodynamic and wave models were driven by the synthetic events to create a robust database composed of maximum envelops of wind speed, significant wave height and storm surge for each event. The results were incorporated into a forecast system that uses the NHC advisory to locate the synthetic events passing inside specified radiuses for the present and forecast position of the real event. Using limited computer resources, the system displays the information meeting the search criteria, and the forecaster can select specific events to generate the desired hazard map (i.e. wind, waves, and storm surge) based on the maximum envelop maps. This system was developed in a limited time frame to be operational in 2015 by the National Hurricane and Severe Storms Unit of the Mexican National Weather Service, and represents a pilot project for other countries in the region not covered by detailed storm surge and waves forecasts.

  13. Understanding the rapidity of subsurface storm flow response from a fracture-oriented shallow vadose through a new perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Zhao, Pei; Liang, Chuan; Li, Tianyang; Zhou, Baojia

    2017-01-01

    Velocity and celerity in hydrologic systems are controlled by different mechanisms. Efforts were made through joint sample collection and the use of hydrographs and tracers to understand the rapidity of the subsurface flow response to rainstorms on hourly time scales. Three deep subsurface flows during four natural rainstorm events were monitored. The results show that (1) deeper discharge was observed early in responding rainfall events and yielded a high hydrograph amplitude; (2) a ratio index, k, reflecting the dynamic change of the rainfall perturbation intensity in subsurface flow, might reveal inner causal relationships between the flow index and the tracer signal index. Most values of k were larger than 1 at the perturbation stage but approximated 1 at the no-perturbation stage; and (3) for statistical analysis of tracer signals in subsurface flows, the total standard deviation was 17.2, 11.9, 7.4 and 3.5 at perturbation stages and 4.4, 2.5, 1.1, and 0.95 at the non-perturbation stage for observed events. These events were 3-7 times higher in the former rather than the later, reflecting that the variation of tracer signals primarily occurred under rainfall perturbation. Thus, we affirmed that the dynamic features of rainfall have a key effect on rapid processes because, besides the gravity, mechanical waves originating from dynamic rainfall features are another driving factor for conversion between different types of rainfall mechanical energy. A conceptual model for pressure wave propagation was proposed, in which virtual subsurface flow processes in a heterogeneous vadose zone under rainfall are analogous to the water hammer phenomenon in complex conduit systems. Such an analogy can allow pressure in a shallow vadose to increase and decrease and directly influence the velocity and celerity of the flow reflecting a mechanism for rapid subsurface hydrologic response processes in the shallow vadose zone.

  14. Response Surface Method for the Rapid Design of Process Parameters in Tube Hydroforming

    SciTech Connect

    Chebbah, M. S.; Hecini, M.; Naceur, H.; Belouettar, S.

    2007-05-17

    This paper deals with the optimization of tube hydroforming parameters in order reduce defects which may occur at the end of forming process such as necking and wrinkling. We propose a specific methodology based on the coupling between an inverse method for the rapid simulation of tube hydroforming process, and a Response Surface Method based on diffuse approximation. The response surfaces are built using Moving Least Squares approximations and constructed within a moving region of interest which moves across a predefined discrete grid of authorized experimental designs. An application of hydroforming of a bulge from aluminium alloy 6061-T6 tubing has been utilized to validate our methodology. The final design is validated with ABAQUS Explicit Dynamic commercial code.

  15. Whole-ecosystem study shows rapid fish-mercury response to changes in mercury deposition

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Reed C.; Rudd, John W. M.; Amyot, Marc; Babiarz, Christopher L.; Beaty, Ken G.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Bodaly, R. A.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Gilmour, Cynthia C.; Graydon, Jennifer A.; Heyes, Andrew; Hintelmann, Holger; Hurley, James P.; Kelly, Carol A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Lindberg, Steve E.; Mason, Robert P.; Paterson, Michael J.; Podemski, Cheryl L.; Robinson, Art; Sandilands, Ken A.; Southworth, George R.; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Tate, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of fisheries from centuries of industrial atmospheric emissions negatively impacts humans and wildlife worldwide. The response of fish methylmercury concentrations to changes in mercury deposition has been difficult to establish because sediments/soils contain large pools of historical contamination, and many factors in addition to deposition affect fish mercury. To test directly the response of fish contamination to changing mercury deposition, we conducted a whole-ecosystem experiment, increasing the mercury load to a lake and its watershed by the addition of enriched stable mercury isotopes. The isotopes allowed us to distinguish between experimentally applied mercury and mercury already present in the ecosystem and to examine bioaccumulation of mercury deposited to different parts of the watershed. Fish methylmercury concentrations responded rapidly to changes in mercury deposition over the first 3 years of study. Essentially all of the increase in fish methylmercury concentrations came from mercury deposited directly to the lake surface. In contrast, <1% of the mercury isotope deposited to the watershed was exported to the lake. Steady state was not reached within 3 years. Lake mercury isotope concentrations were still rising in lake biota, and watershed mercury isotope exports to the lake were increasing slowly. Therefore, we predict that mercury emissions reductions will yield rapid (years) reductions in fish methylmercury concentrations and will yield concomitant reductions in risk. However, a full response will be delayed by the gradual export of mercury stored in watersheds. The rate of response will vary among lakes depending on the relative surface areas of water and watershed. PMID:17901207

  16. Whole-ecosystem study shows rapid fish-mercury response to changes in mercury deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.C.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Amyot, M.; Babiarz, C.L.; Beaty, K.G.; Blanchfield, P.J.; Bodaly, R.A.; Branfireun, B.A.; Gilmour, C.C.; Graydon, J.A.; Heyes, A.; Hintelmann, H.; Hurley, J.P.; Kelly, C.A.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Lindberg, S.E.; Mason, R.P.; Paterson, M.J.; Podemski, C.L.; Robinson, A.; Sandilands, K.A.; Southworthn, G.R.; St. Louis, V.L.; Tate, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of fisheries from centuries of industrial atmospheric emissions negatively impacts humans and wild-life worldwide. The response of fish methylmercury concentrations to changes in mercury deposition has been difficult to establish because sediments/soils contain large pools of historical contamination, and many factors in addition to deposition affect fish mercury. To test directly the response of fish contamination to changing mercury deposition, we conducted a whole-ecosystem experiment, increasing the mercury load to a lake and its watershed by the addition of enriched stable mercury isotopes. The isotopes allowed us to distinguish between experimentally applied mercury and mercury already present in the ecosystem and to examine bioaccumulation of mercury deposited to different parts of the watershed. Fish methylmercury concentrations responded rapidly to changes in mercury deposition over the first 3 years of study. Essentially all of the increase in fish methylmercury concentrations came from mercury deposited directly to the lake surface. In contrast, <1% of the mercury isotope deposited to the watershed was exported to the lake. Steady state was not reached within 3 years. Lake mercury isotope concentrations were still rising in lake biota, and watershed mercury isotope exports to the lake were increasing slowly. Therefore, we predict that mercury emissions reductions will yield rapid (years) reductions in fish methylmercury concentrations and will yield concomitant reductions in risk. However, a full response will be delayed by the gradual export of mercury stored in watersheds. The rate of response will vary among lakes depending on the relative surface areas of water and watershed. ?? 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  17. A rapid, extensive, and transient transcriptional response to estrogen signaling in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hah, Nasun; Danko, Charles G; Core, Leighton; Waterfall, Joshua J; Siepel, Adam; Lis, John T; Kraus, W Lee

    2011-05-13

    We report the immediate effects of estrogen signaling on the transcriptome of breast cancer cells using global run-on and sequencing (GRO-seq). The data were analyzed using a new bioinformatic approach that allowed us to identify transcripts directly from the GRO-seq data. We found that estrogen signaling directly regulates a strikingly large fraction of the transcriptome in a rapid, robust, and unexpectedly transient manner. In addition to protein-coding genes, estrogen regulates the distribution and activity of all three RNA polymerases and virtually every class of noncoding RNA that has been described to date. We also identified a large number of previously undetected estrogen-regulated intergenic transcripts, many of which are found proximal to estrogen receptor binding sites. Collectively, our results provide the most comprehensive measurement of the primary and immediate estrogen effects to date and a resource for understanding rapid signal-dependent transcription in other systems.

  18. Development of a rapid response plan for intraoperative emergencies: the Circulate, Scrub, and Technical Assistance Team.

    PubMed

    Earle, David; Betti, Diane; Scala, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Unplanned intraoperative events are inevitable and cause stress and inefficiency among staff. We believe that developing a technical rapid response team with explicitly defined, narrow roles would reduce the amount of chaos during such emergencies. This article provides a detailed description of the development and implementation of such a program. In-situ simulation of an intraoperative emergency was used for a formal assessment of the current practice. Debriefing sessions identified areas of improvement and solicited solutions. A multidisciplinary working group then developed and implemented the technical rapid response team based on the needs assessment. The program was designed to create a Circulating, Scrubbing, and Technical Assistance Team that helps with equipment, supplies, anesthesia, and communication. We anticipate the program will foster a culture of safety, and promote positive relationships and attitudes of the entire multidisciplinary team. In the future, research regarding patient outcomes and staff satisfaction and safety attitudes may help provide objective evidence of the benefits of the program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid advance of two mountain glaciers in response to mine-related debris loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, Stewart S. R.; Ewertowski, Marek W.; Evans, David J. A.

    2015-07-01

    Rapid glacier advance is known to occur by a range of mechanisms. However, although large-scale debris loading has been proposed as a process for causing rapid terminus advance, it has rarely been observed. We use satellite remote sensing data to observe accelerated glacier terminus advance in response to massive supraglacial loading on two glaciers in Kyrgyzstan. Over a 15 year period, mining activity has led to the dumping of spoil of up to 180 m thick on large parts of these valley glaciers. We find that the termini of these glaciers advance by 1.2 and 3.2 km, respectively, at a rate of up to 350 m yr-1. Our analysis suggests that although enhanced basal sliding could be an important process, massive supraglacial loads have also caused enhanced internal ice deformation that would account for most, or all, of the glacier terminus advance. In addition, narrowing of the glacier valley and mining and dumping of ice alter the mass balance and flow regime of the glaciers. Although the scale of supraglacial loading is massive, this full-scale experiment provides insight into glacier flow acceleration response where small valley glaciers are impacted by very large volumes of landslide debris.

  20. [Effectiveness of a Rapid Response Team (RRT) in a case of ruptured ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Campechano-López, José Miguel; Carranza-Bernal, María Lourdes; Juanico-Morales, Guillermina; Reyes-Gil, María Rayo

    2016-01-01

    An ectopic pregnancy happens when a fertilized egg attaches somewhere outside the endometrial surface. This sort of pregnancy has an estimated incidence of 1.6 to 2 each 100 births. The main objective was to expose the effective answer of a Rapid Response Team in a case of ruptured cervical ectopic pregnancy. We also describe a clinical case of this sort of pregnancy. 37-year-old female with a two-month history of amenorrhea. The patient entered the Labor & Delivery department with hypovolemic shock secondary to vaginal bleeding. The Código Mater (Mater Code) was activated and the Rapid Response Team arrived to the L&D department. This team performed pelvic examination and detected tissue in cervix with mild bleeding. The pelvic ultrasound displayed the presence of gas and the endometrium status was normal (no gestational sac was detected). The immunologic test for pregnancy was positive. It was diagnosed cervical ectopic pregnancy and hypovolemic shock. Providing timely access to care with standardized criteria by interdisciplinary teams in all the cases of obstetric emergency avoids maternal deaths related to obstetric hemorrhage.

  1. The elongation factor Spt5 facilitates transcription initiation for rapid induction of inflammatory-response genes

    PubMed Central

    Diamant, Gil; Bahat, Anat; Dikstein, Rivka

    2016-01-01

    A subset of inflammatory-response NF-κB target genes is activated immediately following pro-inflammatory signal. Here we followed the kinetics of primary transcript accumulation after NF-κB activation when the elongation factor Spt5 is knocked down. While elongation rate is unchanged, the transcript synthesis at the 5′-end and at the earliest time points is delayed and reduced, suggesting an unexpected role in early transcription. Investigating the underlying mechanism reveals that the induced TFIID–promoter association is practically abolished by Spt5 depletion. This effect is associated with a decrease in promoter-proximal H3K4me3 and H4K5Ac histone modifications that are differentially required for rapid transcriptional induction. In contrast, the displacement of TFIIE and Mediator, which occurs during promoter escape, is attenuated in the absence of Spt5. Our findings are consistent with a central role of Spt5 in maintenance of TFIID–promoter association and promoter escape to support rapid transcriptional induction and re-initiation of inflammatory-response genes. PMID:27180651

  2. The rapid degradation of bisphenol A induced by the response of indigenous bacterial communities in sediment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Lai, Cui; Cheng, Min; Deng, Linjing; Zhang, Chen; Wan, Jia; Liu, Linshan

    2017-02-16

    In the present study, sediment was spiked with bisphenol A (BPA) solution to explore the interaction between indigenous bacterial communities and BPA biodegradation in sediment. Results showed that BPA could be adsorbed to the sediment and then biodegraded rapidly. Biodegradation efficiency of BPA in treatments with 10 and 50 mg/L BPA reached 64.3 and 61.8% on the first day, respectively. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that BPA affected the densities, species, and diversities of bacteria significantly. The response of bacterial community to BPA favored BPA biodegradation by promoting the growth of BPA-reducing bacteria and inhibiting other competitors. According to the results of sequencing, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas played vital roles in the degradation of BPA. They presented over 73% of the original bacterial community, and both of them were promoted by BPA comparing with controls. Laccase and polyphenol oxidase contributed to the degradation of BPA and metabolic intermediates, respectively. This paper illustrates the rapid biodegradation of BPA induced by the response of indigenous bacterial communities to the BPA stress, which will improve the understandings of BPA degradation in sediment.

  3. A rapid assessment and response approach for socially marketed nutrition commodities in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Turk, Tahir; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Nga, Tran Thuy; Phuong, Huynh; Tung, Le Van Anh; Trang, Vu Hoang

    2017-01-01

    The leading cause of death in children in developing countries is protein-energy malnutrition. In Viet Nam, 25.9% of children under 5 experience stunted growth and 6.6% are moderately wasted. Iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency contribute to these and other malnutrition conditions. Given these factors, more evidence based approaches are required to improve understanding of current attitudes, opinions and behaviours of mothers with young children, in order to operationalise social marketing of nutrition commodities in Viet Nam. A literature review supported a rapid assessment and response method involving semi-structured interviews with 77 stakeholders and focus group discussions with 80 program beneficiaries from four geographic locations in the north and south of Viet Nam. Discussion agendas were developed to address key program issues with grounded theory utilized for data analysis. Data analysis highlighted challenges and opportunities within the six Ps of social marketing: Supply and demand side issues included: cost and the quality of products, the limited scale of interventions and promotional activities. Policy issues identified related to current policies that inhibited the broader promotion and distribution of micronutrient products, and opportunities for improved dialogue with policy partners. Partnerships further emphasized the need for public private partnerships to support the social change process. Implications for theory, policy, and practice indicates that rapid assessment and response is a cost-effective, pragmatic method of public health research, in resource constrained settings, to explore policies and behaviours amenable to change and build stakeholder engagement in the program.

  4. Rapid host immune response and viral dynamics in herpes simplex virus-2 infection

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Joshua T; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) is episodically shed throughout the human genital tract. While high viral load correlates with development of genital ulcers, shedding also commonly occurs even when ulcers are not present, allowing for silent transmission during coitus and contributing to high seroprevalence of HSV-2 worldwide. Frequent viral reactivation occurs despite diverse and complementary host and viral mechanisms within ganglionic tissue that predispose towards latency, suggesting that viral replication may be constantly occurring in a small minority of neurons within the ganglia. Within genital mucosa, the in vivo expansion and clearance rates of HSV-2 are extremely rapid. Resident dendritic cells and memory HSV-specific T cells persist at prior sites of genital tract reactivation, and in conjunction with prompt innate recognition of infected cells, lead to rapid containment of infected cells. Shedding episodes vary greatly in duration and severity within a single person over time: this heterogeneity appears best explained by variation in the densities of host immunity across the genital tract. The fact that immune responses usually control viral replication in genital skin prior to development of lesions provides optimism that enhancing such responses could lead to effective vaccines and immunotherapies. PMID:23467247

  5. Rapid advance of two mountain glaciers in response to mine-related debris loading.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Stewart S R; Ewertowski, Marek W; Evans, David J A

    2015-07-01

    Rapid glacier advance is known to occur by a range of mechanisms. However, although large-scale debris loading has been proposed as a process for causing rapid terminus advance, it has rarely been observed. We use satellite remote sensing data to observe accelerated glacier terminus advance in response to massive supraglacial loading on two glaciers in Kyrgyzstan. Over a 15 year period, mining activity has led to the dumping of spoil of up to 180 m thick on large parts of these valley glaciers. We find that the termini of these glaciers advance by 1.2 and 3.2 km, respectively, at a rate of up to 350 m yr(-1). Our analysis suggests that although enhanced basal sliding could be an important process, massive supraglacial loads have also caused enhanced internal ice deformation that would account for most, or all, of the glacier terminus advance. In addition, narrowing of the glacier valley and mining and dumping of ice alter the mass balance and flow regime of the glaciers. Although the scale of supraglacial loading is massive, this full-scale experiment provides insight into glacier flow acceleration response where small valley glaciers are impacted by very large volumes of landslide debris.

  6. Induction of a rapidly responsive hepatic gene product by thyroid hormone requires ongoing protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, D B; Engle, J A; Towle, H C

    1987-01-01

    The regulation of a gene, designated spot 14, which is rapidly induced in rat liver in response to 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) was studied as a model for exploring the molecular basis of thyroid hormone action. The time course of induction of the nuclear precursor to spot 14 mRNA after intramuscular injection of T3 displayed a very short lag period of between 10 and 20 min. The rapidity of this effect suggests that the induction in gene expression occurs as a primary response to the hormone-receptor interaction. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide injected 15 min before T3 completely blocked the accumulation of nuclear precursor RNA 30 min after T3 treatment. Emetine, an inhibitor of protein synthesis which acts by a different mechanism than cycloheximide, also blocked the induction of the spot 14 nuclear precursor RNA. The increased rate of spot 14 gene transcription observed after T3 treatment, as measured by nuclear run-on assay, was similarly completely abolished in the presence of cycloheximide. In addition, ongoing protein synthesis was required for maintaining spot 14 nuclear precursor RNA at induced levels in animals previously treated with T3. On the other hand, cycloheximide had no effect on T3 uptake or binding to the nuclear receptor during the 45-min time frame studied. The paradox of the rapid kinetics of induction and the requirement of ongoing protein synthesis may be explained by a protein with an extremely short half-life which is necessary for T3 induction of the spot 14 gene. PMID:3648478

  7. Transient Response to Rapid Cooling of a Stainless Steel Sodium Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Houts, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Compact fission power systems are under consideration for use in long duration space exploration missions. Power demands on the order of 500 W, to 5 kW, will be required for up to 15 years of continuous service. One such small reactor design consists of a fast spectrum reactor cooled with an array of in-core alkali metal heat pipes coupled to thermoelectric or Stirling power conversion systems. Heat pipes advantageous attributes include a simplistic design, lack of moving parts, and well understood behavior. Concerns over reactor transients induced by heat pipe instability as a function of extreme thermal transients require experimental investigations. One particular concern is rapid cooling of the heat pipe condenser that would propagate to cool the evaporator. Rapid cooling of the reactor core beyond acceptable design limits could possibly induce unintended reactor control issues. This paper discusses a series of experimental demonstrations where a heat pipe operating at near prototypic conditions experienced rapid cooling of the condenser. The condenser section of a stainless steel sodium heat pipe was enclosed within a heat exchanger. The heat pipe - heat exchanger assembly was housed within a vacuum chamber held at a pressure of 50 Torr of helium. The heat pipe was brought to steady state operating conditions using graphite resistance heaters then cooled by a high flow of gaseous nitrogen through the heat exchanger. Subsequent thermal transient behavior was characterized by performing an energy balance using temperature, pressure and flow rate data obtained throughout the tests. Results indicate the degree of temperature change that results from a rapid cooling scenario will not significantly influence thermal stability of an operating heat pipe, even under extreme condenser cooling conditions.

  8. Pediatric perioperative adverse events requiring rapid response: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Schleelein, Laura E; Vincent, Ariel M; Jawad, Abbas F; Pruitt, Eric Y; Kreher, Genna D; Rehman, Mohamed A; Goebel, Theodora K; Cohen, David E; Cook-Sather, Scott D

    2016-07-01

    Perioperative pediatric adverse events have been challenging to study within and across institutions due to varying definitions, low event rates, and incomplete capture. The aim of this study was to determine perioperative adverse event prevalence and to evaluate associated case characteristics and potential contributing factors at an academic pediatric quaternary-care center. At the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), perioperative adverse events requiring rapid response assistance are termed Anesthesia Now (AN!) events. They have been accurately captured and entered into a quality improvement database since 2010. Adverse events involving open heart and cardiac catheterization cases are managed separately and not included in this database. We conducted a retrospective case-control study utilizing Compurecord (Phillips Healthcare, Andover, MA, USA), EPIC (EPIC, Verona, WI, USA), and Chartmaxx (MedPlus, Mason, OH, USA) systems matching AN! event cases to noncardiac controls (1 : 2) based on surgical date. From April 16, 2010 to September 25, 2012, we documented 213 AN! events in the noncardiac perioperative complex and remote sites at our main hospital. AN! prevalence was 0.0043 (1 : 234) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.0037, 0.0049). Respiratory events, primarily laryngospasm, were most common followed by events of cardiovascular etiology. Median age was lower in the AN! group than in controls, 2.86 years (interquartile range 0.94, 10.1) vs 6.20 (2.85, 13.1), P < 0.0001. Odds ratios (with 95% CI) for age, 0.969 (0.941, 0.997); American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, 1.67 (1.32, 2.12); multiple (≥2) services, 2.27 (1.13, 4.55); nonoperating room vs operating room location, 0.240 (0.133, 0.431); and attending anesthesiologist's experience, 0.976 (0.959, 0.992) were all significant. Decreased age, increased comorbidities, multiple (vs single) surgical services, operating room (vs nonoperating room) location, and decreased staff

  9. Two Different Wound Signals Evoke Very Rapid, Systemic CMBP Transcript Accumulation in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Flaming a tomato leaf evokes a variation potential; excising an unwounded leaf evokes an action potential; while excising a wounded leaf 90 sec after flame-wounding evokes an action potential superimposed on the variation potential. Furthermore, flaming one leaf induces rapid (15 min), systemic and biphasic accumulation of CMBP transcript, excising the unwounded leaf causes slower, monophasic transcript accumulation, while excising the wounded leaf after 90 sec has no effect on CMBP transcript accumulation in response to the flame-wound. We propose that both of these electrical signals, the flame-evoked variation potential and the cut-wound evoked action potential are capable of inducing CMBP transcript accumulation, although with somewhat different kinetics. Earlier work by others found the cut-wound had no effect on pin transcript accumulation, thus leaf excision could be used as a tool to determine whether transport of wound hormones out of the leaf could trigger pin gene expression. Here, however, leaf excision could not be used to prevent signal transmission, since excision itself evoked an electrical signal and transcript accumulation. Instead, the results show that two different electrical signals are involved in rapid, systemic CMBP mRNA accumulation and their effects are not additive implying they may share some common aspects. PMID:19516987

  10. Designing a critical care nurse-led rapid response team using only available resources: 6 years later.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Anne; Schatz, Marilyn; Francis, Heather

    2014-06-01

    Rapid response teams have been introduced to intervene in the care of patients whose condition deteriorates unexpectedly by bringing clinical experts quickly to the patient's bedside. Evidence supporting the need to overcome failure to deliver optimal care in hospitals is robust; whether rapid response teams demonstrate benefit by improving patient safety and reducing the occurrence of adverse events remains controversial. Despite inconsistent evidence regarding the effectiveness of rapid response teams, concerns regarding care and costly consequences of unaddressed deterioration in patients' condition have prompted many hospitals to implement rapid response teams as a patient safety strategy. A cost-neutral structure for a rapid response team led by a nurse from the intensive care unit was implemented with the goal of reducing cardiopulmonary arrests occurring outside the intensive care unit. The results of 6 years' experience indicate that a sustainable and effective rapid response team response can be put into practice without increasing costs or adding positions and can decrease the percentage of cardiopulmonary arrests occurring outside the intensive care unit.

  11. Rapid and systemic accumulation of chloroplast mRNA-binding protein transcripts after flame stimulus in tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    1999-01-01

    It has been shown that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants respond to flame wounding and electrical stimulation by a rapid (15 min) and systemic up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor (pin) genes. To find other genes having a similar expression pattern, we used subtractive cDNA screening between flamed and control plants to select clones up-regulated by flame wounding. We report the characterization of one of them, a chloroplast mRNA-binding protein encoded by a single gene and expressed preferentially in the leaves. Systemic gene expression in response to flaming in the youngest terminal leaf exhibited three distinct phases: a rapid and transient increase (5-15 min) in transcript accumulation, a decline to basal levels (15-45 min), and then a second, more prolonged increase (60-90 min). In contrast, after a mechanical wound the rapid, transient increase (5 min) was followed by a rapid decline to basal levels but no later, prolonged accumulation. In the petiole, the initial flame-wound-evoked transient increase (15 min) was followed by a continuous decline for 3 h. The nature of the wound signal(s) causing such rapid changes in transcript abundance is discussed in relation to electrical signaling, which has recently been implicated in plant responses to wounding.

  12. Rapid and systemic accumulation of chloroplast mRNA-binding protein transcripts after flame stimulus in tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    1999-01-01

    It has been shown that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants respond to flame wounding and electrical stimulation by a rapid (15 min) and systemic up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor (pin) genes. To find other genes having a similar expression pattern, we used subtractive cDNA screening between flamed and control plants to select clones up-regulated by flame wounding. We report the characterization of one of them, a chloroplast mRNA-binding protein encoded by a single gene and expressed preferentially in the leaves. Systemic gene expression in response to flaming in the youngest terminal leaf exhibited three distinct phases: a rapid and transient increase (5-15 min) in transcript accumulation, a decline to basal levels (15-45 min), and then a second, more prolonged increase (60-90 min). In contrast, after a mechanical wound the rapid, transient increase (5 min) was followed by a rapid decline to basal levels but no later, prolonged accumulation. In the petiole, the initial flame-wound-evoked transient increase (15 min) was followed by a continuous decline for 3 h. The nature of the wound signal(s) causing such rapid changes in transcript abundance is discussed in relation to electrical signaling, which has recently been implicated in plant responses to wounding.

  13. Rapid Characterization of Shorelines using a Georeferenced Video Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael G.; Judd, Chaeli; Marcoe, K.

    2012-09-01

    Increased understanding of shoreline conditions is needed, yet current approaches are limited in ability to characterize remote areas or document features at a finer resolution. Documentation using video mapping may provide a rapid and repeatable method for assessing the current state of the environment and determining changes to the shoreline over time. In this study, we compare two studies using boat-based, georeferenced video mapping in coastal Washington and the Columbia River Estuary to map and characterize coastal stressors and functional data. In both areas, mapping multiple features along the shoreline required approximation of the coastline. However, characterization of vertically oriented features such as shoreline armoring and small features such as pilings and large woody debris was possible. In addition, end users noted that geovideo provides a permanent record to allow a user to examine recorded video anywhere along a transect or at discrete points.

  14. A Clinical Network Project Improves Care of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation with Rapid Ventricular Response in Victorian Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Anne-Maree; Pannifex, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response is a common condition in emergency departments (ED) and despite published guidelines, variation in practice is common. The aim of this nine-month evidence-based care improvement project was improving the management of atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response (AFRVR). This was a quality improvement project, evaluated using before and after chart review methodology. The outcomes of interest were the proportion of patients managed according to a local treatment pathway, the proportion with duration of symptoms documented, the proportion with rate control versus rhythm control strategy documented and the proportion with a CHADS2 score (or equivalent) documented. Ten ED participated. Management according to a local treatment pathway increased from 8% (27/326) of patients to 68% (191/281); p<0.0001. The proportion of patients with symptom duration documented increased from 62% (201/326) to 81% (227/281); p<0.0001. The proportion of patients with CHADS2 score (similar) documented increased from 16% (49/310) to 47% (126/268); p<0.0001. This project has led to clinically and statistically significant improvements in management of AFRVR across a health system, although there is still room for improvement. Work continues to embed these gains and make further improvements. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of standards for aeronautical satellite navigation system [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iatsouk, Victor

    2004-06-01

    One of the work objectives of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) is the development of the standards and procedures necessary to support transition to the CNS/ATM systems, which include Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). The Global Navigation Satellite System Panel (GNSSP) was established by the ICAO Air Navigation Commission in 1993 with the basic objective to develop ICAO standards and recommended practices (SARPs) and guidance material as required to support aeronautical GNSS applications world-wide. The first package of GNSS SARPs was adopted and published by ICAO in 2001, and further work is under way to introduce new satellite constellations and system elements in an evolutionary fashion.

  16. Enabling rapid behavioral ecotoxicity studies using an integrated lab-on-a-chip systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yushi; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral ecotoxicity tests are gaining an increasing recognition in environmental toxicology. Behavior of sensitive bioindicator species can change rapidly in response to an acute exposure to contaminants and thus has a much higher sensitivity as compared to conventional LC50 mortality tests. Furthermore, behavioral endpoints seems to be very good candidates to develop early-warning biomonitoring systems needed for rapid chemical risk assessment. Behavioral tests are non-invasive, fast, do not harm indicator organisms (behavioural changes are very rapid) and are thus fully compatible with 3R (Replacement - Reduction - Refinement) principle encouraging alternatives to conventional animal testing. These characteristics are essential when designing improved ecotoxicity tests for chemical risk assessment. In this work, we present a pilot development of miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices for studying toxin avoidance behaviors of small aquatic crustaceans. As an investigative tool, LOCs represent a new direction that may miniaturize and revolutionize behavioral ecotoxicology. Specifically our innovative microfluidic prototype: (i) enables convening "caging" of specimens for real-time videomicroscopy; (ii) eliminates the evaporative water loss thus providing an opportunity for long-term behavioral studies; (iii) exploits laminar fluid flow under low Reynolds numbers to generate discrete domains and gradients enabling for the first time toxin avoidance studies on small aquatic crustaceans; (iv) integrates off-the-chip mechatronic interfaces and video analysis algorithms for single animal movement analysis. We provide evidence that by merging innovative bioelectronic and biomicrofluidic technologies we can deploy inexpensive and reliable systems for culture, electronic tracking and complex computational analysis of behavior of bioindicator organisms.

  17. Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft, (LCRRS): A Research Project in Low Cost Spacecraft Design and Fabrication in a Rapid Prototyping Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan; Bregman, Jesse; Dallara, Christopher D.; Ghassemieh, Shakib M.; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Kitts, Christopher; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ignacio, Mas; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft (LCRRS) is an ongoing research development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, California. The prototype spacecraft, called Cost Optimized Test for Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT) is the first of what could potentially be a series of rapidly produced low-cost satellites. COTSAT has a target launch date of March 2009 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle. The LCRRS research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing satellite. The design concept was baselined to support a 0.5 meter Ritchey-Chretien telescope payload. This telescope and camera system is expected to achieve 1.5 meter/pixel resolution. The COTSAT team is investigating the possibility of building a fully functional spacecraft for $500,000 parts and $2,000,000 labor. Cost is dramatically reduced by using a sealed container, housing the bus and payload subsystems. Some electrical and RF designs were improved/upgraded from GeneSat-1 heritage systems. The project began in January 2007 and has yielded two functional test platforms. It is expected that a flight-qualified unit will be finished in December 2008. Flight quality controls are in place on the parts and materials used in this development with the aim of using them to finish a proto-flight satellite. For LEO missions the team is targeting a mission class requiring a minimum of six months lifetime or more. The system architecture incorporates several design features required by high reliability missions. This allows for a true skunk works environment to rapidly progress toward a flight design. Engineering and fabrication is primarily done in-house at NASA Ames with flight certifications on materials. The team currently employs seven Full Time Equivalent employees. The success of COTSATs small team in this effort can be attributed to highly cross trained

  18. Rapid and Highly Accurate Prediction of Poor Loop Diuretic Natriuretic Response in Patients With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Testani, Jeffrey M.; Hanberg, Jennifer S.; Cheng, Susan; Rao, Veena; Onyebeke, Chukwuma; Laur, Olga; Kula, Alexander; Chen, Michael; Wilson, F. Perry; Darlington, Andrew; Bellumkonda, Lavanya; Jacoby, Daniel; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Removal of excess sodium and fluid is a primary therapeutic objective in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and commonly monitored with fluid balance and weight loss. However, these parameters are frequently inaccurate or not collected and require a delay of several hours after diuretic administration before they are available. Accessible tools for rapid and accurate prediction of diuretic response are needed. Methods and Results Based on well-established renal physiologic principles an equation was derived to predict net sodium output using a spot urine sample obtained one or two hours following loop diuretic administration. This equation was then prospectively validated in 50 ADHF patients using meticulously obtained timed 6-hour urine collections to quantitate loop diuretic induced cumulative sodium output. Poor natriuretic response was defined as a cumulative sodium output of <50 mmol, a threshold that would result in a positive sodium balance with twice-daily diuretic dosing. Following a median dose of 3 mg (2–4 mg) of intravenous bumetanide, 40% of the population had a poor natriuretic response. The correlation between measured and predicted sodium output was excellent (r=0.91, p<0.0001). Poor natriuretic response could be accurately predicted with the sodium prediction equation (AUC=0.95, 95% CI 0.89–1.0, p<0.0001). Clinically recorded net fluid output had a weaker correlation (r=0.66, p<0.001) and lesser ability to predict poor natriuretic response (AUC=0.76, 95% CI 0.63–0.89, p=0.002). Conclusions In patients being treated for ADHF, poor natriuretic response can be predicted soon after diuretic administration with excellent accuracy using a spot urine sample. PMID:26721915

  19. The improvement of movement and speech during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Valérie Cochen; Debs, Rachel; Oudiette, Delphine; Leu, Smaranda; Radji, Fatai; Tiberge, Michel; Yu, Huan; Bayard, Sophie; Roze, Emmanuel; Vidailhet, Marie; Dauvilliers, Yves; Rascol, Olivier; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy is an atypical parkinsonism characterized by severe motor disabilities that are poorly levodopa responsive. Most patients develop rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Because parkinsonism is absent during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease, we studied the movements of patients with multiple system atrophy during rapid eye movement sleep. Forty-nine non-demented patients with multiple system atrophy and 49 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were interviewed along with their 98 bed partners using a structured questionnaire. They rated the quality of movements, vocal and facial expressions during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder as better than, equal to or worse than the same activities in an awake state. Sleep and movements were monitored using video-polysomnography in 22/49 patients with multiple system atrophy and in 19/49 patients with Parkinson's disease. These recordings were analysed for the presence of parkinsonism and cerebellar syndrome during rapid eye movement sleep movements. Clinical rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was observed in 43/49 (88%) patients with multiple system atrophy. Reports from the 31/43 bed partners who were able to evaluate movements during sleep indicate that 81% of the patients showed some form of improvement during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. These included improved movement (73% of patients: faster, 67%; stronger, 52%; and smoother, 26%), improved speech (59% of patients: louder, 55%; more intelligible, 17%; and better articulated, 36%) and normalized facial expression (50% of patients). The rate of improvement was higher in Parkinson's disease than in multiple system atrophy, but no further difference was observed between the two forms of multiple system atrophy (predominant parkinsonism versus cerebellar syndrome). Video-monitored movements during rapid eye movement sleep in patients with multiple system

  20. Murine Neonates Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica Develop Rapid and Robust Proinflammatory Responses in Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Siefker, David T.; Echeverry, Andrea; Brambilla, Roberta; Fukata, Masayuki; Schesser, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal animals are generally very susceptible to infection with bacterial pathogens. However, we recently reported that neonatal mice are highly resistant to orogastric infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we show that proinflammatory responses greatly exceeding those in adults arise very rapidly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of neonates. High-level induction of proinflammatory gene expression occurred in the neonatal MLN as early as 18 h postinfection. Marked innate phagocyte recruitment was subsequently detected at 24 h postinfection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) analyses indicated that enhanced inflammation in neonatal MLN is contributed to, in part, by an increased frequency of proinflammatory cytokine-secreting cells. Moreover, both CD11b+ and CD11b− cell populations appeared to play a role in proinflammatory gene expression. The level of inflammation in neonatal MLN was also dependent on key bacterial components. Y. enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid failed to induce innate phagocyte recruitment. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein expression and neutrophil recruitment were strikingly higher in neonatal MLN after infection with a yopP-deficient strain than with wild-type Y. enterocolitica, whereas only modest increases occurred in adults. This hyperinflammatory response was associated with greater colonization of the spleen and higher mortality in neonates, while there was no difference in mortality among adults. This model highlights the dynamic levels of inflammation in the intestinal lymphoid tissues and reveals the protective (wild-type strain) versus harmful (yopP-deficient strain) consequences of inflammation in neonates. Moreover, these results reveal that the neonatal intestinal lymphoid tissues have great potential to rapidly mobilize innate components in response to infection with bacterial enteropathogens. PMID:24478090

  1. Interactive Response Systems (IRS) Socrative Application Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Bilge; Seker, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    In globally developing education system, technology has made instructional improved in many ways. One of these improvements is the Interactive Response Systems (IRS) that are applied in classroom activities. Therefore, it is "smart" to focus on interactive response systems in learning environment. This study was conducted aiming to focus…

  2. Rapid effects of diverse toxic water pollutants on chlorophyll a fluorescence: variable responses among freshwater microalgae.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Jae; Berges, John A; Young, Erica B

    2012-05-15

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence of microalgae is a compelling indicator of toxicity of dissolved water contaminants, because it is easily measured and responds rapidly. While different chl a fluorescence parameters have been examined, most studies have focused on single species and/or a narrow range of toxins. We assessed the utility of one chl a fluorescence parameter, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (F(v)/F(m)), for detecting effects of nine environmental pollutants from a range of toxin classes on 5 commonly found freshwater algal species, as well as the USEPA model species, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. F(v)/F(m) declined rapidly over <20 min in response to low concentrations of photosynthesis-specific herbicides Diuron(®) and metribuzin (both <40 nM), atrazine (<460 nM) and terbuthylazine (<400 nM). However, F(v)/F(m) also responded rapidly and in a dose-dependent way to toxins glyphosate (<90 μM), and KCN (<1 mM) which have modes of action not specific to photosynthesis. F(v)/F(m) was insensitive to 30-40 μM insecticides methyl parathion, carbofuran and malathion. Algal species varied in their sensitivity to toxins. No single species was the most sensitive to all nine toxins, but for six toxins to which algal F(v)/F(m) responded significantly, the model species P. subcapitata was less sensitive than other taxa. In terms of suppression of F(v)/F(m) within 80 min, patterns of concentration-dependence differed among toxins; most showed Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics, with half-saturation constant (K(m)) values for the PSII inhibitors ranging from 0.14 μM for Diuron(®) to 6.6 μM for terbuthylazine, compared with a K(m) of 330 μM for KCN. Percent suppression of F(v)/F(m) by glyphosate increased exponentially with concentration. F(v)/F(m) provides a sensitive and easily-measured parameter for rapid and cost-effective detection of effects of many dissolved toxins. Field-portable fluorometers will facilitate field testing, however distinct responses

  3. Using Modified Fagan Inspections to Control Rapid System