Science.gov

Sample records for rapid thermal chemical

  1. Materials characterization of rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition of titanium disilicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden-Green, Dannellia Banay

    Technological advancements of novel processes and materials involving refractory metal silicides for ultra large scale integration is of paramount importance to the semiconductor industry. Scaling of devices to meet the demands for increased packing density and speed requires such novel processes and materials. Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) of titanium disilicide (TiSisb2) was investigated in an effort to meet some of the challenges of ultra large scale integration (ULSI) technology. Selective RTCVD of TiSisb2 offers an optimal technological vehicle for achieving contacts to ultra-shallow junctions. Of all of the metal silicides, TiSisb2 has the lowest resistivity and meets the microelectronics demands for a thermally stable contact. The research results presented in this dissertation explores the mechanisms of selective RTCVD of TiSisb2 in terms of thermodynamic trends and kinetic driving forces for nucleation and growth. The present research addresses the qualitative and quantitative parameters that affect the controlling mechanisms for nucleation and therefore the results provide significant data and theoretical insights into a state-of-the-art process. Just as the fundamental building block in understanding the kinetic constraints of a process lie in the realm of thermodynamic exploration, understanding the complex processes involved in RTCVD TiSisb2 begin with characterization of the mechanisms governing thin film nucleation. In this work, the early stages of growth are investigated as they offer insight into how process parameters are optimized to render desired silicide film properties. Equilibrium simulations have been used to model the CVD reaction with very good trend indicating accuracy. Empirical investigations of CVD TiSisb2 took place in a low-pressure rapid-thermal environment using the SiHsb4 + TiClsb4 gas system on silicon (100) substrates. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) has been used to qualify the benefits of vacuum and

  2. Model reduction and temperature uniformity control for rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodoropoulou, Artemis-Georgia

    The consideration of Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) in semiconductor manufacturing has recently been increasing. As a result, control of RTP systems has become of great importance since it is expected to help in addressing uniformity problems that, so far, have been obstructing the acceptance of the method. The spatial distribution appearing in RTP models necessitates the use of model reduction in order to obtain models of a size suitable for use in control algorithms. This dissertation addresses model reduction as well as control issues for RTP systems. A model of a three-zone Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (RTCVD) system is developed to study the effects of spatial wafer temperature patterns on polysilicon deposition uniformity. A sequence of simulated runs is performed, varying the lamp power profiles so that different wafer temperature modes are excited. The dominant spatial wafer thermal modes are extracted via Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and subsequently used as a set of trial functions to represent both the wafer temperature and deposition thickness. A collocation formulation of Galerkin's method is used to discretize the original modeling equations, giving a low-order model which loses little of the original, high-order model's fidelity. We make use of the excellent predictive capabilities of the reduced model to optimize power inputs to the lamp banks to achieve a desired polysilicon deposition thickness at the end of a run with minimal deposition spatial nonuniformity. Since the results illustrate that the optimization procedure benefits from the use of the reduced-order model, we further utilize the reduced order model for real time Model Based Control. The feedback controller is designed using the Internal Model Control (IMC) structure especially modified to handle systems described by ordinary differential and algebraic equations. The IMC controller is obtained using optimal control theory on singular arcs extended for multi input systems

  3. Rapid determination of the chemical oxygen demand of water using a thermal biosensor.

    PubMed

    Yao, Na; Wang, Jinqi; Zhou, Yikai

    2014-06-06

    In this paper we describe a thermal biosensor with a flow injection analysis system for the determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of water samples. Glucose solutions of different concentrations and actual water samples were tested, and their COD values were determined by measuring the heat generated when the samples passed through a column containing periodic acid. The biosensor exhibited a large linear range (5 to 3000 mg/L) and a low detection limit (1.84 mg/L). It could tolerate the presence of chloride ions in concentrations of 0.015 M without requiring a masking agent. The sensor was successfully used for detecting the COD values of actual samples. The COD values of water samples from various sources were correlated with those obtained by the standard dichromate method; the linear regression coefficient was found to be 0.996. The sensor is environmentally friendly, economical, and highly stable, and exhibits good reproducibility and accuracy. In addition, its response time is short, and there is no danger of hazardous emissions or external contamination. Finally, the samples to be tested do not have to be pretreated. These results suggest that the biosensor is suitable for the continuous monitoring of the COD values of actual wastewater samples.

  4. High-temperature stability of chemically vapor-deposited tungsten-silicon couples rapid thermal annealed in ammonia and argon

    SciTech Connect

    Broadbent, E.K.; Morgan, A.E.; Flanner, J.M.; Coulman, B.; Sadana, D.K.; Burrow, B.J.; Ellwanger, R.C.

    1988-12-15

    A rapid thermal anneal (RTA) in an NH/sub 3/ ambient has been found to increase the thermal stability of W films chemically vapor deposited (CVD) on Si. W films deposited onto single-crystal Si by low-pressure CVD were rapid thermal annealed at temperatures between 500 and 1100 /sup 0/C in NH/sub 3/ and Ar ambients. The reactions were studied using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and four-point resistivity probe. High-temperature (greater than or equal to1000 /sup 0/C) RTA in Ar completely converted W into the low resistivity (31 ..mu cap omega.. cm) tetragonal WSi/sub 2/ phase. In contrast, after a prior 900 /sup 0/C RTA in NH/sub 3/, N inclusion within the W film and at the W/Si interface almost completely suppressed the W-Si reaction. Detailed examination, however, revealed some patches of WSi/sub 2/ formed at the interface accompanied by long tunnels extending into the substrate, and some crystalline precipitates in the substrate close to the interface. The associated interfacial contact resistance was only slightly altered by the 900 /sup 0/C NH/sub 3/ anneal. The NH/sub 3/-treated W film acted as a diffusion barrier in an Al/W/Si contact metallurgy up to at least 550 /sup 0/C, at which point some increase in contact resistance was measured.

  5. Chemical nature of silicon nitride-indium phosphide interface and rapid thermal annealing for InP MISFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedenbender, M. D.; Kapoor, V. J.

    1990-01-01

    A rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process in pure N2 or pure H2 was developed for ion-implanted and encapsulated indium phosphide compound semiconductors, and the chemical nature at the silicon nitride-InP interface before and after RTA was examined using XPS. Results obtained from SIMS on the atomic concentration profiles of the implanted silicon in InP before and after RTA are presented, together with electrical characteristics of the annealed implants. Using the RTA process developed, InP metal-insulator semiconductor FETs (MISFETS) were fabricated. The MISFETS prepared had threshold voltages of +1 V, transconductance of 27 mS/mm, peak channel mobility of 1200 sq cm/V per sec, and drain current drift of only 7 percent.

  6. Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jaechul; Kim, Youngsoo; Won, Dongkwan; Kim, Nayoung; Park, Jin Sung; Lee, Eun-Kyu; Cho, Donyub; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Kim, Sang Jin; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Shin, Hae-A-Seul; Lee, Zonghoon; Hong, Byung Hee; Cho, Seungmin

    2014-01-28

    The practical use of graphene in consumer electronics has not been demonstrated since the size, uniformity, and reliability problems are yet to be solved to satisfy industrial standards. Here we report mass-produced graphene films synthesized by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RT-CVD), roll-to-roll etching, and transfer methods, which enabled faster and larger production of homogeneous graphene films over 400 × 300 mm(2) area with a sheet resistance of 249 ± 17 Ω/sq without additional doping. The properties of RT-CVD graphene have been carefully characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, chemical grain boundary analysis, and various electrical device measurements, showing excellent uniformity and stability. In particular, we found no significant correlation between graphene domain sizes and electrical conductivity, unlike previous theoretical expectations for nanoscale graphene domains. Finally, the actual application of the RT-CVD films to capacitive multitouch devices installed in the most sophisticated mobile phone was demonstrated.

  7. Low resistance tungsten films on GaAs deposited by means of rapid thermal low pressure chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, A.; Feingold, A.; Nakahara, S.; Pearton, S. J.; Lane, E.

    1992-08-01

    Low resistance tungsten (W) films were deposited onto GaAs substrates by means of rapid thermal low pressure chemical vapor deposition (RT-LPCVD), using tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) gas reduced by hydrogen (H2). Deposition temperatures up to 550 °C for durations of up to 30 s were explored, resulting in deposition of relatively pure W films (containing less than 2% O2 and C). Post-deposition sintering of the layers led to significant reduction of the resistivity to values as low as 50 μΩ cm. The efficiency of the deposition improved upon increasing the H2 flow rate up to 1250 sccm resulting in a deposition rate of about 10 nm/s at a total chamber pressure of 3.5 Torr and temperature of 500 °C. The films appeared to be polycrystalline with a very fine grain structure, regardless of the deposition temperature with good morphology and underwent a limited reaction with the underlying GaAs substrates.

  8. Low thermal budget in situ removal of oxygen and carbon on silicon for silicon epitaxy in an ultrahigh vacuum rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanganeria, Mahesh K.; Öztürk, Mehmet C.; Violette, Katherine E.; Harris, Gari; Lee, C. Archie; Maher, Dennis M.

    1995-03-01

    In this letter, we present experimental evidence on desorption of O and C from a Si surface resulting in impurity levels below the detection levels of secondary ion mass spectroscopy. We then propose a surface preperation method for silicon epitaxy that consists of an ex situ clean and an in situ low thermal budget prebake in an ultrahigh vacuum rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (UHV-RTCVD) reactor. The ex situ clean consists of a standard RCA clean followed by a dilute HF dip and rinse in de-ionized water. The in situ clean is either carried out in vacuum or in a low partial pressure of 10% Si2H6 in H2. The experiments were conducted in an UHV-RTCVD reactor equipped with oil-free vacuum pumps. We propose that the responsible mechanism is desorption of oxygen and hydrocarbons from the Si surface due to the low partial pressures of these contaminants in the growth chamber. If Si2H6 is used during the prebake, a sufficiently low growth rate is required in order to provide sufficient time for desorption and avoid Si overgrowth on the O and C sites.

  9. Physico-chemical and electrical properties of rapid thermal oxides on Ge-rich SiGe heterolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, R.; Bera, M. K.; Chakraborty, S.; Saha, S.; Woitok, J. F.; Maiti, C. K.

    2006-11-01

    Rapid thermal oxidation of high-Ge content (Ge-rich) Si 1- xGe x ( x = 0.85) layers in dry O 2 ambient has been investigated. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and strain-sensitive two-dimensional reciprocal space mapping X-ray diffractometry (2D-RSM) are employed to investigate strain relaxation and composition of as-grown SiGe alloy layers. Characterizations of ultra thin oxides (˜6-8 nm) have been performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS). Formation of mixed oxide i.e., (SiO 2 + GeO 2) and pile-up of Ge at the oxide/Si 1- xGe x interface have been observed. Enhancement in Ge segregation and reduction of oxide thickness with increasing oxidation temperature are reported. Interface properties and leakage current behavior of the rapid thermal oxides have been studied by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (J-V) techniques using metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) structures and the results are reported.

  10. Rapid processing of carbon-carbon composites by forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI)

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidyaraman, S.; Lackey, W.J.; Agrawal, P.K.; Freeman, G.B.; Langman, M.D.

    1995-10-01

    Carbon fiber-carbon matrix composites were fabricated using the forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process. Preforms were prepared by stacking 40 layers of plain weave carbon cloth in a graphite holder. The preforms were infiltrated using propylene, propane, and methane. The present work showed that the FCVI process is well suited for fabricating carbon-carbon composites; without optimization of the process, the authors have achieved uniform and thorough densification. Composites with porosities as low as 7% were fabricated in 8--12 h. The highest deposition rate obtained in the present study was {approximately}3 {micro}m/h which is more than an order of magnitude faster than the typical value of 0.1--0.25 {micro}m/h for the isothermal process. It was also found that the use of propylene and propane as reagents resulted in faster infiltration compared to methane.

  11. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOEpatents

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  12. Tungsten metallization onto InP prepared by rapid thermal low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of WF6 and H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, A.; Feingold, A.; El-Roy, A.; Pearton, S. J.; Lane, E.; Nakahara, S.; Geva, M.

    1992-09-01

    Tungsten (W) films were deposited onto InP in a cold wall, rapid thermal low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (RT-LPCVD) reactor, using a tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) gas reduced by hydrogen (H2). W films of thickness 50-450 nm were deposited in the temperature range of 350-550 °C, pressure range of 0.5-4.5 Torr, and deposition rates up to 4 nm/s with an apparent activation energy of about 1.12 eV. The film stress varied depending on the deposition pressure, from low compressive (deposition at 0.5 Torr) to moderate tensile (deposition at about 4.5 Torr). Post-deposition sintering of the W films at temperatures up to 600 °C led to reduction of the resistivity with a minimum value of about 55 μΩ cm as a result of heating at 500 °C.

  13. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal decomposition activation energies have been determined using two methods of Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), with good correlation being obtained between the two techniques. Initial heating curves indicated a two-component system for Coflon (i.e. polymer plus placticizer) but a single component system for Tefzel. Two widely differing activation energies were for Coflon supported this view, 15 kcl/mol being associated with plasticizer, and 40 kcal/mol with polymer degradation. With Tefzel, values were 40-45 kcal/mol, the former perhaps being associated with a low molecular weight fraction. Appropriate acceleration factors have been determined. Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) has shown considerable dimensional change during temperature cycles. For unaged pipe sections heating to 100 C and then holding the temperature resulted in a stable thickness increase of 2%, whereas the Coflon thickness decreased continuously, reaching -4% in 2.7 weeks. Previously strained tensile bars of Tefzel expanded on cooling during TMA. SEM performed on H2S-aged Coflon samples showed significant changes in both physical and chemical nature. The first may have resulted from explosive decompression after part of the aging process. Chemically extensive dehydrofluorination was indicated, and sulfur was present as a result of the aging. These observations indicate that chemical attack of PVDF can occur in some circumstances.

  14. Rapid thermal low-pressure chemical vapour deposition of tungsten films onto InP using WF6 and H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, A.; Feingold, A.; El-Roy, A.; Pearton, S. J.; Lane, E.; Nakahara, S.; Geva, M.

    1992-11-01

    Tungsten (W) films were deposited onto InP in a cold wall, rapid thermal low-pressure chemical vapour deposition (RT-LPCVD) reactor, from a tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) gas reduced by hydrogen (H2). W films of thickness 50-450 nm were deposited in the temperature range 350-550 degrees C, pressure range 0.5-4.5 Torr at deposition rates up to 4 nm s-1 with an apparent activation energy of about 1.12 eV. The film stress varied depending upon the deposition pressure, from low compressive for deposition at 0.5 Torr to moderate tensile for deposition at about 4.5 Torr. The films were aged at temperatures as high as 300 degrees C for about 800 h and exhibited an excellent mechanical stability. Post-deposition sintering of the W films at temperatures up to 600 degrees C led to reduction of the resistivity with a minimum value of about 55 mu Omega cm as a result of heating at 500 degrees C. Conditions for both selective and blanket deposition were defined, and a dry etching process for further geometrical definitions of the films was developed, providing etch rates of 40-50 nm min-1. This report reflects the first attempt to deposit W films onto III-V semiconductor at a very high rate by means of RT-LPCVD.

  15. ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by chemical bath deposition combined with rapid thermal annealing: structural, photoluminescence and field emission characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hung-Wei; Yang, Hsi-Wen; He, Hsin-Min; Lee, Yi-Mu

    2016-01-01

    ZnO nanorod arrays were prepared by low temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD) combined with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) under different ambient conditions. The structure and morphology of the synthesized ZnO have been characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The obtained ZnO samples are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite phase and also display well-aligned array structure. A pronounced effect on increased nanorod length was found for the RTA-treated ZnO as compared to the as-grown ZnO. Analysis of XRD indicates that the (0 0 2) feature peak of the as-grown ZnO was shifted towards a lower angle as compared to the peaks of RTA-treated ZnO samples due to the reduction of tensile strain along the c-axis by RTA. Photoluminescence (PL) studies reveal that the ZnO nanorod arrays receiving RTA in an O2 environment have the sharpest UV emission band and greatest intensity ratio of near band-edge emission (NBE) to deep level emission (DLE). Additionally, the effects of RTA on the field emission properties were evaluated. The results demonstrate that RTA an O2 environment can lower the turn-on field and improve the field enhancement factor. The stability of the field emission current was also tested for 4 h.

  16. Rapid Chemical Exposure and Dose Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA evaluates the potential risks of the manufacture and use of thousands of chemicals. To assist with this evaluation, EPA scientists developed a rapid, automated model using off the shelf technology that predicts exposures for thousands of chemicals.

  17. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Work during the past three years has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution and the increased crosslinking of the Coflon material using Gel Permeation Chromatographic Analysis. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a plethora of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed on powdered PVDF in a modified Fluid A, which we will call A-2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures.

  18. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.; Thornton, C. P.

    1996-01-01

    Work has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution of the Coflon material using a dual detector Gel Permeation Analysis. Again these changes may result in variation in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-Ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed in a modified Fluid G, which we will call G2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures, 70 C, 110 C, and 130 C. The primary purpose of the pressure tests in Fluid G2 was to further elucidate the aging mechanism of PVDF degradation.

  19. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    During the past six months we have conducted significant research in several domains in order to clarify and understanding the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. We organized numerous analytical studies with methods including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and Stress Relaxation experiments. In addition we have reanalyzed previous thermogravimetric data concerning the rate of deplasticization of Coflon pipe. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We conducted stress relaxation experiments of Coflon pipe at several temperatures and determined an activation energy. We also examined the dynamic mechanical response PVDF during deplasticization and during methanol plasticization. We performed numerous DSC analyses to research the changing crystalline morphology. We have noted significant changes in crystallinity upon aging for both PVDF and Tefzel. Little variation in elemental composition was noted for many of the aged Coflon and Tefzel samples tested.

  20. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This

  1. Ceramic thermal barrier coating for rapid thermal cycling applications

    DOEpatents

    Scharman, Alan J.; Yonushonis, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for metal articles subjected to rapid thermal cycling includes a metallic bond coat deposited on the metal article, at least one MCrAlY/ceramic layer deposited on the bond coat, and a ceramic top layer deposited on the MCrAlY/ceramic layer. The M in the MCrAlY material is Fe, Ni, Co, or a mixture of Ni and Co. The ceramic in the MCrAlY/ceramic layer is mullite or Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The ceramic top layer includes a ceramic with a coefficient of thermal expansion less than about 5.4.times.10.sup.-6 .degree.C.sup.-1 and a thermal conductivity between about 1 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1 and about 1.7 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1.

  2. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-10-27

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  3. Thermal and chemical convection in planetary mantles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupeyrat, L.; Sotin, C.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1995-01-01

    Melting of the upper mantle and extraction of melt result in the formation of a less dense depleted mantle. This paper describes series of two-dimensional models that investigate the effects of chemical buoyancy induced by these density variations. A tracer particles method has been set up to follow as closely as possible the chemical state of the mantle and to model the chemical buoyant force at each grid point. Each series of models provides the evolution with time of magma production, crustal thickness, surface heat flux, and thermal and chemical state of the mantle. First, models that do not take into account the displacement of plates at the surface of Earth demonstrate that chemical buoyancy has an important effect on the geometry of convection. Then models include horizontal motion of plates 5000 km wide. Recycling of crust is taken into account. For a sufficiently high plate velocity which depends on the thermal Rayleigh number, the cell's size is strongly coupled with the plate's size. Plate motion forces chemically buoyant material to sink into the mantle. Then the positive chemical buoyancy yields upwelling as depleted mantle reaches the interface between the upper and the lower mantle. This process is very efficient in mixing the depleted and undepleted mantle at the scale of the grid spacing since these zones of upwelling disrupt the large convective flow. At low spreading rates, zones of upwelling develop quickly, melting occurs, and the model predicts intraplate volcanism by melting of subducted crust. At fast spreading rates, depleted mantle also favors the formation of these zones of upwelling, but they are not strong enough to yield partial melting. Their rapid displacement toward the ridge contributes to faster large-scale homogenization.

  4. Low Gravity Rapid Thermal Analysis of Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Smith, Guy A.

    2004-01-01

    It has been observed by two research groups that ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) glass crystallization is suppressed in microgravity. The mechanism for this phenomenon is unknown at the present time. In order to better understand the mechanism, an experiment was performed on NASA's KC135 reduced gravity aircraft to obtain quantitative crystallization data. An apparatus was designed and constructed for performing rapid thermal analysis of milligram quantities of ZBLAN glass. The apparatus employs an ellipsoidal furnace allowing for rapid heating and cooling. Using this apparatus nucleation and crystallization kinetic data was obtained leading to the construction of time-temperature-transformation curves for ZBLAN in microgravity and unit gravity.

  5. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, C.V.

    1990-08-01

    This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

  6. RTDS: A continuous, rapid, thermal synthesis mode

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, D.W.; Linehan, J.C.; Darab, J.D.; Buehler, M.F.; Phelps, M.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

    1995-04-01

    The Rapid Thermal Decomposition of precursors in Solution (RTDS) Process is a flow-through hydrothermal powder synthesis method capable of producing nanophase oxide and oxyhydroxide catalysts and catalyst precursors. The RTDS technique utilizes a brief exposure of dissolved precursors to high pressure/high temperature aqueous conditions to initiate crystallite nucleation. The resulting nanocrystalline suspension is removed from the hydrothermal environment through a pressure let-down device before significant crystallite growth can occur. The RTDS process is discussed as a method to produce nanocrystalline iron oxide and oxyhydroxide powders that exhibit high activity as carbon-carbon bond cleavage catalyst precursors. Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} powders having prospective catalytic applications are also produced by the RTDS process.

  7. Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-01-01

    A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

  8. Rapid PCR thermocycling using microscale thermal convection.

    PubMed

    Muddu, Radha; Hassan, Yassin A; Ugaz, Victor M

    2011-03-05

    Many molecular biology assays depend in some way on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify an initially dilute target DNA sample to a detectable concentration level. But the design of conventional PCR thermocycling hardware, predominantly based on massive metal heating blocks whose temperature is regulated by thermoelectric heaters, severely limits the achievable reaction speed(1). Considerable electrical power is also required to repeatedly heat and cool the reagent mixture, limiting the ability to deploy these instruments in a portable format. Thermal convection has emerged as a promising alternative thermocycling approach that has the potential to overcome these limitations(2-9). Convective flows are an everyday occurrence in a diverse array of settings ranging from the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and interior, to decorative and colorful lava lamps. Fluid motion is initiated in the same way in each case: a buoyancy driven instability arises when a confined volume of fluid is subjected to a spatial temperature gradient. These same phenomena offer an attractive way to perform PCR thermocycling. By applying a static temperature gradient across an appropriately designed reactor geometry, a continuous circulatory flow can be established that will repeatedly transport PCR reagents through temperature zones associated with the denaturing, annealing, and extension stages of the reaction (Figure 1). Thermocycling can therefore be actuated in a pseudo-isothermal manner by simply holding two opposing surfaces at fixed temperatures, completely eliminating the need to repeatedly heat and cool the instrument. One of the main challenges facing design of convective thermocyclers is the need to precisely control the spatial velocity and temperature distributions within the reactor to ensure that the reagents sequentially occupy the correct temperature zones for a sufficient period of time(10,11). Here we describe results of our efforts to probe the full 3-D velocity and

  9. Thermo-chemical dynamics and chemical quasi-equilibrium of plasmas in thermal non-equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massot, Marc; Graille, Benjamin; Magin, Thierry E.

    2011-05-01

    We examine both processes of ionization by electron and heavy-particle impact in spatially uniform plasmas at rest in the absence of external forces. A singular perturbation analysis is used to study the following physical scenario, in which thermal relaxation becomes much slower than chemical reactions. First, electron-impact ionization is investigated. The dynamics of the system rapidly becomes close to a slow dynamics manifold that allows for defining a unique chemical quasi-equilibrium for two-temperature plasmas and proving that the second law of thermodynamics is satisfied. Then, all ionization reactions are taken into account simultaneously, leading to a surprising conclusion: the inner layer for short time scale (or time boundary layer) directly leads to thermal equilibrium. Global thermo-chemical equilibrium is reached within a short time scale, involving only chemical reactions, even if thermal relaxation through elastic collisions is assumed to be slow.

  10. Modeling the Thermal Destruction of Chemical Warfare ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Symposium Paper In the event of a terrorist attack with chemical warfare agents (CWAs), large quantities of materials, both indoor and outdoor, may be treated with thermal incineration during the site remediation process. This paper reports on a study to examine the thermal decomposition of surrogate CWAs and formation of decomposition by-products bound in model building materials (in this case, ceiling tile) in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator.

  11. Earth's interdependent thermal, structural, and chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, A.; Criss, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The popular view that 30-55% of Earth's global power is primordial, with deep layers emanating significant power, rests on misunderstandings and models that omit magmatism and outgassing. These processes link Earth's chemical and thermal evolution, while creating layers, mainly because magmas transport latent heat and radioactive isotopes rapidly upwards. We link chemistry to heat flow, measured and theoretical, to understand the interior layering and workings. Quasi-steady state conditions describe most of Earth's history: (1) Accretion was cold and was not a source of deep heat. (2) Friction during core formation cannot have greatly heated the interior (thermodynamics plus buoyancy). (3) Conduction is the governing microscopic mechanism in the deep Earth. (4) Using well-constrained values of thermal conductivity (k), we find that homogeneously distributed radionuclides provide extremely high internal temperature (T) under radial symmetry. Moreover, for any given global power, sequestering heat producing elements into the upper mantle reduces Earth's central temperature by a factor of 10 from a homogeneous distribution. Hence, (5) core formation was a major cooling event. From modern determinations of k(T) we provide a reference conductive geotherm. Present-day global power of 30 TW from heat flux measurements and sequestering of heat producing elements in the upper mantle and transition zone, produces nearly isothermal T = 5300 K below 670 km, which equals experimentally determined freezing of pure Fe0 at the inner core boundary. Core freezing buffers the interior temperatures, while the Sun constrains the surface temperature, providing steady state conditions: Earth's deep interior is isothermal due to these constraints, low flux and high k. Our geotherms point to a stagnant lower mantle and convection above 670 km. Rotational flattening cracks the brittle lithosphere, providing paths for buoyant magmas to ascend. Release of latent heat augments the conductive

  12. Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) of semiconductors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. J.; Jones, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    The progress achieved on the project entitled 'Rapid Thermal Processing of Semiconductors in Space' for a 12 month period of activity ending March 31, 1993 is summarized. The activity of this group is being performed under the direct auspices of the ROMPS program. The main objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate the use of advanced robotics in space with rapid thermal process (RTP) of semiconductors providing the test technology. Rapid thermal processing is an ideal processing step for demonstration purposes since it encompasses many of the characteristics of other processes used in solid state device manufacturing. Furthermore, a low thermal budget is becoming more important in existing manufacturing practice, while a low thermal budget is critical to successful processing in space. A secondary objective of this project is to determine the influence of microgravity on the rapid thermal process for a variety of operating modes. In many instances, this involves one or more fluid phases. The advancement of microgravity processing science is an important ancillary objective.

  13. Thermal energy harvesting plasmonic based chemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Karker, Nicholas; Dharmalingam, Gnanaprakash; Carpenter, Michael A

    2014-10-28

    Detection of gases such as H2, CO, and NO2 at 500 °C or greater requires materials with thermal stability and reliability. One of the major barriers toward integration of plasmonic-based chemical sensors is the requirement of multiple components such as light sources and spectrometers. In this work, plasmonic sensing results are presented where thermal energy is harvested using lithographically patterned Au nanorods, replacing the need for an external incident light source. Gas sensing results using the harvested thermal energy are in good agreement with sensing experiments, which used an external incident light source. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the wavelength parameter space from 665 variables down to 4 variables with similar levels of demonstrated selectivity. The combination of a plasmonic-based energy harvesting sensing paradigm with PCA analysis offers a novel path toward simplification and integration of plasmonic-based sensing methods.

  14. Raman scattering from rapid thermally annealed tungsten silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dasgupta, Samhita; Jackson, Howard E.; Boyd, Joseph T.

    1987-01-01

    Raman scattering as a technique for studying the formation of tungsten silicide is presented. The tungsten silicide films have been formed by rapid thermal annealing of thin tungsten films sputter deposited on silicon substrates. The Raman data are interpreted by using data from resistivity measurements, Auger and Rutherford backscattering measurements, and scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) yields better Hydrolytical Stability of Biocompatible SiOx Thin Films on Implant Alumina Ceramics compared to Rapid Thermal Evaporation Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD).

    PubMed

    Böke, Frederik; Giner, Ignacio; Keller, Adrian; Grundmeier, Guido; Fischer, Horst

    2016-07-20

    Densely sintered aluminum oxide (α-Al2O3) is chemically and biologically inert. To improve the interaction with biomolecules and cells, its surface has to be modified prior to use in biomedical applications. In this study, we compared two deposition techniques for adhesion promoting SiOx films to facilitate the coupling of stable organosilane monolayers on monolithic α-alumina; physical vapor deposition (PVD) by thermal evaporation and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD). We also investigated the influence of etching on the formation of silanol surface groups using hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid solutions. The film characteristics, that is, surface morphology and surface chemistry, as well as the film stability and its adhesion properties under accelerated aging conditions were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and tensile strength tests. Differences in surface functionalization were investigated via two model organosilanes as well as the cell-cytotoxicity and viability on murine fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC). We found that both SiOx interfaces did not affect the cell viability of both cell types. No significant differences between both films with regard to their interfacial tensile strength were detected, although failure mode analyses revealed a higher interfacial stability of the PE-CVD films compared to the PVD films. Twenty-eight day exposure to simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C revealed a partial delamination of the thermally deposited PVD films whereas the PE-CVD films stayed largely intact. SiOx layers deposited by both PVD and PE-CVD may thus serve as viable adhesion-promoters for subsequent organosilane coupling agent binding to α-alumina. However, PE-CVD appears to be favorable for long-term direct film exposure to aqueous

  16. Rapid charging of thermal energy storage materials through plasmonic heating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-09-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites.

  17. Rapid Charging of Thermal Energy Storage Materials through Plasmonic Heating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites. PMID:25175717

  18. Thermal Emission Light-Curves of Rapidly Rotating Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozitis, Ben; Emery, Joshua; Lowry, Stephen; Rozek, Agata; Wolters, Stephen; Snodgrass, Colin; Green, Simon

    2014-12-01

    We propose to use Spitzer/IRAC to obtain simultaneous 3 and 4 um light-curves of 23 rapidly rotating asteroids (rotation periods of less than 3 hrs) to determine thermal inertia and surface roughness spatial variations. These observations will probe asteroid geophysics and constrain the origin of their rapid rotation. Rapidly rotating asteroids are unusual bodies where their own self-gravity is balanced or exceeded by rotational centrifugal forces, and are thought to have acquired their fast rotation rates through the YORP effect - a radiative torque induced by exposure to sunlight. For each target asteroid, we will measure thermal flux in both IRAC bands for a full rotation. When combined with shapes and spin axes derived from our ground-based programme, and a thermophysical model, we will be able to identify any temperature variations resulting from thermal inertia and/or surface roughness variation, and be able to constrain theoretical predictions of YORP rotational acceleration. The thermal property variations will be compared against models of surface gravity in order to provide insights into the physical processes by which asteroids retain and lose surface material. 16 of our target asteroids are being observed at optical wavelengths in a European Southern Observatory (ESO) Large Programme (LP) awarded 82 nights to constrain rotation period changes induced by the YORP effect (PI Stephen Lowry; Program IDs 185.C-1033, 185.C-1034). Approximately 80 additional nights on a range of other facilities has also been awarded for this programme. The ESO LP will support the Spitzer programme by providing shape and spin axis information necessary to search for surface property variations in the thermal emission light-curves of these asteroids. Likewise, the Spitzer/IRAC thermal emission light-curves will allow us to derive the physical properties that drive the YORP effect on the ESO LP asteroids.

  19. Thermal Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores Using Rapid Resistive Heating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    microbiological study sought to obtain a correlation between exposure time, temperature , and spore viability. This information is invaluable when...of the spores were found using rapid resistive heating at short duration exposure times from 0.26 to 7 seconds at temperatures ranging from 73.5 to...ranging from 0.1 to 10 seconds. Higher temperatures were needed to thermally inactivate the B.a. spores as exposure times decreased. vi

  20. Photo, thermal and chemical degradation of riboflavin

    PubMed Central

    Kazi, Sadia Hafeez; Ahmed, Sofia; Anwar, Zubair; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Summary Riboflavin (RF), also known as vitamin B2, belongs to the class of water-soluble vitamins and is widely present in a variety of food products. It is sensitive to light and high temperature, and therefore, needs a consideration of these factors for its stability in food products and pharmaceutical preparations. A number of other factors have also been identified that affect the stability of RF. These factors include radiation source, its intensity and wavelength, pH, presence of oxygen, buffer concentration and ionic strength, solvent polarity and viscosity, and use of stabilizers and complexing agents. A detailed review of the literature in this field has been made and all those factors that affect the photo, thermal and chemical degradation of RF have been discussed. RF undergoes degradation through several mechanisms and an understanding of the mode of photo- and thermal degradation of RF may help in the stabilization of the vitamin. A general scheme for the photodegradation of RF is presented. PMID:25246959

  1. Rapid evolution of thermal tolerance in the water flea Daphnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geerts, A. N.; Vanoverbeke, J.; Vanschoenwinkel, B.; van Doorslaer, W.; Feuchtmayr, H.; Atkinson, D.; Moss, B.; Davidson, T. A.; Sayer, C. D.; De Meester, L.

    2015-07-01

    Global climate is changing rapidly, and the degree to which natural populations respond genetically to these changes is key to predicting ecological responses. So far, no study has documented evolutionary changes in the thermal tolerance of natural populations as a response to recent temperature increase. Here, we demonstrate genetic change in the capacity of the water flea Daphnia to tolerate higher temperatures using both a selection experiment and the reconstruction of evolution over a period of forty years derived from a layered dormant egg bank. We observed a genetic increase in thermal tolerance in response to a two-year ambient +4 °C selection treatment and in the genotypes of natural populations from the 1960s and 2000s hatched from lake sediments. This demonstrates that natural populations have evolved increased tolerance to higher temperatures, probably associated with the increased frequency of heat waves over the past decades, and possess the capacity to evolve increased tolerance to future warming.

  2. Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Collapsing Filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, William J.; Scannapieco, Evan

    2013-01-15

    Intergalactic filaments form the foundation of the cosmic web that connect galaxies together, and provide an important reservoir of gas for galaxy growth and accretion. Here we present very high resolution two-dimensional simulations of the thermal and chemical evolution of such filaments, making use of a 32 species chemistry network that tracks the evolution of key molecules formed from hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. We study the evolution of filaments over a wide range of parameters including the initial density, initial temperature, strength of the dissociating UV background, and metallicity. In low-redshift, Z ≈ 0.1Z filaments, the evolution is determined completely by the initial cooling time. If this is sufficiently short, the center of the filament always collapses to form dense, cold core containing a substantial fraction of molecules. In high-redshift, Z = 10-3Z filaments, the collapse proceeds much more slowly. This is due mostly to the lower initial temperatures, which leads to a much more modest increase in density before the atomic cooling limit is reached, making subsequent molecular cooling much less efficient. Finally, we study how the gravitational potential from a nearby dwarf galaxy affects the collapse of the filament and compare this to NGC 5253, a nearby starbusting dwarf galaxy thought to be fueled by the accretion of filament gas. In contrast to our fiducial case, a substantial density peak forms at the center of the potential. This peak evolves faster than the rest of the filament due to the increased rate at which chemical species form and cooling occur. We find that we achieve similar accretion rates as NGC 5253, but our two-dimensional simulations do not recover the formation of the giant molecular clouds that are seen in radio observations.

  3. Effect of Rapid Thermal Cooling on Mechanical Rock Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangmin; Kemeny, John; Nickerson, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Laboratory tests have been conducted to investigate the effects of rapid thermal cooling on various rock specimens including igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. At first, various types of thermal loading were conducted: heating up to 100, 200, and 300 °C, followed by rapid cooling with a fan. In addition, multiple cyclic thermal cooling (10, 15 and 20 cycles) with a maximum temperature of only 100 °C was conducted. Experiments included edge notched disc (END) tests to determine the Mode I fracture toughness, Brazilian disc tests to determine tensile strength, seismic tests to determine P-wave velocity, and porosity tests leading to meaningful results. Even though only small changes of temperature (rapid cooling from 100 °C to room temperature) were applied, the results showed that crack growth occurred in some rock types (granite, diabase with ore veins, and KVS) while crack healing occurred in other rock types (diabase without ore veins, quartzite, and skarn). To better understand the results, 3D transient thermo-mechanical analysis was conducted using the ANSYS program. The results indicated that there was a thin region near the outside of the specimen where large tensile stresses occur and microcracking would be expected, and that there was a large area in the middle of the specimen where lower magnitude compressive stresses occur and crack closure would be expected. It was found that the more heterogeneous and more coarse-grained rock types are more likely to exhibit crack growth, while less heterogeneous and more fine-grained rocks are more likely to exhibit crack healing.

  4. Combining reactive sputtering and rapid thermal processing for synthesis and discovery of metal oxynitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Lan; Suram, Santosh K.; Becerra-Stasiewicz, Natalie; Mitrovic, Slobodan; Kan, Kevin; Jones, Ryan J. R.; Gregoire, John M.

    2015-05-27

    Recent efforts have demonstrated enhanced tailoring of material functionality with mixed-anion materials, yet exploratory research with mixed-anion chemistries is limited by the sensitivity of these materials to synthesis conditions. In order to synthesize a particular metal oxynitride compound by traditional reactive annealing we require specific, limited ranges of both oxygen and nitrogen chemical potentials in order to establish equilibrium between the solid-state material and a reactive atmosphere. While using Ta-O-N as an example system, we describe a combination of reactive sputter deposition and rapid thermal processing for synthesis of mixed-anion inorganic materials. Heuristic optimization of reactive gas pressures to attain a desired anion stoichiometry is discussed, and the ability of rapid thermal processing to enable amorphous to crystalline transitions without preferential anion loss is demonstrated through the controlled synthesis of nitride, oxide and oxynitride phases.

  5. Combining reactive sputtering and rapid thermal processing for synthesis and discovery of metal oxynitrides

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Lan; Suram, Santosh K.; Becerra-Stasiewicz, Natalie; ...

    2015-05-27

    Recent efforts have demonstrated enhanced tailoring of material functionality with mixed-anion materials, yet exploratory research with mixed-anion chemistries is limited by the sensitivity of these materials to synthesis conditions. In order to synthesize a particular metal oxynitride compound by traditional reactive annealing we require specific, limited ranges of both oxygen and nitrogen chemical potentials in order to establish equilibrium between the solid-state material and a reactive atmosphere. While using Ta-O-N as an example system, we describe a combination of reactive sputter deposition and rapid thermal processing for synthesis of mixed-anion inorganic materials. Heuristic optimization of reactive gas pressures to attainmore » a desired anion stoichiometry is discussed, and the ability of rapid thermal processing to enable amorphous to crystalline transitions without preferential anion loss is demonstrated through the controlled synthesis of nitride, oxide and oxynitride phases.« less

  6. Rapid Identification of Chemical Genetic Interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, David; Nelson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the mode of action of bioactive chemicals is of interest to a broad range of academic, pharmaceutical, and industrial scientists. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or budding yeast, is a model eukaryote for which a complete collection of ~6,000 gene deletion mutants and hypomorphic essential gene mutants are commercially available. These collections of mutants can be used to systematically detect chemical-gene interactions, i.e. genes necessary to tolerate a chemical. This information, in turn, reports on the likely mode of action of the compound. Here we describe a protocol for the rapid identification of chemical-genetic interactions in budding yeast. We demonstrate the method using the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which has a well-defined mechanism of action. Our results show that the nuclear TRAMP RNA exosome and DNA repair enzymes are needed for proliferation in the presence of 5-FU, which is consistent with previous microarray based bar-coding chemical genetic approaches and the knowledge that 5-FU adversely affects both RNA and DNA metabolism. The required validation protocols of these high-throughput screens are also described. PMID:25867090

  7. Liquid hydrogen turbopump rapid start program. [thermal preconditioning using coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    This program was to analyze, test, and evaluate methods of achieving rapid-start of a liquid hydrogen feed system (inlet duct and turbopump) using a minimum of thermal preconditioning time and propellant. The program was divided into four tasks. Task 1 includes analytical studies of the testing conducted in the other three tasks. Task 2 describes the results from laboratory testing of coating samples and the successful adherence of a KX-635 coating to the internal surfaces of the feed system tested in Task 4. Task 3 presents results of testing an uncoated feed system. Tank pressure was varied to determine the effect of flowrate on preconditioning. The discharge volume and the discharge pressure which initiates opening of the discharge valve were varied to determine the effect on deadhead (no through-flow) start transients. Task 4 describes results of testing a similar, internally coated feed system and illustrates the savings in preconditioning time and propellant resulting from the coatings.

  8. Pore Size Control of Ultra-thin Silicon Membranes by Rapid Thermal Carbonization

    PubMed Central

    Fang, David Z.; Striemer, Christopher C.; Gaborski, Thomas R.; McGrath, James L.; Fauchet, Philippe M.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid thermal carbonization in a dilute acetylene (C2H2) atmosphere has been used to chemically modify and precisely tune the pore size of ultrathin porous nanocrystalline silicon (pnc-Si). The magnitude of size reduction was controlled by varying the process temperature and time. Under certain conditions, the carbon coating displayed atomic ordering indicative of graphene layer formation conformal to the pore walls. Initial experiments show that carbonized membranes follow theoretical predictions for hydraulic permeability and retain the precise separation capabilities of untreated membranes. PMID:20839831

  9. Characterizing thermal sweeping: a rapid disc dispersal mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, James E.; Hudoba de Badyn, Mathias; Clarke, Cathie J.; Robins, Luke

    2013-12-01

    We consider the properties of protoplanetary discs that are undergoing inside-out clearing by photoevaporation. In particular, we aim to characterize the conditions under which a protoplanetary disc may undergo `thermal sweeping', a rapid (≲104 years) disc destruction mechanism proposed to occur when a clearing disc reaches sufficiently low surface density at its inner edge and where the disc is unstable to runaway penetration by the X-rays. We use a large suite of 1D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to probe the observable parameter space, which is unfeasible in higher dimensions. These models allow us to determine the surface density at which thermal sweeping will take over the disc's evolution and to evaluate this critical surface density as a function of X-ray luminosity, stellar mass and inner hole radius. We find that this critical surface density scales linearly with X-ray luminosity, increases with inner hole radius and decreases with stellar mass, and we develop an analytic model that reproduces these results. This surface density criterion is then used to determine the evolutionary state of protoplanetary discs at the point that they become unstable to destruction by thermal sweeping. We find that transition discs created by photoevaporation will undergo thermal sweeping when their inner holes reach 20-40 au, implying that transition discs with large holes and no accretion (which were previously a predicted outcome of the later stages of all flavours of the photoevaporation model) will not form. Thermal sweeping thus avoids the production of large numbers of large, non-accreting holes (which are not observed) and implies that the majority of holes created by photoevaporation should still be accreting. We emphasize that the surface density criteria that we have developed apply to all situations where the disc develops an inner hole that is optically thin to X-rays. It thus applies not only to the case of holes originally created by photoevaporation but

  10. Thermal Conductivity of Gas Mixtures in Chemical Equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokaw, Richard S.

    1960-01-01

    The expression for the thermal conductivity of gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium is presented in a simpler and less restrictive form. This new form is shown to be equivalent to the previous equations.

  11. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Rapid Thermal Design Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Charles; Cottingham, Christine; Garrison, Matthew; Melak, Tony; Peabody, Sharon; Powers, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) project had a rapid development schedule starting with project conception in spring of 2004, instrument and launch vehicle selection late in 2005 and then launch in early 2009. The lunar thermal environment is one of the harshest in our solar system with the heavy infrared loading of the moon due to low albedo, lack of lunar atmosphere, and low effective regolith conduction. This set of constraints required a thermal design which maximized performance (minimized radiator area and cold control heater power) and minimized thermal hardware build at the orbiter level (blanketing, and heater service). The orbiter design located most of the avionics on an isothermalized heat pipe panel called the IsoThermal Panel (ITP). The ITP was coupled by dual bore heat pipes to an Optical Solar Reflector (OSR) covered heat pipe radiator. By coupling all of the avionics to one system, the hardware was simplified. The seven instruments were mainly heritage instruments which resulted in their desired radiators being located by their heritage design. This minimized instrument redesigns and therefore allowed them to be delivered earlier, though it resulted in a more complex orbiter level blanket and heater service design. Three of the instruments were mounted on a tight pointing M55J optical bench that needed to be covered in heaters to maintain pointing. Two were mounted to spacecraft controlled radiators. One was mounted to the ITP Dual Bores. The last was mounted directly to the bus structure on the moon facing panel. The propulsion system utilized four-20 pound insertion thrusters and eight-5 pound attitude control thrusters (ACS) in addition to 1000 kg of fuel in two large tanks. The propulsion system had a heater cylinder and a heated mounting deck for the insertion thrusters which coupled most of the propulsion design together simplifying the heater design. The High Gain Antenna System (HGAS) and Solar Array System (SAS) used dual axis

  12. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B.

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  13. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Swerdlow, Harold P.; Wittwer, Carl T.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column.

  14. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Swerdlow, H.P.; Wittwer, C.T.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes an apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column. 6 figs.

  15. Microwave-assisted specific chemical digestion for rapid protein identification.

    PubMed

    Hua, Lin; Low, Teck Yew; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a rapid microwave-assisted protein digestion technique based on classic acid hydrolysis reaction with 2% formic acid solution. In this mild chemical environment, proteins are hydrolyzed to peptides, which can be directly analyzed by MALDI-MS or ESI-MS without prior sample purification. Dilute formic acid cleaves proteins specifically at the C-terminal of aspartyl (Asp) residues within 10 min of exposure to microwave irradiation. By adjusting the irradiation time, we found that the extent of protein fragmentation can be controlled, as shown by the single fragmentation of myoglobin at the C-terminal of any of the Asp residues. The efficacy and simplicity of this technique for protein identification are demonstrated by the peptide mass maps of in-gel digested myoglobin and BSA, as well as proteins isolated from Escherichia coli K12 cells.

  16. A quantum chemical method for rapid optimization of protein structures.

    PubMed

    Wada, Mitsuhito; Sakurai, Minoru

    2005-01-30

    A quantum chemical method for rapid optimization of protein structures is proposed. In this method, a protein structure is treated as an assembly of amino acid units, and the geometry optimization of each unit is performed with taking the effect of its surrounding environment into account. The optimized geometry of a whole protein is obtained by repeated application of such a local optimization procedure over the entire part of the protein. Here, we implemented this method in the MOPAC program and performed geometry optimization for three different sizes of proteins. Consequently, these results demonstrate that the total energies of the proteins are much efficiently minimized compared with the use of conventional optimization methods, including the MOZYME algorithm (a representative linear-scaling method) with the BFGS routine. The proposed method is superior to the conventional methods in both CPU time and memory requirements.

  17. Comparison of chemical and heating methods to enhance latent fingerprint deposits on thermal paper.

    PubMed

    Bond, John W

    2014-03-01

    A comparison is made of proprietary methods to develop latent fingerprint deposits on the inked side of thermal paper using either chemical treatment (Thermanin) or the application of heat to the paper (Hot Print System). Results with a trial of five donors show that the application of heat produces statistically significantly more fingerprint ridge detail than the chemical treatment for both fingerprint deposits aged up to 4 weeks and for a nine sequence depletion series. Subjecting the thermal paper to heat treatment with the Hot Print System did not inhibit subsequent ninhydrin chemical development of fingerprint deposits on the noninked side of the paper. A further benefit of the application of heat is the rapid development of fingerprint deposits (less than a minute) compared with up to 12 h for the Thermanin chemical treatment.

  18. Thermal and chemical effects of turkey feathers pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kluska, Jacek; Kardaś, Dariusz; Heda, Łukasz; Szumowski, Mateusz; Szuszkiewicz, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the thermal and chemical effects of the pyrolysis of turkey feathers. Research of feathers pyrolysis is important because of their increasing production and difficulties of their utilization. The experiments were carried out by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and two pyrolytic reactors. The experimental investigation indicated that the feather material liquefies at temperatures between 210 and 240°C. This liquefaction together with the agglomeration of various dispersed and porous elements of the feathers into larger droplets leads to the volume reduction. Moreover, this work presents characteristics of the composition of the solid, liquid and gaseous products of turkey feathers pyrolysis at different temperatures. The higher heating value (HHV) of gaseous products in temperature 900°C equals 19.28 MJ/Nm(3) making the gases suitable for use as a fuel. The thermochemical conversion of turkey feathers leads to the formation of poisonous compounds such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the liquid (0.13%) and gaseous (88 mg/Nm(3)) products. The phenomenon of liquefaction of feathers is important because it can lead to rapid degradation of the walls of reactors, and the formation of deposits.

  19. A fully coupled thermal, chemical, mechanical cookoff model

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.; Gross, R.J.

    1994-05-01

    Cookoff modeling of confined energetic materials involves the coupling of thermal, chemical and mechanical effects. In the past, modeling has focussed on the prediction of thermal runaway with little regard to the effects of mechanical behavior of the energetic material. To address the mechanical response of the energetic material, a constitutive submodel has been developed which can be incorporated into thermal-chemical-mechanical analysis. This work presents development of this submodel and its incorporation into a fully coupled one-dimensional, thermal-chemical-mechanical computer code to simulate thermal initiation of energetic materials. Model predictions include temperature, chemical species, stress, strain, solid/gas pressure, solid/gas density, yield function, and gas volume fraction. Sample results from a scaled aluminum tube filled with RDX exposed to a constant temperature bath at 500 K will be displayed. The micromechanical submodel is based on bubble mechanics which describes nucleation, decomposition, and elastic/plastic mechanical behavior. This constitutive material description requires input of temperatures and reacted fraction of the energetic material as provided by the reactive heat flow code, XCHEM, and the mechanical response is predicted using a quasistatic mechanics code, SANTOS. A parametric sensitivity analysis indicates that a small degree of decomposition causes significant pressurization of the energetic material, which implies that cookoff modeling must consider the strong interaction between thermal-chemistry and mechanics. This document consists of view graphs from the poster session.

  20. Chemical enhancement of fingermark in blood on thermal paper.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungwook; Seo, Jin Yi

    2015-12-01

    Chemical enhancement methods for fingermark in blood deposited on the surface of a thermal paper substrate were examined. The blood-sensitive reagents compared were LCV (leuco crystal violet), Amido black and Hungarian red. Fingermark in blood on the surface of thermal paper can be fixed with 2% 5-sulfosalicylic acid solution. LCV was found as an inadequate blood staining reagent because of bubbling, diffusion, and blurring on the surface of thermal paper. Hungarian red was also an inadequate blood staining reagent because excess Hungarian red on the surface of thermal paper was not washed away in the de-staining procedure. Amido black was the best staining reagent among three staining reagents compared. The maximum dilution ratio visible to the naked eye after Amido black staining was 1 in 80 for the thermally sensitive surface and 1 in 20 for the thermally non-sensitive surface.

  1. Coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical modeling of insensitive explosives in thermal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.L. III

    1996-05-01

    The ability to predict the response of a weapon system that contains insensitive explosives to elevated temperatures is important in understanding its safety characteristics. To model such a system at elevated temperatures in a finite element computer code requires a variety of capabilities. These modeling capabilities include thermal diffusion and convection to transport the heat to the explosives in the weapon system, temperature based chemical reaction modeling of the decomposition of the explosive materials, and mechanical modeling of both the metal casing and the unreacted and decomposed explosive. The Chemical TOPAZ code has been developed to model coupled thermal/chemical problems where we do not need to model the mass motion. We have also developed the LYNX2D code, based on PALM2D and Chemical TOPAZ, which is an implicit, two-dimensional coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical finite element model computer code. Some representative examples are shown. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  3. Tracking thermal fronts with temperature-sensitive, chemically reactive tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, B.A.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Los Alamos is developing tracer techniques using reactive chemicals to track thermal fronts in fractured geothermal reservoirs. If a nonadsorbing tracer flowing from the injection to production well chemically reacts, its reaction rate will be a strong function of temperature. Thus the extent of chemical reaction will be greatest early in the lifetime of the system, and less as the thermal front progresses from the injection to production well. Early laboratory experiments identified tracers with chemical kinetics suitable for reservoirs in the temperature range of 75 to 100/sup 0/C. Recent kinetics studies have focused on the kinetics of hydrolysis of derivatives of bromobenzene. This class of reactions can be used in reservoirs ranging in temperature from 150 to 275/sup 0/C, which is of greater interest to the geothermal industry. Future studies will include laboratory adsorption experiments to identify possibly unwanted adsorption on granite, development of sensitive analytical techniques, and a field demonstration of the reactive tracer concept.

  4. Modeling of Tungsten Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byunghoon; Akiyama, Yasunobu; Imaishi, Nobuyuki; Park, Heung-Chul

    1999-05-01

    Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of tungsten (W)film on silicon (Si) substrate was performed by reducting hexafluoride(WF6) with hydrogen. This CVD system is known for its nonlineardependence of growth rate on WF6 concentration. This study adopted asimple surface-reaction model which assumes that the precursor, i.e.,WF6, in the gas phase adsorbs on solid surfaces and then the adsorbedWF6 molecule is converted into tungsten solid film. The two kineticparameters involved in the model are derived from the experimentalresults. The solidification rate constant (ks) is equal to the growthrate at very high WF6 concentrations. The adsorption rate constant(ka) is derived from profile analyses of films grown in microtrenchesunder very low WF6 concentrations by applying the conventional MonteCarlo simulation code, which is valid for linear surface-reactionsystems. In the temperature range of 623 to 823 K, ka and ks haveactivation energies of 82 kJmol-1, 66.1 kJmol-1, respectively. A newlyproposed Monte Carlo simulation for nonlinear reaction systems, incombination with the two kinetic parameters, can quantitativelypredict the shape of film in microtrenches for a wide range oftemperatures and WF6 concentrations.

  5. Rapid microfluidic thermal cycler for nucleic acid amplification

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Vafai, Kambiz

    2015-10-27

    A system for thermal cycling a material to be thermal cycled including a microfluidic heat exchanger; a porous medium in the microfluidic heat exchanger; a microfluidic thermal cycling chamber containing the material to be thermal cycled, the microfluidic thermal cycling chamber operatively connected to the microfluidic heat exchanger; a working fluid at first temperature; a first system for transmitting the working fluid at first temperature to the microfluidic heat exchanger; a working fluid at a second temperature, a second system for transmitting the working fluid at second temperature to the microfluidic heat exchanger; a pump for flowing the working fluid at the first temperature from the first system to the microfluidic heat exchanger and through the porous medium; and flowing the working fluid at the second temperature from the second system to the heat exchanger and through the porous medium.

  6. Rapid determination of drugs and semivolatile organics by direct thermal desorption ion trap mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.B.; Ilgner, R.H.; Buchanan, M.V.; Guerin, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Direct thermal desorption of analytes into an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) is being investigated as a technique for the rapid screening of a wide variety of samples for target semivolatile organic compounds. This includes the direct detection of drugs in physiological fluids, semivolatile organic pollutants in water and waste samples, and air pollutants collected on sorbent cartridges. In order to minimize the analysis time, chromatographic separation is not performed on the sample prior to introduction into the ITMS. Instead, selective chemical ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) are used achieve the specificity required for the target analytes. Detection limits are typically 10--50 ppb using a 1 uL aliquot of a liquid sample without preconcentration. Sample turn-around time is 2 to 5 minutes and 3 to 5 target analytes can be quantitatively determined simultaneously. 6 figs.

  7. Chemical Changes in Lipids Produced by Thermal Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawar, Wassef W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes heat effects on lipids, indicating that the chemical and physical changes that occur depend on the lipid's composition and conditions of treatment. Thermolytic and oxidation reactions, thermal/oxidative interaction of lipids with other food components and the chemistry of frying are considered. (JN)

  8. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  9. Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-12-13

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

  10. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-05-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  11. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  12. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haven, Victor E.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings extend the operating temperature range of actively cooled gas turbine components, therefore increasing thermal efficiency. Performance and lifetime of existing ceram ic coatings are limited by spallation during heating and cooling cycles. Spallation of the ceramic is a function of its microstructure, which is determined by the deposition method. This research is investigating metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of yttria stabilized zirconia to improve performance and reduce costs relative to electron beam physical vapor deposition. Coatings are deposited in an induction-heated, low-pressure reactor at 10 microns per hour. The coating's composition, structure, and response to the turbine environment will be characterized.

  13. Symmetry Switching of Negative Thermal Expansion by Chemical Control.

    PubMed

    Senn, Mark S; Murray, Claire A; Luo, Xuan; Wang, Lihai; Huang, Fei-Ting; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Bombardi, Alessandro; Ablitt, Chris; Mostofi, Arash A; Bristowe, Nicholas C

    2016-05-04

    The layered perovskite Ca3-xSrxMn2O7 is shown to exhibit a switching from a material exhibiting uniaxial negative to positive thermal expansion as a function of x. The switching is shown to be related to two closely competing phases with different symmetries. The negative thermal expansion (NTE) effect is maximized when the solid solution is tuned closest to this region of phase space but is switched off suddenly on passing though the transition. Our results show for the first time that, by understanding the symmetry of the competing phases alone, one may achieve unprecedented chemical control of this unusual property.

  14. Firearm suppressor having enhanced thermal management for rapid heat dissipation

    DOEpatents

    Moss, William C.; Anderson, Andrew T.

    2014-08-19

    A suppressor is disclosed for use with a weapon having a barrel through which a bullet is fired. The suppressor has an inner portion having a bore extending coaxially therethrough. The inner portion is adapted to be secured to a distal end of the barrel. A plurality of axial flow segments project radially from the inner portion and form axial flow paths through which expanding propellant gasses discharged from the barrel flow through. The axial flow segments have radially extending wall portions that define sections which may be filled with thermally conductive material, which in one example is a thermally conductive foam. The conductive foam helps to dissipate heat deposited within the suppressor during firing of the weapon.

  15. RAPID SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS FOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BINDING CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last few years, an increased awareness of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their potential to affect wildlife and humans has produced a demand for practical screening methods to identify endocrine activity in a wide range of environmental and industrial chemical...

  16. Rapid thermal co-annihilation through bound states in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seyong; Laine, M.

    2016-07-01

    The co-annihilation rate of heavy particles close to thermal equilibrium, which plays a role in many classic dark matter scenarios, can be "simulated" in QCD by considering the pair annihilation rate of a heavy quark and antiquark at a temperature of a few hundred MeV. We show that the so-called Sommerfeld factors, parameterizing the rate, can be defined and measured non-perturbatively within the NRQCD framework. Lattice measurements indicate a modest suppression in the octet channel, in reasonable agreement with perturbation theory, and a large enhancement in the singlet channel, much above the perturbative prediction. The additional enhancement is suggested to originate from bound state formation and subsequent decay. Making use of a Green's function based method to incorporate thermal corrections in perturbative co-annihilation rate computations, we show that qualitative agreement with lattice data can be found once thermally broadened bound states are accounted for. We suggest that our formalism may also be applicable to specific dark matter models which have complicated bound state structures.

  17. Modeling thermal/chemical/mechanical response of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gross, R.J.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of modeling at Sandia National Laboratories is presented which describes coupled thermal, chemical and mechanical response of energetic materials. This modeling addresses cookoff scenarios for safety assessment studies in systems containing energetic materials. Foundation work is discussed which establishes a method for incorporating chemistry and mechanics into multidimensional analysis. Finite element analysis offers the capabilities to simultaneously resolve reactive heat transfer and structural mechanics in complex geometries. Nonlinear conduction heat transfer, with multiple step finite-rate chemistry, is resolved using a thermal finite element code. Rate equations are solved element-by-element using a modified matrix-free stiff solver This finite element software was developed for the simulation of systems requiring large numbers of finite elements. An iterative implicit scheme, based on the conjugate gradient method, is used and a hemi-cube algorithm is employed for the determination of view factors in surface-to-surface radiation transfer The critical link between the reactive heat transfer and mechanics is the introduction of an appropriate constitutive material model providing a stress-strain relationship for quasi-static mechanics analysis. This model is formally derived from bubble nucleation theory, and parameter variations of critical model parameters indicate that a small degree of decomposition leads to significant mechanical response. Coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical analysis is presented which simulates experiments designed to probe cookoff thermal-mechanical response of energetic materials.

  18. Thermal Spray Based Rapid Manufacturing, Part Refurbishing and Reengineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-30

    comparison algorithm is developed . Fig. 6. Part databse Fig. 7. Part matching Broken Part Data Acquisition (GeoMagic) ----Yes _------ Is It...ground with a diamond wheel. The microstructure and chemical composition is shown in Fig. 14. The average hardness of the deposit was 1100 vickers. Fig

  19. Atmospheric chemical and thermal structure evolution after one Titan year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, Athena; Bampasidis, Georgios; Achterberg, Richard; Lavvas, Panayiotis; Vinatier, Sandrine; Nixon, Conor; Jennings, Donald; Teanby, Nicolas; Flasar, F. Michael; Carlson, Ronald; Orton, Glenn; Romani, Paul; Guandique, Ever

    2013-04-01

    Our radiative transfer code (ARTT) was applied to Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data taken during Titan flybys from 2004-2010 and to the 1980 Voyager 1 flyby values inferred from the re-analysis of the Infrared Radiometer Spectrometer (IRIS) spectra [1], as well as to the intervening ground- and space- based observations (such as with ISO, [2]), providing us with a new view of the stratospheric evolution over a Titanian year (V1 encounter Ls=9° was reached in mid-2010). CIRS nadir and limb spectral [3,4] show variations in temperature and chemical composition in the stratosphere during the Cassini mission, before and after the Northern Spring Equinox (NSE). We find indication for a weakening of the temperature gradient with warming of the stratosphere and cooling of the lower mesosphere. In addition, we infer precise concentrations for the trace gases and their main isotopologues and find that the chemical composition in Titan's stratosphere varied significantly with latitude during the 6 terrestrial years investigated here, with increased mixing ratios towards the northern latitudes. In particular, we find a maximum enhancement of several gases observed at northern latitudes up to 50°N around mid-2009, at the time of the NSE. We find that this raise is followed by a rapid decrease in chemical inventory in 2010 probably due to changes in the cross vortex mixing or northward migration of the vortex boundary [5,6,7] consistent with the weakening thermal gradient. The finding also ties into the location of the maximum temperature gradient, which appears to be moving northward over the winter/spring season. The return of today's abundances close to the Voyager values (at the same season) is an indication that, as for the Earth, the solar radiation dominates over the other energy sources even at 10AU [8]. Nevertheless, the differences observed for some complex hydrocarbons in the North pole indicate that the other processes could be at play as well

  20. Thermal-chemical Mantle Convection Models With Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, W.; Zhong, S.

    2008-12-01

    In numerical modeling of mantle convection, resolution is often crucial for resolving small-scale features. New techniques, adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), allow local mesh refinement wherever high resolution is needed, while leaving other regions with relatively low resolution. Both computational efficiency for large- scale simulation and accuracy for small-scale features can thus be achieved with AMR. Based on the octree data structure [Tu et al. 2005], we implement the AMR techniques into the 2-D mantle convection models. For pure thermal convection models, benchmark tests show that our code can achieve high accuracy with relatively small number of elements both for isoviscous cases (i.e. 7492 AMR elements v.s. 65536 uniform elements) and for temperature-dependent viscosity cases (i.e. 14620 AMR elements v.s. 65536 uniform elements). We further implement tracer-method into the models for simulating thermal-chemical convection. By appropriately adding and removing tracers according to the refinement of the meshes, our code successfully reproduces the benchmark results in van Keken et al. [1997] with much fewer elements and tracers compared with uniform-mesh models (i.e. 7552 AMR elements v.s. 16384 uniform elements, and ~83000 tracers v.s. ~410000 tracers). The boundaries of the chemical piles in our AMR code can be easily refined to the scales of a few kilometers for the Earth's mantle and the tracers are concentrated near the chemical boundaries to precisely trace the evolvement of the boundaries. It is thus very suitable for our AMR code to study the thermal-chemical convection problems which need high resolution to resolve the evolvement of chemical boundaries, such as the entrainment problems [Sleep, 1988].

  1. Thermal, chemical, and mechanical response of rigid polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, M.L.

    1997-12-01

    Rigid polyurethane foams are frequently used as encapsulants to isolate and support thermally sensitive components within weapon systems. When exposed to abnormal thermal environments, such as fire, the polyurethane foam decomposes to form products having a wide distribution of molecular weights and can dominate the overall thermal response of the system. Mechanical response of the decomposing foam, such as thermal expansion under various loading conditions created by gas generation, remains a major unsolved problem. A constitutive model of the reactive foam is needed to describe the coupling between mechanical response and chemical decomposition of foam exposed to environments such as fire. Towards this end, a reactive elastic-plastic constitutive model based on bubble mechanics describing nucleation, decomposition chemistry, and elastic/plastic mechanical behavior of rigid polyurethane foam has been developed. A local force balance, with mass continuity constraints, forms the basis of the constitutive model requiring input of temperature and the fraction of the material converted to gas. This constitutive model provides a stress-strain relationship which is applicable for a broad class of reacting materials such as explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and decomposing foams. The model is applied to a block of foam exposed to various thermal fluxes. The model is also applied to a sphere of foam confined in brass. The predicted mechanical deformation of the foam block and sphere are shown to qualitatively agree with experimental observations.

  2. Rapid Chemical Ordering in Supercooled Liquid Cu46Zr54

    SciTech Connect

    Wessels, Victor; Gangopadhyay, Anup; Sahu, K. K.; Hyers, R. W.; Canepari, S. M.; Rogers, J. R.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Goldman, Alan; Robinson, D.; Lee, Jae W; Morris, James R; Kelton, K. F.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for abrupt chemical ordering in a supercooled Cu46Zr54 liquid, obtained from high energy x-ray diffraction in a containerless processing environment, is presented. Relatively sudden changes were observed in the topological and chemical short-range order near 850oC, a temperature significantly below the liquidus and above the glass transition temperatures. A peak in the specific heat was observed with supercooling, with an onset near 850oC, the same temperature as the onset of chemical ordering, and a maximum near 700oC, consistent with the prediction of a molecular dynamics calculation using embedded atom potentials. The dominant short-range order below 850oC is incompatible with that of the primary crystallizing phases. This, and the possible development of strongly bonded, chemically ordered clustersmay explain unlikely bulk metallic glass formation in Cu-Zr and other binary alloys.

  3. Rapid chemical agent identification by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuan-Hsiang; Farquharson, Stuart

    2001-08-01

    Although the Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, stockpiling, and use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), the use of these agents persists due to their low cost, simplicity in manufacturing and ease of deployment. These attributes make these weapons especially attractive to low technology countries and terrorists. The military and the public at large require portable, fast, sensitive, and accurate analyzers to provide early warning of the use of chemical weapons. Traditional laboratory analyzers such as the combination of gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy, although sensitive and accurate, are large and require up to an hour per analysis. New, chemical specific analyzers, such as immunoassays and molecular recognition sensors, are portable, fast, and sensitive, but are plagued by false-positives (response to interferents). To overcome these limitations, we have been investigating the potential of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to identify and quantify chemical warfare agents in either the gas or liquid phase. The approach is based on the extreme sensitivity of SERS demonstrated by single molecule detection, a new SERS material that we have developed to allow reproducible and reversible measurements, and the molecular specific information provided by Raman spectroscopy. Here we present SER spectra of chemical agent simulants in both the liquid and gas phase, as well as CWA hydrolysis phase.

  4. Chemical potential dependence of particle ratios within a unified thermal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, I.; Nanda, H.; Uddin, S.

    2016-06-01

    A unified statistical thermal freeze-out model (USTFM) is used to study the chemical potential dependence of identified particle ratios at mid-rapidity in heavy-ion collisions. We successfully reproduce the experimental data ranging from SPS energies to LHC energies, suggesting the statistical nature of the particle production in these collisions and hence the validity of our approach. The behavior of the freeze-out temperature is studied with respect to chemical potential. The freeze-out temperature is found to be universal at the RHIC and LHC and is close to the QCD predicted phase transition temperature, suggesting that the chemical freeze-out occurs soon after the hadronization takes place.

  5. Anisotropic turbulent thermal diffusion and thermal convection in a rapidly rotating fluid sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivers, D. J.; Phillips, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of the molecular values of magnetic, viscous and thermal diffusion suggest that the state of the Earth's core is turbulent and that complete numerical simulation of the geodynamo is not realizable at present. Large eddy simulation of the geodynamo with modelling of the sub-grid scale turbulence must be used. Current geodynamo models effectively model the sub-grid scale turbulence with isotropic diffusivities larger than the molecular values appropriate for the core. In the Braginsky and Meytlis (1990) picture of core turbulence the thermal and viscous diffusivities are enhanced up to the molecular magnetic diffusivity in the directions of the rotation axis and mean magnetic field. We neglect the mean magnetic field herein to isolate the effects of anisotropic thermal diffusion, enhanced or diminished along the rotation axis, and explore the instability of a steady conductive basic state with zero mean flow in the Boussinesq approximation. This state is found to be more stable (less stable) as the thermal diffusion parallel to the rotation axis is increased (decreased), if the transverse thermal diffusion is fixed. To examine the effect of simultaneously varying the diffusion along and transverse to the rotation axis, the Frobenius norm is used to control for the total thermal diffusion. When the Frobenius norm of the thermal diffusion tensor is fixed, it is found that increasing the thermal diffusion parallel to the rotation axis is destabilising. This result suggests that, for a fixed total thermal diffusion, geodynamo codes with anisotropic thermal diffusion may operate at lower modified Rayleigh numbers.

  6. Millimeter-wave imaging of thermal and chemical signatures.

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N.

    1999-03-30

    Development of a passive millimeter-wave (mm-wave) system is described for remotely mapping thermal and chemical signatures of process effluents with application to arms control and nonproliferation. Because a large amount of heat is usually dissipated in the air or waterway as a by-product of most weapons of mass destruction facilities, remote thermal mapping may be used to detect concealed or open facilities of weapons of mass destruction. We have developed a focal-plane mm-wave imaging system to investigate the potential of thermal mapping. Results of mm-wave images obtained with a 160-GHz radiometer system are presented for different target scenes simulated in the laboratory. Chemical and nuclear facilities may be identified by remotely measuring molecular signatures of airborne molecules emitted from these facilities. We have developed a filterbank radiometer to investigate the potential of passive spectral measurements. Proof of principle is presented by measuring the HDO spectral line at 80.6 GHz with a 4-channel 77-83 GHz radiometer.

  7. Methods for the rapid detection of biological and chemical weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, A.; Hemberger, P.H.; Swanson, B.I.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This work undertook the development of technology for the detection of chemical and biological agents. The project consisted of three tasks: (1) modifying a transportable mass spectrometer for the detection of chemical gents; (2) demonstrating the detection of a specific bacterial DNA sequence using a fluorescence-based single- copy gene detector; and (3) upgrading a surface acoustic wave measurement station.

  8. Experimental studies of thermal and chemical interactions between molten aluminum and water

    SciTech Connect

    Farahani, A.A.; Corradini, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The possibility of rapid physical and chemical aluminum/water interactions during a core melt accident in a noncommercial reactor (e.g., HFIR, ATR) has resulted in extensive research to determine the mechanism by which these interactions occur and propagate on an explosive time scale. These events have been reported in nuclear testing facilities, i.e., during SPERT 1D experiment, and also in aluminum casting industries. Although rapid chemical reactions between molten aluminum and water have been subject of many studies, very few reliable measurements of the extent of the chemical reactions have thus far been made. We have modified an existing 1-D shock tube facility to perform experiments in order to determine the extent of the explosive thermal/chemical interactions between molton aluminum and water by measuring important physical quantities such as the maximum dynamic pressure and the amount of the generated hydrogen. Experimental results show that transient pressures greater than 69 MPa with a rise time of less than 125 {mu}sec can occur as the result of the chemical reaction of 4.2 grams of molton aluminum (approximately 15% of the total mass of the fuel of 28 grams) at 980 C with room temperature water.

  9. Free-Electron Lasers, Thermal Diffusion, Chemical Kinetics, and Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Glenn; Hutson, M. Shane

    2001-11-01

    Experiments demonstrate that the Mark-III FEL is a particularly effective tool for etching soft matter with remarkably little damage surrounding the site when tuned to wavelengths near 6.45 microns. Based on these observatons, human neuorsurgical and ophthalmic procedures were developed and have been performed successfully. A thermodynamic model was proposed to account for the wavelength dependence; however, the dynamics have not been well understood. We have theoretically investigated thermal diffusion and chemical kinetics in a system of alternating layers of protein and water as heated by a Mark-III FEL. The model is representative of cornea and the exposure conditions are comparable to previous experimental FEL investigations. A substantial temperature enhancement develops in the surface layer on the ten-nanosecond time scale. We consider the onset of both the helix-coil transition and chemical bond breaking of collagen in terms of the thermal, chemical, and structural properties of the system as well as laser wavelength and pulse structure.

  10. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yin-Nan E.; Weber, Rodney J.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution are provided. The apparatus includes a modified particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and a collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical methods. The method provided for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles includes exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  11. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yin-Nan E.; Weber, Rodney J.; Orsini, Douglas

    2006-04-18

    An apparatus for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution is provided. The apparatus includes an enhanced particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and an enhanced collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical means. Methods for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles are also provided, the method including exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; and flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  12. Chemical regulation on fire: rapid policy advances on flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Alissa; Mulcahy, Margaret; Brown, Phil

    2013-07-02

    Chemicals that are widely used in consumer products offer challenges to product manufacturers, risk managers, environmental regulators, environmental scientists, and the interested public. However, the factors that cause specific chemicals to rise to the level of regulatory, scientific, and social movement concern and scrutiny are not well documented, and scientists are frequently unclear about exactly how their research impacts policy. Through a case study of advocacy around flame retardant chemicals, this paper traces the pathways through which scientific evidence and concern is marshaled by both advocacy groups and media sources to affect policy change. We focus our analysis around a broad coalition of environmental and public health advocacy organizations and an investigative journalism series published in 2012 in the Chicago Tribune. We demonstrate that the Tribune series both brought the issue to a wider public audience and precipitated government action, including state policy revisions and federal Senate hearings. We also show how a broad and successful flame retardant coalition developed, leveraged a media event, and influenced policy at multiple institutional levels. The analysis draws on over 110 in-depth interviews, literature and Web site reviews, and observations at a flame retardant manufacturing company, government offices, and scientific and advocacy conferences.

  13. Dumping pump and treat: rapid cleanups using thermal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R.L.; Aines, R.D.

    1997-03-11

    Underground spills of volatile hydrocarbons are often difficult to clean up, especially if the contaminants are present in or below the water table as a separate liquid-organic phase. Excavating and treating the contaminated soil may not be practical or even possible if the affected zone is relatively deep. Merely pumping groundwater has proven to be ineffective because huge amounts of water must be flushed through the contaminated area to clean it; even then the contaminants may not be completely removed. Due to the low solubility of most common contaminants, such pump and treat systems can be expected to take decades to centuries to actually clean a site. Today, many sites are required to pump and treat contaminated groundwater even though there is no expectation that the site will be cleaned. In these cases, the pumps simply control the spread of the contaminant, while requiring a continuous flow of money, paperwork, and management attention. Although pump and treat systems are relatively inexpensive to operate, they represent along term cost. Most importantly, they rarely remove enough contaminant to change the property`s status. Although a pump and treat system can offer compliance in a regulatory sense, it doesn`t solve the site`s liability problem. Thermal methods promise to solve this dilemma by actually cleaning a property in a short time period, thus limiting the period of liability. This may involve cleaning a site to closure during the initial contaminant-removal phase, or removal of the majority of the contaminant so that natural processes such as bioremediation can return the site to pristine condition over a period of years, without further owner intervention. Today`s regulatory environment encourages this approach through efforts such as the brownfields initiatives. In either case, this requires a strong commitment on the part of the site owner. Most if not all the cleanup occurs within the first year or so, and nearly all the cost. In our

  14. Rapid thermal processing in the manufacturing technology of contacts to InP-based photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Avishay

    1991-04-01

    Rapid thermal alloying and sintering of metal ohmic contacts such as AuBe PtTFi and W to InP-based materials is shown to perform with better electrical properties than the same contacts heated by means of conventional furnace. The metalsemiconductor interfacial reactions induced by the rapid thermal processing were much shallower than those formed during the conventional heating cycle at the same temperature however with a negligible influence on the overall stresses developed in the film. These results demonstrate the superiority of the rapid thermal processing over the conventional furnace heating in sintering the metal electrical contacts and its potential while integrated into the overall manufacturing process sequence of the InP based photonic devices.

  15. Rapid hydrogen gas generation using reactive thermal decomposition of uranium hydride.

    SciTech Connect

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Van Blarigan, Peter; Robinson, David B.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Buffleben, George M.; James, Scott Carlton; Mills, Bernice E.

    2011-09-01

    Oxygen gas injection has been studied as one method for rapidly generating hydrogen gas from a uranium hydride storage system. Small scale reactors, 2.9 g UH{sub 3}, were used to study the process experimentally. Complimentary numerical simulations were used to better characterize and understand the strongly coupled chemical and thermal transport processes controlling hydrogen gas liberation. The results indicate that UH{sub 3} and O{sub 2} are sufficiently reactive to enable a well designed system to release gram quantities of hydrogen in {approx} 2 seconds over a broad temperature range. The major system-design challenge appears to be heat management. In addition to the oxidation tests, H/D isotope exchange experiments were performed. The rate limiting step in the overall gas-to-particle exchange process was found to be hydrogen diffusion in the {approx}0.5 {mu}m hydride particles. The experiments generated a set of high quality experimental data; from which effective intra-particle diffusion coefficients can be inferred.

  16. Rapid determination of nicotine in urine by direct thermal desorption ion trap mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.B.; Ilgner, R.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of nicotine and cotinine in physiological fluids (urine, blood serum, and saliva) is widely used as a means of assessing human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Although numerous analytical methods exist for these measurements, they generally involve extensive sample preparation which increases cost and decreases sample throughput. We report the use of thermal desorption directly into an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) for the rapid determination of nicotine and cotinine in urine. A 1{mu}L aliquot of urine is injected into a specially designed inlet and flash vaporized directly into an ITMS through an open-split capillary restrictor interface. Isobutane chemical ionization is used to generate (M+H){sup +} ions of the analytes and collision induced dissociation is used to generate characteristic fragment ions which are used to confirm their identity. Quantification is achieved by integrating the ion current for the characteristic ions and comparing with an external working curve. Detection limits are approximately 50 pg per analyte and the sample turnaround time is approximately 3 minutes without the need for extensive sample preparation. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Stabilization of thin tungsten films on silicon during rapid thermal annealing in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    Thin W films on Si, deposited by electron-beam evaporation or sputtering, are shown to be stabilized against silicidation by a N[sub 2] ambient during rapid thermal annealing to temperatures of 1100[degree]C. The behavior of the W films in contact with Si was monitored following anneals in Ar and N[sub 2] ambients. Tungsten films annealed in an Ar ambient reacted fully to form the stable silicide, WSi[sub 2], while films annealed in N[sub 2] remained elemental W. The stability of W films with incorporated N was studied further by subsequent annealing in an Ar ambient. Complete stabilization of the W films was only achieved for N doses above 2.0 [times] 10[sup 17] N atoms/cm[sub 2]. At lower doses, a continual supply of N was necessary to maintain the stabilization by consumption of mobile Si at the interface. In contrast to films deposited by e-beam evaporation or sputtering, films deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reacted to form WSi[sub 2], regardless of the annealing ambient, at a substantially faster rate than the other samples. AES measurements show this reaction is the result of an absence of measurable O in the CVD films.

  18. Comparison of rapid screening assays using organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, S.A.; Robideau, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    In a continuation of a study presented last year using metals, the sensitivity of short term toxicity tests is examined using common organic chemicals. In toxicity testing, the focus has shifted from the traditional long-term studies utilizing the mortality of complex, multicellular eukaryotic organisms as the endpoint towards short-term studies in which transformation of biochemical pathways are monitored. The relative sensitivity of aquatic screening techniques are compared to the standardized 48-hr Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia, 96-hr fathead minnow and 96-hr algal acute assays. The short-term test procedures investigated are: dehydrogenase enzyme activity assays utilizing triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and resazurin as the calorimetric indicators; TOXI-Chromotest, inhibition of {beta}-galactosidase; reduction in bioluminescence output utilizing the Microtox{reg_sign} test; nitrification inhibition assays with a commercial preparation of nitrifying bacteria (Nitroseed{trademark}) and municipal activated sludge; respiration inhibition assays with a commercial preparation of heterotrophic bacteria (Polytox{reg_sign}) and activated sludge; inhibition of root growth in terrestrial plants; and galactosidase inhibition through the use of a fluorometrically tagged substrate with the Daphnia magna IQ{trademark} test. Toxicity values generated by this laboratory on commonly used organic chemicals are compared.

  19. Examination of lignocellulosic fibers for chemical, thermal, and separations properties: Addressing thermo-chemical stability issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Carter David

    Natural fiber-plastic composites incorporate thermoplastic resins with fibrous plant-based materials, sometimes referred to as biomass. Pine wood mill waste has been the traditional source of natural fibrous feedstock. In anticipation of a waste wood shortage other fibrous biomass materials are being investigated as potential supplements or replacements. Perennial grasses, agricultural wastes, and woody biomass are among the potential source materials. As these feedstocks share the basic chemical building blocks; cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, they are collectively called lignocellulosics. Initial investigation of a number of lignocellulosic materials, applied to fiber-plastic composite processing and material testing, resulted in varied results, particularly response to processing conditions. Less thermally stable lignocellulosic filler materials were physically changed in observable ways: darkened color and odor. The effect of biomass materials' chemical composition on thermal stability was investigated an experiment involving determination of the chemical composition of seven lignocellulosics: corn hull, corn stover, fescue, pine, soy hull, soy stover, and switchgrass. These materials were also evaluated for thermal stability by thermogravimetric analysis. The results of these determinations indicated that both chemical composition and pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials can have an effect on their thermal stability. A second study was performed to investigate what effect different pretreatment systems have on hybrid poplar, pine, and switchgrass. These materials were treated with hot water, ethanol, and a 2:1 benzene/ethanol mixture for extraction times of: 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours. This factorial experiment demonstrated that both extraction time and medium have an effect on the weight percent of extractives removed from all three material types. The extracted materials generated in the above study were then subjected to an evaluation of thermal

  20. Hyper-Rapid thermal defect annealing during grinding of ZnO powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakazey, M. G.; Vlasova, M.; Dominguez-Patino, M.; Dominguez-Patino, G.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, G.; Salazar-Hernandez, B.

    2002-11-01

    We report on the changes in the defect structure of ZnO particles that take place during the grinding of pure ZnO powders and mixtures ZnO-SnO2 and ZnO-TiO2 powders. The qualitative differences in the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra for different specimens were discussed in the context of the hyper-rapid high-temperature spikes created in ZnO particles during mechanical treatment. The thermal spikes cause the defect structure to undergo annealing. The spike duration of the hyper-rapid thermal defects annealing was dependent on the heat conductivity of the ZnO particle environment.

  1. Chemical kinetic performance losses for a hydrogen laser thermal thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, T. D.; Dexter, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Projected requirements for efficient, economical, orbit-raising propulsion systems have generated investigations into several potentially high specific impulse, moderate thrust, advanced systems. One of these systems, laser thermal propulsion, utilizes a high temperature plasma as the enthalpy source. The plasma is sustained by a focused laser beam which maintains the plasma temperature at levels near 20,000 K. Since such temperature levels lead to total dissociation and high ionization, the plasma thruster system potentially has a high specific impulse decrement due to recombination losses. The nozzle flow is expected to be sufficiently nonequilibrium to warrant concern over the achievable specific impluse. This investigation was an attempt at evaluation of those losses. The One-Dimensional Kinetics (ODK) option of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) Computer Program was used with a chemical kinetics rate set obtained from available literature to determine the chemical kinetic energy losses for typical plasma thruster conditions. The rates were varied about the nominal accepted values to band the possible losses. Kinetic losses were shown to be highly significant for a laser thermal thruster using hydrogen. A 30 percent reduction in specific impulse is possible simply due to the inability to completely extract the molecular recombination energy.

  2. Rapid PCR protocols for forensic DNA typing on six thermal cycling platforms.

    PubMed

    Butts, Erica L R; Vallone, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    Rapid PCR protocols for the amplification of typing STR multiplexes were evaluated on six different thermal cyclers. Through the use of a faster DNA polymerase coupled with the use of rapid thermal cyclers the amplification cycling times were reduced down to as little as 14 min using PCR primers from the commercially available multiplex STR typing kit Identifiler. Previously described two-step and three-step thermal cycling protocols were evaluated for the six thermal cyclers on 95 unique single-source DNA extracts. CE characterization of the PCR products indicates good peak balance between loci (median values greater than 0.84), and N minus four stutter ratios on averages were 30 to 40% higher than for standard Identifiler PCR conditions. Nonspecific amplification artifacts were observed, but were not observed to migrate within the allele calling bins. With the exception of one locus (D18S51) in a single sample, genotyping results were concordant with manufacturer's recommended amplification conditions utilizing standard thermal cycling procedures. Assay conditions were robust enough to routinely amplify 250 to 500 pg of template DNA. This work describes the protocols for the rapid PCR amplification of STR multiplexes on various PCR thermal cyclers with the future intent to support validation for typing single-source samples in a database laboratory.

  3. Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cellmembranes

    SciTech Connect

    Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

    2004-01-02

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes were developed in which zirconia-based electrolyte thin films were supported by a composite metal/ceramic electrode, and were subjected to rapid thermal cycling between 200 and 800 C. The effects of this cycling on membrane performance were evaluated. The membranes, not yet optimized for performance, showed a peak power density of 350mW/cm2at 900 C in laboratory-sized SOFCs that was not affected by the thermal cycling. This resistance to cycling degradation is attributed to the close matching of thermal expansion coefficient of the cermet support electrode with that of the zirconia electrolyte.

  4. Computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics for geosystems management.

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Scott; Alger, Nicholas; Turner, Daniel Zack; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Carnes, Brian; Martinez, Mario J.; Notz, Patrick K.; Klise, Katherine A.; Stone, Charles Michael; Field, Richard V., Jr.; Newell, Pania; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Red-Horse, John Robert; Bishop, Joseph E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hopkins, Polly L.; Mesh, Mikhail; Bean, James E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Yoon, Hongkyu

    2011-09-01

    This document summarizes research performed under the SNL LDRD entitled - Computational Mechanics for Geosystems Management to Support the Energy and Natural Resources Mission. The main accomplishment was development of a foundational SNL capability for computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics analysis of geosystems. The code was developed within the SNL Sierra software system. This report summarizes the capabilities of the simulation code and the supporting research and development conducted under this LDRD. The main goal of this project was the development of a foundational capability for coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) simulation of heterogeneous geosystems utilizing massively parallel processing. To solve these complex issues, this project integrated research in numerical mathematics and algorithms for chemically reactive multiphase systems with computer science research in adaptive coupled solution control and framework architecture. This report summarizes and demonstrates the capabilities that were developed together with the supporting research underlying the models. Key accomplishments are: (1) General capability for modeling nonisothermal, multiphase, multicomponent flow in heterogeneous porous geologic materials; (2) General capability to model multiphase reactive transport of species in heterogeneous porous media; (3) Constitutive models for describing real, general geomaterials under multiphase conditions utilizing laboratory data; (4) General capability to couple nonisothermal reactive flow with geomechanics (THMC); (5) Phase behavior thermodynamics for the CO2-H2O-NaCl system. General implementation enables modeling of other fluid mixtures. Adaptive look-up tables enable thermodynamic capability to other simulators; (6) Capability for statistical modeling of heterogeneity in geologic materials; and (7) Simulator utilizes unstructured grids on parallel processing computers.

  5. Rapid computation of chemical equilibrium composition - An application to hydrocarbon combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. D.; Prabhu, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    A scheme for rapidly computing the chemical equilibrium composition of hydrocarbon combustion products is derived. A set of ten governing equations is reduced to a single equation that is solved by the Newton iteration method. Computation speeds are approximately 80 times faster than the often used free-energy minimization method. The general approach also has application to many other chemical systems.

  6. Degradation of Teflon(trademark) FEP Following Charged Particle Radiation and Rapid Thermal Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Jacqueline; Powers, Charles; Viens, Michael; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Munoz, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    During the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) severe degradation was observed on the outer layer of the thermal control blankets. Astronaut observations and photographs revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon(trademark) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. In an effort to understand what elements of the space environment might cause such damage, pristine Teflon(trademark) FEP was tested for durability to radiation and thermal cycling. Specimens were subjected to electron and proton fluences comparable to those experienced by HST and were subsequently thermal cycled in a custom-built rapid thermal cycle chamber. Tensile tests of the specimens showed that radiation followed by thermal cycling significantly reduced the ultimate strength and elongation of Teflon(trademark) FEP.

  7. Degradation of Teflon(tm) FEP Following Charged Particle Radiation and Rapid Thermal Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Powers, Charles E.; Viens, Michael J.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary T.; Munoz, Bruno F.

    1998-01-01

    During the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) severe degradation was observed on the outer layer of the thermal control blankets. Astronaut observations and photographs revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon' FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. In an effort to understand what elements of the space environment might cause such damage, pristine Teflon(registered trademark) FEP was tested for durability to radiation and thermal cycling. Specimens were subjected to electron and proton fluences comparable to those experienced by HST and were subsequently thermal cycled in a custom-built rapid thermal cycle chamber. Tensile tests of the specimens showed that radiation followed by thermal cycling significantly reduced the ultimate strength and elongation of Teflon(registered trademark) FEP.

  8. Degradation of Teflon(tm) FEP Following Charged Particle Radiation and Rapid Thermal Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Powers, Charles E.; Viens, Michael J.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary T.; Munoz, Bruno

    1998-01-01

    During the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) severe degradation was observed on the outer layer of the thermal control blankets. Astronaut observations and photographs revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. In an effort to understand what elements of the space environment might cause such damage, pristine Teflon' FEP was tested for durability to radiation and thermal cycling. Specimens were subjected to electron and proton fluences comparable to those experienced by HST and were subsequently thermal cycled in a custom-built rapid thermal cycle chamber. Tensile tests of the specimens showed that radiation followed by thermal cycling significantly reduced the ultimate strength and elongation of Teflon FEP.

  9. Coupled Thermal-Chemical-Mechanical Modeling of Validation Cookoff Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    ERIKSON,WILLIAM W.; SCHMITT,ROBERT G.; ATWOOD,A.I.; CURRAN,P.D.

    2000-11-27

    The cookoff of energetic materials involves the combined effects of several physical and chemical processes. These processes include heat transfer, chemical decomposition, and mechanical response. The interaction and coupling between these processes influence both the time-to-event and the violence of reaction. The prediction of the behavior of explosives during cookoff, particularly with respect to reaction violence, is a challenging task. To this end, a joint DoD/DOE program has been initiated to develop models for cookoff, and to perform experiments to validate those models. In this paper, a series of cookoff analyses are presented and compared with data from a number of experiments for the aluminized, RDX-based, Navy explosive PBXN-109. The traditional thermal-chemical analysis is used to calculate time-to-event and characterize the heat transfer and boundary conditions. A reaction mechanism based on Tarver and McGuire's work on RDX{sup 2} was adjusted to match the spherical one-dimensional time-to-explosion data. The predicted time-to-event using this reaction mechanism compares favorably with the validation tests. Coupled thermal-chemical-mechanical analysis is used to calculate the mechanical response of the confinement and the energetic material state prior to ignition. The predicted state of the material includes the temperature, stress-field, porosity, and extent of reaction. There is little experimental data for comparison to these calculations. The hoop strain in the confining steel tube gives an estimation of the radial stress in the explosive. The inferred pressure from the measured hoop strain and calculated radial stress agree qualitatively. However, validation of the mechanical response model and the chemical reaction mechanism requires more data. A post-ignition burn dynamics model was applied to calculate the confinement dynamics. The burn dynamics calculations suffer from a lack of characterization of the confinement for the flaw

  10. Demonstration of a rapidly-swept external cavity quantum cascade laser for rapid and sensitive quantification of chemical mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Brumfield, Brian E.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-02-13

    A rapidly-swept external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system for fast open-path quantification of multiple chemicals and mixtures is presented. The ECQCL system is swept over its entire tuning range (>100 cm-1) at frequencies up to 200 Hz. At 200 Hz the wavelength tuning rate and spectral resolution are 2x104 cm-1/sec and < 0.2 cm-1, respectively. The capability of the current system to quantify changes in chemical concentrations on millesecond timescales is demonstrated at atmospheric pressure using an open-path multi-pass cell. The detection limits for chemicals ranged from ppb to ppm levels depending on the absorption cross-section.

  11. Rapid, facile microwave-assisted synthesis of xanthan gum grafted polyaniline for chemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sadanand; Ramontja, James

    2016-08-01

    Grafting method, through microwave radiation procedure is extremely productive in terms of time consumption, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness. In this study, conductive and thermally stable composite (mwXG-g-PANi) was synthesized by grafting of aniline (ANi) on to xanthan gum (XG) using catalytic weight of initiator, ammonium peroxydisulfate in the process of microwave irradiation in an aqueous medium. The synthesis of mwXG-g-PANi were confirm by FTIR, XRD, TGA, and SEM. The influence of altering the microwave power, exposure time of microwave, concentration of monomer and the amount of initiator of graft polymerization were studied over the grafting parameters, for example, grafting percentage (%G) and grafting efficiency (%E). The maximum %G and %E achieved was 172 and 74.13 respectively. The outcome demonstrates that the microwave irradiation strategy can increase the reaction rate by 72 times over the conventional method. Electrical conductivity of XG and mwXG-g-PANi composite film was performed. The fabricated grafted sample film were then examined for the chemical sensor. The mwXG-g-PANi, effectively integrated and handled, are NH3 sensitive and exhibit a rapid sensing in presence of NH3 vapor. Chemiresistive NH3 sensors with superior room temperature sensing performance were produced with sensor response of 905 at 1ppb and 90% recovery within few second.

  12. Examining rapid onset drought development using the thermal infrared based evaporative stress index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable indicators of rapid drought onset are necessary to improve the utility of drought early warning systems. In this study, the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI), which uses remotely-sensed thermal infrared imagery to estimate evapotranspiration (ET), is compared to meteorological data and United...

  13. A hybrid computer program for rapidly solving flowing or static chemical kinetic problems involving many chemical species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclain, A. G.; Rao, C. S. R.

    1976-01-01

    A hybrid chemical kinetic computer program was assembled which provides a rapid solution to problems involving flowing or static, chemically reacting, gas mixtures. The computer program uses existing subroutines for problem setup, initialization, and preliminary calculations and incorporates a stiff ordinary differential equation solution technique. A number of check cases were recomputed with the hybrid program and the results were almost identical to those previously obtained. The computational time saving was demonstrated with a propane-oxygen-argon shock tube combustion problem involving 31 chemical species and 64 reactions. Information is presented to enable potential users to prepare an input data deck for the calculation of a problem.

  14. Rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs using thermal desorption - SALDI mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechnikov, A. A.; Kubasov, A. E.; Georgieva, V. B.; Borodkov, A. S.; Nikiforov, S. M.; Simanovsky, Ya O.; Alimpiev, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    A novel approach to the rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs by surface assisted laser desorption-ionization (SALDI) mass spectrometry with the rotating ball interface coupled with temperature programmed thermal desorption has been developed. Analytes were thermally desorbed and deposited onto the surface of amorphous silicon substrate attached to the rotating ball. The ball was rotated and the deposited analytes were analyzed using SALDI. The effectiveness of coupling SALDI mass spectrometry with thermal desorption was evaluated by the direct and rapid analysis of tablets containing lidocaine, diphenhydramine and propranolol without any sample pretreatment. The overall duration of the screening procedure was 30÷40 sec. Real urine samples were studied for drug analysis. It is shown that with simple preparation steps, urine samples can be quantitatively analyzed using the proposed technique with the detection limits in the range of 0.2÷0.5 ng/ml.

  15. Negative thermal expansion in functional materials: controllable thermal expansion by chemical modifications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Hu, Lei; Deng, Jinxia; Xing, Xianran

    2015-06-07

    Negative thermal expansion (NTE) is an intriguing physical property of solids, which is a consequence of a complex interplay among the lattice, phonons, and electrons. Interestingly, a large number of NTE materials have been found in various types of functional materials. In the last two decades good progress has been achieved to discover new phenomena and mechanisms of NTE. In the present review article, NTE is reviewed in functional materials of ferroelectrics, magnetics, multiferroics, superconductors, temperature-induced electron configuration change and so on. Zero thermal expansion (ZTE) of functional materials is emphasized due to the importance for practical applications. The NTE functional materials present a general physical picture to reveal a strong coupling role between physical properties and NTE. There is a general nature of NTE for both ferroelectrics and magnetics, in which NTE is determined by either ferroelectric order or magnetic one. In NTE functional materials, a multi-way to control thermal expansion can be established through the coupling roles of ferroelectricity-NTE, magnetism-NTE, change of electron configuration-NTE, open-framework-NTE, and so on. Chemical modification has been proved to be an effective method to control thermal expansion. Finally, challenges and questions are discussed for the development of NTE materials. There remains a challenge to discover a "perfect" NTE material for each specific application for chemists. The future studies on NTE functional materials will definitely promote the development of NTE materials.

  16. Thermal energy storage. [by means of chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    The principles involved in thermal energy storage by sensible heat, chemical potential energy, and latent heat of fusion are examined for the purpose of evolving selection criteria for material candidates in the low ( 0 C) and high ( 100 C) temperature ranges. The examination identifies some unresolved theoretical considerations and permits a preliminary formulation of an energy storage theory. A number of candidates in the low and high temperature ranges are presented along with a rating of candidates or potential candidates. A few interesting candidates in the 0 to 100 C region are also included. It is concluded that storage by means of reactions whose reversibility can be controlled either by product removal or by catalytic means appear to offer appreciable advantages over storage with reactions whose reversability cannot be controlled. Among such advantages are listed higher heat storage capacities and more favorable options regarding temperatures of collection, storage, and delivery. Among the disadvantages are lower storage efficiencies.

  17. Chemical and microstructural characterization of thermally grown alumina scales

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Richier, C.; Veal, B.W.

    1995-09-01

    An experimental program has been initiated to evaluate the chemical, microstructural, and mechanical integrity of thermally grown oxide scales to establish requirements for improved corrosion performance in terms of composition, structure, and properties. Iron aluminides of several compositions were selected for the study. Oxidation studies were conducted in air and oxygen environments at 1000{degrees}C. The results showed that the scaling kinetics followed a parabolic rate law but that the rates in early stages of oxidation were significantly greater than in later stages; the difference could be attributed to the presence of fast-growing transient iron oxides in the layer during the early stages. Further, scale failure occurred via gross spallation, scale cracking, and nodule formation and was influenced by alloy composition. Auger electron spectroscopy of Ar-exposed specimens of ternary Fe-Cr-Al alloy showed sulfur on the gas/scale side of the interface; the sulfur decreased as the exposure time increased. Raman spectroscopy and ruby fluorescence were used to examine the scale development as a function of oxidation temperature. Ruby-line shift is used to examine phase transformations in alumina and to calculate compressive strains in thermally grown scales.

  18. Inactivation of Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages by thermal and chemical treatments.

    PubMed

    Quiberoni, A; Suárez, V B; Reinheimer, J A

    1999-08-01

    The effect of several biocides and thermal treatments on the viability of four Lactobacillus helveticus phages was investigated. Times to achieve 99% inactivation of phages at 63 degrees C and 72 degrees C in three suspension media were calculated. The three suspension media were tris magnesium gelatin buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl, 10 mM MgSO4, and 0.1% wt/vol gelatin), reconstituted skim milk sterile reconstituted commercial nonfat dry skim milk, and Man Rogosa Sharpe broth. The thermal resistance depended on the phage considered, but a treatment of 5 min at 90 degrees C produced a total inactivation of high titer suspensions of all phages studied. The results obtained for the three tested media did not allow us to establish a clear difference among them, since some phages were more heat resistant in Man Rogosa Sharpe broth and others in tris magnesium gelatin buffer. From the investigation on biocides, we established that sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 100 ppm was very effective in inactivating phages. The suitability of ethanol 75%, commonly used to disinfect utensils and laboratory equipment, was confirmed. Isopropanol turned out to be, in general, less effective than ethanol at the assayed concentrations. In contrast, peracetic acid (0.15%) was found to be an effective biocide for the complete inactivation of all phages studied after 5 min of exposure. The results allowed us to establish a basis for adopting the most effective thermal and chemical treatments for inactivating phages in dairy plant and laboratory environments.

  19. Scientific Basis for a Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological Experimental Facility at DUSEL Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenthal, E. L.; Elsworth, D.; Lowell, R. P.; Maher, K.; Mailloux, B. J.; Uzunlar, N.; Freifeld, B. M.; Keimowitz, A. R.; Wang, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Most natural and engineered earth system processes involve strong coupling of thermal, mechanical, chemical, and sometimes biological processes in rocks that are heterogeneous at a wide range of spatial scales. One of the most pervasive processes in the Earth’s crust is that of fluids (primarily water, but also CO2, hydrocarbons, volcanic gases, etc.) flowing through fractured heated rock under stress. A preliminary design is being formulated for a large-scale subsurface experimental facility to investigate coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological (THMCB) processes in fractured rock at depth. The experiment would be part of the proposed Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the Homestake Mine, South Dakota. Fundamental geochemical, isotopic, microbiological, laboratory THMC experiments, and numerical modeling will be used to guide the experimental design and evaluation of the time and spatial scales of the coupled THMCB processes. Although we sometimes analyze rocks and fluids for physical and chemical properties, it is difficult to create quantitative numerical models based on fundamental physics and chemistry that can capture the dynamic changes that have occurred or may yet take place. Initial conditions and history are only known roughly at best, and the boundary conditions have likely varied over time as well. Processes such as multicomponent chemical and thermal diffusion, multiphase flow, advection, and thermal expansion/contraction, are taking place simultaneously in rocks that are structurally and chemically complex—heterogeneous assemblages of mineral grains, pores, and fractures—and visually opaque. The only way to fully understand such processes is to carry out well-controlled experiments at a range of scales (grain/pore-scale to decimeter-scale) that can be interrogated and modeled. The THMCB experimental facility is also intended to be a unique laboratory for testing hypotheses regarding effects of

  20. Rapid sintering of silicon nitride foams decorated with one-dimensional nanostructures by intense thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Duan; Guzi de Moraes, Elisângela; Guo, Peng; Zou, Ji; Zhang, Junzhan; Colombo, Paolo; Shen, Zhijian

    2014-08-01

    Silicon nitride foams were prepared by direct foaming and subsequent rapid sintering at 1600 °C. The intense thermal radiation generated under the pressureless spark plasma sintering condition facilitated necking of Si3N4 grains. The prepared foams possessed a porosity of ˜80 vol% and a compressive strength of ˜10 MPa, which required only ˜30 min for the entire sintering processes. Rapid growth of one-dimensional SiC nanowires from the cell walls was also observed. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the vapor-liquid-solid model is applicable to the formation of SiC nanowires under vacuum.

  1. Fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing. A method of forming a lithium cobalt oxide film includes depositing a film of lithium cobalt oxide on a substrate; rapidly heating the film of lithium cobalt oxide to a target temperature; and maintaining the film of lithium cobalt oxide at the target temperature for a target annealing time of at most, approximately 60 minutes. The systems and methods provide advantages because they require less time to implement and are, therefore less costly than previous techniques.

  2. Fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    2003-04-29

    Systems and methods are described for fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing. A method of forming a lithium cobalt oxide film includes depositing a film of lithium cobalt oxide on a substrate; rapidly heating the film of lithium cobalt oxide to a target temperature; and maintaining the film of lithium cobalt oxide at the target temperature for a target annealing time of at most, approximately 60 minutes. The systems and methods provide advantages because they require less time to implement and are, therefore less costly than previous techniques.

  3. Fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    2003-05-13

    Systems and methods are described for fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing. A method of forming a lithium cobalt oxide film includes depositing a film of lithium cobalt oxide on a substrate; rapidly heating the film of lithium cobalt oxide to a target temperature; and maintaining the film of lithium cobalt oxide at the target temperature for a target annealing time of at most, approximately 60 minutes. The systems and methods provide advantages because they require less time to implement and are, therefore less costly than previous techniques.

  4. Rapid sintering of silicon nitride foams decorated with one-dimensional nanostructures by intense thermal radiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Duan; Guzi de Moraes, Elisângela; Guo, Peng; Zou, Ji; Zhang, Junzhan; Colombo, Paolo; Shen, Zhijian

    2014-08-01

    Silicon nitride foams were prepared by direct foaming and subsequent rapid sintering at 1600 °C. The intense thermal radiation generated under the pressureless spark plasma sintering condition facilitated necking of Si3N4 grains. The prepared foams possessed a porosity of ∼80 vol% and a compressive strength of ∼10 MPa, which required only ∼30 min for the entire sintering processes. Rapid growth of one-dimensional SiC nanowires from the cell walls was also observed. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the vapor-liquid-solid model is applicable to the formation of SiC nanowires under vacuum.

  5. Multicycle rapid thermal annealing optimization of Mg-implanted GaN: Evolution of surface, optical, and structural properties

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, Jordan D.; Feigelson, Boris N.; Anderson, Travis J.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Mastro, Michael A.; Eddy, Charles R.; Hobart, Karl D.; Kub, Francis J.; Tadjer, Marko J.

    2014-08-14

    The first step of a multi-cycle rapid thermal annealing process was systematically studied. The surface, structure, and optical properties of Mg implanted GaN thin films annealed at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200 °C were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Nomarski microscopy. The GaN thin films are capped with two layers of in-situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition -grown AlN and annealed in 24 bar of N{sub 2} overpressure to avoid GaN decomposition. The crystal quality of the GaN improves with increasing annealing temperature as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and the full widths at half maximums of the E{sub 2} and A{sub 1} (LO) Raman modes. The crystal quality of films annealed above 1100 °C exceeds the quality of the as-grown films. At 1200 °C, Mg is optically activated, which is determined by photoluminescence measurements. However, at 1200 °C, the GaN begins to decompose as evidenced by pit formation on the surface of the samples. Therefore, it was determined that the optimal temperature for the first step in a multi-cycle rapid thermal anneal process should be conducted at 1150 °C due to crystal quality and surface morphology considerations.

  6. Effect of Back Contact and Rapid Thermal Processing Conditions on Flexible CdTe Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Meysing, D. M.; Rance, Will L.; Burst, James M.; Reese, Matthew O.; Wolden, C. A.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Garner, S.; Barnes, Teresa M.

    2015-06-14

    Flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates can enable new applications that require high specific power, unique form-factors, and low manufacturing costs. To be successful, these cells must be cost competitive, have high efficiency, and have high reliability. Here we present back contact processing conditions that enabled us to achieve over 16% efficiency on flexible Corning (R) Willow (R) Glass substrates. We used co-evaporated ZnTe:Cu and Au as our back contact and used rapid thermal processing (RTP) to activate the back contact. Both the ZnTe to Cu ratio and the RTP activation temperature provide independent control over the device performance. We have investigated the influence of various RTP conditions to Cu activation and distribution. Current density-voltage, capacitance-voltage measurements along with device simulations were used to examine the device performance in terms of ZnTe to Cu ratio and rapid thermal activation temperature.

  7. Evolution of nano-structures of silver due to rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Shyamal Bhattacharyya, S. R.

    2014-04-24

    This report deals with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) effect on continuous silver film on Si(100) substrate. For this purpose silver films of different thicknesses were deposited and subsequently annealed at 500 and 800 °C. The as-deposited and annealed samples were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Formations of different nano-structures have been observed. Fragmentation of formed nanoislands also observed at temperature below melting temperature.

  8. An approximate Riemann solver for thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1994-01-01

    Among the many methods available for the determination of inviscid fluxes across a surface of discontinuity, the flux-difference-splitting technique that employs Roe-averaged variables has been used extensively by the CFD community because of its simplicity and its ability to capture shocks exactly. This method, originally developed for perfect gas flows, has since been extended to equilibrium as well as nonequilibrium flows. Determination of the Roe-averaged variables for the case of a perfect gas flow is a simple task; however, for thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flows, some of the variables are not uniquely defined. Methods available in the literature to determine these variables seem to lack sound bases. The present paper describes a simple, yet accurate, method to determine all the variables for nonequilibrium flows in the Roe-average state. The basis for this method is the requirement that the Roe-averaged variables form a consistent set of thermodynamic variables. The present method satisfies the requirement that the square of the speed of sound be positive.

  9. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    DOEpatents

    Ross, John; Escher, Claus

    1988-01-01

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction.

  10. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    DOEpatents

    Ross, J.; Escher, C.

    1988-06-07

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction. 7 figs.

  11. Demonstration of a rapidly-swept external cavity quantum cascade laser for rapid and sensitive quantification of chemical mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumfield, B. E.; Taubman, M. S.; Phillips, M. C.

    2016-02-01

    A rapidly-swept external-cavity quantum cascade laser with an open-path Herriott cell is used to quantify gas-phase chemical mixtures of D2O and HDO at an update rate of 40 Hz (25 ms measurement time). The chemical mixtures were generated by evaporating D2O liquid near the open-path Herriott cell, allowing the H/D exchange reaction with ambient H2O to produce HDO. Fluctuations in the ratio of D2O and HDO on timescales of < 1 s due to the combined effects of plume transport and the H/D exchange chemical reaction are observed. Based on a noise equivalent concentration analysis of the current system, detection limits of 147.0 ppbv and 151.6 ppbv in a 25 ms measurement time are estimated for D2O and HDO respectively with a 127 m optical path. These detection limits are reduced to 23.0 and 24.0 ppbv with a 1 s averaging time for D2O and HDO respectively. Detection limits < 200 ppbv are also estimated for N2O, F134A, CH4, Acetone, and SO2 for a 25 ms measurement time.

  12. A Novel Thermal Sensor for the Sensitive Measurement of Chemical Oxygen Demand.

    PubMed

    Yao, Na; Liu, Zhuan; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Yikai; Xie, Bin

    2015-08-19

    A novel rapid methodology for determining the chemical oxygen demand (COD) based on a thermal sensor with a flow injection analysis system was proposed and experimentally validated. The ability of this sensor to detect and monitor COD was based on the degree of enthalpy increase when sodium hypochlorite reacted with the organic content in water samples. The measurement results were correlated with COD and were compared against the conventional method using potassium dichromate. The assay required only 5-7 min rather than the 2 h required for evaluation by potassium dichromate. The linear range was 5-1000 mg/L COD, and the limit of detection was very low, 0.74 mg/L COD. Moreover, this method exhibited high tolerance to chloride ions; 0.015 mol/L chloride ions had no influence on the response. Finally, the sensor was used to detect the COD of different water samples; the results were verified by the standard dichromate method.

  13. A rapid method for the computation of equilibrium chemical composition of air to 15000 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, Ramadas K.; Erickson, Wayne D.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid computational method has been developed to determine the chemical composition of equilibrium air to 15000 K. Eleven chemically reacting species, i.e., O2, N2, O, NO, N, NO+, e-, N+, O+, Ar, and Ar+ are included. The method involves combining algebraically seven nonlinear equilibrium equations and four linear elemental mass balance and charge neutrality equations. Computational speeds for determining the equilibrium chemical composition are significantly faster than the often used free energy minimization procedure. Data are also included from which the thermodynamic properties of air can be computed. A listing of the computer program together with a set of sample results are included.

  14. Leaf thermal and hydraulic capacitances - structural safeguards for rapid ambient fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schymanski, S. J.; Or, D.; Zwieniecki, M.

    2011-12-01

    Leaves may be subjected to rapidly fluctuating irradiation or thermal conditions due to motion of sun flecks and clouds or passage of warm and dry wind gusts. Given a stomatal characteristic time scale (~5 min) for adjusting transpiration flux, fluctuations of environmental conditions at shorter time scales (~1 min) could push leaf hydraulic and thermal status beyond its operational limits resulting in xylem cavitation or overheating. As active stomatal protection may not be adequate, we propose that leaf thermal and hydraulic capacitances and hence leaf specific mass (hydrated thickness) provide passive protection and play a critical role for autonomous and intrinsic capacitive-based responses to rapid fluctuations. For example, a simple variable leaf mass per unit area can affect both thermal and hydraulic capacitances. Thus a thin leaf (0.2 mm) exposed to a sunfleck can experience an increase in leaf temperature by 20K in the order of 3 minutes, i.e. before stomata can activate evaporative cooling. Increasing leaf thickness can be an effective measure to increase the buffer for such environmental fluctuations, so that slower regulatory measures such as stomatal adjustments can take over before detrimental effects take place. Systematic measurements of thermal changes in response to step changes in radiation conditions were obtained using laser illumination and infra-red thermal imaging of leaf laser-illuminated area across a wide range of leaf morphologies from major plant divisions (ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms). Results confirm inverse relationships between leaf thickness and temperature rise (measured as steady state temperature increase). Hydraulic impacts of such structural capacitance on xylem function will be discussed.

  15. RAPID SPATIAL MAPPING OF CHEMICALS DISPERSED ACROSS SURFACES USING AN AUTOSAMPLER/DART/TOFMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid identification and semi-quantitation of chemicals spatially dispersed and

    deposited on surfaces by accidental, deliberate, or weather-related events requires analysis of

    hundreds of samples, usually obtained by sampling with wipes. Hand-held devices used on-si...

  16. Rapid Semi-Quantitative Surface Mapping of Airborne-Dispersed Chemicals Using Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals can be dispersed accidentally, deliberately, or by weather-related events. Rapid mapping of contaminant distributions is necessary to assess exposure risks and to plan remediation, when needed. Ten pulverized aspirin or NoDozTM tablets containing caffeine wer...

  17. Chemical Genetics: receptor-ligand pairs for rapid manipulation of neuronal activity

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Peer; Arenkiel, Benjamin R.

    2012-01-01

    Towards the functional dissection of neuronal circuits, a number of new genetic tools have been developed that enable rapid and reversible manipulation of genetically defined neuronal subtypes in intact mammalian brain circuits. Alongside the breakthrough technology of optogenetics, receptor-ligand pairs provide complementary approaches to modulate neuronal activity using chemical-genetics. PMID:22119143

  18. Rapid analysis of animal drug residues by microcolumn solid-phase extraction and thermal desorption-ion trap mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Barshick, S.A.; Buchanan, M.V.

    1994-11-01

    A new approach was developed for the rapid and quantitative determination of an anthelmintic drug, phenothiazine, in milk. The technique involves a simple extraction procedure using a C{sub 18} microcolumn disc, followed by thermal desorption of the analyte from the disc directly into an ion trap mass spectrometer. The compounds are selectively ionized by isobutane chemical ionization and detected by tandem mass spectrometry. With this approach, 10 ppb detection limits were achieved with as little as 100 {mu}L mild and only 10 min of analysis time. This approach was used to analyze samples of milk taken from a cow administered a one-time therapeutic dose of phenothiazine. The target compound could be detected at 56 post-dosage, corresponding to a concentration of 30 ppb. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Conversion of concentrated solar thermal energy into chemical energy.

    PubMed

    Tamaura, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    When a concentrated solar beam is irradiated to the ceramics such as Ni-ferrite, the high-energy flux in the range of 1500-2500 kW/m(2) is absorbed by an excess Frenkel defect formation. This non-equilibrium state defect is generated not by heating at a low heating-rate (30 K/min), but by irradiating high flux energy of concentrated solar beam rapidly at a high heating rate (200 K/min). The defect can be spontaneously converted to chemical energy of a cation-excess spinel structure (reduced-oxide form) at the temperature around 1773 K. Thus, the O(2) releasing reaction (α-O(2) releasing reaction) proceeds in two-steps; (1) high flux energy of concentrated solar beam absorption by formation of the non-equilibrium Frenkel defect and (2) the O(2) gas formation from the O(2-) in the Frenkel defect even in air atmosphere. The 2nd step proceeds without the solar radiation. We may say that the 1st step is light reaction, and 2nd step, dark reaction, just like in photosynthesis process.

  20. Chemical Changes in Proteins Produced by Thermal Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutson, T. R.; Orcutt, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses effects of thermal processing on proteins, focusing on (1) the Maillard reaction; (2) heat denaturation of proteins; (3) aggregation, precipitation, gelation, and degradation; and (4) other thermally induced protein reactions. Also discusses effects of thermal processing on muscle foods, egg proteins, fruits and vegetables, and cereal…

  1. A Rapid and Low-Cost PCR Thermal Cycler for Low Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Grace; Wong, Isaac; Chan, Kamfai; Hsieh, Yicheng; Wong, Season

    2015-01-01

    Background Many modern molecular diagnostic assays targeting nucleic acids are typically confined to developed countries or to the national reference laboratories of developing-world countries. The ability to make technologies for the rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases broadly available in a portable, low-cost format would mark a revolutionary step forward in global health. Many molecular assays are also developed based on polymerase chain reactions (PCR), which require thermal cyclers that are relatively heavy (>20 pounds) and need continuous electrical power. The temperature ramping speed of most economical thermal cyclers are relatively slow (2 to 3°C/s) so a polymerase chain reaction can take 1 to 2 hours. Most of all, these thermal cyclers are still too expensive ($2k to $4k) for low-resource setting uses. Methodology/Principal Findings In this article, we demonstrate the development of a low-cost and rapid water bath based thermal cycler that does not require active temperature control or continuous power supply during PCR. This unit costs $130 to build using commercial off-the-shelf items. The use of two or three vacuum-insulated stainless-steel Thermos food jars containing heated water (for denaturation and annealing/extension steps) and a layer of oil on top of the water allow for significantly stabilized temperatures for PCR to take place. Using an Arduino-based microcontroller, we automate the “archaic” method of hand-transferring PCR tubes between water baths. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that this innovative unit can deliver high speed PCR (17 s per PCR cycle) with the potential to go beyond the 1,522 bp long amplicons tested in this study and can amplify from templates down to at least 20 copies per reaction. The unit also accepts regular PCR tubes and glass capillary tubes. The PCR efficiency of our thermal cycler is not different from other commercial thermal cyclers. When combined with a rapid nucleic acid detection approach

  2. Advanced deposition model for thermal activated chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Dang

    Thermal Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition (TACVD) is defined as the formation of a stable solid product on a heated substrate surface from chemical reactions and/or dissociation of gaseous reactants in an activated environment. It has become an essential process for producing solid film, bulk material, coating, fibers, powders and monolithic components. Global market of CVD products has reached multi billions dollars for each year. In the recent years CVD process has been extensively used to manufacture semiconductors and other electronic components such as polysilicon, AlN and GaN. Extensive research effort has been directed to improve deposition quality and throughput. To obtain fast and high quality deposition, operational conditions such as temperature, pressure, fluid velocity and species concentration and geometry conditions such as source-substrate distance need to be well controlled in a CVD system. This thesis will focus on design of CVD processes through understanding the transport and reaction phenomena in the growth reactor. Since the in situ monitor is almost impossible for CVD reactor, many industrial resources have been expended to determine the optimum design by semi-empirical methods and trial-and-error procedures. This approach has allowed the achievement of improvements in the deposition sequence, but begins to show its limitations, as this method cannot always fulfill the more and more stringent specifications of the industry. To resolve this problem, numerical simulation is widely used in studying the growth techniques. The difficulty of numerical simulation of TACVD crystal growth process lies in the simulation of gas phase and surface reactions, especially the latter one, due to the fact that very limited kinetic information is available in the open literature. In this thesis, an advanced deposition model was developed to study the multi-component fluid flow, homogeneous gas phase reactions inside the reactor chamber, heterogeneous surface

  3. Thermal and chemical evolution of The Geysers geothermal system, California

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    Fluid inclusions and mineral assemblages provide a reward of the thermal and chemical changes that occurred during the evolution of The Geysers geothermal system. The data document the presence of an extensive liquid dominated geothermal system that developed in response to felsite intrusion and its evolution to a vapor-dominated regime. Temperatures within the early liquid-dominated system ranged from 175 C at a distance of 7200 feet from the felsite to more than 350 C near the contact while salinities varied from 5 equivalent weight percent NaCl (at a distance of 5500 feet) to more than 26 weight percent NaCl. As temperatures around the felsite declined, the liquid-dominated system collapsed upon itself. Downward migration of the low salinity waters resulted in dilution of the fluids present in regions now occupied by the caprock and normal vapor-dominated reservoir. In contrast, dilution was minor in rocks now hosting the high-temperature vapor-dominated reservoir. This suggests that low permeabilities are the primary reason for the development of the high-temperature reservoir. Boiling within the caprock produced late-stage veins of calcite and quartz. As the fluid boiled off, condensate was trapped as low salinity fluid inclusions. Within the main body of the reservoir, a liquid phase with salinities of up to 7 equivalent weight percent NaCl persisted to temperatures between 250 and 270 C. However, except for the presence of vapor-rich inclusions, little evidence of boiling within the reservoir rocks was preserved.

  4. DEAD ZONES AS THERMAL BARRIERS TO RAPID PLANETARY MIGRATION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Pudritz, Ralph E. E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca

    2010-02-20

    Planetary migration in standard models of gaseous protoplanetary disks is known to be very rapid ({approx}10{sup 5} years), jeopardizing the existence of planetary systems. We present a new mechanism for significantly slowing rapid planetary migration, discovered by means of radiative transfer calculations of the thermal structure of protoplanetary disks irradiated by their central stars. Rapid dust settling in a disk's dead zone-a region with very little turbulence-leaves a dusty wall at its outer edge. We show that the back-heating of the dead zone by this irradiated wall produces a positive gradient of the disk temperature, which acts as a thermal barrier to planetary migration which persists for the disk lifetime. Although we analyze in detail the migration of a super-Earth in a low-mass disk around an M star, our findings can apply to a wide variety of young planetary systems. We compare our findings with other potentially important stopping mechanisms and show that there are large parameter spaces for which dead zones are likely to play the most important role for reproducing the observed mass-period relation in longer planetary periods.

  5. Hydro-chemical specifications of thermal waters from different geographical regions in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seker, D. Z.; Aydin, S.; Sivri, N.; Bitik, E.; Cakir, Z.

    2014-12-01

    In many countries thermal springs are utilized for a variety of purposes, such as the generation of power, direct space heating, industrial processes, aquaculture and many more. The optimal use of a thermal spring is largely dependent upon its physical and chemical characteristics. The physical and chemical parameters of groundwater play a significant role in classifying and assessing water quality. Major ions constitute the most significant part of the total dissolved solids present in the groundwater and the concentration of these ions in ground water depends mainly on the hydro chemical processes that place in the aquifer system. This article focuses on the thermal and chemical features of 21 thermal springs located in the overall of the Turkey. Field data and water samples were collected for analysis of physical and chemical parameters. Thermal springs and thermal wells have temperatures ranging from 35 to 95°C. The pH values of the thermal waters change between 6.3 and 9.6. A Piper trilinear diagram and Schoeller diagram show that all the thermal waters are characterized by the dominance of anion-cation. Thermal waters display various chemical compositions and high temperature waters have Na-SO4, Na-HCO3, Na-Cl, Ca-SO4, Ca-HCO3 type. The springs are associated with faults and impermeable dykes and are assumed to be of meteoric origin. The mineral composition of the thermal waters reflects the geological formations found at the depth of origin. All thermal water springs are suitable for use in terms balneology since they contain high levels of mineral content and temperature. At the same time, some samples can be consumed by humans as soda water and mineral water. However, it is important to keep such limitations in mind when determining the ultimate use of the thermal springs.

  6. Iron Oxide Films Prepared by Rapid Thermal Processing for Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickman, B.; Bastos Fanta, A.; Burrows, A.; Hellman, A.; Wagner, J. B.; Iandolo, B.

    2017-01-01

    Hematite is a promising and extensively investigated material for various photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes for energy conversion and storage, in particular for oxidation reactions. Thermal treatments during synthesis of hematite are found to affect the performance of hematite electrodes considerably. Herein, we present hematite thin films fabricated via one-step oxidation of Fe by rapid thermal processing (RTP). In particular, we investigate the effect of oxidation temperature on the PEC properties of hematite. Films prepared at 750 °C show the highest activity towards water oxidation. These films show the largest average grain size and the highest charge carrier density, as determined from electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy analysis. We believe that the fast processing enabled by RTP makes this technique a preferred method for investigation of novel materials and architectures, potentially also on nanostructured electrodes, where retaining high surface area is crucial to maximize performance.

  7. Rapid microplate, green method for high-throughput evaluation of vinegar acidity using thermal infrared enthalpimetry.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Bruna; Oliveira, Alessandra Stangherlin; Ferreira, Daniele de Freitas; Menezes, Cristiano Ragagnin; Duarte, Fábio Andrei; Wagner, Roger; Barin, Juliano Smanioto

    2017-01-15

    Infrared thermal imaging was combined with disposable microplates to perform enthalpimetric analysis using an infrared camera to monitor temperature without contact. The proposed thermal infrared enthalpimetry (TIE) method was used to determine the total, fixed and volatile acidities of vinegars. Sample preparation and analysis were performed in the same vessel, avoiding excessive sample handling and reducing energy expenditure by more than ten times. The results agreed with those of the conventional method for different kinds of vinegars, with values of 1.7%, and 2.3% for repeatability and intermediate precision, respectively. A linear calibration curve was obtained from 0.040 to 1.30molL(-1). The proposed method provided rapid results (within 10s) for four samples simultaneously, a sample throughput of up to 480 samples per hour. In addition, the method complies with at least eight of twelve recommendations for green analytical chemistry, making TIE a promising tool for routine vinegar analysis.

  8. Iron Oxide Films Prepared by Rapid Thermal Processing for Solar Energy Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Wickman, B.; Bastos Fanta, A.; Burrows, A.; Hellman, A.; Wagner, J. B.; Iandolo, B.

    2017-01-01

    Hematite is a promising and extensively investigated material for various photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes for energy conversion and storage, in particular for oxidation reactions. Thermal treatments during synthesis of hematite are found to affect the performance of hematite electrodes considerably. Herein, we present hematite thin films fabricated via one-step oxidation of Fe by rapid thermal processing (RTP). In particular, we investigate the effect of oxidation temperature on the PEC properties of hematite. Films prepared at 750 °C show the highest activity towards water oxidation. These films show the largest average grain size and the highest charge carrier density, as determined from electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy analysis. We believe that the fast processing enabled by RTP makes this technique a preferred method for investigation of novel materials and architectures, potentially also on nanostructured electrodes, where retaining high surface area is crucial to maximize performance. PMID:28091573

  9. Pt/Ti/n-InP nonalloyed ohmic contacts formed by rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, A.; Weir, B. E.; Chu, S. N. G.; Thomas, P. M.; Soler, M.; Boone, T.; Dautremont-Smith, W. C.

    1990-04-01

    Low resistance nonalloyed ohmic contacts of e-gun evaporated Pt/Ti to S doped n-InP 5×1017, 1×1018, and 5×1018 cm-3 have been fabricated by rapid thermal processing. The contacts to the lower doped substrates (5×1017 and 1×1018 cm-3) were rectifying as-deposited as well as after heat treatment at temperatures lower than 350 °C. Higher processing temperatures stimulated the Schottky to ohmic contact conversion with minimum specific contact resistance of 1.5×10-5 and 5×10-6 Ω cm2, respectively, as a result of rapid thermal processing at 450 °C for 30 s. Heating at a temperature of 550 °C again yielded a Schottky contact. The contact to the 5×1018 cm-3 InP was ohmic as deposited with a specific contact resistance value of 1.1×10-4 Ω cm2. Supplying heat treatment to the contact caused a decrease of the specific contact resistance to a minimum of 8×10-7 Ω cm2 as a result of rapid thermal processing at 450 °C for 30 s. In all cases, this heat treatment caused a limited interfacial reactions between the Ti and the InP, and resulted in an almost abrupt interface. Heating at temperatures higher than 500 °C resulted in an interfacial intermixing and a mutual migration and reaction of the Ti and the semiconductor elements. The Pt/Ti bilayer structure was highly tensile as deposited (5×109 dyn cm-2) and became stress-free as a result of the interfacial reactions which took place while heating the samples to temperature of 400 °C or higher.

  10. The application of computational simulation to design optimization of an axisymmetric rapid thermal processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, P.A.; Winters, W.S.; Kee, R.J.; Kermani, A.

    1994-08-01

    We are developing and applying computational models to guide the development of a rapid-thermal-processing system. This work concentrates on scale-up and commercialization of the axisymmetric, multiple-lamp-ring approach that was pioneered by Texas Instruments in the Microelectronics Manufacturing Science and Technology program. CVC Products intends to incorporate the tool into their open-architecture MESC compatible cluster environment. Integration of modeling into the product development process can reduce time-to-market and development costs, as well as improve tool performance.

  11. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the noise properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures

    SciTech Connect

    Arpatzanis, N.; Tsormpatzoglou, A.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Song, J. D.; Choi, W. J.; Lee, J. I.; Charitidis, C.

    2007-09-01

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on n{sup +}-GaAs substrates, capped between 0.4 {mu}m thick n-type GaAs layers with electron concentration of 1x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}. The effect of rapid thermal annealing at 700 deg. C for 60 s on the noise properties of the structure has been investigated using Au/n-GaAs Schottky diodes as test devices. In the reference sample without containing QDs, the noise spectra show a generation-recombination (g-r) noise behavior due to a discrete energy level located about 0.51 eV below the conduction band edge. This trap is ascribed to the M4 (or EL3) trap in GaAs MBE layers, related to a chemical impurity-native defect complex. In the structure with embedded QDs, the observed g-r noise spectra are due to a midgap trap level ascribed to the EL2 trap in GaAs, which is related to the InAs QDs dissolution due to the thermal treatment.

  12. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the noise properties of InAs /GaAs quantum dot structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpatzanis, N.; Tsormpatzoglou, A.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Song, J. D.; Choi, W. J.; Lee, J. I.; Charitidis, C.

    2007-09-01

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on n+-GaAs substrates, capped between 0.4μm thick n-type GaAs layers with electron concentration of 1×1016cm-3. The effect of rapid thermal annealing at 700°C for 60s on the noise properties of the structure has been investigated using Au /n-GaAs Schottky diodes as test devices. In the reference sample without containing QDs, the noise spectra show a generation-recombination (g-r) noise behavior due to a discrete energy level located about 0.51eV below the conduction band edge. This trap is ascribed to the M4 (or EL3) trap in GaAs MBE layers, related to a chemical impurity-native defect complex. In the structure with embedded QDs, the observed g-r noise spectra are due to a midgap trap level ascribed to the EL2 trap in GaAs, which is related to the InAs QDs dissolution due to the thermal treatment.

  13. Conformal cooling and rapid thermal cycling in injection molding with 3D printed tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaorong

    Solid Freeform Fabrication processes such as 3D Printing have demonstrated the potential to produce tools with complex internal geometry. This work explores the application of this capability to improved thermal management for injection molding tooling through: (i)cooling lines which are conformal to the mold surface which provide improved uniformity and stability of mold temperature and (ii)tools with low thermal inertia which, in combination with conformal fluid channels allow for rapid heating and cooling of tooling, thereby facilitating isothermal filling of the mold cavity. This work presents a systematic, modular, approach to the design of conformal cooling channels. Recognizing that the cooling is local to the surface of the tool, the tool is divided up into geometric regions and a channel system is designed for each region. Each channel system is itself modeled as composed of cooling elements, typically the region spanned by two channels. Six criteria are applied including; a transient heat transfer condition which dictates a maximum distance from mold surface to cooling channel, considerations of pressure and temperature drop along the flow channel and considerations of strength of the mold. These criteria are treated as constraints and successful designs are sought which define windows bounded by these constraints. The methodology is demonstrated in application to a complex core and cavity for injection molding. In the area of rapid thermal cycling, this work utilizes the design methods for conformal channels for the heating phases and adds analysis of the packing and cooling phases. A design is created which provides thermal isolation and accommodation of cyclic thermal stresses though an array of bendable support columns which support the molding portion of the tool where the heating/cooling channels are contained. Designed elasticity of the tool is used to aid in packing of the polymer during the cooling phase. Methodology for the design of this

  14. Do thermal tolerances and rapid thermal responses contribute to the invasion potential of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)?

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Welma; Terblanche, John S; Addison, Pia

    2017-04-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) has shown remarkable range expansion over the past 10years and invaded several new continents including Africa. Here we report results of a detailed assessment of acute high and low temperature survival ability and the plasticity thereof, to test the hypothesis that traits of the thermal niche have contributed to the species' invasion ability. We also assess life-stage-related variation of thermal tolerances to determine potential stage-related environmental sensitivity. The temperatures at which c. 20% of the population survived of B. dorsalis were determined to be -6.5°C and 42.7°C, respectively, when using 2h exposures. Further, four life stages of B. dorsalis (egg, 3rd instar larvae, pupae and adults) were exposed to high and low discriminating temperatures to compare their thermal survival rates. The egg stage was found to be the most resistant life stage to both high and low temperatures, since 44±2.3% survived the low and 60±4.2% survived the high discriminating temperature treatments respectively. Finally, the potential for adult hardening responses to mediate tolerance of extremes was also considered using a diverse range of acute conditions (using 2h exposures to 15°C, 10°C and 5°C and 30°C, 35°C, 37°C and 39°C as hardening temperatures, and some treatments with and without recovery periods between hardening and discriminating temperature treatment). These showed that although some significant hardening responses could be detected in certain treatments (e.g. after exposure to 37°C and 39°C), the magnitude of this plasticity was generally low compared to two other wide-spread and more geographically-range-restricted con-familial species, Ceratitis capitata and C. rosa. In other words, Bactrocera dorsalis adults were unable to rapidly heat- or cold-harden to the same extent as the other Ceratitis species examined to date. These results suggest a narrower thermal niche in B. dorsalis compared

  15. Effective control of photomask surface chemical residuals through thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Han-Byul; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Yong-Dae; Cho, Hyun-Joon; Choi, Sang-Soo

    2005-05-01

    We investigated the control of residual ions on the mask surface and the phase/transmission change rate by using thermal treatment after a conventional cleaning process. We hypothesized that the remaining sulfuric ions on the mask surface could combine with other ions and produce compounds during the thermal treatment. These compounds are easily removed by a hot D.I water rinse. Our study shows that the amount of remaining sulfuric ions is 250ng/mask when the mask has been thermally treated. The amount of sulfuric ions is substantially reduced compared to the results of other cleaning processes. Additionally we have found that the thermal treatment can be reduced varying the phase/trans value according to the cleaning cycle and the variation was stable even with a higher concentration of SC-1 solution.

  16. Rapid detection of chemical hazards (toxins, dioxins, and PCBs) in seafood.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kotsanopoulos, Konstantinos V; Papadopoulou, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Among the various hazards occurring in fish and seafood chemical hazards and in particular toxins (ciguatera, scombroid fish poisoning, paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic (brevetoxic) shellfish poisoning, puffer fish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning) have an important place in food poisoning cases. On the other hand, some of the chemical hazards are often due to the pollution of the environment (heavy metals, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons) and their detection is neither rapid nor facile. As a result there was a great need for developing new rapid and effective methods toward the chemical hazards determination mainly because of their high toxicity. The aim of this review is to provide the information about the new up-to-date detection techniques (Immunological, Chemical and Biochemical, and Molecular assays) in conjunction with detection limits. The latter is made possible by means of inclusion of seven comprehensive and, in most case cases, very extended tables. A reference is also made on the risk characterization of toxins as regards their importance to food contamination or poisoning.

  17. Rapid thermal lysis of cells using silicon-diamond microcantilever heaters.

    PubMed

    Privorotskaya, Natalya; Liu, Yi-Shao; Lee, Jungchul; Zeng, Hongjun; Carlisle, John A; Radadia, Adarsh; Millet, Larry; Bashir, Rashid; King, William P

    2010-05-07

    This paper presents the design and application of microcantilever heaters for biochemical applications. Thermal lysis of biological cells was demonstrated as a specific example. The microcantilever heaters, fabricated from selectively doped single crystal silicon, provide local resistive heating with highly uniform temperature distribution across the cantilevers. Very importantly, the microcantilever heaters were coated with a layer of 100 nm thick electrically insulating ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) layer used for cell immobilization on the cantilever surface. Fibroblast cells or bacterial cells were immobilized on the UNCD/cantilever surfaces and thermal lysis was demonstrated via optical fluorescence microscopy. Upon electrical heating of the cantilever structures to 93 degrees C for 30 seconds, fibroblast cell and nuclear membrane were compromised and the cells were lysed. Over 90% of viable bacteria were also lysed after 15 seconds of heating at 93 degrees C. This work demonstrates the utility of silicon-UNCD heated microcantilevers for rapid cell lysis and forms the basis for other rapid and localized temperature-regulated microbiological experiments in cantilever-based lab on chip applications.

  18. The rotary zone thermal cycler: a low-power system enabling automated rapid PCR.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Michael S; Edwards, Harrison S; Lee, Daniel; Moseley, Caroline E; Tew, Karen E; Renzi, Ronald F; Van de Vreugde, James L; Kim, Hanyoup; Knight, Daniel L; Sinha, Anupama; Branda, Steven S; Patel, Kamlesh D

    2015-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology, microfluidics, and laboratory automation continue to expand the accessibility and applicability of these methods beyond the confines of conventional, centralized laboratory facilities and into point of use roles in clinical, military, forensic, and field-deployed applications. As a result, there is a growing need to adapt the unit operations of molecular biology (e.g., aliquoting, centrifuging, mixing, and thermal cycling) to compact, portable, low-power, and automation-ready formats. Here we present one such adaptation, the rotary zone thermal cycler (RZTC), a novel wheel-based device capable of cycling up to four different fixed-temperature blocks into contact with a stationary 4-microliter capillary-bound sample to realize 1-3 second transitions with steady state heater power of less than 10 W. We demonstrate the utility of the RZTC for DNA amplification as part of a highly integrated rotary zone PCR (rzPCR) system that uses low-volume valves and syringe-based fluid handling to automate sample loading and unloading, thermal cycling, and between-run cleaning functionalities in a compact, modular form factor. In addition to characterizing the performance of the RZTC and the efficacy of different online cleaning protocols, we present preliminary results for rapid single-plex PCR, multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) amplification, and second strand cDNA synthesis.

  19. The Rotary Zone Thermal Cycler: A Low-Power System Enabling Automated Rapid PCR

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Michael S.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Van de Vreugde, James L.; Kim, Hanyoup; Knight, Daniel L.; Sinha, Anupama; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology, microfluidics, and laboratory automation continue to expand the accessibility and applicability of these methods beyond the confines of conventional, centralized laboratory facilities and into point of use roles in clinical, military, forensic, and field-deployed applications. As a result, there is a growing need to adapt the unit operations of molecular biology (e.g., aliquoting, centrifuging, mixing, and thermal cycling) to compact, portable, low-power, and automation-ready formats. Here we present one such adaptation, the rotary zone thermal cycler (RZTC), a novel wheel-based device capable of cycling up to four different fixed-temperature blocks into contact with a stationary 4-microliter capillary-bound sample to realize 1-3 second transitions with steady state heater power of less than 10 W. We demonstrate the utility of the RZTC for DNA amplification as part of a highly integrated rotary zone PCR (rzPCR) system that uses low-volume valves and syringe-based fluid handling to automate sample loading and unloading, thermal cycling, and between-run cleaning functionalities in a compact, modular form factor. In addition to characterizing the performance of the RZTC and the efficacy of different online cleaning protocols, we present preliminary results for rapid single-plex PCR, multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) amplification, and second strand cDNA synthesis. PMID:25826708

  20. The rotary zone thermal cycler: A low-power system enabling automated rapid PCR

    DOE PAGES

    Bartsch, Michael S.; Edwards, Harrison S.; Gas Transmission Systems, Walnut Creek, CA; ...

    2015-03-31

    In this study, advances in molecular biology, microfluidics, and laboratory automation continue to expand the accessibility and applicability of these methods beyond the confines of conventional, centralized laboratory facilities and into point of use roles in clinical, military, forensic, portable, and field-deployed applications. As a result, there is a growing need to adapt the unit operations of molecular biology such as aliquoting, centrifuging, mixing, and thermal cycling to compact, portable, low-power, and automation-ready formats. Here we present one such adaptation, the rotary zone thermal cycler (RZTC), a novel wheel-based device capable of cycling up to four different fixed-temperature blocks intomore » contact with a stationary 4-microliter capillary-bound sample to realize 1-3 second transitions with steady state heater power of less than 10 W. We further demonstrate the utility of the RZTC for DNA amplification as part of a highly integrated rotary zone PCR (rzPCR) system using low-volume valves and syringe-based fluid handling to automate sample loading and unloading, thermal cycling, and between run cleaning functionalities in a compact, modular form factor. In addition to characterizing the performance of the RZTC and the efficacy of different online cleaning protocols, preliminary results are presented for rapid single-plex PCR, multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) amplification, and second strand cDNA synthesis.« less

  1. Influence of Rapid Thermal Ramp Rate on Phase Transformation of Titanium Silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Glenn; Hu, Yao, Zhi; Smith, Paul Martin; Tay, Sing Pin; Thakur, Randhir; Yang, Jiting

    1999-05-03

    ULSI technology requires low resistance, stable silicides formed on small geometry lines. Titanium disilicide (TiSiz), which is the most widely used silicide for ULSI applications, exists in two crystallographic phases: the high resistance, metastable C49 phase and the low resistance, stable C54 phase. The major issue with TiSiz is the increasing thermal budget required to transform the C49 phase into the low resistance C54 phase as linewiths decrease below 0.25 pm. Annealing above 900"C to obtain this transformation often results in thermal degradation, so it is desirable to reduce the transformation temperature. The transformation temperature has been shown to be a fi.mction of many factors including microstructure, grain size, and impurities. In this paper we report an investig+ion of rapid thermal silicidation of titanium films (250, 400, and 600 A) on single crystalline silicon at temperatures from 300 to 1000"C. The ramp rates for these experiments are 5, 30, 70, and 200oC/s. The transformation temperature decreases as the ramp rate increases and as the initial film thickness increases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to analyze the resultant film microstructure. The ramp rate influence on Ti silicidation is also investigated on polycrystalline Si lines with widths ranging from 0.27 to 3.0 pm.

  2. The rotary zone thermal cycler: A low-power system enabling automated rapid PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, Michael S.; Edwards, Harrison S.; Lee, Daniel; Moseley, Caroline E.; Tew, Karen E.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Van de Vreugde, James L.; Kim, Hanyoup; Knight, Daniel L.; Sinha, Anupama; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Wanunu, Meni

    2015-03-31

    In this study, advances in molecular biology, microfluidics, and laboratory automation continue to expand the accessibility and applicability of these methods beyond the confines of conventional, centralized laboratory facilities and into point of use roles in clinical, military, forensic, portable, and field-deployed applications. As a result, there is a growing need to adapt the unit operations of molecular biology such as aliquoting, centrifuging, mixing, and thermal cycling to compact, portable, low-power, and automation-ready formats. Here we present one such adaptation, the rotary zone thermal cycler (RZTC), a novel wheel-based device capable of cycling up to four different fixed-temperature blocks into contact with a stationary 4-microliter capillary-bound sample to realize 1-3 second transitions with steady state heater power of less than 10 W. We further demonstrate the utility of the RZTC for DNA amplification as part of a highly integrated rotary zone PCR (rzPCR) system using low-volume valves and syringe-based fluid handling to automate sample loading and unloading, thermal cycling, and between run cleaning functionalities in a compact, modular form factor. In addition to characterizing the performance of the RZTC and the efficacy of different online cleaning protocols, preliminary results are presented for rapid single-plex PCR, multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) amplification, and second strand cDNA synthesis.

  3. Rapid solid-phase peptide synthesis using thermal and controlled microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bacsa, Bernadett; Desai, Bimbisar; Dibó, Gábor; Kappe, C Oliver

    2006-10-01

    A rapid and efficient microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis method is described for the preparation of the nonapeptide WDTVRISFK, using conventional Fmoc/Bu(t) orthogonal protection strategy. The synthesis protocol is based on the use of cycles of pulsed microwave irradiation with intermittent cooling of the reaction during the removal of the Fmoc protecting group and during the coupling. The desired nonapeptide was obtained in highest yield and purity by employing MicroKan technology. The chemical reactions were carried out in a single-mode microwave reactor, equipped with a fiber-optic probe to monitor the reaction temperature continuously.

  4. Rapid acidification of the ocean during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum.

    PubMed

    Zachos, James C; Röhl, Ursula; Schellenberg, Stephen A; Sluijs, Appy; Hodell, David A; Kelly, Daniel C; Thomas, Ellen; Nicolo, Micah; Raffi, Isabella; Lourens, Lucas J; McCarren, Heather; Kroon, Dick

    2005-06-10

    The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) has been attributed to the rapid release of approximately 2000 x 10(9) metric tons of carbon in the form of methane. In theory, oxidation and ocean absorption of this carbon should have lowered deep-sea pH, thereby triggering a rapid (<10,000-year) shoaling of the calcite compensation depth (CCD), followed by gradual recovery. Here we present geochemical data from five new South Atlantic deep-sea sections that constrain the timing and extent of massive sea-floor carbonate dissolution coincident with the PETM. The sections, from between 2.7 and 4.8 kilometers water depth, are marked by a prominent clay layer, the character of which indicates that the CCD shoaled rapidly (<10,000 years) by more than 2 kilometers and recovered gradually (>100,000 years). These findings indicate that a large mass of carbon (>2000 x 10(9) metric tons of carbon) dissolved in the ocean at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary and that permanent sequestration of this carbon occurred through silicate weathering feedback.

  5. A Rapid and Low-Cost PCR Thermal Cycler for Infectious Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kamfai; Wong, Pui-Yan; Yu, Peter; Hardick, Justin; Wong, Kah-Yat; Wilson, Scott A.; Wu, Tiffany; Hui, Zoe; Gaydos, Charlotte; Wong, Season S.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to make rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases broadly available in a portable, low-cost format would mark a great step forward in global health. Many molecular diagnostic assays are developed based on using thermal cyclers to carry out polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcription PCR for DNA and RNA amplification and detection, respectively. Unfortunately, most commercial thermal cyclers are expensive and need continuous electrical power supply, so they are not suitable for uses in low-resource settings. We have previously reported a low-cost and simple approach to amplify DNA using vacuum insulated stainless steel thermoses food cans, which we have named it thermos thermal cycler or TTC. Here, we describe the use of an improved set up to enable the detection of viral RNA targets by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), thus expanding the TTC’s ability to identify highly infectious, RNA virus-based diseases in low resource settings. The TTC was successful in demonstrating high-speed and sensitive detection of DNA or RNA targets of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and dengue fever. Our innovative TTC costs less than $200 to build and has a capacity of at least eight tubes. In terms of speed, the TTC’s performance exceeded that of commercial thermal cyclers tested. When coupled with low-cost endpoint detection technologies such as nucleic acid lateral-flow assay or a cell-phone-based fluorescence detector, the TTC will increase the availability of on-site molecular diagnostics in low-resource settings. PMID:26872358

  6. A Rapid and Low-Cost PCR Thermal Cycler for Infectious Disease Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kamfai; Wong, Pui-Yan; Yu, Peter; Hardick, Justin; Wong, Kah-Yat; Wilson, Scott A; Wu, Tiffany; Hui, Zoe; Gaydos, Charlotte; Wong, Season S

    2016-01-01

    The ability to make rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases broadly available in a portable, low-cost format would mark a great step forward in global health. Many molecular diagnostic assays are developed based on using thermal cyclers to carry out polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcription PCR for DNA and RNA amplification and detection, respectively. Unfortunately, most commercial thermal cyclers are expensive and need continuous electrical power supply, so they are not suitable for uses in low-resource settings. We have previously reported a low-cost and simple approach to amplify DNA using vacuum insulated stainless steel thermoses food cans, which we have named it thermos thermal cycler or TTC. Here, we describe the use of an improved set up to enable the detection of viral RNA targets by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), thus expanding the TTC's ability to identify highly infectious, RNA virus-based diseases in low resource settings. The TTC was successful in demonstrating high-speed and sensitive detection of DNA or RNA targets of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and dengue fever. Our innovative TTC costs less than $200 to build and has a capacity of at least eight tubes. In terms of speed, the TTC's performance exceeded that of commercial thermal cyclers tested. When coupled with low-cost endpoint detection technologies such as nucleic acid lateral-flow assay or a cell-phone-based fluorescence detector, the TTC will increase the availability of on-site molecular diagnostics in low-resource settings.

  7. Microbial quality and physical-chemical characteristics of thermal springs.

    PubMed

    Fazlzadeh, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Hadi; Bagheri, Pari; Poureshg, Yusef; Rostami, Roohollah

    2016-04-01

    Microbial quality and physical-chemical properties of recreational spas were surveyed to investigate the health aspect of the spas' water. A total of 195 samples were collected from pools and springs of the spas in five sites from Ardebil Province of Iran. The effects of an independent factor defined as 'condition' and its component sub-factors (i.e., sampling point, location, and sampling date) on microbial quality and physical-chemical properties of the spas were studied by applying path analysis. The influence of physical-chemical properties on microbial quality was also considered. The percentage of samples exceeding the ISIRI (Swimming pool water microbiological specifications (vol 9412), Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, Tehran, 2007) limits for Staphylococcus (spp.) was up to 55.8 in the springs and 87.8 in the pools, 58.1 and 99.2 for HPC, 90.7 and 97.8 for total coliform and fecal coliform, and 9.3 and 34.4 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. There were significant differences between the pools and springs for both physical-chemical properties and microbial quality. From the path analysis, sampling point was the most effective sub-factor of 'condition' on both the physical-chemical properties and microbial quality. Among the physical-chemical properties, water color had the most enhancing or additive influence on microbial pollution, while EC indicated a reducing or subtractive effect.

  8. Rapid assessment of marine pollution using multiple biomarkers and chemical immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Tamara S; Sanger, Ross C; Smith, Karen L; Fillmann, Gilberto; Readman, James W; Ford, Timothy E; Depledge, Michael H

    2002-05-15

    To fully assess the impact of pollutant releases into the environment, it is necessary to determine both the concentration of chemicals accumulating in biota and the biological effects they give rise to. Owing to time, expertise, and cost constraints, this is, however, rarely achieved. Here, quick, simple to perform, and inexpensive biomarkers and chemical immunoassays were combined in a rapid assessment approach to measure exposure to and effects of organic and metal pollutants on the ribbed mussel (Geukensia demmissa) from New Bedford Harbor, MA. Significant differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) tissue residue concentrations were detected among sites using RaPID immunoassay. Selected analyses were verified using GC/MS. No significant differences were observed in metal concentrations (Cu, Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Ni) throughout the area. While causality cannot be attributed, multivariate canonical correlation analysis indicated that PCB and PAH concentrations were strongly associated with the induction of biomarkers of genotoxicity (micronucleus formation), immunotoxicity (spontaneous cytotoxicity), and physiological impairment (heart rate). It is concluded thatthe incorporation of chemical immunoassays with biological monitoring tools into routine management procedures is clearly viable and valuable as a means of identifying toxic impacts of pollutants on biota in situ.

  9. EFFECTS OF THERMAL TREATMENTS ON THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of experiments was completed to investigate abiotic degradation and reaction product formation of trichloroethylene (TCE) when heated. A quartz-tube apparatus was used to study short residence time and high temperature conditions that are thought to occur during thermal ...

  10. Development of thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as a rapid method for ambient particulate characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheya, Sue Anne N.

    A direct thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD GC/MS) method for air particulate matter (PM) analysis of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds was investigated. This technique uses a specially designed microdesorption GC inlet utilizing an inductively heated ferromagnetic foil with a Curie point temperature suitable for desorption, which can accommodate microgram amounts of material deposited on a thin strip of quartz fiber filter. Liquid or solid samples can be rapidly desorbed within 10 s at 315°C, followed by 30--40 min of chromatography time. The results obtained by this technique were found to be statistically equivalent to those obtained by the conventional solvent extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SX GC/MS) method for analysis of aromatic and n alkane standards, single source soot particles, and PM 10 filter samples. Correlations between injecting an extract, desorbing an extract, and desorbing particles averaged R = 0.94, with a three way correlation averaging R = 0.97. High volume sampling conducted at 12 spatially distributed sites located along the US/Mexican border of the El Paso/Juarez metroplex supplied 24h PM 10 filters for an investigation combining thermal desorption with a rapid online chemical derivatization procedure, and multivariate methods of source attribution using principal component and canonical correlation analysis of the resultant chemical markers. Four major combustion related PM emission sources were revealed at these sites: automotive, waste burning, biomass burning and meat cooking. A second investigation conducted in the same area used mediumvolume sampling to collect 2 h timeresolved PM 10 receptor samples for TD GC/MS analysis. Additionally, 2 h samples for inorganic analysis, multichannel particle size distribution measurements, and meteorological data were collected enabling generation of circadian PM multicharacterization profiles. Factor analysis based receptor modeling using

  11. Codon randomization for rapid exploration of chemical space in thiopeptide antibiotic variants.

    PubMed

    Young, Travis S; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Walsh, Christopher T

    2012-12-21

    Thiopeptide antibiotics exhibit a profound level of chemical diversity that is installed through cascades of posttranslational modifications on ribosomal peptides. Here, we present a technique to rapidly explore the chemical space of the thiopeptide GE37468 through codon randomization, yielding insights into thiopeptide maturation as well as structure and activity relationships. In this incarnation of the methodology, we randomized seven residues of the prepeptide-coding region, enabling the generation of 133 potential thiopeptide variants. Variant libraries were subsequently queried in two ways. First, high-throughput MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was applied to colony-level expressions to sample mutants that permitted full maturation of the antibiotic. Second, the activity of producing mutants was detected in an antibiotic overlay assay. In total, 29 of the 133 variants produced mature compound, 12 of which retained antibiotic activity and 1 that had improved activity.

  12. Roles of thermal adaptation and chemical ecology in Liriomyza distribution and control.

    PubMed

    Kang, Le; Chen, Bing; Wei, Jia-Ning; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2009-01-01

    Many Liriomyza species are pests of agricultural and ornamental plants. In the past two decades, the occurrence and distribution of certain Liriomyza species have changed dramatically, leading to an extensive body of research papers. First, we review the association of thermal tolerance with population dynamics, geographic distribution, and species displacement. Differences in thermal tolerances between species result in their differential geographic locations and overwintering ranges. Displacements among Liriomyza species are associated with their temperature adaptation. We examine the chemical linkage of plants, Liriomyza, and their parasitoids. Chemical compounds from host and nonhost plants mediate the behavior of Liriomyza and their parasitoids. Liriomyza and their parasitoids use chemical cues to locate their hosts. Induced compounds can be used as attractants of parasitoids or repellents of Liriomyza. Thus, understanding the thermal tolerances and chemical ecology of Liriomyza may enable researchers to predict geographic distribution and to develop novel control strategies.

  13. Large area super-resolution chemical imaging via rapid dithering of a nanoprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Languirand, Eric R.; Cullum, Brian M.

    2015-05-01

    Super-resolution chemical imaging via Raman spectroscopy provides a significant ability to simultaneously or pseudosimultaneously monitor numerous label-free analytes while elucidating their spatial distribution on the surface of the sample. However, spontaneous Raman is an inherently weak phenomenon making trace detection and thus superresolution imaging extremely difficult, if not impossible. To circumvent this and allow for trace detection of the few chemical species present in any sub-diffraction limited resolution element of an image, we have developed a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coherent fiber-optic imaging bundle probe consisting of 30,000 individual fiber elements. When the probes are tapered, etched and coated with metal, they provide circular Raman chemical images of a sample with a field of view of approximately 20μm (i.e. diameter) via the array of 30,000 individual 50 nm fiber elements. An acousto-optic tunable filter is used to rapidly scan or select discrete frequencies for multi- or hyperspectral analysis. Although the 50nm fiber element dimensions of this probe inherently provide spatial resolutions of approximately 100nm, further increases in the spatial resolution can be achieved by using a rapid dithering process. Using this process, additional images are obtained one-half fiber diameter translations in the x- and y- planes. A piezostage drives the movement, providing the accurate and reproducible shifts required for dithering. Optimal probability algorithms are then used to deconvolute the related images producing a final image with a three-fold increase in spatial resolution. This paper describes super-resolution chemical imaging using these probes and the dithering method as well as its potential applications in label-free imaging of lipid rafts and other applications within biology and forensics.

  14. Rapid Electrochemical Detection and Identification of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants for Manned Spaceflight Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; Botkin, Douglas; Gazda, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microbial control in the spacecraft environment is a daunting task, especially in the presence of human crew members. Currently, assessing the potential crew health risk associated with a microbial contamination event requires return of representative environmental samples that are analyzed in a ground-based laboratory. It is therefore not currently possible to quickly identify microbes during spaceflight. This project addresses the unmet need for spaceflight-compatible microbial identification technology. The electrochemical detection and identification platform is expected to provide a sensitive, specific, and rapid sample-to-answer capability for in-flight microbial monitoring that can distinguish between related microorganisms (pathogens and non-pathogens) as well as chemical contaminants. This will dramatically enhance our ability to monitor the spacecraft environment and the health risk to the crew. Further, the project is expected to eliminate the need for sample return while significantly reducing crew time required for detection of multiple targets. Initial work will focus on the optimization of bacterial detection and identification. The platform is designed to release nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from microorganisms without the use of harmful chemicals. Bacterial DNA or RNA is captured by bacteria-specific probe molecules that are bound to a microelectrode, and that capture event can generate a small change in the electrical current (Lam, et al. 2012. Anal. Chem. 84(1): 21-5.). This current is measured, and a determination is made whether a given microbe is present in the sample analyzed. Chemical detection can be accomplished by directly applying a sample to the microelectrode and measuring the resulting current change. This rapid microbial and chemical detection device is designed to be a low-cost, low-power platform anticipated to be operated independently of an external power source, characteristics optimal for manned spaceflight and areas where power

  15. Rapid Life-History Diversification of an Introduced Fish Species across a Localized Thermal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fengyue; Rypel, Andrew L.; Murphy, Brian R.; Li, Zhongjie; Zhang, Tanglin; Yuan, Jing; Guo, Zhiqiang; Tang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jiashou

    2014-01-01

    Climatic variations are known to engender life-history diversification of species and populations at large spatial scales. However, the extent to which microgeographic variations in climate (e.g., those occurring within a single large ecosystem) can also drive life-history divergence is generally poorly documented. We exploited a spatial gradient in water temperatures at three sites across a large montane lake in southwest China (Lake Erhai) to examine the extent to which life histories of a short-lived fish species (icefish, Neosalanx taihuensis) diversified in response to thermal regime following introduction 25 y prior. In general, warmwater icefish variants grew faster, had larger adult body size and higher condition and fecundity, but matured at smaller sizes. Conversely, coldwater variants had smaller adult body size and lower condition, but matured at larger sizes and had larger eggs. These life-history differences strongly suggest that key ecological trade-offs exist for icefish populations exposed to different thermal regimes, and these trade-offs have driven relatively rapid diversification in the life histories of icefish within Lake Erhai. Results are surprisingly concordant with current knowledge on life-history evolution at macroecological scales, and suggest that improved conservation management might be possible by focusing on patterns operating at microgeographical, including, within-ecosystem scales. PMID:24505366

  16. Rapid thermal processing — where has it been? Where is it going?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Carl

    1985-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is a method which uniformly heats and cools wafers in seconds. Since the process heats the whole wafer, the heating and cooling is limited by the thermal mass of the wafer and the heat transfer mechanism operating on the wafer. The main reason for considering RTP is to obtain improved dopant activation of implanted layers (due to the high wafer temperatures used) while minimizing dopant redistribution (due to short processing times at high temperature). This unique combination of high activation temperature and short processing time provides a degree of control over the thermal processing of wafers not available with standard diffusion furnaces and allows full activation of the dopant introduced by ion implantation without junction motion. Having this improved level of control over implant activation and dopant redistribution, several other important applications can be addressed as well. These applications include: PSG reflow; suicide and salicide processing; polysilicon annealing and drive-in doping from polysilicon; and controlled lattice damage repair. Results of the above applications indicate that activation with minimum dopant redistribution occurs in times less than ten seconds for wafer temperature > 1000°C, PSG reflows in times between 8 s and 30 s; refractory metal suicides can be formed and/or sintered in times on the order of 10 s. Processes are being developed in the other areas. For production applications RTP machines must also demonstrate: process uniformity and reproducibility (e.g., wafer temperature uniformity across the wafer and uniformity from wafer to wafer) and no slip. Slip is due to wafer temperature nonuniformity, plastic deformation of the wafer and/or oxygen concentration in the wafer. To achieve the required level of machine performance, accurate in situ wafer monitoring techniques are required which provide the necessary process/uniformity control without affecting the measured parameters.

  17. Rapid changes in cell physiology as a result of acute thermal stress house sparrows, Passer domesticus.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ana G; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-12-01

    Given that our climate is rapidly changing, Physiological Ecologists have the critical task of identifying characteristics of species that make them either resilient or susceptible to changes in their natural air temperature regime. Because climate change models suggest that heat events will become more common, and in some places more extreme, it is important to consider how extreme heat events might affect the physiology of a species. The implications of more frequent heat wave events for birds have only recently begun to be addressed, however, the impact of these events on the cellular physiology of a species is difficult to assess. We have developed a novel approach using dermal fibroblasts to explore how short-term thermal stress at the whole animal level might affect cellular rates of metabolism. House sparrows, Passer domesticus were separated into a "control group" and a "heat shocked" group, the latter acclimated to 43°C for 24h. We determined the plasticity of cellular thermal responses by assigning a "recovery group" that was heat shocked as above, but then returned to room temperature for 24h. Primary dermal fibroblasts were grown from skin of all treatment groups and the pectoralis muscle was collected. We found that glycolysis (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rates (OCR), measured using a Seahorse XF 96 analyzer, were significantly higher in the fibroblasts from the heat shocked group of House sparrows compared with their control counterparts. Additionally, muscle fiber diameters decreased and, in turn, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase maximal activity in the muscle significantly increased in heat shocked sparrows compared with birds in the control group. All of these physiological alterations due to short-term heat exposure were reversible within 24h of recovery at room temperature. These results show that acute exposure to heat stress significantly alters the cellular physiology of sparrows, but that this species is plastic enough to recover from such a thermal

  18. An integrated photo-thermal sensing system for rapid and direct diagnosis of anemia.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Bong Seop; Kim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Hyun Ok; Jung, Hyo-Il

    2010-12-15

    This article presents a thermal biosensor to diagnose the anemia without chemical treatments using temperature increase of red blood cells (RBC) when hemoglobin molecules absorb specific wavelength of photons and convert them to thermal energy. For measuring temperature change of red blood cell, the micro-scaled platinum resistance temperature detector (Pt RTD) was developed. For maintenance of constant ambient temperature, we designed and fabricated a thermostat system. The thermostat system consists of a K-type thermocouple and two electric heaters that serve to increase the system temperature, which is monitored by the thermocouple. Both heaters and the thermocouple were connected to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller and enabled to maintain the temperature constant (<±0.1°C). For specific heating of red blood cell, 8.0 W/cm(2) diode pumped solid state (DPSS) continuous wave (CW) laser module was used with 532 nm wavelength. Using this system, we successfully measured the temperature variations (from 66.33±2.72°C to 74.16±2.06°C) of whole blood samples from 10 anemic patients and subsequently determined the concentration of hemoglobin (from 7.2 g/dL to 9.8 g/dL). The method proposed in this paper requires significantly less amount of whole blood sample (6 μl) compared with the conventional methods (175 μl) and allows instantaneous diagnosis (3 s) of anemia.

  19. Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H.; Barhen, J.

    1997-04-01

    A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

  20. Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Electrical Characteristics of ZnO Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remashan, Kariyadan; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Park, Seong-Ju; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2008-04-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a bottom-gate configuration were fabricated with an RF magnetron sputtered undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) channel layer and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) grown silicon nitride as a gate dielectric. Postfabrication rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and subsequent nitrous oxide (N2O) plasma treatment were employed to improve the performance of ZnO TFTs in terms of on-current and on/off current ratio. The RTA treatment increases the on-current of the TFT significantly, but it also increases its off-current. The off-current of 2×10-8 A and on/off current ratio of 3×103 obtained after the RTA treatment were improved to 10-10 A and 105, respectively, by the subsequent N2O plasma treatment. The better device performance can be attributed to the reduction of oxygen vacancies at the top region of the channel due to oxygen incorporation from the N2O plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the TFT samples showed that the RTA-treated ZnO surface has more oxygen vacancies than as-deposited samples, which results in the increased drain current. The XPS study also showed that the subsequent N2O plasma treatment reduces oxygen vacancies only at the surface of ZnO so that the better off-current and on/off current ratio can be obtained.

  1. Implication of rapid thermal annealing-induced cracks on the performance of multiple-quantum-well laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Yee, Hoshin H; Yu, Chih-Ping

    2003-05-20

    We investigated the effects of rapid thermal annealing (RTA)-induced cracks on the diode performance fabricated with GaAs-AlGaAs microstructures. These effects were examined and characterized after quantum-well intermixing within an epitaxial structure capped by either SiO2 or SrF2 layers. The results show clearly that the density of surface crackes strongly depends on the atomic interdiffusion between the well and the barrier layers and on the quality of the dielectric caps as well. Moreover, surface-crack correlation with the RTA process an dielectric deposition parameters, and the cracking effects on diode performance were observed and analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that diode characteristics can be greatly improved by good surface morphology. Most importantly, we explored an effective way of reducing the density of RTA-induced cracks for the dielectrics grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, which was beneficial for dielectric-cap quantum-well disordering.

  2. Chemical properties and cytotoxicity of thermally oxidized oil.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Burenjargal, Munkhjargal; Yawata, Miho; Ojiri, Yuko

    2008-01-01

    Heated frying oils with different chemical properties in terms of AV (acid value), POV (peroxide value), COV (carbonyl value), and contents of polar compounds (PC) and triacylglycerol (TG), as well as color and odor, were obtained. Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control) or one of the frying oils described above. The rats were subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to the experimental oils were observed. However, the rats fed a diet containing the heated oil developed apparent liver damage to different degrees regardless of the chemical properties of the ingested oils. Thus, it was suggested that the chemical properties evaluated here had little to do with the cytotoxicity of heated oil, although the properties express quality of oil. Volatile compounds seem to be major candidates for the toxic agents in heated oil because oils with rancid and deteriorated odor show strong toxicity.

  3. An ab initio study of the nickel-catalyzed transformation of amorphous carbon into graphene in rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuang; Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Yun Shen; Lu, Yong Feng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations are employed to investigate the chemical mechanism underlying the Ni-catalyzed transformation of amorphous carbon (a-C) into graphene in the rapid thermal processing (RTP) experiment to directly grow graphene on various dielectric surfaces via the evaporation of surplus Ni and C at 1100 °C (below the melting point of bulk Ni). It is found that the a-C-to-graphene transformation entails the metal-induced crystallization and layer exchange mechanism, rather than the conventional dissolution/precipitation mechanism typically involved in Ni-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of graphene. The multi-layer graphene can be tuned by changing the relative thicknesses of deposited a-C and Ni thin films. Our AIMD simulations suggest that the easy evaporation of surplus Ni with excess C is likely attributed to the formation of a viscous-liquid-like Ni-C solution within the temperature range of 900-1800 K and to the faster diffusion of C atoms than that of Ni atoms above 600 K. Even at room temperature, sp3-C atoms in a-C are quickly converted to sp2-C atoms in the course of the simulation, and the graphitic C formation can occur at low temperature. When the temperature is as high as 1200 K, the grown graphitic structures reversely dissolve into Ni. Because the rate of temperature increase is considerably faster in the AIMD simulations than in realistic experiments, defects in the grown graphitic structures are kinetically trapped. In this kinetic growth stage, the carbon structures grown from sp3-carbon or from sp2-carbon exhibit marked differences.Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations are employed to investigate the chemical mechanism underlying the Ni-catalyzed transformation of amorphous carbon (a-C) into graphene in the rapid thermal processing (RTP) experiment to directly grow graphene on various dielectric surfaces via the evaporation of surplus Ni and C at 1100 °C (below the melting point of bulk

  4. Thermal, chemical, and photocatalytic inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Briggiler Marcó, Mariángeles; De Antoni, Graciela L; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2009-05-01

    The effect of several biocides, thermal treatments, and photocatalysis on the viability of four Lactobacillus plantarum phages was investigated. Times to achieve 99% inactivation (T99) of phages at 63, 72, and 90 degrees C were evaluated in four suspension media: deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth, reconstituted skim milk, a commercial EM-glucose medium, and Tris magnesium gelatin buffer. The four phages studied were highly resistant to 63 degrees C (T99 > 45 min); however, counts < 10 PFU/ml were achieved by heating at 90 degrees C for 5 min. Higher thermal resistance at 72 degrees C was observed when reconstituted skim milk and EM-glucose medium were assayed. Peracetic acid (0.15%, vol/vol) was an effective biocide for the complete inactivation of all phages studied within 5 min of exposure. Sodium hypochlorite (800 ppm) inactivated the phages completely within 30 min. Ethanol (100%) did not destroy phage particles even after 45 min. Isopropanol did not have any effect on phage viability. Phage counts < 50 PFU/ml were obtained within 180 min of photocatalytic treatment. The results obtained in this work are important for establishing adequate methods for inactivating phages in industrial plants and laboratory environments.

  5. Correlation of chemical, structural and thermal properties of natural fibres for their sustainable exploitation.

    PubMed

    Moriana, Rosana; Vilaplana, Francisco; Karlsson, Sigbritt; Ribes, Amparo

    2014-11-04

    The potential of lignocellulosic natural fibres as renewable resources for thermal conversion and material reinforcement is largely dependent on the correlation between their chemical composition, crystalline structure and thermal decomposition properties. Significant differences were observed in the chemical composition of cotton, flax, hemp, kenaf and jute natural fibres in terms of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content, which influence their morphology, thermal properties and pyrolysis product distribution. A suitable methodology to study the kinetics of the thermal decomposition process of lignocellulosic fibres is proposed combining different models (Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Criado and Coats-Redfern). Cellulose pyrolysis can be modelled with similar kinetic parameters for all the natural fibres whereas the kinetic parameters for hemicellulose pyrolysis show intrinsic differences that can be assigned to the heterogeneous hemicellulose sugar composition in each natural fibre. This study provides the ground to critically select the most promising fibres to be used either for biofuel or material applications.

  6. Effect of thermal pretreatment on the physical and chemical properties of municipal biomass waste.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Gao, Xingbao; Zhou, Yingjun; Shen, Renjie

    2012-02-01

    The effects of thermal pretreatment on the physical and chemical properties of three typical municipal biomass wastes (MBWs), kitchen waste (KW), vegetable/fruit residue (VFR), and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated. The results show that thermal pretreatment at 175 °C/60 min significantly decreases viscosity, improves the MBW dewatering performance, as well as increases soluble chemical oxygen demand, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and especially organic compounds with molecular weights >10 kDa. For KW, VFR and WAS, 59.7%, 58.5% and 25.2% of the organic compounds can be separated in the liquid phase after thermal treatment. WAS achieves a 34.8% methane potential increase and a doubled methane production rate after thermal pretreatment. In contrast, KW and VFR show 7.9% and 11.7% methane decrease because of melanoidin production.

  7. Numerical simulations of thermal-chemical instabilities at the core-mantle boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Ulrich; Yuen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical simulations of thermal-chemical instabilities in the D-double-prime layer at the core-mantle boundary are presented which show that strong lateral heterogeneities in the composition and density fields can be initiated and maintained dynamically if there is continuous replenishment of material from subduced slabs coming from the upper mantle. These chemical instabilities have a tendency to migrate laterally and may help to support core-mantle boundary topography with short and long wavelengths. The thermal-chemical flows produce a relatively stagnant D-double-prime layer with strong lateral and temporal variations in basal heat flux, which gives rise to thermal core-mantle interactions influencing the geodynamo.

  8. Chemical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared Using Camphoric Carbon by Thermal-CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azira, A. A.; Rusop, M.

    2010-03-01

    Chemical properties and surface study on the influence of starting carbon materials by using thermal chemical vapor deposition (Thermal-CVD) to produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The CNTs derived from camphor were synthesized as the precursor material due to low sublimation temperature. The major parameters are also evaluated in order to obtain high-yield and high-quality CNTs. The prepared CNTs are examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to determine the microstructure of nanocarbons. The FESEM investigation of the CNTs formed on the support catalysts provides evidence that camphor is suitable as a precursor material for nanotubes formation. The chemical properties of the CNTs were conducted using FTIR spectroscopy and PXRD analysis. The high-temperature graphitization process induced by the Thermal-CVD enables the hydrocarbons to act as carbon sources and changes the aromatic species into the layered graphite structure of CNTs.

  9. Monitoring chemical degradation of thermally cycled glass-fibre composites using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, V. M.; Müller, B.; Hagenbeek, M.; Sinke, J.; Groves, R. M.

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the application of glass-fibre composites in light-weight structures is growing. Although mechanical characterizations of those structures are commonly performed in testing, chemical changes of materials under stresses have not yet been well documented. In the present work coupon tests and Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) have been used to categorise possible chemical changes of glass-fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP) which are currently used in the aircraft industry. HSI is a hybrid technique that combines spectroscopy with imaging. It is able to detect chemical degradation of surfaces and has already been successfully applied in a wide range of fields including astronomy, remote sensing, cultural heritage and medical sciences. GFRP specimens were exposed to two different thermal loading conditions. One thermal loading condition was a continuous thermal exposure at 120°C for 24h, 48 h and 96h, i.e. ageing at a constant temperature. The other thermal loading condition was thermal cycling with three different numbers of cycles (4000, 8000, 12000) and two temperature ranges (0°C to 120°C and -25°C to 95°C). The effects of both conditions were measured using both HSI and interlaminar shear (ILSS) tests. No significant changes of the physical properties of the thermally cycled GFRP specimens were detected using interlaminar shear strength tests and optical microscopy. However, when using HIS, differences of the surface conditions were detected. The results showed that the different thermal loading conditions could be successfully clustered in different colours, using the HSI linear unmixing technique. Each different thermal loading condition showed a different chemical degradation level on its surface which was indicated using different colours.

  10. Stomatal control and leaf thermal and hydraulic capacitances under rapid environmental fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani; Zwieniecki, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Leaves within a canopy may experience rapid and extreme fluctuations in ambient conditions. A shaded leaf, for example, may become exposed to an order of magnitude increase in solar radiation within a few seconds, due to sunflecks or canopy motions. Considering typical time scales for stomatal adjustments, (2 to 60 minutes), the gap between these two time scales raised the question whether leaves rely on their hydraulic and thermal capacitances for passive protection from hydraulic failure or over-heating until stomata have adjusted. We employed a physically based model to systematically study effects of short-term fluctuations in irradiance on leaf temperatures and transpiration rates. Considering typical amplitudes and time scales of such fluctuations, the importance of leaf heat and water capacities for avoiding damaging leaf temperatures and hydraulic failure were investigated. The results suggest that common leaf heat capacities are not sufficient to protect a non-transpiring leaf from over-heating during sunflecks of several minutes duration whereas transpirative cooling provides effective protection. A comparison of the simulated time scales for heat damage in the absence of evaporative cooling with observed stomatal response times suggested that stomata must be already open before arrival of a sunfleck to avoid over-heating to critical leaf temperatures. This is consistent with measured stomatal conductances in shaded leaves and has implications for water use efficiency of deep canopy leaves and vulnerability to heat damage during drought. Our results also suggest that typical leaf water contents could sustain several minutes of evaporative cooling during a sunfleck without increasing the xylem water supply and thus risking embolism. We thus submit that shaded leaves rely on hydraulic capacitance and evaporative cooling to avoid over-heating and hydraulic failure during exposure to typical sunflecks, whereas thermal capacitance provides limited protection

  11. Stomatal Control and Leaf Thermal and Hydraulic Capacitances under Rapid Environmental Fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J.; Or, Dani; Zwieniecki, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Leaves within a canopy may experience rapid and extreme fluctuations in ambient conditions. A shaded leaf, for example, may become exposed to an order of magnitude increase in solar radiation within a few seconds, due to sunflecks or canopy motions. Considering typical time scales for stomatal adjustments, (2 to 60 minutes), the gap between these two time scales raised the question whether leaves rely on their hydraulic and thermal capacitances for passive protection from hydraulic failure or over-heating until stomata have adjusted. We employed a physically based model to systematically study effects of short-term fluctuations in irradiance on leaf temperatures and transpiration rates. Considering typical amplitudes and time scales of such fluctuations, the importance of leaf heat and water capacities for avoiding damaging leaf temperatures and hydraulic failure were investigated. The results suggest that common leaf heat capacities are not sufficient to protect a non-transpiring leaf from over-heating during sunflecks of several minutes duration whereas transpirative cooling provides effective protection. A comparison of the simulated time scales for heat damage in the absence of evaporative cooling with observed stomatal response times suggested that stomata must be already open before arrival of a sunfleck to avoid over-heating to critical leaf temperatures. This is consistent with measured stomatal conductances in shaded leaves and has implications for water use efficiency of deep canopy leaves and vulnerability to heat damage during drought. Our results also suggest that typical leaf water contents could sustain several minutes of evaporative cooling during a sunfleck without increasing the xylem water supply and thus risking embolism. We thus submit that shaded leaves rely on hydraulic capacitance and evaporative cooling to avoid over-heating and hydraulic failure during exposure to typical sunflecks, whereas thermal capacitance provides limited protection

  12. Electrical and thermal conductivities of rapidly crystallized Cu-Zr alloys: The effect of anharmonicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uporov, S.; Bykov, V.; Estemirova, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a comprehensive study of electrical and thermal conductivities, specific heat and magnetic susceptibility of rapidly crystallized Cu100-xZrx (x = 20-90) alloys. X-ray diffraction analysis has revealed that all the prepared compositions had strongly textured and distorted crystal structures. Different monoclinic and other non-equilibrium phases were detected in the case of glass-forming samples, whereas the alloys without a tendency to form glassy state show almost equilibrium phase content. Metallic type of electrical conductivity and the Kondo anomaly were observed for all the examined samples. It was found that the electrical resistance data cannot be adequately described within the standard Bloch-Grüneisen theory. We use the Debye characteristic temperature as a linear function to fit the electrical conductivity accurately. The composition dependence of the electron density of states at the Fermi level (DOS) has been extracted from room temperature magnetic susceptibility. We found that the glass-forming alloys are characterized by abnormally large values of DOS, which are comparable to those of glassy analogues. Noticeable anharmonic contribution in total specific heat has been revealed for all the studied compositions. In order to estimate the effect of anharmonicity in the system under consideration, we analyzed composition and temperature dependencies of the studied thermal characteristics related to the Grüneisen coefficient. Basing on the results obtained in this study we propose a phenomenological concept to explain abnormal behavior of physical properties of glass-forming Cu-Zr alloys within the standard solid state theory taking into account anharmonic effects.

  13. Chemical compositions and classifica tion of five thermally altered carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noronha, Bianca A.; Friedrich, Jon M.

    2014-08-01

    To establish the chemical group provenance of the five thermally altered carbonaceous chondrites Asuka (A-) 881551, Asuka-882113, Elephant Moraine (EET) 96026, Mulga (west), and Northwest Africa (NWA) 3133, we quantified 44 trace elements in each of them. We also analyzed Larkman Nunatak (LAR) 04318 (CK4), Miller Range (MIL) 090001 (CR2), Roberts Massif (RBT) 03522 (CK5) as reference samples as their chemical group affinity is already recognized. We conclude that Asuka-881551, Asuka-882113, and Mulga (west) are thermally metamorphosed CK chondrites. Compositionally, Elephant Moraine 96026 most resembles the CV chondrites. NWA 3133 is the most significantly thermally altered carbonaceous chondrite in our suite of samples. It is completely recrystallized (no chondrules or matrix remain), but its bulk composition is consistent with a CV-CK clan provenance. The thermally labile element (e.g., Se, Te, Zn, and Bi) depletion in NWA 3133 indicates a chemically open system during the heating episode. It remains unclear if the heat necessary for its thermal alteration of NWA 3133 was due to the decay of 26Al or was impact related. Finally, we infer that MIL 090001, Mulga (west), and NWA 3133 show occasional compositional signatures indicative of terrestrial alteration. The alteration is especially evident within the elements Sr, Ba, La, Ce, Th, U, and possibly Sb. Despite the alteration, we can still confidently place each of the altered chondrites within an established chemical group or clan.

  14. Correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wang; Zhu, Yuan; Cao, Jinzhen; Sun, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the dynamic wetting behavior of thermally modified wood, Cathay poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) samples were thermally modified in an oven at 160, 180, 200, 220 or 240 °C for 4 h in this study. The dynamic contact angles and droplet volumes of water droplets on modified and unmodified wood surfaces were measured by sessile drop method, and their changing rates (expression index: K value and wetting slope) calculated by wetting models were illustrated for mapping the dynamic wetting process. The surface chemical components were also measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS), thus the relationship between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood were determined. The results indicated that thermal modification was capable of decreasing the dynamic wettability of wood, expressed in lowing spread and penetration speed of water droplets on wood surfaces. This change was more obvious with the increased heating temperature. The K values varied linearly with the chemical components parameter (mass loss, O/C ratio, and C1/C2 ratio), indicating a strong correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood.

  15. Effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing and Different Oxidants on the Properties of LaxAlyO Nanolaminate Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Fei, Chenxi; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Xing; Zhao, Lu; Zhao, Dongdong; Feng, Xingyao

    2017-12-01

    A comparative study of different sequences of two metal precursors [trimethylaluminum (TMA) and Tris(isopropylcyclopentadienyl) lanthanum (La((i)PrCp)3)] for atomic layer deposition (ALD) lanthanum aluminum oxide (LaxAlyO) films is carried out. The percentage compositions of C and N impurity of LaxAlyO films were investigated using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of different oxidants on the physical and chemical properties and electrical characteristics of LaxAlyO films are studied before and after annealing. Preliminary testing results indicate that the impurity level of LaxAlyO films grown with different oxidants can be well controlled before and after annealing. Analysis indicates the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and kinds of oxidants have significant effects on the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT), dielectric constant, electrical properties, and stability of LaxAlyO films. Additionally, the change of chemical bond types of rapid thermal annealing effects on the properties of LaxAlyO films are grown with different oxidants also investigated by XPS.

  16. Rapid thermal annealing of magnesium implanted GaAs-GaAIAs heterostructures experimental and simulated distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketata, K.; Debrie, R.; Ketata, M.

    1993-01-01

    The use of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) techniques to anneal ion implanted GaAs compounds is expected to have a significant impact on device technology. Due to the short duration of the heat treatment, the implanted impurities may be activated without significant diffusion. For heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) applications, high doses of p-type impurities are required to compensate the doping levels of N-GaAlAs emitter and n+ GaAs contact layers. Multi-implantations were chosen to maintain a flat profile down to the base layer. Energies of 30, 60, 150, and 340 keV with doses of 6 × 1013, 9 × 1013,6 × 1014, and 9 × 1014 cm-2, respectively, have been used. Annealing cycles with time durations of a few seconds and temperature in the range of 850 950°C are described. Electrical properties of the annealed samples have been investigated using an electrochemical measurement technique. It was found that hole concentrations as high as 4 × 1019 cm-3 and electrical activities near to 75 percent can be obtained. There is no evident indiffusion and no significant outdiffusion at the optimal annealing conditions. Simulation of multilayer implantations are also carried out by an accurate model available in TITAN 2D process simulator using Pearson IV laws and taking into account the diffusion effects on profile distribution caused by RTA. A first approximation using a simple model allows a rapid evaluation of the data fitting operation. In a second approach, concentration dependent diffusivity and the contribution of the electric field at the interface are covered to perform an improved data fitting of ion implanted and annealed dopant profiles. A comparative study shows a good agreement between experimental and simulated distributions.

  17. Thermal, chemical, and optical properties of Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, G.L.; Hoffman, R.L.; McIntire, D.C.; Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.

    2007-01-01

    Crater Lake covers the floor of the Mount Mazama caldera that formed 7700 years ago. The lake has a surface area of 53 km2 and a maximum depth of 594 m. There is no outlet stream and surface inflow is limited to small streams and springs. Owing to its great volume and heat, the lake is not covered by snow and ice in winter unlike other lakes in the Cascade Range. The lake is isothermal in winter except for a slight increase in temperature in the deep lake from hyperadiabatic processes and inflow of hydrothermal fluids. During winter and spring the water column mixes to a depth of about 200-250 m from wind energy and convection. Circulation of the deep lake occurs periodically in winter and spring when cold, near-surface waters sink to the lake bottom; a process that results in the upwelling of nutrients, especially nitrate-N, into the upper strata of the lake. Thermal stratification occurs in late summer and fall. The maximum thickness of the epilimnion is about 20 m and the metalimnion extends to a depth of about 100 m. Thus, most of the lake volume is a cold hypolimnion. The year-round near-bottom temperature is about 3.5??C. Overall, hydrothermal fluids define and temporally maintain the basic water quality characteristics of the lake (e.g., pH, alkalinity and conductivity). Total phosphorus and orthophosphate-P concentrations are fairly uniform throughout the water column, where as total Kjeldahl-N and ammonia-N are highest in concentration in the upper lake. Concentrations of nitrate-N increase with depth below 200 m. No long-term changes in water quality have been detected. Secchi disk (20-cm) clarity varied seasonally and annually, but was typically highest in June and lowest in August. During the current study, August Secchi disk clarity readings averaged about 30 m. The maximum individual clarity reading was 41.5 m in June 1997. The lowest reading was 18.1 m in July 1995. From 1896 (white-dinner plate) to 2003, the average August Secchi disk reading was

  18. Proteolysis approach without chemical modification for a simple and rapid analysis of disulfide bonds using thermostable protease-immobilized microreactors.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya; Maeda, Hideaki

    2010-08-01

    Disulfide bonds in proteins are important not only for the conformational stability of the protein but also for the regulation of oxidation-reduction in signal transduction. The conventional method for the assignment of disulfide bond by chemical cleavage and/or proteolysis is a time-consuming multi-step procedure. In this study, we report a simple and rapid analysis of disulfide bond from protein digests that were prepared by the thermostable protease-immobilized microreactors. The feasibility and performance of this approach were evaluated by digesting lysozyme and BSA at several temperatures. The proteins which stabilize their conformations by disulfide bonds were thermally denatured during proteolysis and were efficiently digested by the immobilized protease but not by free protease. The digests were directly analyzed by ESI-TOF MS without any purification or concentration step. All four disulfide bonds on lysozyme and 10 of 17 on BSA were assigned from the digests by the trypsin-immobilized microreactor at 50 degrees C. The procedure for proteolysis and the assignment were achieved within 2 h without any reduction and alkylation procedure. From the present results, the proteolysis approach by the thermostable protease-immobilized microreactor provides a strategy for the high-throughput analysis of disulfide bond in proteomics.

  19. Predicting Formation Damage in Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems Utilizing a Coupled Hydraulic-Thermal-Chemical Reservoir Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Daniel; Regenspurg, Simona; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido; Kranz, Stefan; Saadat, Ali

    2014-05-01

    In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems, large amounts of energy can be stored by injecting hot water into deep or intermediate aquifers. In a seasonal production-injection cycle, water is circulated through a system comprising the porous aquifer, a production well, a heat exchanger and an injection well. This process involves large temperature and pressure differences, which shift chemical equilibria and introduce or amplify mechanical processes. Rock-fluid interaction such as dissolution and precipitation or migration and deposition of fine particles will affect the hydraulic properties of the porous medium and may lead to irreversible formation damage. In consequence, these processes determine the long-term performance of the ATES system and need to be predicted to ensure the reliability of the system. However, high temperature and pressure gradients and dynamic feedback cycles pose challenges on predicting the influence of the relevant processes. Within this study, a reservoir model comprising a coupled hydraulic-thermal-chemical simulation was developed based on an ATES demonstration project located in the city of Berlin, Germany. The structural model was created with Petrel, based on data available from seismic cross-sections and wellbores. The reservoir simulation was realized by combining the capabilities of multiple simulation tools. For the reactive transport model, COMSOL Multiphysics (hydraulic-thermal) and PHREEQC (chemical) were combined using the novel interface COMSOL_PHREEQC, developed by Wissmeier & Barry (2011). It provides a MATLAB-based coupling interface between both programs. Compared to using COMSOL's built-in reactive transport simulator, PHREEQC additionally calculates adsorption and reaction kinetics and allows the selection of different activity coefficient models in the database. The presented simulation tool will be able to predict the most important aspects of hydraulic, thermal and chemical transport processes relevant to

  20. Thermal-work strain in law enforcement personnel during chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) training

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, M; Karis, A J; Tharion, W J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thermal safety standards for the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) ensembles have been established for various US occupations, but not for law enforcement personnel. Objectives: We examined thermal strain levels of 30 male US law enforcement personnel who participated in CBRN field training in Arizona, Florida, and Massachusetts. Methods: Physiological responses were examined using unobtrusive heart rate (HR) monitors and a simple thermoregulatory model to predict core temperature (Tc) using HR and environment. Results: Thermal strain levels varied by environments, activity levels, and type of CBRN ensemble. Arizona and Florida volunteers working in hot-dry and hot-humid environment indicated high heat strain (predicted max Tc>38.5°C). The cool environment of Massachusetts reduced thermal strain although thermal strains were occasionally moderate. Conclusions: The non-invasive method of using physiological monitoring and thermoregulatory modeling could improve law enforcement mission to reduce the risk of heat illness or injury. PMID:24999847

  1. The application of thermal methods for determining chemical composition of carbonaceous aerosols: a review.

    PubMed

    Chow, Judith C; Yu, Jian Zhen; Watson, John G; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Bohannan, Theresa L; Hays, Michael D; Fung, Kochy K

    2007-09-01

    Thermal methods of various forms have been used to quantify carbonaceous materials. Thermal/optical carbon analysis provides measurements of organic and elemental carbon concentrations as well as fractions evolving at specific temperatures in ambient and source aerosols. Detection of thermally desorbed organic compounds with thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) identifies and quantifies over 100 individual organic compounds in particulate matter (PM) samples. The resulting mass spectra contain information that is consistent among, but different between, source emissions even in the absence of association with specific organic compounds. TD-GC/MS is a demonstrated alternative to solvent extraction for many organic compounds and can be applied to samples from existing networks. It is amenable to field-deployable instruments capable of measuring organic aerosol composition in near real-time. In this review, thermal stability of organic compounds is related to chemical structures, providing a basis for understanding thermochemical properties of carbonaceous aerosols. Recent advances in thermal methods applied to determine aerosol chemical compositions are summarized and their potential for uncovering aerosol chemistry are evaluated. Current limitations and future research needs of the thermal methods are included.

  2. Comparison of rapid methods for chemical analysis of milligram samples of ultrafine clays.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rettig, S.L.; Marinenko, J.W.; Khoury, H.N.; Jones, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    Two rapid methods for the decomposition and chemical analysis of clays were adapted for use with 20-40mg size samples, typical amounts of ultrafine products (< 0.5 micrometer diameter) obtained from modern separation methods for clay minrals. The results of these methods were compared with those of 'classical' rock analyses. The two methods consisted of mixed lithium metaborate fusion and heated decomposition with HF in a closed vessel. The latter technique was modified to include subsequent evaporation with concentrated H2SO4 and re-solution in HCl, which reduced the interference of the fluoride ion in the determination of Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, and K.-from Authors

  3. Atmospheric Pressure-Thermal Desorption (AP-TD)/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for the Rapid Analysis of Bacillus Spores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A technique is described where an atmospheric pressure-thermal desorption (AP-TD) device and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry are coupled and used for the rapid analysis of Bacillus spores in complex matrices. The resulting AP-TD/ESI-MS technique combines the generation of volatile co...

  4. Rapid and Adaptable Measurement of Protein Thermal Stability by Differential Scanning Fluorimetry: Updating a Common Biochemical Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Jeremy; Savas, Christopher J.; Kartje, Zachary; Hoops, Geoffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of protein denaturation and protein folding is a common laboratory technique used in undergraduate biochemistry laboratories. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) provides a rapid, sensitive, and general method for measuring protein thermal stability in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory. In this method, the thermal…

  5. Rapid thermal processing chamber for in-situ x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Md. Imteyaz; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Yu, Jiafan; Pool, Vanessa L.; Van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Toney, Michael F.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S.

    2015-01-15

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is widely used for processing a variety of materials, including electronics and photovoltaics. Presently, optimization of RTP is done primarily based on ex-situ studies. As a consequence, the precise reaction pathways and phase progression during the RTP remain unclear. More awareness of the reaction pathways would better enable process optimization and foster increased adoption of RTP, which offers numerous advantages for synthesis of a broad range of materials systems. To achieve this, we have designed and developed a RTP instrument that enables real-time collection of X-ray diffraction data with intervals as short as 100 ms, while heating with ramp rates up to 100 °Cs{sup −1}, and with a maximum operating temperature of 1200 °C. The system is portable and can be installed on a synchrotron beamline. The unique capabilities of this instrument are demonstrated with in-situ characterization of a Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glass frit obtained during heating with ramp rates 5 °C s{sup −1} and 100 °C s{sup −1}, revealing numerous phase changes.

  6. Rapid thermal processing of high-efficiency silicon solar cells with controlled in-situ annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Doshi, P.; Rohatgi, A.; Ropp, M.; Chen, Z.; Ruby, D.; Meier, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 17.1%, 16.4%, 14.8%, and 14.9% have been achieved on FZ, Cz, multicrystalline (mc-Si), and dendritic web (DW) silicon, respectively, using simplified, cost-effective rapid thermal processing (RTP). These represent the highest reported efficiencies for solar cells processed with simultaneous front and back diffusion with no conventional high-temperature furnace steps. Appropriate diffusion temperature coupled with the added in-situ anneal resulted in suitable minority-carrier lifetime and diffusion profiles for high-efficiency cells. The cooling rate associated with the in-situ anneal can improve the lifetime and lower the reverse saturation current density (J{sub 0}), however, this effect is material and base resistivity specific. PECVD antireflection (AR) coatings provided low reflectance and efficient front surface and bulk defect passivation. Conventional cells fabricated on FZ silicon by furnace diffusions and oxidations gave an efficiency of 18.8% due to greater short wavelength response and lower J{sub 0}.

  7. Enhanced UV photosensitivity from rapid thermal annealed vertically aligned ZnO nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report on the major improvement in UV photosensitivity and faster photoresponse from vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) by means of rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The ZnO NWs were grown by vapor-liquid-solid method and subsequently RTA treated at 700°C and 800°C for 120 s. The UV photosensitivity (photo-to-dark current ratio) is 4.5 × 103 for the as-grown NWs and after RTA treatment it is enhanced by a factor of five. The photocurrent (PC) spectra of the as-grown and RTA-treated NWs show a strong peak in the UV region and two other relatively weak peaks in the visible region. The photoresponse measurement shows a bi-exponential growth and bi-exponential decay of the PC from as-grown as well as RTA-treated ZnO NWs. The growth and decay time constants are reduced after the RTA treatment indicating a faster photoresponse. The dark current-voltage characteristics clearly show the presence of surface defects-related trap centers on the as-grown ZnO NWs and after RTA treatment it is significantly reduced. The RTA processing diminishes the surface defect-related trap centers and modifies the surface of the ZnO NWs, resulting in enhanced PC and faster photoresponse. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of RTA processing for achieving improved photosensitivity of ZnO NWs. PMID:21859456

  8. Nano-Welding of Ag Nanowires Using Rapid Thermal Annealing for Transparent Conductive Films.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jong Sik; Oh, Ji Soo; Shin, Jae Hee; Yeom, Geun Young; Kim, Kyong Nam

    2015-11-01

    Ag nanowire (NW) films obtained by the spraying the Ag NWs on the substrates were nano-welded by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process and the effect of RTA process on the change of sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the Ag NW films was investigated. The increased number of Ag NW sprays on the substrate decreased the sheet resistance but also decreased the optical transmittance. By the annealing for 60 sec in a nitrogen environment to 225-250 degrees C, the sheet resistance of Ag NW film could be decreased to about 50%, even though it was accompanied by the slight decrease of optical transmittance less than 5%. The decrease of sheet resistance was related to the nano-welding of the Ag NW junctions and the slight decrease of optical transmittance was related local melting of the Ag NWs and spreading on the substrate surface. Through the nano-welding by RTA process, the Ag NW film with the sheet resistance of -20 Ω/sq. and the optical transmittance of 93% could be obtained.

  9. Facile synthesis of few-layer graphene with a controllable thickness using rapid thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jae Hwan; Kwak, Jinsung; Kwon, Tae-Yang; Park, Soon-Dong; Go, Heungseok; Kim, Sung Youb; Park, Kibog; Kang, Seoktae; Kwon, Soon-Yong

    2012-03-01

    Few-layer graphene films with a controllable thickness were grown on a nickel surface by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) under vacuum. The instability of nickel films in air facilitates the spontaneous formation of ultrathin (<2-3 nm) carbon- and oxygen-containing compounds on a nickel surface; thus, the high-temperature annealing of the nickel samples without the introduction of intentional carbon-containing precursors results in the formation of graphene films. From annealing temperature and ambient studies during RTA, it was found that the evaporation of oxygen atoms from the surface is the dominant factor affecting the formation of graphene films. The thickness of the graphene layers is strongly dependent on the RTA temperature and time, and the resulting films have a limited thickness (<2 nm), even for an extended RTA time. The transferred films have a low sheet resistance of ~0.9 ± 0.4 kΩ/sq, with ~94% ± 2% optical transparency, making them useful for applications as flexible transparent conductors.

  10. Copper silicide formation by rapid thermal processing and induced room-temperature Si oxide growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setton, M.; Van der Spiegel, J.; Rothman, B.

    1990-07-01

    The growth of copper silicide has been studied by rapid thermal processing (RTP) of 500 Å of Cu on Si substrates. Interaction between the diffusing metal and Si starts at 250-300 °C. Annealing at higher temperatures yields complete silicidation to Cu3Si. This leads to strong modifications of the Auger line shapes of both Si and Cu. A plasmon peak located 20 eV below the main peak is the fingerprint in the Cu spectrum. Strong features at 80, 85.6, 89.2, and 93.2 eV as well as a 1 eV shift of the 90.4 eV peak appear in the Si L2,3VV spectrum. Whether for Cu films annealed in nitrogen or in vacuum, exposure of the silicide to air results in the growth of silicon oxide at room temperature and continues until the silicide layer is totally converted. This repeatable and controllable oxidation of silicon is accompanied by changes in resistivity and color reflecting the extent of the process. For Cu/CoSi2/Si structures, the cobalt silicide acts as a transport medium for the growth of the copper silicide and also serves as a cap preventing the oxidation of the final CoSi2/Cu3Si/Si contacts

  11. Lock-in thermography as a rapid and reproducible thermal characterization method for magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemal, Philipp; Geers, Christoph; Monnier, Christophe A.; Crippa, Federica; Daum, Leopold; Urban, Dominic A.; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Bonmarin, Mathias; Petri-Fink, Alke; Moore, Thomas L.

    2017-04-01

    Lock-in thermography (LIT) is a sensitive imaging technique generally used in engineering and materials science (e.g. detecting defects in composite materials). However, it has recently been expanded for investigating the heating power of nanomaterials, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Here we implement LIT as a rapid and reproducible method that can evaluate the heating potential of various sizes of SPIONs under an alternating magnetic field (AMF), as well as the limits of detection for each particle size. SPIONs were synthesized via thermal decomposition and stabilized in water via a ligand transfer process. Thermographic measurements of SPIONs were made by stimulating particles of varying sizes and increasing concentrations under an AMF. Furthermore, a commercially available SPION sample was included as an external reference. While the size dependent heating efficiency of SPIONs has been previously described, our objective was to probe the sensitivity limits of LIT. For certain size regimes it was possible to detect signals at concentrations as low as 0.1 mg Fe/mL. Measuring at different concentrations enabled a linear regression analysis and extrapolation of the limit of detection for different size nanoparticles.

  12. Rapid and sustained surface ocean acidification during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penman, Donald E.; Hönisch, Bärbel; Zeebe, Richard E.; Thomas, Ellen; Zachos, James C.

    2014-05-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) has been associated with the release of several thousands of petagrams of carbon (Pg C) as methane and/or carbon dioxide into the ocean-atmosphere system within ~10 kyr, on the basis of the co-occurrence of a carbon isotope excursion (CIE), widespread dissolution of deep sea carbonates, and global warming. In theory, this rapid carbon release should have severely acidified the surface ocean, though no geochemical evidence has yet been presented. Using boron-based proxies for surface ocean carbonate chemistry, we present the first observational evidence for a drop in the pH of surface and thermocline seawater during the PETM. Planktic foraminifers from a drill site in the North Pacific (Ocean Drilling Program Site 1209) show a ~0.8‰ decrease in boron isotopic composition (δ11B) at the onset of the event, along with a 30-40% reduction in shell B/Ca. Similar trends in δ11B are present in two lower-resolution records from the South Atlantic and Equatorial Pacific. These observations are consistent with significant, global acidification of the surface ocean lasting at least 70 kyr and requiring sustained carbon release. The anomalies in the B records are consistent with an initial surface pH drop of ~0.3 units, at the upper range of model-based estimates of acidification.

  13. Depth profiles of oxygen precipitates in nitride-coated silicon wafers subjected to rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronkov, V. V.; Falster, R.; Kim, TaeHyeong; Park, SoonSung; Torack, T.

    2013-07-01

    Silicon wafers, coated with a silicon nitride layer and subjected to high temperature Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) in Ar, show—upon a subsequent two-step precipitation anneal cycle (such as 800 °C + 1000 °C)—peculiar depth profiles of oxygen precipitate densities. Some profiles are sharply peaked near the wafer surface, sometimes with a zero bulk density. Other profiles are uniform in depth. The maximum density is always the same. These profiles are well reproduced by simulations assuming that precipitation starts from a uniformly distributed small oxide plates originated from RTA step and composed of oxygen atoms and vacancies ("VO2 plates"). During the first step of the precipitation anneal, an oxide layer propagates around this core plate by a process of oxygen attachment, meaning that an oxygen-only ring-shaped plate emerges around the original plate. These rings, depending on their size, then either dissolve or grow during the second part of the anneal leading to a rich variety of density profiles.

  14. Dynamics of metal-induced crystallization of ultrathin Ge films by rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Yuanxun; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Conibeer, Gavin

    2015-12-07

    Though Ge crystallization has been widely studied, few works investigate metal-induced crystallization of ultrathin Ge films. For 2 nm Ge films in oxide matrix, crystallization becomes challenging due to easy oxidation and low mobility of Ge atoms. Introducing metal atoms may alleviate these problems, but the functions and the behaviours of metal atoms need to be clarified. This paper investigates the crystallization dynamics of a multilayer structure 1.9 nm Ge/0.5 nm Al/1.5 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The functions of metal atoms, like effective anti-oxidation, downshifting Raman peaks, and incapability to decrease crystallization temperature, are found and explained. The metal behaviours, such as inter-diffusion and defect generation, are supported with direct evidences, Al-Ge nanobicrystals, and Al cluster in Ge atoms. With these understandings, a two-step RTA process achieves high-quality 2 nm nanocrystal Ge films with Raman peak at 298 cm{sup −1} of FWHM 10.3 cm{sup −1} and atomic smooth interfaces.

  15. Single-domain chemical, thermochemical and thermal remanences in a basaltic rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draeger, Ulrike; Prévot, Michel; Poidras, Thierry; Riisager, Janna

    2006-07-01

    Tiny basaltic samples containing finely grained titanomagnetite with Curie temperature less than 100°C were heated in air in weak field (25-100μT) at temperatures between 400°C and 560°C for times as long as 32 hr. Oxyexsolution of titanomagnetite resulted in the crystallization of interacting single domain particles with Curie point close to 540°C and the concomitant development of one of two types chemical remanence, depending upon thermal treatment: isothermal chemical remanence (CRM) or thermochemical remanence (TCRM), the latter acquired under the combined effects of chemical change and temperature decrease. CRM and TCRM acquired under various conditions were subjected to Thellier-type experiments. All these treatments were carried out using a vibrating sample thermomagnetometer allowing the continuous recording of magnetization and a very precise temperature control. All CRM-TRM and TCRM-TRM plots were found to be linear over almost the entire TRM blocking temperature range, whether pTRM checks are positive or not. An apparent strength of the acquisition field of CRM or TCRM could thus be obtained and divided by the actually applied field to obtain a ratio R, which is representative of the CRM/TRM or TCRM/TRM ratios over most of the unblocking/blocking temperature spectrum. For CRM, it is found that R is less than 1 and increases rapidly with acquisition temperature (0.36 +/- 0.07 at 400°C, 0.66 +/- 0.02 at 450°C, and 0.90 +/- 0.02 at 500°C), in qualitative agreement with expressions derived from the theory of non-interacting single domain grains. Thus, very large underestimate of geomagnetic field palaeostrength can occur when a natural CRM is not recognized as such and is believed to be a natural TRM. Palaeointensity data obtained from geological material prone to the development of secondary minerals, as for example baked contacts and volcanic glasses have, therefore, to be considered with caution. In an attempt to mimic deuteric oxyexsolution in

  16. Comparison of thermal and chemical treatments of ultrathin chitosan films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Chris; Dutcher, John

    2006-03-01

    Chitosan is a biodegradable polysaccharide derived from seashell waste products. The high water absorbency and biocompatibility of chitosan have enabled its use as a hydrogel in specialty biomedical applications. Chitosan can be dissolved in weakly acidic solutions enabling its use in applications such as films and gels, which can be converted into chitin by a chemical process known as acetylation. We present the results of several experiments in which changes in the thickness, index of refraction and molecular environment in response to changes in relative humidity for ultrathin films of chitosan are examined as a function of exposure to temperatures above 150 degrees Celsius. Measurements made by ellipsometry and FTIR spectroscopy indicate that changes in the thickness and index of refraction of the films are accompanied by a change in the infrared absorption spectra similar to that associated with acetylation, which is typically accomplished by exposure of chitosan to acetic anhydride. We believe that these changes are responsible for reduced equilibrium water content in the films at all relative humidity values studied, and may offer a simple method for converting chitosan into a chitin-like material.

  17. Water-driven micromotors for rapid photocatalytic degradation of biological and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxing; Singh, Virendra V; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Orozco, Jahir; Kaufmann, Kevin; Dong, Renfeng; Gao, Wei; Jurado-Sanchez, Beatriz; Fedorak, Yuri; Wang, Joseph

    2014-11-25

    Threats of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA) represent a serious global concern and require rapid and efficient neutralization methods. We present a highly effective micromotor strategy for photocatalytic degradation of CBWA based on light-activated TiO2/Au/Mg microspheres that propel autonomously in natural water and obviate the need for external fuel, decontaminating reagent, or mechanical agitation. The activated TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors generate highly reactive oxygen species responsible for the efficient destruction of the cell membranes of the anthrax simulant Bacillus globigii spore, as well as rapid and complete in situ mineralization of the highly persistent organophosphate nerve agents into nonharmful products. The water-driven propulsion of the TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors facilitates efficient fluid transport and dispersion of the photogenerated reactive oxidative species and their interaction with the CBWA. Coupling of the photocatalytic surface of the micromotors and their autonomous water-driven propulsion thus leads to a reagent-free operation which holds a considerable promise for diverse "green" defense and environmental applications.

  18. A portable photoelectrochemical probe for rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand in wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanqing; Li, Lihong; Zhao, Huijun

    2009-10-15

    A photoelectrochemical probe for rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) is developed using a nanostructured mixed-phase TiO2 photoanode, namely PeCOD probe. A UV-LED light source and a USB mircroelectrochemical station are powered and controlled by a laptop computer, which makes the probe portable for onsite COD analyses. The photoelectrochemical measurement of COD was optimized in terms of light intensity, applied bias, and pH. Under the optimized conditions, the net steady state currents originated from the oxidation of organic compounds were found to be directly proportional to COD concentrations. A practical detection limit of 0.2 ppm COD and a linear range of 0-120 ppm COD were achieved. The analytical method using the portable PeCOD probe has the advantages of being rapid, low cost, robust, user-friendly, and environmental friendly. It has been successfully applied to determine the COD values of the synthetic samples consisting of potassium hydrogen phthalate, D-glucose, glutamic acid, glutaric acid, succinic acid, and malonic acid, and real samples from various industries, such as bakery, oil and grease manufacturer, poultry, hotel, fine food factory, and fresh food producer, commercial bread manufacturer. Excellent agreement between the proposed method and the conventional COD method (dichromate) was achieved.

  19. Thermal and Chemical Characterization of Non-Metallic Materials Using Coupled Thermogravimetric Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is widely employed in the thermal characterization of non-metallic materials, yielding valuable information on decomposition characteristics of a sample over a wide temperature range. However, a potential wealth of chemical information is lost during the process, with the evolving gases generated during thermal decomposition escaping through the exhaust line. Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a powerful analytical technique for determining many chemical constituents while in any material state, in this application, the gas phase. By linking these two techniques, evolving gases generated during the TGA process are directed into an appropriately equipped infrared spectrometer for chemical speciation. Consequently, both thermal decomposition and chemical characterization of a material may be obtained in a single sample run. In practice, a heated transfer line is employed to connect the two instruments while a purge gas stream directs the evolving gases into the FT-IR. The purge gas can be either high purity air or an inert gas such as nitrogen to allow oxidative and pyrolytic processes to be examined, respectively. The FT-IR data is collected realtime, allowing continuous monitoring of chemical compositional changes over the course of thermal decomposition. Using this coupled technique, an array of diverse materials has been examined, including composites, plastics, rubber, fiberglass epoxy resins, polycarbonates, silicones, lubricants and fluorocarbon materials. The benefit of combining these two methodologies is of particular importance in the aerospace community, where newly developing materials have little available data with which to refer. By providing both thermal and chemical data simultaneously, a more definitive and comprehensive characterization of the material is possible. Additionally, this procedure has been found to be a viable screening technique for certain materials, with the generated data useful in

  20. Thermal and Chemical Characterization of Non-metallic Materials Using Coupled Thermogravimetric Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Timothy L.; Griffin, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is widely employed in the thermal characterization of non-metallic materials, yielding valuable information on decomposition characteristics of a sample over a wide temperature range. However, a potential wealth of chemical information is lost during the process, with the evolving gases generated during thermal decomposition escaping through the exhaust line. Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a powerful analytical technique for determining many chemical constituents while in any material state, in this application, the gas phase. By linking these two techniques, evolving gases generated during the TGA process are directed into an appropriately equipped infrared spectrometer for chemical speciation. Consequently, both thermal decomposition and chemical characterization of a material may be obtained in a single sample run. In practice, a heated transfer line is employed to connect the two instruments while a purge gas stream directs the evolving gases into the FT-IR, The purge gas can be either high purity air or an inert gas such as nitrogen to allow oxidative and pyrolytic processes to be examined, respectively. The FT-IR data is collected real-time, allowing continuous monitoring of chemical compositional changes over the course of thermal decomposition. Using this coupled technique, an array of diverse materials has been examined, including composites, plastics, rubber, fiberglass epoxy resins, polycarbonates, silicones, lubricants and fluorocarbon materials. The benefit of combining these two methodologies is of particular importance in the aerospace community, where newly developing materials have little available data with which to refer. By providing both thermal and chemical data simultaneously, a more definitive and comprehensive characterization of the material is possible. Additionally, this procedure has been found to be a viable screening technique for certain materials, with the generated data useful in

  1. Extractive Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization (EAPPI) Mass Spectrometry: Rapid Analysis of Chemicals in Complex Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Yang, Jiuzhong; Wang, Jian; Hu, Yonghua; Zhao, Wan; Zhou, Zhongyue; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Extractive atmospheric pressure photoionization (EAPPI) mass spectrometry was designed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemicals in complex matrices. In this method, an ultrasonic nebulization system was applied to sample extraction, nebulization, and vaporization. Mixed with a gaseous dopant, vaporized analytes were ionized through ambient photon-induced ion-molecule reactions, and were mass-analyzed by a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). After careful optimization and testing with pure sample solution, EAPPI was successfully applied to the fast screening of capsules, soil, natural products, and viscous compounds. Analysis was completed within a few seconds without the need for preseparation. Moreover, the quantification capability of EAPPI for matrices was evaluated by analyzing six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. The correlation coefficients ( R 2 ) for standard curves of all six PAHs were above 0.99, and the detection limits were in the range of 0.16-0.34 ng/mg. In addition, EAPPI could also be used to monitor organic chemical reactions in real time.

  2. An oxazetidine amino acid for chemical protein synthesis by rapid, serine-forming ligations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusterla, Ivano; Bode, Jeffrey W.

    2015-08-01

    Amide-forming ligation reactions allow the chemical synthesis of proteins by the union of unprotected peptide segments, and enable the preparation of protein derivatives not accessible by expression or bioengineering approaches. The native chemical ligation (NCL) of thioesters and N-terminal cysteines is unquestionably the most successful approach, but is not ideal for all synthetic targets. Here we describe the synthesis of an Fmoc-protected oxazetidine amino acid for use in the α-ketoacid-hydroxylamine (KAHA) amide ligation. When incorporated at the N-terminus of a peptide segment, this four-membered cyclic hydroxylamine can be used for rapid serine-forming ligations with peptide α-ketoacids. This ligation operates at low concentration (100 μM-5 mM) and mild temperatures (20-25 °C). The utility of the reaction was demonstrated by the synthesis of S100A4, a 12 kDa calcium-binding protein not easily accessible by NCL or other amide-forming reactions due to its primary sequence and properties.

  3. Learning to rapidly re-contact the lost plume in chemical plume tracing.

    PubMed

    Cao, Meng-Li; Meng, Qing-Hao; Wang, Jia-Ying; Luo, Bing; Jing, Ya-Qi; Ma, Shu-Gen

    2015-03-27

    Maintaining contact between the robot and plume is significant in chemical plume tracing (CPT). In the time immediately following the loss of chemical detection during the process of CPT, Track-Out activities bias the robot heading relative to the upwind direction, expecting to rapidly re-contact the plume. To determine the bias angle used in the Track-Out activity, we propose an online instance-based reinforcement learning method, namely virtual trail following (VTF). In VTF, action-value is generalized from recently stored instances of successful Track-Out activities. We also propose a collaborative VTF (cVTF) method, in which multiple robots store their own instances, and learn from the stored instances, in the same database. The proposed VTF and cVTF methods are compared with biased upwind surge (BUS) method, in which all Track-Out activities utilize an offline optimized universal bias angle, in an indoor environment with three different airflow fields. With respect to our experimental conditions, VTF and cVTF show stronger adaptability to different airflow environments than BUS, and furthermore, cVTF yields higher success rates and time-efficiencies than VTF.

  4. Evaluation of a rapid physical-chemical method for the determination of extant soluble COD.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiqiang; Chandran, Kartik; Smets, Barth F; Grasso, Domenico

    2002-02-01

    Characterization of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewater is critical for accurate modeling of constituent biotransformation steps. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of a commonly used soluble COD determination technique (coagulation using ZnSO4 at pH 10.5) in relation to three other physical-chemical separation techniques: destabilization with a non-hydrolyzing trivalent cation (LaCl3), sequential filtration, and ultracentrifugation. Samples of deionized water and domestic wastewater were spiked with aliquots of synthetic soluble COD and recoveries using the different separation methods were compared. Although mechanisms of coagulation using LaCl3 and ZnSO4 are different, the mean COD recoveries using these methods were in close agreement. Further, sorption of soluble COD onto zinc hydroxide precipitate flocs appeared to be negligible. The two coagulation methods yielded statistically different (p = 0.05) soluble COD values when applied to nine independent wastewater samples (obtained on nine different days). but the difference was less than 10%. The COD quantified by the coagulation techniques corresponded most closely with the < 1,000 Da molecular weight fraction defined as "truly soluble COD". Centrifugation of wastewater samples amended with mercuric chloride (HgCl2) at 10 mg/L overestimated the soluble COD concentration. Our results confirm that coagulation using either ZnSO4 or LaCI3 is appropriate for the rapid determination of soluble COD fraction in wastewater matrices.

  5. Chemical and thermal modulation of molecular motor activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Weili

    Molecular motors of kinesin and dynein families are responsible for various intracellular activities, from long distance movement of organelles, vesicles, protein complexes, and mRNAs to powering mitotic processes. They can take nanometer steps using chemical energy from the hydrolysis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and their dysfunction is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases that require long distance transport of cargos. Here I report on the study of the properties of molecular motors at a single-molecule level using optical trappings. I first studied the inhibition properties of kinesin motors by marine natural compound adociasulfates. I showed that adociasulfates compete with microtubules for binding to kinesins and thus inhibit kinesins' activity. Although adociasulfates are a strong inhibitor for all kinesin members, they show a much higher inhibition effect for conventional kinesins than for mitotic kinesins. Thus adociasulfates can be used to specifically inhibit conventional kinesins. By comparing the inhibition of kinesins by two structurally similar adociasulfates, one can see that the negatively charged sulfate residue of adociasulfates can be replaced by other negative residues and thus make it possible for adociasulfate-derived compounds to be more cell permeable. Kinesins and dyneins move cargos towards opposite directions along a microtubule. Cargos with both kinesins and dyneins attached often move bidirectionally due to undergoing a tug-of-war between the oppositely moving kinesin and dynein motors. Here I studied the effect of temperature on microtubule-based kinesin and dynein motor transport. While kinesins' and dyneins' velocities are closely matched above 15 °C, below this temperature the dyneins' velocity decreases much faster than the kinesins'. The kinesins' and dyneins' forces do not measurably change with temperature. The results suggest that temperature has significant effects on bidirectional transport and can be used to

  6. Thermal/chemical stability of ceramic cross flow filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Bahovchin, D.M.; Lippert, T.E.; Tressler, R.E.; McNerney, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse has undertaken a two phase program to determine possible long-term, high temperature influence that advanced coal-based power system environments may have on the stability of the ceramic cross flow filter elements. During the past year, we have principally focused our efforts on developing an understanding of the stability of the alumina/mullite filter material at high temperature (i.e., 870, 980, and 1100[degrees]C) under oxidizing conditions which contain gas phase alkali species. The alumina/mullite cross flow liter material that has consistently been used throughout the flow-through gas phase alkali testing segment of this program, consists of mullite rods or needles that are embedded within an amorphous phase which contains corundum (Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and anorthite (CaAl[sub 2]Si[sub 2]O[sub 8]). Due to the rapid cooling rate that was used to produce the alumina/mullite filter disc material from high fire, the matrix consists of 59.6 wt% mullite, 30.5 wt% amorphous, 5.1 wt% anorthite, and 4.8 wt% alumina. The relatively low, as-fabricated, hot strength of this material (841[plus minus]259 psi at 870[degrees]C) is a direct result of the high amorphous content which softens at temperatures of 870[degrees]C. Load versus deflection curves as a function of temperature indicate that this material is relatively brittle up to temperatures of 600[degrees]C. Both a loss of strength, as well as plastic deformation of the matrix occurs at [approximately]700[degrees]C. If cross flow filters are manufactured from an alumina/mullite matrix that contains an [approximately]30.5 wt% amorphous content, we suspect that the plastic nature of the glass phase could potentially serve as a substrate for fines collection during initial filter operation at 700[degrees]C. Similarly the plastic nature could potentially cause deformation of the liter under load.

  7. Thermal/chemical stability of ceramic cross flow filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Bahovchin, D.M.; Lippert, T.E.; Tressler, R.E.; McNerney, K.B.

    1992-11-01

    Westinghouse has undertaken a two phase program to determine possible long-term, high temperature influence that advanced coal-based power system environments may have on the stability of the ceramic cross flow filter elements. During the past year, we have principally focused our efforts on developing an understanding of the stability of the alumina/mullite filter material at high temperature (i.e., 870, 980, and 1100{degrees}C) under oxidizing conditions which contain gas phase alkali species. The alumina/mullite cross flow liter material that has consistently been used throughout the flow-through gas phase alkali testing segment of this program, consists of mullite rods or needles that are embedded within an amorphous phase which contains corundum (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and anorthite (CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}). Due to the rapid cooling rate that was used to produce the alumina/mullite filter disc material from high fire, the matrix consists of 59.6 wt% mullite, 30.5 wt% amorphous, 5.1 wt% anorthite, and 4.8 wt% alumina. The relatively low, as-fabricated, hot strength of this material (841{plus_minus}259 psi at 870{degrees}C) is a direct result of the high amorphous content which softens at temperatures of 870{degrees}C. Load versus deflection curves as a function of temperature indicate that this material is relatively brittle up to temperatures of 600{degrees}C. Both a loss of strength, as well as plastic deformation of the matrix occurs at {approximately}700{degrees}C. If cross flow filters are manufactured from an alumina/mullite matrix that contains an {approximately}30.5 wt% amorphous content, we suspect that the plastic nature of the glass phase could potentially serve as a substrate for fines collection during initial filter operation at 700{degrees}C. Similarly the plastic nature could potentially cause deformation of the liter under load.

  8. New class of thermosetting plastics has improved strength, thermal and chemical stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, E. A.; Dubrow, B.; Lubowitz, H. R.

    1967-01-01

    New class of thermosetting plastics has high hydrocarbon content, high stiffness, thermal stability, humidity resistance, and workability in the precured state. It is designated cyclized polydiene urethane, and is applicable as matrices to prepare chemically stable ablative materials for rocket nose cones of nozzles.

  9. Low-thrust chemical propulsion system propellant expulsion and thermal conditioning study. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merino, F.; Wakabayashi, I.; Pleasant, R. L.; Hill, M.

    1982-01-01

    Preferred techniques for providing abort pressurization and engine feed system net positive suction pressure (NPSP) for low thrust chemical propulsion systems (LTPS) were determined. A representative LTPS vehicle configuration is presented. Analysis tasks include: propellant heating analysis; pressurant requirements for abort propellant dump; and comparative analysis of pressurization techniques and thermal subcoolers.

  10. Purification process of natural graphite as anode for Li-ion batteries: chemical versus thermal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghib, K.; Song, X.; Guerfi, A.; Rioux, R.; Kinoshita, K.

    The intercalation of Li ions in natural graphite that was purified by chemical and thermal processes was investigated. A new chemical process was developed that involved a mixed aqueous solution containing 30% H 2SO 4 and 30% NH xF y heated to 90 °C. The results of this process are compared to those obtained by heating the natural graphite from 1500 to 2400 °C in an inert environment (thermal process). The first-cycle coulombic efficiency of the purified natural graphite obtained by the chemical process is 91 and 84% after the thermal process at 2400 °C. Grinding the natural graphite before or after purification had no significant effect on electrochemical performance at low currents. However, grinding to a very small particle size before purification permitted optimization of the size distribution of the particles, which gives rise to a more homogenous electrode. The impurities in the graphite play a role as microabrasion agents during grinding which enhances its hardness and improves its mechanical properties. Grinding also modifies the particle morphology from a 2- to a 3-D structure (similar in shape to a potato). This potato-shaped natural graphite shows high reversible capacity at high current densities (about 90% at 1 C rate). Our analysis suggests that thermal processing is considerably more expensive than the chemical process to obtain purified natural graphite.

  11. CAES 2014 Chemical Analyses of Thermal Wells and Springs in Southeastern Idaho

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baum, Jeffrey

    2014-03-10

    This dataset contains chemical analyses for thermal wells and springs in Southeastern Idaho. Data includes all major cations, major anions, pH, collection temperature, and some trace metals, These samples were collected in 2014 by the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), and are part of a continuous effort to analyze the geothermal potential of Southeastern Idaho.

  12. ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE THERMAL DESORPTION UNIT - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ELI ECO Logic International, Inc.'s Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) is specifically designed for use with Eco Logic's Gas Phase Chemical Reduction Process. The technology uses an externally heated bath of molten tin in a hydrogen atmosphere to desorb hazardous organic compounds fro...

  13. Bentonite alteration due to thermal-hydro-chemical processes during the early thermal period in a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Senger, R.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    After closure of an underground nuclear waste repository, the decay of radionuclides will raise temperature in the repository, and the bentonite buffer will resaturate by water inflow from the surrounding host rock. The perturbations from these thermal and hydrological processes are expected to dissipate within hundreds to a few thousand years. Here, we investigate coupled thermal-hydro-chemical processes and their effects on the short-term performance of a potential nuclear waste repository located in a clay formation. Using a simplified geometric configuration and abstracted hydraulic parameters of the clayey formation, we examine geochemical processes, coupled with thermo-hydrologic phenomena, and potential changes in porosity near the waste container during the early thermal period. The developed models were used for evaluating the mineral alterations and potential changes in porosity of the buffer, which can affect the repository performance. The results indicate that mineral alteration and associated changes in porosity induced by early thermal and hydrological processes are relatively small and are expected to not significantly affect flow and transport properties. Chlorite precipitation was obtained in all simulation cases. A maximum of one percent volume fraction of chlorite could be formed, whose process may reduce swelling and sorption capacity of bentonite clay, affecting the performance of the repository. llitisation process was not obtained from the present simulations.

  14. Effect of rapid product desiccation or hydration on thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis PT 30 in wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Smith, Danielle F; Marks, Bradley P

    2015-02-01

    Salmonella is able to survive in low-moisture environments and is known to be more heat resistant as product water activity (aw) decreases. However, it is unknown how rapidly the resistance changes if product aw is altered rapidly, as can occur in certain processes. Therefore, the objective was to determine the effect of rapid product desiccation or hydration on Salmonella thermal resistance. Two dynamic moisture treatments were compared with two static moisture treatments to determine the effect of time-at-moisture on the thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 30 (PT 30) in wheat flour. After inoculation, two static moisture groups were equilibrated to 0.3 and 0.6 aw over 4 to 7 days, and two dynamic moisture groups then were rapidly (<4 min) desiccated from 0.6 to 0.3 aw or hydrated from 0.3 to 0.6 aw. Samples then were subjected to isothermal (80°C) heat treatments, and Salmonella thermal resistance was compared via decimal reduction times (i.e., D80°C-values). The D80°C-value in flour that was rapidly desiccated from 0.6 to 0.3 aw was statistically equivalent (P > 0.05) to the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.3 aw, but both were greater (P < 0.05) than the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw. Similarly, the D80°C-value in flour rapidly hydrated from 0.3 to 0.6 aw was statistically equivalent (P > 0.05) to the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw, and both were less than the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.3 aw. Therefore, Salmonella in the rapidly desiccated flour (0.3 aw) was as thermally resistant as that which previously had been equilibrated to 0.3 aw, and Salmonella in the rapidly hydrated flour (0.6 aw) responded similarly to that in the flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw. These results suggest that the response period to new aw is negligible, which is critically important in applying thermal resistance data or parameters to industrial

  15. A technique for rapid source apportionment applied to ambient organic aerosol measurements from a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaping; Williams, Brent J.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-11-01

    We present a rapid method for apportioning the sources of atmospheric organic aerosol composition measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Here, we specifically apply this new analysis method to data acquired on a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG) system. Gas chromatograms are divided by retention time into evenly spaced bins, within which the mass spectra are summed. A previous chromatogram binning method was introduced for the purpose of chromatogram structure deconvolution (e.g., major compound classes) (Zhang et al., 2014). Here we extend the method development for the specific purpose of determining aerosol samples' sources. Chromatogram bins are arranged into an input data matrix for positive matrix factorization (PMF), where the sample number is the row dimension and the mass-spectra-resolved eluting time intervals (bins) are the column dimension. Then two-dimensional PMF can effectively do three-dimensional factorization on the three-dimensional TAG mass spectra data. The retention time shift of the chromatogram is corrected by applying the median values of the different peaks' shifts. Bin width affects chemical resolution but does not affect PMF retrieval of the sources' time variations for low-factor solutions. A bin width smaller than the maximum retention shift among all samples requires retention time shift correction. A six-factor PMF comparison among aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS), TAG binning, and conventional TAG compound integration methods shows that the TAG binning method performs similarly to the integration method. However, the new binning method incorporates the entirety of the data set and requires significantly less pre-processing of the data than conventional single compound identification and integration. In addition, while a fraction of the most oxygenated aerosol does not elute through an underivatized TAG analysis, the TAG binning method does have the ability to achieve molecular level resolution on

  16. Improvement of band gap profile in Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2} solar cells through rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.S.; Yang, J.; Yang, Z.B.; Xu, F.; Du, H.W.; Ma, Z.Q.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Proper RTA treatment can effectively optimize band gap profile to more expected level. • Inter-diffusion of atoms account for the improvement of the graded band gap profile. • The variation of the band gap profile created an absolute gain in the efficiency by 1.22%. - Abstract: In the paper, the effect of rapid thermal annealing on non-optimal double-graded band gap profiles was investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and capacitance–voltage measurement techniques. Experimental results revealed that proper rapid thermal annealing treatment can effectively improve band gap profile to more optimal level. The annealing treatment could not only reduce the values of front band gap and minimum band gap, but also shift the position of the minimum band gap toward front electrode and enter into space charge region. In addition, the thickness of Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2} thin film decreased by 25 nm after rapid thermal annealing treatment. All of these modifications were attributed to the inter-diffusion of atoms during thermal treatment process. Simultaneously, the variation of the band gap profile created an absolute gain in the efficiency by 1.22%, short-circuit current density by 2.16 mA/cm{sup 2} and filled factor by 3.57%.

  17. Crystallization of sputtered lead zirconate titanate films by rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasant Kumar, C. V. R.; Pascual, R.; Sayer, M.

    1992-01-01

    A rapid thermal annealing (RTA) technique has been employed to process lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering. The films were fabricated by dc sputtering a multielement metal target in an oxygen ambient at a substrate temperature of 200 °C. A subsequent postdeposition RTA at 600 °C for 5 s crystallizes the films into a perovskite-type structure through various intermediate phases. Due to the short postdeposition processing times inherent in the RTA method, the initial nature of the as-grown films has a critical influence on the crystallization kinetics. The reaction sequence in the formation of perovskite PZT from the films deposited at low substrate temperatures by the sputtering technique has been evaluated, and various key factors influencing the crystallization of PZT have been identified. As-grown films are constituted of polycrystalline orthorhombic lead oxide in an amorphous matrix of titania and zirconia. During annealing lead oxide transforms into a cubic phase, and the lead oxide stoichiometry determines the processing route to PZT. In the case of lead-rich films, intermediate compounds of lead with titania and zirconia are observed, which react during the final stage of annealing at 600 °C to form PZT. In lead-deficient films, the formation of a pyrochlore phase has been observed, which crystallizes into perovskite at 750 °C. The Zr/Ti ratio also influences the crystallization sequence. In the case of Ti-rich PZT, the intermediate compounds initially involve a zirconium-rich rhombohedral PZT, with which residual titanium reacts to form tetragonal PZT. The films showed good ferroelectric and other electrical properties with a remanent polarization of 24 μC/cm2, coercive field of 32 kV/cm, ɛ'=950, tan δ=0.02, and σdc (300 K)=10-12 Ω-1 cm-1 with an activation energy between 0.9 and 1.4 eV.

  18. Geophysical inferences of thermal-chemical structures in the lower mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, D. A.; Cadek, O.; Chopelas, A.; Matyska, C.

    1993-01-01

    Lateral variations of the temperature field in the lower mantle have been reconstructed using new results in mineral physics and seismic tomographic data. We show that, with the application of high-pressure experimental values of thermal expansivity and of sound velocities, the slow seismic anomalies in the lower mantle under the Pacific and Africa can be converted into realistic-looking plume structures with large dimensions of 0(1000 km). The outer fringes of the plumes have an excess temperature of around 400 K. In the core of the plumes are found tonguelike structures with extremely high thermal anomalies. These values can exceed 1200 K and are too high to be explained on the basis of thermal anomalies alone. We suggest that these major plumes in the deep mantle may be driven by both thermal and chemical buoyancies or that enhanced conductive heat-transfer may be important there.

  19. The Influence of Chemical Chaperones on Enzymatic Activity under Thermal and Chemical Stresses: Common Features and Variation among Diverse Chemical Families

    PubMed Central

    Feibish, Nir; Sharon, Noa; Schnaider, Lee; Shmul, Guy; Amir, Yaniv; Buzhansky, Ludmila; Gazit, Ehud

    2014-01-01

    Molecular and chemical chaperones are key components of the two main mechanisms that ensure structural stability and activity under environmental stresses. Yet, chemical chaperones are often regarded only as osmolytes and their role beyond osmotic regulation is not fully understood. Here, we systematically studied a large group of chemical chaperones, representatives of diverse chemical families, for their protective influence under either thermal or chemical stresses. Consistent with previous studies, we observed that in spite of the structural similarity between sugars and sugar alcohols, they have an apparent difference in their protective potential. Our results support the notion that the protective activity is mediated by the solvent and the presence of water is essential. In the current work we revealed that i) polyols and sugars have a completely different profile of protective activity toward trifluoroethanol and thermal stress; ii) minor changes in solvent composition that do not affect enzyme activity, yet have a great effect on the ability of osmolytes to act as protectants and iii) increasing the number of active groups of carbohydrates makes them better protectants while increasing the number of active groups of methylamines does not, as revealed by attempts to synthesize de novo designed methylamines with multiple functional groups. PMID:24520396

  20. The influence of chemical chaperones on enzymatic activity under thermal and chemical stresses: common features and variation among diverse chemical families.

    PubMed

    Levy-Sakin, Michal; Berger, Or; Feibish, Nir; Sharon, Noa; Schnaider, Lee; Shmul, Guy; Amir, Yaniv; Buzhansky, Ludmila; Gazit, Ehud

    2014-01-01

    Molecular and chemical chaperones are key components of the two main mechanisms that ensure structural stability and activity under environmental stresses. Yet, chemical chaperones are often regarded only as osmolytes and their role beyond osmotic regulation is not fully understood. Here, we systematically studied a large group of chemical chaperones, representatives of diverse chemical families, for their protective influence under either thermal or chemical stresses. Consistent with previous studies, we observed that in spite of the structural similarity between sugars and sugar alcohols, they have an apparent difference in their protective potential. Our results support the notion that the protective activity is mediated by the solvent and the presence of water is essential. In the current work we revealed that i) polyols and sugars have a completely different profile of protective activity toward trifluoroethanol and thermal stress; ii) minor changes in solvent composition that do not affect enzyme activity, yet have a great effect on the ability of osmolytes to act as protectants and iii) increasing the number of active groups of carbohydrates makes them better protectants while increasing the number of active groups of methylamines does not, as revealed by attempts to synthesize de novo designed methylamines with multiple functional groups.

  1. Direct synthesis and characterization of optically transparent conformal zinc oxide nanocrystalline thin films by rapid thermal plasma CVD.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Joachim D; Esposito, Heather J; Teh, Kwok Siong

    2011-10-31

    We report a rapid, self-catalyzed, solid precursor-based thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition process for depositing a conformal, nonporous, and optically transparent nanocrystalline ZnO thin film at 130 Torr (0.17 atm). Pure solid zinc is inductively heated and melted, followed by ionization by thermal induction argon/oxygen plasma to produce conformal, nonporous nanocrystalline ZnO films at a growth rate of up to 50 nm/min on amorphous and crystalline substrates including Si (100), fused quartz, glass, muscovite, c- and a-plane sapphire (Al2O3), gold, titanium, and polyimide. X-ray diffraction indicates the grains of as-deposited ZnO to be highly textured, with the fastest growth occurring along the c-axis. The individual grains are observed to be faceted by (103) planes which are the slowest growth planes. ZnO nanocrystalline films of nominal thicknesses of 200 nm are deposited at substrate temperatures of 330°C and 160°C on metal/ceramic substrates and polymer substrates, respectively. In addition, 20-nm- and 200-nm-thick films are also deposited on quartz substrates for optical characterization. At optical spectra above 375 nm, the measured optical transmittance of a 200-nm-thick ZnO film is greater than 80%, while that of a 20-nm-thick film is close to 100%. For a 200-nm-thick ZnO film with an average grain size of 100 nm, a four-point probe measurement shows electrical conductivity of up to 910 S/m. Annealing of 200-nm-thick ZnO films in 300 sccm pure argon at temperatures ranging from 750°C to 950°C (at homologous temperatures between 0.46 and 0.54) alters the textures and morphologies of the thin film. Based on scanning electron microscope images, higher annealing temperatures appear to restructure the ZnO nanocrystalline films to form nanorods of ZnO due to a combination of grain boundary diffusion and bulk diffusion.PACS: films and coatings, 81.15.-z; nanocrystalline materials, 81.07.Bc; II-VI semiconductors, 81.05.Dz.

  2. Multiparametric fat–water separation method for fast chemical-shift imaging guidance of thermal therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jonathan S.; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Jackson, Edward F.; Hazle, John D.; Jason Stafford, R.; Taylor, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A k-means-based classification algorithm is investigated to assess suitability for rapidly separating and classifying fat/water spectral peaks from a fast chemical shift imaging technique for magnetic resonance temperature imaging. Algorithm testing is performed in simulated mathematical phantoms and agar gel phantoms containing mixed fat/water regions. Methods: Proton resonance frequencies (PRFs), apparent spin-spin relaxation (T2*) times, and T1-weighted (T1-W) amplitude values were calculated for each voxel using a single-peak autoregressive moving average (ARMA) signal model. These parameters were then used as criteria for k-means sorting, with the results used to determine PRF ranges of each chemical species cluster for further classification. To detect the presence of secondary chemical species, spectral parameters were recalculated when needed using a two-peak ARMA signal model during the subsequent classification steps. Mathematical phantom simulations involved the modulation of signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), maximum PRF shift (MPS) values, analysis window sizes, and frequency expansion factor sizes in order to characterize the algorithm performance across a variety of conditions. In agar, images were collected on a 1.5T clinical MR scanner using acquisition parameters close to simulation, and algorithm performance was assessed by comparing classification results to manually segmented maps of the fat/water regions. Results: Performance was characterized quantitatively using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), sensitivity, and specificity. The simulated mathematical phantom experiments demonstrated good fat/water separation depending on conditions, specifically high SNR, moderate MPS value, small analysis window size, and low but nonzero frequency expansion factor size. Physical phantom results demonstrated good identification for both water (0.997 ± 0.001, 0.999 ± 0.001, and 0.986 ± 0.001 for DSC, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively

  3. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Autoignition of Isomers of Heptane Under Rapid Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Boercker, J E; Curran, H J; Griffiths, J F; Mohamed, C; Ribaucour, M

    2001-12-17

    Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for combustion of all nine isomers of heptane (C{sub 7}H{sub 16}), and these mechanisms are tested by simulating autoignition of each isomer under rapid compression machine conditions. The reaction mechanisms focus on the manner in which the molecular structure of each isomer determines the rates and product distributions of possible classes of reactions. The reaction pathways emphasize the importance of alkylperoxy radical isomerizations and addition reactions of molecular oxygen to alkyl and hydroperoxyalkyl radicals. A new reaction group has been added to past models, in which hydroperoxyalkyl radicals that originated with abstraction of an H atom from a tertiary site in the parent heptane molecule are assigned new reaction sequences involving additional internal H atom abstractions not previously allowed. This process accelerates autoignition in fuels with tertiary C-H bonds in the parent fuel. In addition, the rates of hydroperoxyalkylperoxy radical isomerization reactions have all been reduced so that they are now equal to rates of analogous alkylperoxy radical isomerizations, significantly improving agreement between computed and experimental ignition delay times in the rapid compression machine. Computed ignition delay times agree well with experimental results in the few cases where experiments have been carried out for specific heptane isomers, and predictive model calculations are reported for the remaining isomers. The computed results fall into three general groups; the first consists of the most reactive isomers, including n-heptane, 2-methyl hexane and 3-methyl hexane. The second group consists of the least reactive isomers, including 2,2-dimethyl pentane, 3,3-dimethyl pentane, 2,3-dimethyl pentane, 2,4-dimethyl pentane and 2,2,3-trimethyl butane. The remaining isomer, 3-ethyl pentane, was observed computationally to have an intermediate level of reactivity. These observations are generally

  4. Chemical and isotopic data for water from thermal springs and wells of Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Swanson, J.R.; Orris, G.J.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal springs of Oregon range in composition from dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged NaCl-NaHCO/sub 3/ waters. Most of the thermal springs are located in southeastern or southcentral Oregon, with a few in northeastern Oregon and near the contact of the Western Cascades with the High Cascades. Thermal springs in the central and northern parts of the Cascades generally issue moderately saline NaCl waters. Farther south in the Cascades, the thermal waters are high in CO/sub 2/ as well as chloride. Most thermal springs in northeastern Oregon issue dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters of high pH (>8.5). These waters are similar to the thermal waters which issue from the Idaho batholith, farther east. Most of the remaining thermal waters are Na mixed-anion waters. Based on the chemical geothermometers, Mickey Srpings, Hot Borax Lake, Alvord Hot Springs, Neal Hot Springs, Vale Hot Springs, Crump Well, Hunters (Lakeview) Hot Springs, and perhaps some of the springs in the Cascades are associated with the highest temperature systems (>150/sup 0/C).

  5. Manipulating thermal conductance at metal-graphene contacts via chemical functionalization.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Patrick E; Baraket, Mira; Barnat, Edward V; Beechem, Thomas E; Kearney, Sean P; Duda, John C; Robinson, Jeremy T; Walton, Scott G

    2012-02-08

    Graphene-based devices have garnered tremendous attention due to the unique physical properties arising from this purely two-dimensional carbon sheet leading to tremendous efficiency in the transport of thermal carriers (i.e., phonons). However, it is necessary for this two-dimensional material to be able to efficiently transport heat into the surrounding 3D device architecture in order to fully capitalize on its intrinsic transport capabilities. Therefore, the thermal boundary conductance at graphene interfaces is a critical parameter in the realization of graphene electronics and thermal solutions. In this work, we examine the role of chemical functionalization on the thermal boundary conductance across metal/graphene interfaces. Specifically, we metalize graphene that has been plasma functionalized and then measure the thermal boundary conductance at Al/graphene/SiO(2) contacts with time domain thermoreflectance. The addition of adsorbates to the graphene surfaces are shown to influence the cross plane thermal conductance; this behavior is attributed to changes in the bonding between the metal and the graphene, as both the phonon flux and the vibrational mismatch between the materials are each subject to the interfacial bond strength. These results demonstrate plasma-based functionalization of graphene surfaces is a viable approach to manipulate the thermal boundary conductance.

  6. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on InP1-xBix grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. Y.; Wang, K.; Pan, W. W.; Wang, P.; Li, Y. Y.; Song, Y. X.; Gu, Y.; Yue, L.; Xu, H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Cui, J.; Gong, Q.; Wang, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of InP1-xBix thin films was investigated. InPBi shows good thermal stability up to 500 °C and a modest improvement in photoluminescence (PL) intensity with an unchanged PL spectral feature. Bismuth outdiffusion from InPBi and strain relaxation are observed at about 600 °C. The InPBi sample annealed at 800 °C shows an unexpected PL spectrum with different energy transitions.

  7. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties of strain-free quantum ring solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Wang, Zhiming M; Dorogan, Vitaliy G; Li, Shibin; Lee, Jihoon; Mazur, Yuriy I; Kim, Eun Soo; Salamo, Gregory J

    2013-01-02

    Strain-free GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum rings are fabricated by droplet epitaxy. Both photoresponse and photoluminescence spectra confirm optical transitions in quantum rings, suggesting that droplet epitaxial nanomaterials are applicable to intermediate band solar cells. The effects of post-growth annealing on the quantum ring solar cells are investigated, and the optical properties of the solar cells with and without thermal treatment are characterized by photoluminescence technique. Rapid thermal annealing treatment has resulted in the significant improvement of material quality, which can be served as a standard process for quantum structure solar cells grown by droplet epitaxy.

  8. Deposition of thermal and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition copper thin films on patterned substrates.

    PubMed

    Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D

    2011-09-01

    In this work we study the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) of copper films on blanket and patterned substrates at high filament temperatures. A vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor was used in which the chemical reactions were assisted by a tungsten filament heated at 650 degrees C. Hexafluoroacetylacetonate Cu(I) trimethylvinylsilane (CupraSelect) vapors were used, directly injected into the reactor with the aid of a liquid injection system using N2 as carrier gas. Copper thin films grown also by thermal and hot-wire CVD. The substrates used were oxidized silicon wafers on which trenches with dimensions of the order of 500 nm were formed and subsequently covered with LPCVD W. HWCVD copper thin films grown at filament temperature of 650 degrees C showed higher growth rates compared to the thermally ones. They also exhibited higher resistivities than thermal and HWCVD films grown at lower filament temperatures. Thermally grown Cu films have very uniform deposition leading to full coverage of the patterned substrates while the HWCVD films exhibited a tendency to vertical growth, thereby creating gaps and incomplete step coverage.

  9. Isotopic fractionation of the major elements of molten basalt by chemical and thermal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Frank M.; Watson, E. Bruce; Mendybaev, Ruslan; Dauphas, Nicolas; Georg, Bastian; Watkins, James; Valley, John

    2009-07-01

    Samples produced in piston cylinder experiments were used to document the thermal isotopic fractionation of all the major elements of basalt except for aluminum and the fractionation of iron isotopes by chemical diffusion between a natural basalt and rhyolite. The thermal isotopic fractionations are summarized in terms of a parameter Ω i defined as the fractionation in per mil per 100 °C per atomic mass units difference between the isotopes. For molten basalt we report ΩCa = 1.6, ΩFe = 1.1, ΩSi = 0.6, ΩO = 1.5. In an earlier paper we reported ΩMg = 3.6. These fractionations represent a steady state balance between thermal diffusion and chemical diffusion with the mass dependence of the thermal diffusion coefficient being significantly larger than the mass dependence of the chemical diffusion coefficients for isotopes of the same element. The iron isotopic measurements of the basalt-rhyolite diffusion couple showed significant fractionation that are parameterized in terms of a parameter βFe = 0.03 when the ratio of the diffusion coefficients D54 and D56 of 54Fe and 56Fe is expressed in terms of the atomic mass as D54/ D56 = (56/54). This value of βFe is smaller than what we had measured earlier for lithium, magnesium and calcium (i.e., βLi = 0.215, βCa = 0.05, βMg = 0.05) but still significant when one takes into account the high precision with which iron isotopic compositions can be measured (i.e., ±0.03‰) and that iron isotope fractionations at magmatic temperatures from other causes are extremely small. In a closing section we discuss technological and geological applications of isotopic fractionations driven by either or both chemical and thermal gradients.

  10. Characteristics of Lateral Heterogeneities with Thermal and Chemical Origins in the Pyrolitic Lower Mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.

    2009-01-01

    The relative changes between shear and compressional velocities (R{sub SP} = {partial_derivative} ln V{sub S}/{partial_derivative} ln V{sub P}), bulk sound and shear velocities (R{sub CS} = {partial_derivative} ln V{sub C}/{partial_derivative} ln V{sub S}), and density versus shear wave velocity (R{sub {rho}S} = {partial_derivative} ln {rho}/{partial_derivative} ln V{sub S}) in response to thermal and chemical variations were investigated for the pyrolitic lower mantle. For heterogeneities with thermal origins, R{sub SP} increases from 1.7 to 2.0 together with R{sub {rho}S} decreasing from 0.4 to 0.2 and R{sub CS} = 0.27 from the top to the bottom of the lower mantle. In comparison, chemical variations (bulk iron or silica contents) are characterized by R{sub SP} < 1.5 and R{sub CS} > 0.5 at lower mantle depths. Negative values of R{sub {rho}S} and R{sub CS} are indicative of chemical anomalies in the lower mantle, but a combination of thermal and chemical heterogeneities may be required to produce velocity and density anomalies at the magnitudes observed in seismic data. Further refinement of these characteristics requires data on the higher order pressure and temperature derivatives of the elastic moduli of the constituent phases.

  11. Rapid localization of point mutations in PCR products by chemical (HOT) modification.

    PubMed

    Tindall, K R; Whitaker, R A

    1991-01-01

    Our studies of mutational mechanisms in mammalian cells use the AS52 Chinese hamster ovary cell line. AS52 mutants can be selected as 6-thioguanine resistant colonies and mutations are studied at a chromosomally integrated gpt locus. Mutant gpt sequences are amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to distinguish deletions from putative point mutations. PCR is efficiently performed from a few thousand lysed cells or from isolated genomic DNA. Amplified mutant PCR fragments carrying putative point mutations are further characterized by localizing the site of the mutation using chemical modification. A heteroduplex molecule consisting of one wild-type and one mutant DNA strand is generated. A base mismatch will be produced at the site of the mutation. Mismatched cytosine or thymine residues are sensitive to modification by hydroxylamine or osmium tetroxide, respectively. The modified DNA heteroduplex is then sensitive to piperidine cleavage. If one strand is 32P-end labeled, then the cleavage product can be separated on a denaturing acrylamide sequencing gel and visualized using autoradiography. Thus, the site of a mutation can be localized to a specific region of the gene, thereby simplifying the DNA sequence analysis and facilitating the rapid generation of mutational sequence spectra.

  12. Simultaneous rapid chemical synthesis of over one hundred oligonucleotides on a microscale

    PubMed Central

    Matthes, Hans W.D.; Zenke, W. Martin; Grundström, Thomas; Staub, Adrien; Wintzerith, Marguerite; Chambon, Pierre

    1984-01-01

    An inexpensive, extremely rapid manual method for simultaneous synthesis of large numbers of oligodeoxyribonucleotides on 50 or 150 nanomole scale is described. The oligonucleotides are assembled in parallel by the phosphotriester method on small cellulose paper disks in a simple gas pressure-controlled continuous-flow system. For each addition of a nucleotide the disks are sorted into four sets which are placed in four columns for addition of A, C, G and T, respectively. During one 2-week period, three rounds of synthesis by this method yielded 254 oligomers (8- to 22-mers), many of which were also purified during this time. Using 50 nanomole scale reactions the yields for 17-mers, for example, were in the range of 0.5 O.D.260 units (˜5 nmol, i.e., ˜10% yield), an amount sufficient for most purposes. The equipment required is relatively inexpensive and for the most part usually already available in molecular biology laboratories. All chemicals are commercially available and the current reagent cost per oligonucleotide (25 μg, average length 17-mer) is ˜3 US dollars. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:16453516

  13. Preparation and thermal conductivity of CuO nanofluid via a wet chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haitao; Han, Dongxiao; Meng, Zhaoguo; Wu, Daxiong; Zhang, Canying

    2011-12-01

    In this article, a wet chemical method was developed to prepare stable CuO nanofluids. The influences of synthesis parameters, such as kinds and amounts of copper salts, reaction time, were studied. The thermal conductivities of CuO nanofluids were also investigated. The results showed that different copper salts resulted in different particle morphology. The concentration of copper acetate and reaction time affected the size and shape of clusters of primary nanoparticles. Nanofluids with different microstructures could be obtained by changing the synthesis parameters. The thermal conductivities of CuO nanofluids increased with the increase of particle loading.

  14. Preparation and thermal conductivity of CuO nanofluid via a wet chemical method.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haitao; Han, Dongxiao; Meng, Zhaoguo; Wu, Daxiong; Zhang, Canying

    2011-02-28

    In this article, a wet chemical method was developed to prepare stable CuO nanofluids. The influences of synthesis parameters, such as kinds and amounts of copper salts, reaction time, were studied. The thermal conductivities of CuO nanofluids were also investigated. The results showed that different copper salts resulted in different particle morphology. The concentration of copper acetate and reaction time affected the size and shape of clusters of primary nanoparticles. Nanofluids with different microstructures could be obtained by changing the synthesis parameters. The thermal conductivities of CuO nanofluids increased with the increase of particle loading.

  15. Soil Physical, Chemical, and Thermal Characterization, Teller Road Site, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2016

    DOE Data Explorer

    Graham, David; Kholodov, Alexander; Busey, Bob; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Wilson, Cathy; Moon, Ji-Won

    2017-02-08

    This dataset provides the results of physical, chemical, and thermal characterization of soils at the Teller Road Site, Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Soil pits were dug from 7-14 September 2016 at designated Intensive Stations 2 through 9 at the Teller Road MM 27 Site. This dataset includes field observations and descriptions of soil layers or horizons, field measurements of soil volumetric water content, soil temperature, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. Laboratory measurements of soil properties include gravimetric water content, bulk density, volumetric water content, and total carbon and nitrogen.

  16. Tunable photoluminescence of self-assembled GeSi quantum dots by B{sup +} implantation and rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yulu; Wu, Shan; Ma, Yinjie; Fan, Yongliang; Yang, Xinju; Zhong, Zhenyang; Jiang, Zuimin

    2014-06-21

    The layered GeSi quantum dots (QDs) are grown on (001) Si substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The photoluminescence (PL) peak of the as-grown GeSi quantum dots has obvious blue shift and enhancement after processed by ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing. It is indicated that the blue shift is originated from the interdiffusion of Ge and Si at the interface between QDs and the surrounding matrix. The dependence of PL intensity on the excitation power shows that there are the nonradiative centers of shallow local energy levels from the point defects caused by the ion implantation, but not removed by the rapid thermal annealing. The tunable blue shift of the PL position from the 1300 nm to 1500 nm region may have significant application value in the optical communication.

  17. Thermal conversion of biomass to valuable fuels, chemical feedstocks and chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Peters, William A.; Howard, Jack B.; Modestino, Anthony J.; Vogel, Fredreric; Steffin, Carsten R.

    2009-02-24

    A continuous process for the conversion of biomass to form a chemical feedstock is described. The biomass and an exogenous metal oxide, preferably calcium oxide, or metal oxide precursor are continuously fed into a reaction chamber that is operated at a temperature of at least 1400.degree. C. to form reaction products including metal carbide. The metal oxide or metal oxide precursor is capable of forming a hydrolizable metal carbide. The reaction products are quenched to a temperature of 800.degree. C. or less. The resulting metal carbide is separated from the reaction products or, alternatively, when quenched with water, hydolyzed to provide a recoverable hydrocarbon gas feedstock.

  18. Processing of Mn-Al nanostructured magnets by spark plasma sintering and subsequent rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, P.; Vinod, V. T. P.; Černík, Miroslav; Selvapriya, A.; Chakravarty, Dibyendu; Kamat, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of spark plasma sintering (SPS) in combination with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for the processing of Mn-Al nanostructured magnets is explored in this study. Ferromagnetic α-Mn alloy powders were processed by high-energy ball milling using Mn (56 at%) and Al (44 at%) as constituent metal elements. The alloying action between Mn and Al due to intensive milling was studied by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscope; while the phase transformation kinetics was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The evolution of ferromagnetic properties in the as-milled powders was studied by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Among the Mn-Al alloy powders collected at various milling intervals, the 25 h milled Mn-Al powders showed a good combination of coercivity, Hc (11.3 kA/m) and saturation magnetization, Ms (5.0 A/m2/kg); accordingly, these powders were chosen for SPS. The SPS experiments were conducted at different temperatures: 773, 873 and 973 K and its effect on the density, phase composition and magnetic properties of the Mn-Al bulk samples were investigated. Upon increasing the SPS temperature from 773 to 973 K, the bulk density was found to increase from 3.6 to 4.0 g/cm3. The occurrence of equilibrium β-phase with significant amount of γ2-phase was obvious at all the SPS temperatures; however, crystallization of some amount of τ-phase was evident at 973 K. Irrespective of the SPS temperatures, all the samples demonstrated soft magnetic behavior with Hc and Ms values similar to those obtained for the 25 h milled powders. The magnetic properties of the SPSed samples were significantly improved upon subjecting them to RTA at 1100 K. Through the RTA process, Hc values of 75, 174 and 194 kA/m and Ms values of 19, 21 and 28 A/m2/kg were achieved for the samples SPSed at 773, 873 and 973 K, respectively. The possible reasons for the observed improvement in the magnetic properties of the SPSed

  19. Thermal dewetting with a chemically heterogeneous nano-template for self-assembled L10 FePt nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Fu; Liao, Jung-Wei; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Wang, Ding-Shuo; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Lin, Tzu-Ying; Ho, Rong-Ming; Chen, Lih-Juann; Lai, Chih-Huang

    2016-02-01

    A design for the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles is presented by thermal dewetting with a chemically heterogeneous nano-template. For the template, we fabricate a nanostructured polystyrene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) film on a Si|SiO2 substrate, followed by a thermal annealing and reactive ion etching (RIE) process. This gives a template composed of an ordered hexagonal array of SiOC hemispheres emerging in the polystyrene matrix. After the deposition of a FePt film on this template, we utilize the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process, which provides in-plane stress, to achieve thermal dewetting and structural ordering of FePt simultaneously. Since the template is composed of different composition surfaces with periodically varied morphologies, it offers more tuning knobs to manipulate the nanostructures. We show that both the decrease in the area of the PS matrix and the increase in the strain energy relaxation transfer the dewetted pattern from the randomly distributed nanoparticles into a hexagonal periodic array of L10 FePt nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy with the in situ heating stage reveals the evolution of the dewetting process, and confirms that the positions of nanoparticles are aligned with those of the SiOC hemispheres. The nanoparticles formed by this template-dewetting show an average diameter and center-to-center distance of 19.30 +/- 2.09 nm and 39.85 +/- 4.80 nm, respectively. The hexagonal array of FePt nanoparticles reveals a large coercivity of 1.5 T, much larger than the nanoparticles fabricated by top-down approaches. This approach offers an efficient pathway toward self-assembled nanostructures in a wide range of material systems.A design for the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles is presented by thermal dewetting with a chemically heterogeneous nano-template. For the template, we fabricate a nanostructured polystyrene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) film on a Si|SiO2 substrate, followed by a thermal

  20. Chemical and optical properties of thermally evaporated manganese oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kuhaili, M. F.

    2006-09-15

    Manganese oxide thin films were deposited using thermal evaporation from a tungsten boat. Films were deposited under an oxygen atmosphere, and the effects of thickness, substrate temperature, and deposition rate on their properties were investigated. The chemical properties of the films were studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence. The optical properties were determined from normal-incidence transmittance and reflectance. Based on the chemical and optical characterizations, the optimum conditions for the deposition of the films were investigated. Subsequently, the optical properties (refractive index, extinction coefficient, and band gap) of these films were determined.

  1. Non-chemically Pure Magnetites Produced from Thermal Decomposition of Ankerites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez López, C.; Romanek, C.; Rodríguez-Navarro, A.; Pérez-González, T.; Rodríguez Navarro, C.

    2008-12-01

    It has been claimed that chemically pure magnetites (Fe3O4) can be obtained from thermal decomposition of (Fe, Mg, Ca)CO3 (Golden et al., 2004). Such an observation is critical, since it opens the possibility of an inorganic way of formation of the magnetites found on Martian meteorite ALH84001. Such a chemical purity is one of the parameters used, so far, to recognize bacterial origin of natural magnetites (Thomas-Keptra et al., 2001), since it has been demonstrated that biologically-controlled magnetites are chemically pure (Bazylinski and Frankel, 2004) . However, while Golden et al. (2004) obtained pure magnetite from an almost pure precursor, the ankerite cores in ALH84001 in which magnetites are embedded are far from being chemically pure, since they contain considerable amounts of Ca and Mg (Kopp and Humayun, 2003). In this study we have performed several experiments to analyze the chemical purity of magnetites produced by thermal decomposition of four ankerite samples sinthetized in the laboratory, and containing different amounts of Ca, Fe and Mg. Such a thermal decomposition was achieved by two procedures: (1) by heating the samples at 470°C under CO2 pressure and (2) by decomposing the ankerite "in situ" under the TEM (Transmission electron Microscopy) electron beam. Magnetite produced by the first procedure was analyzed by XRD to determine whether or not the resulting solid was a mixture of oxides or rather a solid solution of (Ca, Fe and Mg)oxide. Magnetites formed by the two methods were studied by High Resolution TEM. The chemical composition of about 20 crystals of each experiment was analyzed by EDAX. Under our experimental conditions, ankerites decomposed in magnetite crystals of about 5 nanometers in size. Magentite crystals arranged to keep the morphology of the precursor. Our results confirm that any of these magnetites is chemically pure, but rather, each one of them is a solid solution of Ca and Mg. Therefore, chemically pure magnetites

  2. Application of a reversible chemical reaction system to solar thermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanseth, E. J.; Won, Y. S.; Seibowitz, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Three distributed dish solar thermal power systems using various applications of SO2/SO3 chemical energy storage and transport technology were comparatively assessed. Each system features various roles for the chemical system: (1) energy storage only, (2) energy transport, or (3) energy transport and storage. These three systems were also compared with the dish-Stirling, using electrical transport and battery storage, and the central receiver Rankine system, with thermal storage, to determine the relative merit of plants employing a thermochemical system. As an assessment criterion, the busbar energy costs were compared. Separate but comparable solar energy cost computer codes were used for distributed receiver and central receiver systems. Calculations were performed for capacity factors ranging from 0.4 to 0.8. The results indicate that SO2/SO3 technology has the potential to be more cost effective in transporting the collected energy than in storing the energy for the storage capacity range studied (2-15 hours)

  3. Diffusion, Thermal Properties and Chemical Compatibilities of Select MAX Phases with Materials For Advanced Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barsoum, Michel; Bentzel, Grady; Tallman, Darin J.; Sindelar, Robert; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda; Hoffman, Elizabeth

    2016-04-04

    The demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron irradiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ ºC) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the chemical compatibility of select MAX with potential materials that are important for nuclear energy, as well as to measure the thermal transport properties as a function of neutron irradiation. The chemical counterparts chosen for this work are: pyrolytic carbon, SiC, U, Pd, FLiBe, Pb-Bi and Na, the latter 3 in the molten state. The thermal conductivities and heat capacities of non-irradiated MAX phases will be measured.

  4. NSR&D FY15 Final Report. Modeling Mechanical, Thermal, and Chemical Effects of Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Christopher Curtis; Ma, Xia; Zhang, Duan Zhong

    2015-11-02

    The main goal of this project is to develop a computer model that explains and predicts coupled mechanical, thermal and chemical responses of HE under impact and friction insults. The modeling effort is based on the LANL-developed CartaBlanca code, which is implemented with the dual domain material point (DDMP) method to calculate complex and coupled thermal, chemical and mechanical effects among fluids, solids and the transitions between the states. In FY 15, we have implemented the TEPLA material model for metal and performed preliminary can penetration simulation and begun to link with experiment. Currently, we are working on implementing a shock to detonation transition (SDT) model (SURF) and JWL equation of state.

  5. Structural, optical, electrical and thermal properties of zinc oxide thin films by chemical spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, S. S.; Bhosale, C. H.; Rajpure, K. Y.

    2012-08-01

    Thin films of highly textured ZnO are synthesized by simple chemical spray pyrolysis onto corning glass substrates in aqueous medium. The influence of solution concentration onto photoelectrochemical, structural, morphological, compositional, optical, electrical and thermal properties have been investigated. Structural analysis shows the hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. Electron-phonon-coupling in ZnO films has analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The chemical composition and valence states of constituent elements in ZnO are analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SEM and AFM micrographs depict the films are compact and homogeneous (hexagonal platelets nanostructures) with varying grain sizes (average grain size ˜50-150 nm). The specific heat and thermal conductivity study shows the phonon conduction behavior is dominant in these polycrystalline films.

  6. Interfacial reaction and electrical properties of HfO2 film gate dielectric prepared by pulsed laser deposition in nitrogen: role of rapid thermal annealing and gate electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Hao; Ye, Cong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Hanbin; Jiang, Yong

    2011-10-01

    The high-k dielectric HfO(2) thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition in nitrogen atmosphere. Rapid thermal annealing effect on film surface roughness, structure and electrical properties of HfO(2) film was investigated. The mechanism of interfacial reaction and the annealing atmosphere effect on the interfacial layer thickness were discussed. The sample annealed in nitrogen shows an amorphous dominated structure and the lowest leakage current density. Capacitors with high-k HfO(2) film as gate dielectric were fabricated, using Pt, Au, and Ti as the top gate electrode whereas Pt constitutes the bottom side electrode. At the gate injection case, the Pt- and Au-gated metal oxide semiconductor devices present a lower leakage current than that of the Ti-gated device, as well as similar leakage current conduction mechanism and interfacial properties at the metal/HfO(2) interface, because of their close work function and chemical properties.

  7. Evaluation of Applied Materials` rapid thermal processor using SEMATECH methodologies for 0.25 {micro}m technology thermal applications. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, T.J.; Nanda, A.K.; Miner, G.; Pas, M.F.; Hossain-Pas, S.; Velo, L.A.

    1996-12-01

    Under a joint development contract with Applied Materials (AMAT) and Texas Instruments (TI), SEMATECH undertook a project (Joint Development Project J100) with a goal of delivering a cost effective, technically advanced rapid Thermal Processor (RTP). The RTP tool was specified to meet the present and future manufacturing needs of SEMATECH`s member companies. The J100 results contained here focus on the temperature and control performance of the AMAT RTP tool. The evaluation methodology included passive data collection (PDC) to check the tool stability, screening experiments to isolate the variable interaction and to define the process window, broad range and narrow range sensitivity studies to determine the sheet resistance dependence on thermal budget for small increments in temperature set point, perturbation experiments to determine localized control, and stability experiments to check for drift and process repeatability. The impact of wafer emissivity on source/drain rapid-thermal annealing was evaluated by processing wafers with varying backside films. The PDC experiments demonstrated the tool to be stable. Screening experiments revealed the strong effect of temperature, followed by time, and time-temperature interaction on sheet resistance. Boron implanted (p+/n) wafers were found to be sensitive at a temperature of 1,025 C or less for a 10 second anneal whereas arsenic implanted wafers (n+/p) showed greater sensitivity at temperatures ranging from 1,025 C to 1,100 C for a 10 second anneal.

  8. Rapid fabrication of a four-layer PMMA-based microfluidic chip using CO2-laser micromachining and thermal bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xueye; Shen, Jienan; Zhou, Mengde

    2016-10-01

    A smart design method to transform the original two-layer microfluidic chip into a four-layer 3D microfluidic chip is proposed. A novel fabrication method is established to rapidly and effectively produce a four-layer microfluidic chip device made entirely from polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Firstly, the CO2-laser cuts the PMMA sheets by melting and blowing away vaporized material from the parent material to obtain high-quality channels of the microfluidic chip. An orthogonal experimental method is used to study its processing stability. In addition, a simple, rapid thermal bonding technique is successfully applied in fabricating the four-layer microfluidic chip, which has a bond strength of 1.3 MPa. A wooden pole is used to improve the accuracy of the alignment. Finally, a mixing experiment with blue ink and water is carried out, which proves that this smart design method and rapid manufacturing technology are successful.

  9. Degradation Of Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBC) Due To Chemical and Thermal Expansion Incompatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N.; King, Deboran (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Current environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) consist of multiple layers, with each layer having unique properties to meet the various requirements for successful EBCs. As a result, chemical and thermal expansion compatibility between layers becomes an important issue to maintaining durability. Key constituents in current EBCs are mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2), BSAS (BaO(1-x)-SrO(x)-Al2O3-2SiO2), and YSZ (ZrO2-8 wt.% Y2O3). The mullite-BSAS combination appears benign although significant diffusion occurs. Mullite-YSZ and BSAS-YSZ combinations do not react up to 1500 C. Thermally grown SiO2- BSAS and mullite-BSAS-YSZ combinations are most detrimental, forming low melting glasses. Thermal expansion mismatch between YSZ and mullite or BSAS causes severe cracking and delamination.

  10. Inelastic light scattering spectroscopy in Si/SiGe nanostructures: Strain, chemical composition and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsybeskov, L.; Mala, S. A.; Wang, X.; Baribeau, J.-M.; Wu, X.; Lockwood, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    We present a review of recent studies of inelastic light scattering spectroscopy in two types of Si/SiGe nanostructures: planar superlattices and cluster (dot) multilayers including first- and second-order Raman scattering, polarized Raman scattering and low-frequency inelastic light scattering associated with folded acoustic phonons. The results are used in semi-quantitative analysis of chemical composition, strain and thermal conductivity in these technologically important materials for electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  11. Distinguishing solid bitumens formed by thermochemical sulfate reduction and thermal chemical alteration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelemen, S.R.; Walters, C.C.; Kwiatek, P.J.; Afeworki, M.; Sansone, M.; Freund, H.; Pottorf, R.J.; Machel, H.G.; Zhang, T.; Ellis, G.S.; Tang, Y.; Peters, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Insoluble solid bitumens are organic residues that can form by the thermal chemical alteration (TCA) or thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) of migrated petroleum. TCA may actually encompass several low temperature processes, such as biodegradation and asphaltene precipitation, followed by thermal alteration. TSR is an abiotic redox reaction where petroleum is oxidized by sulfate. It is difficult to distinguish solid bitumens associated with TCA of petroleum from those associated with TSR when both processes occur at relatively high temperature. The focus of the present work was to characterize solid bitumen samples associated with TCA or TSR using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS is a surface analysis conducted on either isolated or in situ (>25 ??m diameter) solid bitumen that can provide the relative abundance and chemical speciation of carbon, organic and inorganic heteroatoms (NSO). In this study, naturally occurring solid bitumens from three locations, Nisku Fm. Brazeau River area (TSR-related), LaBarge Field Madison Fm. (TSR-related), and the Alaskan Brooks range (TCA-related), are compared to organic solids generated during laboratory simulation of the TSR and TCA processes. The abundance and chemical nature of organic nitrogen and sulfur in solid bitumens can be understood in terms of the nature of (1) petroleum precursor molecules, (2) the concentration of nitrogen by way of thermal stress and (3) the mode of sulfur incorporation. TCA solid bitumens originate from polar materials that are initially rich in sulfur and nitrogen. Aromaticity and nitrogen increase as thermal stress cleaves aliphatic moieties and condensation reactions take place. Organic sulfur in TCA organic solids remains fairly constant with increasing maturation (3.5 to ???17 sulfur per 100 carbons) into aromatic structures and to the low levels of nitrogen in their hydrocarbon precursors. Hence, XPS results provide organic chemical composition information that helps to

  12. An analytic model of axisymmetric mantle plume due to thermal and chemical diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Mian; Chase, Clement G.

    1990-01-01

    An analytic model of axisymmetric mantle plumes driven by either thermal diffusion or combined diffusion of both heat and chemical species from a point source is presented. The governing equations are solved numerically in cylindrical coordinates for a Newtonian fluid with constant viscosity. Instead of starting from an assumed plume source, constraints on the source parameters, such as the depth of the source regions and the total heat input from the plume sources, are deduced using the geophysical characteristics of mantle plumes inferred from modelling of hotspot swells. The Hawaiian hotspot and the Bermuda hotspot are used as examples. Narrow mantle plumes are expected for likely mantle viscosities. The temperature anomaly and the size of thermal plumes underneath the lithosphere can be sensitive indicators of plume depth. The Hawaiian plume is likely to originate at a much greater depth than the Bermuda plume. One suggestive result puts the Hawaiian plume source at a depth near the core-mantle boundary and the source of the Bermuda plume in the upper mantle, close to the 700 km discontinuity. The total thermal energy input by the source region to the Hawaiian plume is about 5 x 10(10) watts. The corresponding diameter of the source region is about 100 to 150 km. Chemical diffusion from the same source does not affect the thermal structure of the plume.

  13. Comparison of chemical and thermal protein denaturation by combination of computational and experimental approaches. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Christiansen, Alexander; Samiotakis, Antonios; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla; Cheung, Margaret S.

    2011-11-01

    Chemical and thermal denaturation methods have been widely used to investigate folding processes of proteins in vitro. However, a molecular understanding of the relationship between these two perturbation methods is lacking. Here, we combined computational and experimental approaches to investigate denaturing effects on three structurally different proteins. We derived a linear relationship between thermal denaturation at temperature Tb and chemical denaturation at another temperature Tu using the stability change of a protein (ΔG). For this, we related the dependence of ΔG on temperature, in the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, to that of ΔG on urea concentration in the linear extrapolation method, assuming that there is a temperature pair from the urea (Tu) and the aqueous (Tb) ensembles that produces the same protein structures. We tested this relationship on apoazurin, cytochrome c, and apoflavodoxin using coarse-grained molecular simulations. We found a linear correlation between the temperature for a particular structural ensemble in the absence of urea, Tb, and the temperature of the same structural ensemble at a specific urea concentration, Tu. The in silico results agreed with in vitro far-UV circular dichroism data on apoazurin and cytochrome c. We conclude that chemical and thermal unfolding processes correlate in terms of thermodynamics and structural ensembles at most conditions; however, deviations were found at high concentrations of denaturant.

  14. Microwave-assisted chemical insertion: a rapid technique for screening cathodes for Mg-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kaveevivitchai, Watchareeya; Huq, Ashfia; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-12-19

    We report an ultrafast microwave-assisted solvothermal method for chemical insertion of Mg2+ ions into host materials using magnesium acetate [Mg(CH3COO)2] as a metal-ion source and diethylene glycol (DEG) as a reducing agent. For instance, up to 3 Mg ions per formula unit of a microporous host framework Mo2.5+yVO9+z could be inserted in as little as 30 min at 170–195 °C in air. This process is superior to the traditional method which involves the use of organometallic reagents, such as di-n-butylmagnesium [(C4H9)2Mg] and magnesium bis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenoxide) [Mg-(O-2,6-But2C6H3)2], and requires an inert atmosphere with extremely long reaction times. Considering the lack of robust electrolytes for Mg-ion batteries, this facile approach can be readily used as a rapid screening technique to identify potential Mg-ion electrode hosts without the necessity of fabricating electrodes and assembling electrochemical cells. Due to the mild reaction conditions, the overall structure and morphology of the Mg-ion inserted products are maintained and the compounds can be used successfully as a cathode in Mg-ion batteries. The combined synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction Rietveld analysis reveals the structure of the Mg-inserted compounds and gives an insight into the interactions between the Mg ions and the open-tunnel host framework.

  15. Mechano-chemical signaling maintains the rapid movement of Dictyostelium cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, M.L.; Knecht, D.A.; Lee, J.

    2008-05-01

    The survival of Dictyostelium cells depends on their ability to efficiently chemotax, either towards food or to form multicellular aggregates. Although the involvement of Ca{sup 2+} signaling during chemotaxis is well known, it is not clear how this regulates cell movement. Previously, fish epithelial keratocytes have been shown to display transient increases in intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) that are mediated by stretch-activated calcium channels (SACs), which play a role in retraction of the cell body [J. Lee, A. Ishihara, G. Oxford, B. Johnson, and K. Jacobson, Regulation of cell movement is mediated by stretch-activated calcium channels. Nature, 1999. 400(6742): p. 382-6.]. To investigate the involvement of SACs in Dictyostelium movement we performed high resolution calcium imaging in wild-type (NC4A2) Dictyostelium cells to detect changes in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. We observed small, brief, Ca{sup 2+} transients in randomly moving wild-type cells that were dependent on both intracellular and extracellular sources of calcium. Treatment of cells with the SAC blocker gadolinium (Gd{sup 3+}) inhibited transients and decreased cell speed, consistent with the involvement of SACs in regulating Dictyostelium motility. Additional support for SAC activity was given by the increase in frequency of Ca{sup 2+} transients when Dictyostelium cells were moving on a more adhesive substratum or when they were mechanically stretched. We conclude that mechano-chemical signaling via SACs plays a major role in maintaining the rapid movement of Dictyostelium cells.

  16. Rapid and repeatable fabrication of high A/R silk fibroin microneedles using thermally-drawn micromolds.

    PubMed

    Lee, JiYong; Park, Seung Hyun; Seo, Il Ho; Lee, Kang Ju; Ryu, WonHyoung

    2015-08-01

    Thermal drawing is a versatile rapid prototyping method that can freely form microneedle (MN) structures with ultra-high aspect ratio without relying on any complex and expensive process. However, it is still challenging to repeatedly produce MNs with identical shapes using this thermal drawing due to small fluctuations in processing conditions such as temperatures, drawing speeds, drawing heights, or parallelism in the drawing setup. In addition, thermal drawing is only applicable to thermoplastic materials and most natural biomaterials are incompatible with this method. Thus, we propose use of thermal drawing to fabricate master molds with high aspect ratios and replicate the shape by micromolding. In this work, high A/R MNs with various body profiles were fabricated by thermal drawing and replicated to silk fibroin (SF) MNs multiple times using micromolding. The original MN shape was precisely copied to the SF MNs. Methanol treatment enhanced the mechanical strength of SF MNs up to about 113% more depending on the treatment duration. We also demonstrated that methanol exposure time could effectively control drug release rates from SF MNs.

  17. Microwave-Accelerated Rapid, Chemical Oxidant-Free, Material-Independent Surface Chemistry of Poly(dopamine).

    PubMed

    Lee, Mihyun; Lee, Si-Hwa; Oh, Il-Kwon; Lee, Haeshin

    2017-01-01

    A simple strategy for the rapid preparation of multifunctional polydopamine (pDA) coatings is demonstrated. Microwave irradiation of the coating solution enables the formation of a ≈18 nm thick, genuine pDA coating in 15 min, which is ≈18 times faster than conventional coating. The acceleration effect results from the radical generation and temperature increase, which facilitate thermally accelerated radical polymerization of dopamine.

  18. High thermal stability and low Gilbert damping constant of CoFeB/MgO bilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by Al capping and rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ding-Shuo; Lai, Shu-Yu; Lin, Tzu-Ying; Wang, Liang-Wei; Liao, Jung-Wei; Lai, Chih-Huang; Chien, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Yung-Hung; Ellsworth, David; Lu, Lei; Wu, Mingzhong

    2014-04-07

    We demonstrate that the magnetic anisotropy of the CoFeB/MgO bilayer can be manipulated by adding an aluminum capping layer. After rapid thermal annealing, we can achieve large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of CoFeB with a high thermal stability factor (Δ = 72) while the Gilbert damping constant can be reduced down to only 0.011 simultaneously. The boron and residual oxygen in the bulk CoFeB layer are properly absorbed by the Al capping layer during annealing, leading to the enhanced exchange stiffness and reduced damping. The interfacial Fe-O bonding can be optimized by tuning annealing temperature and thickness of Al, resulting in enhanced perpendicular anisotropy.

  19. High thermal stability and low Gilbert damping constant of CoFeB/MgO bilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by Al capping and rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ding-Shuo; Lai, Shu-Yu; Lin, Tzu-Ying; Chien, Cheng-Wei; Ellsworth, David; Wang, Liang-Wei; Liao, Jung-Wei; Lu, Lei; Wang, Yung-Hung; Wu, Mingzhong; Lai, Chih-Huang

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate that the magnetic anisotropy of the CoFeB/MgO bilayer can be manipulated by adding an aluminum capping layer. After rapid thermal annealing, we can achieve large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of CoFeB with a high thermal stability factor (Δ = 72) while the Gilbert damping constant can be reduced down to only 0.011 simultaneously. The boron and residual oxygen in the bulk CoFeB layer are properly absorbed by the Al capping layer during annealing, leading to the enhanced exchange stiffness and reduced damping. The interfacial Fe-O bonding can be optimized by tuning annealing temperature and thickness of Al, resulting in enhanced perpendicular anisotropy.

  20. Thermal stability of Trichoderma reesei c30 cellulase and aspergillus niger; -glucosidase after ph and chemical modification

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Whaley, K.S.; Zachry, G.S.; Wohlpart, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Treatment of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase at pH 10.0 for 1 h at room temperature increased its pH and thermal stability. Chemical modification of the free epsilon-amino groups of cellulase at pH 10.0 resulted in no further increase in stability. Such chemical modification, however, decreased the thermal stability of the cellulose-cellulase complex. On the contrary, the chemical modification of Aspergillus niger glucosidase with glutaraldehyde at pH 8.0 increased the thermal stability of this enzyme.

  1. Thermal stability of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase and Aspergillus niger. beta. -glucosidase after pH and chemical modification

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Whaley, K.S.; Zachry, G.S.; Wohlpart, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Treatment of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase at pH 10.0 for 1 h at room temperature increased its pH and thermal stability. Chemical modification of the free epsilon-amino groups of cellulase at pH 10.0 resulted in no further increase in stability. Such chemical modification, however, decreased the thermal stability of the cellulose-cellulase complex. On the contrary, the chemical modification of Aspergillus niger ..beta..-glucosidase with glutaraldehyde at pH 8.0 increased the thermal stability of this enzyme.

  2. Boron Nitride Nanosheets (BNNSs) Chemically Modified by "Grafting-From" Polymerization of Poly(caprolactone) for Thermally Conductive Polymer Composites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinseong; Jung, Haejong; Yu, Seunggun; Man Cho, Suk; Tiwari, Vimal K; Babu Velusamy, Dhinesh; Park, Cheolmin

    2016-07-05

    To meet the growing demand for rapid heat dissipation in electronic devices to ensure their reliable performance with a high level of safety, many polymer composites with thermally conductive but electrically insulating 2D boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) are being developed. Here we present an efficient way to enhance the thermal conductivity (TC) of a polymer composite by means of "grafting-from" polymerization of a poly(caprolactone) (PCL) onto BNNSs. The BNNSs, which were exfoliated from bulk BN by means of ultra-sonication, were prepared by means of radical oxidation. These oxidized BNNSs (oxi-BNNSs) were employed as initiators for subsequent ring-opening polymerization of PCL, which successfully resulted in PCL chemically grafted onto BNNSs (PCL-g-BNNSs). The excellent dispersion of PCL-g-BNNSs in common solvents allowed us to readily fabricate a polymer composite that contained PCL-g-BNNSs embedded in a PCL matrix, and the composite showed TC values that were five and nine times greater in the out-of-plane and in-plane mode, respectively, than those of pristine PCL.

  3. Thermal/chemical degradation of ceramic cross-flow filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lane, J.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1989-11-01

    This report summarizes the 14-month, Phase 1 effort conducted by Westinghouse on the Thermal/Chemical Degradation of Ceramic Cross-Flow Filter Materials program. In Phase 1 expected filter process conditions were identified for a fixed-bed, fluid-bed, and entrained-bed gasification, direct coal fired turbine, and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. Ceramic cross-flow filter materials were also selected, procured, and subjected to chemical and physical characterization. The stability of each of the ceramic cross-flow materials was assessed in terms of potential reactions or phase change as a result of process temperature, and effluent gas compositions containing alkali and fines. In addition chemical and physical characterization was conducted on cross-flow filters that were exposed to the METC fluid-bed gasifier and the New York University pressurized fluidized-bed combustor. Long-term high temperature degradation mechanisms were proposed for each ceramic cross-flow material at process operating conditions. An experimental bench-scale test program is recommended to be conducted in Phase 2, generating data that support the proposed cross-flow filter material thermal/chemical degradation mechanisms. Papers on the individual subtasks have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Thermal Conductivity of Nanocrystalline Silicon Prepared by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical-Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jugdersuren, Battogtokh; Liu, Xiao; Kearney, Brian; Queen, Daniel; Metcalf, Thomas; Culbertson, James; Chervin, Christopher; Katz, Michael; Stroud, Rhonda

    Nanocrystallization by ball milling has been used successfully to reduce the thermal conductivity of silicon-germanium alloys (SiGe) and turn them into useful thermoelectric materials at a temperature of a few hundred degrees C. Currently the smallest grain sizes in nanocrystalline SiGe are in the 10 nm range. Germanium is added to scatter short wavelength phonons by impurity scattering. In this work, we report a record low thermal conductivity in nanocrystalline silicon prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. By varying hydrogen to silane ratio, we can vary the average grain sizes from greater than 10 nm down to 3 nm, as determined by both the high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The values of thermal conductivity, as measured by the 3 ω technique, can be correspondingly modulated from that of ball-milled nanocrystalline SiGe to a record low level of 0.3 W/mK at room temperature. This low thermal conductivity is only about 1/3 of the minimum thermal conductivity limit of silicon. Possible causes of such a large reduction are discussed. Work supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  5. Thermally stable harpin, HrpZPss is sensitive to chemical denaturants: probing tryptophan environment, chemical and thermal unfolding by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tarafdar, Pradip K; Vedantam, Lakshmi Vasudev; Podile, Appa Rao; Swamy, Musti J

    2013-12-01

    Harpins - a group of proteins that elicit hypersensitive response (HR) in non-host plants - are secreted by certain Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria upon interaction with the plant. In the present study, the microenvironment and solvent accessibility of the sole tryptophan residue (Trp-167) in harpin HrpZPss, secreted by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, have been characterized by fluorescence spectroscopic studies. Emission λmax of the native protein at 328 nm indicates that Trp-167 is buried in a hydrophobic region in the interior of the protein matrix. Significant quenching (53%) was seen with the neutral quencher, acrylamide at 0.5 M concentration, whereas quenching by ionic quenchers, I(-) (~10%) and Cs(+) (negligible) was considerably lower. In the presence of 6.0 M guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) the emission λmax shifted to 350.5 nm, and quenching by both neutral and ionic quenchers increased significantly, suggesting complete exposure of the indole side chain to the aqueous medium. Fluorescence studies on the thermal unfolding of HrpZPss are fully consistent with a complex thermal unfolding process and high thermal stability of this protein, inferred from previous differential scanning calorimetric and dynamic light scattering studies. However, the protein exhibits low resistance to chemical denaturants, with 50% unfolding seen in the presence of 1.77 M GdnHCl or 3.59 M urea. The ratio of m value, determined from linear extrapolation model, for GdnHCl and urea-induced unfolding was 1.8 and suggests the presence of hydrophobic interactions, which could possibly involve leucine zipper-like helical regions on the surface of the protein.

  6. High Temperature Nanocomposites For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and In-Space Fabrication by Hyperbaric Pressure Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, J. L.; Webb, N. D.; Espinoza, M.; Cook, S.; Houts, M.; Kim, T.

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is an indispensable technology for the manned exploration of the solar system. By using Hyperbaric Pressure Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition (HP-LCVD), the authors propose to design and build a promising next-generation fuel element composed of uranium carbide UC embedded in a latticed matrix of highly refractory Ta4HfC5 for an NTP rocket capable of sustaining temperatures up to 4000 K, enabling an Isp of up to 1250 s. Furthermore, HP-LCVD technology can also be harnessed to enable 3D rapid prototyping of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics and composites, opening up the possibility of in-space fabrication of components, replacement parts, difficult-to-launch solar sails and panels and a variety of other space structures. Additionally, rapid prototyping with HP-LCVD makes a feasible "live off the land" strategy of interplanetary and interstellar exploration ­ the precursors commonly used in the technology are found, often in abundance, on other solar system bodies either as readily harvestable gas (e.g. methane) or as a raw material that could be converted into a suitable precursor (e.g. iron oxide into ferrocene on Mars).

  7. How Irreversible Heat Transport Processes Drive Earth's Interdependent Thermal, Structural, and Chemical Evolution Providing a Strongly Heterogeneous, Layered Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, A.; Criss, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Because magmatism conveys radioactive isotopes plus latent heat rapidly upwards while advecting heat, this process links and controls the thermal and chemical evolution of Earth. We present evidence that the lower mantle-upper mantle boundary is a profound chemical discontinuity, leading to observed heterogeneities in the outermost layers that can be directly sampled, and construct an alternative view of Earth's internal workings. Earth's beginning involved cooling via explosive outgassing of substantial ice (mainly CO) buried with dust during accretion. High carbon content is expected from Solar abundances and ice in comets. Reaction of CO with metal provided a carbide-rich core while converting MgSiO3 to olivine via oxidizing reactions. Because thermodynamic law (and buoyancy of hot particles) indicates that primordial heat from gravitational segregation is neither large nor carried downwards, whereas differentiation forced radioactive elements upwards, formation of the core and lower mantle greatly cooled the Earth. Reference conductive geotherms, calculated using accurate and new thermal diffusivity data, require that heat-producing elements are sequestered above 670 km which limits convection to the upper mantle. These irreversible beginnings limit secular cooling to radioactive wind-down, permiting deduction of Earth's inventory of heat-producing elements from today's heat flux. Coupling our estimate for heat producing elements with meteoritic data indicates that Earth's oxide content has been underestimated. Density sorting segregated a Si-rich, peridotitic upper mantle from a refractory, oxide lower mantle with high Ca, Al and Ti contents, consistent with diamond inclusion mineralogy. Early and rapid differentiation means that internal temperatures have long been buffered by freezing of the inner core, allowing survival of crust as old as ca.4 Ga. Magmatism remains important. Melt escaping though stress-induced fractures in the rigid lithosphere imparts a

  8. Comparing rapid-screening and standard toxicity assays to assess known chemical contamination at a hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, L.; Swigert, J.; Roberts, C.

    1995-12-31

    The thrust to streamline the Superfund site investigation/remediation program makes it critical for site investigators to utilize rapid screening methodologies to facilitate decision-making. However, screening methodologies providing information upon which decision-making is based must not only be rapid but also scientifically valid. This presentation compares and contrasts two rapid screening toxicity assessments, the Daphnia magna IQ Toxicity Test {trademark} and Microtox{trademark}, to a battery of standard aquatic toxicity tests using Lemna, Rana, Pimephales, Selenastruni and Ceriodaphnia. Chemical analysis of test water samples provided evidence of potential toxicological risk associated with the test samples. The study site was J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, a federal facility listed on the National Priority List that used to test and/or dispose of high explosives and chemical warfare agents in open pits or fields. Surface water samples from 20 sites were collected and used in the toxicity assessments. Water samples also were analyzed for explosives, chemical surety degradation compounds, Target Analyte List (inorganics), Target Compound List (organics) and selected pesticides and PCBs. The Microtox{trademark} assay did not reveal any toxicity present in the samples analyzed. Correlation analyses showed only slight correlation between the Daphnia magna IQ{trademark} assay and the standard 48-hour toxicity test. No correlation existed between the Microtox{trademark} assay and the aquatic toxicity tests. Results are discussed in light of the expected risk of the chemicals known to be present and the outcome of the toxicity tests.

  9. Rapid warming at the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum drives rapid hydrate dissociation but only modest and delayed methane release to the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minshull, Tim; Marin-Moreno, Hector; Wilson, Paul; Armstrong McKay, David

    2016-04-01

    During the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the carbon isotopic signature δ13C of the ocean-atmosphere system decreased abruptly - the record in deep sea benthic foraminifera shows an excursion of at least 2.5 to 3.0 ‰ VPDB. This global carbon isotope excursion (CIE) has been attributed to large-scale methane hydrate dissociation in response to rapid ocean warming. There is increasing evidence for warming-induced hydrate dissociation in the modern ocean and the PETM may represent an analogue for this process. We ran a thermohydraulic modeling code to simulate hydrate dissociation due to ocean warming for a range of possible PETM scenarios. Our results show that hydrate dissociation in response to such warming is rapid but methane release to the ocean is modest, and delayed by hundreds to thousands of years by transport processes through the hydrate stability field. In our simulations most of the dissociated hydrate methane remains beneath the seabed, either in solution or as free gas below the irreducible gas saturation, and the small fraction (≤0.13) released to the ocean is delivered over several kyr. We conclude that hydrate dissociation cannot have been largely responsible for the CIE unless the late Palaeocene hydrate inventory greatly exceeded most current estimates.

  10. Unravelling the fundamentals of thermal and chemical expansion of BaCeO3 from first principles phonon calculations.

    PubMed

    Løken, Andreas; Haugsrud, Reidar; Bjørheim, Tor S

    2016-11-16

    Differentiating chemical and thermal expansion is virtually impossible to achieve experimentally. While thermal expansion stems from a softening of the phonon spectra, chemical expansion depends on the chemical composition of the material. In the present contribution, we, for the first time, completely decouple thermal and chemical expansion through first principles phonon calculations on BaCeO3, providing new fundamental insights to lattice expansion. We assess the influence of defects on thermal expansion, and how this in turn affects the interpretation of chemical expansion and defect thermodynamics. The calculations reveal that the linear thermal expansion coefficient is lowered by the introduction of oxygen vacancies being 10.6 × 10(-6) K(-1) at 300 K relative to 12.2 × 10(-6) K(-1) for both the protonated and defect-free bulk lattice. We further demonstrate that the chemical expansion coefficient upon hydration varies with temperature, ranging from 0.070 to 0.115 per mole oxygen vacancy. Ultimately, we find that, due to differences in the thermal expansion coefficients under dry and wet conditions, the chemical expansion coefficients determined experimentally are grossly underestimated - around 55% lower in the case of 10 mol% acceptor doped BaCeO3. Lastly, we evaluate the effect of these volume changes on the vibrational thermodynamics.

  11. Food availability promotes rapid recovery from thermal stress in a scleractinian coral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, S. R.; Lopez-Yglesias, M. A.; Anthony, K. R. N.

    2012-12-01

    Bleaching in corals due to environmental stress represents a loss of energy intake often leading to an increase in mortality risk. Successful coral recovery from severe bleaching events may depend on the rate of replenishment of algal symbiont populations following the period of thermal stress, the supply of an alternative food source, or both. Here, we explore the role of food availability in promoting the survival and recovery of a common coral ( Acropora intermedia) following acute experimentally induced thermal stress. Fed corals were provided with live rotifers daily, to maintain densities of zooplankton in tanks that are typical of coral reefs. After a 6-week acclimation phase, heated corals were subjected to a +4 °C thermal anomaly for a 7-day period (bleaching phase) then temperatures were returned to normal for a further 2 weeks (recovery phase). Results demonstrated that heated corals had higher survival when they were provided with heterotrophic food. Fed corals experienced reduced loss of chlorophyll a, relative to unfed corals. During the recovery phase, both fed and unfed corals recovered within a few days; however, fed corals recovered to pre-bleaching phase levels of chlorophyll a, whereas unfed corals stabilized approximately one-third below this level. Protein levels of fed corals declined markedly during the bleaching phase, but recovered all of their losses by the end of the recovery phase. In contrast, unfed corals had low protein levels that were maintained throughout the experiment. To the extent that these results are representative of corals' responses to thermal anomalies in nature, the findings imply that availability of particulate food matter has the potential to increase corals' capacity to survive thermally induced bleaching and to ameliorate its sub-lethal effects. They also support the hypothesis that different rates of heterotrophy are an important determinant of variation in resilience to thermal stress among reef environments.

  12. Thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials. Final report, August 1992--May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Damle, A.S.; Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

    1995-05-01

    SRI International conducted a theoretical and experimental program to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are being developed to separate the gaseous products of coal gasification. A variety of developmental efforts are underway, including a number of projects sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to improve the selectivity and permeability of porous inorganic membranes. DOE is also sponsoring efforts to extend the use of metallic membranes to new applications. Most developmental efforts have focused on hydrogen separation by inorganic membranes, which may be used to maximize hydrogen production from coal gas or to remove H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} contaminants via thermal or catalytic decomposition in integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems. Inorganic membranes that have a high separation efficiency and exhibit both thermal and chemical stability would improve the economics of power generation from coal. Membrane materials that have been investigated include glass (silica), alumina, carbon, and metals (Pd and Pt). This report describes inorganic membrane materials, long term membrane exposure tests, membrane permeation tests, coal gasifier exposure tests, conclusions, and recommendations.

  13. Chemical, isotopic, and gas compositions of selected thermal springs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-seven thermal springs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah were sampled for detailed chemical and isotopic analysis. The springs issue sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or sodium mixed-anion waters of near neutral (6.2) to alkaline (9.2) pH. High concentrations of fluoride, more than 8 milligrams per liter, occur in Arizona in waters from Gillard Hot Springs, Castle Hot Springs, and the unnamed spring of Eagle Creek, and in New Mexico from springs along the Gila River. Deuterium compositions of the thermal waters cover the same range as those expected for meteoric waters in the respective areas. The chemical compositions of the thermal waters indicate that Thermo Hot Springs in Utah and Gillard Hot Springs in Arizona represent hydrothermal systems which are at temperatures higher than 125 deg C. Estimates of subsurface temperature based on the quartz and Na-K-Ca geothermometer differ by up to 60 deg C for Monroe, Joseph, Red Hill, and Crater hot springs in Utah. Similar conflicting estimates of aquifer temperature occur for Verde Hot Springs, the springs near Clifton and Coolidge Dam, in Arizona; and the warm springs near San Ysidro, Radium Hot Springs, and San Francisco Hot Springs, in New Mexico. Such disparities could result from mixing, precipitation of calcium carbonate, or perhaps appreciable concentrations of magnesium. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Thermal and chemical inactivation of indigenous Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophages isolated from Argentinian dairy plants.

    PubMed

    Binetti, A G; Reinheimer, J A

    2000-04-01

    Thermal and chemical resistance of five autochthonal bacteriophages of Streptococcus thermophilus, isolated from Cuartirolo cheese wheys and yogurt, was investigated. Times to obtain 99% inactivation of phages (T99) at 63 degrees C and 72 degrees C in three suspension media (enriched tryptic soy broth, reconstituted commercial nonfat skim milk, and tris magnesium gelatin buffer) were determined. The thermal resistance was dependent on the phages studied but not detectable counts (<10 PFU/ml) were only achieved by heating at 90 degrees C during 5 min. The data obtained for the three assayed media did not permit verifying significant differences among them. Sodium hypochlorite (100 ppm) provided a fast inactivation of bacteriophage particles (<10 PFU/ml after 5 min). Ethanol, at concentrations of 75% and 100%, was also effective for phage destruction. Isopropanol was slightly less effective than ethanol at the same concentrations. Peracetic acid (0.15%) was also a very effective agent for phage inactivation. The results showed that these autochthonal bacteriophages were not completely inactivated neither by normal pasteurization treatments nor by some biocides commonly used in disinfection, except sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid. The practical implications of these findings have pointed out the necessity of recognizing the importance of establishing adequate conditions to assure effective thermal and chemical treatments in dairy plants and laboratory environments.

  15. Attainable entanglement of unitary transformed thermal states in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance with the chemical shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Yukihiro; Mikami, Shuji; Yoshida, Motoyuki; Ohba, Ichiro

    2007-11-01

    Yu, Brown and Chuang investigated the entanglement attainable from unitary transformed thermal states in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Their research gave insight into the role of entanglement in a liquid-state NMR quantum computer. However, they assumed that the Zeeman energy of each nuclear spin which corresponds to a qubit takes a common value for all; there is no chemical shift. In this paper, we research a model with chemical shifts and analytically derive the physical parameter region where unitary transformed thermal states are entangled, by employing the positive partial transposition (PPT) criterion with respect to any bipartition. The analysis taking account of the chemical shift reveals how the difference between quantum gates reflects on the physical parameter region where unitary transformed thermal states are entangled. In addition, we examine the distillability of unitary transformed thermal states and the effect of the chemical shifts on the boundary between the separability and the nonseparability.

  16. Rapid estimation of glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants in leaves of Chinese kale and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) in two seasons.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Kristin; Verkerk, Ruud; Bonnema, Guusje; Dekker, Matthijs

    2012-08-15

    Kinetic modeling was used as a tool to quantitatively estimate glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants. Literature shows that thermal degradation rates differ in different vegetables. Well-characterized plant material, leaves of broccoli and Chinese kale plants grown in two seasons, was used in the study. It was shown that a first-order reaction is appropriate to model glucosinolate degradation independent from the season. No difference in degradation rate constants of structurally identical glucosinolates was found between broccoli and Chinese kale leaves when grown in the same season. However, glucosinolate degradation rate constants were highly affected by the season (20-80% increase in spring compared to autumn). These results suggest that differences in glucosinolate degradation rate constants can be due to variation in environmental as well as genetic factors. Furthermore, a methodology to estimate rate constants rapidly is provided to enable the analysis of high sample numbers for future studies.

  17. Broad target chemical screening approach used as tool for rapid assessment of groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    ter Laak, Thomas L; Puijker, Leo M; van Leerdam, Jan A; Raat, Klaasjan J; Kolkman, Annemieke; de Voogt, Pim; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2012-06-15

    The chemical water quality is often assessed by screening for a limited set of target chemicals. This 'conventional' target analysis approach inevitably misses chemicals present in the samples. In this study a 'broad' target screening approach for water quality assessment using high resolution and accurate mass spectrometry (HR MS) was applied to detect a wide variety of organic chemicals in 42 groundwater samples. In this approach, both known and unidentified chemicals observed in previous samples define the training set for the analysis of future samples and, additionally, new samples can be used to extend the training set. Nearly 400 chemicals were observed in the samples, of which 82 were known and more than 313 are of unknown identity. The obtained results were interpreted in relation to the source characteristics and land use. Groundwater that was affected by landfills showed the highest total MS response (ion counts) and most individual chemicals and was therefore considered most contaminated. Furthermore, river bank filtrated water was generally more contaminated than phreatic groundwater and groundwater from (semi)confined aquifers was most pristine. Additionally, industrial chemicals were more frequently observed in river bank filtrated water and pesticides were more frequently observed in water originating from rural areas. The 'broad' target screening approach for both known and unidentified chemicals does provide more information on the over-all water quality than 'conventional' target analysis.

  18. New rapid-curing, stable polyimide polymers with high-temperature strength and thermal stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, E. A.; Jones, J. F.; Kendrick, W. R.; Lubowitz, H. R.; Thorpe, R. S.; Wilson, E. R.

    1969-01-01

    Additive-type polymerization reaction forms thermally stable polyimide polymers, thereby eliminating the volatile matter attendant with the condensation reaction. It is based on the utilization of reactive alicyclic rings positioned on the ends of polyimide prepolymers having relatively low molecular weights.

  19. Application of the rapid thermal process: Sintering the sputtered aluminum/silicon contact in silicon detector fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Li, Zheng; Kraner, H.W.

    1991-11-01

    Rapid thermal process (RTP) sintering has been used in p{sup +}{minus}n junction detector fabrication. For the same thickness of aluminum film and at the same RTP sintering condition, the leakage current of the p{sup +}{minus}n junction detector with sputtered Al gate showed at least a 50% improvement and no spiking phenomena were observed. RTP sintering in 4% H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} ambient passivates the defects introduced by sputtering and the damage caused by the {sup 60}Co irradiation.

  20. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of thermal fluids in the Long Valley caldera lateral flow system, California

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.; Goff, F.; Grigsby, C.O.; Janik, C.J.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic data of thermal waters in Long Valley caldera have been used to identify both the origins and characteristics of the fluids and to evaluate mixing and boiling processes occurring within the lateral flow system of the caldera. Recharge to the Long Valley geothermal system occurs in the western part of the caldera with the water being heated at depth and flowing laterally eastward in the subsurface. The lateral flow system was recently intersected by the Shady Rest Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) corehole at 335 m (1100 ft) with fluids in this 202/sup 0/C zone being more concentrated than non-boiled fluids to the east. As the Na-K-HCO/sub 3/-Cl thermal fluids flow eastward, they are increasingly mixed with isotopically depleted, dilute groundwaters similar to cold waters east of Lake Crowley. Near surface boiling of Casa Diablo well fluids at 100/sup 0/C forms waters with the compositions of Colton and Casa Diablo hot springs. Waters to the east of the Casa Diablo area are mixtures of meteoric water and boiled thermal fluids with a composition close to that of Colton Hot Spring. There is no correlation between /sup 3/H and /sup 36/Cl in thermal fluids or between these components and conservative species, and it appears that cold fluids involved in mixing must be relatively old waters, low in both meteoric /sup 3/H and /sup 36/Cl.

  1. Changes in the Chemical Composition and Decay Resistance of Thermally-Modified Hevea brasiliensis Wood

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the equilibrium moisture content, chemical composition and biological resistance to decay fungi of juvenile and mature Hevea brasiliensis wood (rubber wood) was evaluated. Samples were taken from a 53-year-old rubber wood plantation located in Tabapuã, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The samples were thermally-modified at 180°C, 200°C and 220°C. Results indicate that the thermal modification caused: (1) a significant increase in the extractive content and proportional increase in the lignin content at 220°C; (2) a significant decrease in the equilibrium moisture content, holocelluloses, arabinose, galactose and xylose content, but no change in glucose content; and (3) a significant increase in wood decay resistance against both Pycnoporus sanguineus (L.) Murrill and Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers.) Murrill decay fungi. The greatest decay resistance was achieved from treatment at 220°C which resulted in a change in wood decay resistance class from moderately resistant to resistant. Finally, this study also demonstrated that the influence of thermal treatment in mature wood was lower than in juvenile wood. PMID:26986200

  2. Changes in the Chemical Composition and Decay Resistance of Thermally-Modified Hevea brasiliensis Wood.

    PubMed

    Severo, Elias Taylor Durgante; Calonego, Fred Willians; Sansígolo, Cláudio Angeli; Bond, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the equilibrium moisture content, chemical composition and biological resistance to decay fungi of juvenile and mature Hevea brasiliensis wood (rubber wood) was evaluated. Samples were taken from a 53-year-old rubber wood plantation located in Tabapuã, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The samples were thermally-modified at 180°C, 200°C and 220°C. Results indicate that the thermal modification caused: (1) a significant increase in the extractive content and proportional increase in the lignin content at 220°C; (2) a significant decrease in the equilibrium moisture content, holocelluloses, arabinose, galactose and xylose content, but no change in glucose content; and (3) a significant increase in wood decay resistance against both Pycnoporus sanguineus (L.) Murrill and Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers.) Murrill decay fungi. The greatest decay resistance was achieved from treatment at 220°C which resulted in a change in wood decay resistance class from moderately resistant to resistant. Finally, this study also demonstrated that the influence of thermal treatment in mature wood was lower than in juvenile wood.

  3. Characterisation of waste derived biochar added biocomposites: chemical and thermal modifications.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K; Zujovic, Zoran; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2016-04-15

    A step towards sustainability was taken by incorporating waste based pyrolysed biochar in wood and polypropylene biocomposites. The effect of biochar particles on the chemistry and thermal makeup of the composites was determined by characterising them through an array of characterisation techniques such as 3D optical profiling, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin/nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It was observed that addition of biochar increased the presence of free radicals in the composite while also improving its thermal conductivity. Biochar particles did not interfere with the melting behaviour of polymer in the thermal regime. However, wood and biochar acted as nucleation agents consequently increasing the crystallisation temperature. The crystal structure of polypropylene was not disrupted by biochar inclusion in composite. Transmission electron microscopy images illustrated the aggregated nature of the biochar particles at higher loading levels. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed the aromatic nature of biochar and the broadening of peak intensities of composites with increasing biochar levels due to its amorphous nature and presence of free radicals. Thus, this insight into the chemical and thermal modification of biochar added composites would allow effective engineering to optimise their properties while simultaneously utilising wastes.

  4. Finite volume model for forced flow/thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, T.L.; Smith, A.W.

    1991-03-01

    The forced flow/thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration process (FCVI) has proven to be a successfully technique for fabrication of ceramic matrix composites. It is particularly attractive for thick components which cannot be fabricated using the conventional, isothermal method (ICVI). Although it offers processing times that are at least an order of magnitude shorter than ICVI, FCVI has not been used to fabricate parts of complex geometry and is perceived by many to be unsuitable for such components. The major concern is that selection and control of the flow pattern and thermal profile for optimum infiltration can be a difficult and costly exercise. In order to reduce this effort, we are developing a computer model for FCVI that simulates the densification process for given component geometry, reactor configuration and operating parameters. Used by a process engineer, this model can dramatically reduce the experimental effort needed to obtain uniform densification.

  5. Thermal conductivity of ultra-thin chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, M. T.; Haque, M. A.; Bresnehan, M. S.; Robinson, J. A.

    2014-01-06

    Thermal conductivity of freestanding 10 nm and 20 nm thick chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films was measured using both steady state and transient techniques. The measured value for both thicknesses, about 100 ± 10 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1}, is lower than the bulk basal plane value (390 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1}) due to the imperfections in the specimen microstructure. Impressively, this value is still 100 times higher than conventional dielectrics. Considering scalability and ease of integration, hexagonal boron nitride grown over large area is an excellent candidate for thermal management in two dimensional materials-based nanoelectronics.

  6. Vertical graphene nanosheets synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition and the field emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xin; Qin, Shengchun; Bai, Shuai; Yue, Hongwei; Li, Yali; Chen, Qiang; Li, Junshuai; He, Deyan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we explored synthesis of vertical graphene nanosheets (VGNs) by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Through optimizing the experimental condition, growth of well aligned VGNs with uniform morphologies on nickel-coated stainless steel (SS) was realized for the first time by thermal CVD. In the meantime, influence of growth parameters on the VGN morphology was understood based on the balancing between the concentration and kinetic energy of carbon-containing radicals. Structural characterizations demonstrate that the achieved VGNs are normally composed of several graphene layers and less corrugated compared to the ones synthesized by other approaches, e.g. plasma enhanced (PE) CVD. The field emission measurement indicates that the VGNs exhibit relatively stable field emission and a field enhancement factor of about 1470, which is comparable to the values of VGNs prepared by PECVD can be achieved.

  7. Complete characterization by Raman spectroscopy of the structural properties of thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films exposed to rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Franck Wang, Na; Smith, Robert; Xiao, Qi-Fan; Dai, Qing; Marchon, Bruno; Inaba, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Toru; Saito, Yoko; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Mangolini, Filippo; Carpick, Robert W.

    2014-09-28

    We have demonstrated that multi-wavelength Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are sufficient to completely characterize the structural properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC:H) films subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA, 1 s up to 659 °C) and to resolve the structural differences between films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, facing target sputtering and filtered cathodic vacuum arc with minute variations in values of mass density, hydrogen content, and sp³ fraction. In order to distinguish unequivocally between films prepared with different density, thickness, and RTA treatment, a new method for analysis of Raman spectra was invented. This newly developed analysis method consisted of plotting the position of the Raman G band of carbon versus its full width at half maximum. Moreover, we studied the passivation of non-radiative recombination centers during RTA by performing measurements of the increase in photoluminescence in conjunction with the analysis of DLC:H networks simulated by molecular dynamics. The results show that dangling bond passivation is primarily a consequence of thermally-induced sp² clustering rather than hydrogen diffusion in the film.

  8. Methods for separation/purification utilizing rapidly cycled thermal swing sorption

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Monzyk, Bruce F.; Wang, Yong; VanderWiel, David P.; Perry, Steven T.; Fitzgerald, Sean P.; Simmons, Wayne W.; McDaniel, Jeffrey S.; Weller, Jr., Albert E.

    2004-11-09

    The present invention provides apparatus and methods for separating fluid components. In preferred embodiments, the apparatus and methods utilize microchannel devices with small distances for heat and mass transfer to achieve rapid cycle times and surprisingly large volumes of fluid components separated in short times using relatively compact hardware.

  9. Magnesium isotope fractionation in silicate melts by chemical and thermal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Frank M.; Watson, E. Bruce; Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Janney, Philip E.

    2008-01-01

    Two types of laboratory experiments were used to quantify magnesium isotopic fractionations associated with chemical and thermal (Soret) diffusion in silicate liquids. Chemical diffusion couples juxtaposing a molten natural basalt (SUNY MORB) and a molten natural rhyolite (Lake County Obsidian) were run in a piston cylinder apparatus and used to determine the isotopic fractionation of magnesium as it diffused from molten basalt to molten rhyolite. The thermal diffusion experiments were also run in a piston cylinder apparatus but with a sample made entirely of molten SUNY MORB displaced from the hotspot of the assembly furnace so that the sample would have a temperature difference of about 100-200 °C from one end to the other. The chemical diffusion experiments showed fractionations of 26Mg/ 24Mg by as much as 7‰, which resulted in an estimate for the mass dependence of the self-diffusion coefficients of the magnesium isotopes corresponding to D/D=(24/26)β with β = 0.05. The thermal diffusion experiments showed that a temperature difference of about 100 °C resulted in the MgO, CaO, and FeO components of the basalt becoming slightly enriched by about 1 wt% in the colder end while SiO 2 was enriched by several wt% in the hotter end. The temperature gradient also fractionated the magnesium isotopes. A temperature difference of about 150 °C produced an 8‰ enrichment of 26Mg/ 24Mg at the colder end relative to the hotter end. The magnesium isotopic fractionation as a function of temperature in molten basalt corresponds to 3.6 × 10 -2‰/°C/amu.

  10. P80 SRM low torque flex-seal development - thermal and chemical modeling of molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descamps, C.; Gautronneau, E.; Rousseau, G.; Daurat, M.

    2009-09-01

    The development of the flex-seal component of the P80 nozzle gave the opportunity to set up new design and manufacturing process methods. Due to the short development lead time required by VEGA program, the usual manufacturing iterative tests work flow, which is usually time consuming, had to be enhanced in order to use a more predictive approach. A newly refined rubber vulcanization description was built up and identified on laboratory samples. This chemical model was implemented in a thermal analysis code. The complete model successfully supports the manufacturing processes. These activities were conducted with the support of ESA/CNES Research & Technologies and DGA (General Delegation for Armament).

  11. Non-thermal Plasma Exposure Rapidly Attenuates Bacterial AHL-Dependent Quorum Sensing and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Padrig B; Busetti, Alessandro; Wielogorska, Ewa; Chevallier, Olivier P; Elliott, Christopher T; Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P; Graham, William G; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2016-05-31

    The antimicrobial activity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma has been exhaustively characterised, however elucidation of the interactions between biomolecules produced and utilised by bacteria and short plasma exposures are required for optimisation and clinical translation of cold plasma technology. This study characterizes the effects of non-thermal plasma exposure on acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum sensing (QS). Plasma exposure of AHLs reduced the ability of such molecules to elicit a QS response in bacterial reporter strains in a dose-dependent manner. Short exposures (30-60 s) produce of a series of secondary compounds capable of eliciting a QS response, followed by the complete loss of AHL-dependent signalling following longer exposures. UPLC-MS analysis confirmed the time-dependent degradation of AHL molecules and their conversion into a series of by-products. FT-IR analysis of plasma-exposed AHLs highlighted the appearance of an OH group. In vivo assessment of the exposure of AHLs to plasma was examined using a standard in vivo model. Lettuce leaves injected with the rhlI/lasI mutant PAO-MW1 alongside plasma treated N-butyryl-homoserine lactone and n-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-homoserine lactone, exhibited marked attenuation of virulence. This study highlights the capacity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma to modify and degrade AHL autoinducers thereby attenuating QS-dependent virulence in P. aeruginosa.

  12. Non-thermal Plasma Exposure Rapidly Attenuates Bacterial AHL-Dependent Quorum Sensing and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Padrig B.; Busetti, Alessandro; Wielogorska, Ewa; Chevallier, Olivier P.; Elliott, Christopher T.; Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Graham, William G.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma has been exhaustively characterised, however elucidation of the interactions between biomolecules produced and utilised by bacteria and short plasma exposures are required for optimisation and clinical translation of cold plasma technology. This study characterizes the effects of non-thermal plasma exposure on acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum sensing (QS). Plasma exposure of AHLs reduced the ability of such molecules to elicit a QS response in bacterial reporter strains in a dose-dependent manner. Short exposures (30–60 s) produce of a series of secondary compounds capable of eliciting a QS response, followed by the complete loss of AHL-dependent signalling following longer exposures. UPLC-MS analysis confirmed the time-dependent degradation of AHL molecules and their conversion into a series of by-products. FT-IR analysis of plasma-exposed AHLs highlighted the appearance of an OH group. In vivo assessment of the exposure of AHLs to plasma was examined using a standard in vivo model. Lettuce leaves injected with the rhlI/lasI mutant PAO-MW1 alongside plasma treated N-butyryl-homoserine lactone and n-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-homoserine lactone, exhibited marked attenuation of virulence. This study highlights the capacity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma to modify and degrade AHL autoinducers thereby attenuating QS-dependent virulence in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27242335

  13. Thermal stresses in chemically hardening elastic media with application to the molding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitsky, M.; Shaffer, B. W.

    1974-01-01

    A method has been formulated for the determination of thermal stresses in materials which harden in the presence of an exothermic chemical reaction. Hardening is described by the transformation of the material from an inviscid liquid-like state into an elastic solid, where intermediate states consist of a mixture of the two, in a ratio which is determined by the degree of chemical reaction. The method is illustrated in terms of an infinite slab cast between two rigid mold surfaces. It is found that the stress component normal to the slab surfaces vanishes in the residual state, so that removal of the slab from the mold leaves the remaining residual stress unchanged. On the other hand, the residual stress component parallel to the slab surfaces does not vanish. Its distribution is described as a function of the parameters of the hardening process.

  14. Conservation equations and physical models for hypersonic air flows in thermal and chemical nonequilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Gupta, Roop N.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1989-01-01

    The conservation equations for simulating hypersonic flows in thermal and chemical nonequilibrium and details of the associated physical models are presented. These details include the curve fits used for defining thermodynamic properties of the 11 species air model, curve fits for collision cross sections, expressions for transport properties, the chemical kinetics models, and the vibrational and electronic energy relaxation models. The expressions are formulated in the context of either a two or three temperature model. Greater emphasis is placed on the two temperature model in which it is assumed that the translational and rotational energy models are in equilibrium at the translational temperature, T, and the vibrational, electronic, and electron translational energy modes are in equilibrium at the vibrational temperature, T sub v. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors associated with the Jacobian of the flux vector are also presented in order to accommodate the upwind based numerical solutions of the complete equation set.

  15. Rapid Hydrogen Peroxide release from the coral Stylophora pistillata during feeding and in response to chemical and physical stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Armoza-Zvuloni, Rachel; Schneider, Avi; Sher, Daniel; Shaked, Yeala

    2016-01-01

    Corals make use of different chemical compounds during interactions with prey, predators and aggressors. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) is produced and released by a wide range of organisms as part of their defense against grazers or pathogens. In coral reefs, the large fluxes and relatively long half-life of H2O2, make it a potentially important info-chemical or defense molecule. Here we describe a previously unstudied phenomenon of rapid H2O2 release from the reef-building coral Stylophora pistillata during feeding on zooplankton and in response to chemical and physical stimuli. Following stimuli, both symbiotic and bleached corals were found to rapidly release H2O2 to the surrounding water for a short period of time (few minutes). The H2O2 release was restricted to the site of stimulus, and an increase in physical stress and chemical stimuli concentration resulted in elevated H2O2 release. Omission of calcium (a key regulator of exocytotic processes) from the experimental medium inhibited H2O2 release. Hence we suggest that H2O2 is actively released in response to stimuli, rather than leaking passively from the coral tissue. We estimate that at the site of stimulus H2O2 can reach concentrations potentially high enough to deter predators or motile, potentially pathogenic, bacteria. PMID:26875833

  16. A HYBRID THERMAL VIDEO AND FTTR SPECTROMETER FOR RAPIDLY LOCATING AND CHARACTERIZING GAS LEAKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Undiscovered gas leaks, known as fugitive emissions, in chemical plants and refinery operations can impact regional air quality as well as being a public health problem. Surveying a facility for potential gas leaks can be a daunting task. An efficient, accurate and cost-effecti...

  17. Rapid thermal anneal in InP, GaAs and GaAs/GaAlAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descouts, B.; Duhamel, N.; Godefroy, S.; Krauz, P.

    Ion implantation in semiconductors provides a doping technique with several advantages over more conventional doping methods and is now extensively used for device applications, e.g. field effect transistors (MESFET GaAs, MIS (InP), GaAs/GaAlAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT). Because of the lattice disorder produced by the implantation, the dopant must be made electrically active by a postimplant anneal. As the device performances are very dependent on its electrical characteristics, the anneal is a very important stage of the process. Rapid anneal is known to provide less exodiffusion and less induffusion of impurities compared to conventional furnace anneal, so this technique has been used in this work to activate an n-type dopant (Si) in InP and a p-type dopant (Mg) in GaAs and GaAs/GaAIAs. These two ions have been chosen to realize implanted MIS InP and the base contacts for GaAs/GaAlAs HBTs. The experimental conditions to obtain the maximum electrical activity in these two cases will be detailed. For example, although we have not been able to obtain a flat profile in Mg + implanted GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructure by conventional thermal anneal, rapid thermal anneal gives a flat hole profile over a depth of 0.5 μm with a concentration of 1 x 10 19 cm -3.

  18. Solar photo-thermal catalytic reactions to produce high value chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Prengle, Jr, H W; Wentworth, W E

    1992-04-01

    This report presents a summary of the research work accomplished to date on the utilization of solar photo-thermal energy to convert low cost chemical feedstocks into high $-value chemical products. The rationale is that the solar IR-VIS-UV spectrum is unique, supplying endothermic reaction energy as well as VIS-UV for photochemical activation. Chemical market analysis and product price distribution focused attention on speciality chemicals with prices >$1.00/lb, and a synthesis sequence of n-paraffins to aromatics to partial oxidized products. The experimental work has demonstrated that enhanced reaction effects result from VIS-UV irradiation of catalytically active V2O5/SiO2. Experiments of the past year have been on dehydrogenation and dehydrocyclization of n-paraffins to olefins and aromatics with preference for the latter. Recent results using n-hexane produced 95% conversion with 56% benzene; it is speculated that aromatic yield should reach {approximately}70% by further optimization. Pilot- and commercial-scale reactor configurations have been examined; the odds-on-favorite being a shallow fluid-bed of catalyst with incident radiation from the top. Sequencing for maximum cost effectiveness would be day-time endothermic followed by night-time exothermic reactions to produce the products.

  19. Stress Intensity Factors for Cracking Metal Structures under Rapid Thermal Loading. Volume 2. Theoretical Background

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    actual value, and that a coarse mesh comparable to the mesh used in this study 5-23 would yield K1 values which are in error by about 10%. To check...8217. Ar Figure~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 7-5 :iieEeit.-,e o etica no I a - c. ; cIý*s l.e u f c ___ I I _____57 -MENNE- z R Figure 7-16. Finite Element Mesh at the...the full capacity. The full rated capacity of the spot heater is 0.711 BTU/sec (750 W). Due to radiation losses, the actual thermal loading applied on

  20. Drying of Indian subcontinent by rapid Indian Ocean warming and a weakening land-sea thermal gradient.

    PubMed

    Roxy, Mathew Koll; Ritika, Kapoor; Terray, Pascal; Murtugudde, Raghu; Ashok, Karumuri; Goswami, B N

    2015-06-16

    There are large uncertainties looming over the status and fate of the South Asian summer monsoon, with several studies debating whether the monsoon is weakening or strengthening in a changing climate. Our analysis using multiple observed datasets demonstrates a significant weakening trend in summer rainfall during 1901-2012 over the central-east and northern regions of India, along the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basins and the Himalayan foothills, where agriculture is still largely rain-fed. Earlier studies have suggested an increase in moisture availability and land-sea thermal gradient in the tropics due to anthropogenic warming, favouring an increase in tropical rainfall. Here we show that the land-sea thermal gradient over South Asia has been decreasing, due to rapid warming in the Indian Ocean and a relatively subdued warming over the subcontinent. Using long-term observations and coupled model experiments, we provide compelling evidence that the enhanced Indian Ocean warming potentially weakens the land-sea thermal contrast, dampens the summer monsoon Hadley circulation, and thereby reduces the rainfall over parts of South Asia.

  1. Determination of metformin in mouse, rat, dog and human plasma samples by laser diode thermal desorption/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Swales, John G; Gallagher, Richard; Peter, Raimund M

    2010-11-02

    A simple, rapid and robust high-throughput assay for the quantitative analysis of metformin in plasma from different species using laser diode thermal desorption interfaced with atmospheric chemical pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-MSMS) was developed for use in a pharmaceutical discovery environment. In order to minimize sample preparation a generic protein precipitation method was used to extract metformin from the plasma. Laser diode thermal desorption is a relatively new sample introduction method, the optimization of the instrumental parameters are presented. The method was successfully applied to spiked mouse, rat, dog and human plasma samples and was subsequently used to determine the oral pharmacokinetics of metformin after dosing to male rats in order to support drug discovery projects. The deviations for intra-assay accuracy and precision across the four species were less than 30% at all calibration and quality control levels.

  2. Consolidated conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Taylor, Frank; Hicks, Kevin B

    2011-06-01

    A novel process using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic treatment for conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars was developed. The purpose of this process is to convert both lignocellulosic polysaccharides and starch in hulled barley grains into fermentable sugars simultaneously without a need for grinding and hull separation. In this study, hulled barley grains were treated with 0.1 and 1.0 wt.-% sulfuric acid at various temperatures ranging from 110 to 170 °C in a 63-ml flow-through packed-bed stainless steel reactor. After sulfuric acid pretreatment, simultaneous conversion of lignocellulose and starch in the barley grains into fermentable sugars was performed using an enzyme cocktail, which included α-amylase, glucoamylase, cellulase, and β-glucosidase. Both starch and non-starch polysaccharides in the pre-treated barley grains were readily converted to fermentable sugars. The treated hulled barley grains, including their hull, were completely hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars with recovery of almost 100% of the available glucose and xylose. The pretreatment conditions of this chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) process for achieving maximum yield of fermentable sugars were 1.0 wt.% sulfuric acid and 110 °C. In addition to starch, the acid pretreatment also retained most of the available proteins in solid form, which is essential for subsequent production of fuel ethanol and high protein distiller's dried grains with solubles co-product.

  3. Thermal and chemical approaches for oxygen catalytic recombination evaluation on ceramic materials at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balat, M.; Czerniak, M.; Badie, J. M.

    1997-12-01

    During the atmospheric entry phase, the physico-chemical phenomena taking place on space shuttle walls can lead to an important excess of heating and damage of the protective materials. The aim of this work is the study of the catalytic recombination of atomic oxygen under plasma conditions chosen to simulate the atmospheric reentry. To do that, we have developed an experimental set-up MESOX (Moyen d'Essai Solaire d'OXydation), which associates a solar radiation concentrator and a microwave generator to reach high temperature, low enthalpy flow and low pressure plasma with an air gas flow. The study of atomic oxygen recombination on silicon- or aluminum-based ceramic materials, at high temperature (1000-1800 K) has been done for different pressures (200-2000 Pa) by a thermal and a chemical understanding. The results give a catalycity scale of materials (thermal recombination flux, qrec, and coefficient of atomic oxygen recombination, γ). The catalycity activity is weak for the sintered SiC target with atomic oxygen recombination flux reaching 35 kW/m 2, however, for a target of sintered Al 2O 3, catalytic effect is obtained with energy fluxes between 90 to 180 kW/m 2. The recombination coefficient γ confirms the catalycity scale of these ceramic materials.

  4. A TRPA1 channel that senses thermal stimulus and irritating chemicals in Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Wei, J J; Fu, T; Yang, T; Liu, Y; Wang, G R

    2015-08-01

    Sensing and responding to changes in the external environment is important for insect survival. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are crucial for various sensory modalities including olfaction, vision, hearing, thermosensation and mechanosensation. Here, we identified and characterized a transient receptor potential gene named as HarmTRPA1 in Helicoverpa armigera antennae. HarmTRPA1 was abundantly expressed in the antennae and labial palps. Transcripts of HarmTRPA1 could also be detected in the head and proboscis. Furthermore, functional analyses of HarmTRPA1 were conducted in the Xenopus Oocyte system. The results showed that the HarmTRPA1 channel could be activated by increasing the temperature from 20 to 45 °C. No significant adaptation was observed when the stimulus was repeated. In addition to thermal stimuli, pungent natural compounds including allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde and citronellal also activated HarmTRPA1. Taken together, we infer that HarmTRPA1 may function as both a thermal sensor involved in peripheral temperature detection and as a chemical sensor detecting irritating chemicals in vivo. Our data provide valuable insight into the TRPA1 channel in this moth and lay the foundation for developing novel strategies for pest control.

  5. Silver-mediated base pairings: towards dynamic DNA nanostructures with enhanced chemical and thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swasey, Steven M.; Gwinn, Elisabeth G.

    2016-04-01

    The thermal and chemical fragility of DNA nanomaterials assembled by Watson-Crick (WC) pairing constrain the settings in which these materials can be used and how they can be functionalized. Here we investigate use of the silver cation, Ag+, as an agent for more robust, metal-mediated self-assembly, focusing on the simplest duplex building blocks that would be required for more elaborate Ag+-DNA nanostructures. Our studies of Ag+-induced assembly of non-complementary DNA oligomers employ strands of 2-24 bases, with varied base compositions, and use electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to determine product compositions. High yields of duplex products containing narrowly distributed numbers of Ag+ can be achieved by optimizing solution conditions. These Ag+-mediated duplexes are stable to at least 60 mM Mg2+, higher than is necessary for WC nanotechnology schemes such as tile assemblies and DNA origami, indicating that sequential stages of Ag+-mediated and WC-mediated assembly may be feasible. Circular dichroism spectroscopy suggests simple helical structures for Ag+-mediated duplexes with lengths to at least 20 base pairs, and further indicates that the structure of cytosine-rich duplexes is preserved at high urea concentrations. We therefore propose an approach towards dynamic DNA nanomaterials with enhanced thermal and chemical stability through designs that combine sturdy silver-mediated ‘frames’ with WC paired ‘pictures’.

  6. Fabricating vertically aligned sub-20 nm Si nanowire arrays by chemical etching and thermal oxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Luping; Fang, Yin; Xu, Cheng; Zhao, Yang; Zang, Nanzhi; Jiang, Peng; Ziegler, Kirk J

    2016-04-22

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are appealing building blocks in various applications, including photovoltaics, photonics, and sensors. Fabricating SiNW arrays with diameters <100 nm remains challenging through conventional top-down approaches. In this work, chemical etching and thermal oxidation are combined to fabricate vertically aligned, sub-20 nm SiNW arrays. Defect-free SiNWs with diameters between 95 and 200 nm are first fabricated by nanosphere (NS) lithography and chemical etching. The key aspects for defect-free SiNW fabrication are identified as: (1) achieving a high etching selectivity during NS size reduction; (2) retaining the circular NS shape with smooth sidewalls; and (3) using a directional metal deposition technique. SiNWs with identical spacing but variable diameters are demonstrated by changing the reactive ion etching power. The diameter of the SiNWs is reduced by thermal oxidation, where self-limiting oxidation is encountered after oxidizing the SiNWs at 950 °C for 1 h. A second oxidation is performed to achieve vertically aligned, sub-20 nm SiNW arrays. Si/SiO2 core/shell NWs are obtained before removing the oxidized shell. HRTEM imaging shows that the SiNWs have excellent crystallinity.

  7. Multidimensional fully-coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical response of reactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.

    1995-11-01

    A summary of multidimensional modeling is presented which describes coupled thermals chemical and mechanical response of reactive and nonreactive materials. This modeling addresses cookoff of energetic material (EM) prior to the onset of ignition. Cookoff, lasting from seconds to days, sensitizes the EM whereupon combustion of confined, degraded material determines the level of violence. Such processes are dynamic, occurring over time scales of millisecond to microsecond, and thus more amenable for shock physics analysis. This work provides preignition state estimates such as the amount of decomposition, morphological changes, and quasistatic stress states for subsequent dynamic analysis. To demonstrate a fully-coupled thermal/chemical/quasistatic mechanical capability, several example simulations have been performed: (1) the one-dimensional time-to-explosion experiments, (2) the Naval Air Weapon Center`s (NAWC) small scale cookoff bomb, (3) a small hot cell experiment and (4) a rigid, highly porous, closed-cell polyurethane foam. Predictions compared adequately to available data. Deficiencies in the model and future directions are discussed.

  8. Changes in the color, chemical stability and antioxidant capacity of thermally treated anthocyanin aqueous solution over storage.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xiaonan; Bary, Solène; Zhou, Weibiao

    2016-02-01

    Many anthocyanin-containing foods are thermally processed to ensure their safety, and stored for some time before being consumed. However, the combination of thermal processing and subsequent storage has a significant impact on anthocyanins. This study aimed to investigate the color, chemical stability, and antioxidant capacity of thermally treated anthocyanin aqueous solutions during storage at 4, 25, 45, and 65 °C, respectively. Anthocyanin aqueous solutions were thermally treated before storage. Results showed that the degradation rate of anthocyanins in aqueous solutions was much faster than those in real food. The color of the anthocyanin aqueous solutions changed dramatically during storage. The anthocyanin aqueous solutions stored at 4 °C showed the best chemical stability. Interestingly, the antioxidant capacity of the anthocyanin aqueous solutions stored at lower temperatures remained the same; however, the antioxidant capacity of those thermally treated at 120 or 140 °C and stored at 45 or 65 °C significantly decreased.

  9. A thermal and chemical degradation approach to decipher pristane and phytane precursors in sedimentary organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopmans, M.P.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Klapwijk, M.M.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    1999-01-01

    A thermal and chemical degradation approach was followed to determine the precursors of pristane (Pr) and phytane (Ph) in samples from the Gessoso-solfifera, Ghareb and Green River Formations. Hydrous pyrolysis of these samples yields large amounts of Pr and Ph carbon skeletons, indicating that their precursors are predominantly sequestered in high-molecular-weight fractions. However, chemical degradation of the polar fraction and the kerogen of the unheated samples generally does not release large amounts of Pr and Ph. Additional information on the precursors of Pr and Ph is obtained from flash pyrolysis analyses of kerogens and residues after hydrous pyrolysis and after chemical degradation. Multiple precursors for Pr and Ph are recognised in these three samples. The main increase of the Pr/Ph ratio with increasing maturation temperature, which is associated with strongly increasing amounts of Pr and Ph, is probably due to the higher amount of precursors of Pr compared to Ph, and not to the different timing of generation of Pr and Ph.A thermal and chemical degradation approach was followed to determine the precursors of pristane (Pr) and phytane (Ph) in samples from the Gessoso-solfifera, Ghareb and Green River Formations. Hydrous pyrolysis of these samples yields large amounts of Pr and Ph carbon skeletons, indicating that their precursors are predominantly sequestered in high-molecular-weight fractions. However, chemical degradation of the polar fraction and the kerogen of the unheated samples generally does not release large amounts of Pr and Ph. Additional information on the precursors of Pr and Ph is obtained from flash pyrolysis analyses of kerogens and residues after hydrous pyrolysis and after chemical degradation. Multiple precursors for Pr and Ph are recognised in these three samples. The main increase of the Pr/Ph ratio with increasing maturation temperature, which is associated with strongly increasing amounts of Pr and Ph, is probably due to the

  10. Methane from partially digested sewage sludge using a steam-injection rapid thermal reactor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leuschner, A.P.; Laquidara, M.J.

    1988-09-01

    Each day, a fleet of barges hauls 300,000 cubic feet of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment facilities in New York City, to an ocean dumping site 106 miles offshore. On January 1, 1992, this ocean dumping site will be officially closed by federal mandate, forcing the city to find alternative disposal methods for its sewage sludge. Researchers at Dynatech and the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College have explored an innovative method for enhancing the anaerobic digestion sludge treatment system. Results from an extensive series of laboratory tests indicate that using a thermal reactor, an additional 70% of the organic material in the sludge can be converted to biogas by anaerobic digestion. More importantly, 85% of the total organic material is removed from the sludge. The remaining sludge was dewatered and found to be two to four times drier than normally dewatered sludge. Applying these results to NYC, the volume of sludge requiring disposal might be reduced from 300,000 cubic feet per day to about 13,000 cubic feet per day through a three-step process employing thermal reactors, anaerobic digestion and dewatering.

  11. In-Plane Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Chemical Vapor Deposition Graphene with Controlled Grain Sizes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woomin; Kihm, Kenneth David; Kim, Hong Goo; Shin, Seungha; Lee, Changhyuk; Park, Jae Sung; Cheon, Sosan; Kwon, Oh Myoung; Lim, Gyumin; Lee, Woorim

    2017-03-06

    Manipulation of the chemical vapor deposition graphene synthesis conditions, such as operating P, T, heating/cooling time intervals, and precursor gas concentration ratios (CH4/H2), allowed for synthesis of polycrystalline single-layered graphene with controlled grain sizes. The graphene samples were then suspended on 8 μm diameter patterned holes on a silicon-nitride (Si3N4) substrate, and the in-plane thermal conductivities k(T) for 320 K < T < 510 K were measured to be 2660-1230, 1890-1020, and 680-340 W/m·K for average grain sizes of 4.1, 2.2, and 0.5 μm, respectively, using an opto-thermal Raman technique. Fitting of these data by a simple linear chain model of polycrystalline thermal transport determined k = 5500-1980 W/m·K for single-crystal graphene for the same temperature range above; thus, significant reduction of k was achieved when the grain size was decreased from infinite down to 0.5 μm. Furthermore, detailed elaborations were performed to assess the measurement reliability of k by addressing the hole-edge boundary condition, and the air-convection/radiation losses from the graphene surface.

  12. Kinetic and chemical characterization of thermal decomposition of dicumylperoxide in cumene.

    PubMed

    Di Somma, Ilaria; Marotta, Raffaele; Andreozzi, Roberto; Caprio, Vincenzo

    2011-03-15

    Dicumylperoxide (DCP) is one of the most used peroxides in the polymer industry. It has been reported that its thermal decomposition can result in runaway phenomena and thermal explosions with significant economic losses and injuries to people. In the present paper thermal behaviour of dicumylperoxide in cumene was investigated over the temperature range of 393-433 K under aerated and de-aerated conditions. The results indicated that when oxygen was present, the decomposition rate did not follow a simple pseudo-first order kinetic as previously reported in literature. A satisfactory fit of the experimental data was, in this case, achieved by means of kinetic expression derived under the assumption of an autocatalytic scheme of reaction. The reaction rate was, on the contrary, correctly described by a pseudo-first order kinetic in absence of oxygen. Under both aerated and de-aerated conditions, chemical analysis showed that the decomposition mainly resulted in the formation of acetophenone and dimethylphenylcarbinol with minor occurrence of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diphenylbutane. The formation of methane and ethane was also invariably observed while the appearance of cumylhydroperoxide as a reaction intermediate was detected under only aerated conditions. Therefore, two reaction schemes were proposed to explain system behaviour in the presence of oxygen and after its purging.

  13. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal springs and mineral springs of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Water from thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute NaHC03, to moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl waters. St. Martin 's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline NaCl water, is the notable exception. Mineral springs generally discharge a moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl water. The dilute Na-HC03 waters are generally associated with granite. The warm to hot waters charged with C02 issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes and many of the mineral springs also occur near the large volcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen isotopic compositions which indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The C02-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. Carbon-13 in the C02-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 permil) than in the cold C02-charged soda springs (-2 to -8 permil) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold C02-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaC03, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaC03. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur , and Ohanapecosh seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100C. (USGS)

  14. Synthesis Gas Production by Rapid Solar Thermal Gasification of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C. M.; Woodruff, B.; Andrews, L.; Lichty, P.; Lancaster, B.; Weimer, A. W.; Bingham, C.

    2008-03-01

    Biomass resources hold great promise as renewable fuel sources for the future, and there exists great interest in thermochemical methods of converting these resources into useful fuels. The novel approach taken by the authors uses concentrated solar energy to efficiently achieve temperatures where conversion and selectivity of gasification are high. Use of solar energy removes the need for a combustion fuel and upgrades the heating value of the biomass products. The syngas product of the gasification can be transformed into a variety of fuels useable with today?s infrastructure. Gasification in an aerosol reactor allows for rapid kinetics, allowing efficient utilization of the incident solar radiation and high solar efficiency.

  15. Influence of sprite streamers in the mesospheric chemical and thermal balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Rojas, Francisco C.; Luque, Alejandro; Gordillo-Vázquez, Francisco J.

    2015-04-01

    We present new results to contribute to the fundamental understanding of the chemistry of non-equilibrium plasmas produced by nighttime sprite streamers in the mesosphere and their influence on the chemical composition and thermal evolution of the upper atmosphere. This contribution describes the kinetic model used and the time evolution of the concentration of many important species for the sprite and its afterglow through an upgrade of previous TLE kinetic models [1], [2]. A one-dimensional self-consistent model has been developed to study the chemical and thermal effects of a single sprite streamer in the Earth mesosphere. We have used sprite streamer profiles with three different driving current durations (5 ms, 50 ms and 100 ms) between 50 and 80 km of altitude and considering a kinetic scheme of air with 20 chemical species. Our model predicts strong increases in practically all the concentrations of the species studied at the moment of the streamer head passage. Moreover, their densities remain high during the streamer afterglow phase. The electron concentration can reach values of up to 108 cm-3 in the three cases analyzed. The model also predicts an important enhancement, of several orders of magnitude above ambient values, of nitrogen oxides (NOx and N2O) and the considered metastables species (N2(A), O2(a), O2(b)). Metastables are capable of storing energy for relatively long time (hundreds of seconds). On the other hand, we found that the 4.26 μm IR emission brightness of CO2 can exceed in 4 orders of magnitude the threshold of visibility (1 MR) at low altitudes (< 65 km) for the cases of intermediate (50 ms) and long (100 ms) driving currents. These results suggest the possibility of detecting sprite IR emissions from space with the appropriate instrumentation. Moreover, according to our model, the Meinel emission brightness of N2+ could also reach the threshold of visibility below 50 km. Finally, we found that the thermal impact of sprites in the

  16. [Rapid detection of four antipertensive chemicals adulterated in traditional Chinese medicine for hypertension using TLC-SERS].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qing-Xia; Cao, Yong-Bing; Cao, Ying-Ying; Lu, Feng

    2014-04-01

    A novel facile method for on-site detection of antipertensive chemicals (e. g. nicardipine hydrochloride, doxazosin mesylate, propranolol hydrochloride, and hydrochlorothiazide) adulterated in traditional Chinese medicine for hypertension using thin layer chromatography (TLC) combined with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was reported in the present paper. Analytes and pharmaceutical matrices was separated by TLC, then SERS method was used to complete qualitative identification of trace substances on TLC plate. By optimizing colloidal silver concentration and developing solvent, as well as exploring the optimal limits of detection (LOD), the initially established TLC-SERS method was used to detect real hypertension Chinese pharmaceuticals. The results showed that this method had good specificity for the four chemicals and high sensitivity with a limit of detection as lower as to 0.005 microg. Finally, two of the ten antipertensive drugs were detected to be adulterated with chemicals. This simple and fast method can realize rapid detection of chemicals illegally for doping in antipertensive Chinese pharmaceuticals, and would have good prospects in on-site detection of chemicals for doping in Chinese pharmaceuticals.

  17. Thermal decomposition studies of energetic materials using confined rapid thermolysis/FTIR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.S.; Lee, H.S.; Mallery, C.F.; Thynell, S.T.

    1997-07-01

    An experimental setup for performing rapid thermolysis studies of small samples of energetic materials is described. In this setup, about 8 {micro}L of a liquid sample or about 2 mg of a solid sample is heated at rates exceeding 1,500 K/s to a set temperature where decomposition occurs. The rapid heating is achieved as a result of confining the sample between two closely spaced isothermal surfaces. The gaseous decomposition products depart from the confined space through a rectangular slit into the region of detection. The evolved gases are quantified using FTIR absorption spectroscopy by accounting for the instrument line shape. To illustrate the use of this setup, the thermolysis behaviors of three different energetic materials are examined. These materials include HMX, RDX, and HAN, all of which are considered as highly energetic propellant ingredients. The results obtained in this study of the temporal evolution of species concentrations from these ingredients are in reasonably close agreement with results available in the literature.

  18. Thermal ecology on an exposed algal reef: infrared imagery a rapid tool to survey temperature at local spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, T. E.; Smith, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    We tested the feasibility of infra-red (IR) thermography as a tool to survey in situ temperatures in intertidal habitats. We employed this method to describe aspects of thermal ecology for an exposed algal reef in the tropics (O`ahu, Hawai`i). In addition, we compared temperatures of the surrounding habitat as determined by IR thermography and traditional waterproof loggers. Images of reef organisms (6 macroalgae, 9 molluscs, 1 anthozoan, and 2 echinoderms), loggers, and landscapes were taken during two diurnal low tides. Analysis of IR thermographs revealed remarkable thermal complexity on a narrow tropical shore, as habitats ranged from 18.1 to 38.3°C and surfaces of organisms that ranged from 21.1 to 33.2°C. The near 20°C difference between abiotic habitats and the mosaic of temperatures experienced by reef organisms across the shore are similar to findings from temperate studies using specialized longterm loggers. Further, IR thermography captured rapid temperature fluctuations that were related to tidal height and cross-correlated to wave action. Finally, we gathered evidence that tidal species were associated with particular temperature ranges and that two species possess morphological characteristics that limit thermal stress. Loggers provided similar results as thermography but lack the ability to resolve variation in fine-scale spatial and temporal patterns. Our results support the utility of IR thermography in exploring thermal ecology, and demonstrate the steps needed to calibrate data leading to establishment of baseline conditions in a changing and heterogeneous environment.

  19. Direct numerical simulations of a rapidly expanding thermal plume: structure and entrainment interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plourde, Fr?D.?Ric; Pham, Minh Vuong; Kim, Son Doan; Balachandar, S.

    We examine the development of a thermal plume originating from a localized heat source using direct numerical simulation. The Reynolds number of the plume, based on source diameter and the characteristic buoyancy velocity, is chosen to be 7700, which is sufficiently large so that the flow turns to a fully turbulent state. A highly resolved grid of 622 million points is used to capture the entire range of turbulent scales in the plume. Here at the source, only heat has been added with no mass or momentum addition and accordingly the vertical evolution of the mass, momentum and buoyancy fluxes computed from the simulation have been verified to follow those of a pure thermal plume. The computed vertical evolution of the time-averaged centreline velocity and temperature are in good agreement with available experimental measurements. Investigation of the time evolution of the plume shows periodic formation of vortex ring structure surrounding the main ascending column of hot fluid. The vortex ring forms very close to the heat source and even at formation it is three-dimensional. The vortex ring ascends with the plume and at an elevation of about two diameters it strongly interacts with and destabilizes the central column and subsequently a complex turbulent flow arises. Thus, relatively laminar, transitional and fully turbulent regimes of the plume evolution can be identified. In the fully turbulent regime, complex three-dimensional hairpin-like vortex structures are observed; but vestiges of the coherent vortex rolls that form close to the source can be observed in the turbulent statistics. It is shown that local entrainment consists of contraction and expulsion phases. Such instantaneous mechanisms drive the entrainment process, and the instantaneous entrainment coefficient shows large variation in both time and space with local values up to three times higher than the average entrainment level. Such findings support the view that entrainment mechanisms in plumes

  20. An endoscopic method for thermal and chemical stimulation of the human oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Olesen, S S; Olesen, A E; Gravesen, F; Poulsen, J L; Funch-Jensen, P; Gregersen, H; Drewes, A M

    2009-12-01

    Previous methods for visceral thermal stimulation have lacked control of the temperature rate and visual inspection of the organ. The aims of this study was to develop a method for linear control of heat stimulation in the human oesophagus combined with endoscopy, to assess the reproducibility of this method and to investigate sensitivity to thermal stimulation of the distal oesophagus before and after acid perfusion. A probe with a 2.8 mm endoscope inside was constructed permitting heat and chemical stimulation. Three different temperature ramps were applied in the distal oesophagus in 12 healthy subjects by recirculation of heated water in a bag. Endoscopy of the oesophageal mucosa was performed prior to experimental stimulation. The temperature, the time of stimulation and the area under the temperature curve (AUC) were measured at the pain detection threshold. Thermal stimulation was repeated after perfusion of the oesophagus with acid. The method was tested on two subsequent days to assess reproducibility. All subjects had a normal endoscopic examination. Day-to-day reproducibility was good for the three temperature ramps (intra-class correlations >0.6). The subjects tolerated less heat stimulation, a decrease in AUC (P = 0.0003), a decrease in time to pain detection threshold (P = 0.005) and decreased temperature at pain detection threshold (P = 0.0001) after acid perfusion. The slow ramp was the most sensitive, showing a decrease in AUC of 29%. The present method was easily implemented and showed good reproducibility. It can potentially be used in basic experiments, drug and clinical studies as it provides a controllable thermal stimulus.

  1. High-throughput Raman chemical imaging for rapid evaluation of food safety and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-throughput macro-scale Raman chemical imaging was realized on a newly developed line-scan hyperspectral system. The system utilizes a custom-designed 785 nm line laser with maximum power of 5 W as an excitation source. A 24 cm × 1 mm excitation line is normally projected on the sample surface u...

  2. SCREENING FOR TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES WITH RAPID TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling device interfaced with two toxicity-based assays is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  3. MICROWAVE-INDUCED RAPID CHEMICAL FUNCTIONALIZATION OF SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES (R830901)

    EPA Science Inventory


    Abstract

    The microwave-induced chemical functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is reported. The major advantage of this high-energy procedure is that it reduced the reaction time to the order of minutes and the number of steps in the reac...

  4. Direct chemical oxidation: a non-thermal technology for the destruction of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Balazs, G.B.; Cooper, J. F.; Lewis, P. R.; Adamson, M. G.

    1998-02-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment and chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992, and is applicable to the destruction of virtually all solid or liquid organics, including: chlorosolvents, oils and greases, detergents, organic-contaminated soils or sludges, explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and PCB's. [1-15] The process normally operates at 80-100 C, a heating requirement which increases the difficulty of surface decontamination of large objects or, for example, treatment of a wide area contaminated soil site. The driver for DCO work in FY98 was thus to investigate the use of catalysts to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technology for organics destruction at temperatures closer to ambient. In addition, DCO is at a sufficiently mature stage of development that technology transfer to a commercial entity was a logical next step, and was thus included in FY98 tasks.

  5. Development of Chemically and Thermally Robust Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Chalcogenide Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Steve W.; Hagedorn, Norman (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this project, a new research thrust into the development of an entirely new class of FIC glasses has begun that may lead to a new set of optimized thin-film lithium ion conducting materials. New chemically robust FIC glasses are being prepared that are expected to exhibit unusually high chemical and electrochemical stability. New thermally robust FIC glasses are being prepared that exhibit softening points in excess of 500 C which will dramatically expand the usable operating temperature range of batteries, fuel-cells, and sensors using such electrolytes. Glasses are being explored in the general compositional series xLi2S+ yGa2S3 + (1-x-y)GeS2. Li2S is added as the source of the conductive lithium ions. GeS2 is the base glass-forming phase and the trivalent sulfides, Ga2S3, is added to increase the "refractoniness" of the glass, that is to significantly increase the softening point of the glass as well as its chemical stability. By optimizing the composition of the glass, new glasses and glass-ceramic FIC materials have been prepared with softening points in excess of 500 C and conductivities above 10(exp -3)/Ohm cm at room temperature. These latter attributes are currently not available in any FIC glasses to date.

  6. GoAmazon 2014/15 Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, JN

    2016-04-01

    The Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) deployment to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, was motivated by two main scientific objectives of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 field campaign. 1) Study the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions by determining important molecular species in ambient nanoparticles. To address this, TDCIMS data will be combined with coincident measurements such as gas-phase sulfuric acid to determine the contribution of sulfuric acid condensation to nucleation and growth. We can then compare that result to TDCIMS-derived nanoparticle composition to determine the fraction of growth that can be attributed to the uptake of organic compounds. The molecular composition of sampled particles will also be used to attribute specific chemical species and mechanisms to growth, such as the condensation of low-volatility species or the oligomerization of α-dicarbonyl compounds. 2) Determine the source of new ambient nanoparticles in the Amazon. The hypothesis prior to measurements was that potassium salts formed from the evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores can provide a unique and important pathway for new particle production in the Amazon basin. To explore this hypothesis, the TDCIMS recorded the mass spectra of sampled ambient particles using a protonated water cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Laboratory tests performed using potassium salts show that the TDCIMS can detect potassium with high sensitivity with this technique.

  7. Formation of thermal flow fields and chemical transport in air and water by atmospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Tetsuji; Iwafuchi, Yutaka; Morfill, Gregor E.; Sato, Takehiko

    2011-05-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma is a potential tool for medical purposes, e.g. disinfection/sterilization. In order for it to be effective and functional, it is crucial to understand the transport mechanism of chemically reactive species in air as well as in liquid. An atmospheric plasma discharge was produced between a platinum pin electrode and the surface of water. The thermal flow field of a cold atmospheric plasma as well as its chemical components was measured. A gas flow with a velocity of around 15 m s-1 to the water's surface was shown to be induced by the discharge. This air flow induced a circulating flow in the water from the discharge point at the water's surface because of friction. It was also demonstrated that the chemical components generated in air dissolved in water and the properties of the water changed. The reactive species were believed to be distributed mainly by convective transport in water, because the variation in the pH profile indicated by a methyl red solution resembled the induced flow pattern.

  8. Rapid Detection of Biological and Chemical Threat Agents Using Physical Chemistry, Active Detection, and Computational Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Myung; Dong, Li; Fu, Rong; Liotta, Lance; Narayanan, Aarthi; Petricoin, Emanuel; Ross, Mark; Russo, Paul; Zhou, Weidong; Luchini, Alessandra; Manes, Nathan; Chertow, Jessica; Han, Suhua; Kidd, Jessica; Senina, Svetlana; Groves, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Basic technologies have been successfully developed within this project: rapid collection of aerosols and a rapid ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique. Water-soluble, humidity-resistant polyacrylamide nano-filters were shown to (1) capture aerosol particles as small as 20 nm, (2) work in humid air and (3) completely liberate their captured particles in an aqueous solution compatible with the immunoassay technique. The immunoassay technology developed within this project combines electrophoretic capture with magnetic bead detection. It allows detection of as few as 150-600 analyte molecules or viruses in only three minutes, something no other known method can duplicate. The technology can be used in a variety of applications where speed of analysis and/or extremely low detection limits are of great importance: in rapid analysis of donor blood for hepatitis, HIV and other blood-borne infections in emergency blood transfusions, in trace analysis of pollutants, or in search of biomarkers in biological fluids. Combined in a single device, the water-soluble filter and ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique may solve the problem of early warning type detection of aerosolized pathogens. These two technologies are protected with five patent applications and are ready for commercialization.

  9. Rapid and Localized Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Flat Surface by Laser-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Keigo; Nagato, Keisuke; Jin, Yusuke; Morii, Hiroshi; Ooi, Takeshi; Nakao, Masayuki

    2007-04-01

    The synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) at a controlled position on a flat surface was demonstrated by laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The developed multilayer substrate including an energy-confining layer (ECL) enabled the efficient heating of catalysts on the surface, resulting in the rapid and localized syntheses of SWNTs. Using a Nd:YAG laser as a heat source, we achieved the rapid synthesis with laser irradiation for 1 s and the localized synthesis in an area of approximately 1 μm diameter. In addition, the scanning of the laser irradiation spot at a rate of 1 μm/s enabled the line-patterned synthesis of SWNTs at a linewidth of 2 μm. The resulting synthesis of SWNTs on a flat surface by laser-assisted CVD will lead to the easy and controllable fabrication of SWNT-based nanodevices.

  10. Characterization and Modeling of a Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological Experimental Facility at DUSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenthal, E. L.; Elsworth, D.; Lowell, R. P.; Maher, K.; Mailloux, B. J.; Uzunlar, N.; Conrad, M. E.; Jones, T. L.; Olsen, N. J.

    2010-12-01

    A design is being formulated for a large-scale subsurface experimental facility at the 4850 foot level of the Homestake Mine in South Dakota. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological (THMCB) processes in fractured rock under stress and would be part of the proposed Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Key questions we propose to answer are: 1) What are the effective reaction rates for mineral-fluid interaction in fractured rock under stress?; 2) How does mineral and fluid chemistry affect fracture mechanical behavior and permeability changes under stress at elevated temperatures?; and 3) How do microbial communities evolve in fractured rock under a thermal gradient and under changing stress conditions? In addition to the experiment as an in-situ laboratory for studying crustal processes, it has significant benefits for evaluating stimulation and production in Enhanced Geothermal Systems. Design and planning of the experiment included characterization of the geological, chemical, and isotopic characteristics of the rock and seeping fluids, thermal-hydrological and reactive transport modeling. During a reconnaissance study, strong heterogeneity in fracture fluxes and permeability were observed at the block site with some open boreholes continuously flowing at up to 1 liter/minute, and locally elevated fluid temperatures. A two-dimensional thermal-hydrological model was developed to evaluate fluid fluxes and temperatures as a function of heat input and borehole heater configuration. The dual permeability model considers fluid flow and heat transfer between an array of fractures and rock matrix, both having permeability anisotropy. A horizontal rock matrix permeability of 10-18 m2 was based on recent lab measurements, with a vertical matrix permeability estimated to be one order-of-magnitude higher to account for the strong nearly vertical foliation in the Homestake and Poorman

  11. Thermal model development and validation for rapid filling of high pressure hydrogen tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Terry A.; Bozinoski, Radoslav; Ye, Jianjun; Sartor, George; Zheng, Jinyang; Yang, Jian

    2015-06-30

    This paper describes the development of thermal models for the filling of high pressure hydrogen tanks with experimental validation. Two models are presented; the first uses a one-dimensional, transient, network flow analysis code developed at Sandia National Labs, and the second uses the commercially available CFD analysis tool Fluent. These models were developed to help assess the safety of Type IV high pressure hydrogen tanks during the filling process. The primary concern for these tanks is due to the increased susceptibility to fatigue failure of the liner caused by the fill process. Thus, a thorough understanding of temperature changes of the hydrogen gas and the heat transfer to the tank walls is essential. The effects of initial pressure, filling time, and fill procedure were investigated to quantify the temperature change and verify the accuracy of the models. In this paper we show that the predictions of mass averaged gas temperature for the one and three-dimensional models compare well with the experiment and both can be used to make predictions for final mass delivery. Furthermore, due to buoyancy and other three-dimensional effects, however, the maximum wall temperature cannot be predicted using one-dimensional tools alone which means that a three-dimensional analysis is required for a safety assessment of the system.

  12. Evidence for a rapid release of carbon at the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum.

    PubMed

    Wright, James D; Schaller, Morgan F

    2013-10-01

    The Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and associated carbon isotope excursion (CIE) are often touted as the best geologic analog for the current anthropogenic rise in pCO2. However, a causal mechanism for the PETM CIE remains unidentified because of large uncertainties in the duration of the CIE's onset. Here, we report on a sequence of rhythmic sedimentary couplets comprising the Paleocene/Eocene Marlboro Clay (Salisbury Embayment). These couplets have corresponding δ(18)O cycles that imply a climatic origin. Seasonal insolation is the only regular climate cycle that can plausibly account for δ(18)O amplitudes and layer counts. High-resolution stable isotope records show 3.5‰ δ(13)C decrease over 13 couplets defining the CIE onset, which requires a large, instantaneous release of (13)C-depleted carbon. During the CIE, a clear δ(13)C gradient developed on the shelf with the largest excursions in shallowest waters, indicating atmospheric δ(13)C decreased by ~20‰. Our observations and revised release rate are consistent with an atmospheric perturbation of 3,000-gigatons of carbon (GtC).

  13. Thermal model development and validation for rapid filling of high pressure hydrogen tanks

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Terry A.; Bozinoski, Radoslav; Ye, Jianjun; ...

    2015-06-30

    This paper describes the development of thermal models for the filling of high pressure hydrogen tanks with experimental validation. Two models are presented; the first uses a one-dimensional, transient, network flow analysis code developed at Sandia National Labs, and the second uses the commercially available CFD analysis tool Fluent. These models were developed to help assess the safety of Type IV high pressure hydrogen tanks during the filling process. The primary concern for these tanks is due to the increased susceptibility to fatigue failure of the liner caused by the fill process. Thus, a thorough understanding of temperature changes ofmore » the hydrogen gas and the heat transfer to the tank walls is essential. The effects of initial pressure, filling time, and fill procedure were investigated to quantify the temperature change and verify the accuracy of the models. In this paper we show that the predictions of mass averaged gas temperature for the one and three-dimensional models compare well with the experiment and both can be used to make predictions for final mass delivery. Furthermore, due to buoyancy and other three-dimensional effects, however, the maximum wall temperature cannot be predicted using one-dimensional tools alone which means that a three-dimensional analysis is required for a safety assessment of the system.« less

  14. Evidence for a rapid release of carbon at the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    PubMed Central

    Wright, James D.; Schaller, Morgan F.

    2013-01-01

    The Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and associated carbon isotope excursion (CIE) are often touted as the best geologic analog for the current anthropogenic rise in pCO2. However, a causal mechanism for the PETM CIE remains unidentified because of large uncertainties in the duration of the CIE’s onset. Here, we report on a sequence of rhythmic sedimentary couplets comprising the Paleocene/Eocene Marlboro Clay (Salisbury Embayment). These couplets have corresponding δ18O cycles that imply a climatic origin. Seasonal insolation is the only regular climate cycle that can plausibly account for δ18O amplitudes and layer counts. High-resolution stable isotope records show 3.5‰ δ13C decrease over 13 couplets defining the CIE onset, which requires a large, instantaneous release of 13C-depleted carbon. During the CIE, a clear δ13C gradient developed on the shelf with the largest excursions in shallowest waters, indicating atmospheric δ13C decreased by ∼20‰. Our observations and revised release rate are consistent with an atmospheric perturbation of 3,000-gigatons of carbon (GtC). PMID:24043840

  15. Rapid Calculation of Thermal Forces in Coarse Grained Simulation of Colloidal Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, James; Fiore, Andrew; Donev, Aleksander; Balboa, Florencio

    2016-11-01

    In the presented work, we will demonstrate a spectrally accurate method for calculation of thermal forces in implicit solvent simulations of soft materials such as colloidal dispersions. For implicit solvent models, the stochastic forces must be drawn from a normal distribution whose covariance is a complicated function of the particle configuration. For a system of interacting N particles, drawing a single sample requires O (N3) operations, if numerically exact techniques from linear algebra are employed. So-called "fast" methods can approximate the sampling with roughly O (Nm logN) computational complexity, where m is a coefficient greater than one which depends on the configuration of the particles. The computational complexity of the presented approach is O (N(logN) d / (d + 3)) , where d is the fractal dimension of the particulate structures being modeled. Remarkably, this new approach adapts to the structure of the material under study by leveraging the algebraic structure of Ewald summation and balancing the computational effort spent evaluating near-field and far-field contributions to the hydrodynamic interactions among the suspended particles. Applications of this approach to modeling colloidal gelation and particulate suspensions will be discussed.

  16. THERMAL AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE VARIATIONS IN TITAN'S STRATOSPHERE DURING THE CASSINI MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Bampasidis, Georgios; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Achterberg, R. K.; Lavvas, P.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Flasar, F. M.; Carlson, R. C.; Romani, P. N.; Guandique, E. A.; Teanby, N. A.; Moussas, X.; Preka-Papadema, P.; Stamogiorgos, S.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a line-by-line Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Titan code that includes the most recent laboratory spectroscopic data and haze descriptions relative to Titan's stratosphere. We use this code to model Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer data taken during the numerous Titan flybys from 2006 to 2012 at surface-intercepting geometry in the 600-1500 cm{sup -1} range for latitudes from 50 Degree-Sign S to 50 Degree-Sign N. We report variations in temperature and chemical composition in the stratosphere during the Cassini mission, before and after the Northern Spring Equinox (NSE). We find indication for a weakening of the temperature gradient with warming of the stratosphere and cooling of the lower mesosphere. In addition, we infer precise concentrations for the trace gases and their main isotopologues and find that the chemical composition in Titan's stratosphere varies significantly with latitude during the 6 years investigated here, with increased mixing ratios toward the northern latitudes. In particular, we monitor and quantify the amplitude of a maximum enhancement of several gases observed at northern latitudes up to 50 Degree-Sign N around mid-2009, at the time of the NSE. We find that this rise is followed by a rapid decrease in chemical inventory in 2010 probably due to a weakening north polar vortex with reduced lateral mixing across the vortex boundary.

  17. Rapid thermal rejuvenation of high-crystallinity magma linked to porphyry copper deposit formation; evidence from the Koloula Porphyry Prospect, Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapster, S.; Condon, D. J.; Naden, J.; Noble, S. R.; Petterson, M. G.; Roberts, N. M. W.; Saunders, A. D.; Smith, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    high-temperature, less-evolved melt. In contrast, syn-mineralisation melts were most likely remobilised by the percolation of hot volatiles exsolved from contemporaneous less-evolved intrusions cooling beneath the crystalline silicic magma. The evidence for the rapid thermal rejuvenation and long term storage of highly crystalline silicic magmas is consistent with previous studies that indicate two components of exsolved volatiles contribute to ore forming fluids. We conclude that the liberation of crystal-rich porphyry copper deposit forming magmas, and the addition of the chemical components required for ore formation, are intrinsically linked to the volatiles released during the recharge of less-evolved melt into a highly crystalline silicic magma.

  18. Variability of biomass chemical composition and rapid analysis using FT-NIR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lu; Ye, Philip; Womac, A.R.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2010-04-01

    A quick method for analyzing the chemical composition of renewable energy biomass feedstock was developed by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis. The study presents the broad-based model hypothesis that a single FT-NIR predictive model can be developed to analyze multiple types of biomass feedstock. The two most important biomass feedstocks corn stover and switchgrass were evaluated for the variability in their concentrations of the following components: glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash. A hypothesis test was developed based upon these two species. Both cross-validation and independent validation results showed that the broad-based model developed is promising for future chemical prediction of both biomass species; in addition, the results also showed the method's prediction potential for wheat straw.

  19. Ultrafast multidimensional Laplace NMR for a rapid and sensitive chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahola, Susanna; Zhivonitko, Vladimir V.; Mankinen, Otto; Zhang, Guannan; Kantola, Anu M.; Chen, Hsueh-Ying; Hilty, Christian; Koptyug, Igor V.; Telkki, Ville-Veikko

    2015-09-01

    Traditional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy relies on the versatile chemical information conveyed by spectra. To complement conventional NMR, Laplace NMR explores diffusion and relaxation phenomena to reveal details on molecular motions. Under a broad concept of ultrafast multidimensional Laplace NMR, here we introduce an ultrafast diffusion-relaxation correlation experiment enhancing the resolution and information content of corresponding 1D experiments as well as reducing the experiment time by one to two orders of magnitude or more as compared with its conventional 2D counterpart. We demonstrate that the method allows one to distinguish identical molecules in different physical environments and provides chemical resolution missing in NMR spectra. Although the sensitivity of the new method is reduced due to spatial encoding, the single-scan approach enables one to use hyperpolarized substances to boost the sensitivity by several orders of magnitude, significantly enhancing the overall sensitivity of multidimensional Laplace NMR.

  20. Rapid assessment of chemical contamination and toxicity equivalents at a hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Mashburn, W.E.; Johnson, K.A.; Weisskopf, C.P.; Dickerson, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    Utilizing a new monitoring technique, contaminant burdens are assessed at a hazardous waste site containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This approach utilizes a sampling technique which allows for chemical characterization without the costly and time consuming collection and transportation of large samples from the field to the laboratory. In addition, this approach will allow for determination of toxicity equivalents without the use of living organisms. Soil extracts are obtained from a passive sampling device (PSD) constructed of a polymeric membrane containing C{sub 18} sorbent which measures the bioavailable chemical contaminants. The PSDs are deployed in the soil, retrieved from the field and then eluted in the laboratory. The extracts are used for quantitation and determination of chemical identity, concentration, and biological significance. An enzyme induction assay is used to assess toxicity equivalents of the environmental samples. The H411E rat hepatoma cell line was dosed with differing concentrations of PCB Aroclor 1254 to establish a dose-response relationship based on the induction of CytochromeP-450 by measuring the EROD/PROD activity. The cells were then dosed with serial dilutions of PSD extracts to determine toxicity equivalents. A correlation between contaminant concentration and enzyme induction was found with the extracts.

  1. A medium-term rat liver bioassay for rapid in vivo detection of carcinogenic potential of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ito, Nobuyuki; Tamano, Seiko; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2003-01-01

    A reliable medium-term bioassay system for rapid detection of carcinogenic potential of chemicals in the human environment has been developed. The 8-week-protocol consists of 2 stages; male F344 rats are given a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg) for initiation of liver carcinogenesis, followed by a 6-week test chemical treatment starting 2 weeks thereafter. Test chemicals are usually given in the diet or the drinking water and in the 2nd week of test chemical treatment, all rats are subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy in order to induce regenerative cell replication. The end-point marker is the glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive hepatic focus, the numbers and sizes of which are analyzed using an image-analyzer and expressed as values per unit liver section (1 cm2). When the yield of GST-P-positive foci is significantly enhanced (P<0.05) over the control value, a chemical is judged to possess carcinogenic or promotion potential for the liver. Among 313 chemicals already tested in this system in our laboratory, 30/31 (97%) mutagenic hepatocarcinogens and 29/33 (88%) non-mutagenic hepatocarcinogens gave positive results. Ten out of 43 (23%) agents known to be carcinogenic in organs other than the liver were also positive. It is particularly important that only one of 48 non-carcinogens gave a very weak positive result, so that the system has a very low false-positivity rate. It is now well documented that the assay system is highly effective for detecting hepatocarcinogens, bridging the gap between traditional long-term carcinogenicity tests and short-term screening assays. At the Fourth International Conference on Harmonization, our medium-term liver bioassay based on an initiation and promotion protocol was recommended in the guidelines as an acceptable alternative to the long-term rodent carcinogenicity test.

  2. Bulk-micromachined submicroliter-volume PCR chip with very rapid thermal response and low power consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Sik; Park, Se Ho; Yang, Haesik; Chung, Kwang-Hyo; Yoon, Tae Hwan; Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kyuwon; Kim, Youn Tae

    2004-08-01

    The current paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a micromachined submicroliter-volume polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip with a fast thermal response and very low power consumption. The chip consists of a bulk-micromachined Si component and hot-embossed poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) component. The Si component contains an integral microheater and temperature sensor on a thermally well-isolated membrane, while the PMMA component contains a submicroliter-volume PCR chamber, valves, and channels. The micro hot membrane under the submicroliter-volume chamber is a silicon oxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxide (O/N/O) diaphragm with a thickness of 1.9 microm, resulting in a very low thermal mass. In experiments, the proposed chip only required 45 mW to heat the reaction chamber to 92 degrees C, the denaturation temperature of DNA, plus the heating and cooling rates are about 80 degrees C s(-1) and 60 degrees C s(-1), respectively. We validated, from the fluorescence results from DNA stained with SYBR Green I, that the proposed chip amplified the DNA from vector clone, containing tumor suppressor gene BRCA 1 (127 base pairs at 11th exon), after 30 thermal cycles of 3 s, 5 s, and 5 s at 92 degrees C, 55 degrees C, and 72 degrees C, respectively, in a 200 nL-volume chamber. As for specificity of DNA products, owing to difficulty in analyzing the very small volume PCR results from the micro chip, we vicariously employed the larger volume PCR products after cycling with the same sustaining temperatures as with the micro chip but with much slower ramping rates (3.3 degrees C s(-1) when rising, 2.5 degrees C s(-1) when cooling) within circa 20 minutes on a commercial PCR machine and confirmed the specificity to BRCA 1 (127 base pairs) with agarose gel electrophoresis. Accordingly, the fabricated micro chip demonstrated a very low power consumption and rapid thermal response, both of which are crucial to the development of a fully integrated and battery

  3. Rapid low-temperature processing of metal-oxide thin film transistors with combined far ultraviolet and thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppäniemi, J.; Ojanperä, K.; Kololuoma, T.; Huttunen, O.-H.; Dahl, J.; Tuominen, M.; Laukkanen, P.; Majumdar, H.; Alastalo, A.

    2014-09-01

    We propose a combined far ultraviolet (FUV) and thermal annealing method of metal-nitrate-based precursor solutions that allows efficient conversion of the precursor to metal-oxide semiconductor (indium zinc oxide, IZO, and indium oxide, In2O3) both at low-temperature and in short processing time. The combined annealing method enables a reduction of more than 100 °C in annealing temperature when compared to thermally annealed reference thin-film transistor (TFT) devices of similar performance. Amorphous IZO films annealed at 250 °C with FUV for 5 min yield enhancement-mode TFTs with saturation mobility of ˜1 cm2/(V.s). Amorphous In2O3 films annealed for 15 min with FUV at temperatures of 180 °C and 200 °C yield TFTs with low-hysteresis and saturation mobility of 3.2 cm2/(V.s) and 7.5 cm2/(V.s), respectively. The precursor condensation process is clarified with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Introducing the FUV irradiation at 160 nm expedites the condensation process via in situ hydroxyl radical generation that results in the rapid formation of a continuous metal-oxygen-metal structure in the film. The results of this paper are relevant in order to upscale printed electronics fabrication to production-scale roll-to-roll environments.

  4. Rapid identification of pesticides in human oral fluid for emergency management by thermal desorption electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Wei; Su, Hung; Chen, Peng-Yu; Lin, Shiang-Jiun; Shiea, Jentaie; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Chen, Bai-Hsiun

    2016-02-01

    Self-poisoning with pesticides accounts for approximately one-third of all suicides worldwide. To expedite rescue in the emergency department, it is essential to develop a point-of-care analytical method for rapid identification of ingested pesticides. In this study, five of the most common pesticides ingested by self-poisoning patients in Taiwan were analyzed from oral fluid samples. Pesticide-oral fluid mixtures were applied on a cotton swab and then transferred into methanol. A metallic probe was used to sample the methanol solution for subsequent thermal desorption-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis. Altogether, pesticide sampling, transfer, desorption, ionization, and detection took less than 1 min. The reproducibility of this method (n = 6) was shown in the observed low-relative standard deviation (<7%) in the detection of pesticide in oral fluid. The detection limits of the pesticides in oral fluid obtained from four human subjects by thermal desorption-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were between 1-10 ppb with relative standard deviation 10.7%. Moreover, in this study, linear responses of five pesticides in oral fluid with concentrations between 1 ppb-1 ppm (R2 between 0.9938 and 0.9988) were observed. As the whole analytical process is extremely short, this technique allows for early non-invasive point-of-care identification of pesticides in the oral fluid of self-poisoning patients in the emergency room, providing important toxicological information for decision-making during critical resuscitation.

  5. Shallow-junction diode formation by implantation of arsenic and boron through titanium-silicide films and rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.; Herbots, N. . Center for Materials Science and Engineering); Hoffman, D. ); Ma, D. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors have studied the performance of diodes fabricated on n-type and p-type Si substrates by implanting As or B through a low-resistivity titanium-silicide layer. The effects of varying the implant dose, energy, and post-implant thermal treatment were investigated. After implantation, a rapid thermal anneal was found to be sufficient in removing most of the implant damage and activating the dopants, which resulted in N{sup +} {minus} p and p{sup +} {minus} n junctions under a low-resistivity silicide layer. The n{sup +} {minus} p junctions were as shallow as 1000 {angstrom} with reverse leakage currents as low as 5.5 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. A conventional furnace anneal resulted in a further reduction of this leakage. Shallow p{sub +} {minus} n junctions could not be formed with boron implantation because of the large projected range of boron ions at the lowest available energy. Ti silicide films thinner than 600 {angstrom} exhibited a sharp rise in sheet resistivity after a furnace anneal, whereas thicker films exhibited more stable behavior. This is attributed to coalescence of the films. High-temperature furnace annealing diffused some of the dopants into the silicide film, reducing the surface concentrations at the TiSi{sub 2}-Si interface.

  6. Preparation and modification of VO2 thin film on R-sapphire substrate by rapid thermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Nai-Wei; Hu, Ming; Xia, Xiao-Xu; Wei, Xiao-Ying; Liang, Ji-Ran

    2014-04-01

    The VO2 thin film with high performance of metal-insulator transition (MIT) is prepared on R-sapphire substrate for the first time by magnetron sputtering with rapid thermal process (RTP). The electrical characteristic and THz transmittance of MIT in VO2 film are studied by four-point probe method and THz time domain spectrum (THz-TDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and search engine marketing (SEM) are employed to analyze the crystalline structure, valence state, surface morphology of the film. Results indicate that the properties of VO2 film which is oxidized from the metal vanadium film in oxygen atmosphere are improved with a follow-up RTP modification in nitrogen atmosphere. The crystallization and components of VO2 film are improved and the film becomes compact and uniform. A better phase transition performance is shown that the resistance changes nearly 3 orders of magnitude with a 2-°C hysteresis width and the THz transmittances are reduced by 64% and 60% in thermal and optical excitation respectively.

  7. Separation of selected stable isotopes by liquid-phase thermal diffusion and by chemical exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, W. M.; Jepson, B. E.; Michaels, E. D.

    Useful applications of enriched stable nuclides are unduly restricted by high cost and limited availability. Recent research on liquid phase thermal diffusion (LTD) has resulted in practical processes for separating S34, CL35, and CL37 in significant quantities (100 to 500 g/yr) at costs much lower than those associated with the electromagnetic (Calutron) process. The separation of the isotopes of bromine by LTD is now in progress and BR79 is being produced in relatively simple equivalent at a rate on the order of 0.5 g/day. The results of recent measurements show that the isotopes of Zn can be separated by LTD of zinc alkyls. The isotopes of calcium can be separated by LTD and by chemical exchange. The LTD process is based on the use of aqueous Ca(NO3)2 as a working fluid.

  8. Arc magma compositions controlled by linked thermal and chemical gradients above the subducting slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Sebastian F. L.; Pyle, David M.; Mather, Tamsin A.; Naranjo, José A.

    2013-06-01

    Global arc magmatism is sustained by a continuous fluid flux that is returned to the mantle in subduction zones. Despite considerable advances in simulations of melting processes, models of arc magmatism remain incompletely tested against erupted products. Here, we show that a suite of primitive volcanic rocks from across the southern Chilean arc preserves the signature of a systematic down-slab gradient in fluid chemistry. The chemical gradient is consistent with predictions from modeling, geothermometry and experiments. We infer that increasing slab-surface temperatures cause the sub-arc slab flux to become less water-rich and increasingly dominated by hydrous melts over a distance of a few kilometers behind the arc front. This change exerts a first-order control on magma chemistry, and implies discrete melt-transport pathways through subduction zones. Our results replicate patterns in other arcs, implying common sub-arc slab-surface temperature ranges in thermally-diverse subduction zones.

  9. Structural characterization and thermal and chemical stability of bioactive molecule-hydrotalcite (LDH) nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Conterosito, Eleonora; Croce, Gianluca; Palin, Luca; Pagano, Cinzia; Perioli, Luana; Viterbo, Davide; Boccaleri, Enrico; Paul, Geo; Milanesio, Marco

    2013-08-28

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are versatile materials used for intercalating bioactive molecules, both in pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, with the purpose of protecting them from degradation, enhancing their water solubility to increase bioavailability, and/or obtaining modified release properties. The properties of the intercalation compounds of Mg/Al_LDH and Zn/Al_LDH with different drugs and sunscreens, namely diclofenac, ketoprofen, gliclazide, retinoic acid, furosemide, para-aminobenzoic acid and 2-phenylbenzimidazolsulfonic (Eusolex) acid, have been studied by crystallographic, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric techniques and by solid state NMR, to shed light on their structure, their molecular interactions and their stability from the thermal and chemical viewpoint. The structural features were described with particular attention to the interaction between the organic and inorganic components and to the stability of the intercalation products. For the first time two synchrotron radiation powder diffraction patterns of organic-containing LDH were solved and refined by Rietveld methods to obtain an experimental crystal structure.

  10. Effects of pressure on the thermal decomposition kinetics, chemical reactivity and phase behavior of RDX

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.J. ); Block, S.; Piermarini, G.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The effects of pressure on the thermal decomposition kinetics, chemical reactivity, and phase behavior of RDX have been studied by a combination of measurement techniques in conjunction with a high-pressure diamond anvil cell. These techniques include Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for kinetic measurements and phase identification, energy dispersive x-ray powder diffraction for identification of the observed polymorphic forms and also compression measurements, and optical polarizing microscopy for visual detection and confirmation of phase transformations and determinations of transition pressures. The ruby method of pressure measurement was used in all methods employed. Studies were generally limited to the region where decomposition rates could be measured within reasonable laboratory time, i.e., below 10 GPa and 573 K. The P-T phase diagram for RDX was determined to 573 K and 7.0/GPa, delineating the stability fields of three solid phases, and the liquidus.

  11. Growth of FePt encapsulated carbon nanotubes by thermal chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Yuji Kaneko, Tetsuya; Hori, Kenta; Takase, Sho; Sato, Hideki; Maeda, Kohji; Kobayashi, Tadashi; Kato, Takeshi; Iwata, Satoshi; Jimbo, Mutsuko

    2014-03-15

    FePt encapsulated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition using an Fe/Pt bilayer catalyst. The CNTs were grown according to the base growth model. Selected area electron diffraction results revealed that the encapsulated particles were A1-FePt, L1{sub 0}-FePt, and Fe{sub 3}PtC. The crystal structures of particles found at the root parts of CNTs were not able to be identified, however. The layered structure of catalytic films seemed to be responsible for the difference in Pt content between particles found at tip and root parts of CNTs. Approximately 60% of CNTs grown at 800 °C had particles at their tip parts, compared to only 30% when the growth temperature was 700 °C, indicating that higher process temperatures promote particle encapsulation in CNTs.

  12. Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes by Argon supported Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Pervaiz; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd

    2015-03-01

    Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition technique is modified with the use of Argon gas flow inside the chamber as an alternative for vacuum and orientation of one end closed quartz test tube. The use of Argon gas not only simplified the experimental set up, but also made it ~ 18 % cost effective compared to the conventional set up. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs show straight and long BNNTs along with some cotton like morphologies. Transmission electron microscopy revealed bamboo like structure inside the tube and ~0.34 nm interlayer spacing for highly crystalline nature of boron nitride nanotubes. X-ray photon spectroscopy shows B 1s peak at 191.08 eV and N 1s peak at 398.78 eV that represents h-BN. Whereas, Raman spectrum indicates a major peak at ~1379.60 (cm-1) that correspond to E2g mode of h-BN.

  13. A chemically triggered and thermally switched dielectric constant transition in a metal cyanide based crystal.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chao; Zhang, Xi; Cai, Ying; Yao, Ye-Feng; Zhang, Wen

    2015-05-18

    A dielectric constant transition is chemically triggered and thermally switched in (HPy)2[Na(H2O)Co(CN)6] (2, HPy=pyridinium cation) by single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation and structural phase transition, respectively. Upon dehydration, (HPy)2[Na(H2O)2Co(CN)6] (1) transforms to its semi-hydrated form 2, accompanying a transition from a low-dielectric state to a high-dielectric state, and vice versa. This dielectric switch is also realized by a structural phase transition in 2 that occurs between room- and low-temperature phases, and which corresponds to high- and low-dielectric states, respectively. The switching property is due to the variation in the environment surrounding the HPy cation, that is, the hydrogen-bonding interactions and the crystal packing, which exert predominant influences on the dynamics of the cations that transit between the static and motional states.

  14. Thermal metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of Ti-Si-N films for diffusion barrier applications

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, J.S.; Smith, P.M.; Jones, R.V.; Maverick, A.W.; Roberts, D.A.; Norman, J.A.T.; Hochberg, A.K.

    1996-04-01

    Structurally disordered refractory ternary films such as titanium silicon nitride (Ti-Si-N) have potential as advanced diffusion barriers in future ULSI metallization schemes. Here the authors present results on purely thermal metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of Ti-Si-N. At temperatures between 300 and 450 C, tetrakis(diethylamido)titanium (TDEAT), silane, and ammonia react to grow Ti-Si-N films with Si contents of 0--20 at.%. Typical impurity contents are 5--10 at.%H and 0.5 to 1.5 at.% C, with no O or other impurities detected in the bulk of the film. Although the film resistivity increases with increasing Si content, it remains below 1,000 {micro}{Omega}-cm for films with less than 5 at.% Si. These films are promising candidates for advanced diffusion barriers.

  15. Rapid and field-deployable biological and chemical Raman-based identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botonjic-Sehic, Edita; Paxon, Tracy L.; Boudries, Hacene

    2011-06-01

    Pathogen detection using Raman spectroscopy is achieved through the use of a sandwich immunoassay. Antibody-modified magnetic beads are used to capture and concentrate target analytes in solution and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) tags are conjugated with antibodies and act as labels to enable specific detection of biological pathogens. The rapid detection of biological pathogens is critical to first responders, thus assays to detect E.Coli and Anthrax have been developed and will be reported. The problems associated with pathogen detection resulting from the spectral complexity and variability of microorganisms are overcome through the use of SERS tags, which provide an intense, easily recognizable, and spectrally consistent Raman signal. The developed E. coli assay has been tested with 5 strains of E. coli and shows a low limit of detection, on the order of 10 and 100 c.f.u. per assay. Additionally, the SERS assay utilizes magnetic beads to collect the labeled pathogens into the focal point of the detection laser beam, making the assay robust to commonly encountered white powder interferants such as flour, baking powder, and corn starch. The reagents were also found to be stable at room temperature over extended periods of time with testing conducted over a one year period. Finally, through a specialized software algorithm, the assays are interfaced to the Raman instrument, StreetLab Mobile, for rapid-field-deployable biological identification.

  16. Rapid Stress System Drives Chemical Transfer of Fear from Sender to Receiver

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Jasper H. B.; Smeets, Monique A. M.; Semin, Gün R.

    2015-01-01

    Humans can register another person’s fear not only with their eyes and ears, but also with their nose. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to body odors from fearful individuals elicited implicit fear in others. The odor of fearful individuals appears to have a distinctive signature that can be produced relatively rapidly, driven by a physiological mechanism that has remained unexplored in earlier research. The apocrine sweat glands in the armpit that are responsible for chemosignal production contain receptors for adrenalin. We therefore expected that the release of adrenalin through activation of the rapid stress response system (i.e., the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system) is what drives the release of fear sweat, as opposed to activation of the slower stress response system (i.e., hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis). To test this assumption, sweat was sampled while eight participants prepared for a speech. Participants had higher heart rates and produced more armpit sweat in the fast stress condition, compared to baseline and the slow stress condition. Importantly, exposure to sweat from participants in the fast stress condition induced in receivers (N = 31) a simulacrum of the state of the sender, evidenced by the emergence of a fearful facial expression (facial electromyography) and vigilant behavior (i.e., faster classification of emotional facial expressions). PMID:25723720

  17. Tissue-smashing based ultra-rapid extraction of chemical constituents in herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yong; Yan, Chen-Pu; Chen, Cheng; So, Kwok-Fai; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2014-07-01

    Sample extraction is the first challenge in analysis of herbal medicines (HMs). Numerous methods have been developed to improve extraction efficiency, use less solvent and short time. In this work, a tissue-smashing based ultra-rapid extraction (TSURE) method has been proposed through the designed particle crushing, drastic stir, and dynamic molecular permeation at normal temperature. Factors in TSURE like extraction time, volts, and solvents were optimized for extraction efficiency of salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA from Salvia miltiorrhiza. The TSURE method was validated in terms of repeatability (RSD<2.2%) and extraction recoveries (93-106% with RSD<5.0%). TSURE showed a comparable extraction efficiency to conventional heat reflux extraction (HRE) and better than ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE). The extraction time was about 2.0-3.0 min for TSURE, 60 times faster than the performance of HRE and 20 times faster than UAE. Microscopic analysis showed that the Krummbein diameter of plant particles after extraction were about 600-1200 μm for HRE and UAE, and decreased to 50-80 μm for TSURE. Subsequently, the developed TSURE was applied to high-throughput extraction of 19 S. miltiorrhiza samples collected in different regions of China. Besides, application of TSURE to other herbal medicines was also investigated, including Panax quinquefolius and Lonicera japonica. TSURE method provided an ultra-rapid and promising alternation for extraction of ingredients in herbal medicines, and can be extended to pharmaceutics, foods and cosmetics.

  18. Temperate and virulent Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacteriophages: comparison of their thermal and chemical resistance.

    PubMed

    Ebrecht, Ana C; Guglielmotti, Daniela M; Tremmel, Gustavo; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Suárez, Viviana B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the efficiency of diverse chemical and thermal treatments usually used in dairy industries to control the number of virulent and temperate Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacteriophages. Two temperate (Cb1/204 and Cb1/342) and three virulent (BYM, YAB and Ib3) phages were studied. The thermal treatments applied were: 63 degrees C for 30 min (low temperature--long time, LTLT), 72 degrees C for 15 s (high temperature--short time, HTST), 82 degrees C for 5 min (milk destined to yogurt elaboration) and 90 degrees C for 15 min (FIL-IDF). The chemical agents studied were: sodium hypochlorite, ethanol, isopropanol, peracetic acid, biocides A (quaternary ammonium chloride), B (hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid and peroctanoic acid), C (alkaline chloride foam), D (p-toluensulfonchloroamide, sodium salt) and E (ethoxylated nonylphenol and phosphoric acid). The kinetics of inactivation were drew and T(99) (time necessary to eliminate the 99% of phage particles) calculated. Results obtained showed that temperate phages revealed lower resistance than the virulent ones to the treatment temperatures. Biocides A, C, E and peracetic acid showed a notable efficiency to inactivate high concentrations of temperate and virulent L. delbrueckii phages. Biocide B evidenced, in general, a good capacity to eliminate the phage particles. Particularly for this biocide virulent phage Ib3 showed the highest resistance in comparison to the rest of temperate and virulent ones. On the contrary, biocide D and isopropanol presented a very low capacity to inactivate all phages studied. The efficiency of ethanol and hypochlorite was variable depending to the phages considered. These results allow a better knowledge and give useful information to outline more effective treatments to reduce the phage infections in dairy plants.

  19. Ni-catalysed WO3 nanostructures grown by electron beam rapid thermal annealing for NO2 gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, Gopalakrishnan; Sundararaj, Anuraj; Therese, Helen Annal; Jeganathan, K.

    2015-07-01

    Ni-catalysed WO3 (Ni-WO3) nanowires and nanosheets were grown on Si (100) substrates using electron beam evaporation followed by electron beam-assisted rapid thermal annealing process. Gas-sensing measurements were performed for various concentrations of NO2 in dry air at a temperature range of 50-400 °C. Nanowires and nanosheets show optimum sensor response of 229 and 197 at operating temperatures of 200 and 250 °C, respectively, for 100 ppm of NO2 exposure. Nanowires demonstrated a rapid response time of 66 s, but a slow recovery time of 204 s owing to poor rate of desorption of the adsorbed NO2 gas molecules from the internal porous structure of nanowires. In contrast, the recovery time for nanosheet was 126 s due to higher desorption rate of the adhered NO2 molecules associated with low surface area and less porous structure of nanosheet. The gas-sensing mechanism of WO3 nanostructure is discussed briefly.

  20. Influence of boundary slip effect on thermal environment in thermo-chemical non-equilibrium flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Wenbo; Zhang, Liang; Li, Junhong; Cheng, Xiaoli

    2014-12-01

    A kind of new hypersonic vehicle makes long-time flight in transitional flow regime where boundary slip effect caused by low gas density will have an important influence on the thermal environment around the vehicles. Numerical studies on the boundary slip effect as hypersonic vehicles fly in high Mach number has been carried out. The method for solving non-equilibrium flows considering slip boundary, surface catalysis and chemical reactions has been built up, and been validated by comparing the thermal environment results with STS-2 flight test data. The mechanism and rules of impact on surface heat flux by different boundary slip level (Knudsen number from 0.01 to 0.05) has been investigated in typical hypersonic flow conditions. The results show that the influence mechanisms of boundary slip effect are different on component diffusion heat flux and convective heat flux; slip boundary increases the near wall temperature which diminish the convective heat; whereas enhances the near wall gas diffusion heat because of the internal energy's growing. Component diffusion heat flux takes a smaller portion of the total heat flux, so the slip boundary reduces the total wall heat flux. As Knudsen number goes up, the degree of rarefaction increases, the influences of slip boundary on convective and component diffusion heat flux are both enhanced, total heat flux grows by a small margin, and boundary slip effect is more distinct.

  1. Effects of Thermal and Pressure Histories on the Chemical Strengthening of Sodium Aluminosilicate Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenson, Mouritz; Thirion, Lynn; Youngman, Randall; Mauro, John; Bauchy, Mathieu; Rzoska, Sylwester; Bockowski, Michal; Smedskjaer, Morten

    2016-03-01

    Glasses can be chemically strengthened through the ion exchange process, wherein smaller ions in the glass (e.g., Na+) are replaced by larger ions from a salt bath (e.g., K+). This develops a compressive stress (CS) on the glass surface, which, in turn, improves the damage resistance of the glass. The magnitude and depth of the generated CS depends on the thermal and pressure histories of the glass prior to ion exchange. In this study, we investigate the ion exchange-related properties (mutual diffusivity, CS, and hardness) of a sodium aluminosilicate glass, which has been densified through annealing below the initial fictive temperature of the glass or through pressure-quenching from the glass transition temperature at 1 GPa prior to ion exchange. We show that the rate of alkali interdiffusivity depends only on the density of the glass, rather than on the applied densification method. However, we also demonstrate that for a given density, the increase in CS and increase in hardness induced by ion exchange strongly depends on the densification method. Specifically, at constant density, the CS and hardness values achieved through thermal annealing are larger than those achieved through pressure-quenching. These results are discussed in relation to the structural changes in the environment of the network-modifier and the overall network densification.

  2. Pb"1"-"xFe"xS nanoparticle films grown from acidic chemical bath [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Rakesh K.; Subbaraju, G. V.; Sharma, Renu; Sehgal, H. K.

    2004-12-01

    Pb 1- xFe xS ( x=0.25, 0.50, 0.75) films were grown from an acidic chemical bath. Nanoparticle films were structurally characterized by XRD and TEM. Optical band gap of films is observed to vary from 1.65 to 1.42 eV with increase in their iron concentration from x=0.25 to 0.75 in the films. Increased optical band gap of the ternary films compared to the estimated bulk value is attributed to quantum confinement in the nanocrystals deposited on solid substrates.

  3. Rapid quantitative chemical mapping of surfaces with sub-2 nm resolution.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chia-Yun; Perri, Saverio; Santos, Sergio; Garcia, Ricardo; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-05-05

    We present a theory that exploits four observables in bimodal atomic force microscopy to produce maps of the Hamaker constant H. The quantitative H maps may be employed by the broader community to directly interpret the high resolution of standard bimodal AFM images as chemical maps while simultaneously quantifying chemistry in the non-contact regime. We further provide a simple methodology to optimize a range of operational parameters for which H is in the closest agreement with the Lifshitz theory in order to (1) simplify data acquisition and (2) generalize the methodology to any set of cantilever-sample systems.

  4. A Rapid Chemical Analysis of the Ingredients of NOL-130 Primer Mix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    number) Differential pulse polarography M55 detonator NOL-130 Chemical analysis Primer mix Barium nitrate Lead styphnate Lead azide Tetracene...Lead azide 20.0 ± 2.0 Basic or normal lead styphnate 40.0 ± 2.0 Tetracene 5,0 ± 0.5 Barium nitrate 20.0 ± 2.0 Antimony sulfide 15.0 ± 1.5...x 1.405 styphnate ) 4^ "~ % Tetracene = Cone, tetracene (ppm) 4 % Antimony = Cone. Sb (ppm) x 1.395 sulfide 4 % Barium = Add the four

  5. Rapid quantitative chemical mapping of surfaces with sub-2 nm resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chia-Yun; Perri, Saverio; Santos, Sergio; Garcia, Ricardo; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    We present a theory that exploits four observables in bimodal atomic force microscopy to produce maps of the Hamaker constant H. The quantitative H maps may be employed by the broader community to directly interpret the high resolution of standard bimodal AFM images as chemical maps while simultaneously quantifying chemistry in the non-contact regime. We further provide a simple methodology to optimize a range of operational parameters for which H is in the closest agreement with the Lifshitz theory in order to (1) simplify data acquisition and (2) generalize the methodology to any set of cantilever-sample systems.We present a theory that exploits four observables in bimodal atomic force microscopy to produce maps of the Hamaker constant H. The quantitative H maps may be employed by the broader community to directly interpret the high resolution of standard bimodal AFM images as chemical maps while simultaneously quantifying chemistry in the non-contact regime. We further provide a simple methodology to optimize a range of operational parameters for which H is in the closest agreement with the Lifshitz theory in order to (1) simplify data acquisition and (2) generalize the methodology to any set of cantilever-sample systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00496b

  6. Application of chemical and thermal analysis methods for studying cellulose ester plastics.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Michael; Bouchard, Michel; Khanjian, Herant; Learner, Tom; Phenix, Alan; Rivenc, Rachel

    2010-06-15

    Cellulose acetate, developed about 100 years ago as a versatile, semisynthetic plastic material, is used in a variety of applications and is perhaps best known as the basis of photographic film stock. Objects made wholly or partly from cellulose acetate are an important part of modern and contemporary cultural heritage, particularly in museum collections. Given the potential instability of the material, however, it is imperative to understand the aging mechanisms and deterioration pathways of cellulose ester plastics to mitigate decomposition and formulate guidelines for storage, exhibition, and conservation. One important aspect of this process is the ability to fully characterize the plastic, because variations in composition affect its aging properties and ultimate stability. In this Account, we assess the potential of a range of analytical techniques for plastics made from cellulose acetate, cellulose propionate, and cellulose butyrate. Comprehensive characterization of cellulose ester plastics is best achieved by applying several complementary analytical techniques. Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy provide rapid means for basic characterization of plastic objects, which can be useful for quick, noninvasive screening of museum collections with portable instruments. Pyrolysis GC/MS is capable of differentiating the main types of cellulose ester polymers but also permits a richly detailed compositional analysis of additives. Thermal analysis techniques provide a wealth of compositional information and thermal behavior. Thermogravimetry (TG) allows for quantitative analysis of thermally stable volatile additives, and weight-difference curves offer a novel means for assessing oxidative stability. The mechanical response to temperature, such as the glass transition, can be measured with dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), but results from other thermal analysis techniques such as TG, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic load

  7. Chemical Characterization and Thermal Stressing Studies of Perfluorohexane Fluids for Space-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William A.; Hartman, Thomas G.; McQuillen, John

    2006-01-01

    Perfluorohexane (PFH), C6F14, is a perfluorocarbon fluid. Several PFH fluids with different isomer concentrations were evaluated for use in an upcoming NASA space experiment. Samples tested included two commercially obtained high-purity n-perfluorohexane (n-PFH) fluids and a technical grade mixture of C6F14 branched and linear isomers (FC-72(TradeMark)). These fluids were evaluated for exact chemical composition, impurity purity and high temperature degradation behavior (pyrolysis). Our investigation involved simulated thermal stressing studies of PFH fluids under conditions likely to occur in the event of an atmospheric breach within the International Space Station (ISS) and subsequent exposure of the vapors to the high temperature and catalyst present in its Trace Contaminant Control Subsystem (TCCS). Exposure to temperatures in the temperature range of 200-450 C in an inert or oxidizing atmosphere, with and without the presence of catalyst was investigated. The most aggressive conditions studied were exposure of PFH vapors to 450 C in air and in the presence of TCCS (palladium) catalyst. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography (GC) analyses were conducted on the perfluorohexane samples before and after pyrolysis. The FC-72 and n-PFH samples showed no significant degradation following pyrolysis even under the most aggressive study conditions. Some trace level impurities associated with the PFH samples such as linear perfluorocarbon monohydrides or monoiodides were destroyed by pyrolysis at the upper limit. Other trace level impurities such as olefinic or cycloolefinic perfluorocarbons were converted into oxidation products by pyrolysis. The purity of PFH following pyrolysis actually increased slightly as a consequence since these trace contaminants were effectively scrubbed from the samples. However, since the initial concentrations of the thermally-impacted impurities were so low, the net effect was trivial. A potential byproduct of

  8. Thermal, Mechanical and Chemical Analysis for VELOX -Verification Experiments for Lunar Oxygen Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Caroline; Ksenik, Eugen; Braukhane, Andy; Richter, Lutz

    One major aspect for the development of a long-term human presence on the moon will be sustainability and autonomy of any kind of a permanent base. Important resources, such as breathable air and water for the survival of the crew on the lunar surface will have to be extracted in-situ from the lunar regolith, the major resource on the Moon, which covers the first meter of the lunar surface and contains about 45 At the DLR Bremen we are interested in a compact and flexible lab experimenting facility, which shall demonstrate the feasibility of this process by extracting oxygen out of lunar Regolith, respectively soil simulants and certain minerals in the laboratory case. For this purpose, we have investigated important boundary conditions such as temperatures during the process, chemical reaction characteristics and material properties for the buildup of the facility and established basic requirements which shall be analyzed within this paper. These requirements have been used for the concept development and outline of the facility, which is currently under construction and will be subject to initial tests in the near future. This paper will focus mainly on the theoretical aspects of the facility development. Great effort has been put into the thermal and mechanical outline and pre-analysis of components and the system in a whole. Basic aspects that have been investigated are: 1. Selection of suitable materials for the furnace chamber configuration to provide a high-temperature capable operating mode. 2. Theoretical heat transfer analysis of the designed furnace chamber assembly with subsequent validation with the aid of measured values of the constructed demonstration plant. 3. Description of chemical conversion processes for Hydrogen reduction of Lunar Regolith with corresponding analysis of thermal and reaction times under different boundary conditions. 4. Investigation of the high-temperature mechanical behavior of the constructed furnace chamber with regard to

  9. Zig-Zag Thermal-Chemical 3-D Instabilities in the Mantle Wedge: Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, G.; Gerya, T. V.; Arcay, D.; Yuen, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    To understand the plume initiation and propagation it is important to understand whether small-scale convection is occurring under the back-arc in the Low Viscosity Wedge(LVW) and its implication on the island-arc volcanism. Honda et al. [Honda and Saito, 2003; Honda, et al., 2007]) already deployed small- scale convection in the Low Viscosity Wedge (LVW) above a subducting slab with kinematically imposed velocity boundary condition. They have suggested that a roll (finger)-like pattern of hot and cold anomalies emerges in the mantle wedge above the subducting slab. Here, we perform three-dimensional coupled petrological-thermomechanical numerical simulations of intraoceanic one-sided subduction with spontaneously bending retreating slab characterized by weak hydrated upper interface by using multigrid approach combined with characteristics-based marker-in-cell method with conservative finite difference schemes[Gerya and Yuen, 2003a], to investigate the 3D instabilities above the slab and lateral variation along the arc. Our results show that water released from subducting slab through dehydration reactions may lower the viscosity of the mantle. It allows the existence of wave-like small-scale convection in the LVW, which is shown as roll-like structure in 2D petrological-thermomechanical numerical experiments [Gorczyk et al., 2006] using in-situ rock properties computed on the basis of Gibbs free energy minimization. However, in our 3D cases, the rolls aligning with the arc mainly occur earlier , while zig-zag small-scale thermal-chemical instabilities may episodically form above the slab at later stages, which is different from the aligning finger-like pattern in purely thermal models (Honda et al,2003;2007). Also in contrast to thermal convection chemically buoyant hydrated plumes rising from the slab in our models are actually colder then the mantle wedge [Gerya and Yuen 2003b] which also strongly modify both the convection pattern and the seismic structure in

  10. Control of Chemical, Thermal, and Gas Transport Properties in Dense Phosphazene Polymer Membranes.

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart; Mark L. Stone; Mason K. Harrup; Thomas A. Luther; Eric S. Peterson

    2005-10-01

    Polyphosphazenes are hybrid polymers having organic pendant groups attached to an inorganic backbone. Phosphazene polymers can be tailored to specific applications through the attachment of a variety of different pendant groups to the phosphazene backbone. Applications for which these polymers have proven useful include solid polymer electrolytes for batteries and fuel cells, as well as, membranes for gas and liquid separations. In past work, phosphazene polymers have been synthesized using mixtures of pendant groups with differing chemical affinities. Specific ratios of hydrophobic and hydrophilic pendant groups were placed on the phosphazene backbone with a goal of demonstrating control of solubility, and therefore chemical selectivity. In this work, a series of phosphazene homo-polymers were synthesized having varying amounts of hydrophobic and hydrophilic character on each individual pendant group. Polymers were synthesized having a hydrophilic portion next to the polymer backbone and the hydrophobic portion on the terminal end of the pendant group. The effects of these combined hydrophobic/hydrophilic pendant groups on polymer morphology and gas transport properties are presented. The following data will be addressed: thermal characterization, pure gas permeability on seven gases (Ar, H2, O2, N2, CO2, and CH4 ), and ideal selectivity for the gas pairs: O2/N2, H2/CO2, CO2/H2, CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2.

  11. Upper Limits for Power Yield in Thermal, Chemical, and Electrochemical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieniutycz, Stanislaw

    2010-03-01

    We consider modeling and power optimization of energy converters, such as thermal, solar and chemical engines and fuel cells. Thermodynamic principles lead to expressions for converter's efficiency and generated power. Efficiency equations serve to solve the problems of upgrading or downgrading a resource. Power yield is a cumulative effect in a system consisting of a resource, engines, and an infinite bath. While optimization of steady state systems requires using the differential calculus and Lagrange multipliers, dynamic optimization involves variational calculus and dynamic programming. The primary result of static optimization is the upper limit of power, whereas that of dynamic optimization is a finite-rate counterpart of classical reversible work (exergy). The latter quantity depends on the end state coordinates and a dissipation index, h, which is the Hamiltonian of the problem of minimum entropy production. In reacting systems, an active part of chemical affinity constitutes a major component of the overall efficiency. The theory is also applied to fuel cells regarded as electrochemical flow engines. Enhanced bounds on power yield follow, which are stronger than those predicted by the reversible work potential.

  12. Effects of thermal treatment on chemical, mechanical and colour traits in Norway spruce wood.

    PubMed

    Kačíková, Danica; Kačík, František; Cabalová, Iveta; Durkovič, Jaroslav

    2013-09-01

    In several different branches of the wood industry heat treatment is a growing application as it changes the chemical, mechanical, physical and biological properties of wood. Investigations using wet chemical analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and CIELab colour system have been conducted to study the changes in Norway spruce wood subjected to temperature up to 270°C over a 30 min time period. The results showed that mass loss (ML), total crystallinity index (TCI) of cellulose, total colour difference (ΔE*), and the content of lignin and extractives increased with the temperature, whereas degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), lightness difference (ΔL*), and the content of holocellulose, cellulose and hemicelluloses all decreased with the thermal treatment. Relationships between temperature and the examined wood traits were all fitted by exponential curves. Power law relationships were found to fit the trends for DP of cellulose with ΔE*, ΔL*, and TCI of cellulose. Also found were power law regressions for the content of hemicelluloses with MOE, MOR, ΔL*, and ML. Temperatures ranging from 20 to 187°C formed a compact cluster, clearly separated from the higher examined temperatures in the multivariate wood trait space.

  13. Aerosols near by a coal fired thermal power plant: chemical composition and toxic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jayasekher, T

    2009-06-01

    Industrial processes discharge fine particulates containing organic as well as inorganic compounds into the atmosphere which are known to induce damage to cell and DNA, both in vitro and in vivo. Source and area specific studies with respect to the chemical composition, size and shape of the particles, and toxicity evaluations are very much limited. This study aims to investigate the trace elements associated with the aerosol particles distributed near to a coal burning thermal power plant and to evaluate their toxicity through Comet assay. PM(10) (particles determined by mass passing an inlet with a 50% cut-off efficiency having a 10-microm aerodynamic diameter) samples were collected using respirable dust samplers. Twelve elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Se, Hg, and As) were analyzed using ICP-AES. Comet assay was done with the extracts of aerosols in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Results show that Fe and Zn were found to be the predominant elements along with traces of other analyzed elements. Spherical shaped ultrafine particles of <1 microm aerodynamic diameter were detected through scanning electron microscope. PM(10) particles near to the coal burning power plant produced comets indicating their potential to induce DNA damage. DNA damage property is found to be depending upon the chemical characteristics of the components associated with the particles besides the physical properties such as size and shape.

  14. The effect of chemical modification with pyromellitic anhydride on structure, function, and thermal stability of horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Leila

    2012-06-01

    The stability of enzymes remains a critical issue in biotechnology. Compared with the strategies for obtaining stable enzymes, chemical modification is a simple and effective technique. In the present study, chemical modification of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was carried out with pyromellitic anhydride. HRP has achieved a prominent position in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and biotechnological industries. In this study, the effect of chemical modification on thermal stability, structure, and function of the enzyme was studied by fluorescence, circular dichroism, and absorbance measurements. The results indicated a decrease in compactness of the structure and a considerable enhancement in thermal stability of HRP below 60 °C. It seems the charge replacement and introduction of the bulky group bring about the observed structural and the functional changes.

  15. In Vivo Rapid Assessment of Compound Exposure (RACE) for Profiling the Pharmacokinetics of Novel Chemical Probes

    PubMed Central

    McAnally, Danielle; Vicchiarelli, Michael; Siddiquee, Khandaker

    2013-01-01

    The RACE assay is an easy and efficient method for estimating the exposure of novel chemical probe compounds in mice. RACE is a truncated and compressed version of a traditional comprehensive in vivo pharmacokinetics study. The method uses a single standard formulation, dose, route of administration, and a small cohort of mice (n=4). Standardized protocols and an abbreviated sample collection scheme reduce the labor needed to perform both the in life and bioanalytical phases of the study. The procedure reduces the complexity of data analysis by eliminating all but one calculated pharmacokinetic parameter; estimated exposure (eAUC20-120), a parameter that is sufficient to rank order compounds based on exposure, but is also easily determined by most software using the simple trapezoidal rule. The RACE assay protocol is readily applicable to early/exploratory studies of most compounds, and is intended to be employed by laboratories with limited expertise in pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. PMID:23788556

  16. Application of Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Detection of the Chemical Warfare Agent Sulfur Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-16

    Title of Thesis: “Application of Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry for Rapid...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Application of Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Detection of the Chemical...phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Five commercially available SPME fibers were investigated to determine the

  17. Thermal-hydrodynamic-chemical (THC) modeling based on geothermal field data

    SciTech Connect

    Kiryukhin, Alexey; Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten; Apps, John; Slovtsov, Igor

    2002-01-01

    Data on fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy are evaluated for a number of geothermal fields located in the volcanic arc of Japan and Kamchatka, Russia, Common chemical characteristics are identified and used to define scenarios for detailed numerical modeling of coupled thermal hydrodynamic chemical (THC) processes. The following scenarios of parental geothermal fluid upflow were studied: (1) single-phase conditions, 260 C at the bottom ( Ogiri type); (2) two-phase conditions, 300 C at the bottom ( Hatchobaru type); and (3) heat pipe conditions, 260 C at the bottom ( Matsukawa type). THC modeling for the single-phase upflow scenario shows wairakite, quartz, K-feld spar and chlorite formed as the principal secondary minerals in the production zone, and illite-smectite formed below 230 C. THC modeling of the two-phase upflow shows that quartz, K-feldspar (microcline), wairakite and calcite precipitate in the model as principal secondary minerals in the production zone. THC modeling of heat pipe conditions shows no significant secondary deposition of minerals (quartz, K-feldspar, zeolites) in the production zone. The influence of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of chemical interaction, and of mass fluxes on mineral phase changes, was found to be significant, depending on the upflow regime. It was found that no parental geothermal fluid inflow is needed for zeolite precipitation, which occurs above 140 C in saturated andesite, provided that the porosity is greater than 0.001. In contrast, quartz and K-feldspar precipitation may result in a significant porosity reduction over a hundred-year time scale under mass flux conditions, and complete fracture sealing will occur given sufficient time under either single-phase or two-phase upflow scenarios. A heat pipe scenario shows no significant porosity reduction due to lack of secondary mineral phase deposition.

  18. A Tree Based Method for the Rapid Screening of Chemical Fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Thomas G.; Nielsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    The fingerprint of a molecule is a bitstring based on its structure, constructed such that structurally similar molecules will have similar fingerprints. Molecular fingerprints can be used in an initial phase for identifying novel drug candidates by screening large databases for molecules with fingerprints similar to a query fingerprint. In this paper, we present a method which efficiently finds all fingerprints in a database with Tanimoto coefficient to the query fingerprint above a user defined threshold. The method is based on two novel data structures for rapid screening of large databases: the kD grid and the Multibit tree. The kD grid is based on splitting the fingerprints into k shorter bitstrings and utilising these to compute bounds on the similarity of the complete bitstrings. The Multibit tree uses hierarchical clustering and similarity within each cluster to compute similar bounds. We have implemented our method and tested it on a large data set from the industry. Our experiments show that our method yields a three-fold speed-up over previous methods.

  19. Atomistic Simulations of Chemical Reactivity of TATB Under Thermal and Shock Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Manaa, M R; Reed, E J; Fried, L E

    2009-09-23

    The study of chemical transformations that occur at the reactive shock front of energetic materials provides important information for the development of predictive models at the grain-and continuum scales. A major shortcoming of current high explosives models is the lack of chemical kinetics data of the reacting explosive in the high pressure and temperature regimes. In the absence of experimental data, long-time scale atomistic molecular dynamics simulations with reactive chemistry become a viable recourse to provide an insight into the decomposition mechanism of explosives, and to obtain effective reaction rate laws. These rates can then be incorporated into thermo-chemical-hydro codes (such as Cheetah linked to ALE3D) for accurate description of the grain and macro scales dynamics of reacting explosives. In this talk, I will present quantum simulations of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) crystals under thermal decomposition (high density and temperature) and shock compression conditions. This is the first time that condensed phase quantum methods have been used to study the chemistry of insensitive high explosives. We used the quantum-based, self-consistent charge density functional tight binding method (SCC{_}DFTB) to calculate the interatomic forces for reliable predictions of chemical reactions, and to examine electronic properties at detonation conditions for a relatively long time-scale on the order of several hundreds of picoseconds. For thermal decomposition of TATB, we conducted constant volume-temperature simulations, ranging from 0.35 to 2 nanoseconds, at {rho} = 2.87 g/cm{sup 3} at T = 3500, 3000, 2500, and 1500 K, and {rho} = 2.9 g/cm{sup 3} and 2.72 g/cm{sup 3}, at T = 3000 K. We also simulated crystal TATB's reactivity under steady overdriven shock compression using the multi-scale shock technique. We conducted shock simulations with specified shock speeds of 8, 9, and 10 km/s for up to 0.43 ns duration, enabling us to track the

  20. Rapid Determination of Fast Protein Dynamics from NMR Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Data.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yina; Hansen, Alexandar L; Peng, Yu; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2016-02-24

    Functional motions of (15)N-labeled proteins can be monitored by solution NMR spin relaxation experiments over a broad range of timescales. These experiments however typically take of the order of several days to a week per protein. Recently, NMR chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) experiments have emerged to probe slow millisecond motions complementing R1ρ and CPMG-type experiments. CEST also simultaneously reports on site-specific R1 and R2 parameters. It is shown here how CEST-derived R1 and R2 relaxation parameters can be measured within a few hours at an accuracy comparable to traditional relaxation experiments. Using a "lean" version of the model-free approach S(2) order parameters can be determined that match those from the standard model-free approach applied to (15)N R1, R2 , and {(1)H}-(15)N NOE data. The new methodology, which is demonstrated for ubiquitin and arginine kinase (42 kDa), should serve as an effective screening tool of protein dynamics from picosecond-to-millisecond timescales.

  1. Rapid low-temperature processing of metal-oxide thin film transistors with combined far ultraviolet and thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Leppäniemi, J. Ojanperä, K.; Kololuoma, T.; Huttunen, O.-H.; Majumdar, H.; Alastalo, A.; Dahl, J.; Tuominen, M.; Laukkanen, P.

    2014-09-15

    We propose a combined far ultraviolet (FUV) and thermal annealing method of metal-nitrate-based precursor solutions that allows efficient conversion of the precursor to metal-oxide semiconductor (indium zinc oxide, IZO, and indium oxide, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) both at low-temperature and in short processing time. The combined annealing method enables a reduction of more than 100 °C in annealing temperature when compared to thermally annealed reference thin-film transistor (TFT) devices of similar performance. Amorphous IZO films annealed at 250 °C with FUV for 5 min yield enhancement-mode TFTs with saturation mobility of ∼1 cm{sup 2}/(V·s). Amorphous In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films annealed for 15 min with FUV at temperatures of 180 °C and 200 °C yield TFTs with low-hysteresis and saturation mobility of 3.2 cm{sup 2}/(V·s) and 7.5 cm{sup 2}/(V·s), respectively. The precursor condensation process is clarified with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Introducing the FUV irradiation at 160 nm expedites the condensation process via in situ hydroxyl radical generation that results in the rapid formation of a continuous metal-oxygen-metal structure in the film. The results of this paper are relevant in order to upscale printed electronics fabrication to production-scale roll-to-roll environments.

  2. Accelerated screening methods for determining chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures, Part 1: Method assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents results of a literature search performed to identify analytical techniques suitable for accelerated screening of chemical and thermal stabilities of different refrigerant/lubricant combinations. Search focused on three areas: Chemical stability data of HFC-134a and other non-chlorine containing refrigerant candidates; chemical stability data of CFC-12, HCFC-22, and other chlorine containing refrigerants; and accelerated thermal analytical techniques. Literature was catalogued and an abstract was written for each journal article or technical report. Several thermal analytical techniques were identified as candidates for development into accelerated screening tests. They are easy to operate, are common to most laboratories, and are expected to produce refrigerant/lubricant stability evaluations which agree with the current stability test ANSI/ASHRAE (American National Standards Institute/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers) Standard 97-1989, ``Sealed Glass Tube Method to Test the Chemical Stability of Material for Use Within Refrigerant Systems.`` Initial results of one accelerated thermal analytical candidate, DTA, are presented for CFC-12/mineral oil and HCFC-22/mineral oil combinations. Also described is research which will be performed in Part II to optimize the selected candidate.

  3. Rapid screening of N-oxides of chemical warfare agents degradation products by ESI-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, L; Karthikraj, R; Lakshmi, V V S; Raju, N Prasada; Prabhakar, S

    2014-08-01

    Rapid detection and identification of chemical warfare agents and related precursors/degradation products in various environmental matrices is of paramount importance for verification of standards set by the chemical weapons convention (CWC). Nitrogen mustards, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides, N,N-dialkylaminoethanols, N-alkyldiethanolamines, and triethanolamine, which are listed CWC scheduled chemicals, are prone to undergo N-oxidation in environmental matrices or during decontamination process. Thus, screening of the oxidized products of these compounds is also an important task in the verification process because the presence of these products reveals alleged use of nitrogen mustards or precursors of VX compounds. The N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides easily produce [M + H](+) ions under electrospray ionization conditions, and their collision-induced dissociation spectra include a specific neutral loss of 48 u (OH + CH2OH) and 66 u (OH + CH2Cl), respectively. Based on this specific fragmentation, a rapid screening method was developed for screening of the N-oxides by applying neutral loss scan technique. The method was validated and the applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing positive and negative samples. The method was useful in the detection of N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides in environmental matrices at trace levels (LOD, up to 500 ppb), even in the presence of complex masking agents, without the use of time-consuming sample preparation methods and chromatographic steps. This method is advantageous for the off-site verification program and also for participation in official proficiency tests conducted by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the Netherlands. The structure of N-oxides can be confirmed by the MS/MS experiments on the detected peaks. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for the separation of isomeric N-oxides of aminoethanols and

  4. Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting.

    PubMed

    Torres-Climent, A; Gomis, P; Martín-Mata, J; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Paredes, C; Moral, R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio.

  5. Numerical modeling of coupled thermal chemical reactive transport: simulation of a heat storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.; Watanabe, N.; Singh, A. K.; Nagel, T.; Linder, M.; Woerner, A.; Kolditz, O.

    2012-12-01

    As a carbon-free energy supply technology, the operation time and final energy output of thermal solar power plants can be greatly extended if efficient thermal storage systems are applied. One of the proposed design of such system is to utilize reversible thermochemical reactions and its embedded reaction enthalpy, e.g. the Ca(OH)2/CaO hydration circle, in a fixed-bed gas-solid reactor (Schaube et al. 2011) The modeling of such a storage system involves multiple strongly-coupled physical and chemical processes. Seepage velocity is calculated by the nonlinear Forchheimer law. Gas phase density and viscosity are temperature, pressure and composition dependent. Also, heat transfer between gas and solid phases is largely influenced by the exothermal heat produced by the hydration of calcium oxide. Numerical solution of four governing PDEs include the mass balance, reactive transport, heat balance equations for gas and solid phases, which are implemented into the open source scientific software OpenGeoSys in a monolithic way. Based on it, a 2D numerical model, considering the boundary heat loss of the system, was set up to simulate the energy-storage and release circle. The high performance computing techniques were employed in two stages. First, the dynamic behavior of the heat storage system is simulated on a parallel platform. Second, a large number of processors are employed to perform sensitivity analysis, whereas the reaction rates and efficiency factor of heat transfer are parameterized so that the measured and simulated temperature profile fit with each other. The model showed that heat transfer coefficient between solid and gas phase, grain size of the filling material will influence the final performance greatly. By varying these factors, the calibrated model will be further applied to optimize the design of such energy storage system.

  6. Characterization of Chemically and Thermally Treated Oil-in-Water Heteroaggregates and Comparison to Conventional Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Maier, Christiane; Reichert, Corina L; Weiss, Jochen

    2016-10-01

    Heteroaggregated oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions formed by targeted combination of oppositely charged emulsion droplets were proposed to be used for the modulation of physical properties of food systems, ideally achieving the formation of a particulate 3-dimensional network at comparably low-fat content. In this study, rheological properties of Quillaja saponins (QS), sugar beet pectin (SBP), and whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilized conventional and heteroaggregated O/W emulsions at oil contents of 10% to 60% (w/w) were investigated. Selected systems having an oil content of 30% (w/w) and different particle sizes (d43 ≤ 1.1 or ≥16.7 μm) were additionally subjected to chemical (genipin or glutaraldehyde) and thermal treatments, aiming to increase network stability. Subsequently, their rheological properties and stability were assessed. Yield stresses (τ0 ) of both conventional and heteroaggregated O/W emulsions were found to depend on emulsifier type, oil content, and initial droplet size. For conventional emulsions, high yield stresses were only observed for SBP-based emulsions (τ0 ,SBP approximately 157 Pa). Highest yield stresses of heteroaggregates were observed when using small droplets stabilized by SBP/WPI (approximately 15.4 Pa), being higher than those of QS/WPI (approximately 1.6 Pa). Subsequent treatments led to significant alterations in rheological properties for SBP/WPI systems, with yield stresses increasing 29-fold (glutaraldehyde) and 2-fold (thermal treatment) compared to untreated heteroaggregates, thereby surpassing yield stresses of similarly treated conventional SBP emulsions. Genipin-driven treatments proved to be ineffective. Results should be of interest to food manufacturers wishing to design viscoelastic food emulsion based systems at lower oil droplet contents.

  7. Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Climent, A.; Gomis, P.; Martín-Mata, J.; Bustamante, M. A.; Marhuenda-Egea, F. C.; Pérez-Murcia, M. D.; Pérez-Espinosa, A.; Paredes, C.; Moral, R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio. PMID:26418458

  8. Lessons Learned: Using Low Cost, Uncooled Infrared Cameras for the Rapid Liquid Level Assessment of Chemical UXO and Storage Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Kevin Larry

    2002-09-01

    During the fall of 2001, the U.S. Army used low-cost infrared cameras provided by the INEEL to image 3190 aging ton shipping containers to determine if any contained liquid, possibly trace amounts of hazardous mustard agent. The purpose of the scan was to provide quick, "hands-off" assessment of the water-heater-sized containers before moving them with a crane. If the thermal images indicated a possible liquid level, extra safety precautions would be taken prior to moving the container. The technique of using infrared cameras to determine liquid levels in large storage tanks is well documented, but the application of this technique to ton shipping containers (45 to 1036 liters) and even smaller individual chemical munitions (2 to 4 liters) is unique and presents some interesting challenges. This paper describes the lessons learned, problems encountered and success rates associated with using low-cost infrared cameras to look for liquid levels within ton shipping containers and individual chemical munitions.

  9. Chemical and stable-radiogenic isotope compositions of Polatlı-Haymana thermal waters (Ankara, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilli, Hafize; Mutlu, Halim

    2016-04-01

    Complex tectono-magmatic evolution of the Anatolian land resulted in development of numerous geothermal areas through Turkey. The Ankara region in central Anatolia is surrounded by several basins which are filled with upper Cretaceous-Tertiary sediments. Overlying Miocene volcanics and step faulting along the margins of these basins played a significant role in formation of a number of low-enthalpy thermal waters. In this study, chemical and isotopic compositions of Polatlı and Haymana geothermal waters in the Ankara region are investigated. The Polatlı-Haymana waters with a temperature range of 24 to 43 °C are represented by Ca-(Na)-HCO3 composition implying derivation from carbonate type reservoir rocks. Oxygen-hydrogen isotope values of the waters are conformable with the Global Meteoric Water Line and point to a meteoric origin. The carbon isotopic composition in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the studied waters is between -21.8 and -1.34 permil (vs. VPDB). Marine carbonates and organic rocks are the main sources of carbon. There is a high correlation between oxygen (3.7 to 15.0 permil; VSMOW) and sulfur (-9.2 to 19.5 permil; VCDT) isotope compositions of sulfate in waters. The mixing of sulfate from dissolution of marine carbonates and terrestrial evaporite units is the chief process behind the observed sulfate isotope systematics of the samples. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of waters varying from 0.705883 to 0.707827 are consistent with those of reservoir rocks. The temperatures calculated by SO4-H2O isotope geothermometry are between 81 and 138 °C nearly doubling the estimates from chemical geothermometers.

  10. Equilibrium unfolding of A. niger RNase: pH dependence of chemical and thermal denaturation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gundampati Ravi; Sharma, Anurag; Kumari, Moni; Jagannadham, Medicherla V; Debnath, Mira

    2011-08-01

    Equilibrium unfolding of A. niger RNase with chemical denaturants, for example GuHCl and urea, and thermal unfolding have been studied as a function of pH using fluorescence, far-UV, near-UV, and absorbance spectroscopy. Because of their ability to affect electrostatic interactions, pH and chemical denaturants have a marked effect on the stability, structure, and function of many globular proteins. ANS binding studies have been conducted to enable understanding of the folding mechanism of the protein in the presence of the denaturants. Spectroscopic studies by absorbance, fluorescence, and circular dichroism and use of K2D software revealed that the enzyme has α + β type secondary structure with approximately 29% α-helix, 24% β-sheet, and 47% random coil. Under neutral conditions the enzyme is stable in urea whereas GuHCl-induced equilibrium unfolding was cooperative. A. niger RNase has little ANS binding even under neutral conditions. Multiple intermediates were populated during the pH-induced unfolding of A. niger RNase. Urea and temperature-induced unfolding of A. niger RNase into the molten globule-like state is non-cooperative, in contrast to the cooperativity seen with the native protein, suggesting the presence of two parts/domains, in the molecular structure of A. niger RNase, with different stability that unfolds in steps. Interestingly, the GuHCl-induced unfolding of the A state (molten globule state) of A. niger RNase is unique, because a low concentration of denaturant not only induces structural change but also facilitates transition from one molten globule like state (A(MG1)) into another (I(MG2)).

  11. Investigations of rapid thermal annealing induced structural evolution of ZnO: Ge nanocomposite thin films via GISAXS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Abdullah; Ozcan, Yusuf; Orujalipoor, Ilghar; Huang, Yen-Chih; Jeng, U.-Ser; Ide, Semra

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present in depth structural investigations of nanocomposite ZnO: Ge thin films by utilizing a state of the art grazing incidence small angle x-ray spectroscopy (GISAXS) technique. The samples have been deposited by sequential r.f. and d.c. sputtering of ZnO and Ge thin film layers, respectively, on single crystal Si(100) substrates. Transformation of Ge layers into Ge nanoparticles (Ge-np) has been initiated by ex-situ rapid thermal annealing of asprepared thin film samples at 600 °C for 30, 60, and 90 s under forming gas atmosphere. A special attention has been paid on the effects of reactive and nonreactive growth of ZnO layers on the structural evolution of Ge-np. GISAXS analyses have been performed via cylindrical and spherical form factor calculations for different nanostructure types. Variations of the size, shape, and distributions of both ZnO and Ge nanostructures have been determined. It has been realized that GISAXS results are not only remarkably consistent with the electron microscopy observations but also provide additional information on the large scale size and shape distribution of the nanostructured components.

  12. Rapid, in Situ Synthesis of High Capacity Battery Anodes through High Temperature Radiation-Based Thermal Shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanan; Li, Yiju; Wang, Yanbin; Fu, Kun; Danner, Valencia A; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven D; Yao, Yonggang; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-09-14

    High capacity battery electrodes require nanosized components to avoid pulverization associated with volume changes during the charge-discharge process. Additionally, these nanosized electrodes need an electronically conductive matrix to facilitate electron transport. Here, for the first time, we report a rapid thermal shock process using high-temperature radiative heating to fabricate a conductive reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite with silicon nanoparticles. Silicon (Si) particles on the order of a few micrometers are initially embedded in the RGO host and in situ transformed into 10-15 nm nanoparticles in less than a minute through radiative heating. The as-prepared composites of ultrafine Si nanoparticles embedded in a RGO matrix show great performance as a Li-ion battery (LIB) anode. The in situ nanoparticle synthesis method can also be adopted for other high capacity battery anode materials including tin (Sn) and aluminum (Al). This method for synthesizing high capacity anodes in a RGO matrix can be envisioned for roll-to-roll nanomanufacturing due to the ease and scalability of this high-temperature radiative heating process.

  13. The striking influence of rapid thermal annealing on InGaAsP grown by MBE: material and photovoltaic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Lian; Tan, Ming; Ding, Chao; Honda, Kazuki; Harasawa, Ryo; Yasue, Yuya; Wu, Yuanyuan; Dai, Pan; Tackeuchi, Atsushi; Bian, Lifeng; Lu, Shulong; Yang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) has been performed on InGaAsP solar cells with the bandgap energy of 1 eV grown by molecular beam epitaxy. With the employment of RTA under an optimized condition, the open voltage was increased from 0.45 to 0.5 V and the photoelectric conversion efficiency was increased from 11.87-13.2%, respectively, which was attributed to the crystal quality improvement of p-type InGaAsP and therefore a reduced recombination current inside depletion region. The integral photoluminescence (PL) intensity of p-type InGaAsP increased to 166 times after annealing at 800 °C and its PL decay time increased by one order of magnitude. While the changes of nominally undoped and n-doped InGaAsP were negligible. The different behaviors of the effect of RTA on InGaAsP of different doping types were attributed to the highly mobile "activator" - beryllium (Be) atom in p-type InGaAsP.

  14. Processing silicon microparticles recycled from wafer waste via Rapid Thermal Process for lithium-ion battery anode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hui-Gee; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2016-12-01

    A vast quantity of waste sludge is generated during the silicon wafers slicing process in semiconductor and photovoltaic industries. Turning the waste powder into high-value products is of strategic importance for industrial processes. The purified Si microparticles (Si-MP) are recycled by a simple and fast procedure, Rapid Thermal Process (RTP). A prominent anodic material of Si-MP/Carbon composite with porous structure is obtained via in-spaced carbonization of water-soluble binder sodium carboxymethyl cellulose during RTP. This strategy provides buffer space, which is constructed by carbon porous continuous conductive framework throughout the entire electrode, to resist local stress and intense volume variation. In addition, a sufficiently electrochemically stable solid-electrolyte interphase layer is accomplished with the coating of SiOx film and amorphous carbon on the surface of Si-MP. Under these circumstances, the enhanced electrodes achieve a first cycle efficiency of approximately 80% and a reversible charge capacity of 800 mAhg-1 over 100 cycles at 0.5 Ag-1 with good retention. Through a green and simple procedure, a remarkable Si-MP embedded carbon-matrix with porous structure is established to achieve commercially high performance Si-MP/C composite anodes and also to resolve the issues of waste disposal.

  15. Rapid chemical decontamination of infectious CJD and scrapie particles parallels treatments known to disrupt microbes and biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Botsios, Sotirios; Tittman, Sarah; Manuelidis, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative human CJD and sheep scrapie are diseases caused by several different transmissible encephalopathy (TSE) agents. These infectious agents provoke innate immune responses in the brain, including late-onset abnormal prion protein (PrP-res) amyloid. Agent particles that lack detectable PrP sequences by deep proteomic analysis are highly infectious. Yet these agents, and their unusual resistance to denaturation, are often evaluated by PrP amyloid disruption. To reexamine the intrinsic resistance of TSE agents to denaturation, a paradigm for less resistant viruses and microbes, we developed a rapid and reproducible high yield agent isolation procedure from cultured cells that minimized PrP amyloid and other cellular proteins. Monotypic neuronal GT1 cells infected with the FU-CJD or 22L scrapie agents do not have complex brain changes that can camouflage infectious particles and prevent their disruption, and there are only 2 reports on infectious titers of any human CJD strain treated with chemical denaturants. Infectious titers of both CJD and scrapie were reduced by >4 logs with Thiourea-urea, a treatment not previously tested. A mere 5 min exposure to 4M GdnHCl at 22°C reduced infectivity by >5 logs. Infectious 22L particles were significantly more sensitive to denaturation than FU-CJD particles. A protocol using sonication with these chemical treatments may effectively decontaminate complicated instruments, such as duodenoscopes that harbor additional virulent microbes and biofilms associated with recent iatrogenic infections. PMID:26556670

  16. Lab tests on the biodegradation of chemically dispersed oil should consider the rapid dilution that occurs at sea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kenneth; Nedwed, Tim; Prince, Roger C; Palandro, David

    2013-08-15

    Most crude oils spread on open water to an average thickness as low as 0.1 mm. The application of dispersants enhances the transport of oil as small droplets into the water column, and when combined with the turbulence of 1 m waves will quickly entrain oil into the top 1 m of the water column, where it rapidly dilutes to concentrations less than 100 ppm. In less than 24 h, the dispersed oil is expected to mix into the top 10 m of the water column and be diluted to concentrations well below 10 ppm, with dilution continuing as time proceeds. Over the multiple weeks that biodegradation takes place, dispersed oil concentrations are expected to be below 1 ppm. Measurements from spills and wave basin studies support these calculations. Published laboratory studies focused on the quantification of contaminant biodegradation rates have used concentrations orders of magnitude greater than this, as it was necessary to ensure the concentrations of hydrocarbons and other chemicals were higher than the detection limits of chemical analysis. However, current analytical methods can quantify individual alkanes and PAHs (and their alkyl homologues) at ppb and ppm levels. To simulate marine biodegradation of dispersed oil at dilute concentrations commonly encountered in the field, laboratory studies should be conducted at similarly low hydrocarbon concentrations.

  17. Improving the resistance of a eukaryotic β-barrel protein to thermal and chemical perturbations.

    PubMed

    Gessmann, Dennis; Mager, Frauke; Naveed, Hammad; Arnold, Thomas; Weirich, Sara; Linke, Dirk; Liang, Jie; Nussberger, Stephan

    2011-10-14

    β-Barrel membrane proteins have regular structures with extensive hydrogen-bond networks between their transmembrane (TM) β-strands, which stabilize their protein fold. Nevertheless, weakly stable TM regions, which are important for the protein function and interaction with other proteins, exist. Here, we report on the apparent stability of human Tom40A, a member of the "mitochondrial porin family" and main constituent of the mitochondrial protein-conducting channel TOM (translocase of the outer membrane). Using a physical interaction model, TmSIP, for β-barrel membrane proteins, we have identified three unfavorable β-strands in the TM domain of the protein. Substitution of key residues inside these strands with hydrophobic amino acids results in a decreased sensitivity of the protein to chemical and/or thermal denaturation. The apparent melting temperature observed when denatured at a rate of 1 °C per minute is shifted from 73 to 84 °C. Moreover, the sensitivity of the protein to denaturant agents is significantly lowered. Further, we find a reduced tendency for the mutated protein to form dimers. We propose that the identified weakly stable β-strands 1, 2 and 9 of human Tom40A play an important role in quaternary protein-protein interactions within the mammalian TOM machinery. Our results show that the use of empirical energy functions to model the apparent stability of β-barrel membrane proteins may be a useful tool in the field of nanopore bioengineering.

  18. Improving the Resistance of a Eukaryotic β-Barrel Protein to Thermal and Chemical Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Gessmann, Dennis; Mager, Frauke; Naveed, Hammad; Arnold, Thomas; Weirich, Sara; Linke, Dirk; Liang, Jie; Nussberger, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Beta-barrel membrane proteins have regular structures with extensive hydrogen bonding networks between their transmembrane (TM) β-strands, which stabilize their protein fold. Nevertheless, weakly stable TM regions exist, which are important for the protein function and interaction with other proteins. Here, we report on the apparent stability of human Tom40A, a member of the ‘mitochondrial porin family’ and main constituent of the mitochondrial protein-conducting channel TOM. Using a physical interaction model TmSIP for β-barrel membrane proteins, we have identified three β-strands unfavorable in the TM domain of the protein. Substitution of key residues inside these strands with hydrophobic amino acids results in a decreased sensitivity of the protein to chemical and/or thermal denaturation. The apparent melting temperature observed when denatured at a rate of one degree per minute, is shifted from 73 to 84 °C. Moreover, the sensitivity of the protein to denaturant agents is significantly lowered. Further, we find a reduced tendency for the mutated protein to form dimers. We propose that the identified weakly stable β-strands 1, 2 and 9 of human Tom40A play an important role in quaternary protein-protein interactions within the mammalian TOM machinery. Our results show that the use of empirical energy functions to model the apparent stability of β-barrel membrane proteins may be a useful tool in the field of nanopore bioengineering. PMID:21835183

  19. Chemical origin of the native ESR signals in thermally treated enamel and dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Luciano; Baffa, Oswaldo; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2004-06-01

    Heating, crushing and exposure of dental enamel to sunlight and UV radiation can introduce paramagnetic signals similar to those following exposure to ionizing radiation. The objective of this work is to use infrared and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra to study thermally treated enamel and dentin, and identify the chemical radical or mechanisms that produce these ambiguous ESR signals. Non-irradiated bovine teeth were used. ESR spectroscopy was performed in the X band and the infrared spectroscopy was performed on a FTIR spectrometer operating between 4000 cm -1 and 400 cm -1. The results show ESR signals in dentin heated at temperatures between 100°C and 1000°C and in enamel heated at temperatures ranging from 250°C to 1000°C. The ESR signal formed after heat treatment below 400°C could be assigned to degradation products of the organic material, while the ESR signals that predominate in tissues heated between 500°C and 900°C show a maximum amplitude at 750°C and could be assigned to the cyanate ion (NCO -).

  20. Structural, compositional, and photoluminescence characterization of thermal chemical vapor deposition-grown Zn₃N₂ microtips

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Pai-Chun E-mail: tsengcm@phys.sinica.edu.tw; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Hsu, Chia-Hao; Tong, Shih-Chang; Shen, Ji-Lin; Tseng, Chuan-Ming E-mail: tsengcm@phys.sinica.edu.tw

    2014-10-14

    The catalytic growth of Zn₃N₂ using guided-stream thermal chemical vapor deposition has been investigated within the parameter range of acicular growth to obtain uniform microtips with a high crystalline quality. The cubic anti-bixbyite crystal structure of Zn₃N₂ microtips and its related phonon mode are revealed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The surface morphologies of pure and surface-oxidized Zn₃N₂ microtips are depicted by scanning electron microscopy and show the crack formation on the surface-oxidized Zn₃N₂ microtips. The spatial element distribution map confirms the VLS growth mechanism for Zn₃N₂ microtips and reveals the depth profile of zinc, nitrogen, oxygen, and nickel elements. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Zn₃N₂ microtips show a sharp infrared band-to-band emission peak at 1.34 eV with a full width at half maximum of ~100 meV and a very broad oxygen-related defect band emission peak centered at ~0.85 eV.

  1. Thermal and chemical vapor deposition of Si nanowires: Shape control, dispersion, and electrical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Colli, A.; Fasoli, A.; Beecher, P.; Servati, P.; Pisana, S.; Fu, Y.; Flewitt, A. J.; Milne, W. I.; Robertson, J.; Ducati, C.; De Franceschi, S.; Hofmann, S.; Ferrari, A. C.

    2007-08-01

    We investigate and compare complementary approaches to SiNW production in terms of yield, morphology control, and electrical properties. Vapor-phase techniques are considered, including chemical vapor deposition (with or without the assistance of a plasma) and thermal evaporation. We report Au-catalyzed nucleation of SiNWs at temperatures as low as 300 deg. C using SiH{sub 4} as precursor. We get yields up to several milligrams by metal-free condensation of SiO powders. For all processes, we control the final nanostructure morphology. We then report concentrated and stable dispersions of SiNWs in solvents compatible with semiconducting organic polymers. Finally, we investigate the electrical response of intrinsic SiNWs grown by different methods. All our SiNWs exhibit p-type behavior and comparable performance, though in some cases ambipolar devices are observed. Thus, processing and morphology, rather than the growth technique, are key to achieve optimal samples for applications.

  2. Precursor ion scan profiles of acylcarnitines by atmospheric pressure thermal desorption chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Paglia, Giuseppe; D'Apolito, Oceania; Corso, Gaetano

    2008-12-01

    The fatty acyl esters of L-carnitine (acylcarnitines) are useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of some inborn errors of metabolism analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In this study the acylcarnitines were analyzed by atmospheric pressure thermal desorption chemical ionization using a commercial tandem mass spectrometer (APTDCI-MS/MS). The method is based on the precursor ion scan mode determination of underivatized acylcarnitines desorbed from samples by a hot desolvation gas flow and ionized by a corona pin discharge. During desorption/ionization step the temperature induces the degradation of acylcarnitines; nevertheless, the common fragment to all acylcarnitines [MH-59](+) is useful for analyzing their profile. APTDCI parameters, including angle of collection and incidence, gas flows and temperatures, were optimized for acylcarnitines. The experiments were performed drying 2 microL of an equimolar mixture of acylcarnitine standards on a glass slide. The specificity was evaluated by comparing product ion spectra and the precursor ion spectra of 85 m/z of acylcarnitines obtained by the APTDCI method and by electrospray ionization flow injection analysis (ESI-FIA). The method was also employed to analyze acylcarnitines extracted from a pathological dried blood spot and a control. The method enables analysis of biological samples and recognition of some acylcarnitines that are diagnostic markers of inherited metabolic diseases. The intrinsic high-throughput analysis of the ambient desorption ionization methods offers a new opportunity either for its potential application in clinical chemistry and for the expanded screening of some inborn errors of metabolism.

  3. An approach to modeling coupled thermal-hydraulic-chemical processes in geothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palguta, Jennifer; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Hickman, Stephen H.; Sonnenthal, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between hydrothermal fluids and rock alter mineralogy, leading to the formation of secondary minerals and potentially significant physical and chemical property changes. Reactive transport simulations are essential for evaluating the coupled processes controlling the geochemical, thermal and hydrological evolution of geothermal systems. The objective of this preliminary investigation is to successfully replicate observations from a series of hydrothermal laboratory experiments [Morrow et al., 2001] using the code TOUGHREACT. The laboratory experiments carried out by Morrow et al. [2001] measure permeability reduction in fractured and intact Westerly granite due to high-temperature fluid flow through core samples. Initial permeability and temperature values used in our simulations reflect these experimental conditions and range from 6.13 × 10−20 to 1.5 × 10−17 m2 and 150 to 300 °C, respectively. The primary mineralogy of the model rock is plagioclase (40 vol.%), K-feldspar (20 vol.%), quartz (30 vol.%), and biotite (10 vol.%). The simulations are constrained by the requirement that permeability, relative mineral abundances, and fluid chemistry agree with experimental observations. In the models, the granite core samples are represented as one-dimensional reaction domains. We find that the mineral abundances, solute concentrations, and permeability evolutions predicted by the models are consistent with those observed in the experiments carried out by Morrow et al. [2001] only if the mineral reactive surface areas decrease with increasing clay mineral abundance. This modeling approach suggests the importance of explicitly incorporating changing mineral surface areas into reactive transport models.

  4. Experimental studies of thermal and chemical interactions between oxide and silicide nuclear fuels with water

    SciTech Connect

    farahani, A.A.; Corradini, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    Given some transient power/cooling mismatch is a nuclear reactor and its inability to establish the necessary core cooling, energetic fuel-coolant interactions (FCI`s commonly called `vapor explosions`) could occur as a result of the core melting and coolant contact. Although a large number of studies have been done on energetic FCI`s, very few experiments have been performed with the actual fuel materials postulated to be produced in severe accidents. Because of the scarcity of well-characterized FCI data for uranium allows in noncommercial reactors (cermet and silicide fuels), we have conducted a series of experiments to provide a data base for the foregoing materials. An existing 1-D shock-tube facility was modified to handle depleted radioactive materials (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al, and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al). Our objectives have been to determine the effects of the initial fuel composition and temperature and the driving pressure (triggering) on the explosion work output, dynamic pressures, transient temperatures, and the hydrogen production. Experimental results indicate limited energetics, mainly thermal interactions, for these fuel materials as compared to aluminum where more chemical reactions occur between the molten aluminum and water.

  5. Thermal nitridation of silicon dioxide at atmospheric pressure. Physico-chemical and electrical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, J. L.; Plantard, M.; Serrari, A.; Le Bihan, R.; Rigo, S.; Ledys, J. L.

    1989-11-01

    Thermal nitridation of silicon dioxide films was performed at atmospheric pressure in a furnace under NH 3 and at a temperature of 1100°C. Physico-chemical characterizations of the grown films were carried out by nuclear methods (NRA and ERD), electron spectroscopies (AES and ESCA) and ellipsometry. NRA measurements give quantitative results about nitrogen and oxygen concentrations and on the same samples AES and ESCA give the distribution of these elements throughout the films. The variation of the stoichiometry with the depth is determined. It is shown that the resulting nitroxide film is inhomogeneous with a nitrogen-rich surface layer and an interface pile-up of nitrogen. Nitridation is studied versus nitridation time and oxide thickness. The incorporation of nitrogen at the surface is higher when the initial oxide is thinner. As regards the bulk, the incorporation kinetics of nitrogen depends on the initial oxide thickness. Electrical characterizations of MIS structures realized with these nitroxide films show their good quality: flat-band voltage shifts are low; the difference in nature of interface charges is shown; conduction in the film is enhanced by nitridation as well as break-down electrical field.

  6. Chemical and thermal nonequilibrium heat transfer analysis for hypervelocity, low Reynolds number flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, K. G.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical and thermal nonequilibrium phenomena are studied in the stagnation region of a hypervelocity blunt body. This investigation is motivated by the need to predict the heat transfer rate to the leading edge of Aeromaneuvering Orbital Transfer Vehicles. Flight speeds of approximately 10 km/s at altitudes of approximately 80 km are considered for body radii of 1 to 50 cm. The analysis is based on continuum theory and is applicable to the viscous-layer and incipient-merged-layer rarefied-flow regimes. A two-species, two-temperature gas model is assumed. Comparisons are made with previous theories, experimental data, and results based on the thermodynamic equilibrium assumption. The equation accounting for vibrational nonequilibrium is presented and its effects on flow properties are discussed. Parameters which require further investigation are identified. Preliminary results indicate that the inclusion of vibrational relaxation has little effect on heat transfer rate for a catalytic surface. However, vibrational nonequilibrium may increase the heat transfer rate to a noncatalytic surface, depending on the degree of nonequilibrium.

  7. Yellowstone as an Analog for Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Processes at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    P. F. Dobson; T. J. Kneafsey; A. Simmons; J. Hulen

    2001-05-29

    Enhanced water-rock interaction resulting from the emplacement of heat-generating nuclear waste in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, may result in changes to fluid flow (resulting from mineral dissolution and precipitation in condensation and boiling zones, respectively). Studies of water-rock interaction in active and fossil geothermal systems (natural analogs) provide evidence for changes in permeability and porosity resulting from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes. The objective of this research is to document the effects of coupled THC processes at Yellowstone and then examine how differences in scale could influence the impact that these processes may have on the Yucca Mountain system. Subsurface samples from Yellowstone National Park, one of the largest active geothermal systems in the world, contain some the best examples of hydrothermal self-sealing found in geothermal systems. We selected core samples from two USGS research drill holes from the transition zone between conductive and convective portions of the geothermal system (where sealing was reported to occur). We analyzed the core, measuring the permeability, porosity, and grain density of selected samples to evaluate how lithology, texture, and degree of hydrothermal alteration influence matrix and fracture permeability.

  8. On the Growth and Microstructure of Carbon Nanotubes Grown by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were deposited on various substrates namely untreated silicon and quartz, Fe-deposited silicon and quartz, HF-treated silicon, silicon nitride-deposited silicon, copper foil, and stainless steel mesh using thermal chemical vapor deposition technique. The optimum parameters for the growth and the microstructure of the synthesized CNTs on these substrates are described. The results show that the growth of CNTs is strongly influenced by the substrate used. Vertically aligned multi-walled CNTs were found on quartz, Fe-deposited silicon and quartz, untreated silicon, and on silicon nitride-deposited silicon substrates. On the other hand, spaghetti-type growth was observed on stainless steel mesh, and no CNT growth was observed on HF-treated silicon and copper. Silicon nitride-deposited silicon substrate proved to be a promising substrate for long vertically aligned CNTs of length 110–130 μm. We present a possible growth mechanism for vertically aligned and spaghetti-type growth of CNTs based on these results. PMID:20596549

  9. Thermal and chemical vapor deposition of Si nanowires: Shape control, dispersion, and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colli, A.; Fasoli, A.; Beecher, P.; Servati, P.; Pisana, S.; Fu, Y.; Flewitt, A. J.; Milne, W. I.; Robertson, J.; Ducati, C.; De Franceschi, S.; Hofmann, S.; Ferrari, A. C.

    2007-08-01

    We investigate and compare complementary approaches to SiNW production in terms of yield, morphology control, and electrical properties. Vapor-phase techniques are considered, including chemical vapor deposition (with or without the assistance of a plasma) and thermal evaporation. We report Au-catalyzed nucleation of SiNWs at temperatures as low as 300°C using SiH4 as precursor. We get yields up to several milligrams by metal-free condensation of SiO powders. For all processes, we control the final nanostructure morphology. We then report concentrated and stable dispersions of SiNWs in solvents compatible with semiconducting organic polymers. Finally, we investigate the electrical response of intrinsic SiNWs grown by different methods. All our SiNWs exhibit p-type behavior and comparable performance, though in some cases ambipolar devices are observed. Thus, processing and morphology, rather than the growth technique, are key to achieve optimal samples for applications.

  10. Protein folding kinetics: barrier effects in chemical and thermal denaturation experiments

    PubMed Central

    Naganathan, Athi N.; Doshi, Urmi; Muñoz, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Recent experimental work on fast protein folding brings about an intriguing paradox. Microsecond-folding proteins are supposed to fold near or at the folding speed limit (downhill folding), but yet their folding behavior seems to comply with classical two-state analyses, which imply the crossing of high free energy barriers. However, close inspection of chemical and thermal denaturation kinetic experiments in fast-folding proteins reveals systematic deviations from two-state behavior. Using a simple one-dimensional free energy surface approach we find that such deviations are indeed diagnostic of marginal folding barriers. Furthermore, the quantitative analysis of available fast-kinetic data indicates that many microsecond-folding proteins fold downhill in native conditions. All of these proteins are then promising candidates for an atom-by-atom analysis of protein folding using nuclear magnetic resonance1. We also find that the diffusion coefficient for protein folding is strongly temperature dependent, corresponding to an activation energy of ~1 kJ.mol−1 per protein residue. As a consequence, the folding speed limit at room temperature is about an order of magnitude slower than the ~ 1μs estimates from high temperature T-jump experiments. Our analysis is quantitatively consistent with the available thermodynamic and kinetic data on two-state folding proteins, and provides a straightforward explanation for the apparent fast-folding paradox. PMID:17419630

  11. Chemical and Thermal Nonequilibrium Heat-Transfer Analysis for Hypervelocity, Low Reynolds Number Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Kevin G.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical and thermal nonequilibrium phenomena are studied in the stagnation region of a hypervelocity blunt body. This investigation is motivated by the need to predict the heat-transfer rate to the leading edge of aeromaneuvering orbital transfer vehicles. Flight speeds of approximately 10 km/s at altitudes of approximately 80 km are considered for body radii of 1-50 cm. The analysis is based on continuum theory and is applicable to the viscous and incipient merged layer regimes of rarefied flow. A two-species, two-temperature gas model is assumed. Comparisons are made with previous theories, experimental data, and results based on the thermodynamic equilibrium assumption. The equation accounting for vibrational nonequilibrium is presented and its effects on flow properties are discussed. Parameters requiring further investigation are identified. Preliminary results indicate that the inclusion of vibrational relaxation has little effect on the heat-transfer rate for a fully catalytic surface. However, vibrational nonequilibrium may increase the heat-transfer rate to a noncatalytic surface, depending on the degree of nonequilibrium.

  12. Microstructures of GaN Buffer Layers Grown on Si(111) Using Rapic Thermal Process Low-Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chen; Bo, Shen; Jian-Min, Zhu; Zhi-Zhong, Chen; Yu-Gang, Zhou; Shi-Yong, Xie; Rong, Zhang; Ping, Han; Shu-Lin, Gu; You-Dou, Zheng; Shu-Sheng, Jiang; Duan, Feng; Z, Huang C.

    2000-03-01

    Microstructures of GaN buffer layers grown on Si (111) substrates using rapid thermal process low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition are investigated by an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). AFM images show that the islands appear in the GaN buffer layer after annealing at high temperature. Cross-sectional HRTEM micrographs of the buffer region of these samples indicate that there are bunched steps on the surface of the Si substrate and a lot of domains in GaN misorienting each other with small angles. The boundaries of those domains locate near the bunched steps, and the regions of the film on a terrace between steps have the same crystal orientation. An amorphous-like layer, about 3 nm thick, can also be observed between the GaN buffer layer and the Si substrate.

  13. Evidence for a chemical-thermal structure at base of mantle from sharp lateral P-wave variations beneath Central America.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinlei; Song, Xiaodong; Zheng, Sihua; Helmberger, Don V

    2007-01-02

    Compressional waves that sample the lowermost mantle west of Central America show a rapid change in travel times of up to 4 s over a sampling distance of 300 km and a change in waveforms. The differential travel times of the PKP waves (which traverse Earth's core) correlate remarkably well with predictions for S-wave tomography. Our modeling suggests a sharp transition in the lowermost mantle from a broad slow region to a broad fast region with a narrow zone of slowest anomaly next to the boundary beneath the Cocos Plate and the Caribbean Plate. The structure may be the result of ponding of ancient subducted Farallon slabs situated near the edge of a thermal and chemical upwelling.

  14. Evidence for a chemical-thermal structure at base of mantle from sharp lateral P-wave variations beneath Central America

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xinlei; Song, Xiaodong; Zheng, Sihua; Helmberger, Don V.

    2007-01-01

    Compressional waves that sample the lowermost mantle west of Central America show a rapid change in travel times of up to 4 s over a sampling distance of 300 km and a change in waveforms. The differential travel times of the PKP waves (which traverse Earth's core) correlate remarkably well with predictions for S-wave tomography. Our modeling suggests a sharp transition in the lowermost mantle from a broad slow region to a broad fast region with a narrow zone of slowest anomaly next to the boundary beneath the Cocos Plate and the Caribbean Plate. The structure may be the result of ponding of ancient subducted Farallon slabs situated near the edge of a thermal and chemical upwelling. PMID:17182740

  15. Thermal Shock Properties of a 2D-C/SiC Composite Prepared by Chemical Vapor Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengyu; Wang, Xuanwei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Yongsheng; Han, Dong; Qiao, Shengru; Guo, Yong

    2013-06-01

    The thermal shock properties of a two-dimensional carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite with a multilayered self-healing coating (2D-C/SiC) were investigated in air. The composite was prepared by low-pressure chemical vapor infiltration. 2D-C/SiC specimens were thermally shocked for different cycles between 900 and 300 °C. The thermal shock resistance was characterized by residual tensile properties and mass variation. The change of the surface morphology and microstructural evolution of the composite were examined by a scanning electron microscope. In addition, the phase evolution on the surfaces was identified using an X-ray diffractometer. It is found that the composite retains its tensile strength within 20 thermal shock cycles. However, the modulus of 2D-C/SiC decreases gradually with increasing thermal shock cycles. Extensive pullout of fibers on the fractured surface and peeling off of the coating suggest that the damage caused by the thermal shock involves weakening of the bonding strength of coating/composite and fiber/matrix. In addition, the carbon fibers in the near-surface zone were oxidized through the matrix cracks, and the fiber/matrix interfaces delaminated when the composite was subjected to a larger number of thermal shock cycles.

  16. Vaporization or Chemical Reaction: Which controls the fate of contaminants treated by in situ thermal remediation?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal remediation technologies, which includes steam enhanced extraction, electrical resistance heating, and thermal conductive heating, have been developed based on technologies employed by the enhanced oil recovery industry. Although mobilization and/or volatilization of con...

  17. A Laboratory to Demonstrate the Effect of Thermal History on Semicrystalline Polymers Using Rapid Scanning Rate Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badrinarayanan, Prashanth; Kessler, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the effect of thermal history on the thermal properties of semicrystalline polymers is essential for materials scientists and engineers. In this article, we describe a materials science laboratory to demonstrate the effect of parameters such as heating rate and isothermal annealing conditions on the thermal behavior of…

  18. Effects of rapid thermal annealing conditions on GaInNAs band gap blueshift and photoluminescence intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Liverini, V.; Rutz, A.; Keller, U.; Schoen, S.

    2006-06-01

    We have studied the effects of various conditions of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on 10 nm GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum wells (SQWs) with fixed indium concentration and increasing nitrogen content to obtain photoluminescence (PL) in the telecom wavelength regime of 1.3 and 1.5 {mu}m. Specifically, we analyzed the results of annealing for a fixed short time but at different temperatures and for longer times at a fixed temperature. In all experiments, InGaAs SQWs with the same In concentration were used as references. For both RTA conditions, the well-known blueshift of the band gap energy and the PL intensity improvement show trends that reveal that these are unrelated effects. At high RTA temperatures the PL efficiency reaches a maximum and then drops independently of N content. On the contrary, the blueshift experiences a rapid increase up to 700 deg. C (strong blueshift regime) and it saturates above this temperature (weak blueshift regime). Both these blueshift regimes are related to the nitrogen content in the SQWs but in different ways. In the strong blueshift regime, we could obtain activation energy for the blueshift process in the range of 1.25 eV, which increases with N content. Analysis with high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) shows that the blueshift experienced in this regime is not due to a stoichiometric change in the QW. In the weak blueshift regime, the blueshift, which is only partly due to In outdiffusion, saturates more slowly the higher the N content. Annealing at the same temperature (600 deg. C) for a longer time shows that the blueshift saturates earlier than the PL intensity and that samples with higher nitrogen experience a larger blueshift. Only a small In outdiffusion for annealing at high temperatures (>650 deg. C) and long duration was observed. However, this modest stoichiometric change does not explain the large blueshift experienced by the GaInNAs SQWs. We conclude that the mechanism responsible for the drastic blueshift after

  19. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the structural and local atomic properties of ZnO: Ge nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ceylan, Abdullah Ozcan, Sadan; Rumaiz, Abdul K.; Caliskan, Deniz; Ozbay, Ekmel; Woicik, J. C.

    2015-03-14

    We have investigated the structural and local atomic properties of Ge nanocrystals (Ge-ncs) embedded ZnO (ZnO: Ge) thin films. The films were deposited by sequential sputtering of ZnO and Ge thin film layers on z-cut quartz substrates followed by an ex-situ rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 600 °C for 30, 60, and 90 s under forming gas atmosphere. Effects of RTA time on the evolution of Ge-ncs were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES), and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). XRD patterns have clearly shown that fcc diamond phase Ge-ncs of sizes ranging between 18 and 27 nm are formed upon RTA and no Ge-oxide peak has been detected. However, cross-section SEM images have clearly revealed that after RTA process, Ge layers form varying size nanoclusters composed of Ge-ncs regions. EXAFS performed at the Ge K-edge to probe the local atomic structure of the Ge-ncs has revealed that as prepared ZnO:Ge possesses Ge-oxide but subsequent RTA leads to crystalline Ge structure without the oxide layer. In order to study the occupied electronic structure, HAXPES has been utilized. The peak separation between the Zn 2p and Ge 3d shows no significant change due to RTA. This implies little change in the valence band offset due to RTA.

  20. Complete Numerical Simulation of Subcooled Flow Boiling in the Presence of Thermal and Chemical Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    V.K. Dhir

    2003-04-28

    At present, guidelines for fuel cycle designs to prevent axial offset anomalies (AOA) in pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores are based on empirical data from several operating reactors. Although the guidelines provide an ad-hoc solution to the problem, a unified approach based on simultaneous modeling of thermal-hydraulics, chemical, and nuclear interactions with vapor generation at the fuel cladding surface does not exist. As a result, the fuel designs are overly constrained with a resulting economic penalty. The objective of present project is to develop a numerical simulation model supported by laboratory experiments that can be used for fuel cycle design with respect to thermal duty of the fuel to avoid economic penalty, as well as, AOA. At first, two-dimensional numerical simulation of the growth and departure of a bubble in pool boiling with chemical interaction is considered. A finite difference scheme is used to solve the equations governing conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and species concentration. The Level Set method is used to capture the evolving liquid-vapor interface. A dilute aqueous boron solution is considered in the simulation. From numerical simulations, the dynamic change in concentration distribution of boron during the bubble growth shows that the precipitation of boron can occur near the advancing and receding liquid-vapor interface when the ambient boron concentration level is 3,000 ppm by weight. Secondly, a complete three-dimensional numerical simulation of inception, growth and departure of a single bubble subjected to forced flow parallel to the heater surface was developed. Experiments on a flat plate heater with water and with boron dissolved in the water were carried out. The heater was made out of well-polished silicon wafer. Numbers of nucleation sites and their locations were well controlled. Bubble dynamics in great details on an isolated nucleation site were obtained while varying the wall superheat, liquid subcooling

  1. pH dependence of the stability of barstar to chemical and thermal denaturation.

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, R.; Hate, A. T.; Nath, U.; Udgaonkar, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium unfolding of barstar with guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) and urea as denaturants as well as thermal unfolding have been carried out as a function of pH using fluorescence, far-UV and near-UV CD, and absorbance as probes. Both GdnHCl-induced and urea-induced denaturation studies at pH 7 show that barstar unfolds through a two-state F<->U mechanism and yields identical values for delta GU, the free energy difference between the fully folded (F) and unfolded (U) forms, of 5.0 +/- 0.5 kcal.mol-1 at 25 degrees C. Thermal denaturation of barstar also follows a two-state F<->U unfolding transition at pH 7, and the value of delta GU at 25 degrees C is similar to that obtained from chemical denaturation. The pH dependence of denaturation by GdnHCl is complex. The Cm value (midpoint of the unfolding transition) has been used as an index for stability in the pH range 2-10, because barstar does not unfold through a two-state transition on denaturation by GdnHCl at all pH values studied. Stability is maximum at pH 2-3, where barstar exists in a molten globule-like form that forms a large soluble oligomer. The stability decreases with an increase in pH to 5, the isoelectric pH of the protein. Above pH 5, the stability increases as the pH is raised to 7. Above pH 8, it again decreases as the pH is raised to 10. The decrease in stability from pH 7 to 5 in wild-type (wt) barstar, which is shown to be characterized by an apparent pKa of 6.2 +/- 0.2, is not observed in H17Q, a His 17-->Gln 17 mutant form of barstar. This decrease in stability has therefore been correlated with the protonation of His 17 in barstar. The decrease in stability beyond pH 8 in wt barstar, which is characterized by an apparent pKa of 9.2 +/- 0.2, is not detected in BSCCAA, the Cys 40 Cys 82-->Ala 40 Ala 82 double mutant form of barstar. Thus, this decrease in stability has been correlated with the deprotonation of at least one of the two cysteines present in wt barstar. The increase in

  2. Evaluation of morphological and chemical aspects of different wood species by spectroscopy and thermal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Lisa, Gabriela; Sakata, Yusaku

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find the most convenient procedure to make an easy differentiation between various kinds of wood. The wood samples used were: fir (Acer alba), poplar (Populus tremula), lime (Tillia cordata), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), walnut (Juglans regia), beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur). The methods of investigation used were FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. By FT-IR spectroscopy, was observed that the ratio values of lignin/carbohydrate IR bands for wood decreases with increasing the average wood density, showing a decrease in lignin content. Also, the calculated values of lignin percentage from the FT-IR spectra are in very good correlation with the values from literature. Following the deconvolution process of the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that the degree of crystallinity, the apparent lateral crystallite size, the proportion of crystallite interior chains and cellulose fraction tend to increase with increasing of the wood density. Thermal analysis is able to give information about degradation temperatures for the principal components of different wood samples. The shape of DTG curves depends on the wood species that cause the enlargement of the peaks or the maxima of the decomposition step varies at larger or smaller temperatures ranges. The temperatures and weight loss percentage are particular for each kind of wood. This study showed that analytical methods used have the potential to be important sources of information for a quick evaluation of the chemical composition of wood samples.

  3. Subduction of young oceanic plates: A numerical study with application to aborted thermal-chemical plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Quintero, Idael Francisco; Gerya, Taras V.; GarcíA-Casco, Antonio; Castro, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    We investigated numerical models of initiation and subsequent evolution of subduction of young (10-30 Myr) oceanic lithosphere. Systematic numerical experiments were carried out by varying the age of the subducting plate (10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 25 and 30 Myr), the rate of induced convergence (2, 4 and 5 cm/yr) and the degree of hydration (0 and 2 wt% H2O) of the pre-existing weak oceanic fracture zone along which subduction is initiated. Despite the prescribed plate forcing, spontaneously retreating oceanic subduction with a pronounced magmatic arc and a backarc basin was obtained in a majority of the experiments. It was also found that the younger age of oceanic lithosphere results in more intense dehydration and partial melting of the slab during and after the induced subduction initiation due to the shallow dispositions of the isotherms. Partial melting of the subducted young crust may create thermal-chemical instabilities (cold plumes) that ascend along the slab-mantle interface until they either freeze at depth or detach from the slab and penetrate the upper plate lithosphere contributing to the nucleation and growth of a volcanic arc. Freezing of the plumes in the slab-mantle interface is favored by subduction of very young lithosphere (i.e., 10 Myr) at moderate rate (4 cm/yr) of convergence. Such aborted plumes may correspond to Cretaceous partially melted MORB-derived slab material and associated adakitic tonalitic-trondhjemitic rocks crystallized at ca. 50 km depth in the slab-mantle interface and exhumed in a subduction channel (serpentinite mélanges) in eastern Cuba.

  4. CHEMICALLY VAPOR DEPOSITED YTTRIA-STABILIZED ZIRCONIA (YSZ) FOR THERMAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BARRIER COATING

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, V.G.; Besmann, T.M.; Lothian, J.L.; Xu, W.; Starr, T.L.

    2003-04-22

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as a thermal barrier coating (TBC) to protect super-alloy blades such as Mar-M247 or Rene-N5 during engine operation. The current method for YSZ fabrication for TBC applications is by air-plasma spraying (APS) or electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) (Haynes 1997). APS gives reasonable deposition rates, but has a limited life and aging effects due to its porous and lamellar structure. The EB-PVD coatings are more stable and can accommodate thermomechanical stresses due to their characteristic strain-tolerant, columnar microstructure. EB-PVD, however, is primarily line-of-sight, which often leaves ''hidden areas'' uncoated, has low throughput, and has high capital cost. The process of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is investigated here as an economical alternative to EB-PVD and APS, with the potential for better overall coverage as well as the ability to produce thick (100-250 {micro}m), strain-tolerant, columnar coatings. MOCVD of YSZ involves the use of zirconium and yttrium organometallic precursors reacting with an oxygen source. Previous researchers have used diketonate or chloride precursors and oxygen (Wahl et al. 2001a, Wahl et al. 2001b, Yamane and Harai 1989). These precursors have low transport rates due to their low carrier solvent solubility (Varanasi et al. 2003). Solvated zirconium and yttrium butoxide precursors were investigated here due to their higher vapor pressures and high solvent solubility. This work uses predictive equilibrium modeling and experiments involving butoxide precursors for tetragonal YSZ fabrication.

  5. Thermal Decomposition of NCN: Shock-Tube Study, Quantum Chemical Calculations, and Master-Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Busch, Anna; González-García, Núria; Lendvay, György; Olzmann, Matthias

    2015-07-16

    The thermal decomposition of cyanonitrene, NCN, was studied behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range 1790-2960 K at pressures near 1 and 4 bar. Highly diluted mixtures of NCN3 in argon were shock-heated to produce NCN, and concentration-time profiles of C atoms as reaction product were monitored with atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy at 156.1 nm. Calibration was performed with methane pyrolysis experiments. Rate coefficients for the reaction (3)NCN + M → (3)C + N2 + M (R1) were determined from the initial slopes of the C atom concentration-time profiles. Reaction R1 was found to be in the low-pressure regime at the conditions of the experiments. The temperature dependence of the bimolecular rate coefficient can be expressed with the following Arrhenius equation: k1(bim) = (4.2 ± 2.1) × 10(14) exp[-242.3 kJ mol(-1)/(RT)] cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1). The rate coefficients were analyzed by using a master equation with specific rate coefficients from RRKM theory. The necessary molecular data and energies were calculated with quantum chemical methods up to the CCSD(T)/CBS//CCSD/cc-pVTZ level of theory. From the topography of the potential energy surface, it follows that reaction R1 proceeds via isomerization of NCN to CNN and subsequent C-N bond fission along a collinear reaction coordinate without a tight transition state. The calculations reproduce the magnitude and temperature dependence of the rate coefficient and confirm that reaction R1 is in the low-pressure regime under our experimental conditions.

  6. Rapid, Efficient and Versatile Strategies for Functionally Sophisticated Polymers and Nanoparticles: Degradable Polyphosphoesters and Anisotropic Distribution of Chemical Functionalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiyi

    conjugate by densely attaching the polyphosphoester block with azide-functionalized Paclitaxel by azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition. This Paclitaxel drug conjugate provides a powerful platform for combinational cancer therapy and bioimaging due to its ultra-high Paclitaxel loading (> 65 wt%), high water solubility (>6.2 mg/mL for PTX) and easy functionalization. Another polyphosphoester-based nanoparticle system has been developed by a programmable process for the rapid and facile preparation of a family of nanoparticles with different surface charges and functionalities. The non-ionic, anionic, cationic and zwitterionic nanoparticles with hydrodynamic diameters between 13 nm to 21 nm and great size uniformity could be rapidly prepared from small molecules in 6 h or 2 days. The anionic and zwitterionic nanoparticles were designed to load silver ions to treat pulmonary infections, while the cationic nanoparticles are being applied to regulate lung injuries by serving as a degradable iNOS inhibitor conjugates. In addition, a direct synthesis of acid-labile polyphosphoramidate by organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization and an improved two-step preparation of polyphosphoester ionomer by acid-assisted cleavage of phosphoramidate bonds on polyphosphoramidate were developed. Polyphosphoramidate and polyphosphoester ionomers may be applied to many applications, due to their unique chemical and physical properties.

  7. Thermal and chemical unfolding pathways of PaSdsA1 sulfatase, a homo-dimer with topologically interlinked chains.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, César; Goto, Yuji; Costas, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms as to how interlinked proteins entangle and fold is a challenge. PaSdsA1 sulfatase is a homo-dimer containing two zinc atoms per monomer. The monomer chains are interlinked in a dimerization domain. To study the unfolding pathways denaturation experiments were performed. In the native protein three forms coexist in chemical equilibrium, each with a different number of zinc atoms. In the chemical unfolding of the holo-dimers the entanglement of the chains is preserved and acts as a 'folding seed', allowing the unfolding process to be reversible. Thermal irreversible unfolding of the holo-dimers favours dissociation, producing monomers that are SDS-stabilized. The thermal unfolding of these monomers is reversible. However, it is not possible to form dimers from unfolded monomers.

  8. An alternative empirical model for the relationship between the bond valence and the thermal expansion rate of chemical bonds.

    PubMed

    Sidey, Vasyl

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between the bond valence s and the thermal expansion rate of chemical bonds (dr/dT) has been closely approximated by using the alternative three-parameter empirical model (dr/dT) = (u + vs)(-1/w), where u, v and w are the refinable parameters. Unlike the s-(dr/dT) model developed by Brown et al. [(1997), Acta Cryst. B53, 750-761], this alternative model can be optimized for particular s-(dr/dT) datasets in the least-squares refinement procedure. For routine calculations of the thermal expansion rates of chemical bonds, the alternative model with the parameters u = -63.9, v = 2581.0 and w = 0.647 can be recommended.

  9. Influence of thermal pretreatment on physical and chemical properties of kitchen waste and the efficiency of anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yiying; Li, Yangyang; Li, Jinhui

    2016-09-15

    The effects of thermal pretreatment at moderate temperatures (70, 80 and 90 °C) and high temperatures (120, 140 and 160 °C) over heating durations of 10-120 min on the physical and chemical properties of kitchen waste and on anaerobic digestion were investigated. The results show that thermal pretreatment significantly enhances the solubilisation of organic compounds (chemical oxygen demand, crude proteins, crude fats and volatile fatty acids) and their biodegradability during subsequent anaerobic digestion. High temperature and long heating duration are beneficial for the release and reduction of organic compounds, and the efficiency of subsequent anaerobic digestion is improved markedly under these conditions. Moreover, both the methane production rate and methane yield were observed to increase significantly at moderate treatment temperatures when the anaerobic digestion time was longer than 50 h.

  10. Mountain-Scale Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Processes Around the Potential Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    E. Sonnenthal; C. Haukwa; N. Spycher

    2001-06-04

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) effects on flow and geochemistry in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain at a mountain scale. The major THC processes important in the UZ are (1) mineral precipitation/dissolution affecting flow and transport to and from the potential repository, and (2) changes in the compositions of gas and liquid that may seep into drifts.

  11. Thermal Stress in Seven Types of Chemical Defense Ensembles During Moderate Exercise in Hot Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    calculated by dividing sweat production by trial length. Subjective Measures Subjective evaluations of rated perceived exertion (RPE) (10) and thermal comfort (TC...correlate with HR (10) . Thermal comfort is believed to be a relative indicator of Trask (11) . Significant differences in •’C ratings were seen only...activity. Data for mean RPE as a function of mean thermal comfort reveal a better relationship than that of RPE and HR. RPE may also be influenced by

  12. A facile and sensitive detection of organophosphorus chemicals by rapid aggregation of gold nanoparticles using organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung Sun; Kim, Gi Wook; Park, Tae Jung

    2015-05-15

    Organophosphorus (OP) chemicals are highly effective insecticides and germicides, and are the most widely used in agriculture. Unfortunately, OP compounds are some of the most toxic substances to humans, even at very low doses. Because detecting OP residues in agricultural products is essential, simple, sensitive, and particularly rapid on-site detection methods are required. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been used as signal-enhancing detection probes in the field of biosensors due to their size-dependent optical properties. When imidazole was added to AuNPs mixed with OP compounds, the AuNPs was aggregated and their color changed to purple. This caused the appearance of a new peak at 660-670 nm, which could be measured within approximately 30 s. Therefore, this method allows the detection of OP compounds, including diazinon, iprobenfos, and edifenphos, on-site at part-per-billion (ppb) concentrations, and also affords a straightforward method. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the determination of OP compound in a real sample (river water) with satisfactory results.

  13. A rapid transcriptional activation is induced by the dormancy-breaking chemical hydrogen cyanamide in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) buds

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Eric F.; Wu, Rong-Mei; Richardson, Annette C.; Davy, Marcus; Hellens, Roger P.; Thodey, Kate; Janssen, Bart J.; Gleave, Andrew P.; Rae, Georgina M.; Wood, Marion; Schaffer, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Budbreak in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) can be poor in locations that have warm winters with insufficient winter chilling. Kiwifruit vines are often treated with the dormancy-breaking chemical hydrogen cyanamide (HC) to increase and synchronize budbreak. This treatment also offers a tool to understand the processes involved in budbreak. A genomics approach is presented here to increase our understanding of budbreak in kiwifruit. Most genes identified following HC application appear to be associated with responses to stress, but a number of genes appear to be associated with the reactivation of growth. Three patterns of gene expression were identified: Profile 1, an HC-induced transient activation; Profile 2, an HC-induced transient activation followed by a growth-related activation; and Profile 3, HC- and growth-repressed. One group of genes that was rapidly up-regulated in response to HC was the glutathione S-transferase (GST) class of genes, which have been associated with stress and signalling. Previous budbreak studies, in three other species, also report up-regulated GST expression. Phylogenetic analysis of these GSTs showed that they clustered into two sub-clades, suggesting a strong correlation between their expression and budbreak across species. PMID:19651683

  14. Rapid screening method for determination of Ecstasy and amphetamines in urine samples using gas chromatography-chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, M; Rosati, F; Pacifici, R; Zuccaro, R; Romolo, F S; Lopez, A

    2002-04-05

    The need for analytical screening tests more reliable and valid to detect amphetamine and related "designer drugs" in biological samples is becoming critical, due to the increasing diffusion of these drugs on the European illegal market. The most common screening procedures based on immunoassays suffer a number of limitations, including low sensitivity, lack of specificity and limited number of detectable substances. This paper describes a screening method based on gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) using positive chemical ionisation (PCI) detection. Methanol was used as reactant gas in the ionisation chamber. Molecular ions of different compounds were monitored, allowing a sensitivity of 5-10 ng/ml with high selectivity. The sensitivity of the method gives positive results in samples taken 48-72 h after intake of one dose of 50-100 mg. The method is simple and rapid. Sample preparation was limited to one liquid-liquid extraction, without any hydrolysis and derivatisation. Hydrolysis is critical to identify metabolites excreted as conjugates. Blank urine samples spiked with known amounts of amphetamine (AM), methylamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) and methylenedioxyphenyl-N-methyl-2-butanamine (MBDB) were analysed. The method was successfully tested on real samples of urine from people, whose use of amphetamine was suspected, and results were compared with results obtained with immunoassays.

  15. A rapid transcriptional activation is induced by the dormancy-breaking chemical hydrogen cyanamide in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) buds.

    PubMed

    Walton, Eric F; Wu, Rong-Mei; Richardson, Annette C; Davy, Marcus; Hellens, Roger P; Thodey, Kate; Janssen, Bart J; Gleave, Andrew P; Rae, Georgina M; Wood, Marion; Schaffer, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Budbreak in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) can be poor in locations that have warm winters with insufficient winter chilling. Kiwifruit vines are often treated with the dormancy-breaking chemical hydrogen cyanamide (HC) to increase and synchronize budbreak. This treatment also offers a tool to understand the processes involved in budbreak. A genomics approach is presented here to increase our understanding of budbreak in kiwifruit. Most genes identified following HC application appear to be associated with responses to stress, but a number of genes appear to be associated with the reactivation of growth. Three patterns of gene expression were identified: Profile 1, an HC-induced transient activation; Profile 2, an HC-induced transient activation followed by a growth-related activation; and Profile 3, HC- and growth-repressed. One group of genes that was rapidly up-regulated in response to HC was the glutathione S-transferase (GST) class of genes, which have been associated with stress and signalling. Previous budbreak studies, in three other species, also report up-regulated GST expression. Phylogenetic analysis of these GSTs showed that they clustered into two sub-clades, suggesting a strong correlation between their expression and budbreak across species.

  16. Thermal and Chemical Characterization of Composite Materials. MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Project No. ED36-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, D. C.; Huff, T. L.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort was to: (1) provide a concise and well-defined property profile of current and developing composite materials using thermal and chemical characterization techniques and (2) optimize analytical testing requirements of materials. This effort applied a diverse array of methodologies to ascertain composite material properties. Often, a single method of technique will provide useful, but nonetheless incomplete, information on material composition and/or behavior. To more completely understand and predict material properties, a broad-based analytical approach is required. By developing a database of information comprised of both thermal and chemical properties, material behavior under varying conditions may be better understood. THis is even more important in the aerospace community, where new composite materials and those in the development stage have little reference data. For example, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy spectral databases available for identification of vapor phase spectra, such as those generated during experiments, generally refer to well-defined chemical compounds. Because this method renders a unique thermal decomposition spectral pattern, even larger, more diverse databases, such as those found in solid and liquid phase FTIR spectroscopy libraries, cannot be used. By combining this and other available methodologies, a database specifically for new materials and materials being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center can be generated . In addition, characterizing materials using this approach will be extremely useful in the verification of materials and identification of anomalies in NASA-wide investigations.

  17. Thermal decomposition study of monovarietal extra virgin olive oil by simultaneous thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry: relation with chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Stefano; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra; Chiavaro, Emma

    2009-06-10

    Thermal decomposition of 12 monovarietal extra virgin olive oils from different geographical origins (eight from Italy, two from Spain, and the others from Tunisia) was evaluated by simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. All extra virgin olive oils showed a complex multistep decomposition pattern with the first step that exhibited a quite different profile among samples. Thermal properties of the two peaks obtained by the deconvolution of the first step of decomposition by DSC were related to the chemical composition of the samples (triacylglycerols, fatty acids, total phenols and antioxidant activity). Onset temperatures of the thermal decomposition transition and T(p) values of both deconvoluted peaks as well as the sum of enthalpy were found to exhibit statistically significant correlations with chemical components of the samples, in particular palmitic and oleic acids and related triacylglycerols. Activation energy values of the second deconvoluted peak obtained by the application of kinetic procedure to the first step of decomposition were also found to be highly statistically correlated to the chemical composition, and a stability scale among samples was proposed on the basis of its values.

  18. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2011-04-01

    The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO{sub 2}(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

  19. Application of Solid Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry as a Rapid Method for Field Sampling and Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Industrial Chemicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    PHASE MICROEXTRACTION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AS A RAPID METHOD FOR FIELD SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE APPLICATION OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AS A RAPID METHOD FOR FIELD...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 iii ABSTRACT APPLICATION OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION COUPLED WITH

  20. International Research Project on the Effects of Chemical Ageing of Polymers on Performance Properties: Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Work during the past six months has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted small changes in the molecular weight distribution. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultra- Violet Scanning Analysis, GC/Mass Spectrometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermomechanical Analysis. In the ultra-violet analysis we noted the presence of an absorption band indicative of triene formation. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We also cast films at SWT and subjected these films to a refluxing methanol 1% ethylene diamine solution. An updated literature search was conducted using Dialog and DROLLS to identify any new papers that may have been published in the open literature since the start of this project. The updated literature search and abstracts are contained in the Appendix section of this report.

  1. Rapid thermal processing for production of chalcopyrite thin films for solar cells: Design, analysis, and experimental implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelett, Robert J.

    The direct conversion of solar energy to electricity, or photovoltaic energy conversion, has a number of environmental, social, and economic advantages over conventional electricity generation from fossil fuels. Currently, the most commonly-used material for photovoltaics is crystalline silicon, which is now produced at large scale and silicon-based devices have achieved power conversion efficiencies over 25% However, alternative materials, such as inorganic thin films, offer a number of advantages including the potential for lower manufacturing costs, higher theoretical efficiencies, and better performance in the field. One of these materials is the chalcopyrite Cu(InGa)(SeS) 2, which has demonstrated module efficiencies over 17% and cell efficiencies over 22%. Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 is now in the early stages of commercialization using a precursor reaction process referred to as a "selenization/sulfization" reaction. The precursor reaction process is promising because it has demonstrated high efficiency along with the large area (approximately 1 m2) uniformity that is required for modules. However, some challenges remain that limit the growth of the chalcopyrite solar cell industry including: slow reactions that limit process throughput, a limited understanding of complex reaction kinetics and transport phenomena that affect the through-film composition, and the use of highly toxic H2Se in the reaction process. In this work, I approach each of these challenges. First, to improve process throughput, I designed and implemented a rapid thermal processing (RTP) reactor, whereby the samples are heated by a 1000 W quartz-halogen lamp that is capable of fast temperature ramps and high temperature dwells. With the reactor in place, however, achieving effective temperature control in the thin film material system is complicated by two intrinsic process characteristics: (i) the temperature of the Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 film cannot be measured directly, which leaves the system without

  2. Towards a fully-synthetic substitute of alginate: development of a new process using thermal gelation and chemical cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Cellesi, Francesco; Tirelli, Nicola; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2004-09-01

    We have previously described a gelation process based on the occurrence of both physical and a chemical mechanisms ('tandem process'), in which a telechelic linear poly(propylene glycol)-bl-poly(ethylene glycol)-bl-poly(propylene glycol) is first thermally gelled and subsequently covalently cross-linked by the reaction of polymer end groups at the termini of the copolymer. The quick kinetics of the reverse thermal gelation and the harmless character of the Michael-type addition between two sets of terminal groups, acrylates on one set and thiols on the other, allows irreversibly cross-linked hydrogels to be obtained in a rapid and biocompatible fashion, even when gelation was conducted in direct contact with cells. This allows in principle for an application of the tandem process in cell encapsulation. In the present work, we have optimized the macromolecular architecture and functionality of the precursors for allowing the use of the tandem process in encapsulation devices designed for calcium alginate. The mechanical, diffusional and biocompatibility properties of these materials were characterized; the comparison of mass transport properties of the tandem gels with those of calcium alginate suggests a similar or even better immunoisolation effect.

  3. Improved resistance of chemically-modified nanocellulose against thermally-induced depolymerization.

    PubMed

    Agustin, Melissa B; Nakatsubo, Fumiaki; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-15

    The study demonstrated the improvement in the resistance of nanocellulose against thermally-induced depolymerization by esterification with benzoyl (BNZ) and pivaloyl (PIV). The change in the degree of polymerization (DP) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) after thermal treatment in nitrogen and in air was investigated using viscometry and gel permeation chromatography. BNZ and PIV nanocellulose esters without α-hydrogens gave higher DP and narrower MWD than pure bacterial cellulose; and the acetyl and myristoyl esters, which possess α-hydrogens. Results also showed that when depolymerization is suppressed, thermal discoloration is also reduced. Resistance against depolymerization inhibits the formation of reducing ends which can be active sites for thermal discoloration. Finally, the findings suggest that benzoylation and pivaloylation can be an excellent modification technique to improve the thermal stability of nanocellulose.

  4. Encapsulated nano-heat-sinks for thermal management of heterogeneous chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minghui; Hong, Yan; Ding, Shujiang; Hu, Jianjun; Fan, Yunxiao; Voevodin, Andrey A; Su, Ming

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a new way to control temperatures of heterogeneous exothermic reactions such as heterogeneous catalytic reaction and polymerization by using encapsulated nanoparticles of phase change materials as thermally functional additives. Silica-encapsulated indium nanoparticles and silica encapsulated paraffin nanoparticles are used to absorb heat released in catalytic reaction and to mitigate gel effect of polymerization, respectively. The local hot spots that are induced by non-homogenous catalyst packing, reactant concentration fluctuation, and abrupt change of polymerization rate lead to solid to liquid phase change of nanoparticle cores so as to avoid thermal runaway by converting energies from exothermic reactions to latent heat of fusion. By quenching local hot spots at initial stage, reaction rates do not rise significantly because the thermal energy produced in reaction is isothermally removed. Nanoparticles of phase change materials will open a new dimension for thermal management of exothermic reactions to quench local hot spots, prevent thermal runaway of reaction, and change product distribution.

  5. Encapsulated nano-heat-sinks for thermal management of heterogeneous chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Minghui; Hong, Yan; Ding, Shujiang; Hu, Jianjun; Fan, Yunxiao; Voevodin, Andrey A.; Su, Ming

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a new way to control temperatures of heterogeneous exothermic reactions such as heterogeneous catalytic reaction and polymerization by using encapsulated nanoparticles of phase change materials as thermally functional additives. Silica-encapsulated indiumnanoparticles and silica encapsulated paraffin nanoparticles are used to absorb heat released in catalytic reaction and to mitigate gel effect of polymerization, respectively. The local hot spots that are induced by non-homogenous catalyst packing, reactant concentration fluctuation, and abrupt change of polymerization rate lead to solid to liquid phase change of nanoparticle cores so as to avoid thermal runaway by converting energies from exothermic reactions to latent heat of fusion. By quenching local hot spots at initial stage, reaction rates do not rise significantly because the thermal energy produced in reaction is isothermally removed. Nanoparticles of phase change materials will open a new dimension for thermal management of exothermic reactions to quench local hot spots, prevent thermal runaway of reaction, and change product distribution.

  6. Modifying Surface Energy of Graphene via Plasma-Based Chemical Functionalization to Tune Thermal and Electrical Transport at Metal Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Foley, Brian M; Hernández, Sandra C; Duda, John C; Robinson, Jeremy T; Walton, Scott G; Hopkins, Patrick E

    2015-08-12

    The high mobility exhibited by both supported and suspended graphene, as well as its large in-plane thermal conductivity, has generated much excitement across a variety of applications. As exciting as these properties are, one of the principal issues inhibiting the development of graphene technologies pertains to difficulties in engineering high-quality metal contacts on graphene. As device dimensions decrease, the thermal and electrical resistance at the metal/graphene interface plays a dominant role in degrading overall performance. Here we demonstrate the use of a low energy, electron-beam plasma to functionalize graphene with oxygen, fluorine, and nitrogen groups, as a method to tune the thermal and electrical transport properties across gold-single layer graphene (Au/SLG) interfaces. We find that while oxygen and nitrogen groups improve the thermal boundary conductance (hK) at the interface, their presence impairs electrical transport leading to increased contact resistance (ρC). Conversely, functionalization with fluorine has no impact on hK, yet ρC decreases with increasing coverage densities. These findings indicate exciting possibilities using plasma-based chemical functionalization to tailor the thermal and electrical transport properties of metal/2D material contacts.

  7. Influence of chemically produced singlet delta oxygen molecules on thermal ignition of O2-H2 mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagin, N. P.; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.; Yuryshev, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    Thermal ignition of the H2-O2 mixture with O2(a 1Δ g ) addition is studied experimentally and theoretically. The singlet delta oxygen was produced in a chemical generator. In this way, the competing chemical processes involving plasma produced chemically active O atoms and ozone (O3) were excluded. A satisfactory agreement is achieved between experimentally observed and numerically predicted values of the ignition time at the initial gas temperature (900-950) K and gas pressure (9-10) Torr. The percentage of the reactive channel in the binary collisions O2(a 1Δg) H is evaluated on the level (10-20)% for the H2-O2 mixture.

  8. Effect of the Temperature-Emissivity Contrast on the Chemical Signal for Gas Plume Detection Using Thermal Image Data.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Stephen; Chilton, Larry; Tardiff, Mark; Metoyer, Candace

    2008-10-21

    Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. These include variability due to atmosphere, ground and plume temperature, and background clutter. This paper presents an analysis of one formulation of the physics-based radiance model, which describes at-sensor observed radiance. The background emissivity and plume/ground temperatures are isolated, and their effects on chemical signal are described. This analysis shows that the plume's physical state, emission or absorption, is directly dependent on the background emissivity and plume/ground temperatures. It then describes what conditions on the background emissivity and plume/ground temperatures have inhibiting or amplifying effects on the chemical signal. These claims are illustrated by analyzing synthetic hyperspectral imaging data with the adaptive matched filter using two chemicals and three distinct background emissivities.

  9. Thermal and Morphological Study of Epoxy Matrix with Chemical and Physical Hybrid of Nanoclay/Carbon Nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmizadeh, Elnaz; Naderi, Ghasem; Yousefi, Ali Akbar; Milone, Candida

    2016-01-01

    Synergistic effects of nanoclay (NC) and carbon nanotube (CNT) as a physical and chemical hybrid on the properties of epoxy matrix were studied. The chemical hybrid of CNT-NC (CNC) was synthesized by high-temperature decomposition of methane on NC supports. The formation of CNTs on the NC surface was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. As-prepared CNCs were subsequently added into an epoxy matrix to make epoxy-CNC composites. The mixture of purified CNTs and NC as the physical hybrid of CNT-NC (PNC) was introduced into the epoxy matrix in order to fabricate epoxy-PNC composites. The relationship between the type of filler with the thermal and morphological performance of the epoxy-CNT-NC composite hybrids was investigated. The exfoliation characteristics of NCs and CNTs in epoxy nanocomposites were analyzed using x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and SEM studies, respectively. Thermal behavior of the epoxy nanocomposites was studied by thermo-gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTG), the heat deflection temperature (HDT) test and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The results indicated that the thermal characteristics of the epoxy including the degradation temperature ( T deg), HDT and glass transition temperature ( T g) relatively increased with the introduction of all the nanofillers, NC, CNT, PNC and CNC. The synergistic effects of CNT and NC were found to be more marked for the chemical hybrid compared to the physical one. In the case of CNC, it was observed that the CNTs attached to the clay sheets form a unique structure in which a 2D NC has several 1D CNTs attached to it. The enhanced homogeneous dispersion of NCs and CNTs in epoxy-CNC was clearly observed compared to epoxy-PNC.

  10. Self assembling monolayers of dialkynyl bridged Pd(II) thiols obtained by thermally induced multilayer desorption: Thermal and chemical stability investigated by SR-XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battocchio, C.; Fratoddi, I.; Bondino, F.; Malvestuto, M.; Russo, M. V.; Polzonetti, G.

    2012-02-01

    Self assembling monolayers (SAMs) of organometallic thiols trans-[HS-Pd(PBu3)2-SH], trans-[HS-Pd(PBu3)2(-Ctbnd C-C6H5)] and trans,trans-[HS-Pd(PBu3)2(-Ctbnd C-C6H4-C6H4-Ctbnd C-Pd(PBu3)2-SH] on gold were obtained from the corresponding multilayers through thermally induced desorption. Temperature-dependent synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-XPS) measurements were carried out on the heated multilayers during the annealing process, in order to investigate the thermal and chemical stability of the systems. SAMs of the same organometallic thiols were also obtained by rinsing the thick films with appropriate solvents. SR-XPS was used to ascertain that the molecular and electronic structure of the two series of SAMs are not influenced by the rinsing or thermal desorption process, i.e. both strategies allow for obtaining well ordered monolayers of organometallic thiols.

  11. Thermal dissociation atmospheric chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry with a miniature source for selective trace detection of dimethoate in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yongzhong; Zhang, Xinglei; Han, Jing; Guo, Xiali; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Huanwen; Luo, Liping

    2013-01-21

    A miniature thermal dissociation atmospheric chemical ionization (TDCI) source, coupled with LTQ-MS, has been developed for rapid trace detection of pesticide residues such as dimethoate in highly viscous fruit juice samples. Instead of toxic organic solvents and the high electric field used in the conventional ionizations, an ionic liquid, a "green solvent", was employed to directly generate reagent ions in the TDCI process, followed by the proton or charge transfer with the analytes prior to the LTQ instrument for mass analysis. Trace amounts of dimethoate in fresh orange juices have been quantitatively detected, without any sample pretreatment or aid of high-pressure gas. A low limit of detection (LOD = 8.76 × 10(-11) g mL(-1)), acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD = 3.1-10.0%), and reasonable recoveries (91.2-102.8%) were achieved with this method for direct detection of dimethoate in highly viscous orange juice samples. The average analysis time for each single sample was less than 30 seconds. These experimental results showed that the miniature TDCI developed here is a powerful tool for the fast trace detection of pesticide residues in complex viscous fruit juices, with the advantage of high sensitivity, high speed, and high-throughput, ease of operation, and so on. Because of no chemical contamination and high voltage damage to the analytes and the environment, the technique has promising applications for online quality monitoring in the area of food safety.

  12. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Sarah A; Meyer, David E; Edelen, Ashley N; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Abraham, John P; Barrett, William M; Gonzalez, Michael A; Randall, Paul M; Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo; Smith, Raymond L

    2016-09-06

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically applied to LCIs on a case-by-case basis. As linked open data becomes more prevalent, it may be possible to automate LCI using data mining by establishing a reproducible approach for identifying, extracting, and processing the data. This work proposes a method for standardizing and eventually automating the discovery and use of publicly available data at the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemical-manufacturing LCI. The method is developed using a case study of acetic acid. The data quality and gap analyses for the generated inventory found that the selected data sources can provide information with equal or better reliability and representativeness on air, water, hazardous waste, on-site energy usage, and production volumes but with key data gaps including material inputs, water usage, purchased electricity, and transportation requirements. A comparison of the generated LCI with existing data revealed that the data mining inventory is in reasonable agreement with existing data and may provide a more-comprehensive inventory of air emissions and water discharges. The case study highlighted challenges for current data management practices that must be overcome to successfully automate the method using semantic technology. Benefits of the method are that the openly available data can be compiled in a standardized and transparent approach that supports potential automation with flexibility to incorporate new data sources as needed.

  13. Adherent and Conformal Zn(S,O,OH) Thin Films by Rapid Chemical Bath Deposition with Hexamethylenetetramine Additive.

    PubMed

    Opasanont, Borirak; Van, Khoa T; Kuba, Austin G; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy; Baxter, Jason B

    2015-06-03

    ZnS is a wide band gap semiconductor whose many applications, such as photovoltaic buffer layers, require uniform and continuous films down to several nanometers thick. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) is a simple, low-cost, and scalable technique to deposit such inorganic films. However, previous attempts at CBD of ZnS have often resulted in nodular noncontinuous films, slow growth rates at low pH, and high ratio of oxygen impurities at high pH. In this work, ZnS thin films were grown by adding hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) to a conventional recipe that uses zinc sulfate, nitrilotriacetic acid trisodium salt, and thioacetamide. Dynamic bath characterization showed that HMTA helps the bath to maintain near-neutral pH and also acts as a catalyst, which leads to fast nucleation and deposition rates, continuous films, and less oxygen impurities in the films. Films deposited on glass from HMTA-containing bath were uniform, continuous, and 90 nm thick after 1 h, as opposed to films grown without HMTA that were ∼3 times thinner and more nodular. On Cu2(Zn,Sn)Se4, films grown with HMTA were continuous within 10 min. The films have comparatively few oxygen impurities, with S/(S+O) atomic ratio of 88%, and high optical transmission of 98% at 360 nm. The Zn(S,O,OH) films exhibit excellent adhesion to glass and high resistivity, which make them ideal nucleation layers for other metal sulfides. Their promise as a nucleation layer was demonstrated with the deposition of thin, continuous Sb2S3 overlayers. This novel HMTA chemistry enables rapid deposition of Zn(S,O,OH) thin films to serve as a nucleation layer, a photovoltaic buffer layer, or an extremely thin continuous coating for thin film applications. HMTA may also be applied in a similar manner for solution deposition of other metal chalcogenide and oxide thin films with superior properties.

  14. Synthesis of thermal and chemical resistant oxygen barrier starch with reinforcement of nano silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Dash, Satyabrata; Swain, Sarat K

    2013-09-12

    Starch/silicon carbide (starch/SiC) bionanocomposites were synthesized by solution method using different wt% of silicon carbide with starch matrix. The interaction between starch and silicon carbide was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The structure of the bionanocomposites was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Thermal property of starch/SiC bionanocomposites was measured and a significant enhancement of thermal resistance was noticed. The oxygen barrier property of the composites was studied and a substantial reduction in permeability was observed as compared to the virgin starch. The reduction of oxygen permeability with enhancement of thermal stability of prepared bionanocomposites may enable the materials suitable for thermal resistant packaging and adhesive applications.

  15. Smart, Sustainable, and Ecofriendly Chemical Design of Fully Bio-Based Thermally Stable Thermosets Based on Benzoxazine Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Froimowicz, Pablo; R Arza, Carlos; Han, Lu; Ishida, Hatsuo

    2016-08-09

    A smart synthetic chemical design incorporating furfurylamine, a natural renewable amine, into a partially bio-based coumarin-containing benzoxazine is presented. The versatility of the synthetic approach is shown to be flexible and robust enough to be successful under more ecofriendly reaction conditions by replacing toluene with ethanol as the reaction solvent and even under solventless conditions. The chemical structure of this coumarin-furfurylamine-containing benzoxazine is characterized by FTIR, (1) H NMR spectroscopy and two-dimensional (1) H-(1) H nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (2D (1) H-(1) H NOESY). The thermal properties of the resin toward polymerization are characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the thermal stability of the resulting polymers by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results reveal that the furanic moiety induces a co-operative activating effect, thus lowering the polymerization temperature and also contributes to a better thermal stability of the resulting polymers. These results, in addition to those of natural renewable benzoxazine resins reviewed herein, highlight the positive and beneficial implication of designing novel bio-based polybenzoxazine and possibly other thermosets with desirable and competitive properties.

  16. Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: thermal cycle stability and chemical compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Williams, Riley T.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Bonnett, Jeff F.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, E.

    2011-03-01

    An alkali silicate glass (SCN-1) is currently being evaluated as a candidate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel (SOFC) applications. The glass containing ~17 mole% alkalis (K2O and Na2O) remains vitreous and compliant during SOFC operation, unlike conventional SOFC sealing glasses, which experience substantial devitrification after the sealing process. The non-crystallizing compliant sealing glass has lower glass transition and softening temperatures since the microstructure remains glassy without significant crystallite formation, and hence can relieve or reduce residual stresses and also has the potential for crack healing. Sealing approaches based on compliant glass will also need to satisfy all the mechanical, thermal, chemical, physical, and electrical requirements for SOFC applications, not only in bulk properties but also at sealing interfaces. In this first of a series of papers we will report the thermal cycle stability of the glass when sealed between two SOFC components, i.e., a NiO/YSZ anode supported YSZ bilayer and a coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect material. High temperature leak rates were monitored versus thermal cycles between 700-850oC using back pressures ranging from 0.2 psi to 1.0 psi. Isothermal stability was also evaluated in a dual environment consisting of flowing dilute H2 fuel versus ambient air. In addition, chemical compatibility at the alumina and YSZ interfaces was examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results shed new light on the topic of SOFC glass seal development.

  17. Study of chemical and thermal treatment of kaolinite and its influence on the removal of contaminants from mining effluents.

    PubMed

    de Sales, Priscila F; Magriotis, Zuy M; Rossi, Marco Aurélio de L S; Tartuci, Letícia G; Papini, Rísia M; Viana, Paulo R M

    2013-10-15

    The effects of chemical and thermal treatments on the structure of kaolinite were examined, as well as the influence of those changes upon the removal of etheramine, a cationic collector used in the processing of iron ore. The materials were characterized using XRD, XRF, specific surface area (SBET), FTIR, zeta potential and a test for determination of acid sites. The effects of the treatments on the structure of kaolinite were evaluated using chemometric tools developed from principal components analysis algorithms and hierarchical components analysis. The parameters evaluated in the kinetic study of adsorption were contact time, initial concentration of etheramine, quantity of adsorbent and pH. The adsorption of etheramine in the samples subjected to chemical treatments could be explained by a pseudo-second order model, whilst for the sample subjected to thermal treatment, better fit was with the pseudo-first order model. With regard to adsorption isotherms, it was shown that for the three adsorbents used, adsorption followed the Langmuir model. The maximum quantities adsorbed were 27 mg g(-1), 29 mg g(-1) and 59 mg g(-1), respectively, for the samples subjected to acid, thermal and peroxide treatments. The treatment with peroxide was found to be the most suitable for removal of etheramine.

  18. Directed Self-Assembly of Polystyrene-b-poly(propylene carbonate) on Chemical Patterns via Thermal Annealing for Next Generation Lithography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guan-Wen; Wu, Guang-Peng; Chen, Xuanxuan; Xiong, Shisheng; Arges, Christopher G; Ji, Shengxiang; Nealey, Paul F; Lu, Xiao-Bing; Darensbourg, Donald J; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2017-02-08

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) combines advantages of conventional photolithography and polymeric materials and shows competence in semiconductors and data storage applications. Driven by the more integrated, much smaller and higher performance of the electronics, however, the industry standard polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) in DSA strategy cannot meet the rapid development of lithography technology because its intrinsic limited Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ). Despite hundreds of block copolymers have been developed, these BCPs systems are usually subject to a trade-off between high χ and thermal treatment, resulting in incompatibility with the current nanomanufacturing fab processes. Here we discover that polystyrene-b-poly(propylene carbonate) (PS-b-PPC) is well qualified to fill key positions on DSA strategy for the next-generation lithography. The estimated χ-value for PS-b-PPC is 0.079, that is, two times greater than PS-b-PMMA (χ = 0.029 at 150 °C), while processing the ability to form perpendicular sub-10 nm morphologies (cylinder and lamellae) via the industry preferred thermal-treatment. DSA of lamellae forming PS-b-PPC on chemoepitaxial density multiplication demonstrates successful sub-10 nm long-range order features on large-area patterning for nanofabrication. Pattern transfer to the silicon substrate through industrial sequential infiltration synthesis is also implemented successfully. Compared with the previously reported methods to orientation control BCPs with high χ-value (including solvent annealing, neutral top-coats, and chemical modification), the easy preparation, high χ value, and etch selectivity while enduring thermal treatment demonstrates PS-b-PPC as a rare and valuable candidate for advancing the field of nanolithography.

  19. Resistance of two temperate Lactobacillus paracasei bacteriophages to high pressure homogenization, thermal treatments and chemical biocides of industrial application.

    PubMed

    Mercanti, D J; Guglielmotti, D M; Patrignani, F; Reinheimer, J A; Quiberoni, A

    2012-02-01

    Temperate bacteriophages ф iLp84 and ф iLp1308, previously isolated from mitomycin C-induction of Lactobacillus paracasei strains 84 and CNRZ1308, respectively, were tested for their resistance to several physical and chemical treatments applied in dairy industry. Long-term survival at 4 °C, -20 °C and -80 °C, resistance to either thermal treatments of 63 °C, 72 °C and 90 °C, high pressure homogenization (HPH, 100 MPa) or classic (ethanol, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid) and new commercial sanitizers, namely A (quaternary ammonium chloride), B (hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid and peroctanoic acid), C (alkaline chloride foam), D (p-toluensulfonchloroamide, sodium salt) and E (ethoxylated nonylphenol and phosphoric acid), were determined. Phages were almost completely inactivated after eight months of storage at 25 °C, but viability was not affected at 4 °C, -20 °C or -80 °C. Both phages tolerated well HPH treatments. Phage iLp1308 showed higher thermal resistance than ф iLp84, but neither resisted 90 °C for 2 min. Best chemical inactivation was accomplished using peracetic acid or biocides A, C and E, whereas biocides B and D were completely ineffective. These results help to improve selection of chemical agents and physical treatments to effectively fight against phage infections in dairy plants.

  20. Effects of Hygrothermal Cycling on the Chemical, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties of 862/W Epoxy Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Roberts, Gary D.; Copa, Christine C.; Bail, Justin L.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.

    2011-01-01

    The hygrothermal aging characteristics of an epoxy resin were characterized over 1 year, which included 908 temperature and humidity cycles. The epoxy resin quickly showed evidence of aging through color change and increased brittleness. The influence of aging on the material s glass transition temperature (Tg) was evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The Tg remained relatively constant throughout the year long cyclic aging profile. The chemical composition was monitored by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) where evidence of chemical aging and advancement of cure was noted. The tensile strength of the resin was tested as it aged. This property was severely affected by the aging process in the form of reduced ductility and embrittlement. Detailed chemical evaluation suggests many aging mechanisms are taking place during exposure to hygrothermal conditions. This paper details the influence of processes such as: advancement of cure, chemical degradation, and physical aging on the chemical and physical properties of the epoxy resin.

  1. UV Sensing Properties of ZnO Nanowires Grown on Glass by Rapid Thermal Oxidation of Zinc Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailova, I.; Gerbreders, V.; Sļedevskis, Ē.; Bulanovs, A.; Paškevičs, V.

    2014-08-01

    The nanostructured ZnO thin films were successfully synthesized by rapid thermal oxidation of metallic zinc films without catalysts or additives. On the surface of thin films the formation of ZnO nanowires was observed. In the work, the optical and electrical parameters and photoresponses of the obtained ZnO thin films were investigated. Nanostructured thin films of the type have a promising potential for the use in optoelectronics, sensor technique and biomedical sciences Šī darba galvenais mērķis bija izpētīt UV fotodetektora izgatavošanas iespējamību uz nanostrukturētu ZnO plāno kārtiņu bāzes, kas sintezētas termiski oksidējot Zn plānās kārtiņas. Termiskās oksidēšanas rezultātā tika novērota adatveidīgu ZnO nanostruktūru formēšanās uz kārtiņu virsmas. Izpētītas iegūto paraugu optiskās un elektriskās īpašības, kā arī fotoreakcija. Tika konstatēts, ka iegūto nanostrukturēto ZnO kārtiņu elektriskā vadītspēja ir ārkārtīgi jutīga pret UV starojumu, taču, apstarojot ar redzamo gaismu, strāva paliek gandrīz nemainīga. Kārtiņu elektriskās vadītspējas fotoreakcija ir atkarīga arī no nanostruktūru daudzuma uz virsmas. Visaugstākā UV fotovadītspēja tika novērota paraugam ar vislielāko ZnO nanoadatu koncentrāciju. UV gaismas inducētais vadītspējas pieaugums ļauj ZnO nanoadatas reversīvi pārslēgt starp stāvokļiem "ieslēgts" un "izslēgts". Līdz ar to, šīs fotojutīgās nanoadatas var tikt izmantotas UV gaismas detektoros un optiskajos slēdžos. Šādas nanostrukturētas plānās kārtiņas var tikt pielietotas arī ķīmiskajos un bioloģiskajos sensoros, pjezoelektriskajās ierīcēs, saules elementos utt. Turklāt, šādu nanostrukturēto ZnO plāno kārtiņu sintēzes process ir salīdzinoši lēts un vienkāršs, dodot iespēju liela mēroga produkcijas ražošanai

  2. Part-crystalline part-liquid state and rattling-like thermal damping in materials with chemical-bond hierarchy

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Wujie; Xi, Lili; Wei, Ping; Ke, Xuezhi; Yang, Jihui; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-10-06

    Understanding thermal and phonon transport in solids has been of great importance in many disciplines such as thermoelectric materials, which usually requires an extremely low lattice thermal conductivity (LTC). Here, by analyzing the finite-temperature structural and vibrational characteristics of typical thermoelectric compounds such as filled skutterudites and Cu3SbSe3, we demonstrate a concept of part-crystalline part-liquid state in the compounds with chemical-bond hierarchy, in which certain constituent species weakly bond to other part of the crystal. Such a material could intrinsically manifest the coexistence of rigid crystalline sublattices and other fluctuating noncrystalline sublattices with thermally induced large-amplitude vibrations and even flow of the group of species atoms, leading to atomic-level heterogeneity, mixed part-crystalline part-liquid structure, and thus rattling-like thermal damping due to the collective soft-mode vibrations similar to the Boson peak in amorphous materials. Lastly, the observed abnormal LTC close to the amorphous limit in these materials can only be described by an effective approach that approximately treats the rattling-like damping as a “resonant” phonon scattering.

  3. ANALYSIS OF TWO SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD H II REGIONS CONSIDERING THERMAL INHOMOGENEITIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DETERMINATIONS OF EXTRAGALACTIC CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Pena-Guerrero, Maria A.; Peimbert, Antonio; Peimbert, Manuel; Ruiz, Maria Teresa E-mail: antonio@astroscu.unam.mx E-mail: mtruiz@das.uchile.cl

    2012-02-20

    We present long-slit spectrophotometry considering the presence of thermal inhomogeneities (t{sup 2}) of two H II regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC): NGC 456 and NGC 460. Physical conditions and chemical abundances were determined for three positions in NGC 456 and one position in NGC 460, first under the assumption of uniform temperature and then allowing for the possibility of thermal inhomogeneities. We determined t{sup 2} values based on three different methods: (1) by comparing the temperature derived using oxygen forbidden lines with the temperature derived using helium recombination lines (RLs), (2) by comparing the abundances derived from oxygen forbidden lines with those derived from oxygen RLs, and (3) by comparing the abundances derived from ultraviolet carbon forbidden lines with those derived from optical carbon RLs. The first two methods averaged t{sup 2} = 0.067 {+-} 0.013 for NGC 456 and t{sup 2} = 0.036 {+-} 0.027 for NGC 460. These values of t{sup 2} imply that when gaseous abundances are determined with collisionally excited lines they are underestimated by a factor of nearly two. From these objects and others in the literature, we find that in order to account for thermal inhomogeneities and dust depletion, the O/H ratio in low-metallicity H II regions should be corrected by 0.25-0.45 dex depending on the thermal structure of the nebula or by 0.35 dex if such information is not available.

  4. Part-crystalline part-liquid state and rattling-like thermal damping in materials with chemical-bond hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wujie; Xi, Lili; Wei, Ping; Ke, Xuezhi; Yang, Jihui; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-10-21

    Understanding thermal and phonon transport in solids has been of great importance in many disciplines such as thermoelectric materials, which usually requires an extremely low lattice thermal conductivity (LTC). By analyzing the finite-temperature structural and vibrational characteristics of typical thermoelectric compounds such as filled skutterudites and Cu3SbSe3, we demonstrate a concept of part-crystalline part-liquid state in the compounds with chemical-bond hierarchy, in which certain constituent species weakly bond to other part of the crystal. Such a material could intrinsically manifest the coexistence of rigid crystalline sublattices and other fluctuating noncrystalline sublattices with thermally induced large-amplitude vibrations and even flow of the group of species atoms, leading to atomic-level heterogeneity, mixed part-crystalline part-liquid structure, and thus rattling-like thermal damping due to the collective soft-mode vibrations similar to the Boson peak in amorphous materials. The observed abnormal LTC close to the amorphous limit in these materials can only be described by an effective approach that approximately treats the rattling-like damping as a "resonant" phonon scattering.

  5. Part-crystalline part-liquid state and rattling-like thermal damping in materials with chemical-bond hierarchy

    DOE PAGES

    Qiu, Wujie; Xi, Lili; Wei, Ping; ...

    2014-10-06

    Understanding thermal and phonon transport in solids has been of great importance in many disciplines such as thermoelectric materials, which usually requires an extremely low lattice thermal conductivity (LTC). Here, by analyzing the finite-temperature structural and vibrational characteristics of typical thermoelectric compounds such as filled skutterudites and Cu3SbSe3, we demonstrate a concept of part-crystalline part-liquid state in the compounds with chemical-bond hierarchy, in which certain constituent species weakly bond to other part of the crystal. Such a material could intrinsically manifest the coexistence of rigid crystalline sublattices and other fluctuating noncrystalline sublattices with thermally induced large-amplitude vibrations and even flowmore » of the group of species atoms, leading to atomic-level heterogeneity, mixed part-crystalline part-liquid structure, and thus rattling-like thermal damping due to the collective soft-mode vibrations similar to the Boson peak in amorphous materials. Lastly, the observed abnormal LTC close to the amorphous limit in these materials can only be described by an effective approach that approximately treats the rattling-like damping as a “resonant” phonon scattering.« less

  6. Part-crystalline part-liquid state and rattling-like thermal damping in materials with chemical-bond hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Lili; Wei, Ping; Ke, Xuezhi; Yang, Jihui; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    Understanding thermal and phonon transport in solids has been of great importance in many disciplines such as thermoelectric materials, which usually requires an extremely low lattice thermal conductivity (LTC). By analyzing the finite-temperature structural and vibrational characteristics of typical thermoelectric compounds such as filled skutterudites and Cu3SbSe3, we demonstrate a concept of part-crystalline part-liquid state in the compounds with chemical-bond hierarchy, in which certain constituent species weakly bond to other part of the crystal. Such a material could intrinsically manifest the coexistence of rigid crystalline sublattices and other fluctuating noncrystalline sublattices with thermally induced large-amplitude vibrations and even flow of the group of species atoms, leading to atomic-level heterogeneity, mixed part-crystalline part-liquid structure, and thus rattling-like thermal damping due to the collective soft-mode vibrations similar to the Boson peak in amorphous materials. The observed abnormal LTC close to the amorphous limit in these materials can only be described by an effective approach that approximately treats the rattling-like damping as a “resonant” phonon scattering. PMID:25288751

  7. Too many chemicals, too little time: Rapid in silico methods to characterize and predict ADME properties for chemical toxicity and exposure potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating proposed alternative chemical structures to support the design of safer chemicals and products is an important component of EPA's Green Chemistry and Design for the Environment (DfE) Programs. As such, science-based alternatives assessment is essential to support EPA's...

  8. A Rapid Laser Probing Method Facilitates the Non-invasive and Contact-free Determination of Leaf Thermal Properties.

    PubMed

    Buyel, Johannes F; Gruchow, Hannah M; Wehner, Martin

    2017-01-07

    Plants can produce valuable substances such as secondary metabolites and recombinant proteins. The purification of the latter from plant biomass can be streamlined by heat treatment (blanching). A blanching apparatus can be designed more precisely if the thermal properties of the leaves are known in detail, i.e., the specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity. The measurement of these properties is time consuming and labor intensive, and usually requires invasive methods that contact the sample directly. This can reduce the product yield and may be incompatible with containment requirements, e.g., in the context of good manufacturing practice. To address these issues, a non-invasive, contact-free method was developed that determines the specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity of an intact plant leaf in about one minute. The method involves the application of a short laser pulse of defined length and intensity to a small area of the leaf sample, causing a temperature increase that is measured using a near infrared sensor. The temperature increase is combined with known leaf properties (thickness and density) to determine the specific heat capacity. The thermal conductivity is then calculated based on the profile of the subsequent temperature decline, taking thermal radiation and convective heat transfer into account. The associated calculations and critical aspects of sample handling are discussed.

  9. Effects of Long Term Thermal Exposure on Chemically Pure (CP) Titanium Grade 2 Room Temperature Tensile Properties and Microstructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Room temperature tensile testing of Chemically Pure (CP) Titanium Grade 2 was conducted for as-received commercially produced sheet and following thermal exposure at 550 and 650 K for times up to 5,000 h. No significant changes in microstructure or failure mechanism were observed. A statistical analysis of the data was performed. Small statistical differences were found, but all properties were well above minimum values for CP Ti Grade 2 as defined by ASTM standards and likely would fall within normal variation of the material.

  10. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOEpatents

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Bannister, R.L.

    1999-04-27

    A system and method are disclosed for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer. The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine. 2 figs.

  11. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wen-Ching; Newby, Richard A.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system (20, 22, 78) and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream (74) and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer (18). The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine.

  12. Comparison Between a Rapid Biological Screening Method (EPA 4425) for TCDDs/TCDFs and Chemical Analytical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jack W.; Jones, Jennifer M.; McCoy, Daniel L.; Fujita, Akira; Yamamoto, Taichi; Iijima, Satoshi

    2003-08-01

    Seven polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), ten polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) as well as twelve polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are collectively referred to as dioxin-like compounds. The World Health Organization toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for these persistent chlorinated organic compounds and their measured concentrations are used to produce the toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ) of a sample. TEF values are partially based on a common mechanism involving binding of the chemical to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Biological methods for the determination of TEQs are based on the assumption that all dioxin-related compounds act through the Ah receptor signal transduction pathway. Based on the biochemical response of CYP1A activation via the AhR, in vitro systems that utilize a reporter gene under transcriptional control of CYP1A have been developed. Several investigations have reported on the success of utilizing biological test systems to detect PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs in environmental samples. The P450 Human Reporter Gene System assay (EPA Method 4425) utilizes a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) in which a plasmid containing the human CYP1A1 promoter and 5'-flanking sequences with three xenobiotic responsive elements (XREs) fused to the luciferase reporter gene. The enzyme luciferase is produced in the presence of compounds that bind the XREs, and can be detected by a simple assay that measures relative light units with a luminometer. Method 4425, used by Columbia Analytical Services (CAS), has gained acceptance as a rapid and inexpensive approach for screening solvent extracts of environmental samples of soil, sediment, tissue, and water to detect compounds that activate the AhR. Investigations in the U. S. and Japan comparing the results of 4425 and standard high-resolution GC/MS (HRGC/HRMS) will be reported here. The purpose of making these comparisons is to determine if risk assessments for large dioxin sites both before and after remediation

  13. Program ELM: A tool for rapid thermal-hydraulic analysis of solid-core nuclear rocket fuel elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, James T.

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews the state of the art of thermal-hydraulic analysis codes and presents a new code, Program ELM, for analysis of fuel elements. ELM is a concise computational tool for modeling the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of propellant flow through fuel element coolant channels in a nuclear thermal rocket reactor with axial coolant passages. The program was developed as a tool to swiftly evaluate various heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations generated for turbulent pipe flow with heat addition which have been used in previous programs. Thus, a consistent comparison of these correlations was performed, as well as a comparison with data from the NRX reactor experiments from the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) project. This report describes the ELM Program algorithm, input/output, and validation efforts and provides a listing of the code.

  14. Alternative Feedstocks Program Technical and Economic Assessment: Thermal/Chemical and Bioprocessing Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bozell, J. J.; Landucci, R.

    1993-07-01

    This resource document on biomass to chemicals opportunities describes the development of a technical and market rationale for incorporating renewable feedstocks into the chemical industry in both a qualitative and quantitative sense. The term "renewable feedstock?s" can be defined to include a huge number of materials such as agricultural crops rich in starch, lignocellulosic materials (biomass), or biomass material recovered from a variety of processing wastes.

  15. A Model for the Thermal and Chemical Evolution of the Moon's Interior: Implications for the Onset of Mare Volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Paul C.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1995-01-01

    Crystallization of the lunar magma ocean creates a chemically stratified Moon consisting of an anorthositic crust and magma ocean cumulates overlying the primitive lunar interior. Within the magma ocean cumulates the last liquids to crystallize form dense, ilmenite-rich cumulates that contain high concentrations of incompatible radioactive elements. The underlying olivine-orthopyroxene cumulates are also stratified with later crystallized, denser, more Fe-rich compositions at the top. This paper explores the chemical and thermal consequences of an internal evolution model accounting for the possible role of these sources of chemical buoyancy. Rayleigh-Taylor instability causes the dense ilmenite-rich cumulate layer and underlying Fe-rich cumulates to sink toward the center of the Moon, forming a dense lunar core. After this overturn, radioactive heating within the ilmenite-rich cumulate core heats the overlying mantle, causing it to melt. In this model, the source region for high-TiO2 mare basalts is a convectively mixed layer above the core-mantle boundary which would contain small and variable amounts of admixed ilmenite and KREEP. This deep high-pressure melting, as required for mare basalts, occurs after a reasonable time interval to explain the onset of mare basalt volcanism if the content of radioactive elements in the core and the chemical density gradients above the core are sufficiently high but within a range of values that might have been present in the Moon. Regardless of details implied by particular model parameters, gravitational overturn driven by the high density of magma ocean Fe-rich cumulates should concentrate high-TiO2 mare basalt sources, and probably a significant fraction of radioactive heating, toward the center of the Moon. This will have important implications for both the thermal evolution of the Moon and for mare basalt genesis.

  16. Generalities on the physical and chemical processes in a thermal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Fauchais, P.; Bourdin, E.; Coudert, J.F.

    1983-04-01

    A review of plasma chemistry and its industrial uses is presented. A thermal plasma is defined. Physical properties and transport properties are discussed and various types of generators and furnaces are described. Existing and potential industrial uses of a plasma are reviewed.

  17. Low-thrust chemical propulsion system propellant expulsion and thermal conditioning study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merino, F.; Wakabayashi, I.; Pleasant, R. L.; Hill, M.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal conditioning systems for satisfying engine net positive suction pressure (NPSP) requirements, and propellant expulsion systems for achieving propellant dump during a return-to-launch site (RTLS) abort were studied for LH2/LO2 and LCH4/LO2 upper stage propellant combinations. A state-of-the-art thermal conditioning system employing helium injection beneath the liquid surface shows the lowest weight penalty for LO2 and LCH4. A technology system incorporating a thermal subcooler (heat exchanger) for engine NPSP results in the lowest weight penalty for the LH2 tank. A preliminary design of two state-of-the-art and two new technology systems indicates a weight penalty difference too small to warrant development of a LH2 thermal subcooler. Analysis results showed that the LH2/LO2 propellant expulsion system is optimized for maximum dump line diameters, whereas the LCH4/LO2 system is optimized for minimum dump line diameter (LCH4) and maximum dump line diameter (LO2). The primary uncertainty is the accurate determination of two-phase flow rates through the dump system; experimentation is not recommended because this uncertainty is not considered significant.

  18. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: XCVIII. Experiments Involving Thermal Methods of Analysis for Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Explains some experiments involving thermal methods of analysis for undergraduate chemistry laboratories. Some experiments are: (1) the determination of the density and degree of crystallinity of a polymer; and (2) the determination of the specific heat of a nonvolatile compound. (HM)

  19. Thermal stability and energy harvesting characteristics of Au nanorods: harsh environment chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karker, Nicholas; Dharmalingam, Gnanaprakash; Carpenter, Michael A.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the levels of polluting gases such as CO and NOx from high temperature (500°C and higher) combustion environments requires materials with high thermal stability and resilience that can withstand harsh oxidizing and reducing environments. Au nanorods (AuNRs) have shown potential in plasmonic gas sensing due to their catalytic activity, high oxidation stability, and absorbance sensitivity to changes in the surrounding environment. By using electron beam lithography, AuNR geometries can be patterned with tight control of the rod dimensions and spacings, allowing tunability of their optical properties. Methods such as NR encapsulation within an yttria-stabilized zirconia overcoat layer with subsequent annealing procedures will be shown to improve temperature stability within a simulated harsh environment. Since light sources and spectrometers are typically required to obtain optical measurements, integration is a major barrier for harsh environment sensing. Plasmonic sensing results will be presented where thermal energy is harvested by the AuNRs, which replaces the need for an external incident light source. Results from gas sensing experiments that utilize thermal energy harvesting are in good agreement with experiments which use an external incident light source. Principal component analysis results demonstrate that by selecting the most "active" wavelengths in a plasmonic band, the wavelength space can be reduced from hundreds of monitored wavelengths to just four, without loss of information about selectivity of the AuNRs. By combining thermal stability, the thermal energy harvesting capability, and the selectivity in gas detection (achieved through multivariate analysis), integration of plasmonic sensors into combustion environments can be greatly simplified.

  20. Semi-coupled flow and thermal analysis of the field joint during rapid pressurization of the redesigned solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Benny; Majumdar, Alok K.; Colbert, Robert; Clayton, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    A transient, semi-coupled, multi-dimensional thermal and flow analysis methodology was developed to predict the thermal/gas dynamic conditions in the field joint region of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). Transient temperature response, pressure history, and combustion gas flow rate (within the field joint region), were of principle interest, in the course of this study. The thermal environment in the field joint was modeled using SINDA, a finite difference based thermal network analyzer. The combustion gas flow boundary condition was generated using the FLAP code; this code performs a transient, lumped-parameter, control volume analysis to solve the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations. The FLAP computer code was modified to account for erosion of the NBR insulation material, following ignition. An independent grid sensitivity study was conducted to determine an appropriate grid distribution near the wall. The predicted results, obtained using an optimum grid distribution and computer generated flow boundary condition, were compared with subscale test data.