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Sample records for rapid thermal oxides

  1. Rapid thermal oxidation of silicon in ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhenjiang; Madsen, Jonathan M.; Takoudis, Christos G.

    2000-06-01

    Rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) of Si in ozone gas is studied at temperatures between 200 and 550 °C, and the properties of the resulting ultrathin oxides are characterized using in situ mirror-enhanced reflection Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Thus, the frequency and intensity of the longitudinal optical vibrational mode of the Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching from ultrathin oxide films (<30 Å) are probed in different processing environments and related to the oxidation kinetics and interfacial layer properties. The oxidation rate in ozone is found to be comparable to the one in pure oxygen at approximately 200 °C higher temperature. Analyses of the oxidation in ozone show a fast oxidation regime followed by a slow one with activation energies of 0.13±0.01 and 0.19±0.04 eV, respectively. Two regions are also observed for the oxidation in pure O2 with activation energies of 0.20±0.03 eV for the fast oxidation regime and 0.36±0.04 eV for the slow one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results and IR spectral feature frequency shifts suggest that the RTO of silicon in ozone ambient results in a thinner, less-stressed interfacial layer than the one obtained in pure O2. Preliminary electrical characterization using surface charge analyses indicates that the oxides formed in ozone are of superior quality.

  2. Fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    2003-05-13

    Systems and methods are described for fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing. A method of forming a lithium cobalt oxide film includes depositing a film of lithium cobalt oxide on a substrate; rapidly heating the film of lithium cobalt oxide to a target temperature; and maintaining the film of lithium cobalt oxide at the target temperature for a target annealing time of at most, approximately 60 minutes. The systems and methods provide advantages because they require less time to implement and are, therefore less costly than previous techniques.

  3. Fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing. A method of forming a lithium cobalt oxide film includes depositing a film of lithium cobalt oxide on a substrate; rapidly heating the film of lithium cobalt oxide to a target temperature; and maintaining the film of lithium cobalt oxide at the target temperature for a target annealing time of at most, approximately 60 minutes. The systems and methods provide advantages because they require less time to implement and are, therefore less costly than previous techniques.

  4. Fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    2003-04-29

    Systems and methods are described for fabrication of highly textured lithium cobalt oxide films by rapid thermal annealing. A method of forming a lithium cobalt oxide film includes depositing a film of lithium cobalt oxide on a substrate; rapidly heating the film of lithium cobalt oxide to a target temperature; and maintaining the film of lithium cobalt oxide at the target temperature for a target annealing time of at most, approximately 60 minutes. The systems and methods provide advantages because they require less time to implement and are, therefore less costly than previous techniques.

  5. Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cellmembranes

    SciTech Connect

    Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

    2004-01-02

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes were developed in which zirconia-based electrolyte thin films were supported by a composite metal/ceramic electrode, and were subjected to rapid thermal cycling between 200 and 800 C. The effects of this cycling on membrane performance were evaluated. The membranes, not yet optimized for performance, showed a peak power density of 350mW/cm2at 900 C in laboratory-sized SOFCs that was not affected by the thermal cycling. This resistance to cycling degradation is attributed to the close matching of thermal expansion coefficient of the cermet support electrode with that of the zirconia electrolyte.

  6. Iron Oxide Films Prepared by Rapid Thermal Processing for Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickman, B.; Bastos Fanta, A.; Burrows, A.; Hellman, A.; Wagner, J. B.; Iandolo, B.

    2017-01-01

    Hematite is a promising and extensively investigated material for various photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes for energy conversion and storage, in particular for oxidation reactions. Thermal treatments during synthesis of hematite are found to affect the performance of hematite electrodes considerably. Herein, we present hematite thin films fabricated via one-step oxidation of Fe by rapid thermal processing (RTP). In particular, we investigate the effect of oxidation temperature on the PEC properties of hematite. Films prepared at 750 °C show the highest activity towards water oxidation. These films show the largest average grain size and the highest charge carrier density, as determined from electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy analysis. We believe that the fast processing enabled by RTP makes this technique a preferred method for investigation of novel materials and architectures, potentially also on nanostructured electrodes, where retaining high surface area is crucial to maximize performance.

  7. Iron Oxide Films Prepared by Rapid Thermal Processing for Solar Energy Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Wickman, B.; Bastos Fanta, A.; Burrows, A.; Hellman, A.; Wagner, J. B.; Iandolo, B.

    2017-01-01

    Hematite is a promising and extensively investigated material for various photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes for energy conversion and storage, in particular for oxidation reactions. Thermal treatments during synthesis of hematite are found to affect the performance of hematite electrodes considerably. Herein, we present hematite thin films fabricated via one-step oxidation of Fe by rapid thermal processing (RTP). In particular, we investigate the effect of oxidation temperature on the PEC properties of hematite. Films prepared at 750 °C show the highest activity towards water oxidation. These films show the largest average grain size and the highest charge carrier density, as determined from electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy analysis. We believe that the fast processing enabled by RTP makes this technique a preferred method for investigation of novel materials and architectures, potentially also on nanostructured electrodes, where retaining high surface area is crucial to maximize performance. PMID:28091573

  8. Oxidation kinetics of Si and SiGe by dry rapid thermal oxidation, in-situ steam generation oxidation and dry furnace oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozé, Fabien; Gourhant, Olivier; Blanquet, Elisabeth; Bertin, François; Juhel, Marc; Abbate, Francesco; Pribat, Clément; Duru, Romain

    2017-06-01

    The fabrication of ultrathin compressively strained SiGe-On-Insulator layers by the condensation technique is likely a key milestone towards low-power and high performances FD-SOI logic devices. However, the SiGe condensation technique still requires challenges to be solved for an optimized use in an industrial environment. SiGe oxidation kinetics, upon which the condensation technique is founded, has still not reached a consensus in spite of various studies which gave insights into the matter. This paper aims to bridge the gaps between these studies by covering various oxidation processes relevant to today's technological needs with a new and quantitative analysis methodology. We thus address oxidation kinetics of SiGe with three Ge concentrations (0%, 10%, and 30%) by means of dry rapid thermal oxidation, in-situ steam generation oxidation, and dry furnace oxidation. Oxide thicknesses in the 50 Å to 150 Å range grown with oxidation temperatures between 850 and 1100 °C were targeted. The present work shows first that for all investigated processes, oxidation follows a parabolic regime even for thin oxides, which indicates a diffusion-limited oxidation regime. We also observe that, for all investigated processes, the SiGe oxidation rate is systematically higher than that of Si. The amplitude of the variation of oxidation kinetics of SiGe with respect to Si is found to be strongly dependent on the process type. Second, a new quantitative analysis methodology of oxidation kinetics is introduced. This methodology allows us to highlight the dependence of oxidation kinetics on the Ge concentration at the oxidation interface, which is modulated by the pile-up mechanism. Our results show that the oxidation rate increases with the Ge concentration at the oxidation interface.

  9. Rapid synthesis of tin oxide nanostructures by microwave-assisted thermal oxidation for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phadungdhitidhada, S.; Ruankham, P.; Gardchareon, A.; Wongratanaphisan, D.; Choopun, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the present work nanostructures of tin oxides were synthesized by a microwave-assisted thermal oxidation. Tin precursor powder was loaded into a cylindrical quartz tube and further radiated in a microwave oven. The as-synthesized products were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and x-ray diffractometer. The results showed that two different morphologies of SnO2 microwires (MWs) and nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained in one minute of microwave radiation under atmospheric ambient. A few tens of the SnO2 MWs with the length of 10-50 µm were found. Some parts of the MWs were decorated with the SnO2 NPs. However, most of the products were SnO2 NPs with the diameter ranging from 30-200 nm. Preparation under loosely closed system lead to mixed phase SnO-SnO2 NPs with diameter of 30-200 nm. The single-phase of SnO2 could be obtained by mixing the Sn precursor powders with CuO2. The products were mostly found to be SnO2 nanowires (NWs) and MWs. The diameter of SnO2 NWs was less than 50 nm. The SnO2 NPs, MWs, and NWs were in the cassiterite rutile structure phase. The SnO NPs was in the tetragonal structure phase. The growth direction of the SnO2 NWs was observed in (1 1 0) and (2 2 1) direction. The ethanol sensor performance of these tin oxide nanostructures showed that the SnO-SnO2 NPs exhibited extremely high sensitivity. Invited talk at 5th Thailand International Nanotechnology Conference (Nano Thailand-2016), 27-29 November 2016, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

  10. Copper silicide formation by rapid thermal processing and induced room-temperature Si oxide growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setton, M.; Van der Spiegel, J.; Rothman, B.

    1990-07-01

    The growth of copper silicide has been studied by rapid thermal processing (RTP) of 500 Å of Cu on Si substrates. Interaction between the diffusing metal and Si starts at 250-300 °C. Annealing at higher temperatures yields complete silicidation to Cu3Si. This leads to strong modifications of the Auger line shapes of both Si and Cu. A plasmon peak located 20 eV below the main peak is the fingerprint in the Cu spectrum. Strong features at 80, 85.6, 89.2, and 93.2 eV as well as a 1 eV shift of the 90.4 eV peak appear in the Si L2,3VV spectrum. Whether for Cu films annealed in nitrogen or in vacuum, exposure of the silicide to air results in the growth of silicon oxide at room temperature and continues until the silicide layer is totally converted. This repeatable and controllable oxidation of silicon is accompanied by changes in resistivity and color reflecting the extent of the process. For Cu/CoSi2/Si structures, the cobalt silicide acts as a transport medium for the growth of the copper silicide and also serves as a cap preventing the oxidation of the final CoSi2/Cu3Si/Si contacts

  11. Rapid Thermal Annealing for Solution Synthesis of Transparent Conducting Aluminum Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Sana; De Matteis, Fabio; Davoli, Ivan

    2017-07-01

    Transparent conducting oxide films with optimized dopant molar ratio have been prepared with limited pre- and postdeposition annealing duration of 10 min. Multiple aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) layers were spin-coated on ordinary glass substrates. The predeposition consolidation temperature and dopant molar ratio were optimized for electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Next, a group of films were deposited on Corning glass substrates from precursor solutions with the optimized dopant ratio, followed by postdeposition rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at different temperatures and in controlled environments. The lowest resistivity of 10.1 × 10-3 Ω cm was obtained for films receiving RTA at 600°C for 10 min each in vacuum then in N2-5%H2 environment, while resistivity of 20.3 × 10-3 Ω cm was obtained for films subjected to RTA directly in N2-5%H2. Optical measurements revealed average total transmittance of about 85% in the visible region. A direct allowed transition bandgap was determined based on the absorption edge with a value slightly above 3.0 eV, within the typical range for semiconductors. RTA resulted in desorption of oxygen with enhanced carrier concentration and crystallinity, which increased the carrier mobility with decreased bulk resistivity while maintaining the required optical transparency.

  12. Physico-chemical and electrical properties of rapid thermal oxides on Ge-rich SiGe heterolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, R.; Bera, M. K.; Chakraborty, S.; Saha, S.; Woitok, J. F.; Maiti, C. K.

    2006-11-01

    Rapid thermal oxidation of high-Ge content (Ge-rich) Si 1- xGe x ( x = 0.85) layers in dry O 2 ambient has been investigated. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and strain-sensitive two-dimensional reciprocal space mapping X-ray diffractometry (2D-RSM) are employed to investigate strain relaxation and composition of as-grown SiGe alloy layers. Characterizations of ultra thin oxides (˜6-8 nm) have been performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS). Formation of mixed oxide i.e., (SiO 2 + GeO 2) and pile-up of Ge at the oxide/Si 1- xGe x interface have been observed. Enhancement in Ge segregation and reduction of oxide thickness with increasing oxidation temperature are reported. Interface properties and leakage current behavior of the rapid thermal oxides have been studied by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (J-V) techniques using metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) structures and the results are reported.

  13. Reduction of oxide and interface charge density of reactive sputtered HfO2 thin films by rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, K. C.; Ghosh, S. P.; Tripathy, N.; Bose, G.; Parhi, P.; Kar, J. P.

    2017-05-01

    Hafnium oxide ceramic thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by RF magnetron reactive sputtering at room temperature. Post-deposition rapid thermal annealing of the sputtered HfO2 films was carried out with the variation in process duration in oxygen ambient. The structural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction technique, where an enhancement in the crystallinity of HfO2 (111) orientation was observed with annealing durations. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of the annealed ceramic films were investigated using Al/HfO2/Si metal oxide semiconductor capacitor structure. The flatband voltage (Vfb) and oxide charge density (Qox) were extracted from the high frequency (1 MHz) C-V curve. The interface charge density (Dit) and leakage current density were found to be minimum for RTA treatment at 600 °C for 135 sec, which is due to the decrease in dangling bonds at the HfO2/Si interface.

  14. Rapid low-temperature processing of metal-oxide thin film transistors with combined far ultraviolet and thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Leppäniemi, J. Ojanperä, K.; Kololuoma, T.; Huttunen, O.-H.; Majumdar, H.; Alastalo, A.; Dahl, J.; Tuominen, M.; Laukkanen, P.

    2014-09-15

    We propose a combined far ultraviolet (FUV) and thermal annealing method of metal-nitrate-based precursor solutions that allows efficient conversion of the precursor to metal-oxide semiconductor (indium zinc oxide, IZO, and indium oxide, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) both at low-temperature and in short processing time. The combined annealing method enables a reduction of more than 100 °C in annealing temperature when compared to thermally annealed reference thin-film transistor (TFT) devices of similar performance. Amorphous IZO films annealed at 250 °C with FUV for 5 min yield enhancement-mode TFTs with saturation mobility of ∼1 cm{sup 2}/(V·s). Amorphous In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films annealed for 15 min with FUV at temperatures of 180 °C and 200 °C yield TFTs with low-hysteresis and saturation mobility of 3.2 cm{sup 2}/(V·s) and 7.5 cm{sup 2}/(V·s), respectively. The precursor condensation process is clarified with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Introducing the FUV irradiation at 160 nm expedites the condensation process via in situ hydroxyl radical generation that results in the rapid formation of a continuous metal-oxygen-metal structure in the film. The results of this paper are relevant in order to upscale printed electronics fabrication to production-scale roll-to-roll environments.

  15. Thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  16. Effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing and Different Oxidants on the Properties of LaxAlyO Nanolaminate Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Chenxi; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Xing; Zhao, Lu; Zhao, Dongdong; Feng, Xingyao

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of different sequences of two metal precursors [trimethylaluminum (TMA) and Tris(isopropylcyclopentadienyl) lanthanum (La(iPrCp)3)] for atomic layer deposition (ALD) lanthanum aluminum oxide (LaxAlyO) films is carried out. The percentage compositions of C and N impurity of LaxAlyO films were investigated using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of different oxidants on the physical and chemical properties and electrical characteristics of LaxAlyO films are studied before and after annealing. Preliminary testing results indicate that the impurity level of LaxAlyO films grown with different oxidants can be well controlled before and after annealing. Analysis indicates the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and kinds of oxidants have significant effects on the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT), dielectric constant, electrical properties, and stability of LaxAlyO films. Additionally, the change of chemical bond types of rapid thermal annealing effects on the properties of LaxAlyO films are grown with different oxidants also investigated by XPS.

  17. Effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing and Different Oxidants on the Properties of LaxAlyO Nanolaminate Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Fei, Chenxi; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Xing; Zhao, Lu; Zhao, Dongdong; Feng, Xingyao

    2017-12-01

    A comparative study of different sequences of two metal precursors [trimethylaluminum (TMA) and Tris(isopropylcyclopentadienyl) lanthanum (La((i)PrCp)3)] for atomic layer deposition (ALD) lanthanum aluminum oxide (LaxAlyO) films is carried out. The percentage compositions of C and N impurity of LaxAlyO films were investigated using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of different oxidants on the physical and chemical properties and electrical characteristics of LaxAlyO films are studied before and after annealing. Preliminary testing results indicate that the impurity level of LaxAlyO films grown with different oxidants can be well controlled before and after annealing. Analysis indicates the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and kinds of oxidants have significant effects on the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT), dielectric constant, electrical properties, and stability of LaxAlyO films. Additionally, the change of chemical bond types of rapid thermal annealing effects on the properties of LaxAlyO films are grown with different oxidants also investigated by XPS.

  18. The influence of fluorine on boron-enhanced diffusion in silicon by BF{sub 2}{sup +} implantation through oxide during high temperature rapid thermal anneal

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.Z.; Luo, M.S.C.; Tseng, H.H.; Ajuria, S.A.

    1997-11-01

    BF{sub 2}{sup +} implantation through a sacrificial oxide for the formation of p{sup +}/n shallow junctions is frequently applied in device fabrication. The effects of fluorine on boron diffusion in and out of a silicon substrate during nitrogen-ambient high temperature rapid thermal annealing have been studied. By comparing B and BF{sub 2} implanted substrates, it is shown that fluorine out-diffusion during high temperature annealing coincides with enhanced boron out-diffusion into the oxide and suppressed boron diffusion into the substrate. In particular, when fluorine accumulated at the end of range dislocation loops is driven out of the bulk, shallower junctions are observed.

  19. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOEpatents

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  20. UV Sensing Properties of ZnO Nanowires Grown on Glass by Rapid Thermal Oxidation of Zinc Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailova, I.; Gerbreders, V.; Sļedevskis, Ē.; Bulanovs, A.; Paškevičs, V.

    2014-08-01

    The nanostructured ZnO thin films were successfully synthesized by rapid thermal oxidation of metallic zinc films without catalysts or additives. On the surface of thin films the formation of ZnO nanowires was observed. In the work, the optical and electrical parameters and photoresponses of the obtained ZnO thin films were investigated. Nanostructured thin films of the type have a promising potential for the use in optoelectronics, sensor technique and biomedical sciences Šī darba galvenais mērķis bija izpētīt UV fotodetektora izgatavošanas iespējamību uz nanostrukturētu ZnO plāno kārtiņu bāzes, kas sintezētas termiski oksidējot Zn plānās kārtiņas. Termiskās oksidēšanas rezultātā tika novērota adatveidīgu ZnO nanostruktūru formēšanās uz kārtiņu virsmas. Izpētītas iegūto paraugu optiskās un elektriskās īpašības, kā arī fotoreakcija. Tika konstatēts, ka iegūto nanostrukturēto ZnO kārtiņu elektriskā vadītspēja ir ārkārtīgi jutīga pret UV starojumu, taču, apstarojot ar redzamo gaismu, strāva paliek gandrīz nemainīga. Kārtiņu elektriskās vadītspējas fotoreakcija ir atkarīga arī no nanostruktūru daudzuma uz virsmas. Visaugstākā UV fotovadītspēja tika novērota paraugam ar vislielāko ZnO nanoadatu koncentrāciju. UV gaismas inducētais vadītspējas pieaugums ļauj ZnO nanoadatas reversīvi pārslēgt starp stāvokļiem "ieslēgts" un "izslēgts". Līdz ar to, šīs fotojutīgās nanoadatas var tikt izmantotas UV gaismas detektoros un optiskajos slēdžos. Šādas nanostrukturētas plānās kārtiņas var tikt pielietotas arī ķīmiskajos un bioloģiskajos sensoros, pjezoelektriskajās ierīcēs, saules elementos utt. Turklāt, šādu nanostrukturēto ZnO plāno kārtiņu sintēzes process ir salīdzinoši lēts un vienkāršs, dodot iespēju liela mēroga produkcijas ražošanai

  1. Surface morphology and electrical transport of rapid thermal annealed chromium-doped indium zinc oxides: The influence of zinc interstitials and out-diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C. Y.

    2013-12-09

    We investigate the complex impedance (CI) spectra of chromium-doped indium zinc oxide (CIZO) films with different rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperatures. The CI spectra drawn from the impedance contributions of Zn-O and In-O bondings in CIZO films were analyzed by two sets of parallel resistance and capacitance components in series. The result demonstrates that zinc interstitials controls electron concentration and transition of electrical transport from semiconducting to metallic. At higher RTA temperature, high-density zinc interstitial promotes Zn atom diffusion from the surface, modifying surface morphology.

  2. Direct synthesis and characterization of optically transparent conformal zinc oxide nanocrystalline thin films by rapid thermal plasma CVD.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Joachim D; Esposito, Heather J; Teh, Kwok Siong

    2011-10-31

    We report a rapid, self-catalyzed, solid precursor-based thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition process for depositing a conformal, nonporous, and optically transparent nanocrystalline ZnO thin film at 130 Torr (0.17 atm). Pure solid zinc is inductively heated and melted, followed by ionization by thermal induction argon/oxygen plasma to produce conformal, nonporous nanocrystalline ZnO films at a growth rate of up to 50 nm/min on amorphous and crystalline substrates including Si (100), fused quartz, glass, muscovite, c- and a-plane sapphire (Al2O3), gold, titanium, and polyimide. X-ray diffraction indicates the grains of as-deposited ZnO to be highly textured, with the fastest growth occurring along the c-axis. The individual grains are observed to be faceted by (103) planes which are the slowest growth planes. ZnO nanocrystalline films of nominal thicknesses of 200 nm are deposited at substrate temperatures of 330°C and 160°C on metal/ceramic substrates and polymer substrates, respectively. In addition, 20-nm- and 200-nm-thick films are also deposited on quartz substrates for optical characterization. At optical spectra above 375 nm, the measured optical transmittance of a 200-nm-thick ZnO film is greater than 80%, while that of a 20-nm-thick film is close to 100%. For a 200-nm-thick ZnO film with an average grain size of 100 nm, a four-point probe measurement shows electrical conductivity of up to 910 S/m. Annealing of 200-nm-thick ZnO films in 300 sccm pure argon at temperatures ranging from 750°C to 950°C (at homologous temperatures between 0.46 and 0.54) alters the textures and morphologies of the thin film. Based on scanning electron microscope images, higher annealing temperatures appear to restructure the ZnO nanocrystalline films to form nanorods of ZnO due to a combination of grain boundary diffusion and bulk diffusion.PACS: films and coatings, 81.15.-z; nanocrystalline materials, 81.07.Bc; II-VI semiconductors, 81.05.Dz.

  3. Direct synthesis and characterization of optically transparent conformal zinc oxide nanocrystalline thin films by rapid thermal plasma CVD

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report a rapid, self-catalyzed, solid precursor-based thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition process for depositing a conformal, nonporous, and optically transparent nanocrystalline ZnO thin film at 130 Torr (0.17 atm). Pure solid zinc is inductively heated and melted, followed by ionization by thermal induction argon/oxygen plasma to produce conformal, nonporous nanocrystalline ZnO films at a growth rate of up to 50 nm/min on amorphous and crystalline substrates including Si (100), fused quartz, glass, muscovite, c- and a-plane sapphire (Al2O3), gold, titanium, and polyimide. X-ray diffraction indicates the grains of as-deposited ZnO to be highly textured, with the fastest growth occurring along the c-axis. The individual grains are observed to be faceted by (103) planes which are the slowest growth planes. ZnO nanocrystalline films of nominal thicknesses of 200 nm are deposited at substrate temperatures of 330°C and 160°C on metal/ceramic substrates and polymer substrates, respectively. In addition, 20-nm- and 200-nm-thick films are also deposited on quartz substrates for optical characterization. At optical spectra above 375 nm, the measured optical transmittance of a 200-nm-thick ZnO film is greater than 80%, while that of a 20-nm-thick film is close to 100%. For a 200-nm-thick ZnO film with an average grain size of 100 nm, a four-point probe measurement shows electrical conductivity of up to 910 S/m. Annealing of 200-nm-thick ZnO films in 300 sccm pure argon at temperatures ranging from 750°C to 950°C (at homologous temperatures between 0.46 and 0.54) alters the textures and morphologies of the thin film. Based on scanning electron microscope images, higher annealing temperatures appear to restructure the ZnO nanocrystalline films to form nanorods of ZnO due to a combination of grain boundary diffusion and bulk diffusion. PACS: films and coatings, 81.15.-z; nanocrystalline materials, 81.07.Bc; II-VI semiconductors, 81.05.Dz. PMID:22040295

  4. RTDS: A continuous, rapid, thermal synthesis mode

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, D.W.; Linehan, J.C.; Darab, J.D.; Buehler, M.F.; Phelps, M.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

    1995-04-01

    The Rapid Thermal Decomposition of precursors in Solution (RTDS) Process is a flow-through hydrothermal powder synthesis method capable of producing nanophase oxide and oxyhydroxide catalysts and catalyst precursors. The RTDS technique utilizes a brief exposure of dissolved precursors to high pressure/high temperature aqueous conditions to initiate crystallite nucleation. The resulting nanocrystalline suspension is removed from the hydrothermal environment through a pressure let-down device before significant crystallite growth can occur. The RTDS process is discussed as a method to produce nanocrystalline iron oxide and oxyhydroxide powders that exhibit high activity as carbon-carbon bond cleavage catalyst precursors. Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} powders having prospective catalytic applications are also produced by the RTDS process.

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of NOR-Type Tri-Gate Flash Memory with Improved Inter-Poly Dielectric Layer by Rapid Thermal Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, Takahiro; Liu, Yongxun; Matsukawa, Takashi; Endo, Kazuhiko; O'uchi, Shinichi; Tsukada, Junichi; Yamauchi, Hiromi; Ishikawa, Yuki; Hayashida, Tetsuro; Sakamoto, Kunihiro; Ogura, Atsushi; Masahara, Meishoku

    2012-06-01

    Floating-gate (FG)-type tri-gate flash memories with an improved inter-poly dielectric (IPD) layer have been successfully fabricated by introducing a newly developed rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) process, and their NOR-mode operation including threshold voltage (Vt) variations before and after one program/erase (P/E) cycle have been systematically investigated. It was experimentally confirmed that the gate breakdown voltage (BVg) is greatly increased from 12 to 19 V by introducing the RTO process thanks to the high quality and thin thermal silicon dioxide (SiO2) formation on the FG surface and etched edge regions, which effectively blocks the leakage pass of the IPD layer. A source-drain (SD) breakdown voltage (BVDS) as high as 4.5 V was obtained even when the gate length (Lg) was as small as 117 nm. It was also experimentally confirmed that the memory window increases with increasing gate voltage (Vg) in NOR-mode programming thanks to the increased efficiency of channel hot electron (CHE) injection. The developed tri-gate flash memory with improved IPD layer is useful for the further scaling of NOR-type flash memory.

  6. Rapid thermal reduced graphene oxide/Pt-TiO2 nanotube arrays for enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic reduction of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Lan Ching; Leong, Kah Hon; Saravanan, Pichiah; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a complicate natural photosynthesis process was prototyped through a photocatalysis process by reducing CO2 to light hydrocarbon, CH4. The composite photocatalyst employed for this study utilized Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) and rapid thermal reduced graphene oxide (RGO) deposited over the surface of the TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTs). The existence and contribution of both Pt NPs and RGO in the composite was confirmed through various analytical techniques including XRD, HRTEM, FESEM, Raman, FTIR, XPS, UV-DRS and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. The TNTs in the composite exhibited pure anatase phase. The absorption bands at around 450 nm obtained from UV-DRS spectrum supported the existence of LSPR phenomenon of Pt NPs. The promising lower work function of RGO promoted the electrons transfer from TNTs to RGO efficiently. The successful depositions of Pt and RGO onto the surface of TNTs contributed for the improved photocatalytic activity (total CH4 yield of 10.96 μmol m-2) in the reduction of CO2 over TNTs and Pt-TNTs. Both of RGO and Pt NPs are equally important to exert a significant impact on the improvement of CH4 production rates.

  7. Pd/Ta2O5/SiC Schottky-diode hydrogen sensors formed by using rapid thermal oxidation of Ta thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Sung-Jae; Choi, Je Hoon; Kim, Seong Jeen; Kim, Sang-Cheol

    2013-11-01

    Pd/Ta2O5/SiC Schottky-diode hydrogen sensors were fabricated, and their hydrogen gas sensing performance was investigated at 573 K and 773 K. Interfacial Ta2O5 films of 120 nm in thickness were formed by using rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) of the sputtered Ta films on SiC. The crystallinity of the Ta and the Ta2O5 films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). As-sputtered Ta films on 4H-SiC are composed of α-Ta (body-centered-cubic) and β-Ta (tetragonal), and α-Ta (110) is the dominant orientation. After RTO at 573 K, the Ta films are converted to β-Ta2O5 (orthorhombic). The diode sensors show high sensitivity to H2 even at the low H2 concentration of 500 ppm, and the voltage change of the sensor upon H2 exposure is proportional to the H2 concentration in the range of 500 ˜ 2000 ppm at 573 K. The response voltage ΔV is shown to arise mostly from the change in the series resistance component of the sensor upon H2 exposure; the main origin of that change is believed to be the Ta2O5 interfacial layer. The response time t90 of the sensor at 573 K was estimated to be approximately 8 s.

  8. Rapid Solidification of Magnetic Oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalonji, G.; Deguire, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The enhanced control over microstructural evolution inherent in rapid solidification processing techniques are exploited to create novel ceramic magnetic materials. The great sensitivity of magnetic properties to local structure provides a powerful probe both for the study of structure and of microscopic solidification mechanisms. The first system studied is the SrO-Fe2O3 binary, which contains the commercially important hard magnetic compound strontium hexaferrite. The products were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and differential thermal analysis. As-quenched ribbons contain high concentrations of super-paramagnetic particles, 80 to 250 Angstroms in diameter, in a glassy matrix. This suggests the possibility of crystallizing monodomain strontium hexaferrite during subsequent heat treatment, with a resulting increase in coercivity over conventionally processed ferrite magnets. That magnetic properties can be controlled in solidification processing by varying the quench rate is demonstrated.

  9. Rapid Solidification of Magnetic Oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalonji, G.; Deguire, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The enhanced control over microstructural evolution inherent in rapid solidification processing techniques are exploited to create novel ceramic magnetic materials. The great sensitivity of magnetic properties to local structure provides a powerful probe both for the study of structure and of microscopic solidification mechanisms. The first system studied is the SrO-Fe2O3 binary, which contains the commercially important hard magnetic compound strontium hexaferrite. The products were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and differential thermal analysis. As-quenched ribbons contain high concentrations of super-paramagnetic particles, 80 to 250 Angstroms in diameter, in a glassy matrix. This suggests the possibility of crystallizing monodomain strontium hexaferrite during subsequent heat treatment, with a resulting increase in coercivity over conventionally processed ferrite magnets. That magnetic properties can be controlled in solidification processing by varying the quench rate is demonstrated.

  10. Thermal oxidation kinetics of germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Nishimura, T.; Yajima, T.; Toriumi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Thermal oxidation kinetics of Ge was investigated by the 18O tracing study and re-oxidation experiments of the SiO2/GeO2 stacked oxide-layer. The results suggest that Ge oxidation kinetics is completely different from that expected from the Deal-Grove model and that Ge is oxidized by GeO2 on Ge instead of O2 at the interface. This oxidation process forms large amounts of oxygen vacancies in GeO2, which facilitate the diffusion of oxygen atoms in GeO2. This means that oxygen atoms diffuse through GeO2 with an exchange type of process. Based on experimental results, a possible kinetics for Ge oxidation is discussed.

  11. Thermal oxidation of cobalt disilicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartur, M.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1982-10-01

    The thermal oxidation kinetics of cobalt disilicide on Si substrates have been investigated in the temperature range of 650 1100 °C in dry oxygen and wet oxygen. A surface layer of SiO2 grows parabolically with time. The growth rate is independent of the substrate orientation (<111> or <100>) and thickness of the CoSi2 layer. We surmize that the oxidation mechanism is dominated by the diffusion of an oxidant through the growing SiO2. Activation energies for the dry and wet oxidation are 1.49±0.05 eV and 1.05±0.05 eV, respectively. The kinetics is exactly the same as for NiSi2 oxidation which suggest that the same mechanism controls the oxidation of these two similar suicides.

  12. Ceramic thermal barrier coating for rapid thermal cycling applications

    DOEpatents

    Scharman, Alan J.; Yonushonis, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for metal articles subjected to rapid thermal cycling includes a metallic bond coat deposited on the metal article, at least one MCrAlY/ceramic layer deposited on the bond coat, and a ceramic top layer deposited on the MCrAlY/ceramic layer. The M in the MCrAlY material is Fe, Ni, Co, or a mixture of Ni and Co. The ceramic in the MCrAlY/ceramic layer is mullite or Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The ceramic top layer includes a ceramic with a coefficient of thermal expansion less than about 5.4.times.10.sup.-6 .degree.C.sup.-1 and a thermal conductivity between about 1 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1 and about 1.7 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1.

  13. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This

  14. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-10-27

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  15. C-V and DLTS Characterization of Rapid Thermal Oxides on Si0.887Ge0.113 and Si0.8811Ge0.113C0.0059 Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, W.; Choi, W. K.; Bera, L. K.; Mi, J.; YANG, C. Y.

    Capacitance versus voltage (C-V) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) characterization was performed on rapid thermal oxides (RTO) on Si0.887Ge0.113 and Si0.8811Ge0.113C0.0059 alloys. A high interface trap density (~ 1012 eV-1 cm-2) and a high apparent doping level were obtained for the SiO2/Si0.8811Ge0.113C0.0059 samples. The C-V results at different temperatures showed that the high apparent doping levels of the SiO2/Si0.8811Ge0.113C0.0059 samples might be due to the formation of SiC-related defects introduced by the high temperature oxidation process.

  16. Low Gravity Rapid Thermal Analysis of Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Smith, Guy A.

    2004-01-01

    It has been observed by two research groups that ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) glass crystallization is suppressed in microgravity. The mechanism for this phenomenon is unknown at the present time. In order to better understand the mechanism, an experiment was performed on NASA's KC135 reduced gravity aircraft to obtain quantitative crystallization data. An apparatus was designed and constructed for performing rapid thermal analysis of milligram quantities of ZBLAN glass. The apparatus employs an ellipsoidal furnace allowing for rapid heating and cooling. Using this apparatus nucleation and crystallization kinetic data was obtained leading to the construction of time-temperature-transformation curves for ZBLAN in microgravity and unit gravity.

  17. Separation medium containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A separation medium, such as a chromatography filling or packing, containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide has a surface that has been at least partially functionalized.

  18. Thermal expansion mismatch and oxidation in thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, G. C.; Phucharoen, W.; Miller, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) for advanced gas turbine blades have been under intensive development during the last several years. This investigation is intended to achieve a clearer understanding of the mechanical behavior of plasma sprayed zirconia-yttria TBCs, involving a nickle-chromium-aluminum bond coat. The near term objectives are to study the stress states in a relatively simple model TBC subjected to steady state thermal loading. The resulting thermal expansion mismatch and oxidation have been primary targets for the study. The finite element approach and the effects of thermal mismatch and oxidation are described. A proposed mechanism for oxidation induced coating failure is also presented.

  19. RAPID ARSENITE OXIDATION BY THERMUS AQUATICUS AND THERMUS THERMOPHILUS: FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS. (R826189)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus, common inhabitants of terrestrial hot springs and thermally polluted domestic and industrial waters, have been found to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate. Field investigations at a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park revealed ...

  20. RAPID ARSENITE OXIDATION BY THERMUS AQUATICUS AND THERMUS THERMOPHILUS: FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS. (R826189)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus, common inhabitants of terrestrial hot springs and thermally polluted domestic and industrial waters, have been found to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate. Field investigations at a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park revealed ...

  1. Rapid thermal annealing of indium phosphide compound semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedenbender, Michael D.; Kapoor, Vik J.; Williams, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    The rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of indium phosphide (InP) substrates using a proximity contact method and silicon nitride encapsulation is investigated. The surface conditions of the InP substrates following cleaning with procedures A and B are analyzed. Procedure A involves using an iodic acid solution to remove work-damage InP surface layers and B is a degasssing process and hydrofluoric acid solution for native oxide removal. AES, XPS, and SIMS data of the proximity contact and silicon nitride encapsulated annealed samples are examined. The data reveal that RTA using proximity contact with silicon wafers does not provide adequate protection; however, the InP sample is successfully annealed when protected by a silicon nitride encapsulant.

  2. Rapid PCR thermocycling using microscale thermal convection.

    PubMed

    Muddu, Radha; Hassan, Yassin A; Ugaz, Victor M

    2011-03-05

    Many molecular biology assays depend in some way on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify an initially dilute target DNA sample to a detectable concentration level. But the design of conventional PCR thermocycling hardware, predominantly based on massive metal heating blocks whose temperature is regulated by thermoelectric heaters, severely limits the achievable reaction speed(1). Considerable electrical power is also required to repeatedly heat and cool the reagent mixture, limiting the ability to deploy these instruments in a portable format. Thermal convection has emerged as a promising alternative thermocycling approach that has the potential to overcome these limitations(2-9). Convective flows are an everyday occurrence in a diverse array of settings ranging from the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and interior, to decorative and colorful lava lamps. Fluid motion is initiated in the same way in each case: a buoyancy driven instability arises when a confined volume of fluid is subjected to a spatial temperature gradient. These same phenomena offer an attractive way to perform PCR thermocycling. By applying a static temperature gradient across an appropriately designed reactor geometry, a continuous circulatory flow can be established that will repeatedly transport PCR reagents through temperature zones associated with the denaturing, annealing, and extension stages of the reaction (Figure 1). Thermocycling can therefore be actuated in a pseudo-isothermal manner by simply holding two opposing surfaces at fixed temperatures, completely eliminating the need to repeatedly heat and cool the instrument. One of the main challenges facing design of convective thermocyclers is the need to precisely control the spatial velocity and temperature distributions within the reactor to ensure that the reagents sequentially occupy the correct temperature zones for a sufficient period of time(10,11). Here we describe results of our efforts to probe the full 3-D velocity and

  3. Monitoring by Control Technique - Thermal Oxidizer

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about thermal oxidizer control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  4. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  5. Thermal oxidation stability of aviation turbine fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hazlett, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper documents the 35 year history of fuel thermal stability problems and remedies in jet aircraft. Specifically, Monograph 1: Discusses the chemical and physical aspects that are critical factors in thermal stability; Describes the great variety of test devices---from small scale fuel specification testers to large scale engineering simulators---that have been used in defining thermal stability; and Presents information on the thermal environment in jet aircraft and engines, the role of oxidation and trace metals in insolubles formation, the use of additives to modify stability behavior, and the possible characteristics of future fuels.

  6. Oxidation behavior of a thermal barrier coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings, consisting of a plasma sprayed calcium silicate ceramic layer and a CoCrAlY or NiCrAlY bond coat, were applied on B-1900 coupons and cycled hourly in air in a rapid-response furnace to maximum temperatures of 1030, 1100, or 1160 C. Eight specimens were tested for each of the six conditions of bond-coat composition and temperature. Specimens were removed from test at the onset of failure, which was taken to be the formation of a fine surface crack visible at 10X magnification. Specimens were weighed periodically, and plots of weight gain vs time indicate that weight is gained at a parabolic rate after an initial period where weight was gained at a much greater rate. The high initial oxidation rate is thought to arise from the initially high surface area in the porous bond coat. Specimen life (time to first crack) was found to be a strong function of temperature. However, while test lives varied greatly with time, the weight gain at the time of specimen failure was quite insensitive to temperature. This indicates that there is a critical weight gain at which the coating fails when subjected to this test.

  7. Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) of semiconductors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. J.; Jones, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    The progress achieved on the project entitled 'Rapid Thermal Processing of Semiconductors in Space' for a 12 month period of activity ending March 31, 1993 is summarized. The activity of this group is being performed under the direct auspices of the ROMPS program. The main objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate the use of advanced robotics in space with rapid thermal process (RTP) of semiconductors providing the test technology. Rapid thermal processing is an ideal processing step for demonstration purposes since it encompasses many of the characteristics of other processes used in solid state device manufacturing. Furthermore, a low thermal budget is becoming more important in existing manufacturing practice, while a low thermal budget is critical to successful processing in space. A secondary objective of this project is to determine the influence of microgravity on the rapid thermal process for a variety of operating modes. In many instances, this involves one or more fluid phases. The advancement of microgravity processing science is an important ancillary objective.

  8. Thermal and thermal-oxidative stability of trichloroethanol sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyavina, S.I.; Borshchevskii, S.B.; Medvedovskaya, I.I.; Stepanova, O.N.; Veselovskaya, L.F.; Zorina, E.F.

    1984-03-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the thermal and thermal-oxidative stability of bis(2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl) sulfide CCl/sub 3/-CHOHO-S-CHOH-CCl/sub 3/, which contains trichloromethyl and sulfide groups. The antiscoring effectiveness of this compound in TSp-14.5 oil is considerably better than that given by oils with the presently used commercial additives. The thermal stabilities of the sulfide additive and the IS-45 oil were tested in a stream of nitrogen at 100-150/sup 0/C, analyzing the reaction products by iodometric and mercurimetric titration to determine the quantities of sulfur and chlorine ions and the degree to which the additive had been converted to these ions. The thermal decomposition of the additive begins at 118/sup 0/C and increases with increasing temperature, whether it is tested by itself or in a 1.25% solution in IS-45 oil. The additive and the hydrocarbon oil with and without the additive were oxidized with atmospheric oxygen in a thin layer in a series of sealed ampuls, which were removed sequentially from the thermostat at predetermined time intervals for analysis of the gas phase by gas chromatography. It is concluded that the sulfide, which was studied as an extreme-pressure additive, when blended in IS-45 oil, has a lower thermal stability but a higher thermaloxidative stability in comparison with the straight hydrocarbon oil IS-45.

  9. Impact of ultraviolet light during rapid thermal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, S.; Ventura, L.; Slaoui, A.; Muller, J. C.; Groh, B.; Schindler, R.; Fröschle, B.; Theiler, T.

    1998-05-01

    Rapid thermal processing for junction formation is emerging as a low cost technique for solar cell as well as for other semiconductor device production. Compared to conventional furnace processing, process differences are not only in very high heating and cooling rates, but also in the incoherent emitted radiation spectrum, which can act on dopant diffusion. The photons emitted from tungsten halogen lamps go from far ultraviolet, over visible to infrared light. In this work additional mercury ultraviolet lamps are used during rapid thermal annealing to analyze the influence of high energetic photons on diffusion mechanisms. The diffusion results are discussed in terms of radiation spectrum, involving analysis of diffusion profiles and sheet resistances.

  10. Raman scattering from rapid thermally annealed tungsten silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dasgupta, Samhita; Jackson, Howard E.; Boyd, Joseph T.

    1987-01-01

    Raman scattering as a technique for studying the formation of tungsten silicide is presented. The tungsten silicide films have been formed by rapid thermal annealing of thin tungsten films sputter deposited on silicon substrates. The Raman data are interpreted by using data from resistivity measurements, Auger and Rutherford backscattering measurements, and scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Raman scattering from rapid thermally annealed tungsten silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dasgupta, Samhita; Jackson, Howard E.; Boyd, Joseph T.

    1987-01-01

    Raman scattering as a technique for studying the formation of tungsten silicide is presented. The tungsten silicide films have been formed by rapid thermal annealing of thin tungsten films sputter deposited on silicon substrates. The Raman data are interpreted by using data from resistivity measurements, Auger and Rutherford backscattering measurements, and scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    2000-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls is carried out in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  13. Flameless thermal oxidation. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Flameless Thermal Oxidizer (FTO) is a commercial technology offered by Thermatrix, Inc. The FTO has been demonstrated to be an effective destructive technology for process and waste stream off-gas treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and in the treatment of VOC and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) off-gases generated during site remediation using either baseline or innovative in situ environmental technologies. The FTO process efficiently converts VOCs and CVOCs to carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen chloride. When FTO is coupled with a baseline technology, such as soil vapor extraction (SVE), an efficient in situ soil remediation system is produced. The innovation is in using a simple, reliable, scalable, and robust technology for the destruction of VOC and CVOC off-gases based on a design that generates a uniform thermal reaction zone that prevents flame propagation and efficiently oxidizes off-gases without forming products of incomplete combustion (PICs).

  14. Flameless Thermal Oxidation. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Flameless Thermal Oxidizer (FTO) is a commercial technology offered by Thermatrix, Inc. The FTO has been demonstrated to be an effective destructive technology for process and waste stream off-gas treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and in the treatment of VOC and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) off-gases generated during site remediation using either baseline or innovative in situ environmental technologies. The FTO process efficiently converts VOCs and CVOCs to carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen chloride. When FTO is coupled with a baseline technology, such as soil vapor extraction (SVE), an efficient in situ soil remediation system is produced. The innovation is in using a simple, reliable, scalable, and robust technology for the destruction of VOC and CVOC off-gases based on a design that generates a uniform thermal reaction zone that prevents flame propagation and efficiently oxidizes off-gases without forming products of incomplete combustion (Plcs ).

  15. Rapid charging of thermal energy storage materials through plasmonic heating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-09-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites.

  16. Rapid Charging of Thermal Energy Storage Materials through Plasmonic Heating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites. PMID:25175717

  17. Thermal oxidative degradation reactions of perfluoroalklethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Harris, D. H.; Smythe, M. E.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to investigate the mechanisms operative in thermal and thermal oxidative degradation of Fomblin Z and hexafluoropropene oxide derived fluids and the effect of alloys and additives upon these processes. The nature of arrangements responsible for the inherent thermal oxidative instability of the Fomblin Z fluids has not been established. It was determined that this behavior was not associated with hydrogen end-groups or peroxy linkages. The degradation rate of these fluids at elevated temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres was found to be dependent on the surface/volume ratio. Once a limiting ratio was reached, a steady rate appeared to be attained. Based on elemental analysis and oxygen consumption data, -CF2OCF2CF2O-, not -CF2CF2O-, is one of the major arrangements present. The action of the M-50 and Ti(4 Al, 4 Mn) alloys was found to be much more drastic in the case of Fomblin Z fluids than that observed for the hexalfuoropropane oxide derived materials. The effectiveness of antioxidation/anticorrosion additives, P-3 and phospha-s-triazine, in the presence of metal alloys was very limited at 316 C; at 288 C the additives arrested almost completely the fluid degradation. The phospha-s-triazine appeared to be at least twice as effective as the P-3 compound; it also protected the coupon better. The Ti(4 Al, 4 Mn) alloy degraded the fluid mainly by chain scission processes; this took place to a much lesser degree with M-50.

  18. Multivariable control of a rapid thermal processor using ultrasonic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankoski, Paul C. P.

    The semiconductor manufacturing industry faces the need for tighter control of thermal budget and process variations as circuit feature sizes decrease. Strategies to meet this need include supervisory control, run-to-run control, and real-time feedback control. Typically, the level of control chosen depends upon the actuation and sensing available. Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) is one step of the manufacturing cycle requiring precise temperature control and hence real-time feedback control. At the outset of this research, the primary ingredient lacking from in-situ RTP temperature control was a suitable sensor. This research looks at an alternative to the traditional approach of pyrometry, which is limited by the unknown and possibly time-varying wafer emissivity. The technique is based upon the temperature dependence of the propagation time of an acoustic wave in the wafer. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the ultrasonic sensors as a potentially viable sensor for control in RTP. To do this, an experimental implementation was developed at the Center for Integrated Systems. Because of the difficulty in applying a known temperature standard in an RTP environment, calibration to absolute temperature is nontrivial. Given reference propagation delays, multivariable model-based feedback control is applied to the system. The modelling and implementation details are described. The control techniques have been applied to a number of research processes including rapid thermal annealing and rapid thermal crystallization of thin silicon films on quartz/glass substrates.

  19. Thermal oxidative degradation reactions of perfluoroalkylethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanisms operative in thermal oxidative degradation of Fomblin Z and hexafluoropropene oxide derived fluids and the effect of alloys and additives upon these processes are investigated. The nature of arrangements responsible for the inherent thermal oxidative instability of the Fomblin Z fluids is not established. It was determined that this behavior is not associated with hydrogen end groups or peroxy linkages. The degradation rate of these fluids at elevated temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres is dependent on the surface/volume ratio. Once a limiting ratio is reached, a steady rate appears to be attained. Based on elemental analysis and oxygen consumption data, CF2OCF2CF2O2, no. CF2CF2O, is one of the major arrangements present. The action of the M-50 and Ti(4 Al, 4 Mn) alloys is much more drastic in the case of Fomblin Z fluids than that observed for the hexafluoropropene derived materials. The effectiveness of antioxidation anticorrosion additives, P-3 and phospha-s-triazine, in the presence of metal alloys is very limited at 316 C; at 288 C the additives arrested almost completely the fluid degradation. The phospha-s-triazine appears to be at least twice as effective as the P-3 compound; it also protected the coupon better. The Ti(4 Al, 4 Mn) alloy degraded the fluid mainly by chain scission processes this takes place to a much lesser degree with M-50.

  20. Thermal Emission Light-Curves of Rapidly Rotating Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozitis, Ben; Emery, Joshua; Lowry, Stephen; Rozek, Agata; Wolters, Stephen; Snodgrass, Colin; Green, Simon

    2014-12-01

    We propose to use Spitzer/IRAC to obtain simultaneous 3 and 4 um light-curves of 23 rapidly rotating asteroids (rotation periods of less than 3 hrs) to determine thermal inertia and surface roughness spatial variations. These observations will probe asteroid geophysics and constrain the origin of their rapid rotation. Rapidly rotating asteroids are unusual bodies where their own self-gravity is balanced or exceeded by rotational centrifugal forces, and are thought to have acquired their fast rotation rates through the YORP effect - a radiative torque induced by exposure to sunlight. For each target asteroid, we will measure thermal flux in both IRAC bands for a full rotation. When combined with shapes and spin axes derived from our ground-based programme, and a thermophysical model, we will be able to identify any temperature variations resulting from thermal inertia and/or surface roughness variation, and be able to constrain theoretical predictions of YORP rotational acceleration. The thermal property variations will be compared against models of surface gravity in order to provide insights into the physical processes by which asteroids retain and lose surface material. 16 of our target asteroids are being observed at optical wavelengths in a European Southern Observatory (ESO) Large Programme (LP) awarded 82 nights to constrain rotation period changes induced by the YORP effect (PI Stephen Lowry; Program IDs 185.C-1033, 185.C-1034). Approximately 80 additional nights on a range of other facilities has also been awarded for this programme. The ESO LP will support the Spitzer programme by providing shape and spin axis information necessary to search for surface property variations in the thermal emission light-curves of these asteroids. Likewise, the Spitzer/IRAC thermal emission light-curves will allow us to derive the physical properties that drive the YORP effect on the ESO LP asteroids.

  1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of fractionated products from oil thermally oxidated

    SciTech Connect

    Yashida, H.; Alexander, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of the acylglycerol products obtained from thermally oxidized vegetable oils was studied. Corn, sunflower and soybean oils were heated in the laboratory at 180/sup 0/C for 50, 70 and 100 hr with aeration and directly fractionated by silicic acid column chromatography. By successive elution with 20%, then 60% isopropyl ether in n-hexane, and diethyl ether, the thermally oxidized oils were separated into three fractions: the nonpolar fraction (monomeric compounds), slightly polar fraction (dimeric compounds), and polar fraction comprising oligomeric compounds. Enzymatic hydrolysis with pancreatic lipase showed that the monomers were hydrolyzed as rapidly as the corresponding unheated oils, the dimers much more slowly, and the oligomeric compounds barely at all. Overall, the hydrolysis of the dimers was less than 23% of that for the monomers, with small differences among the oils. Longer heating periods resulted in greater reductions in hydrolysis of the dimeric compounds. These results suggest that the degree of enzymatic hydrolysis of the fractionated acylglycerol compounds is related to differences in the thermal oxidative deterioration, and amounts of polar compounds in the products. (33 Refs.)

  2. Oxidation and degradation of thermal barrier coating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, James Allen

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), which consist of an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating overlaid with a thermally-insulating Ysb2Osb3-stabilized ZrOsb2 (YSZ) top coating, are used to protect superalloy hardware in gas turbine engines. Spallation of the YSZ is accelerated by growth of an interfacial Alsb2Osb3 scale at high temperatures. The mechanisms of oxidation-related degradation are not well understood for air plasma-sprayed (APS) TBCs, whereas Alsb2Osb3 thermomechanical failure is the dominant degradation mode in electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) TBCs. This work investigated the isothermal oxidation and thermocyclic degradation of various TBC systems; with particular emphasis on the growth kinetics, microstructures, flaw content, fracture behavior and micro-mechanical properties of the Alsb2Osb3 interfacial scales. The isothermal oxidation kinetics of plasma-sprayed NiCrAlY were not influenced by the presence of an APS YSZ top coating (at 1150sp°C). However, the isothermal oxidation rate constants of NiCoCrAlY bond coatings were accelerated by a factor of 2 (at 950, 1050 and 1150sp°C) when overlaid with a commercial EB-PVD TBC. Thermocyclic failure of APS TBCs occurred by progressive YSZ fracture and crack link-up. Severe fracture and buckling of the interfacial Alsb2Osb3 during thermal cycling did not induce rapid failure of APS TBCs. Evaluation of the interfacial Alsb2Osb3 scale microstructures (on APS TBCs) after thermal cycling revealed the following: thermocyclic damage occurred by both oxide-metal delamination and by internal fracture; Alsb2Osb3 scale crack healing by sintering occurred at 1150sp°C; surfaces with a sharp radius of curvature induced less Alsb2Osb3 damage than gradually convex surfaces; scale grain boundary void growth was accelerated by thermal cycling; and higher void contents were observed in scales which formed on convex surfaces. There were no significant changes in the hardness or Young's modulus of the Alsb2

  3. Non-thermal Plasma and Oxidative Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-09-01

    Thermal plasmas and lasers have been used in medicine to cut and ablate tissues and for coagulation. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP; non-thermal plasma) is a recently developed, non-thermal technique with possible biomedical applications. Although NEAPP reportedly generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, electrons, positive ions, and ultraviolet radiation, few research projects have been conducted to merge this technique with conventional free radical biology. Recently, Prof. Masaru Hori's group (Plasma Nanotechnology Research Center, Nagoya University) developed a NEAPP device with high electron density. Here electron spin resonance revealed hydroxyl radicals as a major product. To merge non-thermal plasma biology with the preexisting free radical biology, we evaluated lipid peroxidation and DNA modifications in various in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Conjugated dienes increased after exposure to linoleic and alfa-linolenic acids. An increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was also increased after exposure to phosphatidylcholine, liposomes or liver homogenate. Direct exposure to rat liver in medium produced immunohistochemical evidence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and acrolein-modified proteins. Exposure to plasmid DNA induced dose-dependent single/double strand breaks and increased the amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that oxidative biomolecular damage by NEAPP is dose-dependent and thus can be controlled in a site-specific manner. Simultaneous oxidative and UV-specific DNA damage may be useful in cancer treatment. Other recent advancements in the related studies of non-thermal plasma in Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine will also be discussed.

  4. Rapid arsenite oxidation by Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus: Field and laboratory investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gihring, T.M.; Druschel, G.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Hamers, R.J.; Banfield, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus, common inhabitants of terrestrial hot springs and thermally polluted domestic and industrial waters, have been found to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate. Field investigations at a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park revealed conserved total arsenic transport and rapid arsenite oxidation occurring within the drainage channel. This environment was heavily colonized by Thermus aquaticus. In laboratory experiments, arsenite oxidation by cultures of Thermus aquaticus YT1 (previously isolated from Yellowstone National Park) and Thermus thermophilus HB8 was accelerated by a factor of over 100 relative to abiotic controls. Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus may therefore play a large and previously unrecognized role in determining arsenic speciation and bioavailability in thermal environments.

  5. Thermal and Electrical Transport in Oxide Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth

    This dissertation presents a study of thermal and electrical transport phenomena in heterostructures of transition metal oxides, with specific interest in understanding and tailoring thermoelectricity in these systems. Thermoelectric energy conversion is a promising method for waste heat recovery and the efficiency of such an engine is directly related to a material dependent figure of merit, Z, given as S2sigma/kappa, where S is thermopower and sigma and kappa are electrical and thermal conductivity respectively. Achieving large figure of merit has been hampered by the coupling between these three thermoelectric coefficients, and the primary aim of this study is to understand the nature of thermoelectricity in complex oxides and identify mechanisms which can allow tuning of one or more thermoelectric coefficients in a favorable manner. Unlike the heavily studied conventional thermoelectric semiconductors, transition metals based complex oxides show conduction band characteristics dominated by d-bands, with much larger effective masses and varying degrees of electron correlations. These systems provide for exotic thermoelectric effects which are typically not explained by conventional theories and hence provide an ideal platform for exploring the limits of thermoelectricity. Meanwhile, oxides are composed of earth abundant elements and have excellent high temperature stability, thus providing compelling technological possibilities for thermoelectrics based power generation. In this dissertation, we address specific aspects of thermoelectricity in model complex oxide systems such as perovskite titanates and layered cobaltates to understand thermal and thermoelectric behavior and explore the tunability of thermoelectricity in these systems. The demonstration of band engineering as a viable method to tune physical properties of materials is explored. The model system used for this case is strontium titanate, where two dopants such as La on the Sr-site and oxygen

  6. Thermal properties of graphite oxide, thermally reduced graphene and chemically reduced graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankovský, Ondřej; Sedmidubský, David; Lojka, Michal; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2017-07-01

    We compared thermal behavior and other properties of graphite oxide, thermally reduced graphene and chemically reduced graphene. Graphite was oxidized according to the Hofmann method using potassium chlorate as oxidizing agent in strongly acidic environment. In the next step, the formed graphite oxide was chemically or thermally reduced yielding graphene. The mechanism of thermal reduction was studied using STA-MS. Graphite oxide and both thermally and chemically reduced graphenes were analysed by SEM, EDS, elemental combustion analysis, XPS, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and BET. These findings will help for the large scale production of graphene with appropriate chemical composition.

  7. Rapid persulfate oxidation predicts PAH bioavailability in soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Cuypers, C.; Grotenhuis, T.; Joziasse, J.; Rulkens, W.

    2000-05-15

    Persulfate oxidation was validated as a method to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability in soils and sediments. It was demonstrated for 14 field contaminated soils and sediments that residual PAH concentrations after a short (3 h) persulfate oxidation correspond well to residual PAH concentrations after 21 days of biodegradation. Persulfate oxidation of samples that had first been subjected to biodegradation yielded only limited additional PAH oxidation. This implies that oxidation and biodegradation removed approximately the same PAH fraction. Persulfate oxidation thus provides a good and rapid method for the prediction of PAH bioavailability. Thermogravimetric analysis of oxidized and untreated samples showed that persulfate oxidation primarily affected expanded organic matter. The results indicate that this expanded organic matter contained mainly readily bioavailable PAHs.

  8. Rapidly Solidified Oxidation Resistant Niobium Base Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    111 Figure 4.33 Cross sectional optical micrographs of Alloy 2 ( Nb-29Ti- 25Cr - 15Mo) after cyclic oxidation at 800’C for 140h. The alloy...179 Figure 5.46 Optical micrographs of specimens for heat treatment 2 following creep for 100 h at a) 650...and slower strain rate on the second attempt, but a useful forging was still not obtained. The composition of Alloy 2 is 31 Nb-29Ti-15Mo- 25Cr . This

  9. Combining reactive sputtering and rapid thermal processing for synthesis and discovery of metal oxynitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Lan; Suram, Santosh K.; Becerra-Stasiewicz, Natalie; Mitrovic, Slobodan; Kan, Kevin; Jones, Ryan J. R.; Gregoire, John M.

    2015-05-27

    Recent efforts have demonstrated enhanced tailoring of material functionality with mixed-anion materials, yet exploratory research with mixed-anion chemistries is limited by the sensitivity of these materials to synthesis conditions. In order to synthesize a particular metal oxynitride compound by traditional reactive annealing we require specific, limited ranges of both oxygen and nitrogen chemical potentials in order to establish equilibrium between the solid-state material and a reactive atmosphere. While using Ta-O-N as an example system, we describe a combination of reactive sputter deposition and rapid thermal processing for synthesis of mixed-anion inorganic materials. Heuristic optimization of reactive gas pressures to attain a desired anion stoichiometry is discussed, and the ability of rapid thermal processing to enable amorphous to crystalline transitions without preferential anion loss is demonstrated through the controlled synthesis of nitride, oxide and oxynitride phases.

  10. Combining reactive sputtering and rapid thermal processing for synthesis and discovery of metal oxynitrides

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Lan; Suram, Santosh K.; Becerra-Stasiewicz, Natalie; ...

    2015-05-27

    Recent efforts have demonstrated enhanced tailoring of material functionality with mixed-anion materials, yet exploratory research with mixed-anion chemistries is limited by the sensitivity of these materials to synthesis conditions. In order to synthesize a particular metal oxynitride compound by traditional reactive annealing we require specific, limited ranges of both oxygen and nitrogen chemical potentials in order to establish equilibrium between the solid-state material and a reactive atmosphere. While using Ta-O-N as an example system, we describe a combination of reactive sputter deposition and rapid thermal processing for synthesis of mixed-anion inorganic materials. Heuristic optimization of reactive gas pressures to attainmore » a desired anion stoichiometry is discussed, and the ability of rapid thermal processing to enable amorphous to crystalline transitions without preferential anion loss is demonstrated through the controlled synthesis of nitride, oxide and oxynitride phases.« less

  11. Rapid evolution of thermal tolerance in the water flea Daphnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geerts, A. N.; Vanoverbeke, J.; Vanschoenwinkel, B.; van Doorslaer, W.; Feuchtmayr, H.; Atkinson, D.; Moss, B.; Davidson, T. A.; Sayer, C. D.; De Meester, L.

    2015-07-01

    Global climate is changing rapidly, and the degree to which natural populations respond genetically to these changes is key to predicting ecological responses. So far, no study has documented evolutionary changes in the thermal tolerance of natural populations as a response to recent temperature increase. Here, we demonstrate genetic change in the capacity of the water flea Daphnia to tolerate higher temperatures using both a selection experiment and the reconstruction of evolution over a period of forty years derived from a layered dormant egg bank. We observed a genetic increase in thermal tolerance in response to a two-year ambient +4 °C selection treatment and in the genotypes of natural populations from the 1960s and 2000s hatched from lake sediments. This demonstrates that natural populations have evolved increased tolerance to higher temperatures, probably associated with the increased frequency of heat waves over the past decades, and possess the capacity to evolve increased tolerance to future warming.

  12. Effect of TEMPO-oxidization and rapid cooling on thermo-structural properties of nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Mhd Haniffa, Mhd Abd Cader; Ching, Yern Chee; Chuah, Cheng Hock; Yong Ching, Kuan; Nazri, Nik; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Nai-Shang, Liou

    2017-10-01

    Recently, surface functionality and thermal property of the green nanomaterials have received wide attention in numerous applications. In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used to prepare the nanocrystalline celluloses (NCCs) using acid hydrolysis method. The NCCs was treated with TEMPO [(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy radical]-oxidation to prepare TEMPO-oxidized NCCs. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) also prepared from MCC using TEMPO-oxidation. The effects of rapid cooling and chemical treatments on the thermo-structural property studies of the prepared nanocelluloses were investigated through FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric (TGA-DTG), and XRD. A posteriori knowledge of the FTIR and TGA-DTG analysis revealed that the rapid cooling treatment enhanced the hydrogen bond energy and thermal stability of the TEMPO-oxidized NCC compared to other nanocelluloses. XRD analysis exhibits the effect of rapid cooling on pseudo 2I helical conformation. This was the first investigation performed on the effect of rapid cooling on structural properties of the nanocellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Rapid Thermal Cooling on Mechanical Rock Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangmin; Kemeny, John; Nickerson, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Laboratory tests have been conducted to investigate the effects of rapid thermal cooling on various rock specimens including igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. At first, various types of thermal loading were conducted: heating up to 100, 200, and 300 °C, followed by rapid cooling with a fan. In addition, multiple cyclic thermal cooling (10, 15 and 20 cycles) with a maximum temperature of only 100 °C was conducted. Experiments included edge notched disc (END) tests to determine the Mode I fracture toughness, Brazilian disc tests to determine tensile strength, seismic tests to determine P-wave velocity, and porosity tests leading to meaningful results. Even though only small changes of temperature (rapid cooling from 100 °C to room temperature) were applied, the results showed that crack growth occurred in some rock types (granite, diabase with ore veins, and KVS) while crack healing occurred in other rock types (diabase without ore veins, quartzite, and skarn). To better understand the results, 3D transient thermo-mechanical analysis was conducted using the ANSYS program. The results indicated that there was a thin region near the outside of the specimen where large tensile stresses occur and microcracking would be expected, and that there was a large area in the middle of the specimen where lower magnitude compressive stresses occur and crack closure would be expected. It was found that the more heterogeneous and more coarse-grained rock types are more likely to exhibit crack growth, while less heterogeneous and more fine-grained rocks are more likely to exhibit crack healing.

  14. Adaptive process control for a rapid thermal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilhac, Jean-Marie R.; Ganibal, Christian; Bordeneuve, J.; Dahhou, B.; Amat, L.; Picard, Antoni

    1991-04-01

    PD (Proportional Integrated Derivative) controllers applied to temperature regulation in a rapid thermal processor are first presented. The setting method of the control parameters together with the corresponding experimental results is given. Evidence in favour of parameter dynamic adjustment is demonstrated. A new algorithm based upon parameter scheduling and providing enlarged control capability is then presented and tested with various wafers and processors. At last insights about closed loop self-tuning using Generalized Predictive Control algorithm are given and the corresponding results discussed. 1.

  15. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on Ti AlN interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youxiang; Chen, Xin

    1999-07-01

    The interface diffusion, reaction, and adherence of rapid thermal annealed Ti/ALN were investigated by RBS, AES, SIMS, XRD and a scratch test. The experimental results show that diffusion and reaction occurs at the interface of Ti/AlN when the sample is rapidly annealed. During annealing, both the O adsorbed on the surface and doped in the AlN substrate diffuse into the Ti film. At low temperature TiO 2 is produced. At higher temperature O reacts with the diffused Al in the Ti film and produces an Al 2O 3 layer in the middle of the film. N diffuses into the Ti film and produces TiN with an interface reaction. Ti oxide is produced at the interface between the film and the substrate. Scratch test results show that interface adherence is distinctly improved by rapid annealing at low temperature and decreases at higher temperature.

  16. A review of wet air oxidation and Thermal Hydrolysis technologies in sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Hii, Kevin; Baroutian, Saeid; Parthasarathy, Raj; Gapes, Daniel J; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2014-03-01

    With rapid world population growth and strict environmental regulations, increasingly large volumes of sludge are being produced in today's wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) with limited disposal routes. Sludge treatment has become an essential process in WWTP, representing 50% of operational costs. Sludge destruction and resource recovery technologies are therefore of great ongoing interest. Hydrothermal processing uses unique characteristics of water at elevated temperatures and pressures to deconstruct organic and inorganic components of sludge. It can be broadly categorized into wet oxidation (oxidative) and thermal hydrolysis (non-oxidative). While wet air oxidation (WAO) can be used for the final sludge destruction and also potentially producing industrially useful by-products such as acetic acid, thermal hydrolysis (TH) is mainly used as a pre-treatment method to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion. This paper reviews current hydrothermal technologies, roles of wet air oxidation and thermal hydrolysis in sludge treatment, and challenges faced by these technologies.

  17. Thermal actuation of graphene oxide nanoribbon mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Carretero-González, Javier; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Baughman, Ray H.

    2011-03-01

    Graphene oxide nanoribbons (GOr), obtained by chemically unzipping multi-walled carbon nanotubes, were assembled into macroscopic mats by vacuum filtration. These mats exhibited up to 1.6% reversible contraction when electrically heated at ambient. The experimentally derived work capacity of the mats was about 40 J/kg, which is similar to that of natural muscle. It was limited by the mechanical strength of mats and can be increased upon optimization of their preparation conditions. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated reversible changes in the interplanar spacing of GOr layers during heating. These dimensional changes can be associated with reversible adsorption/desorption of water molecules between GOr layers and used in thermally-driven high performance artificial muscles and moisture sensors.

  18. Development of a Thermal Oxidizer for Distributed Microturbine Based Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Barton

    2009-03-01

    This project concerns the replacement of the catalytic bed in a microturbine with a thermal oxidizer. The advantage of a thermal oxidizer over a traditional combustion chamber is that the length and temperature of the device allows the volatile species to oxidize relatively slowly and without a flame front. With no flame, the temperature increase throughout the unit is spread over a much larger volume so there is no hot spot for thermal NO{sub x} formation, and the gas Btu level does not have to be above the ignition concentration. Project specific objectives included assessment of the materials and performance requirements of the thermal oxidizer, design the thermal oxidizer system, fabrication of the thermal oxidizer, testing of the oxidizer's performance in concert with the microturbine and comparison of the performance of the oxidizer with catalytic beds and traditional combustion chambers. The thermal oxidizer was designed and fabricated with the assistance of High Country Fabrication of Casper, Wyoming. The design consists of a long set of tubes surrounded by a packed bed of loose ceramic material. The outer vessel containing the tubes and packing is a 3-foot diameter steel shell with multiple layers of thermal insulation. After the metal components were fabricated, the vessel was shipped to Denver where the insulation was poured. The unit was shipped to the cosponsor site for integration with the 100 kW microturbine device. Connection of the thermal oxidizer to the Elliot microturbine turned out to be problematic. The high flow rate of gas tended to push the hot zone out of the oxidizer as assembled. The research team identified several approaches to improve the oxidizer performance including a longer gas path, increased residence time, higher surface area packing material and improved combustion catalysts. The cosponsor is working with an engineering form with oxidizer experience to reconfigure the hardware before moving to a field trial on landfill gas.

  19. Microwave and thermal interactions with oxidative hemolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kiel, J.L.; Erwin, D.N.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of microwave radiation (2450 MHz, 3,333 pulses per second, duty factor of 0.02, and average specific absorption rate of 0.4 W/kg) on spontaneous hemolysis of human erythrocytes was examined. Cells were exposed to microwave radiation for 20 minutes at 37 degrees, 42 degrees, or 48 degrees C. Some of these cells were sensitized to oxidative damage by treatment with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and/or by coating with wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) conjugate. Microwave radiation significantly decreased spontaneous hemolysis of untreated cells at 42 degrees C but had no effect at 37 degrees or 48 degrees C. Microwave exposure significantly enhanced a CDNB membrane stabilizing effect at 42 degrees C but had no effect at 37 or 48 degrees C. At 42 degrees C, microwave exposure increased hemolysis of WGA-HRP coated cells. Cells treated with both WGA-HRP and CDNB showed no change in fragility at 42 degrees C and increased fragility at 48 degrees C without a microwave effect. The microwave effects observed appear to involve perturbation of the thermal threshold for oxidative hyperthermic hemolysis.

  20. A review of liquid lubricant thermal/oxidative degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The fundamental processes occurring during the thermal and oxidative degradation of hydrocarbons are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to various classes of liquid lubricants such as mineral oils, esters, polyphenyl ethers, C-ethers, and fluorinated polyethers. Experimental techniques for determining thermal and oxidative stabilities of lubricants are discussed. The role of inhibitors and catalysis is also covered.

  1. Rapid Evaporation of Water on Graphene/Graphene-Oxide: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qibin; Xiao, Yitian; Shi, Xiaoyang; Song, Shufeng

    2017-09-07

    To reveal the mechanism of energy storage in the water/graphene system and water/grapheme-oxide system, the processes of rapid evaporation of water molecules on the sheets of graphene and graphene-oxide are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that both the water/graphene and water/grapheme-oxide systems can store more energy than the pure water system during evaporation. The hydroxyl groups on the surface of graphene-oxide are able to reduce the attractive interactions between water molecules and the sheet of graphene-oxide. Also, the radial distribution function of the oxygen atom indicates that the hydroxyl groups affect the arrangement of water molecules at the water/graphene-oxide interface. Therefore, the capacity of thermal energy storage of the water/graphene-oxide system is lower than that of the water/graphene system, because of less desorption energy at the water/graphene-oxide interface. Also, the evaporation rate of water molecules on the graphene-oxide sheet is slower than that on the graphene sheet. The Leidenfrost phenomenon can be observed during the evaporation process in the water/grapheme-oxide system.

  2. Rapid Evaporation of Water on Graphene/Graphene-Oxide: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qibin; Xiao, Yitian; Shi, Xiaoyang; Song, Shufeng

    2017-01-01

    To reveal the mechanism of energy storage in the water/graphene system and water/grapheme-oxide system, the processes of rapid evaporation of water molecules on the sheets of graphene and graphene-oxide are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that both the water/graphene and water/grapheme-oxide systems can store more energy than the pure water system during evaporation. The hydroxyl groups on the surface of graphene-oxide are able to reduce the attractive interactions between water molecules and the sheet of graphene-oxide. Also, the radial distribution function of the oxygen atom indicates that the hydroxyl groups affect the arrangement of water molecules at the water/graphene-oxide interface. Therefore, the capacity of thermal energy storage of the water/graphene-oxide system is lower than that of the water/graphene system, because of less desorption energy at the water/graphene-oxide interface. Also, the evaporation rate of water molecules on the graphene-oxide sheet is slower than that on the graphene sheet. The Leidenfrost phenomenon can be observed during the evaporation process in the water/grapheme-oxide system. PMID:28880207

  3. Effective passivation of the low resistivity silicon surface by a rapid thermal oxide/PECVD silicon nitride stack and its application to passivated rear and bifacial Si solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, A.; Narasimha, S.; Ruby, D.S.

    1998-08-01

    A novel stack passivation scheme, in which plasma silicon nitride (SiN) is stacked on top of a rapid thermal SiO{sub 2} (RTO) layer, is developed to attain a surface recombination velocity (S) approaching 10 cm/s at the 1.3 {Omega}-cm p-type (100) silicon surface. Such low S is achieved by the stack even when the RTO and SiN films individually yield considerably poorer surface passivation. Critical to achieving low S by the stack is the use of a short, moderate temperature anneal (in this study 730 C for 30 seconds) after film growth and deposition. This anneal is believed to enhance the release and delivery of atomic hydrogen from the SiN film to the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface, thereby reducing the density of interface traps at the surface. Compatibility with this post-deposition anneal makes the stack passivation scheme attractive for cost-effective solar cell production since a similar anneal is required to fire screen-printed contacts. Application of the stack to passivated rear screen-printed solar cells has resulted in V{sub oc}`s of 641 mV and 633 mV on 0.65 {Omega}-cm and 1.3 {Omega}-cm FZ Si substrates, respectively. These V{sub oc} values are roughly 20 mV higher than for cells with untreated, highly recombinative back surfaces. The stack passivation has also been used to form fully screen-printed bifacial solar cells which exhibit rear-illuminated efficiency as high as 11.6% with a single layer AR coating.

  4. Graphene Oxide and Thermally Exfoliated Graphene Cyanate Ester Resin Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    depending on the method of isolation from graphite and subsequent chemical and thermal treatments. Two forms of graphene, graphene oxide and thermally...The morphology, surface chemical functionality and thermal properties of graphene vary depending on the method of isolation from graphite and...chemical vapor deposition (CVD) 5 and epitaxial growth 6 ) and top-down (micromechanical cleavage 7 and graphite oxidation 8 , 9 ) methods . Bottom-up

  5. Investigation on the Thermal Crack Evolution and Oxidation Effect of Compacted Graphite Iron Under Thermal Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaosong; Zhang, Weizheng; Guo, Bingbin

    2015-09-01

    For a better understanding of the thermal fatigue behavior in compacted graphite cast iron (CGI), the cyclic thermal shock test is carried out through alternating induction heating and water quenching. The optical and scanning electron microscopy observations are used to examine the cracks and oxidation behavior on the cross section and heating surface of the material specimen, respectively. The results show that the thermal cracks in CGI initiate at the graphite phases mostly, and the multi-sourced thermal cracks would result in stable cracks morphology finally through crack shielding effect. In the oxidation analysis, it is found that the oxidation of graphite is selective, and the graphite is the potential channels for oxygen diffusion from the outside into the matrix, resulting in local oxidation of matrix around graphite and continuous oxygen diffusion paths in the microstructure. Thermal cracks nucleate from the oxidation holes at graphite caused by decarburization, and they prefer to propagate and coalesce by penetrating the oxide bridges.

  6. Thermal Shock Behavior of Single Crystal Oxide Refractive Concentrators for High Temperatures Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al2O3) have been considered as refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermal mechanical reliability of the oxide components in severe thermal environments during space mission sun/shade transitions is of great concern. In this paper, critical mechanical properties of these oxide crystals are determined by the indentation technique. Thermal shock resistance of the oxides is evaluated using a high power CO, laser under high temperature-high thermal gradients. Thermal stress fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated under various temperature and heating conditions.

  7. Thermal Shock Behavior of Single Crystal Oxide Refractive Concentrators for High Temperatures Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al2O3) have been considered as refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermal mechanical reliability of the oxide components in severe thermal environments during space mission sun/shade transitions is of great concern. In this paper, critical mechanical properties of these oxide crystals are determined by the indentation technique. Thermal shock resistance of the oxides is evaluated using a high power CO, laser under high temperature-high thermal gradients. Thermal stress fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated under various temperature and heating conditions.

  8. Liquid hydrogen turbopump rapid start program. [thermal preconditioning using coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    This program was to analyze, test, and evaluate methods of achieving rapid-start of a liquid hydrogen feed system (inlet duct and turbopump) using a minimum of thermal preconditioning time and propellant. The program was divided into four tasks. Task 1 includes analytical studies of the testing conducted in the other three tasks. Task 2 describes the results from laboratory testing of coating samples and the successful adherence of a KX-635 coating to the internal surfaces of the feed system tested in Task 4. Task 3 presents results of testing an uncoated feed system. Tank pressure was varied to determine the effect of flowrate on preconditioning. The discharge volume and the discharge pressure which initiates opening of the discharge valve were varied to determine the effect on deadhead (no through-flow) start transients. Task 4 describes results of testing a similar, internally coated feed system and illustrates the savings in preconditioning time and propellant resulting from the coatings.

  9. Characterizing thermal sweeping: a rapid disc dispersal mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, James E.; Hudoba de Badyn, Mathias; Clarke, Cathie J.; Robins, Luke

    2013-12-01

    We consider the properties of protoplanetary discs that are undergoing inside-out clearing by photoevaporation. In particular, we aim to characterize the conditions under which a protoplanetary disc may undergo `thermal sweeping', a rapid (≲104 years) disc destruction mechanism proposed to occur when a clearing disc reaches sufficiently low surface density at its inner edge and where the disc is unstable to runaway penetration by the X-rays. We use a large suite of 1D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to probe the observable parameter space, which is unfeasible in higher dimensions. These models allow us to determine the surface density at which thermal sweeping will take over the disc's evolution and to evaluate this critical surface density as a function of X-ray luminosity, stellar mass and inner hole radius. We find that this critical surface density scales linearly with X-ray luminosity, increases with inner hole radius and decreases with stellar mass, and we develop an analytic model that reproduces these results. This surface density criterion is then used to determine the evolutionary state of protoplanetary discs at the point that they become unstable to destruction by thermal sweeping. We find that transition discs created by photoevaporation will undergo thermal sweeping when their inner holes reach 20-40 au, implying that transition discs with large holes and no accretion (which were previously a predicted outcome of the later stages of all flavours of the photoevaporation model) will not form. Thermal sweeping thus avoids the production of large numbers of large, non-accreting holes (which are not observed) and implies that the majority of holes created by photoevaporation should still be accreting. We emphasize that the surface density criteria that we have developed apply to all situations where the disc develops an inner hole that is optically thin to X-rays. It thus applies not only to the case of holes originally created by photoevaporation but

  10. Thermally stable crystalline mesoporous metal oxides with substantially uniform pores

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesner, Ulrich; Orilall, Mahendra Christopher; Lee, Jinwoo; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J

    2015-01-27

    Highly crystalline metal oxide-carbon composites, as precursors to thermally stable mesoporous metal oxides, are coated with a layer of amorphous carbon. Using a `one-pot` method, highly crystalline metal oxide-carbon composites are converted to thermally stable mesoporous metal oxides, having highly crystalline mesopore walls, without causing the concomitant collapse of the mesostructure. The `one-pot` method uses block copolymers with an sp or sp 2 hybridized carbon containing hydrophobic block as structure directing agents which converts to a sturdy, amorphous carbon material under appropriate heating conditions, providing an in-situ rigid support which maintains the pores of the oxides intact while crystallizing at temperatures as high as 1000 deg C. A highly crystalline metal oxide-carbon composite can be heated to produce a thermally stable mesoporous metal oxide consisting of a single polymorph.

  11. Microwave Resistivity of Thermally Oxidized High Resistivity Silicon Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judek, Jarosław; Zdrojek, Mariusz; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Krupka, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    We used a microwave dielectric resonator to study how the process of thermal oxidation of high resistivity silicon wafers reduces the wafer microwave resistivity. Measurements were performed before surface thermal oxidation, after the oxidation, and after wet oxide removal. We show that the process of oxide growth decreases the microwave resistivity of the wafer from approximately 20 kΩ cm to as low as 400 Ω cm (typically to 1-2 kΩ cm), depending on the dielectric layer thickness and the growth process conditions. After the wet removal of SiO2, the resistivity of the wafers increased, but it did not reach the initial value.

  12. Rapid evolution of metabolic traits explains thermal adaptation in phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Padfield, Daniel; Yvon-Durocher, Genevieve; Buckling, Angus; Jennings, Simon; Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel

    2015-11-26

    Understanding the mechanisms that determine how phytoplankton adapt to warming will substantially improve the realism of models describing ecological and biogeochemical effects of climate change. Here, we quantify the evolution of elevated thermal tolerance in the phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris. Initially, population growth was limited at higher temperatures because respiration was more sensitive to temperature than photosynthesis meaning less carbon was available for growth. Tolerance to high temperature evolved after ≈ 100 generations via greater down-regulation of respiration relative to photosynthesis. By down-regulating respiration, phytoplankton overcame the metabolic constraint imposed by the greater temperature sensitivity of respiration and more efficiently allocated fixed carbon to growth. Rapid evolution of carbon-use efficiency provides a potentially general mechanism for thermal adaptation in phytoplankton and implies that evolutionary responses in phytoplankton will modify biogeochemical cycles and hence food web structure and function under warming. Models of climate futures that ignore adaptation would usefully be revisited. © 2015 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Si(100)-SiO2 interface properties following rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, B. J.; Hurley, P. K.; Leveugle, C.; Das, J. H.

    2001-04-01

    An experimental examination of the properties of the Si(100)-SiO2 interface measured following rapid thermal processing (RTP) is presented. The interface properties have been examined using high frequency and quasi-static capacitance-voltage (CV) analysis of metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor structures immediately following either rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) or rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The experimental results reveal a characteristic peak in the CV response measured following dry RTO and RTA (T>800 °C), as the Fermi level at the Si(100)-SiO2 interface approaches the conduction band edge. Analysis of the QSCV responses reveals a high interface state density across the energy gap following dry RTO and RTA processing, with a characteristic peak density in the range 5.5×1012 to 1.7×1013cm-2 eV-1 located at approximately 0.85-0.88 eV above the valence band edge. When the background density of states for a hydrogen-passivated interface is subtracted, another peak of lower density (3×1012 to 7×1012cm-2 eV-1) is observed at approximately 0.25-0.33 eV above the valence band edge. The experimental results point to a common interface state defect present after processes involving rapid cooling (101-102°C/s) from a temperature of 800 °C or above, in a hydrogen free ambient. This work demonstrates that the interface states measured following RTP (T>800 °C) are the net contribution of the Pb0/Pb1 silicon dangling bond defects for the oxidized Si(100) orientation. An important conclusion arising from this work is that the primary effect of an RTA in nitrogen (600-1050 °C) is to cause hydrogen desorption from pre-existing Pb0/Pb1 silicon dangling bond defects. The implications of this work to the study of the Si-SiO2 interface, and the technological implications for silicon based MOS processes, are briefly discussed. The significance of these new results to thin oxide growth and optimization by RTO are also considered.

  14. RAPID MEASUREMENTS OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDATION STATES USING CHROMATOGRAPHIC RESINS

    SciTech Connect

    Diprete, D; C Diprete, C; Mira Malek, M; Eddie Kyser, E

    2009-03-24

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) H-Canyon facility uses ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) to separate impure neptunium (Np) from a high sulfate feed stream. The material is processed using a two-pass solvent extraction purification which relies on CAN to oxidize neptunium to Np(VI) during the first pass prior to extraction. Spectrophotometric oxidation-state analyses normally used to validate successful oxidation to Np(VI) prior to extraction were compromised by this feed stream matrix. Therefore, a rapid chromatographic method to validate successful Np oxidation was developed using Eichrom Industries TRU and TEVA{reg_sign} resins. The method was validated and subsequently transferred to existing operations in the process analytical laboratories.

  15. Thermal-oxidative Pretreatment and Evaluation of Poly (hexafluoropropene Oxide) Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. J. L.; Masuda, S. R.; Lin, W-H.; Jones, W. R., Jr.; Helmick, L. S.

    1994-01-01

    Two commercial poly(hexafluoropropene oxide) fluids were thermally pretreated at 343 C in pure oxygen. IR and NMR spectra indicate that this pretreatment was effective in removing hydrogen end-capped impurities. Decrease in the quantity of volatile material produced during thermal oxidative decomposition and increase in the thermal decomposition temperature indicated improvement in the stability of the fluids. However, this pretreatment failed to render the fluids completely stable in oxidizing atmospheres at 316 C in the presence of metal alloys.

  16. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Rapid Thermal Design Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Charles; Cottingham, Christine; Garrison, Matthew; Melak, Tony; Peabody, Sharon; Powers, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) project had a rapid development schedule starting with project conception in spring of 2004, instrument and launch vehicle selection late in 2005 and then launch in early 2009. The lunar thermal environment is one of the harshest in our solar system with the heavy infrared loading of the moon due to low albedo, lack of lunar atmosphere, and low effective regolith conduction. This set of constraints required a thermal design which maximized performance (minimized radiator area and cold control heater power) and minimized thermal hardware build at the orbiter level (blanketing, and heater service). The orbiter design located most of the avionics on an isothermalized heat pipe panel called the IsoThermal Panel (ITP). The ITP was coupled by dual bore heat pipes to an Optical Solar Reflector (OSR) covered heat pipe radiator. By coupling all of the avionics to one system, the hardware was simplified. The seven instruments were mainly heritage instruments which resulted in their desired radiators being located by their heritage design. This minimized instrument redesigns and therefore allowed them to be delivered earlier, though it resulted in a more complex orbiter level blanket and heater service design. Three of the instruments were mounted on a tight pointing M55J optical bench that needed to be covered in heaters to maintain pointing. Two were mounted to spacecraft controlled radiators. One was mounted to the ITP Dual Bores. The last was mounted directly to the bus structure on the moon facing panel. The propulsion system utilized four-20 pound insertion thrusters and eight-5 pound attitude control thrusters (ACS) in addition to 1000 kg of fuel in two large tanks. The propulsion system had a heater cylinder and a heated mounting deck for the insertion thrusters which coupled most of the propulsion design together simplifying the heater design. The High Gain Antenna System (HGAS) and Solar Array System (SAS) used dual axis

  17. Kinetics of thermally oxidation of Ge(100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahari, S. K.; Ohta, A.; Matsui, M.; Mishima, K.; Murakami, H.; Higashi, S.; Miyazaki, S.

    2013-03-01

    Thermal oxidation of a Ge(100) surface was investigated by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ge oxide was grown in the temperature range of 375 to 550°C in dry-O2 ambience at atmospheric pressure. Although the Ge-oxide growth rate shows a linear relationship in a log-log plot at a fixed temperature, and the slope indicates an enhancement of GeO desorption at oxidation temperatures over 490°C. The GeO desorption was also confirmed from the XPS analysis of the Si surface which was oxidized simultaneously with the Ge(100) surface. Thus, the Ge thermal oxidation at atmospheric pressure cannot be explained simply by the Deal-Grove model, in which the contribution of thermal desorption of Ge monoxide must be taken into account.

  18. The coefficient of thermal expansion of nuclear graphite with increasing thermal oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Paul J.; Neighbour, Gareth B.; McEnaney, Brian

    2000-04-01

    Two grades of nuclear graphite, an isotropic graphite (GCMB) and an anisotropic graphite (PGA), were thermally oxidized to high weight losses. Average values of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in the temperature range 20-600 °C for GCMB and PGA in the parallel direction were unaffected by thermal oxidation up to 60% and 50% weight loss, respectively. The average CTE values for the PGA samples in the perpendicular direction were also unaffected by oxidation in the range 10-50% weight loss, although a slight increase in the CTE in the early stages of oxidation was observed. A new model based upon a continuous network of material, able to transmit thermal strains, which persists after oxidation, was proposed to explain the insensitivity of the CTE to oxidation. The transmission of thermal strains in the continuous network model was considered as a percolation phenomenon. Application of percolation theory to the effect of thermal oxidation on electrical conductivity of oxidized GCMB graphite suggests that the percolation threshold occurs at very high levels of oxidation that are in excess of 95% weight loss.

  19. Nitrogen oxides and methane treatment by non-thermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alva, E.; Pacheco, M.; Colín, A.; Sánchez, V.; Pacheco, J.; Valdivia, R.; Soria, G.

    2015-03-01

    Non thermal plasma was used to treat nitrogen oxides (NOx) and methane (CH4), since they are important constituents of hydrocarbon combustion emissions processes and, both gases, play a key role in the formation of tropospheric ozone. These gases are involved in environmental problems like acid rain and some diseases such as bronchitis and pneumonia. In the case of methane is widely known its importance in the global climate change, and currently accounts for 30% of global warming. There is a growing concern for methane leaks, associated with a rapid expansion of unconventional oil and gas extraction techniques as well as a large-scale methane release from Arctic because of ice melting and the subsequent methane production of decaying organic matter. Therefore, methane mitigation is a key to avoid dangerous levels of global warming. The research, here reported, deals about the generation of non-thermal plasma with a double dielectric barrier (2DBD) at atmospheric pressure with alternating current (AC) for NOx and CH4 treatment. The degradation efficiencies and their respective power consumption for different reactor configurations (cylindrical and planar) are also reported. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of gases degradation are reported before and after treatment with cold plasma. Experimental and theoretical results are compared obtaining good removal efficiencies, superior to 90% and to 20% respectively for NOx and CH4.

  20. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Swerdlow, H.P.; Wittwer, C.T.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes an apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column. 6 figs.

  1. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Swerdlow, Harold P.; Wittwer, Carl T.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column.

  2. Rapid Methane Oxidation in a Landfill Cover Soil †

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, S. C.; Reeburgh, W. S.; Sandbeck, K. A.

    1990-01-01

    Methane oxidation rates observed in a topsoil covering a retired landfill are the highest reported (45 g m−2 day−1) for any environment. This microbial community had the capacity to rapidly oxidize CH4 at concentrations ranging from <1 ppm (microliters per liter) (first-order rate constant [k] = −0.54 h−1) to >104 ppm (k = −2.37 h−1). The physiological characteristics of a methanotroph isolated from the soil (characteristics determined in aqueous medium) and the natural population, however, were similar to those of other natural populations and cultures: the Q10 and optimum temperature were 1.9 and 31°C, respectively, the apparent half-saturation constant was 2.5 to 9.3 μM, and 19 to 69% of oxidized CH4 was assimilated into biomass. The CH4 oxidation rate of this soil under waterlogged (41% [wt/vol] H2O) conditions, 6.1 mg liter−1 day−1, was near rates reported for lake sediment and much lower than the rate of 116 mg liter−1 day−1 in the same soil under moist (11% H2O) conditions. Since there are no large physiological differences between this microbial community and other CH4 oxidizers, we attribute the high CH4 oxidation rate in moist soil to enhanced CH4 transport to the microorganisms; gas-phase molecular diffusion is 104-fold faster than aqueous diffusion. These high CH4 oxidation rates in moist soil have implications that are important in global climate change. Soil CH4 oxidation could become a negative feedback to atmospheric CH4 increases (and warming) in areas that are presently waterlogged but are projected to undergo a reduction in summer soil moisture. PMID:16348346

  3. Design of thermal oxidation systems for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, D.A.

    1999-11-01

    This book provides: practical, complete, and concise thermal oxidizer design principles; an outline of state-of-the-art design principles; a practical rather than theoretical approach; and real industrial examples in each chapter. With the new regulations that affect VOC emissions, engineers from such diverse fields as oil refining, chemical distillation and separation processes, and pharmaceutical industries will need to design and implement thermal oxidation systems. This book provides a reference to the entire design process, from conceptualization to operation and maintenance.

  4. Thermal transport properties of complex oxides from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Aqyan; Jain, Ankit; McGaughey, Alan; Benedek, Nicole

    2015-03-01

    Thermal transport properties of materials are key parameters in the design of many engineering devices. For this reason, it is highly desirable to be able to control or tailor the thermal properties of materials for specific applications. Complex oxides are attractive in this regard, due to their low and potentially highly tunable thermal conductivity. However, the theoretical description of the thermal transport properties of oxides presents a number of challenges compared to conventional semiconductors. For example, oxides tend to have complex crystal structures and the atoms interact through long-range electrostatic forces. In this talk, we use the example of PbTiO3 to discuss some of the challenges and opportunities associated with thermal transport predictions in complex oxides. For example, many oxides contain very low-lying optical branches, which may provide important acoustic-optical scattering channels. In addition, it is often possible to tune the frequencies of such optical modes with epitaxial strain. We also link the observed negative thermal expansion behavior of PbTiO3 to two zone-boundary modes with large, negative Grüneisen parameters and comment on the consequences of this finding for the thermal transport properties of this material.

  5. Salmonella Rapidly Regulates Membrane Permeability To Survive Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Joris; Reynolds, Lisa A; Deng, Wanyin; Mills, Allan; Scholz, Roland; Imami, Koshi; Foster, Leonard J; Duong, Franck; Finlay, B Brett

    2016-08-09

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria provides protection against toxic molecules, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). Decreased OM permeability can promote bacterial survival under harsh circumstances and protects against antibiotics. To better understand the regulation of OM permeability, we studied the real-time influx of hydrogen peroxide in Salmonella bacteria and discovered two novel mechanisms by which they rapidly control OM permeability. We found that pores in two major OM proteins, OmpA and OmpC, could be rapidly opened or closed when oxidative stress is encountered and that the underlying mechanisms rely on the formation of disulfide bonds in the periplasmic domain of OmpA and TrxA, respectively. Additionally, we found that a Salmonella mutant showing increased OM permeability was killed more effectively by treatment with antibiotics. Together, these results demonstrate that Gram-negative bacteria regulate the influx of ROS for defense against oxidative stress and reveal novel targets that can be therapeutically targeted to increase bacterial killing by conventional antibiotics. Pathogenic bacteria have evolved ways to circumvent inflammatory immune responses. A decrease in bacterial outer membrane permeability during infection helps protect bacteria from toxic molecules produced by the host immune system and allows for effective colonization of the host. In this report, we reveal molecular mechanisms that rapidly alter outer membrane pores and their permeability in response to hydrogen peroxide and oxidative stress. These mechanisms are the first examples of pores that are rapidly opened or closed in response to reactive oxygen species. Moreover, one of these mechanisms can be targeted to artificially increase membrane permeability and thereby increase bacterial killing by the antibiotic cefotaxime during in vitro experiments and in a mouse model of infection. We envision that a better understanding of the regulation of membrane

  6. Thermal and magnetic properties of manganese oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyaninova, Vera Nikolaevna

    This thesis reports a study of the thermal, magnetic and transport properties of perovskite manganese oxides A1-xBxMnO3 (A = La, Nd, and Pr; B = Ca, Ba, and Sr). The ferromagnetic (FM) metallic (low x) and the charge-ordered (CO) (high x) doping regimes were studied in order to better understand the complex behavior of these materials. In the metallic doping range the low temperature magnetization was found to be in agreement with the Bloch law for ferromagnetic spin waves, and the spin-wave stiffness was determined. Important parameters such as the Debye temperature and the effective mass of the charge carriers were determined from low temperature specific heat experiments. The effective mass of the charge carriers was found to be 2--4 times heavier than the mass obtained from band structure calculations suggesting an important role of electron-phonon interactions in these materials. In order to better understand the nature of the metal-insulator transition at the ferromagnetic TC the resistivity and magnetization of epitaxial thin films of La0.67Ca 0.33MnO3 and Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 were studied. It was found that the behavior of the resistivity and magnetization near TC is inconsistent with Anderson localization as proposed by several theories. Various compositions of charge-ordered La1-xCaxMnO3 and Pr1-xCa1-xMnO 3 were studied to better understand the CO transition and its ground state. From powder neutron diffraction measurements we found that the CO antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic metallic phases coexist at low temperatures. Charge ordered Pr1-xCaxMnO3 and La1-xCax MnO3 (x ≈ 0.5) were found to have an anomalous excess specific heat ( C') at low temperatures (T < 20 K). This C' contribution has a temperature dependence consistent with non-magnetic excitations with a dispersion relation e = Delta' + Bq2. Surprisingly, it was found that a magnetic field sufficient to induce the transition from the insulating CO (and AFM) state to the metallic FM state is

  7. Automotive body panel containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Adamson, Douglas (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An automotive body panel containing a polymer composite formed of at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of thermal oxidation of polyisoprene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.; Hsu, M. S.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted concerning the microstructural changes occurring in cis- and trans-1,4-polyisoprenes during uncatalized thermal oxidation in the solid phase. The investigation made use of approaches based on proton and carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy. The oxidation of squalene and dihydromyrcene in the liquid phase was also studied. The studies provide the first NMR spectroscopic evidence for the presence of epoxy and peroxide, hydroperoxide, and alcohol groups within the oxidized polyisoprene chain.

  9. The role of thermal shock in cyclic oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, C. E.; Deadmore, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of thermal shock on the spalling of oxides from the surfaces of several commercial alloys was determined. The average cooling rate was varied from approximately 240 C per second to less than 1.0 C per second during cyclic oxidation tests in air. The tests consisted of one hundred cycles of one hour at the maximum temperature (1100 or 1200 C). The alloys were HOS-875, TD-Ni, TD-NiCrAl, IN-601, IN-702, and B-1900 plus Hf. All of these alloys exhibited partial spalling within the oxide rather than total oxide loss down to bare metal. Thermal shock resulted in deformation of the metal which in turn resulted, in most cases, in changing the oxide failure mode from compressive to tensile. Tensile failures were characterized by cracking of the oxide and little loss, while compressive failures were characterized by explosive loss of platelets of oxide. This behavior was confirmed by examination of mechanically stressed oxide scales. The thermally shocked oxides spalled less than the slow cooled samples with the exception of TD-NiCrAl. This material failed in a brittle manner rather than by plastic deformation.

  10. Electron-collecting oxide layers in inverted polymer solar cells via oxidation of thermally evaporated titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampetti, A.; Salamandra, L.; Brunetti, F.; Reale, A.; Di Carlo, A.; Brown, T. M.

    2016-10-01

    A simple and intuitive deposition technique is discussed to obtain titanium oxide used as an electron collecting layer in polymer solar cells based on the thermal evaporation of pristine titanium and further thermal treatment to convert the metal in oxide. Since the degradation of indium-doped tin oxide at high temperatures is an issue, we demonstrate that the combination of glass/fluorine tin oxide and high temperatures represents a promising approach in the fabrication of inverted polymer solar cells with such a titanium oxide electron collecting layer.

  11. Regenerative thermal oxidation and alternative technologies for VOC control

    SciTech Connect

    Biedell, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal oxidation technologies have been used successfully to control VOC`s for many years but the recent 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments have spurred improvements in the established processes and development of economic alternatives. The combination of the regulatory maze and confusion in the selection of the best technology for a particular application has created a potential nightmare for those companies facing a need to reduce their VOC EMISSIONS. The relative advantages and disadvantages of regenerative, recuperative and catalytic oxidizers will be reviewed, with an emphasis on the economic justification for regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO). Control efficiencies of more than 99% have been demonstrated for RTO`s on a multitude of industrial process exhaust streams. Lowest evaluated cost over a fifteen to twenty year effective equipment life is a key selection criteria. This paper describes the underlying principles of thermal oxidation, and discusses the applicability of these and other emerging technologies for VOC control.

  12. Rapid Microwave Synthesis of Perovskite Oxide Nanostructures with Enhanced Functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Gregory; Datta, Anuja; Mukherjee, Pritish

    2015-03-01

    Perovskite oxides are an important class of materials having high dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients, switchable ferroelectric (FE) polarization and interesting optical and electrical properties. Realization of functional devices based on classic perovskite oxides such as Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48) O3 (PZT), and emerging Pb-free noncentrosymmetric (NCS) oxides, such as, ZnSnO3, ZnTiO3 and CaTiO3 have reinforced the investigation of these materials in multiple dimensions and length scales. However, large-scale synthesis and integration of ordered low-dimensional structures is a challenge, due to their complicated methodologies, high-cost and difficulties with phase stability. We discuss a generalized, cost-effective, rapid microwave synthesis route for size and shape selective nanostructure growth of these functional perovskite oxides on industrially viable flexible and hard substrates, stabilized by an enhanced ionic covalence. The rational synthesis approach allowed improved tunability of the size, shape, and orientation of the structures with improved electrical and FE properties. The facile fabrication route of these nanostructures may expand the outreach of probes for understanding the structure-property relationships in these hitherto unexplored and technologically important materials.

  13. Thermal Properties of Oxides With Magnetoplumbite Structure for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming; Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam

    2007-01-01

    Oxides having magnetoplumbite structure are promising candidate materials for applications as high temperature thermal barrier coatings because of their high thermal stability, high thermal expansion, and low thermal conductivity. In this study, powders of LaMgAl11O19, GdMgAl11O19, SmMgAl11O19, and Gd0.7Yb0.3MgAl11O19 magnetoplumbite oxides were synthesized by citric acid sol-gel method and hot pressed into disk specimens. The thermal expansion coefficients (CTE) of these oxide materials were measured from room temperature to 1500 C. The average CTE value was found to be approx.9.6x10(exp -6)/C. Thermal conductivity of these magnetoplumbite-based oxide materials was also evaluated using steady-state laser heat flux test method. The effects of doping on thermal properties were also examined. Thermal conductivity of the doped Gd0.7Yb0.3MgAl11O19 composition was found to be lower than that of the undoped GdMgAl11O19. In contrast, thermal expansion coefficient was found to be independent of the oxide composition and appears to be controlled by the magnetoplumbite crystal structure. Thermal conductivity testing of LaMgAl11O19 and LaMnAl11O19 magnetoplumbite oxide coatings plasma sprayed on NiCrAlY/Rene N5 superalloy substrates indicated resistance of these coatings to sintering even at temperatures as high as 1600 C.

  14. Measuring thermal conductivity of fluids containing oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Choi, S.U.S.; Li, S.; Eastman, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Oxide nanofluids were produced and their thermal conductivities were measured by a transient hot-wire method. The experimental results show that these nanofluids, containing a small amount of nanoparticles, have substantially higher thermal conductivities than the same liquids without nanoparticles. Comparisons between experiments and the Hamilton and Crosser model show that the model can predict the thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing large agglomerated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. However, the model appears to be inadequate for nanofluids containing CuO particles. This suggests that not only particle shape but size is considered to be dominant in enhancing the thermal conductivity of nanofluids.

  15. Mass production of two-dimensional oxides by rapid heating of hydrous chlorides

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunsong; Zhang, Haitian; Si, Wenjie; Wu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanoscale oxides have attracted research interest owing to their electronic, magnetic optical and catalytic properties. If they could be manufactured on a large scale, 2D oxides would be attractive for applications ranging from electronics to energy conversion and storage. Herein, we report facile fabrication of oxide nanosheets by rapid thermal annealing of corresponding hydrous-chloride compounds. By heating CrCl3·6H2O, ZrOCl2·8H2O, AlCl3·6H2O and YCl3·6H2O crystals as precursors, we immediately collect large quantities of ultrathin Cr2O3, ZrO2, Al2O3 and Y2O3 nanosheets, respectively. The formation of layered nanosheets relies on exfoliation driven by rapid evaporation of water and/or other gas molecules generated under annealing. Our route allows simple, efficient and inexpensive production of 2D oxides. As a demonstration, we evaluate Cr2O3 nanosheets prepared by our method as anodes in lithium-ion batteries and find superior performance in comparison with their microcrystalline counterparts. PMID:27610589

  16. Mass production of two-dimensional oxides by rapid heating of hydrous chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunsong; Zhang, Haitian; Si, Wenjie; Wu, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanoscale oxides have attracted research interest owing to their electronic, magnetic optical and catalytic properties. If they could be manufactured on a large scale, 2D oxides would be attractive for applications ranging from electronics to energy conversion and storage. Herein, we report facile fabrication of oxide nanosheets by rapid thermal annealing of corresponding hydrous-chloride compounds. By heating CrCl3.6H2O, ZrOCl2.8H2O, AlCl3.6H2O and YCl3.6H2O crystals as precursors, we immediately collect large quantities of ultrathin Cr2O3, ZrO2, Al2O3 and Y2O3 nanosheets, respectively. The formation of layered nanosheets relies on exfoliation driven by rapid evaporation of water and/or other gas molecules generated under annealing. Our route allows simple, efficient and inexpensive production of 2D oxides. As a demonstration, we evaluate Cr2O3 nanosheets prepared by our method as anodes in lithium-ion batteries and find superior performance in comparison with their microcrystalline counterparts.

  17. Dynamics of metal-induced crystallization of ultrathin Ge films by rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Yuanxun; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Conibeer, Gavin

    2015-12-07

    Though Ge crystallization has been widely studied, few works investigate metal-induced crystallization of ultrathin Ge films. For 2 nm Ge films in oxide matrix, crystallization becomes challenging due to easy oxidation and low mobility of Ge atoms. Introducing metal atoms may alleviate these problems, but the functions and the behaviours of metal atoms need to be clarified. This paper investigates the crystallization dynamics of a multilayer structure 1.9 nm Ge/0.5 nm Al/1.5 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The functions of metal atoms, like effective anti-oxidation, downshifting Raman peaks, and incapability to decrease crystallization temperature, are found and explained. The metal behaviours, such as inter-diffusion and defect generation, are supported with direct evidences, Al-Ge nanobicrystals, and Al cluster in Ge atoms. With these understandings, a two-step RTA process achieves high-quality 2 nm nanocrystal Ge films with Raman peak at 298 cm{sup −1} of FWHM 10.3 cm{sup −1} and atomic smooth interfaces.

  18. Surface etching and roughening in integrated processing of thermal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offenberg, M.; Liehr, M.; Rubloff, G. W.

    1991-04-01

    A multichamber UHV processing and analysis system has been used to study integrated thermal oxide processing, in which the final precleaning process and the thermal oxidation process are integrated by employing transfer of the wafers through ultraclean, inert ambients (purified, dry N2 and then ultrahigh vacuum). The Al-gate MOS capacitors show high breakdown fields (approximately 12 MV/cm) when a thin oxide passivation layer is present prior to oxidation, but low fields (less than 6 MV/cm) when the Si surface is initially oxygen free. This contrasting behavior is caused by the etching of Si surfaces which occurs at elevated temperature in the presence of trace concentration (approximately 100 ppb) of oxygen (e.g., 2 Si + O2 yields 2SiO2), leading to surface roughening and then field enhancement at asperities in the structure. Oxide surface passivation prevents etching and assures the dielectric integrity of the structure.

  19. Thermal oxidative degradation reactions of linear perfluoroalkyl ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Paclorek, K. J. L.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal and thermal oxidative stability studies were performed on linear perfluoroalkyl ether fluids. The effect on degradation by metal catalysts and degradation inhibitors is reported. The linear perfluoroalkyl ethers are inherently unstable at 316 C in an oxidizing atmosphere. The metal catalysts greatly increased the rate of degradation in oxidizing atmospheres. In the presence of these metals in an oxidizing atmosphere, the degradation inhibitors were highly effective in arresting degradation at 288 C. However, the inhibitors had only limited effectiveness at 316 C. The metals promote degradation by chain scission. Based on elemental analysis and oxygen consumption data, the linear perfluoroalkyl ether fluids have a structural arrangement based on difluoroformyl and tetrafluoroethylene oxide units, with the former predominating. Previously announced in STAR as N82-26468

  20. Thermal oxidative degradation reactions of linear perfluoroalky lethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Paciorek, K. J. L.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal and thermal oxidative stability studies were performed on linear perfluoro alkyl ether fluids. The effect on degradation by metal catalysts and degradation inhibitors are reported. The liner perfluoro alkylethers are inherently unstable at 316 C in an oxidizing atmosphere. The metal catalysts greatly increased the rate of degradation in oxidizing atmospheres. In the presence of these metals in an oxidizing atmosphere, the degradation inhibitors were highly effective in arresting degradation at 288 C. However, the inhibitors had only limited effectiveness at 316 C. The metals promote degradation by chain scission. Based on elemental analysis and oxygen consumption data, the linear perfluoro alkylether fluids have a structural arrangement based on difluoroformyl and tetrafluoroethylene oxide units, with the former predominating.

  1. Rapid methane oxidation in a landfill cover soil

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, S.C.; Reeburgh, W.S.; Sandbeck, K.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Methane oxidation rates observed in a topsoil covering a retired landfill are the highest reported (45 g m{sup {minus}2} day{sup {minus}1}) for any environment. This microbial community had the capacity to rapidly oxidize CH{sub 4} at concentrations ranging from <1 ppm (microfilters per liter) (first-order rate constant (k) = {minus}0.54 h{sup {minus}1}) to >10{sup 4} ppm (k = {minus}2.37 h{sup {minus}1}). The physiological characteristics of a methanotroph isolated from the soil (characteristics determined in aqueous medium) and the natural population, however, were similar to those of other natural populations and cultures: the Q{sub 10} and optimum temperature were 1.9 and 31{degree}C, respectively, the apparent half-saturation constant was 2.5 to 9.3 {mu}M, and 19 to 69% of oxidized CH{sub 4} was assimilated into biomass. The CH{sub 4} oxidation rate of this soil was waterlogged (41% (wt/vol) H{sub 2}O) conditions, 6.1 mg liter{sup {minus}1} day{sup {minus}1}, was near rates reported for lake sediment and much lower than the rate of 116 mg liter{sup {minus}1} day{sup {minus}1} in the same soil under moist (11% H{sub 2}O) conditions. Since there are no large physiological differences between this microbial community and other CH{sub 4} oxidizers, we attribute the high CH{sub 4} oxidation rate in moist soil to enhanced CH{sub 4} transport to the microorganisms; gas-phase molecular diffusion is 10{sup 4}-fold faster than aqueous diffusion. These high CH{sub 4} oxidation rates in moist soil have implications that are important in global climate change. Soil CH{sub 4} oxidation could become a negative feedback to atmospheric CH{sub 4} increases (and warming) in areas that are presently waterlogged but are projected to undergo a reduction in summer soil moisture.

  2. Rapid acidification of the ocean during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum.

    PubMed

    Zachos, James C; Röhl, Ursula; Schellenberg, Stephen A; Sluijs, Appy; Hodell, David A; Kelly, Daniel C; Thomas, Ellen; Nicolo, Micah; Raffi, Isabella; Lourens, Lucas J; McCarren, Heather; Kroon, Dick

    2005-06-10

    The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) has been attributed to the rapid release of approximately 2000 x 10(9) metric tons of carbon in the form of methane. In theory, oxidation and ocean absorption of this carbon should have lowered deep-sea pH, thereby triggering a rapid (<10,000-year) shoaling of the calcite compensation depth (CCD), followed by gradual recovery. Here we present geochemical data from five new South Atlantic deep-sea sections that constrain the timing and extent of massive sea-floor carbonate dissolution coincident with the PETM. The sections, from between 2.7 and 4.8 kilometers water depth, are marked by a prominent clay layer, the character of which indicates that the CCD shoaled rapidly (<10,000 years) by more than 2 kilometers and recovered gradually (>100,000 years). These findings indicate that a large mass of carbon (>2000 x 10(9) metric tons of carbon) dissolved in the ocean at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary and that permanent sequestration of this carbon occurred through silicate weathering feedback.

  3. Salmonella Rapidly Regulates Membrane Permeability To Survive Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijden, Joris; Reynolds, Lisa A.; Deng, Wanyin; Mills, Allan; Scholz, Roland; Imami, Koshi; Foster, Leonard J.; Duong, Franck

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria provides protection against toxic molecules, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). Decreased OM permeability can promote bacterial survival under harsh circumstances and protects against antibiotics. To better understand the regulation of OM permeability, we studied the real-time influx of hydrogen peroxide in Salmonella bacteria and discovered two novel mechanisms by which they rapidly control OM permeability. We found that pores in two major OM proteins, OmpA and OmpC, could be rapidly opened or closed when oxidative stress is encountered and that the underlying mechanisms rely on the formation of disulfide bonds in the periplasmic domain of OmpA and TrxA, respectively. Additionally, we found that a Salmonella mutant showing increased OM permeability was killed more effectively by treatment with antibiotics. Together, these results demonstrate that Gram-negative bacteria regulate the influx of ROS for defense against oxidative stress and reveal novel targets that can be therapeutically targeted to increase bacterial killing by conventional antibiotics. PMID:27507830

  4. Rapid microfluidic thermal cycler for nucleic acid amplification

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Vafai, Kambiz

    2015-10-27

    A system for thermal cycling a material to be thermal cycled including a microfluidic heat exchanger; a porous medium in the microfluidic heat exchanger; a microfluidic thermal cycling chamber containing the material to be thermal cycled, the microfluidic thermal cycling chamber operatively connected to the microfluidic heat exchanger; a working fluid at first temperature; a first system for transmitting the working fluid at first temperature to the microfluidic heat exchanger; a working fluid at a second temperature, a second system for transmitting the working fluid at second temperature to the microfluidic heat exchanger; a pump for flowing the working fluid at the first temperature from the first system to the microfluidic heat exchanger and through the porous medium; and flowing the working fluid at the second temperature from the second system to the heat exchanger and through the porous medium.

  5. Anisotropic thermal conductivity of thin polycrystalline oxide samples

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, A.; Boussois, K.; Nait-Ali, B.; Smith, D. S.; Blanchart, P.

    2013-11-15

    This paper reports about the development of a modified laser-flash technique and relation to measure the in-plane thermal diffusivity of thin polycrystalline oxide samples. Thermal conductivity is then calculated with the product of diffusivity, specific heat and density. Design and operating features for evaluating in-plane thermal conductivities are described. The technique is advantageous as thin samples are not glued together to measure in-plane thermal conductivities like earlier methods reported in literature. The approach was employed to study anisotropic thermal conductivity in alumina sheet, textured kaolin ceramics and montmorillonite. Since it is rare to find in-plane thermal conductivity values for such anisotropic thin samples in literature, this technique offers a useful variant to existing techniques.

  6. Alternative method for steam generation for thermal oxidation of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, Jeffrey J.

    2010-02-01

    Thermal oxidation of silicon is an important process step in MEMS device fabrication. Thicker oxide layers are often used as structural components and can take days or weeks to grow, causing high gas costs, maintenance issues, and a process bottleneck. Pyrolytic steam, which is generated from hydrogen and oxygen combustion, was the default process, but has serious drawbacks: cost, safety, particles, permitting, reduced growth rate, rapid hydrogen consumption, component breakdown and limited steam flow rates. Results from data collected over a 24 month period by a MEMS manufacturer supports replacement of pyrolytic torches with RASIRC Steamer technology to reduce process cycle time and enable expansion previously limited by local hydrogen permitting. Data was gathered to determine whether Steamers can meet or exceed pyrolytic torch performance. The RASIRC Steamer uses de-ionized water as its steam source, eliminating dependence on hydrogen and oxygen. A non-porous hydrophilic membrane selectively allows water vapor to pass. All other molecules are greatly restricted, so contaminants in water such as dissolved gases, ions, total organic compounds (TOC), particles, and metals can be removed in the steam phase. The MEMS manufacturer improved growth rate by 7% over the growth range from 1μm to 3.5μm. Over a four month period, wafer uniformity, refractive index, wafer stress, and etch rate were tracked with no significant difference found. The elimination of hydrogen generated a four-month return on investment (ROI). Mean time between failure (MTBF) was increased from 3 weeks to 32 weeks based on three Steamers operating over eight months.

  7. Comparison of thermal oxidation and plasma oxidation of 4H-SiC (0001) for surface flattening

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Hui; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2014-03-10

    The thermal oxidation and water vapor plasma oxidation of 4H-SiC (0001) were investigated. The initial oxidation rate of helium-based atmospheric-pressure plasma oxidation was six times higher than that of thermal oxidation. The oxide-SiC interface generated by plasma oxidation became flatter with increasing thickness of the oxide, whereas the interface generated by thermal oxidation was atomically flat regardless of the oxide thickness. Many pits were generated on the thermally oxidized surface, whereas few pits were observed on the surface oxidized by plasma. After the oxide layer generated plasma oxidation was removed, an atomically flat and pit-free SiC surface was obtained.

  8. Modeling Oxidation Induced Stresses in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, B. L.; Freborg, A. M.; Petrus, G. J.; Brindley, William J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) in gas turbines has increased dramatically in recent years, due mainly to the need for component protection from ever increasing service temperatures. Oxidation of the bond coat has been identified as an important contributing factor to spallation of the ceramic top coat during service. Additional variables found to influence TBC thermal cycle life include bond coat coefficient of thermal expansion, creep behavior of both the ceramic and bond coat layers, and modulus of elasticity. The purpose of this work was to characterize the effects of oxidation on the stress states within the TBC system, as well as to examine the interaction of oxidation with other factors affecting TBC life.

  9. Effects of Doping on Thermal Conductivity of Pyrochlore Oxides for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming; Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam

    2006-01-01

    Pyrochlore oxides of general composition, A2B2O7, where A is a 3(+) cation (La to Lu) and B is a 4(+) cation (Zr, Hf, Ti, etc.) have high melting point, relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion, and low thermal conductivity which make them suitable for applications as high-temperature thermal barrier coatings. The effect of doping at the A site on the thermal conductivity of a pyrochlore oxide La2Zr2O7, has been investigated. Oxide powders of various compositions La2Zr2O7, La(1.7)Gd(0.3)Zr2O7, La(1.7)Yb(0.3)Zr2O7 and La(1.7)Gd(0.15)Yb(0.15)Zr2O7 were synthesized by the citric acid sol-gel method. These powders were hot pressed into discs and used for thermal conductivity measurements using a steady-state laser heat flux test technique. The rare earth oxide doped pyrochlores La(1.7)Gd(0.3)Zr2O7, La(1.7)Yb(0.3)Zr2O7 and La(1.7)Gd(0.15)Yb(0.15)Zr2O7 had lower thermal conductivity than the un-doped La2Zr2O7. The Gd2O3 and Yb2O3 co-doped composition showed the lowest thermal conductivity.

  10. Rapid scanning thermal lens/laser transmission densitometer.

    PubMed

    Peck, K; Demana, T; Morris, M D

    1988-01-01

    An automated densitometer based on the thermal lens principle is described. The apparatus also operates as a conventional laser transmission densitometer. Comparison of the performance in both modes shows that thermal lens densitometry provides lower detection limits, but that transmission densitometry is more satisfactory at high optical densities. The instrument is characterized with proteins separated by SDS-PAGE and stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250.

  11. The effective thermal conductivity of an adsorbent - Praseodymium cerium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secary, J. J.; Tong, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    The results of an experimental study to determine the effective thermal conductivity of praseodymium cerium oxide are reported. Praseodymium cerium oxide is an adsorbent used in the development of adsorption compressors for spaceborne refrigeration systems. A guarded-hot-plate apparatus was built for this study. Measurements were carried out for mean temperatures ranging from 300 to 600 C under a vacuum of 10 exp -5 torr. For the temperature range studied, the effective thermal conductivity increased from 0.14 to 0.76 W/m per C with increasing temperature, while displaying a cubic temperature dependency.

  12. Thermal spraying and adhesion of oxides onto graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesrati, N.; Ajhrourh, H.; Du, Nguyen; Treheux, D.

    2000-03-01

    Surface treatment of graphite (Cg), which is based on thermal spraying of oxides (Al2O3, ZrO2), is proposed to reduce graphite reactivity and permeability toward oxygen. The study of coating adhesion allows recognition of the parameters that favor mechanical and chemical bonds. It also indicates the pretreatment of graphite, which leads to Cr3C2 or SiC bond coats. Different graphite-oxide systems were examined and showed that adhesion particularly depends on the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between Cg, oxide, and the bond coat. Therefore, a post-treatment based on an impregnation with enamel of the porous oxide is essential to obtain effective protection of the graphite against the external environment.

  13. Evaluation of Oxidation Damage in Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    A method based on the technique of dilatometry has been established to quantitatively evaluate the interfacial damage due to the oxidation in a thermal barrier coating system. Strain isolation and adhesion coefficients have been proposed to characterize the thermal barrier coating (TBC) performance based on its thermal expansion behavior. It has been found that, for a thermal barrier coating system consisting of ZrO2-8%Y2O3/FeCrAlY/4140 steel substrate, the oxidation of the bond coat and substrate significantly reduced the ceramic coating adherence, as inferred from the dilatometry measurements. The in-situ thermal expansion measurements under 30 deg C to 700 deg C thermal cycling in air showed that the adhesion coefficient, A(sub i) decreased by 25% during the first 35 oxidation cycles. Metallography showed that delamination occurred at both the ceramic/bond coat and bond coat/substrate interfaces. In addition, the strain isolation effect has been improved by increasing the FeCrAlY bond coat thickness. The strain isolation coefficient, Si, increased from about 0.04 to 0.25, as the bond coat thickness changed from 0.1 mm to 1.0 mm. It may be possible to design optimum values of strain isolation and interface adhesion coefficients to achieve the best TBC performance.

  14. Nitrogen cycling. Rapid nitrous oxide cycling in the suboxic ocean.

    PubMed

    Babbin, Andrew R; Bianchi, Daniele; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B

    2015-06-05

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a major cause of stratospheric ozone depletion, yet its sources and sinks remain poorly quantified in the oceans. We used isotope tracers to directly measure N2O reduction rates in the eastern tropical North Pacific. Because of incomplete denitrification, N2O cycling rates are an order of magnitude higher than predicted by current models in suboxic regions, and the spatial distribution suggests strong dependence on both organic carbon and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Furthermore, N2O turnover is 20 times higher than the net atmospheric efflux. The rapid rate of this cycling coupled to an expected expansion of suboxic ocean waters implies future increases in N2O emissions. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Photo- and thermal-oxidation studies on methyl and phenyl linoleate: anti-oxidant behaviour and rates of reaction.

    PubMed

    Chacón, J N; Gaggini, P; Sinclair, R S; Smith, F J

    2000-09-01

    Photo-peroxidation of methyl and phenyl linoleate in methanol solutions at 25 degrees C, in the presence of methylene blue or 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)-porphyrin (TPP) as sensitisers of singlet oxygen, was found to proceed at more than 30 times the rate of the same polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ester species undergoing thermal-peroxidation in the bulk phase at 50 degrees C. The addition of anti-oxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) quench the thermal-oxidation effectively but appear to only partially inhibit the photosensitized peroxidation reactions. The kinetics of the overall peroxidation reactions were followed by ultraviolet spectroscopy, measurements of hydroperoxide concentration and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The photo-peroxidation reaction proceeds more rapidly in chloroform solution as the lifetime of singlet oxygen is shown to be over ten times longer in chloroform than methanol. The initial fast reaction kinetics of the photo-peroxidation reactions were evaluated using a pulsed laser technique to show that singlet oxygen reacts competitively with both the anti-oxidants and the polyunsaturated fatty acid ester. Second order kinetic rate constants (in the range 10(5)-10(7) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)) were evaluated for the reactivity of singlet oxygen with a range of anti-oxidants and a singlet oxygen quencher, and the results used to explain the effect of anti-oxidants at different concentrations on the rate of the linoleate photo-peroxidation reaction.

  16. Formation of shallow junctions during rapid thermal processing from electron-beam deposited boron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zagozdzon-Wosik, W.; Korablev, K.; Rusakova, I.; Wolfe, J.C.; Simons, D.; Chi, P.; Shi, J.H.

    1996-09-01

    Diffusion via rapid thermal processing (RTP) has been investigated for fabrication of shallow p-type layers doped with boron. The authors used dopant sources deposited by electron beam evaporation in the form of thin boron layers with or without in situ deposited silicon capping films. The deposition process is compatible with the resist mask due to low temperatures and poor step coverage, which facilitate dopant removal via a lift-off process. Sheet resistance measurements together with secondary ion mass spectroscopy and spreading resistance profiling analyses indicate that doping efficiency is high for both types of sources in the temperature range of 900 to 1,050 C for 10 to 30 s. Full dopant activation in the silicon substrate, except for the surface region, has been recorded for all process conditions. High surface concentrations observed in the processed samples were attributed to a residual boron layer. Oxidation during doping via RTP results in diffusion enhancement and in consumption of the boron source. Results of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses confirm fast oxide growth rates during the diffusion processes in an oxygen ambient. No defects within the doped layers have been found for the process conditions used in the experiments.

  17. Depth profiles of oxygen precipitates in nitride-coated silicon wafers subjected to rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronkov, V. V.; Falster, R.; Kim, TaeHyeong; Park, SoonSung; Torack, T.

    2013-07-01

    Silicon wafers, coated with a silicon nitride layer and subjected to high temperature Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) in Ar, show—upon a subsequent two-step precipitation anneal cycle (such as 800 °C + 1000 °C)—peculiar depth profiles of oxygen precipitate densities. Some profiles are sharply peaked near the wafer surface, sometimes with a zero bulk density. Other profiles are uniform in depth. The maximum density is always the same. These profiles are well reproduced by simulations assuming that precipitation starts from a uniformly distributed small oxide plates originated from RTA step and composed of oxygen atoms and vacancies ("VO2 plates"). During the first step of the precipitation anneal, an oxide layer propagates around this core plate by a process of oxygen attachment, meaning that an oxygen-only ring-shaped plate emerges around the original plate. These rings, depending on their size, then either dissolve or grow during the second part of the anneal leading to a rich variety of density profiles.

  18. Insertion of oxidized nucleotide triggers rapid DNA polymerase opening

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taejin; Freudenthal, Bret D.; Beard, William A.; Wilson, Samuel H.; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    A novel mechanism is unveiled to explain why a pro-mutagenic nucleotide lesion (oxidized guanine, 8-oxoG) causes the mammalian DNA repair polymerase-β (pol-β) to rapidly transition to an inactive open conformation. The mechanism involves unexpected features revealed recently in time-lapse crystallography. Specifically, a delicate water network associated with a lesion-stabilizing auxilliary product ion Mg(p) triggers a cascade of events that leads to poor active site geometry and the rupture of crucial molecular interactions between key residues in both the anti(8-oxoG:C) and syn(8-oxoG:A) systems. Once the base pairs in these lesioned systems are broken, dislocation of both Asp192 (a metal coordinating ligand) and the oxoG phosphate group (PO4) interfere with the hydrogen bonding between Asp192 and Arg258, whose rotation toward Asp192 is crucial to the closed-to-open enzyme transition. Energetically, the lesioned open states are similar in energy to those of the corresponding closed complexes after chemistry, in marked contrast to the unlesioned pol-β anti(G:C) system, whose open state is energetically higher than the closed state. The delicate surveillance system offers a fundamental protective mechanism in the cell that triggers DNA repair events which help deter insertion of oxidized lesions. PMID:27034465

  19. Bundled tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shibin; Zhao, Yimin; Xia, Yongde; Zou, Zengda; Min, Guanghui; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2008-07-01

    Ultra-thin W18O49 nanowires were initially obtained by a simple solvothermal method using tungsten chloride and cyclohexanol as precursors. Thermal processing of the resulting bundled nanowires has been carried out in air in a tube furnace. The morphology and phase transformation behavior of the as-synthesized nanowires as a function of annealing temperature have been characterized by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The nanostructured bundles underwent a series of morphological evolution with increased annealing temperature, becoming straighter, larger in diameter, and smaller in aspect ratio, eventually becoming irregular particles with size up to 5 µm. At 500 °C, the monoclinic W18O49 was completely transformed to monoclinic WO3 phase, which remains stable at high processing temperature. After thermal processing at 400 °C and 450 °C, the specific surface areas of the resulting nanowires dropped to 110 m2 g-1 and 66 m2 g-1 respectively, compared with that of 151 m2 g-1 for the as-prepared sample. This study may shed light on the understanding of the geometrical and structural evolution occurring in nanowires whose working environment may involve severe temperature variations.

  20. Synthesis of Lithium Metal Oxide Nanoparticles by Induction Thermal Plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Manabu; Kageyama, Takuya; Sone, Hirotaka; Yoshida, Shuhei; Okamoto, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Lithium metal oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by induction thermal plasma. Four different systems—Li–Mn, Li–Cr, Li–Co, and Li–Ni—were compared to understand formation mechanism of Li–Me oxide nanoparticles in thermal plasma process. Analyses of X-ray diffractometry and electron microscopy showed that Li–Me oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized in Li–Mn, Li–Cr, and Li–Co systems. Spinel structured LiMn2O4 with truncated octahedral shape was formed. Layer structured LiCrO2 or LiCoO2 nanoparticles with polyhedral shapes were also synthesized in Li–Cr or Li–Co systems. By contrast, Li–Ni oxide nanoparticles were not synthesized in the Li–Ni system. Nucleation temperatures of each metal in the considered system were evaluated. The relationship between the nucleation temperature and melting and boiling points suggests that the melting points of metal oxides have a strong influence on the formation of lithium metal oxide nanoparticles. A lower melting temperature leads to a longer reaction time, resulting in a higher fraction of the lithium metal oxide nanoparticles in the prepared nanoparticles.

  1. Impact of rapid cooling process in ultrahigh-temperature oxidation of 4H-SiC(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sometani, Mitsuru; Nagai, Daisuke; Katsu, Yoshihito; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Takei, Manabu; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Heiji

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a rapid water-quenching procedure with ultrahigh-temperature oxidation to avoid degradation of the high-quality SiO2/SiC interface formed by ultrahigh-temperature oxidation during the cooling process. A reduction in the interface state density was observed for the SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) interface formed by ultrahigh-temperature oxidation in dry O2 ambient using the water-quenching process, compared with other natural cooling processes. The oxidation temperature dependence of interface state density for the thermally grown SiO2/SiC structures formed using the water-quenching process revealed that degradation of the interface properties occurred not only during the cooling process but also during the continuous oxidation process at exceedingly high temperatures, above 1500 °C, in 100% dry O2 ambient at 1 atm.

  2. Carbon monoxide oxidation rates computed for automobile thermal reactor conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Bittker, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation rates in thermal reactors for exhaust manifolds are computed by integrating differential equations for system of twenty-nine reversible chemical reactions. Reactors are noncatalytic replacements for conventional exhaust manifolds and are a system for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in automobile exhausts.

  3. Thermal oxidation vitrification flue gas elimination system

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, W.; Angelo, F.; Clemens, M.

    1995-06-01

    With minor modifications to a Best Demonstrated Available Technology hazardous waste incinerator, it is possible to obtain combustion without potentially toxic emissions by using technology currently employed in similar applications throughout industry. Further, these same modifications will reduce waste handling over an extended operating envelope while minimizing energy consumption. Three by-products are produced: industrial grade carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and a final waste form that will exceed Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedures requirements and satisfy nuclear waste product consistency tests. The proposed system utilizes oxygen rather than air as an oxidant to reduce the quantities of total emissions, improve the efficiency of the oxidation reactions, and minimize the generation of toxic NO{sub x} emissions. Not only will less potentially hazardous constituents be generated; all toxic substances can be contained and the primary emission, carbon dioxide -- the leading ``greenhouse gas`` contributing to global warming -- will be converted to an industrial by-product needed to enhance the extraction of energy feedstocks from maturing wells. Clearly, the proposed configuration conforms to the provisions for Most Achievable Control Technology as defined and mandated for the private sector by the Clear Air Act Amendments of 1990 to be implemented in 1997 and still lacking definition.

  4. Dismountable sample holder apparatus for rapid thermal conductivity measurements based on cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiming; Xu, Dong; Xu, Peng; Huang, R. J.; Xu, Xiangdong; Li, L. F.; Gong, Linghui

    2012-06-01

    A novel apparatus, based on cryocooler, for rapid thermal conductivity measurements between 8 K and 300 K is presented. It consists of a removable sample test bar on which bulk samples can easily be mounted and then placed in the described measurement device. This fast mounting measurement system uses a standard steady-state absolute thermal conductivity measurement and allows for excellent thermal stability and mechanical vibration isolation from the cryocooler. The distinction of this system is rapid mounting and measurement of thermal conductivity with high accuracy and precision in data acquisition. In addition, this system allows for versatility in its use, such as the specific heat and the linear thermal expansion measurement. The design of this apparatus, measurement specification, and thermal conductivity of standard materials measured in this system are presented.

  5. In situ thermally reduced graphene oxide/epoxy composites: thermal and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olowojoba, Ganiu B.; Eslava, Salvador; Gutierrez, Eduardo S.; Kinloch, Anthony J.; Mattevi, Cecilia; Rocha, Victoria G.; Taylor, Ambrose C.

    2016-10-01

    Graphene has excellent mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties and this has made it a prime target for use as a filler material in the development of multifunctional polymeric composites. However, several challenges need to be overcome to take full advantage of the aforementioned properties of graphene. These include achieving good dispersion and interfacial properties between the graphene filler and the polymeric matrix. In the present work, we report the thermal and mechanical properties of reduced graphene oxide/epoxy composites prepared via a facile, scalable and commercially viable method. Electron micrographs of the composites demonstrate that the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is well dispersed throughout the composite. Although no improvements in glass transition temperature, tensile strength and thermal stability in air of the composites were observed, good improvements in thermal conductivity (about 36 %), tensile and storage moduli (more than 13 %) were recorded with the addition of 2 wt% of rGO.

  6. Firearm suppressor having enhanced thermal management for rapid heat dissipation

    DOEpatents

    Moss, William C.; Anderson, Andrew T.

    2014-08-19

    A suppressor is disclosed for use with a weapon having a barrel through which a bullet is fired. The suppressor has an inner portion having a bore extending coaxially therethrough. The inner portion is adapted to be secured to a distal end of the barrel. A plurality of axial flow segments project radially from the inner portion and form axial flow paths through which expanding propellant gasses discharged from the barrel flow through. The axial flow segments have radially extending wall portions that define sections which may be filled with thermally conductive material, which in one example is a thermally conductive foam. The conductive foam helps to dissipate heat deposited within the suppressor during firing of the weapon.

  7. Wettability of biomimetic thermally grown aluminum oxide coatings.

    PubMed

    Samad, Jadid E; Nychka, John A

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, wettability behavior of a rough but intrinsically hydrophilic oxide ceramic, formed via simple thermal oxidation of a commercial metallic alloy in laboratory air, has been analyzed. Drop shape analysis (DSA) revealed static water contact angles for the rough ceramic surfaces up to 128° (greater than for Teflon™). We propose the high apparent contact angles to be a result of surface roughening via the morphological changes of the oxide scale with oxidation conditions. The surface morphological changes occurring during the growth of the oxide film resulted in the formation of vertical platelets that ably shifted the wetting behavior from a Wenzel to an unstable Cassie-Baxter state. The platelet morphology of the ceramic resembles the structure of epicuticular waxes on certain species of superhydrophobic leaves. Moreover, surface textures for very short oxidation times were also found to increase hydrophilicity in the scale and reduce the contact angle by imparting a Wenzel state. Various characterization techniques (XRD, XPS, and SEM) were performed in order to detect the crystallographic phases in the scales, analyze carbon content and determine the morphology of the oxide layer. Morphological features of the oxide platelets were quantified and platelet width, spacing and height were found to correlate well with the apparent contact angle trend as a function of oxidation time.

  8. Rapid thermal co-annihilation through bound states in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seyong; Laine, M.

    2016-07-01

    The co-annihilation rate of heavy particles close to thermal equilibrium, which plays a role in many classic dark matter scenarios, can be "simulated" in QCD by considering the pair annihilation rate of a heavy quark and antiquark at a temperature of a few hundred MeV. We show that the so-called Sommerfeld factors, parameterizing the rate, can be defined and measured non-perturbatively within the NRQCD framework. Lattice measurements indicate a modest suppression in the octet channel, in reasonable agreement with perturbation theory, and a large enhancement in the singlet channel, much above the perturbative prediction. The additional enhancement is suggested to originate from bound state formation and subsequent decay. Making use of a Green's function based method to incorporate thermal corrections in perturbative co-annihilation rate computations, we show that qualitative agreement with lattice data can be found once thermally broadened bound states are accounted for. We suggest that our formalism may also be applicable to specific dark matter models which have complicated bound state structures.

  9. Optimizing thermally grown oxide for thermal barrier coatings on TiAl components via fluorine treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchev, A.; Braun, R.; Schütze, M.

    2010-01-01

    Titanium aluminides suffer from non-protective mixed-oxide scale formation during high-temperature exposure in oxidizing environments, so that they cannot be used at temperatures above approximately 800° C for longer times without additional treatment. A fluorine treatment on γ-TiAl alloys leads to the formation of a pure protective alumina scale and allows their use at service temperatures above 800°C. This thermally grown aluminum oxide layer can be used for bonding ceramic thermal barrier coatings to the TiAl substrate. Zirconia topcoats deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition were very adherent to F-treated TiA samples during cyclic oxidation tests at 900 to 1,000°C. A separate bond coat is not needed in this case.

  10. Ultrasonic characterization of thermally grown oxide in thermal barrier coating by reflection coefficient amplitude spectrum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Zhao, Yang; Luo, Zhongbing; Lin, Li

    2014-04-01

    The thermally grown oxide (TGO) growth at the interface of ceramic coating/bond coating in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was evaluated by ultrasonic reflection coefficient amplitude spectrum (URCAS). A theoretical analysis was performed about the influence of acoustic impedance match relationship between the ceramic coating and its adjacent media on URCAS. The immersion ultrasonic narrow pulse echo method was carried out on the TBC specimen before and after oxidation under 1050°C×1h for 15cycles. The resonant peaks of URCAS obtained before and after oxidation showed that TGO which generated between the ceramic coating and bond coating due to the oxidation, changed the acoustic impedance match between the ceramic coating and its adjacent media. This method is able to nondestructively characterize the generation of TGO in TBCs, and is important to practical engineering application.

  11. Crystallization of sputtered lead zirconate titanate films by rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasant Kumar, C. V. R.; Pascual, R.; Sayer, M.

    1992-01-01

    A rapid thermal annealing (RTA) technique has been employed to process lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering. The films were fabricated by dc sputtering a multielement metal target in an oxygen ambient at a substrate temperature of 200 °C. A subsequent postdeposition RTA at 600 °C for 5 s crystallizes the films into a perovskite-type structure through various intermediate phases. Due to the short postdeposition processing times inherent in the RTA method, the initial nature of the as-grown films has a critical influence on the crystallization kinetics. The reaction sequence in the formation of perovskite PZT from the films deposited at low substrate temperatures by the sputtering technique has been evaluated, and various key factors influencing the crystallization of PZT have been identified. As-grown films are constituted of polycrystalline orthorhombic lead oxide in an amorphous matrix of titania and zirconia. During annealing lead oxide transforms into a cubic phase, and the lead oxide stoichiometry determines the processing route to PZT. In the case of lead-rich films, intermediate compounds of lead with titania and zirconia are observed, which react during the final stage of annealing at 600 °C to form PZT. In lead-deficient films, the formation of a pyrochlore phase has been observed, which crystallizes into perovskite at 750 °C. The Zr/Ti ratio also influences the crystallization sequence. In the case of Ti-rich PZT, the intermediate compounds initially involve a zirconium-rich rhombohedral PZT, with which residual titanium reacts to form tetragonal PZT. The films showed good ferroelectric and other electrical properties with a remanent polarization of 24 μC/cm2, coercive field of 32 kV/cm, ɛ'=950, tan δ=0.02, and σdc (300 K)=10-12 Ω-1 cm-1 with an activation energy between 0.9 and 1.4 eV.

  12. Thermal imaging of solid oxide fuel cell anode processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomfret, Michael B.; Steinhurst, Daniel A.; Kidwell, David A.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.

    A Si-charge-coupled device (CCD), camera-based, near-infrared imaging system is demonstrated on Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) fragments and the anodes of working solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). NiO reduction to Ni by H 2 and carbon deposition lead to the fragment cooling by 5 ± 2 °C and 16 ± 1 °C, respectively. When air is flowed over the fragments, the temperature rises 24 ± 1 °C as carbon and Ni are oxidized. In an operational SOFC, the decrease in temperature with carbon deposition is only 4.0 ± 0.1 °C as the process is moderated by the presence of oxides and water. Electrochemical oxidation of carbon deposits results in a Δ T of +2.2 ± 0.2 °C, demonstrating that electrochemical oxidation is less vigorous than atmospheric oxidation. While the high temperatures of SOFCs are challenging in many respects, they facilitate thermal imaging because their emission overlaps the spectral response of inexpensive Si-CCD cameras. Using Si-CCD cameras has advantages in terms of cost, resolution, and convenience compared to mid-infrared thermal cameras. High spatial (∼0.1 mm) and temperature (∼0.1 °C) resolutions are achieved in this system. This approach provides a convenient and effective analytical technique for investigating the effects of anode chemistry in operating SOFCs.

  13. Oxidation of sulfides and rapid weathering in recent landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emberson, Robert; Hovius, Niels; Galy, Albert; Marc, Odin

    2016-09-01

    Linking together the processes of rapid physical erosion and the resultant chemical dissolution of rock is a crucial step in building an overall deterministic understanding of weathering in mountain belts. Landslides, which are the most volumetrically important geomorphic process at these high rates of erosion, can generate extremely high rates of very localised weathering. To elucidate how this process works we have taken advantage of uniquely intense landsliding, resulting from Typhoon Morakot, in the T'aimali River and surrounds in southern Taiwan. Combining detailed analysis of landslide seepage chemistry with estimates of catchment-by-catchment landslide volumes, we demonstrate that in this setting the primary role of landslides is to introduce fresh, highly labile mineral phases into the surface weathering environment. There, rapid weathering is driven by the oxidation of pyrite and the resultant sulfuric-acid-driven dissolution of primarily carbonate rock. The total dissolved load correlates well with dissolved sulfate - the chief product of this style of weathering - in both landslides and streams draining the area (R2 = 0.841 and 0.929 respectively; p < 0.001 in both cases), with solute chemistry in seepage from landslides and catchments affected by significant landsliding governed by the same weathering reactions. The predominance of coupled carbonate-sulfuric-acid-driven weathering is the key difference between these sites and previously studied landslides in New Zealand (Emberson et al., 2016), but in both settings increasing volumes of landslides drive greater overall solute concentrations in streams. Bedrock landslides, by excavating deep below saprolite-rock interfaces, create conditions for weathering in which all mineral phases in a lithology are initially unweathered within landslide deposits. As a result, the most labile phases dominate the weathering immediately after mobilisation and during a transient period of depletion. This mode of

  14. Micro solid oxide fuel cell fabricated on porous stainless steel: a new strategy for enhanced thermal cycling ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kun Joong; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sun Jae; Lee, Younki; Bae, Hongyeul; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-03-01

    Miniaturized solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) are being extensively studied as a promising alternative to Li batteries for next generation portable power. A new micro-SOFC is designed and fabricated which shows enhanced thermal robustness by employing oxide-based thin-film electrode and porous stainless steel (STS) substrate. To deposit gas-tight thin-film electrolyte on STS, nano-porous composite oxide is proposed and applied as a new contact layer on STS. The micro-SOFC fabricated on composite oxide- STS dual layer substrate shows the peak power density of 560 mW cm‑2 at 550 °C and maintains this power density during rapid thermal cycles. This cell may be suitable for portable electronic device that requires high power-density and fast thermal cycling.

  15. Micro solid oxide fuel cell fabricated on porous stainless steel: a new strategy for enhanced thermal cycling ability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Joong; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sun Jae; Lee, Younki; Bae, Hongyeul; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-01-01

    Miniaturized solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) are being extensively studied as a promising alternative to Li batteries for next generation portable power. A new micro-SOFC is designed and fabricated which shows enhanced thermal robustness by employing oxide-based thin-film electrode and porous stainless steel (STS) substrate. To deposit gas-tight thin-film electrolyte on STS, nano-porous composite oxide is proposed and applied as a new contact layer on STS. The micro-SOFC fabricated on composite oxide- STS dual layer substrate shows the peak power density of 560 mW cm−2 at 550 °C and maintains this power density during rapid thermal cycles. This cell may be suitable for portable electronic device that requires high power-density and fast thermal cycling. PMID:26928921

  16. Micro solid oxide fuel cell fabricated on porous stainless steel: a new strategy for enhanced thermal cycling ability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kun Joong; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sun Jae; Lee, Younki; Bae, Hongyeul; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-03-01

    Miniaturized solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) are being extensively studied as a promising alternative to Li batteries for next generation portable power. A new micro-SOFC is designed and fabricated which shows enhanced thermal robustness by employing oxide-based thin-film electrode and porous stainless steel (STS) substrate. To deposit gas-tight thin-film electrolyte on STS, nano-porous composite oxide is proposed and applied as a new contact layer on STS. The micro-SOFC fabricated on composite oxide- STS dual layer substrate shows the peak power density of 560 mW cm(-2) at 550 °C and maintains this power density during rapid thermal cycles. This cell may be suitable for portable electronic device that requires high power-density and fast thermal cycling.

  17. Sea buckthorn seed oil protects against the oxidative stress produced by thermally oxidized lipids.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Sana

    2015-11-01

    Thermally oxidized vegetable ghee was fed to the rabbits for 14 days with specific doses of sea buckthorn seed oil (SO). The ghee and SO were characterized for quality parameters and fatty acid composition using GC-MS. Rabbits serum lipid profile, hematology and histology were investigated. Major fatty acids were palmitic acid (44%) and oleic acid (46%) in ghee, while SO contains oleic acid (56.4%) and linoleic acid (18.7%). Results showed that oxidized vegetable ghee increases the serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and decrease the serum glucose. Oxidized ghee produced toxic effects in the liver and hematological parameters. Sea buckthorn oil supplementation significantly lowered the serum LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and increased serum glucose and body weight of the animals. Sea buckthorn oil was found to reduce the toxic effects and degenerative changes in the liver and thus provides protection against the thermally oxidized lipids induced oxidative stress.

  18. Nonperturbative production of matter and rapid thermalization after MSSM inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Ferrantelli, Andrea; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2011-06-01

    A gauge invariant combination of LLe sleptons within the minimal supersymmetric standard model is one of the few inflaton candidates that can naturally explain population of the observable sector and creation of matter after inflation. After the end of inflation, the inflaton oscillates coherently about the minimum of its potential, which is a point of enhanced gauged symmetry. This results in bursts of nonperturbative production of the gauge/gaugino and (s)lepton quanta. The subsequent decay of these quanta is very fast and leads to an extremely efficient transfer of the inflaton energy to (s)quarks via instant preheating. Around 20% of the inflaton energy density is drained during every inflaton oscillation. However, all of the standard model degrees of freedom (and their supersymmetric partners) do not thermalize immediately, since the large inflaton vacuum expectation value breaks the electroweak symmetry. After about 100 oscillations—albeit within one Hubble time—the amplitude of inflaton oscillations becomes sufficiently small, and all of the degrees of freedom will thermalize. This provides by far the most efficient reheating of the universe with the observed degrees of freedom.

  19. Anisotropic turbulent thermal diffusion and thermal convection in a rapidly rotating fluid sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivers, D. J.; Phillips, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of the molecular values of magnetic, viscous and thermal diffusion suggest that the state of the Earth's core is turbulent and that complete numerical simulation of the geodynamo is not realizable at present. Large eddy simulation of the geodynamo with modelling of the sub-grid scale turbulence must be used. Current geodynamo models effectively model the sub-grid scale turbulence with isotropic diffusivities larger than the molecular values appropriate for the core. In the Braginsky and Meytlis (1990) picture of core turbulence the thermal and viscous diffusivities are enhanced up to the molecular magnetic diffusivity in the directions of the rotation axis and mean magnetic field. We neglect the mean magnetic field herein to isolate the effects of anisotropic thermal diffusion, enhanced or diminished along the rotation axis, and explore the instability of a steady conductive basic state with zero mean flow in the Boussinesq approximation. This state is found to be more stable (less stable) as the thermal diffusion parallel to the rotation axis is increased (decreased), if the transverse thermal diffusion is fixed. To examine the effect of simultaneously varying the diffusion along and transverse to the rotation axis, the Frobenius norm is used to control for the total thermal diffusion. When the Frobenius norm of the thermal diffusion tensor is fixed, it is found that increasing the thermal diffusion parallel to the rotation axis is destabilising. This result suggests that, for a fixed total thermal diffusion, geodynamo codes with anisotropic thermal diffusion may operate at lower modified Rayleigh numbers.

  20. Thermal effects in rapid directional solidification - Linear theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntley, D. A.; Davis, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    We study the morphological instability of the planar solid/liquid interface for a unidirectionally-solidified dilute binary mixture. We use a model developed by Boettinger et al. (1985, 1986), Aziz (1982), and Jackson et al. (1980), which allows for nonequilibrium effects on the interface through velocity-dependent segregation and attachment kinetics. Two types of instabilities are found in the linear stability analysis: (1) a cellular instability, and (2) an oscillatory instability driven by disequilibrium effects. Merchant and Davis (1990) characterized these instabilities subject to the frozen-temperature approximation (FTA). The present work relaxes the FTA by including the effects of latent heat and the full temperature distribution. Thermal effects slightly postpone the onset of the cellular instability but dramatically postpone the onset of the oscillatory instability; however, the absolute-stability conditions, at which at high speed the cellular and oscillatory instabilities are suppressed, remain unchanged from the FTA.

  1. Thermal oxidation of Ge-implanted Si: Role of defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedyulin, S. N.; Goncharova, L. V.

    2012-02-01

    Thermal oxidation of Ge-implanted Si (SiGe) was carried out in dry O at 1073, 1173, and 1273 K for various times. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in random and channeling geometry was used to characterize the SiO thickness and composition of the Si (dry oxidation) [3,4,8,9,13-17] or by bubbling N/O through HO (wet oxidation) [5-7,9-12,18]. In these studies SiGe thin films were obtained by different growth techniques such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [4-6,19,12], molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) [7,8,14,19,21-23], physical evaporation [3,18] as well as Ge ion implantation in Si [9-11,13,15-17]. Despite the great differences in the preparation of SiGe samples and oxidation procedures, the main features of SiGe thermal oxidation may be summarized by the following: Pure SiO was formed during oxidation: Ge atoms that were rejected from the growing silicon oxide piled up at the interface. This was observed in all cases, unless the temperature was low enough (⩽973 K)[24], or the oxidation pressure was high [6,19], or the Ge concentration, x, in the alloy satisfied x⩾0.5[7,8], or the oxidation time was very short [22,23]. All these conditions prevent Ge diffusion away from the reacting interface. The oxidation rate of SiGe in a wet atmosphere was enhanced in comparison to pure Si [4,5,9-12,18,25], while there was no enhancement in the dry O[9,16,22,25] (unless the sample was first pre-enriched with Ge to form approximately one monolayer of Ge at the interface [9]). Oxidation rate enhancement occurs during an initial linear regime of oxide growth [10]. SiGe oxidation rate enhancement has been explained by: (i) the weaker Si-Ge bond [11], (ii) Ge catalytic role for oxidation reaction [12], and (iii) changes in defect generation at the reacting interface [12]. It was shown for Ge ion implanted samples that the Deal and Grove model (DG model) for Si oxidation can still be applied with the linear B/ A constant modified to take into account enhanced oxidation

  2. Ultrasound assisted, thermally activated persulfate oxidation of coal tar DNAPLs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Libin; Wang, Li; Hu, Xingting; Wu, Peihui; Wang, Xueqing; Huang, Chumei; Wang, Xiangyang; Deng, Dayi

    2016-11-15

    The feasibility of ultrasound assisted, thermally activated persulfate for effective oxidation of twenty 2-6 ringed coal tar PAHs in a biphasic tar/water system and a triphasic tar/soil/water system were investigated and established. The results indicate that ultrasonic assistance, persulfate and elevated reaction temperature are all required to achieve effective oxidation of coal tar PAHs, while the heating needed can be provided by ultrasonic induced heating as well. Further kinetic analysis reveals that the oxidation of individual PAH in the biphasic tar/water system follows the first-order kinetics, and individual PAH oxidation rate is primary determined by the mass transfer coefficients, tar/water interfacial areas, the aqueous solubility of individual PAH and its concentration in coal tar. Based on the kinetic analysis and experimental results, the contributions of ultrasound, persulfate and elevated reaction temperature to PAHs oxidation were characterized, and the effects of ultrasonic intensity and oxidant dosage on PAHs oxidation efficiency were investigated. In addition, the results indicate that individual PAH degradability is closely related to its reactivity as well, and the high reactivity of 4-6 ringed PAHs substantially improves their degradability.

  3. Viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity of aluminum oxide and zinc oxide nanolubricants.

    PubMed

    Kedzierski, M A; Brignoli, R; Quine, K T; Brown, J S

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents liquid kinematic viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity measurements of eleven different synthetic polyolester-based nanoparticle nanolubricants (dispersions) at atmospheric pressure over the temperature range 288 K to 318 K. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with nominal diameters of 127 nm and 135 nm, respectively, were investigated. A good dispersion of the spherical and non-spherical nanoparticles in the lubricant was maintained with a surfactant. Viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity measurements were made for the neat lubricant along with eleven nanolubricants with differing nanoparticle and surfactant mass fractions. Existing models were used to predict kinematic viscosity (±20%), thermal conductivity (±1%), and specific volume (±6%) of the nanolubricant as a function of temperature, nanoparticle mass fraction, surfactant mass fraction, and nanoparticle diameter. The liquid viscosity, density and thermal conductivity were shown to increase with respect to increasing nanoparticle mass fraction.

  4. Nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria as microbial oxidants for rapid biological sulfide removal.

    PubMed

    De Gusseme, Bart; De Schryver, Peter; De Cooman, Michaël; Verbeken, Kim; Boeckx, Pascal; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2009-01-01

    The emission of hydrogen sulfide into the atmosphere of sewer systems induces the biological production of sulfuric acid, causing severe concrete corrosion. As a possible preventive solution, a microbial consortium of nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) was enriched in a continuously stirred tank reactor in order to develop a biological technique for the removal of dissolved sulfide. The consortium, dominated by Arcobacter sp., was capable of removing 99% of sulfide. Stable isotope fractioning of the sulfide indicated that the oxidation was a biological process. The capacity of the NR-SOB consortium for rapid removal of sulfide was demonstrated by using it as an inoculum in synthetic and real sewage. Removal rates up to 52 mg sulfide-S g VSS(-1) h(-1) were achieved, to our knowledge the highest removal rate reported so far for freshwater species in the absence of molecular oxygen. Further long-term incubation experiments revealed the capacity of the bacteria to oxidize sulfide without the presence of nitrate, suggesting that an oxidized redox reserve is present in the culture.

  5. Regenerative thermal oxidation for non-conventional applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gosselin, G.; Gravel, J.J.O.

    1999-07-01

    Regenerative Thermal Oxidation has been applied by Biothermica to treat non-conventional emissions. These emissions include pollutants as VOC, COC, TRS, PAH, PCB, HCl and odors. In the kraft pulping industry, environmental requirements for reduced emissions of total reduced sulfur (TRS) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) from pulping operations are leading to incinerators of high destruction efficiency and thermal performance. The first installation in Canada of a Regenerative Thermal Oxidation (RTO) was placed in service early in 1997 at a kraft pulp mill in the province of Quebec. Tests have shown a TRS reduction of 99.6% with a thermal efficiency of 88.5% in the RTO. It can be considered the best method to comply with the new norms for TRS atmospheric emissions in the pulp and paper industry. In the primary aluminum process, a marked improvement in anode properties can be gained by preparing the paste at high temperature, followed by cooling with a water addition in an intensive mixer. However, the addition of cooling water results in a large increase in the emissions of VOC and PAH which can prejudice the process. A number of emission control processes were evaluated. An improved Regenerative Thermal Oxidation (RTO) unit was installed in a modern aluminum plant in Canada. The emissions of VOCs and PAHs from an EIRICH intensive mixer-cooler were reduced by more than 99.9% while all troublesome deposits in the fumes collection system were eliminated. This enabled the plant to remain well within the emission levels allowed by the environmental authority while enjoying considerable benefits from improved anode qualities. In the asphalt roofing industry, RTO was applied to treat the VOC and COC emissions and several units have been in operation since 1990. In the United States two units were installed in asphalt shingle plants and new features in the process show a VOC and COC reduction of 99%.

  6. Rapid thermal processing of high-efficiency silicon solar cells with controlled in-situ annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Doshi, P.; Rohatgi, A.; Ropp, M.; Chen, Z.; Ruby, D.; Meier, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 17.1%, 16.4%, 14.8%, and 14.9% have been achieved on FZ, Cz, multicrystalline (mc-Si), and dendritic web (DW) silicon, respectively, using simplified, cost-effective rapid thermal processing (RTP). These represent the highest reported efficiencies for solar cells processed with simultaneous front and back diffusion with no conventional high-temperature furnace steps. Appropriate diffusion temperature coupled with the added in-situ anneal resulted in suitable minority-carrier lifetime and diffusion profiles for high-efficiency cells. The cooling rate associated with the in-situ anneal can improve the lifetime and lower the reverse saturation current density (J{sub 0}), however, this effect is material and base resistivity specific. PECVD antireflection (AR) coatings provided low reflectance and efficient front surface and bulk defect passivation. Conventional cells fabricated on FZ silicon by furnace diffusions and oxidations gave an efficiency of 18.8% due to greater short wavelength response and lower J{sub 0}.

  7. Rapid hydrogen gas generation using reactive thermal decomposition of uranium hydride.

    SciTech Connect

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Van Blarigan, Peter; Robinson, David B.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Buffleben, George M.; James, Scott Carlton; Mills, Bernice E.

    2011-09-01

    Oxygen gas injection has been studied as one method for rapidly generating hydrogen gas from a uranium hydride storage system. Small scale reactors, 2.9 g UH{sub 3}, were used to study the process experimentally. Complimentary numerical simulations were used to better characterize and understand the strongly coupled chemical and thermal transport processes controlling hydrogen gas liberation. The results indicate that UH{sub 3} and O{sub 2} are sufficiently reactive to enable a well designed system to release gram quantities of hydrogen in {approx} 2 seconds over a broad temperature range. The major system-design challenge appears to be heat management. In addition to the oxidation tests, H/D isotope exchange experiments were performed. The rate limiting step in the overall gas-to-particle exchange process was found to be hydrogen diffusion in the {approx}0.5 {mu}m hydride particles. The experiments generated a set of high quality experimental data; from which effective intra-particle diffusion coefficients can be inferred.

  8. Lock-in thermography as a rapid and reproducible thermal characterization method for magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemal, Philipp; Geers, Christoph; Monnier, Christophe A.; Crippa, Federica; Daum, Leopold; Urban, Dominic A.; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Bonmarin, Mathias; Petri-Fink, Alke; Moore, Thomas L.

    2017-04-01

    Lock-in thermography (LIT) is a sensitive imaging technique generally used in engineering and materials science (e.g. detecting defects in composite materials). However, it has recently been expanded for investigating the heating power of nanomaterials, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Here we implement LIT as a rapid and reproducible method that can evaluate the heating potential of various sizes of SPIONs under an alternating magnetic field (AMF), as well as the limits of detection for each particle size. SPIONs were synthesized via thermal decomposition and stabilized in water via a ligand transfer process. Thermographic measurements of SPIONs were made by stimulating particles of varying sizes and increasing concentrations under an AMF. Furthermore, a commercially available SPION sample was included as an external reference. While the size dependent heating efficiency of SPIONs has been previously described, our objective was to probe the sensitivity limits of LIT. For certain size regimes it was possible to detect signals at concentrations as low as 0.1 mg Fe/mL. Measuring at different concentrations enabled a linear regression analysis and extrapolation of the limit of detection for different size nanoparticles.

  9. New perspectives on thermal and hyperthermal oxidation of silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalilov, Umedjon

    The growth of (ultra)thin silica (SiO2) layers on crystalline silicon (c-Si) and controlling the thickness of SiO2 is an important issue in the fabrication of microelectronics and photovoltaic devices (e.g., MOSFETs, solar cells, optical fibers etc.). Such ultrathin oxide can be grown and tuned even at low temperature (including room temperature), by hyperthermal oxidation or when performed on non-planar Si surfaces (e.g., Si nanowires or spheres). However, hyperthermal silica growth as well as small Si-NW oxidation in general and the initial stages in particular have not yet been investigated in full detail. This work is therefore devoted to controlling ultrathin silica thickness on planar and non-planar Si surfaces, which can open new perspectives in nanodevice fabrication. The simulation of hyperthermal (1-100 eV) Si oxidation demonstrate that at low impact energy (<10 eV), oxygen does not damage the Si surface and this energy region could thus beneficially be used for Si oxidation. In contrast to thermal oxidation, 10 eV species can directly oxidize Si subsurface layers. A transition temperature of about 700 K was found: below this temperature, the oxide thickness only depends on the impact energy of the impinging species. Above this temperature, the oxide thickness depends on the impact energy, type of oxidant and the surface temperature. The results show that control over the ultrathin oxide (a-SiO2) thickness is possible by hyperthermal oxidation of silicon surfaces at temperatures below the transition temperature. In small Si-NWs, oxidation is a self-limiting process that occurs at low temperature, resulting in small Si core - SiO2 shell (semiconductor + dielectric) or c-Si|SiOx| a-SiO2 nanowire, which has also being envisaged to be used as nanowire field-effect transistors and photovoltaic devices in near-future nanotechnology. Above the transition temperature such core-shell nanowires are completely converted to a-SiO2 nanowires. It can be concluded that

  10. Formation of VO{sub 2} by rapid thermal annealing and cooling of sputtered vanadium thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ba, Cheikhou O. F. Fortin, Vincent; Bah, Souleymane T.; Vallée, Réal; Pandurang, Ashrit

    2016-05-15

    Sputtered vanadium-rich films were subjected to rapid thermal annealing-cooling (RTAC) in air to produce vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) thin films with thermochromic switching behavior. High heating and cooling rates in the thermal oxidation process provided an increased ability to control the film's microstructure. X-ray diffraction patterns of the films revealed less intense VO{sub 2} peaks compared to traditional polycrystalline samples fabricated with a standard (slower) cooling time. Such films also exhibit a high optical switching reflectance contrast, unlike the traditional polycrystalline VO{sub 2} thin films, which show a more pronounced transmittance switching. The authors find that the RTAC process stabilizes the VO{sub 2} (M2) metastable phase, enabling a rutile-semiconductor phase transition (R-M2), followed by a semiconductor–semiconductor phase transition (M2-M1).

  11. Thermal fatigue and oxidation data for alloy/braze combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, V. L.; Humphreys, V. E.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal fatigue and oxidation data were obtained for 62 brazed specimens of 3 iron-, 3 nickel-, and 1 cobalt-base alloy. Fluidized bed thermal cycling was conducted over the range 740/25 C employing 10 cm long single-edge wedge specimens. Immersion time was always 4 minutes in each bed. Types of test specimens employed in the program include those with brazed overlays on the specimen radius, those butt brazed at midspan and those with a brazed foil overlay on the specimen radius. Of the 18 braze overlay specimens, 5 generated fatigue cracks by 7000 cycles. Thermal cracking of butt brazed specimens occurred exclusively through the butt braze. Of the 23 butt brazed specimens, 7 survived 11,000 thermal cycles without cracking. Only 2 of the 21 foil overlaid specimens exhibiting cracking in 7,000 cycles. Blistering of the foil did occur for 2 alloys by 500 cycles. Oxidation of the alloy/braze combination was limited at the test maximum test temperature of 740 C.

  12. Enhanced Formation of Si Nanocrystals in SiO2 by Light-Filtering Rapid Thermal Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaobo; Chen, Guangping

    2015-04-01

    In this work, silicon-rich oxide (SRO) films with designed thickness of 100 nm were deposited by a bipolar pulse and radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering. For comparison, the samples were then treated in a nitrogen atmosphere by conventional rapid thermal annealing (CRTA) or light-filtering rapid thermal annealing (LRTA) at 900-1100°C for 2 min. Raman spectra, grazing incident X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Hall measurements, and current density-voltage measurements were carried out to analyze the microstructural and electrical properties of samples. Compared with the control sample using CRTA method, the crystalline volume fraction and number density of Si nanocrystals (SiNCs) in silicon oxide prepared by LRTA were greatly increased. The quantum effects of the short wave-length light (less than 800 nm) of these tungsten halogen lamps during the rapid thermal annealing process have negative effects on the formation of SiNCs in SiO2 films. SiNCs with crystal volume fraction of 73%, average size of 2.53 nm, and number density of 1.1 × 1012 cm-2 embedded in the amorphous SiO2 matrix can be formed by LRTA at 1100°C. Enhancement of more than one order of magnitude in conductivity and higher current density were obtained from the LRTA annealed sample compared to the CRTA annealed sample. The improvements in conductivity and current density were attributed to the high density SiNCs. Our results show that the LRTA method is a suitable annealing tool for the formation of SiNC in thin SiOx films.

  13. Dumping pump and treat: rapid cleanups using thermal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R.L.; Aines, R.D.

    1997-03-11

    Underground spills of volatile hydrocarbons are often difficult to clean up, especially if the contaminants are present in or below the water table as a separate liquid-organic phase. Excavating and treating the contaminated soil may not be practical or even possible if the affected zone is relatively deep. Merely pumping groundwater has proven to be ineffective because huge amounts of water must be flushed through the contaminated area to clean it; even then the contaminants may not be completely removed. Due to the low solubility of most common contaminants, such pump and treat systems can be expected to take decades to centuries to actually clean a site. Today, many sites are required to pump and treat contaminated groundwater even though there is no expectation that the site will be cleaned. In these cases, the pumps simply control the spread of the contaminant, while requiring a continuous flow of money, paperwork, and management attention. Although pump and treat systems are relatively inexpensive to operate, they represent along term cost. Most importantly, they rarely remove enough contaminant to change the property`s status. Although a pump and treat system can offer compliance in a regulatory sense, it doesn`t solve the site`s liability problem. Thermal methods promise to solve this dilemma by actually cleaning a property in a short time period, thus limiting the period of liability. This may involve cleaning a site to closure during the initial contaminant-removal phase, or removal of the majority of the contaminant so that natural processes such as bioremediation can return the site to pristine condition over a period of years, without further owner intervention. Today`s regulatory environment encourages this approach through efforts such as the brownfields initiatives. In either case, this requires a strong commitment on the part of the site owner. Most if not all the cleanup occurs within the first year or so, and nearly all the cost. In our

  14. Rapid thermal processing in the manufacturing technology of contacts to InP-based photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Avishay

    1991-04-01

    Rapid thermal alloying and sintering of metal ohmic contacts such as AuBe PtTFi and W to InP-based materials is shown to perform with better electrical properties than the same contacts heated by means of conventional furnace. The metalsemiconductor interfacial reactions induced by the rapid thermal processing were much shallower than those formed during the conventional heating cycle at the same temperature however with a negligible influence on the overall stresses developed in the film. These results demonstrate the superiority of the rapid thermal processing over the conventional furnace heating in sintering the metal electrical contacts and its potential while integrated into the overall manufacturing process sequence of the InP based photonic devices.

  15. Graphene oxide immobilized enzymes show high thermal and solvent stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanová, Soňa; Zarevúcká, Marie; Bouša, Daniel; Pumera, Martin; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2015-03-01

    The thermal and solvent tolerance of enzymes is highly important for their industrial use. We show here that the enzyme lipase from Rhizopus oryzae exhibits exceptionally high thermal stability and high solvent tolerance and even increased activity in acetone when immobilized onto a graphene oxide (GO) nanosupport prepared by Staudenmaier and Brodie methods. We studied various forms of immobilization of the enzyme: by physical adsorption, covalent attachment, and additional crosslinking. The activity recovery was shown to be dependent on the support type, enzyme loading and immobilization procedure. Covalently immobilized lipase showed significantly better resistance to heat inactivation (the activity recovery was 65% at 70 °C) in comparison with the soluble counterpart (the activity recovery was 65% at 40 °C). Physically adsorbed lipase achieved over 100% of the initial activity in a series of organic solvents. These findings, showing enhanced thermal stability and solvent tolerance of graphene oxide immobilized enzyme, will have a profound impact on practical industrial scale uses of enzymes for the conversion of lipids into fuels.The thermal and solvent tolerance of enzymes is highly important for their industrial use. We show here that the enzyme lipase from Rhizopus oryzae exhibits exceptionally high thermal stability and high solvent tolerance and even increased activity in acetone when immobilized onto a graphene oxide (GO) nanosupport prepared by Staudenmaier and Brodie methods. We studied various forms of immobilization of the enzyme: by physical adsorption, covalent attachment, and additional crosslinking. The activity recovery was shown to be dependent on the support type, enzyme loading and immobilization procedure. Covalently immobilized lipase showed significantly better resistance to heat inactivation (the activity recovery was 65% at 70 °C) in comparison with the soluble counterpart (the activity recovery was 65% at 40 °C). Physically adsorbed

  16. Hyper-Rapid thermal defect annealing during grinding of ZnO powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakazey, M. G.; Vlasova, M.; Dominguez-Patino, M.; Dominguez-Patino, G.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, G.; Salazar-Hernandez, B.

    2002-11-01

    We report on the changes in the defect structure of ZnO particles that take place during the grinding of pure ZnO powders and mixtures ZnO-SnO2 and ZnO-TiO2 powders. The qualitative differences in the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra for different specimens were discussed in the context of the hyper-rapid high-temperature spikes created in ZnO particles during mechanical treatment. The thermal spikes cause the defect structure to undergo annealing. The spike duration of the hyper-rapid thermal defects annealing was dependent on the heat conductivity of the ZnO particle environment.

  17. Rapid PCR protocols for forensic DNA typing on six thermal cycling platforms.

    PubMed

    Butts, Erica L R; Vallone, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    Rapid PCR protocols for the amplification of typing STR multiplexes were evaluated on six different thermal cyclers. Through the use of a faster DNA polymerase coupled with the use of rapid thermal cyclers the amplification cycling times were reduced down to as little as 14 min using PCR primers from the commercially available multiplex STR typing kit Identifiler. Previously described two-step and three-step thermal cycling protocols were evaluated for the six thermal cyclers on 95 unique single-source DNA extracts. CE characterization of the PCR products indicates good peak balance between loci (median values greater than 0.84), and N minus four stutter ratios on averages were 30 to 40% higher than for standard Identifiler PCR conditions. Nonspecific amplification artifacts were observed, but were not observed to migrate within the allele calling bins. With the exception of one locus (D18S51) in a single sample, genotyping results were concordant with manufacturer's recommended amplification conditions utilizing standard thermal cycling procedures. Assay conditions were robust enough to routinely amplify 250 to 500 pg of template DNA. This work describes the protocols for the rapid PCR amplification of STR multiplexes on various PCR thermal cyclers with the future intent to support validation for typing single-source samples in a database laboratory.

  18. Oxidation of multiple methionine residues impairs rapid sodium channel inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kassmann, Mario; Hansel, Alfred; Leipold, Enrico; Birkenbeil, Jan; Lu, Song-Qing; Hoshi, Toshinori; Heinemann, Stefan H.

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) readily oxidize the sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine (Met). The impact of Met oxidation on the fast inactivation of the skeletal muscle sodium channel NaV1.4 expressed in human embryonic kidney cells was studied by applying the Met-preferring oxidant chloramine-T (ChT) or by irradiating the ROS-producing dye Lucifer Yellow in the patch pipettes. Both interventions dramatically slowed down inactivation of the sodium channels. Replacement of Met in the Ile-Phe-Met inactivation motif with Leu (M1305L) strongly attenuated the oxidizing effect on inactivation but did not eliminate it completely. Mutagenesis of conserved Met residues in the intracellular linkers connecting the membrane-spanning segments of the channel (M1469L and M1470L) also markedly diminished the oxidation sensitivity of the channel, while that of other conserved Met residues (442, 1139, 1154, 1316) were without any noticeable effect. The results of mutagenesis of results, assays of other NaV channel isoforms (NaV1.2, NaV1.5, NaV1.7) and the kinetics of the oxidation-induced removal of inactivation collectively indicate that multiple Met target residues need to be oxidized to completely impair inactivation. This arrangement using multiple Met residues confers a finely graded oxidative modulation of NaV channels and allows organisms to adapt to a variety of oxidative stress conditions, such as ischemic reperfusion. PMID:18369661

  19. Effect of metal-free porphyrins on the thermal-oxidative breakdown of biocompatible polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarkhina, T. S.; Aksenova, N. A.; Solov'eva, A. B.

    2017-06-01

    The inhibitory effect of metal-free porphyrins on the thermal-oxidative breakdown of several biocompatible polymers is observed for the first time. Differential thermal analysis shows that the thermal stability of poly(ethylene oxide) and triblock copolymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide increases by 80-100 K, compared to the initial breakdown temperatures of these polymers in the presence of metal-free porphyrins (up to 3 wt %).

  20. Rheological characterization of thermal, thermo-oxidative and photo-oxidative degradation of LDPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor Hugo; Wagner, Manfred Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Rheology has been used to study thermal degradation (V. H. Rolón-Garrido et al., Rheol. Acta 50, 519-535, 2011), thermo-oxidative degradation (V. H. Rolón-Garrido et al., Rheol. Acta 50, 519-535, 2011; V. H. Rolón-Garrido et al., J. Rheol. 57, 105-129, 2013) and photo-oxidative degradation (V. H. Rolón-Garrido and M. H. Wagner, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 99, 136-145, 2014; V. H. Rolón-Garrido and M. H. Wagner, J. Rheol. 58, 199-22 2, 2014; V. H. Rolón-Garrido et al., Polym. Degrad. Stab. 111, 46-54, 2015) of low-density polyethylene (LDPE). This contribution presents the analogies and differences between these types of degradations of LDPE on the linear (by use of van-Gurp Palmen plots) and non-linear viscoelastic properties (by use of the parameters of the MSF model, fmax2 and β), as well as on the failure mode of the samples (through the maximum strain and stress achieved experimentally). In contrast to thermal and thermo-oxidative degradation, the linear viscoelastic properties of photo-oxidated samples were more affected by degradation. In the non-linear regime, for thermal and thermo-oxidative treated samples, the elongational measurements elucidated the role of chain scission and long-chain branching (LCB) formation, while for photo-oxidated LDPE even the competition between chain scission, LCB formation, and gel formation was demonstrated. The failure behavior was found to be determined by a constant maximum strain in thermo-oxidative degradation, if the LDPE has high content in branching points, or in photo-oxidative degraded LDPE, if a considerable portion of gel structure is present. Otherwise, either the maximum strain or stress measured was found to be strain-rate dependent.

  1. Degradation of Teflon(tm) FEP Following Charged Particle Radiation and Rapid Thermal Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Jacqueline; Powers, Charles; Viens, Michael; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Munoz, Bruno

    1998-01-01

    During the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) severe degradation was observed on the outer layer of the thermal control blankets. Astronaut observations and photographs revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon(R) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. In an effort to understand what elements of the space environment might cause such damage, pristine Teflon(R) FEP was tested for durability to radiation and thermal cycling. Specimens were subjected to electron and proton fluences comparable to those experienced by HST and were subsequently thermal cycled in a custom-built rapid thermal cycle chamber. Tensile tests of the specimens showed that radiation followed by thermal cycling significantly reduced the ultimate strength and elongation of Teflon(R) FEP.

  2. Degradation of Teflon(trademark) FEP Following Charged Particle Radiation and Rapid Thermal Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Jacqueline; Powers, Charles; Viens, Michael; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Munoz, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    During the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) severe degradation was observed on the outer layer of the thermal control blankets. Astronaut observations and photographs revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon(trademark) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. In an effort to understand what elements of the space environment might cause such damage, pristine Teflon(trademark) FEP was tested for durability to radiation and thermal cycling. Specimens were subjected to electron and proton fluences comparable to those experienced by HST and were subsequently thermal cycled in a custom-built rapid thermal cycle chamber. Tensile tests of the specimens showed that radiation followed by thermal cycling significantly reduced the ultimate strength and elongation of Teflon(trademark) FEP.

  3. Degradation of Teflon(tm) FEP Following Charged Particle Radiation and Rapid Thermal Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Powers, Charles E.; Viens, Michael J.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary T.; Munoz, Bruno F.

    1998-01-01

    During the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) severe degradation was observed on the outer layer of the thermal control blankets. Astronaut observations and photographs revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon' FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. In an effort to understand what elements of the space environment might cause such damage, pristine Teflon(registered trademark) FEP was tested for durability to radiation and thermal cycling. Specimens were subjected to electron and proton fluences comparable to those experienced by HST and were subsequently thermal cycled in a custom-built rapid thermal cycle chamber. Tensile tests of the specimens showed that radiation followed by thermal cycling significantly reduced the ultimate strength and elongation of Teflon(registered trademark) FEP.

  4. Degradation of Teflon(tm) FEP Following Charged Particle Radiation and Rapid Thermal Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Powers, Charles E.; Viens, Michael J.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary T.; Munoz, Bruno

    1998-01-01

    During the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) severe degradation was observed on the outer layer of the thermal control blankets. Astronaut observations and photographs revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. In an effort to understand what elements of the space environment might cause such damage, pristine Teflon' FEP was tested for durability to radiation and thermal cycling. Specimens were subjected to electron and proton fluences comparable to those experienced by HST and were subsequently thermal cycled in a custom-built rapid thermal cycle chamber. Tensile tests of the specimens showed that radiation followed by thermal cycling significantly reduced the ultimate strength and elongation of Teflon FEP.

  5. Comparative thermal fatigue resistance of several oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Bizon, P. T.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal fatigue resistance of several oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys has been evaluated through cyclic exposure in fluidized beds. The ODS nickel-base alloy MA 754 and ODS iron-base alloy MA 956 as well as four experimental ODS Ni-16Cr-4.5Al base alloys with and without Ta additions were examined. Both bare and coated alloys were subjected to up to 6000 cycles where each cycle consisted of a 3 minute immersion in a fluidized bed at 1130 C followed by a 3 minute immersion in a bed at 357 C. Testing revealed that the thermal fatigue resistance of the ODS nickel-base alloys was excellent and about equal to that of directionally solidified superalloys. However, the thermal fatigue resistance of MA 956 was found to be poor. Metallographic examination of tested specimens revealed that, in general, the post-test microstructures can be rationalized on the basis of previous diffusion, mechanical property, and oxidation studies.

  6. Enhanced thermal oxidation stability of reduced graphene oxide by nitrogen doping.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Stefania; Kumar, Nitesh; Sundaresan, A; Rao, C N R; Fuertes, Amparo; Tobias, Gerard

    2014-09-15

    Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-doped RGO) samples with a high level of doping, up to 13 wt. %, have been prepared by annealing graphene oxide under a flow of pure ammonia. The presence of nitrogen within the structure of RGO induces a remarkable increase in the thermal stability against oxidation by air. The thermal stability is closely related with the temperature of synthesis and the nitrogen content. The combustion reaction of nitrogen in different coordination environments (pyridinic, pyrrolic, and graphitic) is analyzed against a graphene fragment (undoped) from a thermodynamic point of view. In agreement with the experimental observations, the combustion of undoped graphene turns out to be more spontaneous than when nitrogen atoms are present.

  7. Mechanical and tribological properties of oxide layers obtained on titanium in the thermal oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniołek, K.; Kupka, M.; Barylski, A.; Dercz, G.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of tests concerning a modification to the surface of titanium Grade 2 in the thermal oxidation process. It describes the oxidation kinetics of the tested material in the temperature range of 600-800 °C, with a duration from 20 min to 72 h. The greatest increase in mass was found in specimens oxidised at a temperature of 800 °C. The morphology of the obtained oxide layers was determined. The particles of oxides formed were noticeably larger after oxidation at a temperature of 600 °C. Raising temperature resulted in the formation of fine compact particles in the oxide layer. A phase analysis of oxidation products showed that TiO2 in the crystallographic form of rutile and Ti3O are the prevalent types of oxide at a temperature of 600 and 700 °C. On the other hand, only rutile formed at a temperature of 800 °C. Tribological tests showed that the presence of an oxide layer on the surface of titanium significantly improved resistance to abrasive wear. It was found that volumetric wear had decreased by 48% for a specimen oxidised at a temperature of 600 °C and by more than 60% for a specimen subjected to isothermal soaking at a temperature of 700 °C.

  8. Surface state of GaN after rapid-thermal-annealing using AlN cap-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zammar, G.; Khalfaoui, W.; Oheix, T.; Yvon, A.; Collard, E.; Cayrel, F.; Alquier, D.

    2015-11-01

    Critical issues need to be overcome to produce high performance Schottky diodes on gallium nitride (GaN). To activate dopant, high temperature thermal treatments are required but damage GaN surface where hexagonal pits appear and prevent any device processing. In this paper, we investigated the efficiency of cap-layers on GaN during thermal treatments to avoid degradation. Aluminum nitride (AlN) and silicon oxide (SiOx) were grown on GaN by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, respectively. AlN growth parameters were studied to understand their effect on the grown layers and their protection efficiency. Focused ion beam was used to measure AlN layer thickness. Crystalline quality and exact composition were verified using X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Two types of rapid thermal annealing at high temperatures were investigated. Surface roughness and pits density were evaluated using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Cap-layers wet etching was processed in H3PO4 at 120 °C for AlN and in HF (10%) for SiOx. This work reveals effective protection of GaN during thermal treatments at temperatures as high as 1150 °C. Low surface roughness was obtained. Furthermore, no hexagonal pit was observed on the surface.

  9. Thermal Stabilization of Polycubes by Air Oxidation Results of Testing Unirradiated Polystyrene

    SciTech Connect

    BARNEY, G.S.

    2000-05-01

    Polystyrene samples were tested to determine if the polycubes stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant could be stabilized safely by a thermal air oxidation process using existing production furnaces. Polycubes are compression-molded mixtures of plutonium oxide and/or uranium oxide in a polystyrene matrix. The irradiated polystyrene that forms the matrix of the polycubes will be high and crosslinked because of radiolysis. The behavior of the crosslinked polystyrene used in most of the tests reported here (polystyrene--8% divinyl benzene) appears to imitate polystyrene crosslinked by radiation. This material is more stable toward pyrolysis, is more reactive with oxygen, and produces more carbonaceous char and less flammable gas during oxidation than non-crosslinked polystyrene. The testing showed that air oxidation of polystyrene begins when it is heated to about 200 C in air. The more highly crosslinked polystyrene is oxidized more complete, and at lower temperatures. Pyrolysis is first observed at about 350 C in air and both oxidation and pyrolysis reactions occur simultaneously until about 420 C is reached, where the remaining carbonaceous chnr begins to oxidize. Oxidation is essentially complete in air at about 550 C. The gases evolved in the early stages of heating are mainly oxidation products (water, carbon dioxide, and benzaldehyde). When pyrolysis begins, a mixture of these oxidation products and hydrocarbon pyrolysis products (styrene, benzene, toluene, and indane) are evolved. The char oxidation step yields only carbon dioxide and water. The overall yields of gas were about 87% by weight oxidation products and 13% pyrolysis products. Concentrations of flammable hydrocarbon pyrolysis gases under normal operating conditions are estimated to be less than 5% of the lower Flammability limit. Benzaldehyde concentrations could be as high as 46% of the lower flammability limit, depending on the heating rate and the number of polycubes being processed. These

  10. Examining rapid onset drought development using the thermal infrared based evaporative stress index

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reliable indicators of rapid drought onset are necessary to improve the utility of drought early warning systems. In this study, the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI), which uses remotely-sensed thermal infrared imagery to estimate evapotranspiration (ET), is compared to meteorological data and United...

  11. Photocatalytic Iron Oxide Coatings Produced by Thermal Spraying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navidpour, A. H.; Salehi, M.; Amirnasr, M.; Salimijazi, H. R.; Azarpour Siahkali, M.; Kalantari, Y.; Mohammadnezhad, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, hematite coatings with semiconductor properties have received attention for photocatalytic applications. In this study, plasma and flame spraying techniques were used for hematite deposition on 316 stainless steel plates. X-ray diffraction was used for phase composition analysis, and methylene blue was used as an organic pollutant to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of thermally sprayed coatings. The results showed that all these coatings could act under visible-light irradiation but the one deposited by flame spraying at 20 cm stand-off distance showed the highest photocatalytic activity. The results showed that wavelength of the light source and pH of the solution affected the photocatalytic activity significantly. It was also shown that thermally sprayed iron oxide coatings could have a high photo-absorption ability, which could positively affect the photocatalytic activity.

  12. Upgrading non-oxidized carbon nanotubes by thermally decomposed hydrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pen-Cheng; Liao, Yu-Chun; Liu, Li-Hung; Lai, Yu-Ling; Lin, Ying-Chang; Hsu, Yao-Jane

    2014-06-01

    We found that the electrical properties of conductive thin films based on non-oxidized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) could be further improved when the CNTs consecutively underwent a mild hydrazine adsorption treatment and then a sufficiently effective thermal desorption treatment. We also found that, after several rounds of vapor-phase hydrazine treatments and baking treatments were applied to an inferior single-CNT field-effect transistor device, the device showed improvement in Ion/Ioff ratio and reduction in the extent of gate-sweeping hysteresis. Our experimental results indicate that, even though hydrazine is a well-known reducing agent, the characteristics of our hydrazine-exposed CNT samples subject to certain treatment conditions could become more graphenic than graphanic, suggesting that the improvement in the electrical and electronic properties of CNT samples could be related to the transient bonding and chemical scavenging of thermally decomposed hydrazine on the surface of CNTs.

  13. Rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs using thermal desorption - SALDI mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechnikov, A. A.; Kubasov, A. E.; Georgieva, V. B.; Borodkov, A. S.; Nikiforov, S. M.; Simanovsky, Ya O.; Alimpiev, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    A novel approach to the rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs by surface assisted laser desorption-ionization (SALDI) mass spectrometry with the rotating ball interface coupled with temperature programmed thermal desorption has been developed. Analytes were thermally desorbed and deposited onto the surface of amorphous silicon substrate attached to the rotating ball. The ball was rotated and the deposited analytes were analyzed using SALDI. The effectiveness of coupling SALDI mass spectrometry with thermal desorption was evaluated by the direct and rapid analysis of tablets containing lidocaine, diphenhydramine and propranolol without any sample pretreatment. The overall duration of the screening procedure was 30÷40 sec. Real urine samples were studied for drug analysis. It is shown that with simple preparation steps, urine samples can be quantitatively analyzed using the proposed technique with the detection limits in the range of 0.2÷0.5 ng/ml.

  14. Substituted Cyclohexene Endcaps for Polymers with Thermal-Oxidative Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This invention relates to polyimides having improved thermal-oxidative stability, to the process of preparing said polyimides, and the use of polyimide prepolymers in the preparation of prepregs and composites. The polyimides are particularly usefull in the preparation of fiber-reinforced, high-temperature composites for use in various engine parts including inlets, fan ducts, exit flaps and other parts of high speed aircraft. The polyimides are derived from the polymerization of effective amounts of at least one tetracarboxylic dianhydride, at least one polyamine and a novel dicarboxylic endcap having the formula presented.

  15. An Efficient and Rapid Method to Monitor the Oxidative Degradation of Protein Pharmaceuticals: Probing Tyrosine Oxidation with Fluorogenic Derivatization.

    PubMed

    Bommana, Rupesh; Mozziconacci, Olivier; John Wang, Y; Schöneich, Christian

    2017-07-01

    The loss of potency of protein therapeutics can be linked to the oxidation of specific amino acid residues leading to a great variety of oxidative modifications. The comprehensive identification of these oxidative modifications requires high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis, which requires time and expensive resources. Here, we propose a fluorogenic derivatization method of oxidized Tyr and Phe yielding benzoxazole derivatives, as an orthogonal technique for the rapid screening of protein oxidation. Four model proteins, IgG1, human growth hormone (hGH), insulin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were exposed to oxidation via peroxyl radicals and metal-catalyzed reactions and efficiently screened by fluorogenic derivatization of Tyr and Phe oxidation products. Complementary LC-MS analysis was done to identify the extent of methionine oxidation in oxidized proteins. The Fluorogenic derivatization technique can easily be adapted to a 96-well plate, in which several protein formulations can be screened in short time. Representatively for hGH, we show that the formation of benzoxazole parallels the oxidation of Met to methionine sulfoxide which enables estimation of Met oxidation by just recording the fluorescence. Our rapid fluorescence based screening allows for the fast comparison of the stability of multiple formulations.

  16. Negative Thermal Expansion and Ferroelectric Oxides in Electronic Device Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Joy Elizabeth

    Electronic devices increasingly pervade our daily lives, driving the need to develop components which have material properties that can be designed to target a specific need. The principle motive of this thesis is to investigate the effects of particle size and composition on three oxides which possess electronic and thermal properties essential to designing improved ceramic composites for more efficient, high energy storage devices. A metal matrix composite project used the negative thermal expansion oxide, ZrW2O 8, to offset the high thermal expansion of the metal matrix without sacrificing high thermal conductivity. Composite preparation employed a powder mixing technique to achieve easy composition control and homogenous phase distribution in order to build composites which target a specific coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). A tailorable CTE material is desirable for overcoming thermomechanical failure in heat sinks or device casings. This thesis also considers the particle size effect on dielectric properties in a common ferroelectric perovskite, Ba1-xSrxTiO 3. By varying the Ba:Sr ratio, the Curie temperature can be adjusted and by reducing the particle size, the dielectric constant can be increased and hysteresis decreased. These conditions could yield anonymously large dielectric constants near room temperature. However, the ferroelectric behavior has been observed to cease below a minimum size of a few tens of nanometers in bulk or thin film materials. Using a new particle slurry approach, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy allows dielectric properties to be determined for nanoparticles, as opposed to conventional methods which measure only bulk or thin film dielectric properties. In this manner, Ba1-xSrxTiO3 was investigated in a new size regime, extending the theory on the ferroelectric behavior to < 10 nm diameter. This knowledge will improve the potential to incorporate high dielectric constant, low loss ferroelectric nanoparticles in many

  17. Thermal deoxygenation of graphite oxide at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampars, V.; Legzdina, M.

    2015-03-01

    Synthesis of graphene via the deoxygenation of the graphite oxide (GO) is a method for the large-scale production of this nanomaterial possessing exceptional mechanical, electrical and translucent properties. Graphite oxide sheet contains at least four different oxygen atoms connected to the Csp3 and Csp2 atoms of the sheet in the form of hydroxyl, epoxy, carboxyl or carbonyl groups. Some of these functional groups are located at the surface but others situated at the edges of the platelets. To obtain the graphene nanoplatelets or the few-layer graphene the oxygen functionalities must be removed. Exfoliation and deoxygenation can be accomplished by the use of chemical reductants or heat. Thermal deoxygenation as greener and simpler approach is more preferable over chemical reduction approach. Usually a considerable mass loss of GO observed upon heating at temperatures starting at 200 °C and is attributed to the deoxygenation process. In order to avoid the defects of the obtained graphene sheets it is very important to find the methods for lowering the deoxygenation temperature of GO. Herein, we have investigated the way treatment of the Hummer's synthesis product with acetone and methyl tert-butyl ether under ultrasonication in order to lower the thermal stability of the graphite oxide and its deoxygenation temperature. The obtained results indicate that treatment of the graphite oxide with solvents mentioned above substantially reduces the reduction and exfoliation temperature (130 °C) under ambient atmosphere. The investigation of the composition of evolved gases by hyphenated Pyr/GC/MS method at different experimental conditions under helium atmosphere shows that without the expected H2O, CO and CO2 also sulphur dioxide and acetone has been released.

  18. Stress generation in thermally grown oxide films. [oxide scale spalling from superalloy substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumnick, A. J.; Ebert, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    A three dimensional finite element analysis was conducted, using the ANSYS computer program, of the stress state in a thin oxide film thermally formed on a rectangular piece of NiCrAl alloy. The analytical results indicate a very high compressive stress in the lateral directions of the film (approximately 6200 MPa), and tensile stresses in the metal substrate that ranged from essentially zero to about 55 MPa. It was found further that the intensity of the analytically determined average stresses could be approximated reasonably well by the modification of an equation developed previously by Oxx for stresses induced into bodies by thermal gradients.

  19. Modeling of thermal expansion coefficient of perovskite oxide for solid oxide fuel cell cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, F.; Maghsoudipour, A.; Alizadeh, M.; Khakpour, Z.; Javaheri, M.

    2015-09-01

    Artificial intelligence models have the capacity to eliminate the need for expensive experimental investigation in various areas of manufacturing processes, including the material science. This study investigates the applicability of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) approach for modeling the performance parameters of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of perovskite oxide for solid oxide fuel cell cathode. Oxides (Ln = La, Nd, Sm and M = Fe, Ni, Mn) have been prepared and characterized to study the influence of the different cations on TEC. Experimental results have shown TEC decreases favorably with substitution of Nd3+ and Mn3+ ions in the lattice. Structural parameters of compounds have been determined by X-ray diffraction, and field emission scanning electron microscopy has been used for the morphological study. Comparison results indicated that the ANFIS technique could be employed successfully in modeling thermal expansion coefficient of perovskite oxide for solid oxide fuel cell cathode, and considerable savings in terms of cost and time could be obtained by using ANFIS technique.

  20. Thermally reduced kaolin-graphene oxide nanocomposites for gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renyun; Alecrim, Viviane; Hummelgård, Magnus; Andres, Britta; Forsberg, Sven; Andersson, Mattias; Olin, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Highly sensitive graphene-based gas sensors can be made using large-area single layer graphene, but the cost of large-area pure graphene is high, making the simpler reduced graphene oxide (rGO) an attractive alternative. To use rGO for gas sensing, however, require a high active surface area and slightly different approach is needed. Here, we report on a simple method to produce kaolin-graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites and an application of this nanocomposite as a gas sensor. The nanocomposite was made by binding the GO flakes to kaolin with the help of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The GO flakes in the nanocomposite were contacting neighboring GO flakes as observed by electron microscopy. After thermal annealing, the nanocomposite become conductive as showed by sheet resistance measurements. Based on the conductance changes of the nanocomposite films, electrical gas sensing devices were made for detecting NH3 and HNO3. These devices had a higher sensitivity than thermally annealed multilayer GO films. This kaolin-GO nanocomposite might be useful in applications that require a low-cost material with large conductive surface area including the demonstrated gas sensors.

  1. MERCURY OXIDIZATION IN NON-THERMAL PLASMA BARRIER DISCHARGE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    V.K. Mathur

    2003-02-01

    In the past decade, the emission of toxic elements from human activities has become a matter of great public concern. Hg, As, Se and Cd typically volatilize during a combustion process and are not easily caught with conventional air pollution control techniques. In addition, there is no pollution prevention technique available now or likely be available in the foreseeable future that can prevent the emission of these trace elements. These trace elements pose additional scientific challenge as they are present at only ppb levels in large gas streams. Mercury, in particular, has attracted significant attention due to its high volatility, toxicity and potential threat to human health. In the present research work, a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge technique has been used to oxidize Hg{sup 0}(g) to HgO. The basic premise of this approach is that Hg{sup 0} in vapor form cannot be easily removed in an absorption tower whereas HgO as a particulate is amiable to water scrubbing. The work presented in this report consists of three steps: (1) setting-up of an experimental apparatus to generate mercury vapors at a constant rate and modifying the existing non-thermal plasma reactor system, (2) solving the analytical challenge for measuring mercury vapor concentration at ppb level, and (3) conducting experiments on mercury oxidation under plasma conditions to establish proof of concept.

  2. Carbon effect on the survival of vacancies in Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian; Dong, Peng; Yuan, Kang; Qiu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Junwei; Zhao, Jianjiang; Yu, Xuegong; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2017-07-01

    Rapid thermal anneal (RTA) at high temperatures can be employed to introduce vacancies to control oxygen precipitation (OP) behavior in Czochralski (CZ) silicon. Such excessive vacancies survive from the recombination of silicon-interstitials and vacancies (V-I recombination) during the RTA. In this work, we aim to elucidate the carbon effect on the survival of vacancies in CZ silicon during the high temperature RTA by means of gold diffusion in combination with deep-level transient spectroscopy. It is revealed that the existence of ˜1017 cm-3 carbon atoms significantly increases the amount of survival vacancies in the form of vacancy-oxygen (VOm, m ≥ 2) complexes in CZ silicon when subjected to the 1250 °C/60 s RTA. Moreover, such an increase in the number of vacancies becomes more significant with the increase in the cooling rate of RTA. The density functional theory calculations suggest that the V-I recombination is to some extent unfavorable as a carbon atom is close to the silicon-interstitial. Alternatively, it is believed that the substitutional carbon (Cs) atoms tend to trap the silicon-interstitials, thus forming Ci complexes (Cs + I → Ci) in CZ silicon during the RTA. In this context, the V-I recombination is suppressed in a manner, leading to the survival of more vacancies, thus generating more VOm complexes. Furthermore, after the 1250 °C/60 s RTA, the oxide precipitate nucleation based on the VOm complexes is more significant in carbon-rich CZ (CCZ) silicon than in the conventional CZ counterpart. Hence, when subjected to the same OP anneal consisting of the nucleation anneal at 650 or 800 °C for 4 h and the subsequent growth anneal at 1000 °C for 16 h, CCZ silicon possesses a higher density of bulk microdefects and therefore stronger internal gettering capability than CZ silicon. However, the nucleation temperature for OP should be carefully selected as 650 °C for CCZ silicon in order to form an oxide precipitate-free denuded zone.

  3. "Thermal Stability of Anodic Hafnium Oxide Nanotube Arrays"

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Howe, Jane Y; Mayer, Harry A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Tuncer, Enis

    2011-01-01

    Thermal stability of highly ordered Hafnium oxide, HfO2 nanotube arrays prepared through electrochemical anodization approach in the presence of ammonium fluoride is investigated in a temperature range of room temperature to 900 C in flowing Argon atmosphere. The formation of the HfO2 nanotube arrays was monitored by current density transient characteristics during anodization of hafnium metal foil. Morphologies of the as grown and post-annealed HfO2 nanotube arrays were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Although monoclinic HfO2 is thermally stable up to 2000K in bulk, the morphology HfO2 nanotube arrays degraded at 900 C. Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study revealed that the thermal treatment significantly impact the composition and chemical environment of the core elements (Hf, O and F) of HfO2. Possible reasons for the degradation of the nanotube morphology were discussed based on XPS study and possible future improvements were suggested briefly.

  4. Identification of Oxidation Compounds of 1-Stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine during Thermal Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Zhao, Minjie; Bindler, Françoise; Marchioni, Eric

    2015-11-04

    Heat-induced oxidative modification of phosphatidylethanolamine molecular species as potential functional food components was investigated. 1-Stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (SLPE) was chosen as a model. The optimal temperature for hydroperoxide formation was determined by mass spectrometry. The maximal level of formation of this compound was obtained at 125 °C. The structures of nonvolatile organic compounds (non-VOCs) were identified using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry combined with an acid treatment. Kinetics of formation of non-VOCs was monitored over time. Results showed that the level of the SLPE precursor rapidly decreased during thermal oxidation and oxygenated products, such as hydroxyl, oxo, or epoxy groups, were formed. The VOCs formed from oxidized SLPE were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The result showed that a saturated methyl ketone (2-heptanone) was the most predominant VOC of SLPE. Kinetics indicated that the formation of VOCs was related not only to the decomposition of hydroperoxides but also to the further decomposition of non-VOCs.

  5. Tensile stress and creep in thermally grown oxide.

    PubMed

    Veal, Boyd W; Paulikas, Arvydas P; Hou, Peggy Y

    2006-05-01

    Structural components that operate at high temperatures (for example, turbine blades) rely on thermally grown oxide (TGO), commonly alumina, for corrosion protection. Strains that develop in TGOs during operation can reduce the protectiveness of the TGO. However, the occurrence of growth strains in TGOs, and mechanisms that cause them, are poorly understood. It is accepted that compressive strains can develop as oxygen and metal atoms meet to form new growth within constrained oxide. More controversial is the experimental finding that large tensile stresses, close to 1 GPa, develop during isothermal growth conditions in alumina TGO formed on a FeCrAlY alloy. Using a novel technique based on synchrotron radiation, we have confirmed these previous results, and show that the tensile strain develops as the early oxide, (Fe,Cr,Al)(2)O(3), converts to alpha-Al2O3 during the growth process. This allows us to model the strain behaviour by including creep and this diffusion-controlled phase change.

  6. Thermal conductivities of nanostructured magnesium oxide coatings deposited on magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinwei; Nie, Xueyuan; Hu, Henry

    2014-10-01

    The resistances of magnesium alloys to wear, friction and corrosion can be effectively improved by depositing coatings on their surfaces. However, the coatings can also reduce the heat transfer from the coated components to the surroundings (e.g., coated cylinder bores for internal combustion of engine blocks). In this paper, nanostructured magnesium oxides were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process on the magnesium alloy AJ62 under different current densities. The guarded comparative heat flow method was adopted to measure the thermal conductivities of such coatings which possess gradient nanoscale grain sizes. The aim of the paper is to explore how the current density in the PEO process affects the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured magnesium coatings. The experimental results show that, as the current density rises from 4 to 20 A/mm2, the thermal conductivity has a slight increase from 0.94 to 1.21 W/m x K, which is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding bulk magnesium oxide materials (29.4 W/m x K). This mostly attributed to the variation of the nanoscale grain sizes of the PEO coatings.

  7. Packaging material and flexible medical tubing containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A packaging material or flexible medical tubing containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  8. Rapid Inverse Method to Measure Thermal Diffusivity of Low-Moisture Foods.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yoshiki; Greiby, Ibrahim; Mishra, Dharmendra K; Dolan, Kirk D

    2017-02-01

    Thermal diffusivity is an important transport property needed in modeling and computations of transient heat transfer in basic food processing operations. In addition, the prediction of nutritional and microbial changes occurring in food during thermal processing requires knowledge of thermal diffusivity of foods. The objectives of this study were to develop a new nonisothermal and nonlinear determination method of thermal diffusivity and to measure the thermal diffusivity of low-moisture foods using that new method. Thermal diffusivities of 5 kinds of low-moisture foods (almond meal, corn meal, wheat flour, chocolate fudge, and peanut butter) were estimated using an inverse technique. Samples were canned and heated at the surface in a water bath at about 70 °C. The 1-dimensional transient heat conduction problem for radial coordinates was solved with a finite-difference model. The thermal diffusivity of each of the 5 samples was determined by the ordinary least squares and sequential estimation methods, respectively. Predicted and observed temperature matched well, with maximum residuals of 0.9 °C. The thermal diffusivity values of the samples ranged from 9.8 × 10(-8) to 1.3 × 10(-7) m(2) /s. The advantages of this method are that the device and the estimation method are simple, inexpensive, rapid, and can handle large spatial temperature gradients, such as those experienced during heating of low-moisture foods. The results obtained in this study will be useful in the design of equipment and in calculations for the thermal processing of low-moisture foods. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Rapid sintering of silicon nitride foams decorated with one-dimensional nanostructures by intense thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Duan; Guzi de Moraes, Elisângela; Guo, Peng; Zou, Ji; Zhang, Junzhan; Colombo, Paolo; Shen, Zhijian

    2014-08-01

    Silicon nitride foams were prepared by direct foaming and subsequent rapid sintering at 1600 °C. The intense thermal radiation generated under the pressureless spark plasma sintering condition facilitated necking of Si3N4 grains. The prepared foams possessed a porosity of ˜80 vol% and a compressive strength of ˜10 MPa, which required only ˜30 min for the entire sintering processes. Rapid growth of one-dimensional SiC nanowires from the cell walls was also observed. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the vapor-liquid-solid model is applicable to the formation of SiC nanowires under vacuum.

  10. Rapid sintering of silicon nitride foams decorated with one-dimensional nanostructures by intense thermal radiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Duan; Guzi de Moraes, Elisângela; Guo, Peng; Zou, Ji; Zhang, Junzhan; Colombo, Paolo; Shen, Zhijian

    2014-08-01

    Silicon nitride foams were prepared by direct foaming and subsequent rapid sintering at 1600 °C. The intense thermal radiation generated under the pressureless spark plasma sintering condition facilitated necking of Si3N4 grains. The prepared foams possessed a porosity of ∼80 vol% and a compressive strength of ∼10 MPa, which required only ∼30 min for the entire sintering processes. Rapid growth of one-dimensional SiC nanowires from the cell walls was also observed. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the vapor-liquid-solid model is applicable to the formation of SiC nanowires under vacuum.

  11. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the structural and electrical properties of RF sputtered CCTO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, N.; Das, K. C.; Ghosh, S. P.; Bose, G.; Kar, J. P.

    2017-02-01

    CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) thin films have been deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on silicon substrates at room temperature. As-deposited thin films were subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at different temperatures ranging from 850°C to 1000°C. XRD and capacitance - voltage studies indicate that the structural and electrical properties of CCTO thin film strongly depend upon the annealing temperature. XRD pattern of CCTO thin film annealed at 950°C revealed the polycrystalline nature with evolutions of microstructures. Electrical properties of the dielectric films were investigated by fabricating Al/CCTO/Si metal oxide semiconductor structure. Electrical properties were found to be deteriorated with increasing in annealing temperature.

  12. Therapeutic role of Cuminum cyminum on ethanol and thermally oxidized sunflower oil induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Aruna, K; Rukkumani, R; Varma, P Suresh; Menon, Venugopal P

    2005-05-01

    Ethanol is one of the most widely used and abused drugs, increasing lipid levels in humans and experimental animals. Heating of oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) produces various lipid peroxidative end products that can aggravate the pathological changes produced by ethanol. In the present communication, the effect of Cuminum cyminum was investigated on alcohol and thermally oxidized oil induced hyperlipidaemia. The results showed increased activity of aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids in the plasma of rats given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oxidized oil when compared with the normal control group. The levels of tissue (liver and kidney) cholesterol and triglycerides were increased significantly in rats groups given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oxidized oil when compared with the normal control rats. The levels were decreased when cumin was given along with alcohol and thermally oxidized oil. The level of phospholipids decreased significantly in the liver and kidney of groups given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oridized oil when compared with the normal control rats. The level increased when cumin was administered along with alcohol and thermally oxidized oil. The activity of phospholipase A and C increased significantly in the liver of groups given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oxidized oil when compared with the normal control rats, whereas the activity was decreased with the cumin treatment. The results obtained indicate that cumin can decrease the lipid levels in alcohol and thermally oxidized oil induced hepatotoxicity.

  13. Rapid Deposition of Oxidized Biogenic Compounds to a Temperate Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Crounse, John D.; Teng, Alex P.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Paulot, Fabien; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2015-01-01

    We report fluxes and dry deposition velocities for 16 atmospheric compounds above a southeastern United States forest, including: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric acid (HNO3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, peroxyacetic acid, organic hydroxy nitrates, and other multifunctional species derived from the oxidation of isoprene and monoterpenes. The data suggest that dry deposition is the dominant daytime sink for small, saturated oxygenates. Greater than 6 wt %C emitted as isoprene by the forest was returned by dry deposition of its oxidized products. Peroxides account for a large fraction of the oxidant flux, possibly eclipsing ozone in more pristine regions. The measured organic nitrates comprise a sizable portion (15%) of the oxidized nitrogen input into the canopy, with HNO3 making up the balance. We observe that water-soluble compounds (e.g., strong acids and hydroperoxides) deposit with low surface resistance whereas compounds with moderate solubility (e.g., organic nitrates and hydroxycarbonyls) or poor solubility (e.g., HCN) exhibited reduced uptake at the surface of plants. To first order, the relative deposition velocities of water-soluble compounds are constrained by their molecular diffusivity. From resistance modeling, we infer a substantial emission flux of formic acid at the canopy level (approx. 1 nmol m(exp.-2)·s(exp.-1)). GEOS-Chem, awidely used atmospheric chemical transport model, currently underestimates dry deposition for most molecules studied in this work. Reconciling GEOS-Chem deposition velocities with observations resulted in up to a 45% decrease in the simulated surface concentration of trace gases.

  14. Rapid deposition of oxidized biogenic compounds to a temperate forest

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Crounse, John D.; Teng, Alex P.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Paulot, Fabien; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2015-01-01

    We report fluxes and dry deposition velocities for 16 atmospheric compounds above a southeastern United States forest, including: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric acid (HNO3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, peroxyacetic acid, organic hydroxy nitrates, and other multifunctional species derived from the oxidation of isoprene and monoterpenes. The data suggest that dry deposition is the dominant daytime sink for small, saturated oxygenates. Greater than 6 wt %C emitted as isoprene by the forest was returned by dry deposition of its oxidized products. Peroxides account for a large fraction of the oxidant flux, possibly eclipsing ozone in more pristine regions. The measured organic nitrates comprise a sizable portion (15%) of the oxidized nitrogen input into the canopy, with HNO3 making up the balance. We observe that water-soluble compounds (e.g., strong acids and hydroperoxides) deposit with low surface resistance whereas compounds with moderate solubility (e.g., organic nitrates and hydroxycarbonyls) or poor solubility (e.g., HCN) exhibited reduced uptake at the surface of plants. To first order, the relative deposition velocities of water-soluble compounds are constrained by their molecular diffusivity. From resistance modeling, we infer a substantial emission flux of formic acid at the canopy level (∼1 nmol m−2⋅s−1). GEOS−Chem, a widely used atmospheric chemical transport model, currently underestimates dry deposition for most molecules studied in this work. Reconciling GEOS−Chem deposition velocities with observations resulted in up to a 45% decrease in the simulated surface concentration of trace gases. PMID:25605913

  15. Rapid deposition of oxidized biogenic compounds to a temperate forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Crounse, John D.; Teng, Alex P.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Paulot, Fabien; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2015-02-01

    We report fluxes and dry deposition velocities for 16 atmospheric compounds above a southeastern United States forest, including: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric acid (HNO3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, peroxyacetic acid, organic hydroxy nitrates, and other multifunctional species derived from the oxidation of isoprene and monoterpenes. The data suggest that dry deposition is the dominant daytime sink for small, saturated oxygenates. Greater than 6 wt %C emitted as isoprene by the forest was returned by dry deposition of its oxidized products. Peroxides account for a large fraction of the oxidant flux, possibly eclipsing ozone in more pristine regions. The measured organic nitrates comprise a sizable portion (15%) of the oxidized nitrogen input into the canopy, with HNO3 making up the balance. We observe that water-soluble compounds (e.g., strong acids and hydroperoxides) deposit with low surface resistance whereas compounds with moderate solubility (e.g., organic nitrates and hydroxycarbonyls) or poor solubility (e.g., HCN) exhibited reduced uptake at the surface of plants. To first order, the relative deposition velocities of water-soluble compounds are constrained by their molecular diffusivity. From resistance modeling, we infer a substantial emission flux of formic acid at the canopy level (∼1 nmol m-2ṡs-1). GEOS-Chem, a widely used atmospheric chemical transport model, currently underestimates dry deposition for most molecules studied in this work. Reconciling GEOS-Chem deposition velocities with observations resulted in up to a 45% decrease in the simulated surface concentration of trace gases.

  16. Rapid deposition of oxidized biogenic compounds to a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tran B; Crounse, John D; Teng, Alex P; St Clair, Jason M; Paulot, Fabien; Wolfe, Glenn M; Wennberg, Paul O

    2015-02-03

    We report fluxes and dry deposition velocities for 16 atmospheric compounds above a southeastern United States forest, including: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric acid (HNO3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, peroxyacetic acid, organic hydroxy nitrates, and other multifunctional species derived from the oxidation of isoprene and monoterpenes. The data suggest that dry deposition is the dominant daytime sink for small, saturated oxygenates. Greater than 6 wt %C emitted as isoprene by the forest was returned by dry deposition of its oxidized products. Peroxides account for a large fraction of the oxidant flux, possibly eclipsing ozone in more pristine regions. The measured organic nitrates comprise a sizable portion (15%) of the oxidized nitrogen input into the canopy, with HNO3 making up the balance. We observe that water-soluble compounds (e.g., strong acids and hydroperoxides) deposit with low surface resistance whereas compounds with moderate solubility (e.g., organic nitrates and hydroxycarbonyls) or poor solubility (e.g., HCN) exhibited reduced uptake at the surface of plants. To first order, the relative deposition velocities of water-soluble compounds are constrained by their molecular diffusivity. From resistance modeling, we infer a substantial emission flux of formic acid at the canopy level (∼1 nmol m(-2)⋅s(-1)). GEOS-Chem, a widely used atmospheric chemical transport model, currently underestimates dry deposition for most molecules studied in this work. Reconciling GEOS-Chem deposition velocities with observations resulted in up to a 45% decrease in the simulated surface concentration of trace gases.

  17. Anti-oxidative effects of rooibos tea extract on autoxidation and thermal oxidation of lipids.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Ryo; Kanda, Ayato; Hara, Setsuko

    2009-01-01

    Powdered rooibos tea extract (RTE), which is rich in polyphenols, is made from rooibos tea by freeze-drying. "Rooibos" is Afrikaans for "red bush," and the scientific name is "Aspalathus linearis." It is a broom-like member of the legume family of plants and is used to make an herbal tea which has been popular in South Africa for generations and is now consumed in many countries. In the present work, the anti-oxidative effect of RTE on oils and fats in autoxidation or thermal oxidation was studied, and it was confirmed that RTE has a very strong anti-oxidative effect on emulsifying oils owing to the water-soluble polyphenols such as rutin and quercetin contained in RTE. RTE was found to have a strong ability to quench radicals generated in the water phase, and to confer higher thermal stability against deep fat frying than tocopherol. But RTE showed little anti-oxidative effect on frying oil because of its lower oil-solubility.

  18. Kinetic evidence for rapid oxidation of (-)-epicatechin by human myeloperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Spalteholz, Holger; Furtmueller, Paul Georg; Jakopitsch, Christa; Obinger, Christian; Schewe, Tankred; Sies, Helmut; Arnhold, Juergen

    2008-07-11

    Apocynin has been reported to require dimerization by myeloperoxidase (MPO) to inhibit leukocyte NADPH oxidase. (-)-Epicatechin, a dietary flavan-3-ol, has been identified as a 'prodrug' of apocynin-like metabolites that inhibit endothelial NADPH oxidase activity and elevate the cellular level of nitric oxide. Since (-)-epicatechin has tentatively been identified as substrate of MPO, we studied the one-electron oxidation of (-)-epicatechin by MPO. By using multi-mixing stopped-flow technique, we demonstrate that (-)-epicatechin is one of the most efficient electron donors for heme peroxidases investigated so far. Second order rate constants for the (-)-epicatechin-mediated conversion of MPO-compound I to compound II and compound II to resting enzyme were estimated to be 1.9 x 10{sup 7} and 4.5 x 10{sup 6} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively (pH 7, 25 deg. C). The data indicate that (-)-epicatechin is capable of undergoing fast MPO-mediated one-electron oxidation.

  19. Thermal NF3 fluorination/oxidation of cobalt, yttrium, zirconium, and selected lanthanide oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Neiner, Doinita

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents results of our continuing investigation on the use of nitrogen trifluoride as a fluorination or fluorination/oxidation agent for separating valuable constituents from used nuclear fuels by exploiting the different volatilities of the constituent fission product and actinide fluorides. This article focuses on fission products that do not have volatile fluorides or oxyfluorides at expected operations temperatures. Our thermodynamic calculations show that nitrogen trifluoride has the potential to completely fluorinate fission product oxides to their fluorides. Simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses show that the oxides of cobalt, zirconium, and the lanthanides are fluorinated but do not form volatile fluorides when treated with nitrogen trifluoride at temperatures up to 550°C. Our studies of gadolinium-doped commercial nuclear fuel indicate that nitrogen trifluoride can extract uranium from the non-volatile gadolinium.

  20. Effect of Back Contact and Rapid Thermal Processing Conditions on Flexible CdTe Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Meysing, D. M.; Rance, Will L.; Burst, James M.; Reese, Matthew O.; Wolden, C. A.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Garner, S.; Barnes, Teresa M.

    2015-06-14

    Flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates can enable new applications that require high specific power, unique form-factors, and low manufacturing costs. To be successful, these cells must be cost competitive, have high efficiency, and have high reliability. Here we present back contact processing conditions that enabled us to achieve over 16% efficiency on flexible Corning (R) Willow (R) Glass substrates. We used co-evaporated ZnTe:Cu and Au as our back contact and used rapid thermal processing (RTP) to activate the back contact. Both the ZnTe to Cu ratio and the RTP activation temperature provide independent control over the device performance. We have investigated the influence of various RTP conditions to Cu activation and distribution. Current density-voltage, capacitance-voltage measurements along with device simulations were used to examine the device performance in terms of ZnTe to Cu ratio and rapid thermal activation temperature.

  1. Rapid thermal processing of Czochralski silicon substrates: Defects, denuded zones, and minority carrier lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozgonyi, G. S.; Yang, D. K.; Cao, Y. H.; Radzimski, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) of Czochralski (Cz) silicon substrates is discussed with its attendant effects on defects, denuded zones, and minority carrier lifetime. Preferential chemical etching and X-ray topography was used to delineate defects which were subsequently correlated with minority carrier lifetime; determined by a pulse metallo-organic decompositon (MOD) test device. The X-ray delineation of grown-in defects was enhanced by a lithium decoration procedure. Results, thus far, show excellent correlation between process-induced defects.

  2. Evolution of nano-structures of silver due to rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Shyamal Bhattacharyya, S. R.

    2014-04-24

    This report deals with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) effect on continuous silver film on Si(100) substrate. For this purpose silver films of different thicknesses were deposited and subsequently annealed at 500 and 800 °C. The as-deposited and annealed samples were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Formations of different nano-structures have been observed. Fragmentation of formed nanoislands also observed at temperature below melting temperature.

  3. Rapid thermal cycling of solar array blanket coupons for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, David A.; Smith, Bryan K.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been conducting rapid thermal cycling on blanket coupons for Space Station Freedom. This testing includes two designs (8 coupons total) of the solar array. Four coupons were fabricated as part of the Photovoltaic Array Environmental Protection Program (PAEP), NAS3-25079, at Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. These coupons began cycling in early 1989 and have completed 172,000 thermal cycles. Four other coupons were fabricated a year later and included several design changes; cycling of these began in early 1990 and has reached 90,000 cycles. The objective of this testing is to demonstrate the durability or operational lifetime (15 yrs.) of the welded interconnects within a low earth orbit (LEO) thermal cycling environment. The blanket coupons, design changes, test description, status to date including performance and observed anomalies, and any insights related to the testing of these coupons are described. The description of a third design is included.

  4. Leaf thermal and hydraulic capacitances - structural safeguards for rapid ambient fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schymanski, S. J.; Or, D.; Zwieniecki, M.

    2011-12-01

    Leaves may be subjected to rapidly fluctuating irradiation or thermal conditions due to motion of sun flecks and clouds or passage of warm and dry wind gusts. Given a stomatal characteristic time scale (~5 min) for adjusting transpiration flux, fluctuations of environmental conditions at shorter time scales (~1 min) could push leaf hydraulic and thermal status beyond its operational limits resulting in xylem cavitation or overheating. As active stomatal protection may not be adequate, we propose that leaf thermal and hydraulic capacitances and hence leaf specific mass (hydrated thickness) provide passive protection and play a critical role for autonomous and intrinsic capacitive-based responses to rapid fluctuations. For example, a simple variable leaf mass per unit area can affect both thermal and hydraulic capacitances. Thus a thin leaf (0.2 mm) exposed to a sunfleck can experience an increase in leaf temperature by 20K in the order of 3 minutes, i.e. before stomata can activate evaporative cooling. Increasing leaf thickness can be an effective measure to increase the buffer for such environmental fluctuations, so that slower regulatory measures such as stomatal adjustments can take over before detrimental effects take place. Systematic measurements of thermal changes in response to step changes in radiation conditions were obtained using laser illumination and infra-red thermal imaging of leaf laser-illuminated area across a wide range of leaf morphologies from major plant divisions (ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms). Results confirm inverse relationships between leaf thickness and temperature rise (measured as steady state temperature increase). Hydraulic impacts of such structural capacitance on xylem function will be discussed.

  5. Advanced Multi-Component Defect Cluster Oxide Doped Zirconia-Yttria Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages of using ceramic thermal barrier coatings in gas turbine engine hot sections include increased fuel efficiency and improved engine reliability. However, current thermal barrier coatings will not have the low thermal conductivity and necessary sintering resistance under higher operating temperatures and thermal gradients required by future advanced ultra-efficient and low-emission aircraft engines. In this paper, a novel oxide defect cluster design approach is described for achieving low thermal conductivity and excellent thermal stability of the thermal barrier coating systems. This approach utilizes multi-component rare earth and other metal cluster oxide dopants that are incorporated in the zirconia-yttria based systems, thus significantly reducing coating thermal conductivity and sintering resistance by effectively promoting the formation of thermodynamically stable, essentially immobile defect clusters and/or nanoscale phases. The performance of selected plasma-sprayed cluster oxide thermal barrier coating systems has been evaluated. The advanced multi-component thermal barrier coating systems were found to have significantly lower initial and long-term thermal conductivities, and better high temperature stability. The effect of oxide cluster dopants on coating thermal conductivity, sintering resistance, oxide grain growth behavior and durability will be discussed.

  6. Advanced Multi-Component Defect Cluster Oxide Doped Zirconia-Yttria Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The advantages of using ceramic thermal barrier coatings in gas turbine engine hot sections include increased fuel efficiency and improved engine reliability. However, current thermal barrier coatings will not have the low thermal conductivity and necessary sintering resistance under higher operating temperatures and thermal gradients required by future advanced ultra efficient and low emission aircraft engines. In this paper, a novel oxide defect cluster design approach is described for achieving low thermal conductivity and excellent thermal stability of the thermal barrier coating systems. This approach utilizes multi-component rare earth and other metal cluster oxide dopants that are incorporated in the zirconia-yttna based systems, thus significantly reducing coating thermal conductivity and sintering resistance by effectively promoting the formation of thermodynamically stable, essentially immobile defect clusters and/or nanoscale phases. The performance of selected plasma-sprayed cluster oxide thermal barrier coating systems has been evaluated. The advanced multi-component thermal barrier coating systems were found to have significantly lower initial and long-term thermal conductivities, and better high temperature stability. The effect of oxide cluster dopants on coating thermal conductivity, sintering resistance, oxide grain growth behavior and durability will be discussed.

  7. Hole Trapping in Thermal Oxides Grown under Various Oxidation Conditions Using Avalanche Injection in Poly-Silicon Gate Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Hole Trapping in Thermal Oxides Grown under Vaious Oxidation Conditions Using Avalanche Injection in Poly-Silicon Gate Structures Contractor... Avalanche In ection in Poly-Silicon Gate Structureac 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) K.V. Anand, B.R. Cairns, R.J. Strain 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME...Trapping, Oxidation Conditions, Avalanche Injection, Poly-Silicon Gates, Oxide Traps 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse If necenry W Identify by block

  8. A study on thermal barrier coatings including thermal expansion mismatch and bond coat oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, George C.; Phucharoen, Woraphat; Miller, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    The present investigation deals with a plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) intended for high temperature applications to advanced gas turbine blades. Typically, this type of coating system consists of a zirconia-yttria ceramic layer with a nickel-chromium-aluminum bond coat on a superalloy substrate. The problem on hand is a complex one due to the fact that bond coat oxidation and thermal mismatch occur in the TBC. Cracking in the TBC has also been experimentally illustrated. A clearer understanding of the mechanical behavior of the TBC is investigated. The stress states in a model thermal barrier coating as it cools down in air is studied. The powerful finite element method was utilized to model a coating cylindrical specimen. Four successively refined finite element models were developed. Some results obtained using the first two models have been reported previously. The major accomplishment is the successful development of an elastic TBC finite element model known as TBCG with interface geometry between the ceramic layer and the bond coat. An equally important milestone is the near-completion of the new elastic-plastic TBC finite element model called TBCGEP which yielded initial results. Representative results are presented.

  9. A Rapid and Low-Cost PCR Thermal Cycler for Low Resource Settings.

    PubMed

    Wong, Grace; Wong, Isaac; Chan, Kamfai; Hsieh, Yicheng; Wong, Season

    2015-01-01

    Many modern molecular diagnostic assays targeting nucleic acids are typically confined to developed countries or to the national reference laboratories of developing-world countries. The ability to make technologies for the rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases broadly available in a portable, low-cost format would mark a revolutionary step forward in global health. Many molecular assays are also developed based on polymerase chain reactions (PCR), which require thermal cyclers that are relatively heavy (>20 pounds) and need continuous electrical power. The temperature ramping speed of most economical thermal cyclers are relatively slow (2 to 3 °C/s) so a polymerase chain reaction can take 1 to 2 hours. Most of all, these thermal cyclers are still too expensive ($2k to $4k) for low-resource setting uses. In this article, we demonstrate the development of a low-cost and rapid water bath based thermal cycler that does not require active temperature control or continuous power supply during PCR. This unit costs $130 to build using commercial off-the-shelf items. The use of two or three vacuum-insulated stainless-steel Thermos food jars containing heated water (for denaturation and annealing/extension steps) and a layer of oil on top of the water allow for significantly stabilized temperatures for PCR to take place. Using an Arduino-based microcontroller, we automate the "archaic" method of hand-transferring PCR tubes between water baths. We demonstrate that this innovative unit can deliver high speed PCR (17 s per PCR cycle) with the potential to go beyond the 1,522 bp long amplicons tested in this study and can amplify from templates down to at least 20 copies per reaction. The unit also accepts regular PCR tubes and glass capillary tubes. The PCR efficiency of our thermal cycler is not different from other commercial thermal cyclers. When combined with a rapid nucleic acid detection approach, the thermos thermal cycler (TTC) can enable on-site molecular

  10. A Rapid and Low-Cost PCR Thermal Cycler for Low Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Grace; Wong, Isaac; Chan, Kamfai; Hsieh, Yicheng; Wong, Season

    2015-01-01

    Background Many modern molecular diagnostic assays targeting nucleic acids are typically confined to developed countries or to the national reference laboratories of developing-world countries. The ability to make technologies for the rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases broadly available in a portable, low-cost format would mark a revolutionary step forward in global health. Many molecular assays are also developed based on polymerase chain reactions (PCR), which require thermal cyclers that are relatively heavy (>20 pounds) and need continuous electrical power. The temperature ramping speed of most economical thermal cyclers are relatively slow (2 to 3°C/s) so a polymerase chain reaction can take 1 to 2 hours. Most of all, these thermal cyclers are still too expensive ($2k to $4k) for low-resource setting uses. Methodology/Principal Findings In this article, we demonstrate the development of a low-cost and rapid water bath based thermal cycler that does not require active temperature control or continuous power supply during PCR. This unit costs $130 to build using commercial off-the-shelf items. The use of two or three vacuum-insulated stainless-steel Thermos food jars containing heated water (for denaturation and annealing/extension steps) and a layer of oil on top of the water allow for significantly stabilized temperatures for PCR to take place. Using an Arduino-based microcontroller, we automate the “archaic” method of hand-transferring PCR tubes between water baths. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that this innovative unit can deliver high speed PCR (17 s per PCR cycle) with the potential to go beyond the 1,522 bp long amplicons tested in this study and can amplify from templates down to at least 20 copies per reaction. The unit also accepts regular PCR tubes and glass capillary tubes. The PCR efficiency of our thermal cycler is not different from other commercial thermal cyclers. When combined with a rapid nucleic acid detection approach

  11. Local monitoring of atomic steps on GaAs(001) surface under oxidation, wet removal of oxides and thermal smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhundov, I. O.; Kazantsev, D. M.; Alperovich, V. L.; Sheglov, D. V.; Kozhukhov, A. S.; Latyshev, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    The GaAs(001) step-terraced surface relief is studied under oxidation, wet oxide removal and thermal smoothing by ex situ atomic force microscopy with local monitoring of specific atomic steps using lithographic marks for surface area localization. Oxidation in the air and wet oxide removal lead to the formation of monatomic dips on terraces, while atomic steps keep their position and shape. Monitoring step mean position under thermal smoothing allows us to determine the deviation from equilibrium. The experimental smoothing kinetics is well described by Monte Carlo simulation.

  12. Bulk-micromachined submicroliter-volume PCR chip with very rapid thermal response and low power consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Sik; Park, Se Ho; Yang, Haesik; Chung, Kwang-Hyo; Yoon, Tae Hwan; Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kyuwon; Kim, Youn Tae

    2004-08-01

    The current paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a micromachined submicroliter-volume polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip with a fast thermal response and very low power consumption. The chip consists of a bulk-micromachined Si component and hot-embossed poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) component. The Si component contains an integral microheater and temperature sensor on a thermally well-isolated membrane, while the PMMA component contains a submicroliter-volume PCR chamber, valves, and channels. The micro hot membrane under the submicroliter-volume chamber is a silicon oxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxide (O/N/O) diaphragm with a thickness of 1.9 microm, resulting in a very low thermal mass. In experiments, the proposed chip only required 45 mW to heat the reaction chamber to 92 degrees C, the denaturation temperature of DNA, plus the heating and cooling rates are about 80 degrees C s(-1) and 60 degrees C s(-1), respectively. We validated, from the fluorescence results from DNA stained with SYBR Green I, that the proposed chip amplified the DNA from vector clone, containing tumor suppressor gene BRCA 1 (127 base pairs at 11th exon), after 30 thermal cycles of 3 s, 5 s, and 5 s at 92 degrees C, 55 degrees C, and 72 degrees C, respectively, in a 200 nL-volume chamber. As for specificity of DNA products, owing to difficulty in analyzing the very small volume PCR results from the micro chip, we vicariously employed the larger volume PCR products after cycling with the same sustaining temperatures as with the micro chip but with much slower ramping rates (3.3 degrees C s(-1) when rising, 2.5 degrees C s(-1) when cooling) within circa 20 minutes on a commercial PCR machine and confirmed the specificity to BRCA 1 (127 base pairs) with agarose gel electrophoresis. Accordingly, the fabricated micro chip demonstrated a very low power consumption and rapid thermal response, both of which are crucial to the development of a fully integrated and battery

  13. Damp and dry heat degradation of thermal oxide passivation of p+ silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Andrew; Gardner, Matthew; McIntosh, Keith; Shalav, Avi; Bullock, James

    2014-03-01

    Thermal SiO2 passivates both moderately and heavily doped silicon surfaces irrespective of the dopant type, which is advantageous in high-efficiency solar cell designs. Commercial photovoltaic cells are submitted to accelerated ageing tests, such as damp-heat exposure, to ensure they maintain their performance for at least 20 yr. We find damp-heat exposure causes a severe and rapid degradation of thermal SiO2 passivation on p+ silicon surfaces. The reaction is so severe that the diffused-region recombination in the degraded state is limited by the diffusion of minority carriers to the Si-SiO2 interface not the density of interface defects Dit. Certainly, this effect renders the thermal-oxide passivation useless if employed on a solar cell. To study the cause of the degradation, we also test the effects of storage in dry heat and room ambient conditions. Examination of the rate of degradation in the tested storage conditions in comparison with modelled diffusion of moisture in SiO2, we find a significant correlation between the time dependent J0e and moisture supplied to the interface, leading us to the conclusion that moisture ingression and subsequent reaction at the SiO2-Si interface are the cause of both damp-heat and room- ambient degradation.

  14. Thermal fatigue and oxidation data of oxide dispersion-strengthened alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofer, K. E.; Hill, V. L.; Humphreys, V. E.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal fatigue and oxidation data were obtained 24 specimens representing 9 discrete oxide dispersion-strengthened alloy compositions or fabricating techniques. Double edge wedge specimens, both bare metal and coated for each systems, were cycled between fluidized beds maintained at 1130 C with a three minute immersion in each bed. The systems included alloys identified as 262 in hardness of HRC 38; 264 in hardness of HRC 38, 40 and 43; 265 HRC 39, 266 of HRC 37 and 40; 754; and 956. Specimens in the bare condition of 265 HRC 39 and 266 HRC 37 survived 6000 cycles without cracking on the small radius of the double edge wedge specimen. A coated specimen of 262 HRC 38, 266 HRC 37 and 266 HRC40 also survived 6000 cycles without cracking. A duplicate coated specimen of 262 HRC 38 alloy survived 5250 cycles before cracks appeared. All the alloys showed little weight change compared compared to alloys tested in prior programs.

  15. Improved thermal oxidation stability of solution-processable silver nanowire transparent electrode by reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yumi; Jeong, Youngjun; Lee, Youngu

    2012-12-01

    Solution-processable silver nanowire-reduced graphene oxide (AgNW-rGO) hybrid transparent electrode was prepared in order to replace conventional ITO transparent electrode. AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode exhibited high optical transmittance and low sheet resistance, which is comparable to ITO transparent electrode. In addition, it was found that AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode exhibited highly enhanced thermal oxidation and chemical stabilities due to excellent gas-barrier property of rGO passivation layer onto AgNW film. Furthermore, the organic solar cells with AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode showed good photovoltaic behavior as much as solar cells with AgNW transparent electrode. It is expected that AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode can be used as a key component in various optoelectronic application such as display panels, touch screen panels, and solar cells.

  16. Thermal oxidative degradation of ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, Jonathan Patrick

    Thermo-oxidative degradation of ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) was investigated to determine how modifications for use in an electrical wire system affected its thermal stability. Modifications included electron irradiation and subsequent cross-linking during manufacture and contact with a metal surface. Samples with irradiation histories between 0 and 48 MRads were investigated. Degradation of ETFE was enhanced by contact with a metal "conductor" surface: silver - coated copper. Polymer degradation was analyzed by weight loss kinetics (thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)), changes in polymer morphology (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)), optical microscopy, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography - mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Conductor aging (copper permeation through silver with subsequent oxidation) was investigated using scanning Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). Conductor aging is enhanced in the presence of the polymer surface. Interactions between conductor and polymer were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The rate of polymer degradation from 220°C to 280°C was independent of time and extent of degradation, and rate was proportional to irradiation dose. The activation energy for degradation of unirradiated ETFE was 227 kJ/mol and decreased from 150 to 138 kJ/mol for ETFE irradiated to doses between 6 and 48 MRads. Rates of degradation at 300°C to 320°C were dependent on the extent of degradation. Rates of degradation at temperatures between 230°C and 310°C were an order of magnitude larger in the presence of a conductor than in its absence, and activation energies for degradation in the presence of conductor were reduced to 120 kJ/mol. Degradation was modeled as the combination of bulk polymer degradation and catalytic degradation at the polymer-metal interface. ETFE aged at 250°C in the presence or absence of a conductor

  17. Thermal decomposition and oxidation of CH3OH.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Fang; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Xu, Ding-Wei; Wang, Niann-Shiah

    2013-01-24

    Thermal decomposition of CH(3)OH diluted in Ar has been studied by monitoring H atoms behind reflected shock waves of 100 ppm CH(3)OH + Ar. The total decomposition rate k(1) for CH(3)OH + M → products obtained in this study is expressed as, ln(k(1)/cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) = -(14.81 ± 1.22) - (38.86 ± 1.82) × 10(3)/T, over 1359-1644 K. The present result on k(1) is indicated to be substantially smaller than the extrapolation of the most of the previous experimental data but consistent with the published theoretical results [Faraday Discuss. 2002, 119, 191-205 and J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 3932-3950]. Oxidation of CH(3)OH has been studied also by monitoring H atoms behind shock waves of (0.35-100) ppm CH(3)OH + (100-400) ppm O(2) + Ar. For the low concentration CH(3)OH (below 10 ppm) + O(2) mixtures, the initial concentration of CH(3)OH is evaluated by comparing evolutions of H atoms in the same concentration of CH(3)OH with addition of 300 ppm H(2) diluted in Ar. The branching fraction for CH(3)OH + Ar → (1)CH(2) + H(2)O + Ar has been quantitatively evaluated from this comparative measurements with using recent experimental result on the yield of H atoms in the reaction of (1,3)CH(2) + O(2) [J. Phys. Chem. A 2012, 116, 9245-9254]; i.e., the branching fraction for the above reaction is evaluated as, φ(1a) = 0.20 ± 0.04 at T = 1880-2050 K, in the 1.3 and 3.5 ppm CH(3)OH + 100 ppm O(2) samples. An extended reaction mechanism for the pyrolysis and oxidation of CH(3)OH is constructed based on the results of the present study combined with the oxidation mechanism of natural gas [GRI-Mech 3.0]; evolution of H atoms can be predicted very well with this new reaction scheme over a wide concentration range for the pyrolysis (0.36-100 ppm CH(3)OH), and oxidation (0.36-100 ppm CH(3)OH + 100/400 ppm O(2)) of methanol.

  18. DEAD ZONES AS THERMAL BARRIERS TO RAPID PLANETARY MIGRATION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Pudritz, Ralph E. E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca

    2010-02-20

    Planetary migration in standard models of gaseous protoplanetary disks is known to be very rapid ({approx}10{sup 5} years), jeopardizing the existence of planetary systems. We present a new mechanism for significantly slowing rapid planetary migration, discovered by means of radiative transfer calculations of the thermal structure of protoplanetary disks irradiated by their central stars. Rapid dust settling in a disk's dead zone-a region with very little turbulence-leaves a dusty wall at its outer edge. We show that the back-heating of the dead zone by this irradiated wall produces a positive gradient of the disk temperature, which acts as a thermal barrier to planetary migration which persists for the disk lifetime. Although we analyze in detail the migration of a super-Earth in a low-mass disk around an M star, our findings can apply to a wide variety of young planetary systems. We compare our findings with other potentially important stopping mechanisms and show that there are large parameter spaces for which dead zones are likely to play the most important role for reproducing the observed mass-period relation in longer planetary periods.

  19. A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zongping; Haile, Sossina M; Ahn, Jeongmin; Ronney, Paul D; Zhan, Zhongliang; Barnett, Scott A

    2005-06-09

    High energy efficiency and energy density, together with rapid refuelling capability, render fuel cells highly attractive for portable power generation. Accordingly, polymer-electrolyte direct-methanol fuel cells are of increasing interest as possible alternatives to Li ion batteries. However, such fuel cells face several design challenges and cannot operate with hydrocarbon fuels of higher energy density. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) enable direct use of higher hydrocarbons, but have not been seriously considered for portable applications because of thermal management difficulties at small scales, slow start-up and poor thermal cyclability. Here we demonstrate a thermally self-sustaining micro-SOFC stack with high power output and rapid start-up by using single chamber operation on propane fuel. The catalytic oxidation reactions supply sufficient thermal energy to maintain the fuel cells at 500-600 degrees C. A power output of approximately 350 mW (at 1.0 V) was obtained from a device with a total cathode area of only 1.42 cm2.

  20. Preparation and modification of VO2 thin film on R-sapphire substrate by rapid thermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Nai-Wei; Hu, Ming; Xia, Xiao-Xu; Wei, Xiao-Ying; Liang, Ji-Ran

    2014-04-01

    The VO2 thin film with high performance of metal-insulator transition (MIT) is prepared on R-sapphire substrate for the first time by magnetron sputtering with rapid thermal process (RTP). The electrical characteristic and THz transmittance of MIT in VO2 film are studied by four-point probe method and THz time domain spectrum (THz-TDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and search engine marketing (SEM) are employed to analyze the crystalline structure, valence state, surface morphology of the film. Results indicate that the properties of VO2 film which is oxidized from the metal vanadium film in oxygen atmosphere are improved with a follow-up RTP modification in nitrogen atmosphere. The crystallization and components of VO2 film are improved and the film becomes compact and uniform. A better phase transition performance is shown that the resistance changes nearly 3 orders of magnitude with a 2-°C hysteresis width and the THz transmittances are reduced by 64% and 60% in thermal and optical excitation respectively.

  1. Rapidly reversible redox transformation in nanophase manganese oxides at room temperature triggered by changes in hydration

    PubMed Central

    Birkner, Nancy; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Chemisorption of water onto anhydrous nanophase manganese oxide surfaces promotes rapidly reversible redox phase changes as confirmed by calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and titration for manganese average oxidation state. Surface reduction of bixbyite (Mn2O3) to hausmannite (Mn3O4) occurs in nanoparticles under conditions where no such reactions are seen or expected on grounds of bulk thermodynamics in coarse-grained materials. Additionally, transformation does not occur on nanosurfaces passivated by at least 2% coverage of what is likely an amorphous manganese oxide layer. The transformation is due to thermodynamic control arising from differences in surface energies of the two phases (Mn2O3 and Mn3O4) under wet and dry conditions. Such reversible and rapid transformation near room temperature may affect the behavior of manganese oxides in technological applications and in geologic and environmental settings. PMID:24733903

  2. Method for the rapid synthesis of large quantities of metal oxide nanowires at low temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar [Louisville, KY; Vaddiraju, Sreeram [Mountain View, CA; Mozetic, Miran [Ljubljan, SI; Cvelbar, Uros [Idrija, SI

    2009-09-22

    A process for the rapid synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles at low temperatures and methods which facilitate the fabrication of long metal oxide nanowires. The method is based on treatment of metals with oxygen plasma. Using oxygen plasma at low temperatures allows for rapid growth unlike other synthesis methods where nanomaterials take a long time to grow. Density of neutral oxygen atoms in plasma is a controlling factor for the yield of nanowires. The oxygen atom density window differs for different materials. By selecting the optimal oxygen atom density for various materials the yield can be maximized for nanowire synthesis of the metal.

  3. Subcritical Thermal Convection of Liquid Metals in a Rapidly Rotating Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, E. J.; Schaeffer, N.; Vidal, J.; Cardin, P.

    2017-09-01

    Planetary cores consist of liquid metals (low Prandtl number Pr) that convect as the core cools. Here, we study nonlinear convection in a rotating (low Ekman number Ek) planetary core using a fully 3D direct numerical simulation. Near the critical thermal forcing (Rayleigh number Ra), convection onsets as thermal Rossby waves, but as Ra increases, this state is superseded by one dominated by advection. At moderate rotation, these states (here called the weak branch and strong branch, respectively) are smoothly connected. As the planetary core rotates faster, the smooth transition is replaced by hysteresis cycles and subcriticality until the weak branch disappears entirely and the strong branch onsets in a turbulent state at Ek <10-6. Here, the strong branch persists even as the thermal forcing drops well below the linear onset of convection (Ra =0.7 Racrit in this study). We highlight the importance of the Reynolds stress, which is required for convection to subsist below the linear onset. In addition, the Péclet number is consistently above 10 in the strong branch. We further note the presence of a strong zonal flow that is nonetheless unimportant to the convective state. Our study suggests that, in the asymptotic regime of rapid rotation relevant for planetary interiors, thermal convection of liquid metals in a sphere onsets through a subcritical bifurcation.

  4. Rapid microplate, green method for high-throughput evaluation of vinegar acidity using thermal infrared enthalpimetry.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Bruna; Oliveira, Alessandra Stangherlin; Ferreira, Daniele de Freitas; Menezes, Cristiano Ragagnin; Duarte, Fábio Andrei; Wagner, Roger; Barin, Juliano Smanioto

    2017-01-15

    Infrared thermal imaging was combined with disposable microplates to perform enthalpimetric analysis using an infrared camera to monitor temperature without contact. The proposed thermal infrared enthalpimetry (TIE) method was used to determine the total, fixed and volatile acidities of vinegars. Sample preparation and analysis were performed in the same vessel, avoiding excessive sample handling and reducing energy expenditure by more than ten times. The results agreed with those of the conventional method for different kinds of vinegars, with values of 1.7%, and 2.3% for repeatability and intermediate precision, respectively. A linear calibration curve was obtained from 0.040 to 1.30molL(-1). The proposed method provided rapid results (within 10s) for four samples simultaneously, a sample throughput of up to 480 samples per hour. In addition, the method complies with at least eight of twelve recommendations for green analytical chemistry, making TIE a promising tool for routine vinegar analysis.

  5. Pt/Ti/n-InP nonalloyed ohmic contacts formed by rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, A.; Weir, B. E.; Chu, S. N. G.; Thomas, P. M.; Soler, M.; Boone, T.; Dautremont-Smith, W. C.

    1990-04-01

    Low resistance nonalloyed ohmic contacts of e-gun evaporated Pt/Ti to S doped n-InP 5×1017, 1×1018, and 5×1018 cm-3 have been fabricated by rapid thermal processing. The contacts to the lower doped substrates (5×1017 and 1×1018 cm-3) were rectifying as-deposited as well as after heat treatment at temperatures lower than 350 °C. Higher processing temperatures stimulated the Schottky to ohmic contact conversion with minimum specific contact resistance of 1.5×10-5 and 5×10-6 Ω cm2, respectively, as a result of rapid thermal processing at 450 °C for 30 s. Heating at a temperature of 550 °C again yielded a Schottky contact. The contact to the 5×1018 cm-3 InP was ohmic as deposited with a specific contact resistance value of 1.1×10-4 Ω cm2. Supplying heat treatment to the contact caused a decrease of the specific contact resistance to a minimum of 8×10-7 Ω cm2 as a result of rapid thermal processing at 450 °C for 30 s. In all cases, this heat treatment caused a limited interfacial reactions between the Ti and the InP, and resulted in an almost abrupt interface. Heating at temperatures higher than 500 °C resulted in an interfacial intermixing and a mutual migration and reaction of the Ti and the semiconductor elements. The Pt/Ti bilayer structure was highly tensile as deposited (5×109 dyn cm-2) and became stress-free as a result of the interfacial reactions which took place while heating the samples to temperature of 400 °C or higher.

  6. Thermal Mechanical Stability of Single-Crystal-Oxide Refractive Concentrators Evaluated for High-Temperature Solar-Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, refractive secondary solar concentrator systems were developed for solar thermal power and propulsion (ref. 1). Single-crystal oxides-such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO), and sapphire (Al2O3)-are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials. However, the refractive concentrator system will experience high-temperature thermal cycling in the solar thermal engine during the sun/shade transition of a space mission. The thermal mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions. In this research at the NASA Lewis Research Center, a controlled heat flux test approach was developed for investigating the thermal mechanical stability of the candidate oxide. This approach used a 3.0-kW continuous-wave (wavelength, 10.6 mm) carbon dioxide (CO2) laser (ref. 2). The CO2 laser is especially well-suited for single-crystal thermal shock tests because it can directly deliver well-characterized heat energy to the oxide surfaces. Since the oxides are opaque at the 10.6-mm wavelength of the laser beam, the light energy is absorbed at the surfaces rather than transmitting into the crystals, and thus generates the required temperature gradients within the specimens. The following figure is a schematic diagram of the test rig.

  7. Microstructural modeling of thermal conductivity of high burn-up mixed oxide fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, Melissa; Tonks, Michael; Novascone, Stephen; Hayes, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels as a function of burn-up and temperature is fundamental to the efficient and safe operation of nuclear reactors. However, modeling the thermal conductivity of fuel is greatly complicated by the radially inhomogeneous nature of irradiated fuel in both composition and microstructure. In this work, radially and temperature-dependent models for effective thermal conductivity were developed utilizing optical micrographs of high burn-up mixed oxide fuel. The micrographs were employed to create finite element meshes with the OOF2 software. The meshes were then used to calculate the effective thermal conductivity of the microstructures using the BISON [1] fuel performance code. The new thermal conductivity models were used to calculate thermal profiles at end of life for the fuel pellets. These results were compared to thermal conductivity models from the literature, and comparison between the new finite element-based thermal conductivity model and the Duriez-Lucuta model was favorable.

  8. Microstructural Modeling of Thermal Conductivity of High Burn-up Mixed Oxide Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Stephen Novascone; Steven Hayes

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels as a function of burn-up and temperature is fundamental to the efficient and safe operation of nuclear reactors. However, modeling the thermal conductivity of fuel is greatly complicated by the radially inhomogeneous nature of irradiated fuel in both composition and microstructure. In this work, radially and temperature-dependent models for effective thermal conductivity were developed utilizing optical micrographs of high burn-up mixed oxide fuel. The micrographs were employed to create finite element meshes with the OOF2 software. The meshes were then used to calculate the effective thermal conductivity of the microstructures using the BISON fuel performance code. The new thermal conductivity models were used to calculate thermal profiles at end of life for the fuel pellets. These results were compared to thermal conductivity models from the literature, and comparison between the new finite element-based thermal conductivity model and the Duriez–Lucuta model was favorable.

  9. Oxidative reduction of glove box wipers with a downdraft thermal oxidation system

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, M.R.; Wilcox, W.A.

    1996-04-01

    Wipers (rags) used for decontamination and glove box cleanup in the Plutonium Finishing Plant often become soaked with acid and plutonium-rich solutions. After use, these wipers are rinsed in a dilute NaOH solution and dried, but the formation of unstable nitrates and the hydrogen gas caused by hydrolysis are concerns that still must be addressed. This report gives the results of testing with a small downdraft thermal oxidation system that was constructed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to stabilize glove wiper waste, reduce the waste volume, and reclaim plutonium. Proof-of-principle testing was conducted with eight runs using various combinations of rag moisture and chemical pretreatment. All runs went to planned completion. Results of these tests indicate that the thermal oxidation system has the potential for providing significant reductions in waste volume. Weight reductions of 150:1 were easily obtainable during this project. Modifications could result in weight reductions of over 200:1, with possible volume reductions of 500:1.

  10. The application of computational simulation to design optimization of an axisymmetric rapid thermal processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, P.A.; Winters, W.S.; Kee, R.J.; Kermani, A.

    1994-08-01

    We are developing and applying computational models to guide the development of a rapid-thermal-processing system. This work concentrates on scale-up and commercialization of the axisymmetric, multiple-lamp-ring approach that was pioneered by Texas Instruments in the Microelectronics Manufacturing Science and Technology program. CVC Products intends to incorporate the tool into their open-architecture MESC compatible cluster environment. Integration of modeling into the product development process can reduce time-to-market and development costs, as well as improve tool performance.

  11. Pore Size Control of Ultra-thin Silicon Membranes by Rapid Thermal Carbonization

    PubMed Central

    Fang, David Z.; Striemer, Christopher C.; Gaborski, Thomas R.; McGrath, James L.; Fauchet, Philippe M.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid thermal carbonization in a dilute acetylene (C2H2) atmosphere has been used to chemically modify and precisely tune the pore size of ultrathin porous nanocrystalline silicon (pnc-Si). The magnitude of size reduction was controlled by varying the process temperature and time. Under certain conditions, the carbon coating displayed atomic ordering indicative of graphene layer formation conformal to the pore walls. Initial experiments show that carbonized membranes follow theoretical predictions for hydraulic permeability and retain the precise separation capabilities of untreated membranes. PMID:20839831

  12. High carrier activation of Mg ion-implanted GaN by conventional rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Takaki; Fujii, Takahiro; Oka, Tohru

    2017-09-01

    A high activation ratio of Mg ion implantation by conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was demonstrated. To obtain the high activation ratio of Mg ion implantation, the dependence of hole concentration on Mg dose was investigated. A maximum hole concentration and a high activation ratio of 2.3% were obtained at a Mg dose of 2.3 × 1014 cm-2 between 9.2 × 1013 and 2.3 × 1015 cm-2. The ratio is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest ever obtained by conventional RTA.

  13. Effect of nano-sized oxide particles on thermal and electrical properties of epoxy silica composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Heon; Choi, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Polymer matrix composites were fabricated using a modified injection molding technique in which nano-sized silicon oxides, titanium oxides, and aluminium oxides were contained. Nano-sized oxides were uniformly distributed in the composites produced by modified injection molding combining vacuum degassing and curing at a moderate temperature. The thermal decomposition and evaporation of the epoxy resin matrix depended on the composition of the composites. The relative permittivity of the nano-sized silicon carbide-epoxy composites increased from 5.16 to 5.37 by adding 2.0 wt % titanium oxide. The addition of titanium oxide of up to 2.0 wt % had little influence on the permittivity. The addition of 2.0 wt % of titanium oxide to epoxy resin showed the maximum thermal properties. Both the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the silicon oxide-epoxy composites tended to increase with titanium oxide content. The maximum thermal conductivity was observed in the composites with 2.0 wt % titanium oxide.

  14. Surface and sub-surface thermal oxidation of thin ruthenium films

    SciTech Connect

    Coloma Ribera, R.; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F.; Kokke, S.; Zoethout, E.

    2014-09-29

    A mixed 2D (film) and 3D (nano-column) growth of ruthenium oxide has been experimentally observed for thermally oxidized polycrystalline ruthenium thin films. Furthermore, in situ x-ray reflectivity upon annealing allowed the detection of 2D film growth as two separate layers consisting of low density and high density oxides. Nano-columns grow at the surface of the low density oxide layer, with the growth rate being limited by diffusion of ruthenium through the formed oxide film. Simultaneously, with the growth of the columns, sub-surface high density oxide continues to grow limited by diffusion of oxygen or ruthenium through the oxide film.

  15. Surface and sub-surface thermal oxidation of thin ruthenium films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, R. W. E.; Kokke, S.; Zoethout, E.; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F.

    2014-09-01

    A mixed 2D (film) and 3D (nano-column) growth of ruthenium oxide has been experimentally observed for thermally oxidized polycrystalline ruthenium thin films. Furthermore, in situ x-ray reflectivity upon annealing allowed the detection of 2D film growth as two separate layers consisting of low density and high density oxides. Nano-columns grow at the surface of the low density oxide layer, with the growth rate being limited by diffusion of ruthenium through the formed oxide film. Simultaneously, with the growth of the columns, sub-surface high density oxide continues to grow limited by diffusion of oxygen or ruthenium through the oxide film.

  16. Thermal-Mechanical Stability of Single Crystal Oxide Refractive Concentrators for High-Temperature Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al2O3) are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermo-mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments during the space mission sun/shade transition is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions, and thus provide vital information for the component design. In this paper, a controlled heat flux thermal shock test approach is established for the single crystal oxide materials using a 3.0 kW continuous wave CO2 laser, with a wavelength 10.6 micron. Thermal fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated and critical temperature gradients are determined under various temperature and heating conditions. The test results show that single crystal sapphire is able to sustain the highest temperature gradient and heating-cooling rate, and thus exhibit the best thermal shock resistance, as compared to the yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttrium aluminum garnet, and magnesium oxide.

  17. Thermal-Mechanical Stability of Single Crystal Oxide Refractive Concentrators for High-Temperature Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al2O3) are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermo-mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments during the space mission sun/shade transition is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions, and thus provide vital information for the component design. In this paper, a controlled heat flux thermal shock test approach is established for the single crystal oxide materials using a 3.0 kW continuous wave CO2 laser, with a wavelength 10.6 micron. Thermal fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated and critical temperature gradients are determined under various temperature and heating conditions. The test results show that single crystal sapphire is able to sustain the highest temperature gradient and heating-cooling rate, and thus exhibit the best thermal shock resistance, as compared to the yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttrium aluminum garnet and magnesium oxide.

  18. Thermal-mechanical stability of single crystal oxide refractive concentrators for high-temperature solar thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, D.; Jacobson, S.; Miller, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermo-mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments during the space mission sun/shade transition is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions, and thus provide vital information for the component design. In this paper, a controlled heat flux thermal shock test approach is established for the single crystal oxide materials using a 3.0 kW continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser, with a wavelength 10.6 micron. Thermal fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated and critical temperature gradients are determined under various temperature and heating conditions. The test results show that single crystal sapphire is able to sustain the highest temperature gradient and heating-cooling rate, and thus exhibit the best thermal shock resistance, as compared to the yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttrium aluminum garnet and magnesium oxide.

  19. Native-oxide limited cross-plane thermal transport in suspended silicon membranes revealed by scanning thermal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoud, A. M.; Bluet, J.-M.; Lacatena, V.; Haras, M.; Robillard, J.-F.; Chapuis, P.-O.

    2017-08-01

    By thermally characterizing nanometer-thin suspended silicon membranes with various micrometric lengths in ambient conditions, we determine simultaneously the spatial resolution of our Wollaston-probe scanning thermal microscopy experiment, which probes an area of (285 nm)2, and the effective thermal conductivity of the membranes of 40 W.m-1.K-1. This value is smaller than the in-plane thermal conductivity measured using other techniques in vacuum (˜60 W.m-1.K-1), revealing that both cross-plane and in-plane heat conduction are strongly affected by the native oxide in ambient conditions. This work also underlines that high-thermal conductivity samples can be characterized by scanning thermal microscopy when micro-patterned.

  20. Thermal oxidation effect on porcelain-titanium restoration.

    PubMed

    Horng, C J; Okazaki, M; Takahashi, J; Kimura, H

    1989-09-01

    Titanium has good corrosion resistance, light density, high strength and excellent biocompatibility. Conventional ceramicmetal restorations were used extensively in dentistry because of their esthetic appearance and good strength properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of various thermal treatments on the bond strength and physical properties of the porcelain-titanium system. Pure titanium was treated in a porcelain furnace at temperatures ranging from 600 to 1000 degrees C, under vacuum and in air, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the relative peak intensity of alpha-Ti was decreased, while the TiO2 was increased when raising the firing temperature. The vickers hardness number was increased at elevated temperatures, especially over 900 degrees C, and firing in air was harder than under vacuum. The tension-shear bond strength was highest in the green stage and lowest in the 1000 degrees C treated group. The metallographic microscopic of the porcelaintitanium interface revealed a thick band-like zone in the 1000 degrees C treated sample. Therefore it seems that the excess oxidation layer of TiO2 weakened the bond strength of porcelain-titanium. Contrary to the conventional ceramic-gold alloys system, the recommended degassing procedure was not suitable for the porcelain-titanium restoration.

  1. Thermal oxidation technology ready for tougher paint finishing regs

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.

    1995-04-01

    There is good news and bad news in the air for commercial paint finishers. The bad news is that future local and federal clean-air regulations are almost certain to require control of volatile organic compound emissions from spray booths and drying ovens. The good news is that one of the most effective systems for meeting such requirements also can help cut operations and maintenance costs. There are as many solutions to VOC emissions problems in paint finishing as there are types of paint-spraying facilities. However, despite the range of choices, regenerative thermal oxidation systems are gaining favor among plant managers, for whom performance and maximum application flexibility are key considerations. Compared to other VOC-destruction approaches, RTO systems are more forgiving and reliable. Although RTO systems involve somewhat higher capital investments than alternative approaches, such costs typically are offset by lower long-term fuel and maintenance requirements. In addition, RTO systems can convert pollutants into usable energy sources, helping minimize operating costs of abatement equipment.

  2. Conformal cooling and rapid thermal cycling in injection molding with 3D printed tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaorong

    Solid Freeform Fabrication processes such as 3D Printing have demonstrated the potential to produce tools with complex internal geometry. This work explores the application of this capability to improved thermal management for injection molding tooling through: (i)cooling lines which are conformal to the mold surface which provide improved uniformity and stability of mold temperature and (ii)tools with low thermal inertia which, in combination with conformal fluid channels allow for rapid heating and cooling of tooling, thereby facilitating isothermal filling of the mold cavity. This work presents a systematic, modular, approach to the design of conformal cooling channels. Recognizing that the cooling is local to the surface of the tool, the tool is divided up into geometric regions and a channel system is designed for each region. Each channel system is itself modeled as composed of cooling elements, typically the region spanned by two channels. Six criteria are applied including; a transient heat transfer condition which dictates a maximum distance from mold surface to cooling channel, considerations of pressure and temperature drop along the flow channel and considerations of strength of the mold. These criteria are treated as constraints and successful designs are sought which define windows bounded by these constraints. The methodology is demonstrated in application to a complex core and cavity for injection molding. In the area of rapid thermal cycling, this work utilizes the design methods for conformal channels for the heating phases and adds analysis of the packing and cooling phases. A design is created which provides thermal isolation and accommodation of cyclic thermal stresses though an array of bendable support columns which support the molding portion of the tool where the heating/cooling channels are contained. Designed elasticity of the tool is used to aid in packing of the polymer during the cooling phase. Methodology for the design of this

  3. Do thermal tolerances and rapid thermal responses contribute to the invasion potential of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)?

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Welma; Terblanche, John S; Addison, Pia

    2017-04-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) has shown remarkable range expansion over the past 10years and invaded several new continents including Africa. Here we report results of a detailed assessment of acute high and low temperature survival ability and the plasticity thereof, to test the hypothesis that traits of the thermal niche have contributed to the species' invasion ability. We also assess life-stage-related variation of thermal tolerances to determine potential stage-related environmental sensitivity. The temperatures at which c. 20% of the population survived of B. dorsalis were determined to be -6.5°C and 42.7°C, respectively, when using 2h exposures. Further, four life stages of B. dorsalis (egg, 3rd instar larvae, pupae and adults) were exposed to high and low discriminating temperatures to compare their thermal survival rates. The egg stage was found to be the most resistant life stage to both high and low temperatures, since 44±2.3% survived the low and 60±4.2% survived the high discriminating temperature treatments respectively. Finally, the potential for adult hardening responses to mediate tolerance of extremes was also considered using a diverse range of acute conditions (using 2h exposures to 15°C, 10°C and 5°C and 30°C, 35°C, 37°C and 39°C as hardening temperatures, and some treatments with and without recovery periods between hardening and discriminating temperature treatment). These showed that although some significant hardening responses could be detected in certain treatments (e.g. after exposure to 37°C and 39°C), the magnitude of this plasticity was generally low compared to two other wide-spread and more geographically-range-restricted con-familial species, Ceratitis capitata and C. rosa. In other words, Bactrocera dorsalis adults were unable to rapidly heat- or cold-harden to the same extent as the other Ceratitis species examined to date. These results suggest a narrower thermal niche in B. dorsalis compared

  4. Energy recovery efficiency and cost analysis of VOC thermal oxidation pollution control technology.

    PubMed

    Warahena, Aruna S K; Chuah, Yew Khoy

    2009-08-01

    Thermal oxidation of VOC is extremely energy intensive, and necessitates high efficiency heat recovery from the exhaust heat. In this paper, two independent parameters heat recovery factor (HRF) and equipment cost factor (ECF) are introduced. HRF and ECF can be used to evaluate separately the merits of energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of VOC oxidation systems. Another parameter equipment cost against heat recovery (ECHR) which is a function of HRF and ECF is introduced to evaluate the merit of different systems for the thermal oxidation of VOC. Respective cost models were derived for recuperative thermal oxidizer (TO) and regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO). Application examples are presented to show the use and the importance of these parameters. An application examples show that TO has a lower ECF while RTO has a higher HRF. However when analyzed using ECHR, RTO would be of advantage economically in longer periods of use. The analytical models presented can be applied in similar environmental protection systems.

  5. Rapid and Convenient Oxidative Release of Thiol-Conjugated Forms of Microcystins for Chemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Miles, Christopher O

    2017-08-21

    Microcystins are potent cyclic heptapeptide toxins found in some cyanobacteria, and usually contain an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group that is readily conjugated to thiol-containing amino acids, peptides, and proteins in vivo and in vitro. Methods for deconjugating these types of adducts have recently been reported, but the reactions are slow or result in derivatized microcystins. Mercaptoethanol derivatives of a range of microcystins were therefore used as model compounds to develop deconjugation procedures in which the dialkyl sulfide linkage was oxidized to a sulfoxide or sulfone that, when treated with base, rapidly eliminated the adducted thiol as its sulfenate or sulfinate via β-elimination to afford free microcystins with the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group intact. These free microcystins can be analyzed by LC/MS to determine the toxin profile of bound microcystins. The method was tested on Cys- and GSH-derivatives of [Dha(7)]MC-LR. In solution, the deconjugation reactions were complete within minutes at pH 10.7 and within a few hours at pH 9.2. Oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides is easier and more rapid than oxidation to sulfones, allowing the use of milder oxidants and shorter reaction times. Oxidation of any methionine residues present in the microcystins occurs inevitably during these procedures, and interpretation of the microcystin profile obtained by LC/MS analysis needs to take this into account. Oxidation of tryptophan residues and degradation of microcystins by excess oxidant were circumvented by the addition of Me2SO as a sacrificial reducing agent. These methods may be useful for other compounds that undergo conjugation via thia-Michael addition, such as acrylamide and deoxynivalenol. Oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides can occur in vivo and could affect the bioavailability of toxins and drugs conjugated via thia-Michael addition, potentially exacerbating oxidative stress by catalytically converting GSH to its sulfenate via conjugation

  6. Thin copper oxide films prepared by ion beam sputtering with subsequent thermal oxidation: Application in chemiresistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, P.; Bejsovec, V.; Vacik, J.; Lavrentiev, V.; Vrnata, M.; Kormunda, M.; Danis, S.

    2016-12-01

    Copper oxide films were prepared by thermal oxidation of thin Cu films deposited on substrates by ion beam sputtering. The subsequent oxidation was achieved in the temperature range of 200 °C-600 °C with time of treatment from 1 to 7 h (with a 1-h step) in a furnace open to air. At temperatures 250 °C-600 °C, the dominant phase formed was CuO, while at 200 °C mainly the Cu2O phase was identified. However, the oxidation at 200 °C led to a more complicated composition - in the depth Cu2O phase was observed, though in the near-surface layer the CuO dominant phase was found with a significant presence of Cu(OH)2. A limited amount of Cu2O was also found in samples annealed at 600 °C. The sheet resistance RS of the as-deposited Cu sample was 2.22 Ω/□, after gradual annealing RS was measured in the range 2.64 MΩ/□-2.45 GΩ/□. The highest RS values were obtained after annealing at 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. Oxygen depth distribution was studied using the 16O(α,α) nuclear reaction with the resonance at energy 3032 keV. It was confirmed that the higher oxidation degree of copper is located in the near-surface region. Preliminary tests of the copper oxide films as an active layer of a chemiresistor were also performed. Hydrogen and methanol vapours, with a concentration of 1000 ppm, were detected by the sensor at an operating temperature of 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. The response of the sensors, pointed at the p-type conductivity, was improved by the addition of thin Pd or Au catalytic films to the oxidic film surface. Pd-covered films showed an increased response to hydrogen at 300 °C, while Au-covered films were more sensitive to methanol vapours at 350 °C.

  7. NOTE: Measuring oxidative gelation of aqueous flour suspensions using the Rapid Visco Analyzer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) was investigated as a tool to measure oxidative gelation capacity (OGC) of aqueous wheat-flour suspensions. One, club-wheat patent flour was used to determine optimal hydration time and 33 straight-grade flours (representing 12 hard and 31 soft varieties) were used to ...

  8. A rapid and efficient self-healing thermo-reversible elastomer crosslinked with graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Nan; Allen, Ranulfo; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Wu, Yunpeng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yongsheng; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-10-25

    A self-healing thermo-reversible elastomer is synthesized by cross-linking a hydrogen bonding polymer network with chemically-modified graphene oxide. This nanocomposite allows for both rapid and efficient self-healing (in only several minutes) at room temperature, without the need for any external stimuli (e.g., heating or light exposure), healing agents, plasticizers or solvents.

  9. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the structural and local atomic properties of ZnO: Ge nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ceylan, Abdullah Ozcan, Sadan; Rumaiz, Abdul K.; Caliskan, Deniz; Ozbay, Ekmel; Woicik, J. C.

    2015-03-14

    We have investigated the structural and local atomic properties of Ge nanocrystals (Ge-ncs) embedded ZnO (ZnO: Ge) thin films. The films were deposited by sequential sputtering of ZnO and Ge thin film layers on z-cut quartz substrates followed by an ex-situ rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 600 °C for 30, 60, and 90 s under forming gas atmosphere. Effects of RTA time on the evolution of Ge-ncs were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES), and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). XRD patterns have clearly shown that fcc diamond phase Ge-ncs of sizes ranging between 18 and 27 nm are formed upon RTA and no Ge-oxide peak has been detected. However, cross-section SEM images have clearly revealed that after RTA process, Ge layers form varying size nanoclusters composed of Ge-ncs regions. EXAFS performed at the Ge K-edge to probe the local atomic structure of the Ge-ncs has revealed that as prepared ZnO:Ge possesses Ge-oxide but subsequent RTA leads to crystalline Ge structure without the oxide layer. In order to study the occupied electronic structure, HAXPES has been utilized. The peak separation between the Zn 2p and Ge 3d shows no significant change due to RTA. This implies little change in the valence band offset due to RTA.

  10. Rapid thermal lysis of cells using silicon-diamond microcantilever heaters.

    PubMed

    Privorotskaya, Natalya; Liu, Yi-Shao; Lee, Jungchul; Zeng, Hongjun; Carlisle, John A; Radadia, Adarsh; Millet, Larry; Bashir, Rashid; King, William P

    2010-05-07

    This paper presents the design and application of microcantilever heaters for biochemical applications. Thermal lysis of biological cells was demonstrated as a specific example. The microcantilever heaters, fabricated from selectively doped single crystal silicon, provide local resistive heating with highly uniform temperature distribution across the cantilevers. Very importantly, the microcantilever heaters were coated with a layer of 100 nm thick electrically insulating ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) layer used for cell immobilization on the cantilever surface. Fibroblast cells or bacterial cells were immobilized on the UNCD/cantilever surfaces and thermal lysis was demonstrated via optical fluorescence microscopy. Upon electrical heating of the cantilever structures to 93 degrees C for 30 seconds, fibroblast cell and nuclear membrane were compromised and the cells were lysed. Over 90% of viable bacteria were also lysed after 15 seconds of heating at 93 degrees C. This work demonstrates the utility of silicon-UNCD heated microcantilevers for rapid cell lysis and forms the basis for other rapid and localized temperature-regulated microbiological experiments in cantilever-based lab on chip applications.

  11. Broadening of the thermal component of the prompt GRB emission due to rapid temperature evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharali, Priya; Sahayanathan, Sunder; Misra, Ranjeev; Boruah, Kalyanee

    2017-08-01

    The observations of the prompt emission of gamma ray bursts (GRB) by GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM), on board Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, suggest the presence of a significant thermal spectral component, whose origin is not well understood. Recently, it has been shown that for long duration GRBs, the spectral width as defined as the logarithm of the ratio of the energies at which the spectrum falls to half its peak value, lie in the range of 0.84-1.3 with a median value of 1.07. Thus, while most of the GRB spectra are found to be too narrow to be explained by synchrotron emission from an electron distribution, they are also significantly broader than a blackbody spectrum whose width should be 0.54. Here, we consider the possibility that an intrinsic thermal spectrum from a fire-ball like model, may be observed to be broadened if the system undergoes a rapid temperature evolution. We construct a toy-model to show that for bursts with durations in the range 5-70 s, the widths of their 1 second time-averaged spectra can be at the most ≲ 0.557. Thus, while rapid temperature variation can broaden the detected spectral shape, the observed median value of ˜ 1.07 requires that there must be significant sub-photospheric emission and/or an anisotropic explosion to explain the broadening for most GRB spectra.

  12. Insight into the mechanism of the thermal reduction of graphite oxide: deuterium-labeled graphite oxide is the key.

    PubMed

    Sofer, Zdeněk; Jankovský, Ondřej; Šimek, Petr; Sedmidubský, David; Šturala, Jiří; Kosina, Jiří; Mikšová, Romana; Macková, Anna; Mikulics, Martin; Pumera, Martin

    2015-05-26

    For the past decade, researchers have been trying to understand the mechanism of the thermal reduction of graphite oxide. Because deuterium is widely used as a marker in various organic reactions, we wondered if deuterium-labeled graphite oxide could be the key to fully understand this mechanism. Graphite oxides were prepared by the Hofmann, Hummers, Staudenmaier, and Brodie methods, and a deuterium-labeled analogue was synthesized by the Hofmann method. All graphite oxides were analyzed not only using the traditional techniques but also by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) during exfoliation in hydrogen and nitrogen atmospheres. GC-MS enabled us to compare differences between the chemical compositions of the organic exfoliation products formed during the thermal reduction of these graphite oxides. Nuclear analytical methods (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis) were used to calculate the concentrations of light elements, including the ratio of hydrogen to deuterium. Combining all of these results we were able to determine graphite oxide's thermal reduction mechanism. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and water are formed from the thermal reduction of graphite oxide. This process is also accompanied by various radical reactions that lead to the formation of a large amount of carcinogenic volatile organic compounds, and this will have major safety implications for the mass production of graphene.

  13. Thermal-treatment effect on the photoluminescence and gas-sensing properties of tungsten oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Shibin; Chang, Xueting; Li, Zhenjiang

    2010-09-15

    Single-crystalline non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanowires were initially prepared using a simple solvothermal method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations indicate that the tungsten oxide nanowires exhibit various crystal defects, including stacking faults, dislocations, and vacancies. A possible defect-induced mechanism was proposed to account for the temperature-dependent morphological evolution of the tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing. Due to the high specific surface areas and non-stoichiometric crystal structure, the original tungsten oxide nanowires were highly sensitive to ppm level ethanol at room temperature. Thermal treatment under dry air condition was found to deteriorate the selectivity of room-temperature tungsten oxide sensors, and 400 {sup o}C may be considered as the top temperature limit in sensor applications for the solvothermally-prepared nanowires. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of tungsten oxide nanowires were also strongly influenced by thermal treatment.

  14. Oxidation instability of SiC and Si3N4 following thermal excursions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogbuji, Linus U. J. T.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of thermal excursion and thermal cycling on the oxidation stability of chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) SiC and Si3N4 was studied at 1350 C. Thermal cycling alone produced no noticeable change in oxidation kinetics. However, TEM showed that oxide scales grown in cycles consist of alternating layers of SiO2 and Si2N2O. When the oxidation of CVD SiC or Si3N4 at 1350 C was interrupted with a 1.5-h annealing in Ar at 1500 C, the kinetics of reoxidation at 1350 C were found to be drastically increased. The SiC and Si3N4 then oxidized essentially at the same rate, which is over 50 times the preannealing rate, and comparable to the expected oxidation rate of these materials at 1500 C.

  15. Rapid surficial oxidation of synthetic Fe-Ti oxides at high temperature: Observations and consequences for magnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattard, Dominique; Sauerzapf, Ursula; Kontny, Agnes

    2012-08-01

    Synthetic polycrystalline samples of Fe-Ti oxides (titanomagnetite, Tmtss; ilmenite-hematitess, Ilmss; pseudobrookitess, Psbss) are very sensitive to changes in the redox conditions at high temperatures, either during synthesis experiments or during thermomagnetic measurements. For instance, exposure to air for a few seconds at the end of a synthesis run at 1300°C of a Tmtss-Ilmss sample produces surficial oxidation down to a depth of some 100 μm. This oxidation zone is well visible on backscattered electron images of polished sections through the sample pellet. It is characterized by so-called trellis “oxyexsolution” textures, i.e., fine lamellae of Ilmss within the Tmtss crystals and lamellae of Psbss within the Ilmss crystals. In this oxidation zone the newly grown Ilmss lamellae and the surrounding Tmtss are more Fe rich than the original crystals. The presence of trellis textures in the crystals of both coexisting phases, Tmtss and Ilmss, show that only short-scaled elemental transport within the crystals was involved and that equilibrium was not attained. Even though the oxidation zone is very narrow, the imprint of the new Tmtss compositions is well recognizable in temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility curves. In temperature-dependent saturation magnetization (MS-T) curves, however, the contribution of more Fe-rich Tmtss from the oxidation zone can be easily overseen. However, surficial oxidation of Tmtss does occur during MS-T measurements with a variable field translation balance, apparently in relation with insufficient Ar flowing around the sample. Further examples of rapid surficial oxidation of Fe-Ti oxide samples are also discussed.

  16. Rapid surficial oxidation of synthetic Fe-Ti oxides at high temperature: Observations and consequences for magnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattard, Dominique; Sauerzapf, Ursula; Kontny, Agnes

    2012-08-01

    Synthetic polycrystalline samples of Fe-Ti oxides (titanomagnetite, Tmtss; ilmenite-hematitess, Ilmss; pseudobrookitess, Psbss) are very sensitive to changes in the redox conditions at high temperatures, either during synthesis experiments or during thermomagnetic measurements. For instance, exposure to air for a few seconds at the end of a synthesis run at 1300°C of a Tmtss-Ilmss sample produces surficial oxidation down to a depth of some 100 μm. This oxidation zone is well visible on backscattered electron images of polished sections through the sample pellet. It is characterized by so-called trellis "oxyexsolution" textures, i.e., fine lamellae of Ilmss within the Tmtss crystals and lamellae of Psbss within the Ilmss crystals. In this oxidation zone the newly grown Ilmss lamellae and the surrounding Tmtss are more Fe rich than the original crystals. The presence of trellis textures in the crystals of both coexisting phases, Tmtss and Ilmss, show that only short-scaled elemental transport within the crystals was involved and that equilibrium was not attained. Even though the oxidation zone is very narrow, the imprint of the new Tmtsscompositions is well recognizable in temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility curves. In temperature-dependent saturation magnetization (MS-T) curves, however, the contribution of more Fe-rich Tmtss from the oxidation zone can be easily overseen. However, surficial oxidation of Tmtss does occur during MS-T measurements with a variable field translation balance, apparently in relation with insufficient Ar flowing around the sample. Further examples of rapid surficial oxidation of Fe-Ti oxide samples are also discussed.

  17. Selective rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition of titanium silicide on heavily doped silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hua

    The continued scaling of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) increases the need for advanced contact formation technologies that can be used on ultra-shallow source and drain junctions. Titanium silicide (TiSi2) formed by the Self-Aligned Silicide (SALICIDE) technology is widely used in MOSFET fabrication for this purpose. As device feature sizes shrink down to 0.1 mum, however, the SALICIDE technology becomes increasingly incompatible with ultra-shallow junctions because of silicon substrate consumption. For TiSi2, achieving the low resistivity C54 phase on narrow polycrystalline silicon lines (<0.2 mum) is also quite challenging. This work focused on selective rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) of TiSi2 on heavily-doped single-crystal substrates and polycrystalline films. As the gaseous precursors, SiH4 and TiCl 4 were used. The main objective of this work was to understand the impact of dopants on TiSi2 nucleation and substrate consumption in order to achieve C54-TiSi2 deposition with negligible consumption on heavily doped p- and n-type Si. In this work, TiSi2 deposition was found to be quite sensitive to both dopant type and amount. While boron doping did not interfere with TiSi2 deposition, arsenic introduced a barrier to nucleation and increased substrate consumption. These effects were linked to surface passivation before and during deposition. Arsenic was found to diffuse into the TiSi2 layer maintaining a high surface concentration during deposition. Phosphorus also showed effects similar to arsenic but these effects were much less severe and could be suppressed by raising the process temperature. To suppress the undesirable effects, different pre-deposition surface treatments were considered. The rationale behind these treatments was to remove the arsenic passivated surface layer without giving arsenic atoms the chance to replenish the surface sites. The surface treatments considered were in-situ Cl2 etching and in

  18. Rapid growth and formation mechanism of ultrafine structural oxide eutectic ceramics by laser direct forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, H. J.; Zhang, J.; Liu, L.; Eckert, J.; Fu, H. Z.

    2011-11-01

    Melt growth of oxide eutectic is an important and fast-growing research topic in the fields of both applied physics and materials science. Rapid one-step fabrication of melt-grown oxide ceramics with large size is developed using laser direct forming. The near 100% density of Al2O3/YAG eutectic ceramic in situ composite free of pore and cracks is rapidly melted/solidified directly from Al2O3-Y2O3 powder without any preforming or sintering. Uniform three-dimensional network of ultrafine nanostructured eutectic microstructure is obtained. The direct experimental evidence of faceted-nonfaceted eutectic transition at high growth rate is presented and the physical model of the microstructural formation based on atom cluster elementary process is proposed. This technology provides a rapid freeform fabrication of high-performance complex shaped ceramics for various applications.

  19. Galvanic displacement reaction and rapid thermal annealing in size/shape controlling silver nanoparticles on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Tapas; Satpati, Biswarup

    2017-05-01

    The effect of the thermal annealing on silver nanoparticles deposited on silicon surface has been studied. The silver nanoparticles have been deposited by the galvanic displacement reaction. Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) has been performed on the Si substrate, containing the silver nanoparticles. The scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study show that the galvanic displacement reaction and subsequent rapid thermal annealing could lead to well separated and spherical shaped larger silver nanoparticles on silicon substrate.

  20. A predictive model for the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall, rapid thermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Toprac, A.J.; Trachtenberg, I.; Edgar, T.F. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon from thermally activated silane in a cold wall, single-wafer rapid thermal system was studied by experimentation at a variety of low pressure conditions, including very high temperatures. The effect of diluent gas on polysilicon deposition rates was examined using hydrogen, helium, and krypton. A mass-transfer model for the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall, rapid thermal system was developed. This model was used to produce an empirical rate expression for silicon deposition from silane by regressing kinetic parameters to fit experimental data. The resulting model provided accurate predictions over widely varying conditions in the experimental data.

  1. The Rotary Zone Thermal Cycler: A Low-Power System Enabling Automated Rapid PCR

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Michael S.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Van de Vreugde, James L.; Kim, Hanyoup; Knight, Daniel L.; Sinha, Anupama; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology, microfluidics, and laboratory automation continue to expand the accessibility and applicability of these methods beyond the confines of conventional, centralized laboratory facilities and into point of use roles in clinical, military, forensic, and field-deployed applications. As a result, there is a growing need to adapt the unit operations of molecular biology (e.g., aliquoting, centrifuging, mixing, and thermal cycling) to compact, portable, low-power, and automation-ready formats. Here we present one such adaptation, the rotary zone thermal cycler (RZTC), a novel wheel-based device capable of cycling up to four different fixed-temperature blocks into contact with a stationary 4-microliter capillary-bound sample to realize 1-3 second transitions with steady state heater power of less than 10 W. We demonstrate the utility of the RZTC for DNA amplification as part of a highly integrated rotary zone PCR (rzPCR) system that uses low-volume valves and syringe-based fluid handling to automate sample loading and unloading, thermal cycling, and between-run cleaning functionalities in a compact, modular form factor. In addition to characterizing the performance of the RZTC and the efficacy of different online cleaning protocols, we present preliminary results for rapid single-plex PCR, multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) amplification, and second strand cDNA synthesis. PMID:25826708

  2. The rotary zone thermal cycler: a low-power system enabling automated rapid PCR.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Michael S; Edwards, Harrison S; Lee, Daniel; Moseley, Caroline E; Tew, Karen E; Renzi, Ronald F; Van de Vreugde, James L; Kim, Hanyoup; Knight, Daniel L; Sinha, Anupama; Branda, Steven S; Patel, Kamlesh D

    2015-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology, microfluidics, and laboratory automation continue to expand the accessibility and applicability of these methods beyond the confines of conventional, centralized laboratory facilities and into point of use roles in clinical, military, forensic, and field-deployed applications. As a result, there is a growing need to adapt the unit operations of molecular biology (e.g., aliquoting, centrifuging, mixing, and thermal cycling) to compact, portable, low-power, and automation-ready formats. Here we present one such adaptation, the rotary zone thermal cycler (RZTC), a novel wheel-based device capable of cycling up to four different fixed-temperature blocks into contact with a stationary 4-microliter capillary-bound sample to realize 1-3 second transitions with steady state heater power of less than 10 W. We demonstrate the utility of the RZTC for DNA amplification as part of a highly integrated rotary zone PCR (rzPCR) system that uses low-volume valves and syringe-based fluid handling to automate sample loading and unloading, thermal cycling, and between-run cleaning functionalities in a compact, modular form factor. In addition to characterizing the performance of the RZTC and the efficacy of different online cleaning protocols, we present preliminary results for rapid single-plex PCR, multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) amplification, and second strand cDNA synthesis.

  3. The rotary zone thermal cycler: A low-power system enabling automated rapid PCR

    DOE PAGES

    Bartsch, Michael S.; Edwards, Harrison S.; Gas Transmission Systems, Walnut Creek, CA; ...

    2015-03-31

    In this study, advances in molecular biology, microfluidics, and laboratory automation continue to expand the accessibility and applicability of these methods beyond the confines of conventional, centralized laboratory facilities and into point of use roles in clinical, military, forensic, portable, and field-deployed applications. As a result, there is a growing need to adapt the unit operations of molecular biology such as aliquoting, centrifuging, mixing, and thermal cycling to compact, portable, low-power, and automation-ready formats. Here we present one such adaptation, the rotary zone thermal cycler (RZTC), a novel wheel-based device capable of cycling up to four different fixed-temperature blocks intomore » contact with a stationary 4-microliter capillary-bound sample to realize 1-3 second transitions with steady state heater power of less than 10 W. We further demonstrate the utility of the RZTC for DNA amplification as part of a highly integrated rotary zone PCR (rzPCR) system using low-volume valves and syringe-based fluid handling to automate sample loading and unloading, thermal cycling, and between run cleaning functionalities in a compact, modular form factor. In addition to characterizing the performance of the RZTC and the efficacy of different online cleaning protocols, preliminary results are presented for rapid single-plex PCR, multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) amplification, and second strand cDNA synthesis.« less

  4. Influence of Rapid Thermal Ramp Rate on Phase Transformation of Titanium Silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Glenn; Hu, Yao, Zhi; Smith, Paul Martin; Tay, Sing Pin; Thakur, Randhir; Yang, Jiting

    1999-05-03

    ULSI technology requires low resistance, stable silicides formed on small geometry lines. Titanium disilicide (TiSiz), which is the most widely used silicide for ULSI applications, exists in two crystallographic phases: the high resistance, metastable C49 phase and the low resistance, stable C54 phase. The major issue with TiSiz is the increasing thermal budget required to transform the C49 phase into the low resistance C54 phase as linewiths decrease below 0.25 pm. Annealing above 900"C to obtain this transformation often results in thermal degradation, so it is desirable to reduce the transformation temperature. The transformation temperature has been shown to be a fi.mction of many factors including microstructure, grain size, and impurities. In this paper we report an investig+ion of rapid thermal silicidation of titanium films (250, 400, and 600 A) on single crystalline silicon at temperatures from 300 to 1000"C. The ramp rates for these experiments are 5, 30, 70, and 200oC/s. The transformation temperature decreases as the ramp rate increases and as the initial film thickness increases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to analyze the resultant film microstructure. The ramp rate influence on Ti silicidation is also investigated on polycrystalline Si lines with widths ranging from 0.27 to 3.0 pm.

  5. The rotary zone thermal cycler: A low-power system enabling automated rapid PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, Michael S.; Edwards, Harrison S.; Lee, Daniel; Moseley, Caroline E.; Tew, Karen E.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Van de Vreugde, James L.; Kim, Hanyoup; Knight, Daniel L.; Sinha, Anupama; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Wanunu, Meni

    2015-03-31

    In this study, advances in molecular biology, microfluidics, and laboratory automation continue to expand the accessibility and applicability of these methods beyond the confines of conventional, centralized laboratory facilities and into point of use roles in clinical, military, forensic, portable, and field-deployed applications. As a result, there is a growing need to adapt the unit operations of molecular biology such as aliquoting, centrifuging, mixing, and thermal cycling to compact, portable, low-power, and automation-ready formats. Here we present one such adaptation, the rotary zone thermal cycler (RZTC), a novel wheel-based device capable of cycling up to four different fixed-temperature blocks into contact with a stationary 4-microliter capillary-bound sample to realize 1-3 second transitions with steady state heater power of less than 10 W. We further demonstrate the utility of the RZTC for DNA amplification as part of a highly integrated rotary zone PCR (rzPCR) system using low-volume valves and syringe-based fluid handling to automate sample loading and unloading, thermal cycling, and between run cleaning functionalities in a compact, modular form factor. In addition to characterizing the performance of the RZTC and the efficacy of different online cleaning protocols, preliminary results are presented for rapid single-plex PCR, multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) amplification, and second strand cDNA synthesis.

  6. Thermal Transport in Graphene Oxide – From Ballistic Extreme to Amorphous Limit

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Xin; Wu, Xufei; Zhang, Teng; Go, David B.; Luo, Tengfei

    2014-01-01

    Graphene oxide is being used in energy, optical, electronic and sensor devices due to its unique properties. However, unlike its counterpart – graphene – the thermal transport properties of graphene oxide remain unknown. In this work, we use large-scale molecular dynamics simulations with reactive potentials to systematically study the role of oxygen adatoms on the thermal transport in graphene oxide. For pristine graphene, highly ballistic thermal transport is observed. As the oxygen coverage increases, the thermal conductivity is significantly reduced. An oxygen coverage of 5% can reduce the graphene thermal conductivity by ~90% and a coverage of 20% lower it to ~8.8 W/mK. This value is even lower than the calculated amorphous limit (~11.6 W/mK for graphene), which is usually regarded as the minimal possible thermal conductivity of a solid. Analyses show that the large reduction in thermal conductivity is due to the significantly enhanced phonon scattering induced by the oxygen defects which introduce dramatic structural deformations. These results provide important insight to the thermal transport physics in graphene oxide and offer valuable information for the design of graphene oxide-based materials and devices. PMID:24468660

  7. Thermal transport in graphene oxide--from ballistic extreme to amorphous limit.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xin; Wu, Xufei; Zhang, Teng; Go, David B; Luo, Tengfei

    2014-01-28

    Graphene oxide is being used in energy, optical, electronic and sensor devices due to its unique properties. However, unlike its counterpart - graphene - the thermal transport properties of graphene oxide remain unknown. In this work, we use large-scale molecular dynamics simulations with reactive potentials to systematically study the role of oxygen adatoms on the thermal transport in graphene oxide. For pristine graphene, highly ballistic thermal transport is observed. As the oxygen coverage increases, the thermal conductivity is significantly reduced. An oxygen coverage of 5% can reduce the graphene thermal conductivity by ~90% and a coverage of 20% lower it to ~8.8 W/mK. This value is even lower than the calculated amorphous limit (~11.6 W/mK for graphene), which is usually regarded as the minimal possible thermal conductivity of a solid. Analyses show that the large reduction in thermal conductivity is due to the significantly enhanced phonon scattering induced by the oxygen defects which introduce dramatic structural deformations. These results provide important insight to the thermal transport physics in graphene oxide and offer valuable information for the design of graphene oxide-based materials and devices.

  8. The Effect of Interface Roughness and Oxide Film Thickness on the Inelastic Response of Thermal Barrier Coatings to Thermal Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Aboudi, Jacob; Arnold, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of interfacial roughness and oxide film thickness on thermally-induced stresses in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings subjected to thermal cycling are investigated using the recently developed higher-order theory for functionally graded materials. The higher-order theory is shown to be a viable alternative to the finite-element approach, capable of modeling different interfacial roughness architectures in the presence of an aluminum oxide layer and capturing the high stress gradients that occur at the top coat/bond coat interface. The oxide layer thickness is demonstrated to have a substantially greater effect on the evolution of residual stresses than local variations in interfacial roughness. Further, the location of delamination initiation in the top coat is predicted to change with increasing oxide layer thickness. This result can be used to optimize the thickness of a pre-oxidized layer introduced at the top coat/bond coat interface in order to enhance TBC durability as suggested by some researchers. The results of our investigation also support a recently proposed hypothesis regarding delamination initiation and propagation in the presence of an evolving bond coat oxidation, while pointing to the importance of interfacial roughness details and specimen geometry in modeling this phenomenon.

  9. Studies on Rapidly Frozen Suspensions of Yeast Cells by Differential Thermal Analysis and Conductometry

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Peter

    1963-01-01

    Few, if any, yeast cells survived rapid cooling to -196°C and subsequent slow warming. After rapid freezing, the suspensions absorbed latent heat of fusion between -15° and 0°C during warming, and the relation between the amount of heat absorbed and the concentration of cells was the same as that in equivalent KCl solutions, indicating that frozen suspensions behave thermally like frozen solutions. The amount of heat absorbed was such that more than 80 per cent of the intracellular solution had to be frozen. The conductometric behavior of frozen suspensions showed that cell solutes were still inside the cells and surrounded by an intact cell membrane at the time heat was being absorbed. Two models are consistent with these findings. The first assumes that intracellular freezing has taken place; the second that all freezable water has left the cells and frozen externally. The latter model is ruled out because rapidly cooled cells do not shrink by an amount equal to the volume of water that would have to be withdrawn to prevent internal freezing. PMID:13934216

  10. Rapid water oxidation electrocatalysis by a ruthenium complex of the tripodal ligand tris(2-pyridyl)phosphine oxide.

    PubMed

    Walden, Andrew G; Miller, Alexander J M

    2015-04-16

    The tris(2-pyridyl)phosphine oxide (Py3PO) complex [Ru(Py3PO)(bpy)(OH2)](2+) (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine) is a pH-dependent water oxidation electrocatalyst that accelerates dramatically with increasing pH-up to 780 s(-1) at pH 10 (∼1 V overpotential). Despite retaining the pentakis(pyridine) ligand arrangement common to previously reported catalysts, the tripodal Py3PO ligand framework supports much faster electrocatalysis. The early stages of the catalytic cycle are proposed to follow the typical pattern of single-site ruthenium catalysts, with two sequential 1H(+)/1e(-) proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) oxidations, but the pH-dependent onset of catalysis and rapid rates are distinguishing features of the present system.

  11. Rapid Thermal Annealing of Cathode-Garnet Interface toward High-Temperature Solid State Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boyang; Fu, Kun; Gong, Yunhui; Yang, Chunpeng; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Yanbin; Wang, Chengwei; Kuang, Yudi; Pastel, Glenn; Xie, Hua; Wachsman, Eric D; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-08-09

    High-temperature batteries require the battery components to be thermally stable and function properly at high temperatures. Conventional batteries have high-temperature safety issues such as thermal runaway, which are mainly attributed to the properties of liquid organic electrolytes such as low boiling points and high flammability. In this work, we demonstrate a truly all-solid-state high-temperature battery using a thermally stable garnet solid-state electrolyte, a lithium metal anode, and a V2O5 cathode, which can operate well at 100 °C. To address the high interfacial resistance between the solid electrolyte and cathode, a rapid thermal annealing method was developed to melt the cathode and form a continuous contact. The resulting interfacial resistance of the solid electrolyte and V2O5 cathode was significantly decreased from 2.5 × 10(4) to 71 Ω·cm(2) at room temperature and from 170 to 31 Ω·cm(2) at 100 °C. Additionally, the diffusion resistance in the V2O5 cathode significantly decreased as well. The demonstrated high-temperature solid-state full cell has an interfacial resistance of 45 Ω·cm(2) and 97% Coulombic efficiency cycling at 100 °C. This work provides a strategy to develop high-temperature all-solid-state batteries using garnet solid electrolytes and successfully addresses the high contact resistance between the V2O5 cathode and garnet solid electrolyte without compromising battery safety or performance.

  12. A Rapid and Low-Cost PCR Thermal Cycler for Infectious Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kamfai; Wong, Pui-Yan; Yu, Peter; Hardick, Justin; Wong, Kah-Yat; Wilson, Scott A.; Wu, Tiffany; Hui, Zoe; Gaydos, Charlotte; Wong, Season S.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to make rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases broadly available in a portable, low-cost format would mark a great step forward in global health. Many molecular diagnostic assays are developed based on using thermal cyclers to carry out polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcription PCR for DNA and RNA amplification and detection, respectively. Unfortunately, most commercial thermal cyclers are expensive and need continuous electrical power supply, so they are not suitable for uses in low-resource settings. We have previously reported a low-cost and simple approach to amplify DNA using vacuum insulated stainless steel thermoses food cans, which we have named it thermos thermal cycler or TTC. Here, we describe the use of an improved set up to enable the detection of viral RNA targets by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), thus expanding the TTC’s ability to identify highly infectious, RNA virus-based diseases in low resource settings. The TTC was successful in demonstrating high-speed and sensitive detection of DNA or RNA targets of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and dengue fever. Our innovative TTC costs less than $200 to build and has a capacity of at least eight tubes. In terms of speed, the TTC’s performance exceeded that of commercial thermal cyclers tested. When coupled with low-cost endpoint detection technologies such as nucleic acid lateral-flow assay or a cell-phone-based fluorescence detector, the TTC will increase the availability of on-site molecular diagnostics in low-resource settings. PMID:26872358

  13. A Rapid and Low-Cost PCR Thermal Cycler for Infectious Disease Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kamfai; Wong, Pui-Yan; Yu, Peter; Hardick, Justin; Wong, Kah-Yat; Wilson, Scott A; Wu, Tiffany; Hui, Zoe; Gaydos, Charlotte; Wong, Season S

    2016-01-01

    The ability to make rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases broadly available in a portable, low-cost format would mark a great step forward in global health. Many molecular diagnostic assays are developed based on using thermal cyclers to carry out polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcription PCR for DNA and RNA amplification and detection, respectively. Unfortunately, most commercial thermal cyclers are expensive and need continuous electrical power supply, so they are not suitable for uses in low-resource settings. We have previously reported a low-cost and simple approach to amplify DNA using vacuum insulated stainless steel thermoses food cans, which we have named it thermos thermal cycler or TTC. Here, we describe the use of an improved set up to enable the detection of viral RNA targets by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), thus expanding the TTC's ability to identify highly infectious, RNA virus-based diseases in low resource settings. The TTC was successful in demonstrating high-speed and sensitive detection of DNA or RNA targets of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and dengue fever. Our innovative TTC costs less than $200 to build and has a capacity of at least eight tubes. In terms of speed, the TTC's performance exceeded that of commercial thermal cyclers tested. When coupled with low-cost endpoint detection technologies such as nucleic acid lateral-flow assay or a cell-phone-based fluorescence detector, the TTC will increase the availability of on-site molecular diagnostics in low-resource settings.

  14. Transformation and removal of wood extractives from pulp mill sludge using wet oxidation and thermal hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Baroutian, Saeid; Robinson, Murray; Smit, Anne-Marie; Wijeyekoon, Suren; Gapes, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    In order to remove wood extractive compounds from pulp mill sludge and thereby enhancing anaerobic digestibility, samples were subjected to either oxidative hydrothermal treatment (wet oxidation) or non-oxidative hydrothermal treatment (thermal hydrolysis). Treatments were carried out at 220 °C with initial pressure of 20 bar. More than 90% destruction of extractive compounds was observed after 20 min of wet oxidation. Wet oxidation eliminated 95.7% of phenolics, 98.6% fatty acids, 99.8% resin acids and 100% of phytosterols in 120 min. Acetic acid concentration increased by approximately 2 g/l after 120 min of wet oxidation. This has potential for rendering sludge more amenable to anaerobic digestion. In contrast thermal hydrolysis was found to be ineffective in degrading extractive compounds. Wet oxidation is considered to be an effective process for removal of recalcitrant and inhibitive compounds through hydrothermal pre-treatment of pulp mill sludge.

  15. Native surface oxide turns alloyed silicon membranes into nanophononic metamaterials with ultralow thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shiyun; Selli, Daniele; Neogi, Sanghamitra; Donadio, Davide

    2017-05-01

    A detailed understanding of the relation between microscopic structure and phonon propagation at the nanoscale is essential to design materials with desired phononic and thermal properties. Here we uncover a new mechanism of phonon interaction in surface oxidized membranes, i.e., native oxide layers interact with phonons in ultrathin silicon membranes through local resonances. The local resonances reduce the low frequency phonon group velocities and shorten their mean free path. This effect opens up a new strategy for ultralow thermal conductivity design as it complements the scattering mechanism which scatters higher frequency modes effectively. The combination of native oxide layer and alloying with germanium in concentration as small as 5% reduces the thermal conductivity of silicon membranes to 100 times lower than the bulk. In addition, the resonance mechanism produced by native oxide surface layers is particularly effective for thermal conductivity reduction even at very low temperatures, at which only low frequency modes are populated.

  16. Thermally activated persulfate oxidation regeneration of NOM- and MTBE- spent granular activated carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical oxidation is a developing technology used to regenerate contaminant-spent GAC. Chemical regeneration of GAC represents a viable option to thermal regeneration methods that are energy intensive resulting in significant consumption of fossil fuels and production of greenho...

  17. Thermally activated persulfate oxidation regeneration of NOM- and MTBE- spent granular activated carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical oxidation is a developing technology used to regenerate contaminant-spent GAC. Chemical regeneration of GAC represents a viable option to thermal regeneration methods that are energy intensive resulting in significant consumption of fossil fuels and production of greenho...

  18. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders prepared by a thermal plasma process for water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongeun; Choi, Yong-Wook; Na, Ye-Seul; Choi, Soo-Suk; Park, Dong-Wha; Choi, Jinsub

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Hematite nanopowders with a high purity were synthesized by a DC thermal plasma process. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is formed during the formation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by thermal plasma with iron and oxygen sources. • Hematite nanopowders with a high purity show higher PEC performance compared to mixed oxides. - Abstract: Hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanopowders were synthesized from commercially available micro-sized iron powders by a DC thermal plasma process at atmospheric pressure. The micro-sized iron powders were vaporized in the plasma region, after which the plasma processing equipment was rapidly quenched, resulting in the formation of iron nanopowders with a size of less than 100 nm. Subsequently, the iron nanopowders were heated to convert hematite with a high purity, which was then formed into a thin film with a binder for preparation of electrodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. Iron oxide nanopowders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis (PSA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photoelectrochemical properties of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} film were characterized in 1 M NaOH under AM 1.5 conditions.

  19. Microstructure and thermal oxidation behavior of yttria-stabilized hafnia nanostructured coatings deposited on alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, E. J.; Martinez, G.; Noor-A-Alam, M.; Stafford, S. W.; Shutthanandan, V.; Ramana, C. V.

    2013-12-01

    Nanostructured yttria-stabilized hafnia (YSH) coatings were grown on α-Al2O3 substrates with variable coating thickness in a wide range of ~50 nm to 1 μm. Microstructure and thermal oxidation behavior of the grown YSH coatings were studied employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and isothermal furnace oxidation testing. The effect of coating thickness on the crystal structure, surface/interface morphology and thermal oxidation was investigated. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed the formation of monoclinic phase for relatively thin coatings (b100 nm) indicating that the interfacial phenomena play a dominant role in phase stabilization. The evolution towards stabilized cubic phase with increasing coating thickness is observed. The SEM results indicate the dense, columnar structure of YSH coatings as a function of thickness. Thermal oxidation measurements indicate the enhanced hightemperature oxidation resistance of cubic YSH coatings.

  20. Rapid Deposition of Titanium Oxide and Zinc Oxide Films by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Yasutaka

    In order to develop a high rate atmospheric film deposition process for functional films, as a basic study, deposition of titanium oxide film and zinc oxide film by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) was conducted in open air. Consequently, in the case of titanium oxide film deposition, anantase film and amorphous film as well as rutile film could be deposited by varying the deposition distance. In the case of anatase dominant film, photo-catalytic properties of the films could be confirmed by wettability test. In addition, the dye sensitized sollar cell (DSC) using the TiO2 film deposited by this SPPS technique as photo voltaic device generates 49mV in OCV. On the other hand, in the case of zinc oxide film deposition, it was proved that well crystallized ZnO films with photo catalytic properties could be deposited. From these results, this process was found to have high potential for high rate functional film deposition process conducted in the air.

  1. Rapid thermal annealing and crystallization mechanisms study of silicon nanocrystal in silicon carbide matrix

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a positive effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) technique has been researched and compared with conventional furnace annealing for Si nanocrystalline in silicon carbide (SiC) matrix system. Amorphous Si-rich SiC layer has been deposited by co-sputtering in different Si concentrations (50 to approximately 80 v%). Si nanocrystals (Si-NC) containing different grain sizes have been fabricated within the SiC matrix under two different annealing conditions: furnace annealing and RTA both at 1,100°C. HRTEM image clearly reveals both Si and SiC-NC formed in the films. Much better "degree of crystallization" of Si-NC can be achieved in RTA than furnace annealing from the research of GIXRD and Raman analysis, especially in high-Si-concentration situation. Differences from the two annealing procedures and the crystallization mechanism have been discussed based on the experimental results. PMID:21711625

  2. EMMI rapid reaction task force on ‘Thermalization in non-Abelian plasmas’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berges, Jürgen; Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Gelis, François

    2012-08-01

    Recently, different proposals have been put forward on how thermalization proceeds in heavy-ion collisions in the idealized limit of very large nuclei at sufficiently high energy. Important aspects of the parametric estimates at weak coupling may be tested using well-established classical-statistical lattice simulations of the far-from-equilibrium gluon dynamics. This has to be confronted with strong coupling scenarios in related theories based on gauge-string dualities. Furthermore, closely related questions about far-from-equilibrium dynamics arise in early-universe cosmology and in non-relativistic systems of ultracold atoms. These were central topics of the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting held on 12-14 December 2011, at the University of Heidelberg, which we report on. Communicated by Professor Achim Schwenk

  3. The photoluminescence in Si+-implanted SiO2 films with rapid thermal anneal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Shu-Tsun; Tsai, Jen-Hwan; Sheu, Bor-Chiou

    1998-05-01

    Two photoluminescence (PL) bands were observed from Si+-implanted SiO2 films after rapid thermal anneal (RTA) at ⩾950 °C. The PL band at 2.2 eV was obtained from the films with RTA in dry nitrogen and the other one at 1.9 eV was obtained from the films with RTA in wet nitrogen. The luminescence at 2.2 eV disappeared after the films were reannealed with an electrical oven at ⩾600 °C, which is similar to the behavior of oxygen- and hydrogen-deficient structures, and therefore, the mechanism of this PL band was attributed to the Eδ' center. The other one at the 1.9 eV band, being related closely to Si-O-H structures and still appearing after being reannealed to 800 °C, could be ascribed to the effect of nonbridging oxygen hole centers.

  4. Cobalt silicide formation caused by arsenic ion beam mixing and rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Min; Burte, Edmund; Tsien, Pei-Hsin; Ryssel, Heiner

    1991-04-01

    Ion beam mixing and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) were used to prepare low resistivity (≈ 23 μΩ cm) cobalt disilicide, CoSi 2, layers. Through-metal As + ion implantation causes some mixing between Co and Si resulting in the formation of cobalt suicides. By using RTA, the silicide formation happens in the phase sequence Co 2Si, CoSi and CoSi 2. Samples which were only subjected to a one-step high temperature RTA process ( T ≥. 900°C, 1s) show significant lateral growth of cobalt suicides. By ion beam mixing of Co and Si this lateral silicide growth could be reduced efficiently. Furthermore one can get a very homogeneous CoSi 2 layer.

  5. Behaviour of implanted arsenic during rapid thermal annealing of Ti on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponpon, J. P.; Saulnier, A.; Stuck, R.

    1987-11-01

    The reaction during rapid thermal annealing of the Ti-Si couple with arsenic implanted either into titanium or into silicon has been investigated from the point of view of suicide formation kinetics and impurity redistribution. In contrast with similar experiments on other refractory metals, tungsten for example, the reaction is not blocked by the presence of arsenic but a temperature and dose dependent impurity effect leading to a lowering of the growth rate of the disilicide phase is observed. This has been attributed to arsenic segregation in the grain boundaries of the growing suicide which reduces the transport of silicon via easy diffusion paths towards the unreacted metal or a metal rich suicide phase. Arsenic, when present in the metal, has been found to produce the same effects as oxygen at the early beginning of the annealing. However, after the reaction has started the respective behaviour and influence of arsenic and oxygen become completely different.

  6. Preparation and rapid thermal annealing of AlN thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Gao, J.; Wu, K. M.; Liu, C.

    2009-05-01

    AlN films were grown at 785 ∘C on (0001) sapphire substrates by radio-frequency assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Post-growth rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was carried out from 900 to 1200 ∘C for 10 s in flowing N 2. The morphological and structural properties of the AlN epilayers before and after the RTA were studied by atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the threading dislocations can be decreased to an order of magnitude by using an interlayer growth method. The surface roughness (RMS) of the AlN thin films becomes larger with the increase of annealing temperature. The full width at half maximum of AlN (0002) rocking curve reaches its minimum after the RTA at 1000 ∘C.

  7. Rapid determination of drugs and semivolatile organics by direct thermal desorption ion trap mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.B.; Ilgner, R.H.; Buchanan, M.V.; Guerin, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Direct thermal desorption of analytes into an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) is being investigated as a technique for the rapid screening of a wide variety of samples for target semivolatile organic compounds. This includes the direct detection of drugs in physiological fluids, semivolatile organic pollutants in water and waste samples, and air pollutants collected on sorbent cartridges. In order to minimize the analysis time, chromatographic separation is not performed on the sample prior to introduction into the ITMS. Instead, selective chemical ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) are used achieve the specificity required for the target analytes. Detection limits are typically 10--50 ppb using a 1 uL aliquot of a liquid sample without preconcentration. Sample turn-around time is 2 to 5 minutes and 3 to 5 target analytes can be quantitatively determined simultaneously. 6 figs.

  8. Iridescent cellulose nanocrystal/polyethylene oxide composite films with low coefficient of thermal expansion

    Treesearch

    Jairo A. Diaz; Julia L. Braun; Robert J. Moon; Jeffrey P. Youngblood

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous control over optical and thermal properties is particularly challenging and highly desired in fields like organic electronics. Here we incorporated cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) into polyethylene oxide (PEO) in an attempt to preserve the iridescent CNC optical reflection given by their chiral nematic organisation, while reducing the composite thermal...

  9. Osteoblast response to thermally oxidized Ti6Al4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, L; Vilaboa, N; Vallés, G; González-Cabrero, J; Munuera, L

    2005-04-01

    We have recently reported that thermal oxidation treatments of Ti6Al4V at 500 degrees and 700 degrees C for 1 h result in the formation of an outer "ceramic" layer of rutile that do not decrease the high in vitro corrosion resistance of the alloy. In the present work, surface roughness was measured and found marginally increased as a consequence of oxidation of the alloy at 700 degrees C, but not at 500 degrees C. We have evaluated the biocompatibility of the oxidized surfaces, by assessing cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of primary cultures of human osteoblastic cells. Compared with polished alloy, both thermal treatments increased osteoblast adhesion measured as cell attachment, beta1 integrin and FAK-Y397 expression, as well as cytoskeletal reorganization. Compared with treatment at 500 degrees C, thermal oxidation at 700 degrees C enhanced cell adhesion. Treatment at 700 degrees C transiently impaired cell proliferation and viability, which were not altered in alloys oxidized at 500 degrees C. Several markers of osteoblastic differentiation such as procollagen I peptide, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and mineralized nodule formation were found either unaffected or differentially increased by alloys treated either at 500 degrees or 700 degrees C. In addition, thermal oxidation at 700 degrees C also increased osteoprotegerin secretion. Taken together, our results indicate that thermal oxidation treatments at 500 degrees or 700 degrees C for 1 h improve the in vitro biocompatibility of Ti6Al4V.

  10. Perspective: Rapid synthesis of complex oxides by combinatorial molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    A. T. Bollinger; Wu, J.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-03-15

    In this study, the molecular beam epitaxy(MBE) technique is well known for producing atomically smooth thin films as well as impeccable interfaces in multilayers of many different materials. In particular, molecular beam epitaxy is well suited to the growth of complex oxides, materials that hold promise for many applications. Rapid synthesis and high throughput characterization techniques are needed to tap into that potential most efficiently. We discuss our approach to doing that, leaving behind the traditional one-growth-one-compound scheme and instead implementing combinatorial oxide molecular beam epitaxy in a custom built system.

  11. Perspective: Rapid synthesis of complex oxides by combinatorial molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE PAGES

    A. T. Bollinger; Wu, J.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-03-15

    In this study, the molecular beam epitaxy(MBE) technique is well known for producing atomically smooth thin films as well as impeccable interfaces in multilayers of many different materials. In particular, molecular beam epitaxy is well suited to the growth of complex oxides, materials that hold promise for many applications. Rapid synthesis and high throughput characterization techniques are needed to tap into that potential most efficiently. We discuss our approach to doing that, leaving behind the traditional one-growth-one-compound scheme and instead implementing combinatorial oxide molecular beam epitaxy in a custom built system.

  12. Characteristics of Turbulent Airflow Deduced from Rapid Surface Thermal Fluctuations: An Infrared Surface Anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminzadeh, Milad; Breitenstein, Daniel; Or, Dani

    2017-07-01

    The intermittent nature of turbulent airflow interacting with the surface is readily observable in fluctuations of the surface temperature resulting from the thermal imprints of eddies sweeping the surface. Rapid infrared thermography has recently been used to quantify characteristics of the near-surface turbulent airflow interacting with the evaporating surfaces. We aim to extend this technique by using single-point rapid infrared measurements to quantify properties of a turbulent flow, including surface exchange processes, with a view towards the development of an infrared surface anemometer. The parameters for the surface-eddy renewal (α and β ) are inferred from infrared measurements of a single-point on the surface of a heat plate placed in a wind tunnel with prescribed wind speeds and constant mean temperatures of the surface. Thermally-deduced parameters are in agreement with values obtained from standard three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer measurements close to the plate surface (e.g., α = 3 and β = 1/26 (ms)^{-1} for the infrared, and α = 3 and β = 1/19 (ms)^{-1} for the sonic-anemometer measurements). The infrared-based turbulence parameters provide new insights into the role of surface temperature and buoyancy on the inherent characteristics of interacting eddies. The link between the eddy-spectrum shape parameter α and the infrared window size representing the infrared field of view is investigated. The results resemble the effect of the sampling height above the ground in sonic anemometer measurements, which enables the detection of larger eddies with higher values of α . The physical basis and tests of the proposed method support the potential for remote quantification of the near-surface momentum field, as well as scalar-flux measurements in the immediate vicinity of the surface.

  13. Rapid, in Situ Synthesis of High Capacity Battery Anodes through High Temperature Radiation-Based Thermal Shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanan; Li, Yiju; Wang, Yanbin; Fu, Kun; Danner, Valencia A; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven D; Yao, Yonggang; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-09-14

    High capacity battery electrodes require nanosized components to avoid pulverization associated with volume changes during the charge-discharge process. Additionally, these nanosized electrodes need an electronically conductive matrix to facilitate electron transport. Here, for the first time, we report a rapid thermal shock process using high-temperature radiative heating to fabricate a conductive reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite with silicon nanoparticles. Silicon (Si) particles on the order of a few micrometers are initially embedded in the RGO host and in situ transformed into 10-15 nm nanoparticles in less than a minute through radiative heating. The as-prepared composites of ultrafine Si nanoparticles embedded in a RGO matrix show great performance as a Li-ion battery (LIB) anode. The in situ nanoparticle synthesis method can also be adopted for other high capacity battery anode materials including tin (Sn) and aluminum (Al). This method for synthesizing high capacity anodes in a RGO matrix can be envisioned for roll-to-roll nanomanufacturing due to the ease and scalability of this high-temperature radiative heating process.

  14. The use of thermal analysis to assess oxidative damage in polyolefins

    SciTech Connect

    Horrocks, A.R.; Liu, M.; Mwila, J.

    1997-12-31

    During the thermal oxidation of polyolefins, exemplified by isotactic polypropylene, few observable physical and chemical changes occur until embrittlement or similar failure. The increasing oxidative and auto-oxidative behavior that accompanies oxidation can be measured as a reducing oxidation induction time using isothermal thermal analysis. Alternatively, dynamic thermal analysis (DSC or TGA) may be used more conveniently to record the shift to lower temperatures of the post-fusion, oxidative exotherm quantified as an onset (T{sub on}) temperature. This paper collates data from a number of previous and current studies on the oxidative behavior of oriented polypropylene tapes and filaments exposed at elevated (130 C) temperature in air. During exposure, T{sub on} values decrease according to a power law dependence with time and these shifts may be used to assess degrees of oxidation present in aged specimens. The implications of these shifts are discussed in terms of monitoring in-service behavior of exposed polyolefins and their relationship to oxidative and auto-oxidative mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Rapid Life-History Diversification of an Introduced Fish Species across a Localized Thermal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fengyue; Rypel, Andrew L.; Murphy, Brian R.; Li, Zhongjie; Zhang, Tanglin; Yuan, Jing; Guo, Zhiqiang; Tang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jiashou

    2014-01-01

    Climatic variations are known to engender life-history diversification of species and populations at large spatial scales. However, the extent to which microgeographic variations in climate (e.g., those occurring within a single large ecosystem) can also drive life-history divergence is generally poorly documented. We exploited a spatial gradient in water temperatures at three sites across a large montane lake in southwest China (Lake Erhai) to examine the extent to which life histories of a short-lived fish species (icefish, Neosalanx taihuensis) diversified in response to thermal regime following introduction 25 y prior. In general, warmwater icefish variants grew faster, had larger adult body size and higher condition and fecundity, but matured at smaller sizes. Conversely, coldwater variants had smaller adult body size and lower condition, but matured at larger sizes and had larger eggs. These life-history differences strongly suggest that key ecological trade-offs exist for icefish populations exposed to different thermal regimes, and these trade-offs have driven relatively rapid diversification in the life histories of icefish within Lake Erhai. Results are surprisingly concordant with current knowledge on life-history evolution at macroecological scales, and suggest that improved conservation management might be possible by focusing on patterns operating at microgeographical, including, within-ecosystem scales. PMID:24505366

  16. A hybrid thermal video and FTIR spectrometer system for rapidly locating and characterizing gas leaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David J.; Wadsworth, Winthrop; Salvaggio, Carl; Messinger, David W.

    2006-08-01

    Undiscovered gas leaks, known as fugitive emissions, in chemical plants and refinery operations can impact regional air quality and present a loss of product for industry. Surveying a facility for potential gas leaks can be a daunting task. Industrial leak detection and repair programs can be expensive to administer. An efficient, accurate and cost effective method for detecting and quantifying gas leaks would both save industries money by identifying production losses and improve regional air quality. Specialized thermal video systems have proven effective in rapidly locating gas leaks. These systems, however, do not have the spectral resolution for compound identification. Passive FTIR spectrometers can be used for gas compound identification, but using these systems for facility surveys is problematic due to their small field of view. A hybrid approach has been developed that utilizes the thermal video system to locate gas plumes using real time visualization of the leaks, coupled with the high spectral resolution FTIR spectrometer for compound identification and quantification. The prototype hybrid video/spectrometer system uses a sterling cooled thermal camera, operating in the MWIR (3-5 μm) with an additional notch filter set at around 3.4 μm, which allows for the visualization of gas compounds that absorb in this narrow spectral range, such as alkane hydrocarbons. This camera is positioned alongside of a portable, high speed passive FTIR spectrometer, which has a spectral range of 2 - 25 μm and operates at 4 cm -1 resolution. This system uses a 10 cm telescope foreoptic with an onboard blackbody for calibration. The two units are optically aligned using a turning mirror on the spectrometer's telescope with the video camera's output.

  17. Rapid changes in cell physiology as a result of acute thermal stress house sparrows, Passer domesticus.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ana G; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-12-01

    Given that our climate is rapidly changing, Physiological Ecologists have the critical task of identifying characteristics of species that make them either resilient or susceptible to changes in their natural air temperature regime. Because climate change models suggest that heat events will become more common, and in some places more extreme, it is important to consider how extreme heat events might affect the physiology of a species. The implications of more frequent heat wave events for birds have only recently begun to be addressed, however, the impact of these events on the cellular physiology of a species is difficult to assess. We have developed a novel approach using dermal fibroblasts to explore how short-term thermal stress at the whole animal level might affect cellular rates of metabolism. House sparrows, Passer domesticus were separated into a "control group" and a "heat shocked" group, the latter acclimated to 43°C for 24h. We determined the plasticity of cellular thermal responses by assigning a "recovery group" that was heat shocked as above, but then returned to room temperature for 24h. Primary dermal fibroblasts were grown from skin of all treatment groups and the pectoralis muscle was collected. We found that glycolysis (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rates (OCR), measured using a Seahorse XF 96 analyzer, were significantly higher in the fibroblasts from the heat shocked group of House sparrows compared with their control counterparts. Additionally, muscle fiber diameters decreased and, in turn, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase maximal activity in the muscle significantly increased in heat shocked sparrows compared with birds in the control group. All of these physiological alterations due to short-term heat exposure were reversible within 24h of recovery at room temperature. These results show that acute exposure to heat stress significantly alters the cellular physiology of sparrows, but that this species is plastic enough to recover from such a thermal

  18. Rapid thermal processing — where has it been? Where is it going?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Carl

    1985-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is a method which uniformly heats and cools wafers in seconds. Since the process heats the whole wafer, the heating and cooling is limited by the thermal mass of the wafer and the heat transfer mechanism operating on the wafer. The main reason for considering RTP is to obtain improved dopant activation of implanted layers (due to the high wafer temperatures used) while minimizing dopant redistribution (due to short processing times at high temperature). This unique combination of high activation temperature and short processing time provides a degree of control over the thermal processing of wafers not available with standard diffusion furnaces and allows full activation of the dopant introduced by ion implantation without junction motion. Having this improved level of control over implant activation and dopant redistribution, several other important applications can be addressed as well. These applications include: PSG reflow; suicide and salicide processing; polysilicon annealing and drive-in doping from polysilicon; and controlled lattice damage repair. Results of the above applications indicate that activation with minimum dopant redistribution occurs in times less than ten seconds for wafer temperature > 1000°C, PSG reflows in times between 8 s and 30 s; refractory metal suicides can be formed and/or sintered in times on the order of 10 s. Processes are being developed in the other areas. For production applications RTP machines must also demonstrate: process uniformity and reproducibility (e.g., wafer temperature uniformity across the wafer and uniformity from wafer to wafer) and no slip. Slip is due to wafer temperature nonuniformity, plastic deformation of the wafer and/or oxygen concentration in the wafer. To achieve the required level of machine performance, accurate in situ wafer monitoring techniques are required which provide the necessary process/uniformity control without affecting the measured parameters.

  19. Polymerization method for formation of thermally exfoliated graphite oxide containing polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Adamson, Douglas (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A process for polymerization of at least one monomer including polymerizing the at least one monomer in the presence of a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m(esp 2)/g to 2600 m(esp 2/g.

  20. Conductive ink containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide and method a conductive circuit using the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A conductive ink containing a conductive polymer, wherein the conductive polymer contains at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, and it use in a method for making a conductive circuit.

  1. Electrospray painted article containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide and method for their manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A painted polymer part containing a conductive polymer composition containing at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the painted polymer part has been electrospray painted.

  2. Thermal contact resistance in solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillig, Marius; Biedermann, Thomas; Karl, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    For detailed thermal modelling of SOFC stacks, in particular research of improved thermal management, start-up and shut-down processes, thermal contact resistances (TCR) are required input parameters. These parameters are difficult to access analytically and strongly depend on temperature, geometry and material properties of the contact. Therefore, this work presents an experimental study of thermal contact resistance between different components of one SOFC stack repeating unit at varying temperatures up to typical operating temperatures (800 °C). Heat transfer rates are obtained for full repeating units, cell only, contact mesh only and sealing set-ups. Thermal interface resistances between interconnector and Ni-mesh, Ni-mesh and anode, cathode and interconnector as well as between interconnector and sealing are computed based on the measured data and provide information for numerical SOFC stack modelling.

  3. The initial, thermal oxidation of zirconium at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapin, A.; Jeurgens, L. P. H.; Graat, P. C. J.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2004-12-01

    Angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry have been used to investigate the initial oxidation of polycrystalline zirconium at room temperature in the partial oxygen pressure range of 1.3×10-7-1.3×10-4Pa. Detailed quantitative analysis of the measured Zr3d ARXPS spectra of the oxidized metal allowed separation of the intrinsic and extrinsic metallic and oxidic contributions to the spectra. It was shown that, in addition to the metallic contribution from the substrate and the oxidic contribution from stoichiometric ZrO2, two additional suboxidic components are contained in the measured Zr3d spectra of the oxidized Zr metal. As evidenced by angle-resolved XPS and in situ ellipsometry, both of these components can be attributed to a gradient of Zr enrichment in the region of the oxide film adjacent to the metal/oxide interface (with the highest Zr enrichment at the metal/oxide interface). Investigation of the oxide-film growth kinetics at various pO2, as determined independently using both techniques, showed the occurrence of an initial regime of very fast, electric-field-controlled growth, followed by a much slower oxidation stage. As a result, an, on average, nonstoichiometric oxide film develops. The observed effect of the pO2 on the low-temperature oxidation of Zr has been discussed in terms of the relationship between the fraction of coverage of the surface with physi- and chemisorbed oxygen and the applied pO2.

  4. Materials characterization of rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition of titanium disilicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden-Green, Dannellia Banay

    Technological advancements of novel processes and materials involving refractory metal silicides for ultra large scale integration is of paramount importance to the semiconductor industry. Scaling of devices to meet the demands for increased packing density and speed requires such novel processes and materials. Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) of titanium disilicide (TiSisb2) was investigated in an effort to meet some of the challenges of ultra large scale integration (ULSI) technology. Selective RTCVD of TiSisb2 offers an optimal technological vehicle for achieving contacts to ultra-shallow junctions. Of all of the metal silicides, TiSisb2 has the lowest resistivity and meets the microelectronics demands for a thermally stable contact. The research results presented in this dissertation explores the mechanisms of selective RTCVD of TiSisb2 in terms of thermodynamic trends and kinetic driving forces for nucleation and growth. The present research addresses the qualitative and quantitative parameters that affect the controlling mechanisms for nucleation and therefore the results provide significant data and theoretical insights into a state-of-the-art process. Just as the fundamental building block in understanding the kinetic constraints of a process lie in the realm of thermodynamic exploration, understanding the complex processes involved in RTCVD TiSisb2 begin with characterization of the mechanisms governing thin film nucleation. In this work, the early stages of growth are investigated as they offer insight into how process parameters are optimized to render desired silicide film properties. Equilibrium simulations have been used to model the CVD reaction with very good trend indicating accuracy. Empirical investigations of CVD TiSisb2 took place in a low-pressure rapid-thermal environment using the SiHsb4 + TiClsb4 gas system on silicon (100) substrates. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) has been used to qualify the benefits of vacuum and

  5. Model reduction and temperature uniformity control for rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodoropoulou, Artemis-Georgia

    The consideration of Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) in semiconductor manufacturing has recently been increasing. As a result, control of RTP systems has become of great importance since it is expected to help in addressing uniformity problems that, so far, have been obstructing the acceptance of the method. The spatial distribution appearing in RTP models necessitates the use of model reduction in order to obtain models of a size suitable for use in control algorithms. This dissertation addresses model reduction as well as control issues for RTP systems. A model of a three-zone Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (RTCVD) system is developed to study the effects of spatial wafer temperature patterns on polysilicon deposition uniformity. A sequence of simulated runs is performed, varying the lamp power profiles so that different wafer temperature modes are excited. The dominant spatial wafer thermal modes are extracted via Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and subsequently used as a set of trial functions to represent both the wafer temperature and deposition thickness. A collocation formulation of Galerkin's method is used to discretize the original modeling equations, giving a low-order model which loses little of the original, high-order model's fidelity. We make use of the excellent predictive capabilities of the reduced model to optimize power inputs to the lamp banks to achieve a desired polysilicon deposition thickness at the end of a run with minimal deposition spatial nonuniformity. Since the results illustrate that the optimization procedure benefits from the use of the reduced-order model, we further utilize the reduced order model for real time Model Based Control. The feedback controller is designed using the Internal Model Control (IMC) structure especially modified to handle systems described by ordinary differential and algebraic equations. The IMC controller is obtained using optimal control theory on singular arcs extended for multi input systems

  6. Rapid screening of residual pesticides on fruits and vegetables using thermal desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shiea, Christopher; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Liu, De-Lin; Chou, Chih-Chang; Chou, Jo-Han; Chen, Peng-Yu; Shiea, Jentaie; Huang, Min-Zong

    2015-01-30

    Conventional mass spectrometry is encumbered by laborious and inconvenient sample pretreatment. Ambient thermal desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TD-ESI-MS) is most noted for its rapid, simple, and sensitive detection capabilities. In this study, TD-ESI-MS was used to rapidly characterize residual pesticides on the surfaces of fruits and vegetables. A direct sampling probe was used to obtain analytes from sample surfaces. MS and MS/MS analyses were performed on fruits and vegetables via TD-ESI-MS. External calibration curves and reproducibility tests were performed using liquid pesticide standards. Pesticide decay and distribution on samples was studied, as well as the removal of residual pesticides via soaking in water or detergent baths. Since sample pretreatment was unnecessary, an analysis was completed in approximately 15 s or less, with no visible sample damage. Mass spectra were obtained for 22 pesticides. Linear calibrations (R(2) from 0.9414-0.999) had limits of detection as low as 0.5 µg·L(-1), with satisfactory reproducibilities for liquids and solids. Pesticides on sample surfaces decayed over 2 weeks under ambient conditions. Residual pesticides localized at the fruit peel. Detergent baths removed more pesticide than water baths. TD-ESI-MS was used to rapidly screen residual pesticides in liquids and solids. Pesticides were found on fruits and vegetables, where the decay, distribution, and removal of pesticides on samples were also explored. Due to short analysis times, the technique allows for high-throughput analyses for applications in food and environmental safety. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Dominance of Ferritrophicum populations at an AMD site with rapid iron oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grettenberger, C.; Pearce, A.; Bibby, K. J.; Burgos, W.; Jones, D. S.; Macalady, J.

    2015-12-01

    Acid mine drainage is a major environmental problem affecting watersheds across the globe. Bioremediation of AMD relies on microbial communities to oxidize and thus remove iron from the system. Iron-oxidation rates in AMD environments are highly variable across sites. At Scalp Level Run in Summerset County PA, iron-oxidation rates are five to eight times faster than other coal-associated AMD sites. We examined the microbial community at Scalp Level Run to determine whether a unique microbial community may be responsible for the observed rapid iron-oxidation rates. Using MiSeq sequence tags, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we found that Scalp Level Run sediments host microbial populations closely related to the betaproteobacterium Ferritrophicum radicicola, an iron-oxidizing species isolated from an acid mine drainage wetland in Virginia. Ferritrophicum spp. was not found at the four other coal-associated AMD sites in the study and is uncommon in the published literature. The influence of Ferritrophicum spp. populations in biogeochemical cycling, specifically their role in determining the iron-oxidation rate at Scalp Level Run is unknown. Therefore, we employed metagenomic sequencing to examine the metabolic potential of the microbial community at Scalp Level Run.

  8. Manipulating feature sizes in Si-based grating structures by thermal oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Ji, Ran; Dai, Ning; Scholz, Roland; Steinhart, Martin; Nielsch, Kornelius; Gösele, Ulrich

    2008-08-01

    We report a method for manipulating feature sizes in Si-based grating structures by thermal oxidation, which allows the realization of fin width/period ratios not directly accessible by laser interference lithography. Taking advantage of the expansion in volume associated with the thermal oxidation of Si, grating structures with very high fin width/period ratios of the order of 0.96 were obtained, whereas subsequent chemical etching of the oxide yields grating structures with fin width/period ratios as small as ~0.06.

  9. Iodine doping effects on the lattice thermal conductivity of oxidized polyacetylene nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Kedong E-mail: kedongbi@seu.edu.cn; Weathers, Annie; Pettes, Michael T.; Shi, Li E-mail: kedongbi@seu.edu.cn; Matsushita, Satoshi; Akagi, Kazuo; Goh, Munju

    2013-11-21

    Thermal transport in oxidized polyacetylene (PA) nanofibers with diameters in the range between 74 and 126 nm is measured with the use of a suspended micro heater device. With the error due to both radiation and contact thermal resistance corrected via a differential measurement procedure, the obtained thermal conductivity of oxidized PA nanofibers varies in the range between 0.84 and 1.24 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} near room temperature, and decreases by 40%–70% after iodine doping. It is also found that the thermal conductivity of oxidized PA nanofibers increases with temperature between 100 and 350 K. Because of exposure to oxygen during sample preparation, the PA nanofibers are oxidized to be electrically insulating before and after iodine doping. The measurement results reveal that iodine doping can result in enhanced lattice disorder and reduced lattice thermal conductivity of PA nanofibers. If the oxidation issue can be addressed via further research to increase the electrical conductivity via doping, the observed suppressed lattice thermal conductivity in doped polymer nanofibers can be useful for the development of such conducting polymer nanostructures for thermoelectric energy conversion.

  10. Thermal fatigue and oxidation data for directionally solidified MAR-M 246 turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, V. L.; Humphreys, V. E.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal fatigue and oxidation data were obtained for 11 plasma spray coated and 13 uncoated directionally solidified and single crystal MAR-M 246 blades. Blade coatings on the airfoil included several metal-oxide thermal barrier layers based on Al2O3, Cr2O3, or ZrO2. The 24 turbine blades were tested simultaneously for 3000 cycles in fluidized beds maintained at 950 and 25 C using a symmetrical 360 set thermal cycle. In 3000 cycles, only uncoated turbine blades exhibited cracking on the trailing edge near the platform; 3 of the 13 uncoated blades did not crack. Cracking occurred over the range 400 to 2750 cycles, with single crystal blades indicating the poorest thermal fatigue resistance. Oxidation of the uncoated blades was limited in 3000 cycles. All coatings indicated microscopically visible spalling at the trailing edge radius after 3000 cycles. Severe general spalling on the airfoil was observed for two multilayered coatings.

  11. Rapid oxidation of geothermal arsenic(III) in streamwaters of the eastern Sierra Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkie, J.A.; Hering, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    Arsenic redox cycling was examined in source waters of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, specifically at Hot Creek, a tributary of the Owens River. Elevated arsenic concentrations in Hot Creek result from geothermal inputs. Total arsenic and As(III) concentrations were determined in the creek and in hot spring pools along its banks. Samples were processed in the field using anion-exchange columns to separate inorganic As(III) and As(V) species. Downstream of the geothermal inputs, decreasing contributions of As(III) to total arsenic concentrations indicated rapid in-stream oxidation of As(III) to As(V) with almost complete oxidation occurring within 1200 m. Based on assumed plug flow transport and a flow velocity of about 0.4 m/s, the pseudo- first-order half-life calculated for this reaction was approximately 0.3 h. Conservative transport of total dissolved arsenic was observed over the reach. Pseudo-first-order reaction rates determined for As(III) oxidation in batch studies conducted in the field with aquatic macrophytes and/or macrophyte surface matter were comparable to the in-stream oxidation rate observed along Hot Creek. In batch kinetic studies, oxidation was not observed after sterile filtration or after the addition of antibiotics, which indicates that bacteria attached to submerged macrophytes are mediating the rapid As(III) oxidation reaction.Arsenic redox cycling was examined in source waters of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, specifically at Hot Creek, a tributary of the Owens River. Elevated arsenic concentrations in Hot Creek result from geothermal inputs. Total arsenic and As(III) concentrations were determined in the creek and in hot spring pools along its banks. Samples were processed in the field using anion-exchange columns to separate inorganic As(III) and As(V) species. Downstream of the geothermal inputs, decreasing contributions of As(III) to total arsenic concentrations indicated rapid in-stream oxidation of As(III) to As(V) with almost complete

  12. Influence of the neutralization step on the oxidative and thermal stability of acid olive oil.

    PubMed

    Essid, Kamel; Chtourou, Manef; Trabelsi, Mahmoud; Frikha, Mohamed Hédi

    2009-01-01

    This study elucidate the modification on oxidative and thermal stability of acid olive oils during the neutralization step. The neutralization of an acidified olive oil, chosen as model, was carried out by substituting lime (calcium hydroxide) for soda (sodium hydroxide) as the neutralizing agent. Resulting olive oil preserved almost 95% of their alpha-tocopherol content and had higher temperatures of thermal decomposition than oils neutralized with soda. Oils neutralized with lime had better oxidative stability since the losses of their natural antioxidants, particularly tocopherols, were very limited. The neutralization with soda was accompanied by a passage of epoxides and hydroperoxides (products of first stage of oxidation) to alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones (products of second stage of oxidation). These purposes were confirmed by thermal spectrophotometric analyses and the increase of the carbonyl value after neutralization.

  13. Formation of nanostructured rutile TiO2 synthesized on Ti powder via thermal oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Jong Min; Choi, Hye Rim; Kim, Se Hoon; Suk, Myung-Jin; Kim, Young Do

    2017-09-01

    The nanostructured rutile TiO2 that have large specific surface area was formed on Ti powder through thermal oxidation. Thermal oxidation of Ti powder by using an external oxygen source was shown to be a simple and facile method to synthesize nanostructured rutile TiO2. Raw Ti powder was etched by using 30% HCl solution to control the surface morphology of Ti and to increase the surface area for effective diffusion of oxygen source. Then, etched powders were thermally oxidized at 750 and 850 °C with ethanol as the oxygen source. Coral-like nanostructured rutile TiO2 of size 500 nm was formed at 850 °C from Ti powder etched for more than 20 min. The specific surface area of the resulting powder, which consisted of intermediate oxide (Ti2O) cores covered with nanostructured rutile TiO2, was 48 times that of the raw Ti powder.

  14. Molecular Dynamics study of the mixed oxide fuel thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichenko, S.; Staicu, D.

    2013-08-01

    There is still no clear understanding of the plutonium content influence on the thermal conductivity behaviour of the (U,Pu) O2 MOX fuels. In this work Classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) was used to investigate the (U,Pu) O2 thermal conductivity in the whole concentration range and in the temperature range from 400 K to 1600 K. The Green-Kubo approach was used for the thermal conductivity calculation and an algorithm was proposed to improve the accuracy of the calculation. The obtained results are in good agreement with the literature experimental data and results of modelling of other authors. On the basis of the obtained results we give recommendations for the MOX thermal conductivity evaluation in the concentration range from pure UO2 up to pure PuO2.

  15. Thermal transport in tantalum oxide films for memristive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Landon, Colin Donald; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Blea-Kirby, Mia Angelica; Ihlefeld, Jon; Marinella, Matthew; Thomas Edwin Beechem

    2015-07-15

    The thermal conductivity of amorphous TaOx memristive films having variable oxygen content is measured using time domain thermoreflectance. Furthermore, the thermal transport is described by a two-partmodel where the electrical contribution is quantified via the Wiedemann-Franz relation and the vibrational contribution by the minimum thermal conductivity limit for amorphous solids. Additionally, the vibrational contribution remains constant near 0.9 W/mK regardless of oxygen concentration, while the electrical contribution varies from 0 to 3.3 W/mK. Thus, the dominant thermal carrier in TaOx switches between vibrations and charge carriers and is controllable either by oxygen content during deposition, or dynamically by field-induced charge state migration.

  16. Thermal transport in tantalum oxide films for memristive applications

    DOE PAGES

    Landon, Colin Donald; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Brumbach, Michael T.; ...

    2015-07-15

    The thermal conductivity of amorphous TaOx memristive films having variable oxygen content is measured using time domain thermoreflectance. Furthermore, the thermal transport is described by a two-partmodel where the electrical contribution is quantified via the Wiedemann-Franz relation and the vibrational contribution by the minimum thermal conductivity limit for amorphous solids. Additionally, the vibrational contribution remains constant near 0.9 W/mK regardless of oxygen concentration, while the electrical contribution varies from 0 to 3.3 W/mK. Thus, the dominant thermal carrier in TaOx switches between vibrations and charge carriers and is controllable either by oxygen content during deposition, or dynamically by field-induced chargemore » state migration.« less

  17. Thermal transport in tantalum oxide films for memristive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Landon, Colin D.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Blea-Kirby, Mia; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Marinella, Matthew J.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Brennecka, Geoff L.

    2015-07-13

    The thermal conductivity of amorphous TaO{sub x} memristive films having variable oxygen content is measured using time domain thermoreflectance. Thermal transport is described by a two-part model where the electrical contribution is quantified via the Wiedemann-Franz relation and the vibrational contribution by the minimum thermal conductivity limit for amorphous solids. The vibrational contribution remains constant near 0.9 W/mK regardless of oxygen concentration, while the electrical contribution varies from 0 to 3.3 W/mK. Thus, the dominant thermal carrier in TaO{sub x} switches between vibrations and charge carriers and is controllable either by oxygen content during deposition, or dynamically by field-induced charge state migration.

  18. Effect of Thermal Oxidation on Corrosion Resistance of Commercially Pure Titanium in Acid Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamesh, M.; Kumar, Satendra; Sankara Narayanan, T. S. N.

    2012-06-01

    This article addresses the characteristics of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) subjected to thermal oxidation in air at 650 °C for 48 h and its corrosion behavior in 0.1 and 4 M HCl and HNO3 mediums. Thermal oxidation of CP-Ti leads to the formation of thick oxide scales (~20 μm) throughout its surface without any spallation. The oxide layer consists of rutile- and oxygen-diffused titanium as predominant phases with a hardness of 679 ± 43 HV1.96. Electrochemical studies reveal that the thermally oxidized CP-Ti offers a better corrosion resistance than its untreated counterpart in both HCl and HNO3 mediums. The uniform surface coverage and compactness of the oxide layer provide an effective barrier toward corrosion of CP-Ti. The study concludes that thermal oxidation is an effective approach to engineer the surface of CP-Ti so as to increase its corrosion resistance in HCl and HNO3 mediums.

  19. Ultrasonic-assisted self-assembly of monolayer graphene oxide for rapid detection of Escherichia coli bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jingbo; Mao, Shun; Zhang, Yang; Cui, Shumao; Zhou, Guihua; Wu, Xiaogang; Yang, Ching-Hong; Chen, Junhong

    2013-04-01

    Due to potential risks to the environment and human health arising from pathogens/chemical contaminants, novel devices are being developed for rapid and precise detection of those contaminants. Here, we demonstrate highly sensitive and selective field-effect transistor (FET) sensor devices for detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria using thermally reduced monolayer graphene oxide (TRMGO) sheets as semiconducting channels. The graphene oxide (GO) sheets are assembled on the aminoethanethiol (AET)-functionalized gold (Au) electrodes through electrostatic interactions with ultrasonic assistance. Anti-Escherichia coli (anti-E. coli) antibodies are used as receptors for selective detection of E. coli cells and integrated on the FET device through covalent bonding with Au nanoparticles on the GO surface. The TRMGO FET device shows great electronic stability and high sensitivity to E. coli cells with a concentration as low as 10 colony-forming units (cfu) per mL. The biosensing platform reported here is promising for large-scale, sensitive, selective, low-cost, and real-time detection of E. coli bacteria.

  20. Ultrasonic-assisted self-assembly of monolayer graphene oxide for rapid detection of Escherichia coli bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jingbo; Mao, Shun; Zhang, Yang; Cui, Shumao; Zhou, Guihua; Wu, Xiaogang; Yang, Ching-Hong; Chen, Junhong

    2013-05-07

    Due to potential risks to the environment and human health arising from pathogens/chemical contaminants, novel devices are being developed for rapid and precise detection of those contaminants. Here, we demonstrate highly sensitive and selective field-effect transistor (FET) sensor devices for detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria using thermally reduced monolayer graphene oxide (TRMGO) sheets as semiconducting channels. The graphene oxide (GO) sheets are assembled on the aminoethanethiol (AET)-functionalized gold (Au) electrodes through electrostatic interactions with ultrasonic assistance. Anti-Escherichia coli (anti-E. coli) antibodies are used as receptors for selective detection of E. coli cells and integrated on the FET device through covalent bonding with Au nanoparticles on the GO surface. The TRMGO FET device shows great electronic stability and high sensitivity to E. coli cells with a concentration as low as 10 colony-forming units (cfu) per mL. The biosensing platform reported here is promising for large-scale, sensitive, selective, low-cost, and real-time detection of E. coli bacteria.

  1. Methods to create thermally oxidized lipids and comparison of analytical procedures to characterize peroxidation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate peroxidation in 4 lipids, each with 3 degrees of peroxidation. Lipid sources were: corn oil (CN), canola oil (CA), poultry fat, and tallow. Peroxidation levels were: original lipids (OL), slow-oxidized lipids (SO), and rapid-oxidized lipids (RO). To p...

  2. Effect of oxygen plasma and thermal oxidation on shallow nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.; Rugar, D.; Mamin, H. J.; Sherwood, M. H.; Rettner, C. T.; Frommer, J.

    2014-07-28

    We investigate the effect of two different surface treatments on shallow nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. Short duration oxygen plasma exposure is found to damage near-surface NV centers, resulting in their disappearance in fluorescence images. Subsequent annealing creates large numbers of new NV centers, attributed to plasma-induced vacancy creation. By tracking individual NV centers during thermal oxidation, we show that oxidation at 550 °C results in modest improvement of spin coherence. Higher temperature oxidations correlate with gradual decline in spin coherence and eventual instability of NV centers before ultimate disappearance. This is indicative of a reduction of the NV-to-surface distance due to oxidative etching. Thermal oxidation can offer controlled access to near-surface NV spins at the nanometer scale, an important requirement for many applications of NV-based nanomagnetometry.

  3. Impedance Analysis of 7YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings During High-Temperature Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Long; Liu, Min; Zhang, Ji-Fu

    2016-12-01

    ZrO2-7 wt.%Y2O3 (7YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying. High-temperature oxidation of 7YSZ TBCs was accomplished at 950 °C and characterized by impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry. The results indicated that the thermally grown oxide (TGO) mainly contained alumina. The increase of the thickness of the TGO layer appeared to follow a parabolic law. Impedance analysis demonstrated that the resistance of the TGO increased with increasing oxidation time, also following a parabolic law, and that characterization of the TGO thickness based on fitting an equivalent circuit to its measured resistance is feasible. The YSZ grain-boundary resistance increased due to increasing cracks within the coating for oxidation time less than 50 h. However, beyond 150 h, the YSZ grain-boundary resistance slightly decreased, mainly due to sintering of the coating during the oxidation process.

  4. Stomatal Control and Leaf Thermal and Hydraulic Capacitances under Rapid Environmental Fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J.; Or, Dani; Zwieniecki, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Leaves within a canopy may experience rapid and extreme fluctuations in ambient conditions. A shaded leaf, for example, may become exposed to an order of magnitude increase in solar radiation within a few seconds, due to sunflecks or canopy motions. Considering typical time scales for stomatal adjustments, (2 to 60 minutes), the gap between these two time scales raised the question whether leaves rely on their hydraulic and thermal capacitances for passive protection from hydraulic failure or over-heating until stomata have adjusted. We employed a physically based model to systematically study effects of short-term fluctuations in irradiance on leaf temperatures and transpiration rates. Considering typical amplitudes and time scales of such fluctuations, the importance of leaf heat and water capacities for avoiding damaging leaf temperatures and hydraulic failure were investigated. The results suggest that common leaf heat capacities are not sufficient to protect a non-transpiring leaf from over-heating during sunflecks of several minutes duration whereas transpirative cooling provides effective protection. A comparison of the simulated time scales for heat damage in the absence of evaporative cooling with observed stomatal response times suggested that stomata must be already open before arrival of a sunfleck to avoid over-heating to critical leaf temperatures. This is consistent with measured stomatal conductances in shaded leaves and has implications for water use efficiency of deep canopy leaves and vulnerability to heat damage during drought. Our results also suggest that typical leaf water contents could sustain several minutes of evaporative cooling during a sunfleck without increasing the xylem water supply and thus risking embolism. We thus submit that shaded leaves rely on hydraulic capacitance and evaporative cooling to avoid over-heating and hydraulic failure during exposure to typical sunflecks, whereas thermal capacitance provides limited protection

  5. Stomatal control and leaf thermal and hydraulic capacitances under rapid environmental fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani; Zwieniecki, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Leaves within a canopy may experience rapid and extreme fluctuations in ambient conditions. A shaded leaf, for example, may become exposed to an order of magnitude increase in solar radiation within a few seconds, due to sunflecks or canopy motions. Considering typical time scales for stomatal adjustments, (2 to 60 minutes), the gap between these two time scales raised the question whether leaves rely on their hydraulic and thermal capacitances for passive protection from hydraulic failure or over-heating until stomata have adjusted. We employed a physically based model to systematically study effects of short-term fluctuations in irradiance on leaf temperatures and transpiration rates. Considering typical amplitudes and time scales of such fluctuations, the importance of leaf heat and water capacities for avoiding damaging leaf temperatures and hydraulic failure were investigated. The results suggest that common leaf heat capacities are not sufficient to protect a non-transpiring leaf from over-heating during sunflecks of several minutes duration whereas transpirative cooling provides effective protection. A comparison of the simulated time scales for heat damage in the absence of evaporative cooling with observed stomatal response times suggested that stomata must be already open before arrival of a sunfleck to avoid over-heating to critical leaf temperatures. This is consistent with measured stomatal conductances in shaded leaves and has implications for water use efficiency of deep canopy leaves and vulnerability to heat damage during drought. Our results also suggest that typical leaf water contents could sustain several minutes of evaporative cooling during a sunfleck without increasing the xylem water supply and thus risking embolism. We thus submit that shaded leaves rely on hydraulic capacitance and evaporative cooling to avoid over-heating and hydraulic failure during exposure to typical sunflecks, whereas thermal capacitance provides limited protection

  6. Electrical and thermal conductivities of rapidly crystallized Cu-Zr alloys: The effect of anharmonicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uporov, S.; Bykov, V.; Estemirova, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a comprehensive study of electrical and thermal conductivities, specific heat and magnetic susceptibility of rapidly crystallized Cu100-xZrx (x = 20-90) alloys. X-ray diffraction analysis has revealed that all the prepared compositions had strongly textured and distorted crystal structures. Different monoclinic and other non-equilibrium phases were detected in the case of glass-forming samples, whereas the alloys without a tendency to form glassy state show almost equilibrium phase content. Metallic type of electrical conductivity and the Kondo anomaly were observed for all the examined samples. It was found that the electrical resistance data cannot be adequately described within the standard Bloch-Grüneisen theory. We use the Debye characteristic temperature as a linear function to fit the electrical conductivity accurately. The composition dependence of the electron density of states at the Fermi level (DOS) has been extracted from room temperature magnetic susceptibility. We found that the glass-forming alloys are characterized by abnormally large values of DOS, which are comparable to those of glassy analogues. Noticeable anharmonic contribution in total specific heat has been revealed for all the studied compositions. In order to estimate the effect of anharmonicity in the system under consideration, we analyzed composition and temperature dependencies of the studied thermal characteristics related to the Grüneisen coefficient. Basing on the results obtained in this study we propose a phenomenological concept to explain abnormal behavior of physical properties of glass-forming Cu-Zr alloys within the standard solid state theory taking into account anharmonic effects.

  7. High-density-plasma (HDP)-CVD oxide to thermal oxide wafer bonding for strained silicon layer transfer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Radu, I.; Reiche, M.; Himcinschi, C.; Kuck, B.; Tillack, B.; Gösele, U.; Christiansen, S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Direct wafer bonding between high-density-plasma chemical vapour deposited (HDP-CVD) oxide and thermal oxide (TO) has been investigated. HDP-CVD oxides, about 230 nm in thickness, were deposited on Si(0 0 1) control wafers and the wafers of interest that contain a thin strained silicon (sSi) layer on a so-called virtual substrate that is composed of relaxed SiGe (˜4 μm thick) on Si(0 0 1) wafers. The surfaces of the as-deposited HDP-CVD oxides on the Si control wafers were smooth with a root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of <1 nm, which is sufficiently smooth for direct wafer bonding. The surfaces of the sSi/SiGe/Si(0 0 1) substrates show an RMS roughness of >2 nm. After HDP-CVD oxide deposition on the sSi/SiGe/Si substrates, the RMS roughness of the oxide surfaces was also found to be the same, i.e., >2 nm. To use these wafers for direct bonding the RMS roughness had to be reduced below 1 nm, which was carried out using a chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP) step. After bonding the HDP-CVD oxides to thermally oxidized handle wafers, the bonded interfaces were mostly bubble- and void-free for the silicon control and the sSi/SiGe/Si(0 0 1) wafers. The bonded wafer pairs were then annealed at higher temperatures up to 800 °C and the bonded interfaces were still found to be almost bubble- and void-free. Thus, HDP-CVD oxide is quite suitable for direct wafer bonding and layer transfer of ultrathin sSi layers on oxidized Si wafers for the fabrication of novel sSOI substrates.

  8. Ammonia Oxidizers in a Pilot-Scale Multilayer Rapid Infiltration System for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yingli; Xu, Meiying; Zhong, Yuming; Yang, Yongqiang; Chen, Fanrong; Guo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale multilayer rapid infiltration system (MRIS) for domestic wastewater treatment was established and efficient removal of ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved in this study. The microbial community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were investigated. Efficient biofilms of ammonia oxidizers in the stationary phase (packing material) was formed successfully in the MRIS without special inoculation. DGGE and phylogenetic analyses revealed that proteobacteria dominated in the MRIS. Relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) showed contrary tendency. In the flowing phase (water effluent), AOA diversity was significantly correlated with the concentration of dissolve oxygen (DO), NO3-N and NH3-N. AOB abundance was significantly correlated with the concentration of DO and chemical oxygen demand (COD). NH3-N and COD were identified as the key factors to shape AOB community structure, while no variable significantly correlated with that of AOA. AOA might play an important role in the MRIS. This study could reveal key environmental factors affecting the community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in the MRIS. PMID:25479611

  9. Growth and characterization of single phase Cu2O by thermal oxidation of thin copper films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Sumita; Sarma, J. V. N.; Gangopadhyay, Subhashis

    2016-04-01

    We report a simple and efficient technique to form high quality single phase cuprous oxide films on glass substrate using thermal evaporation of thin copper films followed by controlled thermal oxidation in air ambient. Crystallographic analysis and oxide phase determination, as well as grain size distribution have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) method, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been utilized to investigate the surface morphology of the as grown oxide films. The formation of various copper oxide phases is found to be highly sensitive to the oxidation temperature and a crystalline, single phase cuprous oxide film can be achieved for oxidation temperatures between 250°C to 320°C. Cu2O film surface appeared in a faceted morphology in SEM imaging and a direct band gap of about 2.1 eV has been observed in UV-visible spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed a single oxide phase formation. Finally, a growth mechanism of the oxide film has also been discussed.

  10. Onset of thermal convection in rapidly rotating spheres and spheroids at very low Ekman number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, S.; Jackson, A.; Livermore, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    The flows in the fluid cores of rapidly rotating planetary bodies can be conveniently described as being invariant along the direction parallel to the rotation axis. This description, also referred to as columnar, is based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation and it holds for timescales longer than the rotation period as long as other forces acting on the fluid are of secondary importance with respect to rotation. A significant effort of the community is presently spent in the development of quasi-geostrophic numerical models of planetary cores, the final goal being to run numerical simulations in parameters regimes relevant for planetary dynamics. The development of such models has proven fundamentally challenging, especially when magnetic forces are present. Therefore, analytical solutions to simple dynamical problems will be of paramount importance for benchmarking purposes. We present an analytical and explicit solution to the problem of the columnar inertial modes in rapidly rotating sphere and spheroids in absence of viscosity. We find that the oblateness of the spheroid significantly alters the frequency of the low order inertial modes for high azimuthal wavenumbers. However the geometry of the flow is the same as for the spherical case. Excellent agreement with known 3-D solutions has been found. Typically, given the geometry of the columnar flows, the axial vorticity equation is assumed to be a valid description of the dynamics of quasi-geostrophic flows. Based on a recently developed projection technique, we found the axial vorticity equation to be appropriate only in the case of highly oblate spheroids. Our analytical solution can be used to calculate the critical Rayleigh number and the structure of the flow at the onset of thermal convection. We do so by following an asymptotic procedure already applied to the spherical case and for 3-D flows. Thanks to our new quasi-geostrophic solution and to the use of spectral strategies to solve the problem, we

  11. Thermal effects on the structural properties of tungsten oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tsung-Yeh; Wu, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Meng-Hung; Lin, Hong-Ming; Tsai, Wen-Li; Hwu, Yeukuang

    2004-06-01

    Tungsten oxide nanoparticles are prepared by evaporating and oxidizing the tungsten boat in helium and oxygen atmosphere and then quenched to the liquid nitrogen temperature. The as-prepared tungsten oxide nanoparticles are porous-free with uniform size. The morphology and particle size distribution of the as-prepared and after sinter treatments tungsten oxide nanoparticles are revealed by TEM and AFM. The long-range order of these nanoparticles can be examined by X-ray diffraction technique. The as-prepared nanoparticles exhibit a mixture structure of monoclinic and hexagonal crystals. Preliminary X-ray diffraction results indicate that the hexagonal structure is transformed to monoclinic structure after annealing to above 600°C. In order to better distinguish the structural properties of the tungsten oxide (WO3- x) nanoparticles before and after annealing, the X-ray absorption spectrum technique is utilized; thus, the detailed local atomic arrangement of oxygen and/or tungsten can be determined. According to the XAS result, the shape of the W L3-edge undergoes no considerable changes. This infers that structural transformation of tungsten oxide nanoparticle may be caused by the migration of oxygen after sintering. From the O K-edge of absorption spectrum, it suggests that a mixture phase structure is obtained when sintered below 300°C. And this result indicates that heat treatment to approximately 600°C produces a stable structure of a monoclinic crystal of WO3.

  12. Interfacial failure via encapsulation of external particulates in an outward-growing thermal oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Keeyoung; Kim, Chang-Soo; Pettit, Frederick S.; Meier, Gerald H.

    2011-05-01

    A Cr2O3-forming Ni-base superalloy and this alloy coated with a Pt-modified aluminide coating were exposed to SiO2 powder and cyclically oxidized at 950 °C. The uncoated alloy showed a considerable amount of spallation and buckling whereas the Pt-NiAl coated alloy remained protective throughout hundred 1 h-cycles. The interfacial failure is mainly ascribed to the increased thermal strain by the encapsulation of external SiO2 particulates in an outward-growing Cr2O3 layer. However, the particles were not embedded in the thermally grown oxide of the Pt-NiAl coated alloy due to the slow inward-growing characteristics of Al2O3 scales. The buckling of the Cr2O3 scale with embedded SiO2 was analyzed with (1) a classical buckling criterion using the instantaneous coefficients of thermal expansion of the constituents, and (2) finite element analyses (FEA) to estimate the local interfacial shear stresses. It turns out that the thermal strain with embedded SiO2 is larger than the experimentally determined critical thermal strain (ɛb) explaining the buckling of the oxide scale observed in the experiment. The FEA results demonstrate that local shear stresses at the metal/oxide interface are significantly amplified near the SiO2 particles showing that the buckling of oxide can be readily initiated especially in the vicinity of the embedded particles.

  13. Rapid thermal annealing of magnesium implanted GaAs-GaAIAs heterostructures experimental and simulated distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketata, K.; Debrie, R.; Ketata, M.

    1993-01-01

    The use of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) techniques to anneal ion implanted GaAs compounds is expected to have a significant impact on device technology. Due to the short duration of the heat treatment, the implanted impurities may be activated without significant diffusion. For heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) applications, high doses of p-type impurities are required to compensate the doping levels of N-GaAlAs emitter and n+ GaAs contact layers. Multi-implantations were chosen to maintain a flat profile down to the base layer. Energies of 30, 60, 150, and 340 keV with doses of 6 × 1013, 9 × 1013,6 × 1014, and 9 × 1014 cm-2, respectively, have been used. Annealing cycles with time durations of a few seconds and temperature in the range of 850 950°C are described. Electrical properties of the annealed samples have been investigated using an electrochemical measurement technique. It was found that hole concentrations as high as 4 × 1019 cm-3 and electrical activities near to 75 percent can be obtained. There is no evident indiffusion and no significant outdiffusion at the optimal annealing conditions. Simulation of multilayer implantations are also carried out by an accurate model available in TITAN 2D process simulator using Pearson IV laws and taking into account the diffusion effects on profile distribution caused by RTA. A first approximation using a simple model allows a rapid evaluation of the data fitting operation. In a second approach, concentration dependent diffusivity and the contribution of the electric field at the interface are covered to perform an improved data fitting of ion implanted and annealed dopant profiles. A comparative study shows a good agreement between experimental and simulated distributions.

  14. Rapid Mobilization of Noncrystalline U(IV) Coupled with FeS Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yuqiang; Stylo, Malgorzata; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Hayes, Kim F

    2016-02-02

    The reactivity of disordered, noncrystalline U(IV) species remains poorly characterized despite their prevalence in biostimulated sediments. Because of the lack of crystalline structure, noncrystalline U(IV) may be susceptible to oxidative mobilization under oxic conditions. The present study investigated the mechanism and rate of oxidation of biogenic noncrystalline U(IV) by dissolved oxygen (DO) in the presence of mackinawite (FeS). Previously recognized as an effective reductant and oxygen scavenger, nanoparticulate FeS was evaluated for its role in influencing U release in a flow-through system as a function of pH and carbonate concentration. The results demonstrated that noncrystalline U(IV) was more susceptible to oxidation than uraninite (UO2) in the presence of dissolved carbonate. A rapid release of U occurred immediately after FeS addition without exhibiting a temporary inhibition stage, as was observed during the oxidation of UO2, although FeS still kept DO levels low. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterized a transient surface Fe(III) species during the initial FeS oxidation, which was likely responsible for oxidizing noncrystalline U(IV) in addition to oxygen. In the absence of carbonate, however, the release of dissolved U was significantly hindered as a result of U adsorption by FeS oxidation products. This study illustrates the strong interactions between iron sulfide and U(IV) species during redox transformation and implies the lability of biogenic noncrystalline U(IV) species in the subsurface environment when subjected to redox cycling events.

  15. A Novel Investigation of the Formation of Titanium Oxide Nanotubes on Thermally Formed Oxide of Ti-6Al-4V.

    PubMed

    Butt, Arman; Hamlekhan, Azhang; Patel, Sweetu; Royhman, Dmitry; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Takoudis, Christos

    2015-10-01

    Traditionally, titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotubes (TNTs) are anodized on Ti-6Al-4V alloy (Ti-V) surfaces with native TiO2 (amorphous TiO2); subsequent heat treatment of anodized surfaces has been observed to enhance cellular response. As-is bulk Ti-V, however, is often subjected to heat treatment, such as thermal oxidation (TO), to improve its mechanical properties. Thermal oxidation treatment of Ti-V at temperatures greater than 200°C and 400°C initiates the formation of anatase and rutile TiO2, respectively, which can affect TNT formation. This study aims at understanding the TNT formation mechanism on Ti-V surfaces with TO-formed TiO2 compared with that on as-is Ti-V surfaces with native oxide. Thermal oxidation-formed TiO2 can affect TNT formation and surface wettability because TO-formed TiO2 is expected to be part of the TNT structure. Surface characterization was carried out with field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, water contact angle measurements, and white light interferometry. The TNTs were formed on control and 300°C and 600°C TO-treated Ti-V samples, and significant differences in TNT lengths and surface morphology were observed. No difference in elemental composition was found. Thermal oxidation and TO/anodization treatments produced hydrophilic surfaces, while hydrophobic behavior was observed over time (aging) for all samples. Reduced hydrophobic behavior was observed for TO/anodized samples when compared with control, control/anodized, and TO-treated samples. A method for improved surface wettability and TNT morphology is therefore discussed for possible applications in effective osseointegration of dental and orthopedic implants.

  16. Mechanofused metal-carbide-oxide cermet powders for thermal spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, D.; Yokota, O.; Grimaud, A.; Fauchais, P.; Usmani, S.; Chen, Z.J.; Berndt, C.C.; Herman, H.

    1994-12-31

    By generating a mechano-chemical reaction between two or more materials, the mechanofusion process enables the production of novel powdered materials having different mechanical properties. In this study, different varieties of starting materials have been combined with the aim of manufacturing powders for thermal spraying, the objective being to produce a coating having good wear resistance in severe environments (e.g., high temperatures). Sets of NiCrAlY-TiC-ZrO{sub 2} and NiAl-TiC-ZrO{sub 2} powders with different levels of ceramic have been sprayed and the resultant coatings evaluated for microstructure, microhardness, wear and thermal shock resistance. The principal objective of the present study was to evaluate mechanofusion for the production of thermal spray cermet powders.

  17. Oxidative Stability of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Seed Oil to Simulated Gastric Conditions and Thermal Stress.

    PubMed

    Siano, Francesco; Addeo, Francesco; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Paolucci, Marina; Picariello, Gianluca

    2016-11-09

    The fatty acid composition of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil (PSO) is dominated by punicic acid, a conjugated linolenic acid (18:3ω-5). As a free fatty acid, punicic acid is rapidly oxidized in air and extensively isomerizes upon acid-catalyzed methylation at 90 °C. In contrast, triacylglycerol-bound punicic acid in PSO was unchanged by simulated gastric conditions and was degraded by 5-7% by severe heating (up to 170 °C for 4 h), as herein assessed by gas chromatography, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Total polar compounds of PSO were slightly affected by thermal stress, accounting for 5.71, 6.35, and 9.53% (w/w) in the unheated, heated at mild temperature (50 °C, 2 h), and heated at frying temperature (170 °C, 4 h) PSO, respectively. These findings support from a structural standpoint the potential use of PSO as a health-promoting edible oil.

  18. Atmospheric Pressure-Thermal Desorption (AP-TD)/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for the Rapid Analysis of Bacillus Spores

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A technique is described where an atmospheric pressure-thermal desorption (AP-TD) device and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry are coupled and used for the rapid analysis of Bacillus spores in complex matrices. The resulting AP-TD/ESI-MS technique combines the generation of volatile co...

  19. Rapid and Adaptable Measurement of Protein Thermal Stability by Differential Scanning Fluorimetry: Updating a Common Biochemical Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Jeremy; Savas, Christopher J.; Kartje, Zachary; Hoops, Geoffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of protein denaturation and protein folding is a common laboratory technique used in undergraduate biochemistry laboratories. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) provides a rapid, sensitive, and general method for measuring protein thermal stability in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory. In this method, the thermal…

  20. Rapid and Adaptable Measurement of Protein Thermal Stability by Differential Scanning Fluorimetry: Updating a Common Biochemical Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Jeremy; Savas, Christopher J.; Kartje, Zachary; Hoops, Geoffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of protein denaturation and protein folding is a common laboratory technique used in undergraduate biochemistry laboratories. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) provides a rapid, sensitive, and general method for measuring protein thermal stability in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory. In this method, the thermal…

  1. Rapid and effective oxidative pretreatment of woody biomass at mild reaction conditions and low oxidant loadings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One route for producing cellulosic biofuels is by the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars generated from a pretreatment that can be effectively coupled with an enzymatic hydrolysis of the plant cell wall. While woody biomass exhibits a number of positive agronomic and logistical attributes, these feedstocks are significantly more recalcitrant to chemical pretreatments than herbaceous feedstocks, requiring higher chemical and energy inputs to achieve high sugar yields from enzymatic hydrolysis. We previously discovered that alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment catalyzed by copper(II) 2,2΄-bipyridine complexes significantly improves subsequent enzymatic glucose and xylose release from hybrid poplar heartwood and sapwood relative to uncatalyzed AHP pretreatment at modest reaction conditions (room temperature and atmospheric pressure). In the present work, the reaction conditions for this catalyzed AHP pretreatment were investigated in more detail with the aim of better characterizing the relationship between pretreatment conditions and subsequent enzymatic sugar release. Results We found that for a wide range of pretreatment conditions, the catalyzed pretreatment resulted in significantly higher glucose and xylose enzymatic hydrolysis yields (as high as 80% for both glucose and xylose) relative to uncatalyzed pretreatment (up to 40% for glucose and 50% for xylose). We identified that the extent of improvement in glucan and xylan yield using this catalyzed pretreatment approach was a function of pretreatment conditions that included H2O2 loading on biomass, catalyst concentration, solids concentration, and pretreatment duration. Based on these results, several important improvements in pretreatment and hydrolysis conditions were identified that may have a positive economic impact for a process employing a catalyzed oxidative pretreatment. These improvements include identifying that: (1) substantially lower H2O2 loadings can be used that

  2. Zirconia and Pyrochlore Oxides for Thermal Barrier Coatings in Gas Turbine Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    2014-04-12

    One of the important applications of yttria stabilized zirconia is as a thermal barrier coating for gas turbine engines. While yttria stabilized zirconia performs well in this function, the need for increased operating temperatures to achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies, requires the development of improved materials. To meet this challenge, some rare-earth zirconates that form the cubic fluorite derived pyrochlore structure are being developed for use in thermal barrier coatings due to their low thermal conductivity, excellent chemical stability and other suitable properties. In this paper, the thermal conductivities of current and prospective oxides for use in thermal barrier coatings are reviewed. The factors affecting the variations and differences in the thermal conductivities and the degradation behaviors of these materials are discussed.

  3. Advanced Oxide Material Systems for 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are being developed for low-emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor-containing combustion environments. The advanced 1650 C TEBC system is required to have a better high-temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and more resistance to sintering and thermal stress than current coating systems under engine high-heat-flux and severe thermal cycling conditions. In this report, the thermal conductivity and water vapor stability of selected candidate hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based TEBC materials are evaluated. The effects of dopants on the materials properties are also discussed. The test results have been used to downselect the TEBC materials and help demonstrate the feasibility of advanced 1650 C coatings with long-term thermal cycling durability.

  4. Zirconia and Pyrochlore Oxides for Thermal Barrier Coatings in Gas Turbine Engines

    DOE PAGES

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    2014-04-12

    One of the important applications of yttria stabilized zirconia is as a thermal barrier coating for gas turbine engines. While yttria stabilized zirconia performs well in this function, the need for increased operating temperatures to achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies, requires the development of improved materials. To meet this challenge, some rare-earth zirconates that form the cubic fluorite derived pyrochlore structure are being developed for use in thermal barrier coatings due to their low thermal conductivity, excellent chemical stability and other suitable properties. In this paper, the thermal conductivities of current and prospective oxides for use in thermal barrier coatingsmore » are reviewed. The factors affecting the variations and differences in the thermal conductivities and the degradation behaviors of these materials are discussed.« less

  5. Rapid and sustained surface ocean acidification during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penman, Donald E.; Hönisch, Bärbel; Zeebe, Richard E.; Thomas, Ellen; Zachos, James C.

    2014-05-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) has been associated with the release of several thousands of petagrams of carbon (Pg C) as methane and/or carbon dioxide into the ocean-atmosphere system within ~10 kyr, on the basis of the co-occurrence of a carbon isotope excursion (CIE), widespread dissolution of deep sea carbonates, and global warming. In theory, this rapid carbon release should have severely acidified the surface ocean, though no geochemical evidence has yet been presented. Using boron-based proxies for surface ocean carbonate chemistry, we present the first observational evidence for a drop in the pH of surface and thermocline seawater during the PETM. Planktic foraminifers from a drill site in the North Pacific (Ocean Drilling Program Site 1209) show a ~0.8‰ decrease in boron isotopic composition (δ11B) at the onset of the event, along with a 30-40% reduction in shell B/Ca. Similar trends in δ11B are present in two lower-resolution records from the South Atlantic and Equatorial Pacific. These observations are consistent with significant, global acidification of the surface ocean lasting at least 70 kyr and requiring sustained carbon release. The anomalies in the B records are consistent with an initial surface pH drop of ~0.3 units, at the upper range of model-based estimates of acidification.

  6. Facile synthesis of few-layer graphene with a controllable thickness using rapid thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jae Hwan; Kwak, Jinsung; Kwon, Tae-Yang; Park, Soon-Dong; Go, Heungseok; Kim, Sung Youb; Park, Kibog; Kang, Seoktae; Kwon, Soon-Yong

    2012-03-01

    Few-layer graphene films with a controllable thickness were grown on a nickel surface by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) under vacuum. The instability of nickel films in air facilitates the spontaneous formation of ultrathin (<2-3 nm) carbon- and oxygen-containing compounds on a nickel surface; thus, the high-temperature annealing of the nickel samples without the introduction of intentional carbon-containing precursors results in the formation of graphene films. From annealing temperature and ambient studies during RTA, it was found that the evaporation of oxygen atoms from the surface is the dominant factor affecting the formation of graphene films. The thickness of the graphene layers is strongly dependent on the RTA temperature and time, and the resulting films have a limited thickness (<2 nm), even for an extended RTA time. The transferred films have a low sheet resistance of ~0.9 ± 0.4 kΩ/sq, with ~94% ± 2% optical transparency, making them useful for applications as flexible transparent conductors.

  7. Nano-Welding of Ag Nanowires Using Rapid Thermal Annealing for Transparent Conductive Films.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jong Sik; Oh, Ji Soo; Shin, Jae Hee; Yeom, Geun Young; Kim, Kyong Nam

    2015-11-01

    Ag nanowire (NW) films obtained by the spraying the Ag NWs on the substrates were nano-welded by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process and the effect of RTA process on the change of sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the Ag NW films was investigated. The increased number of Ag NW sprays on the substrate decreased the sheet resistance but also decreased the optical transmittance. By the annealing for 60 sec in a nitrogen environment to 225-250 degrees C, the sheet resistance of Ag NW film could be decreased to about 50%, even though it was accompanied by the slight decrease of optical transmittance less than 5%. The decrease of sheet resistance was related to the nano-welding of the Ag NW junctions and the slight decrease of optical transmittance was related local melting of the Ag NWs and spreading on the substrate surface. Through the nano-welding by RTA process, the Ag NW film with the sheet resistance of -20 Ω/sq. and the optical transmittance of 93% could be obtained.

  8. Rapidly Thermal Annealed Si-Doped In2O3 Films for Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min; Kim, Han-Ki

    2015-10-01

    We report the electrical, optical, and structural properties of Si-doped In2O3 (ISO) films prepared using co-sputtering system with multi cathode guns for use in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). We investigated the effect of Si doping power on the electrical, optical, and structural properties of ISO film that was rapidly thermally annealed at a temperature of 400 °C. Due to the high Lewis acid strength (8.096) of the Si dopant, the ISO films showed high mobility and low resistivity despite the low Si doping concentration. Low resistivity of the annealed ISO films indicated that Si(4+) acts as an effective dopant of an In2O3 matrix by substitution with the In(3+) site. At a Si doping power of 50 W, ISO film showed a sheet resistance of 19.7 Ohm/square and optical transparency of 76.7%, which are acceptable values for fabrication of OPVs. Successful operation of OPV cells fabricated on transparent ISO film indicates that ISO is a promising high mobility transparent electrode material and alternative to conventional ITO films.

  9. Rapid determination of nicotine in urine by direct thermal desorption ion trap mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.B.; Ilgner, R.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of nicotine and cotinine in physiological fluids (urine, blood serum, and saliva) is widely used as a means of assessing human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Although numerous analytical methods exist for these measurements, they generally involve extensive sample preparation which increases cost and decreases sample throughput. We report the use of thermal desorption directly into an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) for the rapid determination of nicotine and cotinine in urine. A 1{mu}L aliquot of urine is injected into a specially designed inlet and flash vaporized directly into an ITMS through an open-split capillary restrictor interface. Isobutane chemical ionization is used to generate (M+H){sup +} ions of the analytes and collision induced dissociation is used to generate characteristic fragment ions which are used to confirm their identity. Quantification is achieved by integrating the ion current for the characteristic ions and comparing with an external working curve. Detection limits are approximately 50 pg per analyte and the sample turnaround time is approximately 3 minutes without the need for extensive sample preparation. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Stabilization of thin tungsten films on silicon during rapid thermal annealing in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    Thin W films on Si, deposited by electron-beam evaporation or sputtering, are shown to be stabilized against silicidation by a N[sub 2] ambient during rapid thermal annealing to temperatures of 1100[degree]C. The behavior of the W films in contact with Si was monitored following anneals in Ar and N[sub 2] ambients. Tungsten films annealed in an Ar ambient reacted fully to form the stable silicide, WSi[sub 2], while films annealed in N[sub 2] remained elemental W. The stability of W films with incorporated N was studied further by subsequent annealing in an Ar ambient. Complete stabilization of the W films was only achieved for N doses above 2.0 [times] 10[sup 17] N atoms/cm[sub 2]. At lower doses, a continual supply of N was necessary to maintain the stabilization by consumption of mobile Si at the interface. In contrast to films deposited by e-beam evaporation or sputtering, films deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reacted to form WSi[sub 2], regardless of the annealing ambient, at a substantially faster rate than the other samples. AES measurements show this reaction is the result of an absence of measurable O in the CVD films.

  11. Analysis of recombination mechanisms in heterojunction silicon solar cells with rapid thermally annealed thin film emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldus-Jeursen, C.; Tarighat, R. S.; Sivoththaman, S.

    2017-05-01

    A new family of silicon (Si) wafer heterojunction solar cells fabricated by solid phase crystallization of PECVD amorphous silicon emitters by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) has been analyzed in order to understand the dominant recombination mechanisms. Solar cells fabricated with a broad RTA temperature range of 600-1000 °C were characterized through quantum efficiency, illuminated I-V, and capacitance-voltage measurements. Using the experimental data and theoretical considerations, the influence of carrier recombination in the quasi-neutral and space charge zones as well as at the heterojunction interface were studied. It is established that the carrier recombination in the quasi-neutral base region in the p-type Si substrate predominantly limits the device open circuit voltage. The analysis also showed that the interface recombination velocities at the heterojunction were less than 100 cm s-1. It is also qualitatively established that a post-fabrication forming gas anneal reduces the defect density at the hetero-interface.

  12. Enhanced UV photosensitivity from rapid thermal annealed vertically aligned ZnO nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report on the major improvement in UV photosensitivity and faster photoresponse from vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) by means of rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The ZnO NWs were grown by vapor-liquid-solid method and subsequently RTA treated at 700°C and 800°C for 120 s. The UV photosensitivity (photo-to-dark current ratio) is 4.5 × 103 for the as-grown NWs and after RTA treatment it is enhanced by a factor of five. The photocurrent (PC) spectra of the as-grown and RTA-treated NWs show a strong peak in the UV region and two other relatively weak peaks in the visible region. The photoresponse measurement shows a bi-exponential growth and bi-exponential decay of the PC from as-grown as well as RTA-treated ZnO NWs. The growth and decay time constants are reduced after the RTA treatment indicating a faster photoresponse. The dark current-voltage characteristics clearly show the presence of surface defects-related trap centers on the as-grown ZnO NWs and after RTA treatment it is significantly reduced. The RTA processing diminishes the surface defect-related trap centers and modifies the surface of the ZnO NWs, resulting in enhanced PC and faster photoresponse. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of RTA processing for achieving improved photosensitivity of ZnO NWs. PMID:21859456

  13. Rapid carbon sequestration at the termination of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Gabriel J.; Zachos, James C.

    2010-12-01

    The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), an approximately 170,000-year-long period of global warming about 56 million years ago, has been attributed to the release of thousands of petagrams of reduced carbon into the ocean, atmosphere and biosphere. However, the fate of this excess carbon at the end of the event is poorly constrained: drawdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide has been attributed to an increase in the weathering of silicates or to increased rates of organic carbon burial. Here we develop constraints on the rate of carbon drawdown based on rates of carbon isotope change in well-dated marine and terrestrial sediments spanning the event. We find that the rate of recovery is an order of magnitude more rapid than that expected for carbon drawdown by silicate weathering alone. Unless existing estimates of carbon stocks and cycling during this time are widely inaccurate, our results imply that more than 2,000Pg of carbon were sequestered as organic carbon over 30,000-40,000years at the end of the PETM. We suggest that the accelerated sequestration of organic carbon could reflect the regrowth of carbon stocks in the biosphere or shallow lithosphere that were released at the onset of the event.

  14. Defect reduction in MBE-grown AlN by multicycle rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenlee, Jordan D.; Gunning, Brendan; Feigelson, Boris N.; Anderson, Travis J.; Koehler, Andrew D.; Hobart, Karl D.; Kub, Francis J.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2016-01-01

    Multicycle rapid thermal annealing (MRTA) is shown to reduce the defect density of molecular beam epitaxially grown AlN films. No damage to the AlN surface occurred after performing the MRTA process at 1520°C. However, the individual grain structure was altered, with the emergence of step edges. This change in grain structure and diffusion of AlN resulted in an improvement in the crystalline structure. The Raman E2 linewidth decreased, confirming an improvement in crystal quality. The optical band edge of the AlN maintained the expected value of 6.2 eV throughout MRTA annealing, and the band edge sharpened after MRTA annealing at increased temperatures, providing further evidence of crystalline improvement. X-ray diffraction shows a substantial improvement in the (002) and (102) rocking curve FWHM for both the 1400 and 1520°C MRTA annealing conditions compared to the as-grown films, indicating that the screw and edge type dislocation densities decreased. Overall, the MRTA post-growth annealing of AlN lowers defect density, and thus will be a key step to improving optoelectronic and power electronic devices. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Rapid thermal processing chamber for in-situ x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Md. Imteyaz; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Yu, Jiafan; Pool, Vanessa L.; Van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Toney, Michael F.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S.

    2015-01-15

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is widely used for processing a variety of materials, including electronics and photovoltaics. Presently, optimization of RTP is done primarily based on ex-situ studies. As a consequence, the precise reaction pathways and phase progression during the RTP remain unclear. More awareness of the reaction pathways would better enable process optimization and foster increased adoption of RTP, which offers numerous advantages for synthesis of a broad range of materials systems. To achieve this, we have designed and developed a RTP instrument that enables real-time collection of X-ray diffraction data with intervals as short as 100 ms, while heating with ramp rates up to 100 °Cs{sup −1}, and with a maximum operating temperature of 1200 °C. The system is portable and can be installed on a synchrotron beamline. The unique capabilities of this instrument are demonstrated with in-situ characterization of a Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glass frit obtained during heating with ramp rates 5 °C s{sup −1} and 100 °C s{sup −1}, revealing numerous phase changes.

  16. Thermal stability of an ultrathin hafnium oxide film on plasma nitrided Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaja, K.; Schönbohm, F.; Weier, D.; Lühr, T.; Keutner, C.; Berges, U.; Westphal, C.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the thermal stability of an ultrathin hafnium oxide film on a plasma nitrided Si(100) surface. The ultrathin silicon nitride buffer layer was produced by an ECR-plasma ion source. Onto this buffer layer a thin hafnium oxide film was prepared by electron beam evaporation. The thermal stability of the layer stack was checked by systematic annealing steps. A detailed angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the interfaces is presented. For chemical surface studies high-resolution spectra of the Si 2p and Hf 4f signals were taken. It is demonstrated that the thermal stability of hafnium oxide thin films can be increased by a smooth and homogenous buffer layer of silicon nitride.

  17. Sludge thermal oxidation processes: mineral recycling, energy impact, and greenhouse effect gases release.

    PubMed

    Guibelin, E

    2004-01-01

    Different treatment routes have been studied for a mixed sludge: the conventional agricultural use is compared with the thermal oxidation processes, including incineration (in gaseous phase) and wet air oxidation (in liquid phase). The interest of a sludge digestion prior to the final treatment has been also considered according to the two major criteria, which are the fossil energy utilisation and the greenhouse effect gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) release. Thermal energy has to be recovered on thermal processes to make these processes environmentally friendly, otherwise their main interest is to extract or destroy micropollutants and pathogens from the carbon cycle. In case of continuous energy recovery, incineration can produce more energy than it consumes. Digestion is especially interesting for agriculture: according to these two schemes, the energy final balance can also be in excess. As to wet air oxidation, it is probably one of the best ways to minimize greenhouse effect gases emission.

  18. Nylon 6.6 accelerated aging studies : thermal-oxidative degradation and its interaction with hydrolysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Robert; Derzon, Dora Kay; Gillen, Kenneth T.

    2004-06-01

    Accelerated aging of Nylon 6.6 fibers used in parachutes has been conducted by following the tensile strength loss under both thermal-oxidative and 100% relative humidity conditions. Thermal-oxidative studies (air circulating ovens) were performed for time periods of weeks to years at temperatures ranging from 37 C to 138 C. Accelerated aging humidity experiments (100% RH) were performed under both an argon atmosphere to examine the 'pure' hydrolysis pathway, and under an oxygen atmosphere (oxygen partial pressure close to that occurring in air) to mimic true aging conditions. As expected the results indicated that degradation caused by humidity is much more important than thermal-oxidative degradation. Surprisingly when both oxygen and humidity were present the rate of degradation was dramatically enhanced relative to humidity aging in the absence of oxygen. This significant and previously unknown phenomena underscores the importance of careful accelerated aging that truly mimics real world storage conditions.

  19. Isothermal oxidation behaviour of thermal barrier coatings with CoCrAlY bond coat irradiated by high-current pulsed electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jie; Guan, Qingfeng; Hou, Xiuli; Wang, Zhiping; Su, Jingxin; Han, Zhiyong

    2014-10-01

    Thermal sprayed CoCrAlY bond coat irradiated by high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) and thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) prepared with the irradiated bond coat and the ceramic top coat were investigated. The high temperature oxidation resistance of these specimens was tested at 1050 °C in air. Microstructure observations revealed that the original coarse surface of the as-sprayed bond coat was significantly changed as the interconnected bulged nodules with a compact appearance after HCPEB irradiation. Abundant Y-rich alumina particulates and very fine grains were dispersed on the irradiated surface. After high temperature oxidation test, the thermally grown oxide (TGO) in the initial TBCs grew rapidly and was comprised of two distinct layers: a large percentage of mixed oxides in the outer layer and a relatively small portion of Al2O3 in the inner layer. Severe local internal oxidation and extensive cracks in the TGO layer were discovered as well. Comparatively, the irradiated TBCs exhibited thinner TGO layer, slower TGO growth rate, and homogeneous TGO composition (primarily consisting of Al2O3). The results indicate that TBCs with the irradiated bond coat have a much higher oxidation resistance.

  20. Comprehensive study on initial thermal oxidation of GaN(0001) surface and subsequent oxide growth in dry oxygen ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Ito, Joyo; Asahara, Ryohei; Watanabe, Kenta; Nozaki, Mikito; Nakazawa, Satoshi; Anda, Yoshiharu; Ishida, Masahiro; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2017-01-01

    Initial oxidation of gallium nitride (GaN) (0001) epilayers and subsequent growth of thermal oxides in dry oxygen ambient were investigated by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray diffraction measurements. It was found that initial oxide formation tends to saturate at temperatures below 800 °C, whereas the selective growth of small oxide grains proceeds at dislocations in the epilayers, followed by noticeable grain growth, leading to a rough surface morphology at higher oxidation temperatures. This indicates that oxide growth and its morphology are crucially dependent on the defect density in the GaN epilayers. Structural characterizations also reveal that polycrystalline α- and β-phase Ga2O3 grains in an epitaxial relation with the GaN substrate are formed from the initial stage of the oxide growth. We propose a comprehensive model for GaN oxidation mediated by nitrogen removal and mass transport and discuss the model on the basis of experimental findings.

  1. Rapid antibiotic efficacy screening with aluminum oxide nanoporous membrane filter-chip and optical detection system.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Pei-Hsiang; Sreenivasappa, Harini; Hong, Sungmin; Yasuike, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Nakano, Keiyo; Misawa, Takeyuki; Kameoka, Jun

    2010-09-15

    We have developed a filter-chip and optical detection system for rapid antibiotic efficacy screening. The filter-chip consisted of a 1-mL reservoir and an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membrane. Sample solution with liquid growth media, bacteria, and antibiotics was incubated in the reservoir for a specific period of time. The number of live bacteria on the surface of membrane was counted after the incubation with antibiotics and filtration. Using this biosensing system, we have demonstrated a 1-h antibiotic screening for patients' clinical samples, significantly faster than the conventional antibiotic susceptibility tests that typically take more than 24h. This rapid screening nature makes the filter-chip and detection system ideal for tailoring antibiotic treatment to individual patients by reducing the microbial antibiotic resistance, and improving the survival rate for patients suffering from postoperative infections.

  2. Rapid and direct synthesis of complex perovskite oxides through a highly energetic planetary milling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Park, Eun-Kwang; Yang, Sun-A; Park, Jin-Ju; Bu, Sang-Don; Lee, Min-Ku

    2017-01-01

    The search for a new and facile synthetic route that is simple, economical and environmentally safe is one of the most challenging issues related to the synthesis of functional complex oxides. Herein, we report the expeditious synthesis of single-phase perovskite oxides by a high-rate mechanochemical reaction, which is generally difficult through conventional milling methods. With the help of a highly energetic planetary ball mill, lead-free piezoelectric perovskite oxides of (Bi, Na)TiO3, (K, Na)NbO3 and their modified complex compositions were directly synthesized with low contamination. The reaction time necessary to fully convert the micron-sized reactant powder mixture into a single-phase perovskite structure was markedly short at only 30–40 min regardless of the chemical composition. The cumulative kinetic energy required to overtake the activation period necessary for predominant formation of perovskite products was ca. 387 kJ/g for (Bi, Na)TiO3 and ca. 580 kJ/g for (K, Na)NbO3. The mechanochemically derived powders, when sintered, showed piezoelectric performance capabilities comparable to those of powders obtained by conventional solid-state reaction processes. The observed mechanochemical synthetic route may lead to the realization of a rapid, one-step preparation method by which to create other promising functional oxides without time-consuming homogenization and high-temperature calcination powder procedures. PMID:28387324

  3. Rapid mass production of two-dimensional metal oxides and hydroxides via the molten salts method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhimi; Xiao, Xu; Jin, Huanyu; Li, Tianqi; Chen, Ming; Liang, Zhun; Guo, Zhengfeng; Li, Jia; Wan, Jun; Huang, Liang; Zhang, Yanrong; Feng, Guang; Zhou, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Because of their exotic electronic properties and abundant active sites, two-dimensional (2D) materials have potential in various fields. Pursuing a general synthesis methodology of 2D materials and advancing it from the laboratory to industry is of great importance. This type of method should be low cost, rapid and highly efficient. Here, we report the high-yield synthesis of 2D metal oxides and hydroxides via a molten salts method. We obtained a high-yield of 2D ion-intercalated metal oxides and hydroxides, such as cation-intercalated manganese oxides (Na0.55Mn2O4.1.5H2O and K0.27MnO2.0.54H2O), cation-intercalated tungsten oxides (Li2WO4 and Na2W4O13), and anion-intercalated metal hydroxides (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2.2H2O and Cu2(OH)3NO3), with a large lateral size and nanometre thickness in a short time. Using 2D Na2W4O13 as an electrode, a high performance electrochemical supercapacitor is achieved. We anticipate that our method will enable new path to the high-yield synthesis of 2D materials for applications in energy-related fields and beyond.

  4. Rapid and direct synthesis of complex perovskite oxides through a highly energetic planetary milling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Park, Eun-Kwang; Yang, Sun-A; Park, Jin-Ju; Bu, Sang-Don; Lee, Min-Ku

    2017-04-07

    The search for a new and facile synthetic route that is simple, economical and environmentally safe is one of the most challenging issues related to the synthesis of functional complex oxides. Herein, we report the expeditious synthesis of single-phase perovskite oxides by a high-rate mechanochemical reaction, which is generally difficult through conventional milling methods. With the help of a highly energetic planetary ball mill, lead-free piezoelectric perovskite oxides of (Bi, Na)TiO3, (K, Na)NbO3 and their modified complex compositions were directly synthesized with low contamination. The reaction time necessary to fully convert the micron-sized reactant powder mixture into a single-phase perovskite structure was markedly short at only 30-40 min regardless of the chemical composition. The cumulative kinetic energy required to overtake the activation period necessary for predominant formation of perovskite products was ca. 387 kJ/g for (Bi, Na)TiO3 and ca. 580 kJ/g for (K, Na)NbO3. The mechanochemically derived powders, when sintered, showed piezoelectric performance capabilities comparable to those of powders obtained by conventional solid-state reaction processes. The observed mechanochemical synthetic route may lead to the realization of a rapid, one-step preparation method by which to create other promising functional oxides without time-consuming homogenization and high-temperature calcination powder procedures.

  5. Rapid and direct synthesis of complex perovskite oxides through a highly energetic planetary milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Park, Eun-Kwang; Yang, Sun-A.; Park, Jin-Ju; Bu, Sang-Don; Lee, Min-Ku

    2017-04-01

    The search for a new and facile synthetic route that is simple, economical and environmentally safe is one of the most challenging issues related to the synthesis of functional complex oxides. Herein, we report the expeditious synthesis of single-phase perovskite oxides by a high-rate mechanochemical reaction, which is generally difficult through conventional milling methods. With the help of a highly energetic planetary ball mill, lead-free piezoelectric perovskite oxides of (Bi, Na)TiO3, (K, Na)NbO3 and their modified complex compositions were directly synthesized with low contamination. The reaction time necessary to fully convert the micron-sized reactant powder mixture into a single-phase perovskite structure was markedly short at only 30-40 min regardless of the chemical composition. The cumulative kinetic energy required to overtake the activation period necessary for predominant formation of perovskite products was ca. 387 kJ/g for (Bi, Na)TiO3 and ca. 580 kJ/g for (K, Na)NbO3. The mechanochemically derived powders, when sintered, showed piezoelectric performance capabilities comparable to those of powders obtained by conventional solid-state reaction processes. The observed mechanochemical synthetic route may lead to the realization of a rapid, one-step preparation method by which to create other promising functional oxides without time-consuming homogenization and high-temperature calcination powder procedures.

  6. Phase stability of thermal barrier oxides based on t'-zirconia with trivalent oxide additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollo Franco, Noemi Rosa

    Zirconia stabilized with 7+/-1 wt.% addition of yttria (7YSZ) is widely used for thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) on actively cooled gas turbine components, selected partly because of its superior durability under thermal cyclic conditions. As deposited, 7YSZ occurs as a metastable single-phase tetragonal solid solution (t') that is thermodynamically stable against the deleterious transformation to monoclinic upon cooling. However, at high temperatures t' is driven to decompose diffusionally into an equilibrium mixture of high-Y cubic and low-Y tetragonal; the latter becomes transformable to monoclinic compromising the mechanical integrity of the system. This dissertation explores the effects of trivalent stabilizers, including Y, Sc and selected rare-earth oxides (REO's), on the phase stability of the resulting solid solutions in zirconia. The REO additions are of interest because they can potentially enhance the insulation efficiency on the coating allowing higher operating temperatures. However, understanding of their effects on phase stability and potentially on cyclic durability at the projected use temperature in next generation engines (1200-1400°C) is insufficient to guide the design of coatings with the desirable combination of lower thermal conductivity and acceptable durability. Sc was also investigated because of previous reports on the higher phase stability of materials doped with Sc, and Y served as the baseline. The experimental approach is based on powders synthesized by reverse co-precipitation of precursor solutions, usually compacted and then subjected to a variety of heat treatments, following their evolution by means of X-ray diffractometry, dilatometry, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The use of powders facilitated the synthesis of a wider range of compositions that would not have been possible by coating deposition approaches, and because the synthesis occurs at low temperature, it also enabled the starting

  7. Note: Rapid reduction of graphene oxide paper by glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bo, Zheng; Qian, Jiajing; Duan, Liangping; Qiu, Kunzan Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2015-05-15

    This note reports on a novel method for the rapid reduction of graphene oxide (GO) paper using a glow discharge plasma reactor. Glow discharge is produced and sustained between two parallel-plate graphite electrodes at a pressure of 240 mTorr. By exposing GO paper at the junction of negative-glow and Faraday-dark area for 4 min, the oxygen-containing groups can be effectively removed (C/O ratio increases from 2.6 to 7.9), while the material integrality and flexibility are kept well. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the as-obtained reduced GO paper can be potentially used for supercapacitor application.

  8. Rapid synthesis of zinc oxide nanoforest: use of microwave and forced seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Chakraborty, J.

    2016-12-01

    A rapid synthesis technique has been developed for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoforest using microwave assisted hydrothermal method. This microwave assisted process takes less than 4 h whereas conventional hydrothermal synthesis takes 25 h to fabricate nanoforest of comparable dimensions. The simple dipping technique for secondary seeding on the primary nanorods has been studied and it has been shown that such seeding would take at least an hour. A ‘forced seeding’ technique has been developed which reduces the seeding time drastically. The microwave assisted branch growth occurs at a speed of 10 nm min-1 which is 10 fold faster than that of hydrothermal method.

  9. Methods of measuring adhesion for thermally grown oxide scales

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, P.Y.; Atkinson, A.

    1994-06-01

    High temperature alloys and coatings rely on the formation of adherent scales to protect against further oxidation, but scale spallation is often problematic. Despite the technical importance of the problem, ``practical adhesion``, which refers to the separation of the oxide from the metal, has mainly been treated qualitatively in the past. Various techniques now exist such that the subject can be assessed in quantitative or semi-quantitative terms. Some of the techniques are described in this paper, and their weakness and strength are discussed. The experimental methods addressed here include: tensile pulling, micro-indentation, scratch test, residual stress induced delamination, laser or shock wave induced spallation, double cantilever beam and several 4-point beam bending approaches. To date, there is not an universal, easy test for oxide adhesion measurement that can provide reproducible information on interfacial fracture energy for a variety of oxide/metal systems. Much experimentation is still needed to increase confidence in many of the existing tests, and the fundamental mechanics for some present techniques also require further development.

  10. Effects of thermal cycling and thermal aging on the hermeticity and strength of silver-copper oxide air-brazed seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott Weil, K.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Darsell, Jens T.; Xia, Gordon G.; Hardy, John S.

    Thermal cycle and exposure tests were conducted on ceramic-to-metal joints prepared by a new sealing technique. Known as reactive air brazing, this joining method is currently being considered for use in sealing various high-temperature solid-state electrochemical devices, including planar solid oxide fuel cells (pSOFC). In order to simulate a typical pSOFC application, test specimens were prepared by joining ceramic anode/electrolyte bilayers to metal washers, of the same composition as the common frame materials employed in pSOFC stacks, using a filler metal composed of 4 mol% CuO in silver. The brazed samples were exposure tested at 750 °C for 200, 400, and 800 h in both simulated fuel and air environments and thermally cycled at rapid rate (75 °C min -1) between room temperature and 750 °C for as many as 50 cycles. Subsequent joint strength testing and microstructural analysis indicated that the samples exposure tested in air displayed little degradation with respect to strength, hermeticity, or microstructure out to 800 h of exposure. Those tested in fuel showed no change in rupture strength or loss in hermeticity after 800 h of high-temperature exposure, but did undergo microstructural change due to the dissolution of hydrogen into the silver-based braze material. Air-brazed specimens subjected to rapid thermal cycling exhibited no loss in joint strength or hermeticity, but displayed initial signs of seal delamination along the braze-electrolyte interface after 50 cycles.

  11. Rapid analysis of glycolytic and oxidative substrate flux of cancer cells in a microplate.

    PubMed

    Pike Winer, Lisa S; Wu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells exhibit remarkable alterations in cellular metabolism, particularly in their nutrient substrate preference. We have devised several experimental methods that rapidly analyze the metabolic substrate flux in cancer cells: glycolysis and the oxidation of major fuel substrates glucose, glutamine, and fatty acids. Using the XF Extracellular Flux analyzer, these methods measure, in real-time, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) of living cells in a microplate as they respond to substrates and metabolic perturbation agents. In proof-of-principle experiments, we analyzed substrate flux and mitochondrial bioenergetics of two human glioblastoma cell lines, SF188s and SF188f, which were derived from the same parental cell line but proliferate at slow and fast rates, respectively. These analyses led to three interesting observations: 1) both cell lines respired effectively with substantial endogenous substrate respiration; 2) SF188f cells underwent a significant shift from glycolytic to oxidative metabolism, along with a high rate of glutamine oxidation relative to SF188s cells; and 3) the mitochondrial proton leak-linked respiration of SF188f cells increased significantly compared to SF188s cells. It is plausible that the proton leak of SF188f cells may play a role in allowing continuous glutamine-fueled anaplerotic TCA cycle flux by partially uncoupling the TCA cycle from oxidative phosphorylation. Taken together, these rapid, sensitive and high-throughput substrate flux analysis methods introduce highly valuable approaches for developing a greater understanding of genetic and epigenetic pathways that regulate cellular metabolism, and the development of therapies that target cancer metabolism.

  12. Rapid Analysis of Glycolytic and Oxidative Substrate Flux of Cancer Cells in a Microplate

    PubMed Central

    Pike Winer, Lisa S.; Wu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells exhibit remarkable alterations in cellular metabolism, particularly in their nutrient substrate preference. We have devised several experimental methods that rapidly analyze the metabolic substrate flux in cancer cells: glycolysis and the oxidation of major fuel substrates glucose, glutamine, and fatty acids. Using the XF Extracellular Flux analyzer, these methods measure, in real-time, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) of living cells in a microplate as they respond to substrates and metabolic perturbation agents. In proof-of-principle experiments, we analyzed substrate flux and mitochondrial bioenergetics of two human glioblastoma cell lines, SF188s and SF188f, which were derived from the same parental cell line but proliferate at slow and fast rates, respectively. These analyses led to three interesting observations: 1) both cell lines respired effectively with substantial endogenous substrate respiration; 2) SF188f cells underwent a significant shift from glycolytic to oxidative metabolism, along with a high rate of glutamine oxidation relative to SF188s cells; and 3) the mitochondrial proton leak-linked respiration of SF188f cells increased significantly compared to SF188s cells. It is plausible that the proton leak of SF188f cells may play a role in allowing continuous glutamine-fueled anaplerotic TCA cycle flux by partially uncoupling the TCA cycle from oxidative phosphorylation. Taken together, these rapid, sensitive and high-throughput substrate flux analysis methods introduce highly valuable approaches for developing a greater understanding of genetic and epigenetic pathways that regulate cellular metabolism, and the development of therapies that target cancer metabolism. PMID:25360519

  13. Thermally induced all-optical inverter and dynamic hysteresis loops in graphene oxide dispersions.

    PubMed

    Melle, Sonia; Calderón, Oscar G; Egatz-Gómez, Ana; Cabrera-Granado, E; Carreño, F; Antón, M A

    2015-11-01

    We experimentally study the temporal dynamics of amplitude-modulated laser beams propagating through a water dispersion of graphene oxide sheets in a fiber-to-fiber U-bench. Nonlinear refraction induced in the sample by thermal effects leads to both phase reversing of the transmitted signals and dynamic hysteresis in the input-output power curves. A theoretical model including beam propagation and thermal lensing dynamics reproduces the experimental findings.

  14. Thermal stability of polyacetal/ethylene-octene copolymer/zinc oxide nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigalovica, A.; Merijs Meri, R.; Zicans, J.; Ivanova, T.; Grabis, J.

    2013-12-01

    In this work we investigate binary blends of polyoxymethylene and ethylene octene copolymer (EOC) and their composites with nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO). EOC content in the composites varies from 0 to 50 wt. %. The amount of ZnO filler in the composites is changed in the interval from 0 to 5 wt. %. Thermal properties of composites are investigated with thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. It is observed that ZnO addition increases thermal stability of the investigated composites.

  15. Thermal Stability Limits of Imidazolium Ionic Liquids Immobilized on Metal-Oxides.

    PubMed

    Babucci, Melike; Akçay, Aslı; Balci, Volkan; Uzun, Alper

    2015-08-25

    Thermal stability limits of 33 imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) immobilized on three of the most commonly used high surface area metal-oxides, SiO2, γ-Al2O3, and MgO, were investigated. ILs were chosen from a family of 13 cations and 18 anions. Results show that the acidity of C2H of an imidazolium ring is one of the key factors controlling the thermal stability. An increase in C2H bonding strength of ILs leads to an increase in their stability limits accompanied by a decrease in interionic energy. Systematic changes in IL structure, such as changes in electronic structure and size of anion/cation, methylation on C2 site, and substitution of alkyl groups on the imidazolium ring with functional groups have significant effects on thermal stability limits. Furthermore, thermal stability limits of ILs are influenced strongly by acidic character of the metal-oxide surface. Generally, as the point of zero charge (PZC) of the metal-oxide increases from SiO2 to MgO, the interactions of IL and metal-oxide dominate over interionic interactions, and metal-oxide becomes the significant factor controlling the stability limits. However, thermal stability limits of some ILs show the opposite trend, as the chemical activities of the cation functional group or the electron donating properties of the anion alter IL/metal-oxide interactions. Results presented here can help in choosing the most suitable ILs for materials involving ILs supported on metal-oxides, such as for supported ionic liquid membranes (SILM) in separation applications or for solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer (SCILL) and supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts in catalysis.

  16. Thermal performance of a catalytic/oxidizer for the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedel, R. K.; Djordjevic, N.; Faulkner, F.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal analysis and testing have been performed for the High Temperature Catalytic/Oxidizer (HTCO) for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly (TCCS). The HTCO consists of a counterflow, plate-fin heat exchanger, a resistance heater, and a charcoal catalytic oxidizer bed. The unit removes various inorganics and hydrocarbons from the SSF cabin air. A thermal model of the unit was developed which was used to design the HEX and catalytic bed. The model has been used to predict both steady state and transient results. Accurate predictions of ground test data have led to confidence in proper operation of the unit in the SSF.

  17. Thermal performance of a catalytic/oxidizer for the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedel, R. K.; Djordjevic, N.; Faulkner, F.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal analysis and testing have been performed for the High Temperature Catalytic/Oxidizer (HTCO) for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly (TCCS). The HTCO consists of a counterflow, plate-fin heat exchanger, a resistance heater, and a charcoal catalytic oxidizer bed. The unit removes various inorganics and hydrocarbons from the SSF cabin air. A thermal model of the unit was developed which was used to design the HEX and catalytic bed. The model has been used to predict both steady state and transient results. Accurate predictions of ground test data have led to confidence in proper operation of the unit in the SSF.

  18. Deep Levels Generated by Thermal Oxidation in n-Type 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Koutarou; Suda, Jun; Kimoto, Tsunenobu

    2013-05-01

    The Z1/2 center (EC - 0.67 eV), which is a lifetime killer in n-type 4H-SiC epilayers, is reduced by thermal oxidation. The oxidation, however, simultaneously generates other deep levels: ON1 (EC - 0.84 eV) and ON2 (EC - 1.1 eV) centers. From the behaviors (generation condition, thermal stability, and change in the depth profiles) of the ON1 and ON2 centers in samples (i) oxidized in O2, (ii) implanted with C+ or Si+ atoms, and (iii) oxidized in N2O (or NO), we suggest that these defects may originate from the same defect in different charge states, related to both carbon interstitials and N atoms.

  19. Investigation of Molecular Structure and Thermal Properties of Thermo-Oxidative Aged SBS in Blends and Their Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiong; Yu, Jianying; Xue, Lihui; Zhang, Canlin; Zha, Yagang; Gu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Tri-block copolymer styrene–butadiene (SBS) is extensively applied in bituminous highway construction due to its high elasticity and excellent weather resistance. With the extension of time, tri-block structural SBS automatically degrades into bi-block structural SB- with some terminal oxygen-containing groups under the comprehensive effects of light, heat, oxygen, etc. In this paper, the effects of aging temperature, aging time and oxygen concentration on the molecular structure of thermo-oxidative aged SBS were mainly investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the correlation between oxygen-containing groups and thermal properties (TG–DTG) was further discussed. The FTIR and XPS results show that rapid decomposition of SBS will occur with increments of aging temperature, aging time and oxygen concentration, and a large number of oxygen-containing groups such as –OH, C=O, –COOH, etc. will be formed during thermo-oxidative aging. In short-term aging, changes in aging temperature and oxygen concentration have a significant impact on the structural damage of SBS. However, in long-term aging, it has no further effect on the molecular structure of SBS or on increasing oxygen concentration. The TG and DTG results indicate that the concentration of substances with low molecular weight gradually increases with the improvement of the degree of aging of the SBS, while the initial decomposition rate increases at the beginning of thermal weightlessness and the decomposition rate slows down in comparison with neat SBS. From the relation between the XPS and TG results, it can be seen that the initial thermal stability of SBS rapidly reduces as the relative concentration of the oxygen-containing groups accumulates around 3%, while the maximum decomposition temperature slowly decreases when the relative concentration of the oxygen-containing groups is more than 3%, due to the difficult damage to strong

  20. Experimental study of compatibility of reduced metal oxides with thermal energy storage lining materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Leathy, Abdelrahman; Danish, Syed Noman; Al-Ansary, Hany; Jeter, Sheldon; Al-Suhaibani, Zeyad

    2016-05-01

    Solid particles have been shown to be able to operate at temperatures higher than 1000 °C in concentrated solar power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES). Thermochemical energy storage (TCES) using metal oxides have also found to be advantageous over sensible and latent heat storage concepts. This paper investigates the compatibility of the inner lining material of a TES tank with the reduced metal oxide. Two candidate metal oxides are investigated against six candidate lining materials. XRD results for both the materials are investigated and compared before and after the reduction of metal oxide at 1000°C in the presence of lining material. It is found that the lining material rich in zirconia is suitable for such application. Silicon Carbide is also found non-reacting with one of the metal oxides so it needs to be further investigated with other candidate metal oxides.

  1. Activation energy of thermal desorption of silicon oxide layers on silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enta, Yoshiharu; Osanai, Shodai; Ogasawara, Takahito

    2017-02-01

    Thermal desorption rates of silicon oxide layers, from 20 to 120 nm in thickness, on silicon substrates in vacuum have been accurately obtained from intervals between ring structures formed inside voids on the oxide layers. From the temperature dependence of the desorption rate, the activation energy and frequency factor of the desorption reaction have been derived as a function of the oxide thickness. The obtained values are compared with the previous studies, and as a result, the activation energy is found to be almost constant ( 4 eV) in a wide range of the oxide thickness. The frequency factor decreases as the inverse square of the oxide thickness. The decomposition kinetics of the oxide layer is also discussed from the obtained results.

  2. Suspended thermal oxide trench isolation for SCS MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Russell Y.; Adams, Scott G.; MacDonald, Noel C.

    1998-10-01

    Single-crystal silicon microelectromechanical devices with thermal silicon dioxide isolation segments were fabricated with a SCREAM based process; mechanical and electrical characteristics of these devices were tested. Isolation segments (26 micrometers high, 8 micrometers long, and 2 micrometers wide) have been used to isolate 1 micrometers wide, 22 micrometers high single crystal silicon (SCS) beams. Released isolation segments and Al-Si contacts allow electronics to be embedded within SCS MEMS and bare silicon beams to be used for springs and actuators.

  3. Thermally oxidized titania nanotubes enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Grotberg, John; Hamlekhan, Azhang; Butt, Arman; Patel, Sweetu; Royhman, Dmitry; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Sukotjo, Cortino; Takoudis, Christos; Mathew, Mathew T

    2016-02-01

    The negative impact of in vivo corrosion of metallic biomedical implants remains a complex problem in the medical field. We aimed to determine the effects of electrochemical anodization (60V, 2h) and thermal oxidation (600°C) on the corrosive behavior of Ti-6Al-4V, with serum proteins, at physiological temperature. Anodization produced a mixture of anatase and amorphous TiO2 nanopores and nanotubes, while the annealing process yielded an anatase/rutile mixture of TiO2 nanopores and nanotubes. The surface area was analyzed by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method and was estimated to be 3 orders of magnitude higher than that of polished control samples. Corrosion resistance was evaluated on the parameters of open circuit potential, corrosion potential, corrosion current density, passivation current density, polarization resistance and equivalent circuit modeling. Samples both anodized and thermally oxidized exhibited shifts of open circuit potential and corrosion potential in the noble direction, indicating a more stable nanoporous/nanotube layer, as well as lower corrosion current densities and passivation current densities than the smooth control. They also showed increased polarization resistance and diffusion limited charge transfer within the bulk oxide layer. The treatment groups studied can be ordered from greatest corrosion resistance to least as Anodized+Thermally Oxidized > Anodized > Smooth > Thermally Oxidized for the conditions investigated. This study concludes that anodized surface has a potential to prevent long term implant failure due to corrosion in a complex in-vivo environment.

  4. Experimental study on the dynamic mechanical properties of titanium alloy after thermal oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiaoyan; Yu, Yingjie; Ma, Lianhua; Chen, Liangbiao

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the dynamic compressive properties of thermally oxidized TC4 (Ti-6Al-4V) titanium alloys were studied with split Hopkinson pressure bar. The dynamic tests were conducted under multiple strain rates from 400 to 2000 s-1 and different testing temperatures from 25 to 200 °C. Data for the true stress-strain curves of thermally oxidized TC4 titanium alloy are presented. They show that the thermal oxidation increases both the dynamic compressive strength of TC4 titanium and the rate of strain hardening. Higher compressive strengths of the material were obtained by applying higher strain rates. Under a strain rate of 2000 s-1, the stress-strain curves of TC4 titanium alloys exhibit both strain-rate-hardening behavior and thermal softening behavior. The oxidation temperature has little effect on dynamic properties of TC4 titanium alloy, but choosing different holding time for oxidation could greatly affect the initiation of plastic deformation and thus might potentially improve the ductility of the treated material. Furthermore, the data show that the increase in the testing temperature results in much lower yield stresses of the treated material.

  5. Influence of temperature in thermal and oxidative stress responses in estuarine fish.

    PubMed

    Madeira, D; Narciso, L; Cabral, H N; Vinagre, C; Diniz, M S

    2013-10-01

    The influence of increasing temperatures in thermal and oxidative stress responses were studied in the muscle of several estuarine fish species (Diplodus vulgaris, Diplodus sargus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Gobius niger and Liza ramada). Selected fish were collected in July at the Tagus estuary (24±0.9°C; salinity of 30±4‰; pH=8). Fish were subjected to a temperature increase of 1°C.h(-1) until they reached their Critical Thermal Maximum (CTMax), starting at 24°C (control temperature). Muscle samples were collected during the trial and results showed that oxidative stress biomarkers are highly sensitive to temperature. Results from stress oxidative enzymes show alterations with increasing temperature in all tested species. Catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) activity significantly increased in L. ramada, D. labrax and decreased in D. vulgaris. Glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) activity increased in L. ramada, D. sargus, D. vulgaris, and D. labrax. In G. niger it showed a cycle of increase-decrease. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) increased in L. ramada, D. sargus and D. labrax. With respect to correlation analysis (Pearson; Spearman r), the results showed that oxidation products and antioxidant defenses were correlated in L. ramada (LPO-CAT and LPO-GST, D. sargus (LPO-CAT), and D. labrax (LPO-CAT). Oxidative biomarkers were correlated with thermal stress biomarker (Hsp70) in L. ramada (CAT-Hsp70), D. vulgaris (LPO-Hsp70), D. labrax (GST-Hsp70) and G. niger (LPO-Hsp70). In conclusion, oxidative stress does occur with increasing temperatures and there seems to be a relation between thermal stress response and oxidative stress response. The results suggest that oxidative stress biomarkers should be applied with caution, particularly in field multi-species/multi-environment studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Solar thermal decomposition of zinc oxide in aerosol flow for renewable hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Christopher Michael

    Hydrogen could be a clean replacement for fossil fuels. The Zn/ZnO solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle provides a renewable path to this fuel. Thermodynamic simulations showed that the Zn/ZnO cycle has the lowest temperature of all two-step metal oxide cycles, and the prediction of relatively high efficiency based on its lower temperature and number of steps led to its selection for further study. A rapid aerosol configuration for ZnO decomposition was chosen based on expectation of high reaction rates and small product particle production, and proof-of-concept experiments confirmed this assumption. Thermogravimetric studies of the thermal decomposition kinetics of ZnO showed that the rate followed a 2/3 order L'vov kinetic expression. The activation energy was found to be 353 +/- 25.9 kJ/mol, and a simple electrostatic model was used to describe the reaction mechanism. The pre-exponential factor was found, as expected, to vary inversely with the distance to a product concentration sink. Investigation of the aerosol decomposition of ZnO showed high forward conversion (˜60%) but low net yield (18%) of zinc due to recombination of product oxygen with nucleated zinc particles. Products that were initially converted had high surface area (15.5 +/- 0.13 g/m2), small particle size (5-70 nm), and relatively spherical morphology, properties desirable when considering the hydrolysis step of the water-splitting cycle. Rates in the aerosol reactor were found to be three orders of magnitude greater than those in a stationary configuration. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the aerosol reaction showed rapid particle heating and high forward conversion (>90%) in short residence times (<1.5s). Results could be used to scale a commercial size reactor, and the recommended particle size based on conversion and handling considerations was 1 mum. Reactor materials sensitive to oxidation were shown to be inappropriate for application due to high corrosion rates

  7. Gas-generated thermal oxidation of a coordination cluster for an anion-doped mesoporous metal oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Kenji; Isobe, Shigehito; Sada, Kazuki

    2015-12-01

    Central in material design of metal oxides is the increase of surface area and control of intrinsic electronic and optical properties, because of potential applications for energy storage, photocatalysis and photovoltaics. Here, we disclose a facile method, inspired by geochemical process, which gives rise to mesoporous anion-doped metal oxides. As a model system, we demonstrate that simple calcination of a multinuclear coordination cluster results in synchronic chemical reactions: thermal oxidation of Ti8O10(4-aminobenzoate)12 and generation of gases including amino-group fragments. The gas generation during the thermal oxidation of Ti8O10(4-aminobenzoate)12 creates mesoporosity in TiO2. Concurrently, nitrogen atoms contained in the gases are doped into TiO2, thus leading to the formation of mesoporous N-doped TiO2. The mesoporous N-doped TiO2 can be easily synthesized by calcination of the multinuclear coordination cluster, but shows better photocatalytic activity than the one prepared by a conventional sol-gel method. Owing to an intrinsic designability of coordination compounds, this facile synthetic will be applicable to a wide range of metal oxides and anion dopants.

  8. Optical models for ultrathin oxides on Si- and C-terminated faces of thermally oxidized SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrik, Peter; Szilágyi, Edit; Lohner, Tivadar; Battistig, Gabor; Fried, Miklos; Dobrik, Gergely; Biró, László P.

    2009-12-01

    The thickness, refractive index, density, and interface properties of thin thermal oxides on both Si- and C-terminated 4H-SiC faces were investigated by ellipsometry using optical models of increasing complexity. We used different parametrizations of the dielectric function, a transition layer, and also investigated the multisample approach. The thickness of the transition layer increases with decreasing oxide thickness below the layer thickness of about 30nm, it correlates with the surface roughness measured by atomic force microscopy, and it was found to be significantly larger for the C-terminated than that for the Si-terminated face. For oxide layer thicknesses larger than 30nm, the refractive index of the bulk oxide layer is the same as that of thermal SiO2 on Si. We found an apparent decrease in mass density (as well as optical density) with decreasing oxide thickness using a combination of ellipsometry and backscattering spectrometry, which can be explained by the surface roughness, depending on the layer thickness revealed by atomic force microscopy.

  9. Gas-generated thermal oxidation of a coordination cluster for an anion-doped mesoporous metal oxide

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Kenji; Isobe, Shigehito; Sada, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Central in material design of metal oxides is the increase of surface area and control of intrinsic electronic and optical properties, because of potential applications for energy storage, photocatalysis and photovoltaics. Here, we disclose a facile method, inspired by geochemical process, which gives rise to mesoporous anion-doped metal oxides. As a model system, we demonstrate that simple calcination of a multinuclear coordination cluster results in synchronic chemical reactions: thermal oxidation of Ti8O10(4-aminobenzoate)12 and generation of gases including amino-group fragments. The gas generation during the thermal oxidation of Ti8O10(4-aminobenzoate)12 creates mesoporosity in TiO2. Concurrently, nitrogen atoms contained in the gases are doped into TiO2, thus leading to the formation of mesoporous N-doped TiO2. The mesoporous N-doped TiO2 can be easily synthesized by calcination of the multinuclear coordination cluster, but shows better photocatalytic activity than the one prepared by a conventional sol-gel method. Owing to an intrinsic designability of coordination compounds, this facile synthetic will be applicable to a wide range of metal oxides and anion dopants. PMID:26681104

  10. Effect of rapid product desiccation or hydration on thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis PT 30 in wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Smith, Danielle F; Marks, Bradley P

    2015-02-01

    Salmonella is able to survive in low-moisture environments and is known to be more heat resistant as product water activity (aw) decreases. However, it is unknown how rapidly the resistance changes if product aw is altered rapidly, as can occur in certain processes. Therefore, the objective was to determine the effect of rapid product desiccation or hydration on Salmonella thermal resistance. Two dynamic moisture treatments were compared with two static moisture treatments to determine the effect of time-at-moisture on the thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 30 (PT 30) in wheat flour. After inoculation, two static moisture groups were equilibrated to 0.3 and 0.6 aw over 4 to 7 days, and two dynamic moisture groups then were rapidly (<4 min) desiccated from 0.6 to 0.3 aw or hydrated from 0.3 to 0.6 aw. Samples then were subjected to isothermal (80°C) heat treatments, and Salmonella thermal resistance was compared via decimal reduction times (i.e., D80°C-values). The D80°C-value in flour that was rapidly desiccated from 0.6 to 0.3 aw was statistically equivalent (P > 0.05) to the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.3 aw, but both were greater (P < 0.05) than the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw. Similarly, the D80°C-value in flour rapidly hydrated from 0.3 to 0.6 aw was statistically equivalent (P > 0.05) to the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw, and both were less than the D80°C-value in flour previously equilibrated to 0.3 aw. Therefore, Salmonella in the rapidly desiccated flour (0.3 aw) was as thermally resistant as that which previously had been equilibrated to 0.3 aw, and Salmonella in the rapidly hydrated flour (0.6 aw) responded similarly to that in the flour previously equilibrated to 0.6 aw. These results suggest that the response period to new aw is negligible, which is critically important in applying thermal resistance data or parameters to industrial

  11. Thermally stable yttrium-scandium oxide high-k dielectrics deposited by a solution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenbing; Frost, Bradley; Peterson, Rebecca L.

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the thermal stability of electrical properties in ternary alloy (Y x Sc1-x )2O3 high-k oxides as a function of yttrium fraction, x. The yttrium-scandium oxide dielectric films are deposited using a facile ink-based process. The oxides have a stoichiometry-dependent relative dielectric constant of 26.0 to 7.7 at 100 kHz, low leakage current density of 10-8 A·cm-2, high breakdown field of 4 MVṡcm-1, and interface trap density of 1012 cm-2·eV-1 with silicon. Compared with binary oxides, ternary alloys exhibit less frequency dispersion of the dielectric constant and a higher crystallization temperature. After crystallization is induced through a 900 °C anneal, ternary (Y0.6Sc0.4)2O3 films maintain their low leakage current and high breakdown field. In contrast, the electrical performance of the binary oxides significantly degrades following the same treatment. The solution-processed ternary oxide dielectrics demonstrated here may be used as high-k gate insulators in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies, in novel electronic material systems and devices, and in printed, flexible thin film electronics, and as passivation layers for high power devices. These oxides may also be used as insulators in fabrication process flows that require a high thermal budget.

  12. Functionalization of cotton fabrics through thermal reduction of graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Guangming; Xu, Zhenglin; Yang, Mengyun; Tang, Bin; Wang, Xungai

    2017-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was in-situ reduced on cotton fabrics by a simple heat treatment, which endowed cotton fabrics with multi-functions. GO was coated on the surface of cotton fabric through a conventional "dip and dry" approach. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was obtained from GO in the presence of cotton by heating under the protection of nitrogen. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to characterize the complexes of RGO and cotton (RGO/cotton). The RGO/cotton fabrics showed good electrical conductivity, surface hydrophobicity and ultraviolet (UV) protection properties. These properties did not deteriorate significantly after repeated fabric bending and washing.

  13. Thermal Recycling of Waelz Oxide Using Concentrated Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzouganatos, N.; Matter, R.; Wieckert, C.; Antrekowitsch, J.; Gamroth, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2013-12-01

    The dominating Zn recycling process is the so-called Waelz process. Waelz oxide (WOX), containing 55-65% Zn in oxidic form, is mainly derived from electric arc furnace dust produced during recycling of galvanized steel. After its wash treatment to separate off chlorides, WOX is used as feedstock along with ZnS concentrates for the electrolytic production of high-grade zinc. Novel and environmentally cleaner routes for the purification of WOX and the production of Zn are investigated using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The solar-driven clinkering of WOX and its carbothermal reduction were experimentally demonstrated using a 10 kWth packed-bed solar reactor. Solar clinkering at above 1265°C reduced the amount of impurities below 0.1 wt.%. Solar carbothermal reduction using biocharcoal as reducing agent in the 1170-1320°C range yielded 90 wt.% Zn.

  14. Suspended heated silicon platform for rapid thermal control of surface reactions with application to carbon nanotube synthesis.

    PubMed

    van Laake, Lucas; Hart, Anastasios John; Slocum, Alexander H

    2007-08-01

    Rapid continuous thermal control of chemical reactions such as those for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of nanotubes and nanowires cannot be studied using traditional reactors such as tube furnaces, which have large thermal masses. We present the design, modeling, and verification of a simple, low-cost reactor based on resistive heating of a suspended silicon platform. This system achieves slew rates exceeding 100 degrees C/s, enabling studies of rapid heating and thermal cycling. Moreover, the reaction surface is available for optical monitoring. A first-generation CVD apparatus encapsulates the heated silicon platform inside a sealed quartz tube, and initial experiments demonstrate growth of films of tangled single-wall and aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes using this system. The reactor can be straightforwardly scaled to larger or smaller substrate sizes and may be extended for a wide variety of reactions, for performing in situ reaction diagnostics, for chip-scale growth of nanostructures, and for rapid thermal processing of microelectronic and micromechanical devices.

  15. Improvement of band gap profile in Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2} solar cells through rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.S.; Yang, J.; Yang, Z.B.; Xu, F.; Du, H.W.; Ma, Z.Q.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Proper RTA treatment can effectively optimize band gap profile to more expected level. • Inter-diffusion of atoms account for the improvement of the graded band gap profile. • The variation of the band gap profile created an absolute gain in the efficiency by 1.22%. - Abstract: In the paper, the effect of rapid thermal annealing on non-optimal double-graded band gap profiles was investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and capacitance–voltage measurement techniques. Experimental results revealed that proper rapid thermal annealing treatment can effectively improve band gap profile to more optimal level. The annealing treatment could not only reduce the values of front band gap and minimum band gap, but also shift the position of the minimum band gap toward front electrode and enter into space charge region. In addition, the thickness of Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2} thin film decreased by 25 nm after rapid thermal annealing treatment. All of these modifications were attributed to the inter-diffusion of atoms during thermal treatment process. Simultaneously, the variation of the band gap profile created an absolute gain in the efficiency by 1.22%, short-circuit current density by 2.16 mA/cm{sup 2} and filled factor by 3.57%.

  16. STEP wastewater treatment: a solar thermal electrochemical process for pollutant oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baohui; Wu, Hongjun; Zhang, Guoxue; Licht, Stuart

    2012-10-01

    A solar thermal electrochemical production (STEP) pathway was established to utilize solar energy to drive useful chemical processes. In this paper, we use experimental chemistry for efficient STEP wastewater treatment, and suggest a theory based on the decreasing stability of organic pollutants (hydrocarbon oxidation potentials) with increasing temperature. Exemplified by the solar thermal electrochemical oxidation of phenol, the fundamental model and experimental system components of this process outline a general method for the oxidation of environmentally stable organic pollutants into carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. Using thermodynamic calculations we show a sharply decreasing phenol oxidation potential with increasing temperature. The experimental results demonstrate that this increased temperature can be supplied by solar thermal heating. In combination this drives electrochemical phenol removal with enhanced oxidation efficiency through (i) a thermodynamically driven decrease in the energy needed to fuel the process and (ii) improved kinetics to sustain high rates of phenol oxidation at low electrochemical overpotential. The STEP wastewater treatment process is synergistic in that it is performed with higher efficiency than either electrochemical or photovoltaic conversion process acting alone. STEP is a green, efficient, safe, and sustainable process for organic wastewater treatment driven solely by solar energy.

  17. Kinetics of switch grass pellet thermal decomposition under inert and oxidizing atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Sriraam R; Hopke, Philip K

    2012-12-01

    Grass pellets are a renewable resource that have energy content similar to that of wood. However, the higher ash and chlorine content affects combustion. Thermal degradation analysis of a fuel is useful in developing effective combustion. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the thermal degradation of grass pellets under inert (nitrogen) and oxidizing (air) atmospheres was conducted. Non-isothermal conditions were employed with 4 different heating rates. Kinetic parameters (activation energy and pre-exponential factors) were estimated using the iso-conversional method. Both pyrolysis and oxidative atmospheric thermal degradation exhibited two major loss process: volatilization of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and burning or slow oxidation of the residual char. The activation energy and pre-exponential factors were high for the oxidizing environment. During pyrolysis, major decomposition occurred with 40% to 75% conversion of the mass to gas with an activation energy of 314 kJ/mol. In air the decomposition occurred with 30% to 55% conversion with an activation energy of 556 kJ/mol. There was a substantial effect of heating rate on mass loss and mass loss rate. The TG shifted to higher temperature ranges on increasing the heating rate. In both pyrolyzing and oxidizing conditions, average combustion and devolatilization rates increased. Enhanced combustion takes place with higher activation energy in oxidizing atmosphere compared to the inert atmosphere due to presence of air.

  18. Tunable plasmonic resonance of gallium nanoparticles by thermal oxidation at low temperaturas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán-Gómez, S.; Redondo-Cubero, A.; Palomares, F. J.; Nucciarelli, F.; Pau, J. L.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of the oxidation of gallium nanoparticles (Ga NPs) on their plasmonic properties is investigated. Discrete dipole approximation has been used to study the wavelength of the out-of-plane localized surface plasmon resonance in hemispherical Ga NPs, deposited on silicon substrates, with oxide shell (Ga2O3) of different thickness. Thermal oxidation treatments, varying temperature and time, were carried out in order to increase experimentally the Ga2O3 shell thickness in the NPs. The optical, structural and chemical properties of the oxidized NPs have been studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A clear redshift of the peak wavelength is observed, barely affecting the intensity of the plasmon resonance. A controllable increase of the Ga2O3 thickness as a consequence of the thermal annealing is achieved. In addition, simulations together with ellipsometry results have been used to determine the oxidation rate, whose kinetics is governed by a logarithmic dependence. These results support the tunable properties of the plasmon resonance wavelength in Ga NPs by thermal oxidation at low temperatures without significant reduction of the plasmon resonance intensity.

  19. Tunable plasmonic resonance of gallium nanoparticles by thermal oxidation at low temperaturas.

    PubMed

    Catalán-Gómez, S; Redondo-Cubero, A; Palomares, F J; Nucciarelli, F; Pau, J L

    2017-10-06

    The effect of the oxidation of gallium nanoparticles (Ga NPs) on their plasmonic properties is investigated. Discrete dipole approximation has been used to study the wavelength of the out-of-plane localized surface plasmon resonance in hemispherical Ga NPs, deposited on silicon substrates, with oxide shell (Ga2O3) of different thickness. Thermal oxidation treatments, varying temperature and time, were carried out in order to increase experimentally the Ga2O3 shell thickness in the NPs. The optical, structural and chemical properties of the oxidized NPs have been studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A clear redshift of the peak wavelength is observed, barely affecting the intensity of the plasmon resonance. A controllable increase of the Ga2O3 thickness as a consequence of the thermal annealing is achieved. In addition, simulations together with ellipsometry results have been used to determine the oxidation rate, whose kinetics is governed by a logarithmic dependence. These results support the tunable properties of the plasmon resonance wavelength in Ga NPs by thermal oxidation at low temperatures without significant reduction of the plasmon resonance intensity.

  20. Al precipitate evolution in epitaxial silicon layers induced by thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Rimini, E.; Galvagno, G.; La Ferla, A.

    1996-12-31

    Al, the fastest p-type diffuser in silicon, interacts strongly with oxygen, defects, and precipitates, with a detrimental effect on the electrical activity. Although, substrates with low oxygen content, such as epitaxial layers on FZ grown crystals, can be used, it is practically impossible to avoid oxidation steps and then the amount of oxygen that is introduced into the wafer depends on the oxidation temperature. The present work deals with the behaviour of Al implanted at high energies either in bare epitaxial Si or in pre-oxidized epitaxial Si with a 300 nm thick thermal oxide layer. The subsequent annealings were performed under oxygen or nitrogen atmosphere. The SIMS and the spreading resistance analyses indicate that even the oxygen present in the silicon substrates after the thermal oxidation at temperatures above 1000 {degrees}C causes the precipitation of Al at the depth of the damage peak. The effect has been quantitatively analysed by comparison with thermal processes in nitrogen atmosphere. For the Al implant through the oxide layer, the growth and dissolution of Al-O precipitates has been studied.

  1. Hydrological and associated biogeochemical consequences of rapid global warming during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, Matthew J.; Inglis, Gordon N.; Badger, Marcus P. S.; Naafs, B. David A.; Behrooz, Leila; Remmelzwaal, Serginio; Monteiro, Fanny M.; Rohrssen, Megan; Farnsworth, Alexander; Buss, Heather L.; Dickson, Alexander J.; Valdes, Paul J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2017-10-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) hyperthermal, 56 million years ago (Ma), is the most dramatic example of abrupt Cenozoic global warming. During the PETM surface temperatures increased between 5 and 9 °C and the onset likely took < 20 kyr. The PETM provides a case study of the impacts of rapid global warming on the Earth system, including both hydrological and associated biogeochemical feedbacks, and proxy data from the PETM can provide constraints on changes in warm climate hydrology simulated by general circulation models (GCMs). In this paper, we provide a critical review of biological and geochemical signatures interpreted as direct or indirect indicators of hydrological change at the PETM, explore the importance of adopting multi-proxy approaches, and present a preliminary model-data comparison. Hydrological records complement those of temperature and indicate that the climatic response at the PETM was complex, with significant regional and temporal variability. This is further illustrated by the biogeochemical consequences of inferred changes in hydrology and, in fact, changes in precipitation and the biogeochemical consequences are often conflated in geochemical signatures. There is also strong evidence in many regions for changes in the episodic and/or intra-annual distribution of precipitation that has not widely been considered when comparing proxy data to GCM output. Crucially, GCM simulations indicate that the response of the hydrological cycle to the PETM was heterogeneous - some regions are associated with increased precipitation - evaporation (P - E), whilst others are characterised by a decrease. Interestingly, the majority of proxy data come from the regions where GCMs predict an increase in PETM precipitation. We propose that comparison of hydrological proxies to GCM output can be an important test of model skill, but this will be enhanced by further data from regions of model-simulated aridity and simulation of extreme precipitation

  2. Advanced Oxide Material Systems For 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thermal/environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) are being developed for low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor containing combustion environments. The 1650 C T/EBC system is required to have better thermal stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved sintering and thermal stress resistance than current coating systems. In this paper, the thermal conductivity, water vapor stability and cyclic durability of selected candidate zirconia-/hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based T/EBC materials are evaluated. The test results have been used to downselect the T/EBC coating materials, and help demonstrate advanced 1650OC coatings feasibility with long-term cyclic durability.

  3. A Novel Solid-State Thermal Rectifier Based On Reduced Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Tian, He; Xie, Dan; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Peng, Ping-Gang; Wang, Li-Gang; Liu, Li-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, manipulating heat transport by phononic devices has received significant attention, in which phonon – a heat pulse through lattice, is used to carry energy. In addition to heat control, the thermal devices might also have broad applications in the renewable energy engineering, such as thermoelectric energy harvesting. Elementary phononic devices such as diode, transistor and logic devices have been theoretically proposed. In this work, we experimentally create a macroscopic scale thermal rectifier based on reduced graphene oxide. Obvious thermal rectification ratio up to 1.21 under 12 K temperature bias has been observed. Moreover, this ratio can be enhanced further by increasing the asymmetric ratio. Collectively, our results raise the exciting prospect that the realization of macroscopic phononic device with large-area graphene based materials is technologically feasible, which may open up important applications in thermal circuits and thermal management. PMID:22826801

  4. A novel solid-state thermal rectifier based on reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Xie, Dan; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Peng, Ping-Gang; Wang, Li-Gang; Liu, Li-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, manipulating heat transport by phononic devices has received significant attention, in which phonon--a heat pulse through lattice, is used to carry energy. In addition to heat control, the thermal devices might also have broad applications in the renewable energy engineering, such as thermoelectric energy harvesting. Elementary phononic devices such as diode, transistor and logic devices have been theoretically proposed. In this work, we experimentally create a macroscopic scale thermal rectifier based on reduced graphene oxide. Obvious thermal rectification ratio up to 1.21 under 12 K temperature bias has been observed. Moreover, this ratio can be enhanced further by increasing the asymmetric ratio. Collectively, our results raise the exciting prospect that the realization of macroscopic phononic device with large-area graphene based materials is technologically feasible, which may open up important applications in thermal circuits and thermal management.

  5. Degradable Molybdenum Oxide Nanosheets with Rapid Clearance and Efficient Tumor Homing Capabilities as a Therapeutic Nanoplatform.

    PubMed

    Song, Guosheng; Hao, Jiali; Liang, Chao; Liu, Teng; Gao, Min; Cheng, Liang; Hu, Junqing; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-02-05

    Molybdenum oxide (MoOx) nanosheets with high near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and pH-dependent oxidative degradation properties were synthesized, functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and then used as a degradable photothermal agent and drug carrier. The nanosheets, which are relatively stable under acidic pH, could be degraded at physiological pH. Therefore, MoOx-PEG distributed in organs upon intravenous injection would be rapidly degraded and excreted without apparent in vivo toxicity. MoOx-PEG shows efficient accumulation in tumors, the acidic pH of which then leads to longer tumor retention of those nanosheets. Along with the capability of acting as a photothermal agent for effective tumor ablation, MoOx-PEG can load therapeutic molecules with high efficiencies. This concept of inorganic theranostic nanoagent should be relatively stable in tumors to allow imaging and treatment, while being readily degradable in normal organs to enable rapid excretion and avoid long-term retention/toxicity.

  6. Rapid Size- Controlled Synthesis of Dextran-Coated, Copper-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ray M.

    2011-12-01

    Development of dual modality probes enabled for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) has been on the rise in recent years due to the potential for these probes to facilitate combining the complementary high resolution of MRI and the high sensitivity of PET. The efficient synthesis of multimodal probes that include the radiolabels for PET can be hindered due to prolonged reaction times during radioisotope incorporation, and the resulting decay of the radiolabel. Along with a time-efficient synthesis, one also needs an optimal synthesis that yields products in a desirable size range (between 20-100 nm) to increase blood retention time. In this work, we describe a novel, rapid, microwave-based synthesis of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles doped with copper (DIO/Cu). Traditional methods for synthesizing dextran-coated iron oxide particles require refluxing for 2 hours and result in approximately 50 nm particles. We demonstrate that microwave synthesis can produce 50 nm nanoparticles in 5 minutes of heating. We discuss the various parameters used in the microwave synthesis protocol to vary the size distribution of DIO/Cu, and demonstrate the successful incorporation of copper into these particles with the aim of future use for rapid 64Cu incorporation.

  7. Highly defective oxides as sinter resistant thermal barrier coating

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2005-08-16

    A thermal barrier coating material formed of a highly defective cubic matrix structure having a concentration of a stabilizer sufficiently high that the oxygen vacancies created by the stabilizer interact within the matrix to form multi-vacancies, thereby improving the sintering resistance of the material. The concentration of stabilizer within the cubic matrix structure is greater than that concentration of stabilizer necessary to give the matrix a peak ionic conductivity value. The concentration of stabilizer may be at least 30 wt. %. Embodiments include a cubic matrix of zirconia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % yttria, and a cubic matrix of hafnia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % gadolinia.

  8. Rapid assessment of singlet oxygen-induced plasma lipid oxidation and its inhibition by antioxidants with diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP).

    PubMed

    Morita, Mayuko; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Niki, Etsuo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases have attracted renewed attention to lipid oxidation mediated by singlet oxygen. Although the rate constants for singlet oxygen quenching by antioxidants have been measured extensively, the inhibition of lipid oxidation mediated by singlet oxygen has received relatively less attention, partly because a convenient method for measuring the rate of lipid oxidation is not available. The objective of this study was to develop a convenient method to measure plasma lipid oxidation mediated by singlet oxygen which may be applied to a rapid assessment of the antioxidant capacity to inhibit this oxidation using a conventional microplate reader. Singlet oxygen was produced from naphthalene endoperoxide, and lipid hydroperoxide production was followed by using diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP). Non-fluorescent DPPP reacts stoichiometrically with lipid hydroperoxides to give highly fluorescent DPPP oxide. It was found that plasma oxidation by singlet oxygen increased the fluorescence intensity of DPPP oxide, which was suppressed by antioxidants. Fucoxanthin suppressed the oxidation more efficiently than β-carotene and α-tocopherol, while ascorbic acid and Trolox were not effective. The present method may be useful for monitoring lipid oxidation and also for rapid screening of the capacity of dietary antioxidants and natural products to inhibit lipid oxidation in a biologically relevant system.

  9. Interconversion, reactivity and thermal stability of polyaniline in selected oxidation states

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to determine if the base form of the conducting polymer, polyaniline, existed in a continuum of oxidation states ranging from the completely reduced leucoemeraldine oxidation state, (1 [minus] y) = 0, to the completely oxidized pernigraniline oxidation state, (1 [minus] y = 1). (ii) To investigate a novel type of reductive ring amination reaction of protonated polyaniline, of oxidation state 1 [minus] y = 0.50. (iii) Tascertain whether certain forms of polyaniline exhibited thermochromic behavior. (iv) To study factors responsible for enhancing the thermal/oxidative stability of [open quotes]doped[close quotes] polyaniline. (v) To study the reaction between polyaniline and C[sub 60]. The significant results and conclusions are: (a) In the oxidation state range between 1 [minus] y = 0.0 and 1 [minus] y = 1.0, polyaniline base exists in only three discrete oxidation states at the molecular level in the solid state and also in N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP) solution. (b) Equimolar quantities of the two extreme oxidation states of polyaniline in the base form, leucoemeraldine, (1 [minus] y = 0.0), and pernigraniline, (1 [minus] y = 1.0), undergo a [open quotes]mutual[close quotes] oxidation and reduction when mixed in NMP solution. (c) In the oxidation state range between 1 [minus] y = 0.0 and 1 [minus] y = 0.50, only two species are observed in NMP solution of the polymer after the addition of excess aq. HCl, viz., fully protonated emeraldine salt and non-protonated leucoemeraldine base. (d) Protonation of emeraldine base, (1 [minus] y = 0.50), with nonvolatile acids has allowed the determination of the intrinsic thermal stability of the [open quotes]doped[close quotes] polymer. (e) A new reaction between emeraldine HCl and anhydrous amines results in reductive ring amination to produce leucoemeraldine base derivatives. (f) Reactions of the bases gave reversible thermochromic behavior and the formation of insoluble fullerenes.

  10. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties of strain-free quantum ring solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Wang, Zhiming M; Dorogan, Vitaliy G; Li, Shibin; Lee, Jihoon; Mazur, Yuriy I; Kim, Eun Soo; Salamo, Gregory J

    2013-01-02

    Strain-free GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum rings are fabricated by droplet epitaxy. Both photoresponse and photoluminescence spectra confirm optical transitions in quantum rings, suggesting that droplet epitaxial nanomaterials are applicable to intermediate band solar cells. The effects of post-growth annealing on the quantum ring solar cells are investigated, and the optical properties of the solar cells with and without thermal treatment are characterized by photoluminescence technique. Rapid thermal annealing treatment has resulted in the significant improvement of material quality, which can be served as a standard process for quantum structure solar cells grown by droplet epitaxy.

  11. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on InP1-xBix grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. Y.; Wang, K.; Pan, W. W.; Wang, P.; Li, Y. Y.; Song, Y. X.; Gu, Y.; Yue, L.; Xu, H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Cui, J.; Gong, Q.; Wang, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of InP1-xBix thin films was investigated. InPBi shows good thermal stability up to 500 °C and a modest improvement in photoluminescence (PL) intensity with an unchanged PL spectral feature. Bismuth outdiffusion from InPBi and strain relaxation are observed at about 600 °C. The InPBi sample annealed at 800 °C shows an unexpected PL spectrum with different energy transitions.

  12. Real-Time Analyses of Strain in Ultrathin Silicon Nanolayers on Insulators during Thermal Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omi, Hiroo; Kawamura, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Fujikawa, Seiji; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi; Matsui, Junji

    2009-12-01

    In-plane strain in ultrathin silicon nanolayers of separation by implantation of oxygen wafers was characterized in real time by the grazing incidence X-ray diffraction during thermal oxidation in a newly developed oxidation furnace. The strain in the ultrathin silicon nanolayer during the growth is on the order of 10-4. The amount of strain does not change for the thicknesses of 6 nm to about 2 nm, but it increases twofold at the thicknesses of less than 2 nm at the oxidation temperature of 1220 °C. The strain originates from the volume difference between the Si nanolayers and SiO2.

  13. Isothermal and cyclic oxidation of an air plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, J.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Porter, W.D.; Rigney, E.D.

    1996-08-01

    Thermogravimetric methods for evaluating bond coat oxidation in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems were assessed by high-temperature testing of TBC systems with air plasma-sprayed (APS) Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y bond coatings and yttria-stabilized zirconia top coatings. High-mass thermogravimetric analysis (at 1150{sup degrees}C) was used to measure bond coat oxidation kinetics. Furnace cycling was used to evaluate APS TBC durability. This paper describes the experimental methods and relative oxidation kinetics of the various specimen types. Characterization of the APS TBCs and their reaction products is discussed.

  14. Thermally Stable Ultra-Low Temperature Oxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Kim, Chang H.; Oh, Se H.; Schmieg, Steven J.

    2014-12-09

    This annual reports describes recent results of a CRADA between General Motors Company (GM) and Battelle/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In the CRADA, we are investigating a number of candidate low temperature oxidation catalysts as fresh materials, and after realistic laboratory- and engine-aging. These studies will lead to a better understanding of fundamental characteristics and various aging factors that impact the long-term performance of catalysts, while also providing an assessment of the appropriateness of the laboratory conditions in realistically reproducing the effects of actual engine aging conditions.

  15. Oil-structuring characterization of natural waxes in canola oil oleogels: Rheological, thermal, and oxidative properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural waxes (candelilla wax, carnauba wax, and beeswax) were utilized as canola oil structurants to produce oleogels and their physicochemical properties were evaluated from rheological, thermal, and oxidative points of view. The oleogels with candelilla wax exhibited the highest hardness, followe...

  16. Non-thermal plasmas as gas-phase advanced oxidation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, L.A.

    1997-08-01

    Non-thermal plasmas are useful for generating reactive species (free radicals) in a gas stream. Because radical attack reaction rate constants are very large for many chemical species, entrained pollutants are readily decomposed by radicals. Such plasmas can generate both oxidative and reductive radicals; therefore, they show promise for treating a wide variety of pollutants.

  17. The effect of phytosterol concentration on oxidative stability and thermal polymerization of heated oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study determined the effect of adding mixed phytosterols, at various concentrations, on the thermal polymerization and oxidative stability index (OSI) of soybean and high-oleic sunflower oils. The indigenous tocopherols and phytosterols were removed from the oils by molecular distillation. Pu...

  18. Thermal radiative near field transport between vanadium dioxide and silicon oxide across the metal insulator transition

    SciTech Connect

    Menges, F.; Spieser, M.; Riel, H.; Gotsmann, B.; Dittberner, M.; Novotny, L.; Passarello, D.; Parkin, S. S. P.

    2016-04-25

    The thermal radiative near field transport between vanadium dioxide and silicon oxide at submicron distances is expected to exhibit a strong dependence on the state of vanadium dioxide which undergoes a metal-insulator transition near room temperature. We report the measurement of near field thermal transport between a heated silicon oxide micro-sphere and a vanadium dioxide thin film on a titanium oxide (rutile) substrate. The temperatures of the 15 nm vanadium dioxide thin film varied to be below and above the metal-insulator-transition, and the sphere temperatures were varied in a range between 100 and 200 °C. The measurements were performed using a vacuum-based scanning thermal microscope with a cantilevered resistive thermal sensor. We observe a thermal conductivity per unit area between the sphere and the film with a distance dependence following a power law trend and a conductance contrast larger than 2 for the two different phase states of the film.

  19. Characteristics of hydrogen produced by partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming in a small methanol reformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Rong-Fang; Chou, Huann-Ming; Lee, Chiou-Hwang; Tsai, Hsien-Te

    This paper investigates experimentally, the transient characteristics of a small methanol reformer using partial oxidation (POX) and auto-thermal reforming (ATR) for fuel cell applications. The parameters varied were heating temperature, methanol supply rate, steady mode shifting temperature, O 2/C (O 2/CH 3OH) and S/C (H 2O/CH 3OH) molar ratios with the main aim of promoting a rapid response and a high flow rate of hydrogen. The experiments showed that a high steady mode shifting temperature resulted in a faster temperature rise at the catalyst outlet and vice versa and that a low steady mode shifting temperature resulted in a lower final hydrogen concentration. However, when the mode shifting temperature was too high, the hydrogen production response was not necessarily improved. It was subsequently shown that the optimum steady mode shifting temperature for this experimental set-up was approximately 75 °C. Further, the hydrogen concentration produced by the auto-thermal process was as high as 49.12% and the volume flow rate up to 23.0 L min -1 compared to 40.0% and 20.5 L min -1 produced by partial oxidation.

  20. Low-Thermal-Conductivity Pyrochlore Oxide Materials Developed for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2005-01-01

    When turbine engines operate at higher temperatures, they consume less fuel, have higher efficiencies, and have lower emissions. The upper-use temperatures of the base materials (superalloys, silicon-based ceramics, etc.) used for the hot-section components of turbine engines are limited by the physical, mechanical, and corrosion characteristics of these materials. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are applied as thin layers on the surfaces of these materials to further increase the operating temperatures. The current state-of-the-art TBC material in commercial use is partially yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which is applied on engine components by plasma spraying or by electron-beam physical vapor deposition. At temperatures higher than 1000 C, YSZ layers are prone to sintering, which increases thermal conductivity and makes them less effective. The sintered and densified coatings can also reduce thermal stress and strain tolerance, which can reduce the coating s durability significantly. Alternate TBC materials with lower thermal conductivity and better sintering resistance are needed to further increase the operating temperature of turbine engines.

  1. Thermal cleanups using dynamic underground stripping and hydrous pyrolysis oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Knauss, K; Leif, R; Newmark, R L

    1999-05-01

    In the early 1990s, in collaboration with the School of Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed dynamic underground stripping (DUS), a method for treating subsurface contaminants with heat that is much faster and more effective than traditional treatment methods. more recently, Livermore scientists developed hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO), which introduces both heat and oxygen to the subsurface to convert contaminants in the ground to such benign products as carbon dioxide, chloride ion, and water. This process has effectively destroyed all contaminants it encountered in laboratory tests. With dynamic underground stripping, the contaminants are vaporized and vacuumed out of the ground, leaving them still to be destroyed elsewhere. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation technology takes the cleanup process one step further by eliminating the treatment, handling, and disposal requirements and destroying the contamination in the ground. When used in combination, HPO is especially useful in the final polishing of a site containing significant free-product contaminant, once the majority of the contaminant has been removed.

  2. Ultrasmooth reaction-sintered silicon carbide surface resulting from combination of thermal oxidation and ceria slurry polishing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinmin; Dai, Yifan; Deng, Hui; Guan, Chaoliang; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2013-06-17

    An ultrasmooth reaction-sintered silicon carbide surface with an rms roughness of 0.424 nm is obtained after thermal oxidation for 30 min followed by ceria slurry polishing for 30 min. By SEM-EDX analysis, we investigated the thermal oxidation behavior of RS-SiC, in which the main components are Si and SiC. As the oxidation rate is higher in the area with defects, there are no scratches or cracks on the surface after oxidation. However, a bumpy structure is formed after oxidation because the oxidation rates of Si and SiC differ. Through a theoretical analysis of thermal oxidation using the Deal-Grove model and the removal of the oxide layer by ceria slurry polishing in accordance with the Preston equation, a model for obtaining an ultrasmooth surface is proposed and the optimal processing conditions are presented.

  3. The effect of bond coat oxidation on the failure of thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.Y.; Sisson, R.D. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The formation of the oxides such as the spinel (Ni(Al,Cr){sub 2}O{sub 4}), Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO and CoO in the bond coat oxidation products would accelerate the failure of the EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings during cyclic oxidation. It was found that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} developed first, followed by the Cr/Ni rich oxides (such as Ni(Al,Cr){sub 2}O{sub 4}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO) at the interface between the PSZ ceramic coatings and NiCoCrAlY bond coats in a cyclic high temperature environment. For the EB-PVD TBCs, the smooth interface between the PSZ ceramic coating and the bond coat would be also responsible for the failure during cyclic oxidation.

  4. Investigation of the thermal oxidation of a polybutadiene by headspace sampling-gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Judge, M D

    1994-05-01

    A novel method was developed, utilizing headspace sampling in conjunction with gas chromatography, to quantitatively follow the thermal oxidation in air of a low molecular weight, hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene. This method was found to offer an efficient and simple technique by which to analyze both the rate and the extent of oxidation of the polymer. Rate studies of the oxidation revealed an induction period followed by self-catalyzed oxidation, the rate of which quickly becomes controlled by diffusion of oxygen into the polymer. By determining the rate of oxygen consumption at various temperatures, an Arrhenius-type plot was derived and an activation energy value of 13 kcal/mol was calculated. The relative effects on oxidation of a number of common antioxidants and organometallic cure catalysts were also determined by this technique.

  5. NMR and Infrared Study of Thermal Oxidation of cis-1, 4-Polybutadiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gemmer, Robert V.; Golub, Morton A.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the microstructural changes occuring in CB during thermal, uncatalyzed oxidation was carried out. Although the oxidation of CB is accompanied by extensive crosslinking with attendant insolubilization, it was found possible to follow the oxidation of solid CB directly with C-13 NMR spectroscopy. The predominant products appearing in the C-13 NMR spectra of oxidized CB are epoxides. The presence of lesser amounts of alcohols, peroxides, and carbonyl structures was adduced from complementary infrared and NMR spectra of soluble extracts obtained from the oxidized, crosslinked CB. This distribution of functional groups contrasts with that previously reported for the autooxidation of 1,4-polyisoprene. The difference was rationalized in terms of the relative stabilities of intermediate radical species involved in the autoxidation of CB and 1,4-polyisoprene.

  6. Experimental study of thermal oxidation of nanoscale alloys of aluminium and zinc (nAlZn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Fahad; Wen, Dongsheng

    2015-10-01

    Aluminium-based alloys have wide applications but little is known about the thermal-chemical kinetics of nanoalloys. This work investigated the thermal oxidation of Zn and Al nanoalloys (nAlZn) with a BET equivalent diameter of 141 nm through the simultaneous TGA/DSC method. The thermal analysis was combined with elemental, morphology and crystalline structure analysis to elucidate the reaction mechanisms. It was found that the complete oxidation of nAlZn in air can be characterised by a three-stage process, including two endothermic and three exothermic reactions. With the help of ex-situ XRD, different reaction pathways were proposed for different stages, forming the end products of ZnO and ZnAl2O4. The reactivity comparison between Al and nAlZn suggested that different criteria should be used for different applications.

  7. Surface thermal oxidation on titanium implants to enhance osteogenic activity and in vivo osseointegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Lv, Kaige; Zhang, Wenjie; Ding, Xun; Yang, Guangzheng; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2016-08-01

    Thermal oxidation, which serves as a low-cost, effective and relatively simple/facile method, was used to modify a micro-structured titanium surface in ambient atmosphere at 450 °C for different time periods to improve in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. The surface morphology, crystallinity of the surface layers, chemical composition and chemical states were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cell behaviours including cell adhesion, attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation were observed in vitro study. The ability of the titanium surface to promote osseointegration was evaluated in an in vivo animal model. Surface thermal oxidation on titanium implants maintained the microstructure and, thus, both slightly changed the nanoscale structure of titanium and enhanced the crystallinity of the titanium surface layer. Cells cultured on the three oxidized titanium surfaces grew well and exhibited better osteogenic activity than did the control samples. The in vivo bone-implant contact also showed enhanced osseointegration after several hours of oxidization. This heat-treated titanium enhanced the osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs and improved osseointegration in vivo, suggesting that surface thermal oxidation could potentially be used in clinical applications to improve bone-implant integration.

  8. Titanium oxidation kinetics and the mechanism for thermal ignition of titanium-based pyrotechnics

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, K.L.; Rogers, J.W. Jr.; Ward, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Previously published experimental studies proposed that thermal ignition of titanium-based pyrotechnics is controlled by the rate at which an initial oxide coating dissolves into the bulk metal as a result of molecular diffusion. The proposed dissolution mechanism was based primarily on the exotherms and ignition temperatures, which were about 793/sup 0/K, observed using differential thermal methods involving heating rates of 0.33 K/s. Data from a more recent investigation of titanium oxidation kinetics at temperatures between 473 and 773/sup 0/K showed that, for time scales on the order of minutes and temperatures near 773/sup 0/K, titanium oxidation rates and, therefore, pyrotechnic ignition are determined by diffusion-controlled growth of a TiO/sub 2/ (rutile) layer adjacent to the gas-solid interface. They are not controlled by oxygen dissolution into the bulk metal. This result was based primarily on Auger depth profiles from isothermally oxidized titanium single crystals. It is further supported by the present work, in which a model for pyrotechnic response during differential thermal analysis experiments was derived using an oxidation rate expression based on growth of a TiO/sub 2/ layer. The model predicts exotherms which are consistent with those reported in the previously published experimental studies. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Surface thermal oxidation on titanium implants to enhance osteogenic activity and in vivo osseointegration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Lv, Kaige; Zhang, Wenjie; Ding, Xun; Yang, Guangzheng; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2016-01-01

    Thermal oxidation, which serves as a low-cost, effective and relatively simple/facile method, was used to modify a micro-structured titanium surface in ambient atmosphere at 450 °C for different time periods to improve in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. The surface morphology, crystallinity of the surface layers, chemical composition and chemical states were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cell behaviours including cell adhesion, attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation were observed in vitro study. The ability of the titanium surface to promote osseointegration was evaluated in an in vivo animal model. Surface thermal oxidation on titanium implants maintained the microstructure and, thus, both slightly changed the nanoscale structure of titanium and enhanced the crystallinity of the titanium surface layer. Cells cultured on the three oxidized titanium surfaces grew well and exhibited better osteogenic activity than did the control samples. The in vivo bone-implant contact also showed enhanced osseointegration after several hours of oxidization. This heat-treated titanium enhanced the osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs and improved osseointegration in vivo, suggesting that surface thermal oxidation could potentially be used in clinical applications to improve bone-implant integration. PMID:27546196

  10. Fabrication of protective over layer for enhanced thermal stability of zinc oxide based TCO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Ravikumar, P.; Sakthivel, B.

    2013-12-01

    To prevent the loss of oxygen vacancies in aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films at high temperature process, and to enhance the thermal stability a protective tin oxide (TO) over layer has been realized. To investigate the protective nature of doped tin oxide layer, fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) and antimony doped tin oxide (ATO) layers have also been coated on AZO layer. Then, to confirm its stability of opto-electrical properties under high temperature process, structural, optical and electrical studies of AZO single layer, TO/AZO, FTO/AZO and ATO/AZO double layered films were carried out before and after annealing and the results are reported. The XRD results showed that the crystalline nature of double layered films remains unchanged, even after the heat treatment. The UV results depicted that, in all the double layer films the transmission spectra remain unchanged or changed negligibly after annealing, indicating the thermal stability of double layered films. The photoluminescence results also strongly supported the improvement in the thermal stability of double layered films. The electrical studies suggested that the double layered films exhibited better electrical resistivity with bare AZO films.

  11. The influence of wavelength-dependent radiation in simulation of lamp-heated rapid thermal processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, A.

    1994-08-01

    Understanding the thermal response of lamp-heated rapid thermal processing (RTP) systems requires understanding relatively complex radiation exchange among opaque and partially transmitting surfaces and materials. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of wavelength-dependent radiative properties. The examples used for the analysis consider axisymmetric systems of the kind that were developed by Texas Instruments (TI) for the Microelectronics Manufacturing Science and Technology (MMST) Program and illustrate a number of wavelength-dependent (spectral) effects. The models execute quickly on workstation class computing flatforms, and thus permit rapid comparison of alternative reactor designs and physical models. The fast execution may also permit the incorporation of these models into real-time model-based process control algorithms.

  12. Tunable photoluminescence of self-assembled GeSi quantum dots by B{sup +} implantation and rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yulu; Wu, Shan; Ma, Yinjie; Fan, Yongliang; Yang, Xinju; Zhong, Zhenyang; Jiang, Zuimin

    2014-06-21

    The layered GeSi quantum dots (QDs) are grown on (001) Si substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The photoluminescence (PL) peak of the as-grown GeSi quantum dots has obvious blue shift and enhancement after processed by ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing. It is indicated that the blue shift is originated from the interdiffusion of Ge and Si at the interface between QDs and the surrounding matrix. The dependence of PL intensity on the excitation power shows that there are the nonradiative centers of shallow local energy levels from the point defects caused by the ion implantation, but not removed by the rapid thermal annealing. The tunable blue shift of the PL position from the 1300 nm to 1500 nm region may have significant application value in the optical communication.

  13. Thermal transport at a solid-nanofluid interface: from increase of thermal resistance towards a shift of rapid boiling.

    PubMed

    Han, Haoxue; Merabia, Samy; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2017-06-22

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate interfacial thermal transport between an ethanol suspension containing gold atomic clusters and a gold surface, using both realistic and simplified molecular models of nanoparticles. The interfacial thermal conductance was determined via a thermal relaxation method for a variety of nanoparticle-nanoparticle and nanoparticle-surface interaction strengths. The Kapitza resistance is found to increase due to the presence of nanoparticles in the vicinity of the solid-liquid interface. The heat flow from the solid to the nanoparticles is separated from its counterpart from the solid to the liquid to discriminate their respective contribution to the total heat current. A per-vibrational-mode analysis highlights a shift of major heat carriers from low frequencies towards higher frequencies due to the coupling of the internal nanoparticle dynamics to the gold surface, in addition to stronger particle-surface interactions. Finally, we demonstrate that the increase of the Kapitza resistance significantly shifts the nanofluid/solid surface explosive boiling temperature to higher temperatures compared to pure ethanol.

  14. Effect of oxide films on the thermal resistance between contacting zirconium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schankula, M.H.; Patterson, D.W.; Yovanovich, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    The resistance to heat flow at interfaces formed between contacting solids plays a key role in nuclear reactor systems. In many instances, these contacts occur at elevated temperatures and in oxidizing or corrosive environments. These environments normally lead to increased thermal resistance (decreased conductance), which recent theoretical predictions have related to (i) thermal conductivity of the oxide layer, (ii) layer thickness, (iii) effective hardness of the surface, and (iv) surface microtopography. Experiments with oxidized zirconium specimens have confirmed these predictions and revealed that the contact conductance in vacuum increases as the ratio of layer thickness to contact-spot radius increases. This study is of particular importance in our efforts to predict the rate of heat flow from an overheated CANDU pressure tube when it comes into contact with the surrounding calandria tube during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. 12 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Boundary lubrication, thermal and oxidative stability of a fluorinated polyether and a perfluoropolyether triazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Snyder, C. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Boundary lubricating characteristics, thermal stability, and oxidation-corrosion stability were determined for a fluorinated polyether and a perfluoropolyether triazine. A ball-on-disk apparatus, a tensimeter, and oxidation-corrosion apparatus were used. Results were compared to data for a polyphenyl ether and a C-ether. The polyether and triazine yielded better boundary lubricating characteristics than either the polyphenyl ether or C-ether. The polyphenyl ether had the greatest thermal stability (443 C) while the other fluids had stabilities in the range 389 to 397 C. Oxidation-corrosion results indicated the following order of stabilities: perfluoropolyether trizine greater than polyphenyl ether greater than C-ether greater than fluorinated polyether.

  16. In vitro corrosion behavior and cellular response of thermally oxidized Zr-3Sn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, F. Y.; Wang, B. L.; Qiu, K. J.; Li, H. F.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y. F.; Han, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, ZrSn alloy was thermally oxidized at 600 °C for 3 h and its morphological and structural characteristics, corrosion behavior, ion release and in vitro cytocompatibility were studied to evaluate the feasibility of applying it as dental implant. After oxidation, a dense black oxide layer formed on ZrSn alloy surface, which consisted of predominant monoclinic zirconia and a few non-stoichiometric oxides. The scratching and water contact angle test results demonstrated that the oxide layer exhibited good adhesion strength and similar hydrophilicity to zirconia. The oxidized ZrSn alloy showed higher corrosion resistance, as indicated by far lower corrosion current density and passive current density compared to pure Ti and untreated ZrSn alloy in artificial saliva with and without H2O2. The amount of ions released from the oxidized ZrSn alloy was much lower than that dissolved from pure Ti in simulated corrosive oral mediums. Moreover, the oxidized ZrSn alloy did not present any significant toxic effect to both osteoblast-like cells and fibroblast cells, and osteoblast-like cells could adhere well onto the surface and exhibited a good proliferative pattern. The combination of improved surface properties, superior corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility made the oxidized ZrSn alloy promising for oral implantology application.

  17. Insulating gallium oxide layer produced by thermal oxidation of gallium-polar GaN: Insulating gallium oxide layer produced by thermal oxidation of gallium-polar GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, T.; Wei, D.; Nepal, N.; Garces, N. Y.; Hite, J. K.; Meyer, H. M.; Eddy, C. R.; Baker, Troy; Mayo, Ashley; Schmitt, Jason; Edgar, J. H.

    2014-02-24

    We report the benefits of dry oxidation of n -GaN for the fabrication of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures. GaN thin films grown on sapphire by MOCVD were thermally oxidized for 30, 45 and 60 minutes in a pure oxygen atmosphere at 850 °C to produce thin, smooth GaOx layers. Moreover, the GaN sample oxidized for 30 minutes had the best properties. Its surface roughness (0.595 nm) as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was the lowest. Capacitance-voltage measurements showed it had the best saturation in accumulation region and the sharpest transition from accumulation to depletion regions. Under gate voltage sweep, capacitance-voltage hysteresis was completely absent. The interface trap density was minimum (Dit = 2.75×1010 cm–2eV–1) for sample oxidized for 30 mins. These results demonstrate a high quality GaOx layer is beneficial for GaN MOSFETs.

  18. Processing of Mn-Al nanostructured magnets by spark plasma sintering and subsequent rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, P.; Vinod, V. T. P.; Černík, Miroslav; Selvapriya, A.; Chakravarty, Dibyendu; Kamat, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of spark plasma sintering (SPS) in combination with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for the processing of Mn-Al nanostructured magnets is explored in this study. Ferromagnetic α-Mn alloy powders were processed by high-energy ball milling using Mn (56 at%) and Al (44 at%) as constituent metal elements. The alloying action between Mn and Al due to intensive milling was studied by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscope; while the phase transformation kinetics was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The evolution of ferromagnetic properties in the as-milled powders was studied by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Among the Mn-Al alloy powders collected at various milling intervals, the 25 h milled Mn-Al powders showed a good combination of coercivity, Hc (11.3 kA/m) and saturation magnetization, Ms (5.0 A/m2/kg); accordingly, these powders were chosen for SPS. The SPS experiments were conducted at different temperatures: 773, 873 and 973 K and its effect on the density, phase composition and magnetic properties of the Mn-Al bulk samples were investigated. Upon increasing the SPS temperature from 773 to 973 K, the bulk density was found to increase from 3.6 to 4.0 g/cm3. The occurrence of equilibrium β-phase with significant amount of γ2-phase was obvious at all the SPS temperatures; however, crystallization of some amount of τ-phase was evident at 973 K. Irrespective of the SPS temperatures, all the samples demonstrated soft magnetic behavior with Hc and Ms values similar to those obtained for the 25 h milled powders. The magnetic properties of the SPSed samples were significantly improved upon subjecting them to RTA at 1100 K. Through the RTA process, Hc values of 75, 174 and 194 kA/m and Ms values of 19, 21 and 28 A/m2/kg were achieved for the samples SPSed at 773, 873 and 973 K, respectively. The possible reasons for the observed improvement in the magnetic properties of the SPSed

  19. Rapid aqueous phase SO2 oxidation in winter fog in the Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachan, Himanshu; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sinha, Baerbel

    2013-04-01

    account for changes in the emission intensity (activity pattern) and the dilution of the plume during transport. We see a linear correlation between the measured SO2/CO ratio and the transport time. Binning the data on the basis of relative humidity and applying first order kinetics to SO2 loss within each humidity bin we find the SO2 loss rate with respect to aqueous phase oxidation at our sites varies between > 2.2 x 10-3 mol/cm3/s at 96 % RH and 3.8 x 10-4 mol/cm3/s at 47 % RH. Simple box model calculations reveal that neither oxidation by H2O2 nor oxidation by O3 can account for such rapid SO2 oxidation in the fog water. Considering the high mineral dust loadings are our station (PM 10 typically > 300 μg/m3) we propose that transition metal catalysis by TMI leached from natural mineral dust and resuspended road dust may be responsible for the rapid oxidation of SO2 in the fog water. However, the observed lifetime with respect to aqueous phase oxidation in wintertime fog is a factor 150-800 times shorter than the lifetime of SO2 with respect to TMI catalyzed oxidation currently implemented in global atmospheric chemistry models. During 2012-2013 winter season we will measure TMI concentrations in the fog water and verify the rates coefficients estimated from the ambient observation by conducting controlled experiments both using collected fog water and different TMI mixtures. If confirmed through laboratory studies our findings have major implications for the SO2 lifetime over the IGP (and possibly other regions with high mineral dust loadings) and will significantly alter the regional direct and indirect aerosol forcing estimates due to anthropogenic SO2 emissions. Acknowledgement: We thank the IISER Mohali Atmospheric Chemistry Facility for data and the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), India and IISER Mohali for funding the facility. Himanshu acknowledges the DST-INSPIRE Fellowship program. Chinmoy Sarkar thanks the Max Planck-DST India Partner Group

  20. Fundamental understanding and integration of rapid thermal processing, PECVD, and screen printing for cost-effective, high-efficiency silicon photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Parag Mahendra

    The final hurdle preventing widespread application of photovoltaics is cost-effectiveness. Solar cell efficiencies in the laboratory have reached 24%, but industrial cells, constrained by low-cost, high-throughput processes, are limited to 10-15%. This thesis focuses on industrially relevant technologies such as rapid thermal processing (RTP), PECVD, and screen-printing to simplify and speed up cell processing yet maintain the key features that give high efficiencies in the laboratory. RTP utilizes tungsten-halogen and UV lamps as a source of high energy photons that induce thermal and photophysical effects which can significantly increase the kinetics of semiconductor processes such as diffusion, oxidation, and annealing. PECVD also serves as a promising low-cost candidate for SiN/SiOsb2 antireflection coatings and passivation. Finally, screen printing serves as a very high-throughput technology for contact formation as a low-cost alternative to photolithography. Integration of these technologies into a single cell fabrication sequence, however, revealed the susceptibility to low internal quantum efficiencies in the long and short wavelengths. For example, the inherent rapid cooling during RTP can degrade minority-carrier lifetime and long wavelength response. Lack of knowledge in tailoring RTP emitter diffusion profiles coupled with less than perfect PECVD surface passivation and parasitic SiN absorption was found to limit short wavelength response. Problems like these limited RTP cell efficiencies to only 15.4% prior to this thesis. Through a combination of fundamental understanding of device physics, materials and device characterization, modeling, and cell fabrication these losses were quantified and overcome in this thesis. An in-situ annealing cycle during RTP was optimized to prevent quenching-induced lifetime degradation and to preserve high long wavelength response. Measurement of SiN extinction coefficients to compute parasitic absorption, optimization

  1. Evaluation of Applied Materials` rapid thermal processor using SEMATECH methodologies for 0.25 {micro}m technology thermal applications. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, T.J.; Nanda, A.K.; Miner, G.; Pas, M.F.; Hossain-Pas, S.; Velo, L.A.

    1996-12-01

    Under a joint development contract with Applied Materials (AMAT) and Texas Instruments (TI), SEMATECH undertook a project (Joint Development Project J100) with a goal of delivering a cost effective, technically advanced rapid Thermal Processor (RTP). The RTP tool was specified to meet the present and future manufacturing needs of SEMATECH`s member companies. The J100 results contained here focus on the temperature and control performance of the AMAT RTP tool. The evaluation methodology included passive data collection (PDC) to check the tool stability, screening experiments to isolate the variable interaction and to define the process window, broad range and narrow range sensitivity studies to determine the sheet resistance dependence on thermal budget for small increments in temperature set point, perturbation experiments to determine localized control, and stability experiments to check for drift and process repeatability. The impact of wafer emissivity on source/drain rapid-thermal annealing was evaluated by processing wafers with varying backside films. The PDC experiments demonstrated the tool to be stable. Screening experiments revealed the strong effect of temperature, followed by time, and time-temperature interaction on sheet resistance. Boron implanted (p+/n) wafers were found to be sensitive at a temperature of 1,025 C or less for a 10 second anneal whereas arsenic implanted wafers (n+/p) showed greater sensitivity at temperatures ranging from 1,025 C to 1,100 C for a 10 second anneal.

  2. Effect of shot peening on the oxidation behavior of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoglanli, Abdullah Cahit; Doleker, Kadir Mert; Demirel, Bilal; Turk, Ahmet; Varol, Remzi

    2015-11-01

    A conventional thermal barrier coating (TBC) system is made up of a multilayered coating system that comprises a metallic bond coat including oxidation-resistant MCrAlY and a thermally insulating ceramic top coat including yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). In this study, in order to improve the oxidation behavior in conventionally produced TBC systems, shot peening process is applied for modification of surface layer structure of atmospheric plasma spray (APS) bond coats. The oxidation behavior of TBCs, produced by the APS process and subjected to shot peening, was investigated. Oxidation tests were performed under isothermal conditions at 1000 °C for different time periods. The coatings produced by the APS process include high porosity and oxide content due to atmospheric production conditions as well as exposure to very high temperature. In this study, the coatings, produced by the APS process, subsequently subjected to shot-peening, were compared with the ones which were not shot peened. Following the application of the shot peening process, a dense structure is obtained due to the plastic deformation effect in the metallic bond coating structure at a certain distance from the surface. To this end, the effects of the shot-peening on the high temperature oxidation behavior of the coatings are investigated and evaluated.

  3. Fabricating vertically aligned sub-20 nm Si nanowire arrays by chemical etching and thermal oxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Luping; Fang, Yin; Xu, Cheng; Zhao, Yang; Zang, Nanzhi; Jiang, Peng; Ziegler, Kirk J

    2016-04-22

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are appealing building blocks in various applications, including photovoltaics, photonics, and sensors. Fabricating SiNW arrays with diameters <100 nm remains challenging through conventional top-down approaches. In this work, chemical etching and thermal oxidation are combined to fabricate vertically aligned, sub-20 nm SiNW arrays. Defect-free SiNWs with diameters between 95 and 200 nm are first fabricated by nanosphere (NS) lithography and chemical etching. The key aspects for defect-free SiNW fabrication are identified as: (1) achieving a high etching selectivity during NS size reduction; (2) retaining the circular NS shape with smooth sidewalls; and (3) using a directional metal deposition technique. SiNWs with identical spacing but variable diameters are demonstrated by changing the reactive ion etching power. The diameter of the SiNWs is reduced by thermal oxidation, where self-limiting oxidation is encountered after oxidizing the SiNWs at 950 °C for 1 h. A second oxidation is performed to achieve vertically aligned, sub-20 nm SiNW arrays. Si/SiO2 core/shell NWs are obtained before removing the oxidized shell. HRTEM imaging shows that the SiNWs have excellent crystallinity.

  4. Changes in physical properties of graphene oxide with thermal reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Bhishma; Jo, Chang Hee; Joo, Kwan Seon; Cho, Jaehee

    2017-08-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has attracted significant attention as an easily fabricable twodimensional material. Depending on the oxygen-containing functional groups (OFGs) in an rGO specimen, the optical and electrical properties can vary significantly, directly affecting the performance of devices in which rGO is implemented. Here, we investigated the optical and electrical properties of GO treated with various annealing (reduction) temperatures from 350 to 950 °C in H2 ambient. Using diverse characteristic tools, we found that the transmittance, nanoscale domain size, OFGs in GO and rGO, and Schottky barrier height (SBH) measured on n-type GaN are significantly influenced by the annealing temperature. The relative intensity of the defect-induced band in Raman spectroscopy showed a minimum at the annealing temperature of approximately 350 °C, before the OFGs in rGO showed vigorous changes in relative content. When the domain size of rGO reached a minimum at the annealing temperature of 650 °C, the SBH of rGO/GaN showed the maximum value of 1.07 eV.

  5. Modification of Silicon Oxide Surfaces with Thermally Annealed Polystyrene Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalan, Steven; Cavicchi, Kevin; Karim, Alamgir

    2011-03-01

    The modification of silicon with a native oxide surface has been accomplished by annealing thin films of anionically polymerized polystyrene spun-coat from solution at elevated temperature followed by dissolving the film in solvent to leave a thin layer of adsorbed polymer that persisted even after prolonged desorbing in solvent even at elevated temperature. It was found by water contact angle analysis of the samples after washing with organic solvent that annealing is a key step to adsorption of a thin layer of polystyrene on the film surface. X-ray reflectivity analysis also demonstrated that the thickness of the adsorbed layer is proportional to the molecular weight of the polymer. However, the contact angle showed a non-monotonic dependence on molecular weight. The further modification of these surfaces by ultraviolet/ozone treatment will be discussed. This is a novel surface treatment method as it performed with a polystyrene polymer without any additional chemical functionality through straight-forward vacuum annealing and washing with organic solvent.

  6. Rapid fabrication of a four-layer PMMA-based microfluidic chip using CO2-laser micromachining and thermal bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xueye; Shen, Jienan; Zhou, Mengde

    2016-10-01

    A smart design method to transform the original two-layer microfluidic chip into a four-layer 3D microfluidic chip is proposed. A novel fabrication method is established to rapidly and effectively produce a four-layer microfluidic chip device made entirely from polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Firstly, the CO2-laser cuts the PMMA sheets by melting and blowing away vaporized material from the parent material to obtain high-quality channels of the microfluidic chip. An orthogonal experimental method is used to study its processing stability. In addition, a simple, rapid thermal bonding technique is successfully applied in fabricating the four-layer microfluidic chip, which has a bond strength of 1.3 MPa. A wooden pole is used to improve the accuracy of the alignment. Finally, a mixing experiment with blue ink and water is carried out, which proves that this smart design method and rapid manufacturing technology are successful.

  7. Rapid Removal of Tetrabromobisphenol A by Ozonation in Water: Oxidation Products, Reaction Pathways and Toxicity Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinghao; Huang, Qingguo; Lu, Junhe; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants and has attracted more and more attention. In this work, the parent TBBPA with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L was completely removed after 6 min of ozonation at pH 8.0, and alkaline conditions favored a more rapid removal than acidic and neutral conditions. The presence of typical anions and humic acid did not significantly affect the degradation of TBBPA. The quenching test using isopropanol indicated that direct ozone oxidation played a dominant role during this process. Seventeen reaction intermediates and products were identified using an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Notably, the generation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol was first observed in the degradation process of TBBPA. The evolution of reaction products showed that ozonation is an efficient treatment for removal of both TBBPA and intermediates. Sequential transformation of organic bromine to bromide and bromate was confirmed by ion chromatography analysis. Two primary reaction pathways that involve cleavage of central carbon atom and benzene ring cleavage concomitant with debromination were thus proposed and further justified by calculations of frontier electron densities. Furthermore, the total organic carbon data suggested a low mineralization rate, even after the complete removal of TBBPA. Meanwhile, the acute aqueous toxicity of reaction solutions to Photobacterium Phosphoreum and Daphnia magna was rapidly decreased during ozonation. In addition, no obvious difference in the attenuation of TBBPA was found by ozone oxidation using different water matrices, and the effectiveness in natural waters further demonstrates that ozonation can be adopted as a promising technique to treat TBBPA-contaminated waters. PMID:26430733

  8. A rapid solvothermal synthesis of cerium oxide hollow spheres and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kempaiah Devaraju, Murukanahally; Liu, Xiangwen; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio

    2012-10-15

    An easy and size controlled solvothermal synthesis of CeO{sub 2} hollow spheres is still a challenge in the area of materials synthesis. Here, CeO{sub 2} hollow spheres have been synthesized using PVA500 as a surfactant via solvothermal reaction followed by calcinations. The size of CeO{sub 2} hollow spheres could be controlled from 500 to 150 nm by changing the amounts of Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O and PVA500. The possible growth mechanism of CeO{sub 2} hollow sphere was explained. The CO oxidation catalytic activity of the CeO{sub 2} hollow spheres were superior to that of the commercial CeO{sub 2} powder due to the high specific surface area and small crystallite size. - Graphical abstract: A rapid and easy way to prepare CeO{sub 2} hollow sphere with 150-500 nm in diameter was successfully achieved by solvothermal reaction. The prepared particles showed hollowness due to Ostwald ripening process. An improved catalytic activity was observed and discussed. Highlights: A rapid synthesis of CeO{sub 2} hollow spheres with diameter size from 15 to 500 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cheap surfactant was used to prepare hollow spheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of temperature and surfactant ratio were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systematic characterization by XRD, FESEM, TEM, TG, FTIR and UV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO oxidation analysis results showed better catalytic activity.

  9. Furnace Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of Multi-Component Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Nesbitt, James A.; Barrett, Charles A.; McCue, Terry R.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings will play an increasingly important role in advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to further increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling, thus helping achieve future engine low emission, high efficiency and improved reliability goals. Advanced multi-component zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings are being developed using an oxide defect clustering design approach to achieve the required coating low thermal conductivity and high temperature stability. Although the new composition coatings were not yet optimized for cyclic durability, an initial durability screening of the candidate coating materials was conducted using conventional furnace cyclic oxidation tests. In this paper, furnace cyclic oxidation behavior of plasma-sprayed zirconia-based defect cluster thermal barrier coatings was investigated at 1163 C using 45 min hot cycles. The ceramic coating failure mechanisms were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) phase analysis after the furnace tests. The coating cyclic lifetime is also discussed in relation to coating processing, phase structures, dopant concentration, and other thermo-physical properties.

  10. Growth Stresses in Thermally Grown Oxides on Nickel-Based Single-Crystal Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, Luke H.; Laux, Britta; He, Ming Y.; Hovis, David; Heuer, Arthur H.; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-03-01

    Growth stresses that develop in α-Al2O3 scale that form during isothermal oxidation of three Ni-based single crystal alloys have been studied to elucidate their role in coating and substrate degradation at elevated temperatures. Piezospectroscopy measurements at room temperature indicate large room temperature compressive stresses in the oxides formed at 1255 K or 1366 K (982 °C or 1093 °C) on the alloys, ranging from a high of 4.8 GPa for René N4 at 1366 K (1093 °C) to a low of 3.8 GPa for René N5 at 1255 K (982 °C). Finite element modeling of each of these systems to account for differences in coefficients of thermal expansion of the oxide and substrate indicates growth strains in the range from 0.21 to 0.44 pct at the oxidation temperature, which is an order of magnitude higher than the growth strains measured in the oxides on intermetallic coatings that are typically applied to these superalloys. The magnitudes of the growth strains do not scale with the parabolic oxidation rate constants measured for the alloys. Significant spatial inhomogeneities in the growth stresses were observed, due to (i) the presence of dendritic segregation and (ii) large carbides in the material that locally disrupts the structure of the oxide scale. The implications of these observations for failure during cyclic oxidation, fatigue cycling, and alloy design are considered.

  11. Oxidation and biodegradation of polyethylene films containing pro-oxidantadditives: Synergistic effects of sunlight exposure, thermal aging and fungal biodegradation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synergistic effects of sunlight exposure, thermal aging and fungal biodegradation on the oxidation and biodegradation of linear low density poly (ethylene) PE-LLD films containing pro-oxidant were examined. To achieve oxidation and degradation, films were first exposed to the sunlight for 93 days du...

  12. In situ sonochemical reduction and direct functionalization of graphene oxide: A robust approach with thermal and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Maktedar, Shrikant S; Mehetre, Shantilal S; Avashthi, Gopal; Singh, Man

    2017-01-01

    The rapid, robust, scalable and non-hazardous sonochemical approach for in situ reduction and direct functionalization of graphene oxide has been developed for non-toxic biomedical applications. The graphene oxide (GrO) was directly functionalized with tryptamine (TA) without using any hazardous acylating and coupling reagents. The reaction was completed within 20min. An impact of ultrasound was inferred for a direct functionalization with other conventional methods. The evolved electronic states were confirmed with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The direct covalent functionalization and formation of f-(TA) GrO was proven with FTIR, (13)C solid state NMR, XPS, XRD, Raman' HRTEM, AFM and TGA. The total percentage weight loss in TGA confirms an enhanced thermal stability of f-(TA) GrO. The f-(TA) GrO was further explored for an investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity to ensure the health and environmental safety. An outstanding antibacterial activity of f-(TA) GrO was found against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus at MIC 128mgmL(-1). It confirms a suitability of f-(TA) GrO for thermally stable antibacterial coating. The f-(TA) GrO showed 39.14-48.9% antioxidant activities, evaluated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. The inherent cytotoxicity of f-(TA) GrO was evaluated with SRB assay to living cells, MCF-7 and Vero. The estimated cell viabilities were >80% upon addition of f-(TA) GrO over a wide concentration range of 10-80μgmL(-1). The high cytocompatibility of f-(TA) GrO confirms the low toxicity and an excellent biocompatibility. The morphological effect on Vero cell line, evidently confirmed the biocompatibility of f-(TA) GrO. Therefore, f-(TA) GrO was emerged as an advanced functional biomaterial for thermal and biomedical applications.

  13. Characterization and dispersibility of improved thermally stable amide functionalized graphene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rani, Sumita; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Rajiv; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Sumit; Singh, Gulshan

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Improved thermal stability and surface study of amide functionalized graphene oxide. - Highlights: • Amide functionalized graphene oxides (AGOs) were synthesized from aniline, 2-aminothiazole and 2-aminopyrimidine. • Achieved enhancement in thermal stability of AGOs as compare to GO. • AGOs are found to be highly dispersible in water, DMSO and DMF. • Dispersibility is stable for more than two and half months. - Abstract: Amidation of graphene oxide (GO) with aniline, 2-aminothiazole and 2-aminopyrimidine results in the synthesis of amide functionalized graphene oxides (AGOs). Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV–vis and Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the properties of AGOs. It was found that, contrary to GO, AGOs are soluble in water, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide and can be stabilized for months. TGA of AGOs shows the major weight loss above 670 °C as compared to GO in which significant weight loss occurs near 200 °C. Thus AGOs show strong improvement in thermal properties.

  14. Synthesis of Lithium Oxide Composite Nanoparticles with Spinel Structure by Induction Thermal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Takuya; Sone, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Manabu; Okamoto, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2015-09-01

    Lithium oxide composite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by induction thermal plasma. Powder mixtures of Li2CO3 and MnO2were injected into the induction thermal plasma at 20 kW-4MHz operated in different O2gas flow rates. The injected precursors were evaporated immediately in the high temperature region of the plasma and nanoparticles were produced through the quenching process. The particles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained results indicated that the nanoparticles of LiMn2O4 and LiMnO2 were selectively synthesized by controlling partial pressure of O2 in thermal plasma. Then formation mechanism of Li-based oxide nanoparticles was investigated on the basis of homogenous nucleation rate and thermodynamic consideration. In higher partial pressure of O2, MnO nucleates and Li oxide condense on the nuclei with relatively high condensation rate, resulting in single-phase LiMn2O4 formation. On the other hand, in lower partial pressure of O2, LiMnO2 was obtained due to the lower condensation rate of Li oxide.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide induces a rapid production of nitric oxide in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus).

    PubMed

    Lum, H K; Butt, Y K C; Lo, S C L

    2002-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has recently been identified as an important signaling molecule in plant immune response. The present study aims to investigate the signaling pathway that leads to NO production. Using the NO specific fluorescent dye DAF-2DA, we observed rapid production of NO in mung bean leaves after the addition of 10 mM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). NO was probably produced by a NOS-like enzyme in plants, as the NO production was inhibited by l-NAME, a NOS inhibitor. The NOS-like activity in the total leaf protein preparation of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) was elevated 8.3-fold after 10 mM H(2)O(2) treatment, as demonstrated using the chemiluminescence NOS assay. The NOS-like activity was BH(4) dependent: omitting BH(4) in the reaction mixture of NOS assay reduced the NOS activity by 76%. We also found that the H(2)O(2) induced NO production was mediated via calcium ion flux, as it was blocked in the presence of a calcium ion channel blocker, verapamil. Results from the present study identified H(2)O(2) as an upstream signal that leads to NO production in plants. H(2)O(2) and NO, besides acting as two independent signaling molecules in plant immune response, may interrelate to form an oxidative cell death (OCD) cycle.

  16. Rapid and repeatable fabrication of high A/R silk fibroin microneedles using thermally-drawn micromolds.

    PubMed

    Lee, JiYong; Park, Seung Hyun; Seo, Il Ho; Lee, Kang Ju; Ryu, WonHyoung

    2015-08-01

    Thermal drawing is a versatile rapid prototyping method that can freely form microneedle (MN) structures with ultra-high aspect ratio without relying on any complex and expensive process. However, it is still challenging to repeatedly produce MNs with identical shapes using this thermal drawing due to small fluctuations in processing conditions such as temperatures, drawing speeds, drawing heights, or parallelism in the drawing setup. In addition, thermal drawing is only applicable to thermoplastic materials and most natural biomaterials are incompatible with this method. Thus, we propose use of thermal drawing to fabricate master molds with high aspect ratios and replicate the shape by micromolding. In this work, high A/R MNs with various body profiles were fabricated by thermal drawing and replicated to silk fibroin (SF) MNs multiple times using micromolding. The original MN shape was precisely copied to the SF MNs. Methanol treatment enhanced the mechanical strength of SF MNs up to about 113% more depending on the treatment duration. We also demonstrated that methanol exposure time could effectively control drug release rates from SF MNs.

  17. High thermal stability and low Gilbert damping constant of CoFeB/MgO bilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by Al capping and rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ding-Shuo; Lai, Shu-Yu; Lin, Tzu-Ying; Chien, Cheng-Wei; Ellsworth, David; Wang, Liang-Wei; Liao, Jung-Wei; Lu, Lei; Wang, Yung-Hung; Wu, Mingzhong; Lai, Chih-Huang

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate that the magnetic anisotropy of the CoFeB/MgO bilayer can be manipulated by adding an aluminum capping layer. After rapid thermal annealing, we can achieve large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of CoFeB with a high thermal stability factor (Δ = 72) while the Gilbert damping constant can be reduced down to only 0.011 simultaneously. The boron and residual oxygen in the bulk CoFeB layer are properly absorbed by the Al capping layer during annealing, leading to the enhanced exchange stiffness and reduced damping. The interfacial Fe-O bonding can be optimized by tuning annealing temperature and thickness of Al, resulting in enhanced perpendicular anisotropy.

  18. High thermal stability and low Gilbert damping constant of CoFeB/MgO bilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by Al capping and rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ding-Shuo; Lai, Shu-Yu; Lin, Tzu-Ying; Wang, Liang-Wei; Liao, Jung-Wei; Lai, Chih-Huang; Chien, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Yung-Hung; Ellsworth, David; Lu, Lei; Wu, Mingzhong

    2014-04-07

    We demonstrate that the magnetic anisotropy of the CoFeB/MgO bilayer can be manipulated by adding an aluminum capping layer. After rapid thermal annealing, we can achieve large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of CoFeB with a high thermal stability factor (Δ = 72) while the Gilbert damping constant can be reduced down to only 0.011 simultaneously. The boron and residual oxygen in the bulk CoFeB layer are properly absorbed by the Al capping layer during annealing, leading to the enhanced exchange stiffness and reduced damping. The interfacial Fe-O bonding can be optimized by tuning annealing temperature and thickness of Al, resulting in enhanced perpendicular anisotropy.

  19. Reduction and Oxidation of Copper Oxide Thin Films and Thermal Stability Issues in Copper-Based Metallization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian

    This thesis investigates the oxidation and reduction of Cu-oxides and thermal induced reactions of Cu with metals. The combination of ^{16}O( alpha,alpha)^{16}O oxygen resonance and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides an effective method of studying the oxidation and reduction of copper oxide thin films. A discontinuous morphology of grain growth of Cu_2O in found in the CuO matrix during reduction. The migration of the Cu_2O-CuO phase boundary is induced by oxygen diffusion along the moving boundary. Grain growth is the dominant process in the transformation from CuO to Cu_2O; nucleation is the dominant process in the reverse transformation, i.e. from Cu_2O to CuO. The reduction and oxidation of copper oxides are asymmetrical; the latter is significantly faster. The metastable phase Cu _4O_3 was formed by ion milling CuO. Carbon and refractory metals such as Ti or Zr can enhance the reduction rate of CuO. Three topics relating to thermal stability issues in Cu-based metallization were investigated: (1) texturing in electroless copper films on epitaxial copper seed layers; (2) predicting first phase formation in Cu/metal bilayer structures; and (3) encapsulation of Cu fine line structures with TiN. (100)- and (111)-textured copper layers were deposited by electroless plating on copper seed layers grown epitaxially on Si (100) and Si (111) substrates, respectively. (111) -textured copper films are more oxidation-resistant. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to determine phase formation in Cu-M (M = Ti, Zr, Mg, Sb, Pd and Pt) bilayer systems. An effective heat of formation rule was employed to predict first phase formation in these systems. A TiN-encapsulated copper structure was made by annealing a Cu-10at%Ti alloy film evaporated on a SiO _2/Si(100) substrate at 550^ circC in an NH_3 ambient. Fast heating rates (70^circC/min.) to 550^circC can effectively suppress the formation of Cu

  20. Valuable compounds from sewage sludge by thermal hydrolysis and wet oxidation. A review.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Iglesias, Octavio; Urrea, José Luis; Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Díaz, Mario

    2017-04-15

    Sewage sludge is considered a costly waste, whose benefit has received a lot of attention for decades. In this sense, a variety of promising technologies, such as thermal hydrolysis and wet oxidation, are currently employed. Thermal hydrolysis is used as a pretreatment step ahead of anaerobic digestion processes and wet oxidation is intended for the solubilization and partial oxidation of the sludge. Such processes could be utilized for solubilizing polysaccharides, lipids, fragments of them and phosphorus (thermal hydrolysis) or for generating carboxylic acids (wet oxidation). This article compiles the available information on the production of valuable chemicals by these techniques and comments on their main features. Temperature, reaction duration times and sludge characteristics influence the experimental results significantly, but only the first two variables have been thoroughly studied. For thermal hydrolysis, a rise of temperature led to an increase in the solubilized biomolecules, but also to a greater decomposition of proteins and undesirable reactions of carbohydrates with themselves or with proteins. At constant temperature, the amounts of substances that can be recovered tend to become time independent after several minutes. Diluted and activated sludges seem to be more readily hydrolyzable than the thickened and primary ones. For wet oxidation, the dependence of the production of carboxylic acids with temperature and time is not simple: their concentration can increase, decrease or go through a maximum. At high temperatures, acetic acid is the main carboxylic acid obtained. Concentrated, fermented and secondary sludge seem to be more suitable for yielding higher amounts of acid than diluted, undigested and primary ones.

  1. Thermal and oxidative degradation studies of formulated C-ethers by gel-permeation chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Morales, W.

    1982-01-01

    Gel-permeation chromatography was used to analyze C-ether lubricant formulations from high-temperature bearing tests and from micro-oxidation tests. Three mu-styragel columns (one 500 and two 100 A) and a tetrahydrofuran mobile phase were found to adequately separate the C-ether degradation products. The micro-oxidation tests yielded degradation results qualitatively similar to those observed from the bearing tests. Micro-oxidation tests conducted in air yielded more degradation than did tests in nitrogen. No great differences were observed between the thermal-oxidative stabilities of the two C-ether formulations or between the catalytic degradation activities of silver and M-50 steel. C-ether formulation I did yield more degradation than did formulation II in 111- and 25-hour bearing tests, respectively.

  2. Cyano-Bridged Trimetallic Coordination Polymer Nanoparticles and Their Thermal Decomposition into Nanoporous Spinel Ferromagnetic Oxides.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohamed B; Hossain, Md Shahriar A; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Yanmaz, Ekrem; Kim, Jung Ho; Belik, Alexei A; Ide, Yusuke; Hu, Ming; Tominaka, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-10-10

    The synthesis of a novel family of cyano-bridged trimetallic coordination polymers (CPs) with various compositions and shapes has been reported by changing the compositional ratios of Fe, Co, and Ni species in the reaction system. In order to efficiently control the nucleation rate and the crystal growth, trisodium citrate dihydrate plays an important role as a chelating agent. After the obtained cyano-bridged trimetallic CPs undergo thermal treatment in air at three different temperatures (250, 350, and 450 °C), nanoporous spinel metal oxides are successfully obtained. Interestingly, the obtained nanoporous metal oxides are composed of small crstalline grains, and the grains are oriented in the same direction, realizing pseudo-single crystals with nanopores. The resultant nanoporous spinel oxides feature interesting magnetic properties. Cyano-bridged multimetallic CPs with various sizes and shapes can provide a pathway toward functional nanoporous metal oxides that are not attainable from simple cyano-bridged CPs containing single metal ions.

  3. Rapid Detection of Neutrophil Oxidative Burst Capacity is Predictive of Whole Blood Cytokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Philip J.; Schaub, Leasha J.; Dallelucca, Jurandir J.; Pusateri, Anthony E.; Sheppard, Forest R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maladaptive immune responses, particularly cytokine and chemokine-driven, are a significant contributor to the deleterious inflammation present in many types of injury and infection. Widely available applications to rapidly assess individual inflammatory capacity could permit identification of patients at risk for exacerbated immune responses and guide therapy. Here we evaluate neutrophil oxidative burst (NOX) capacity measured by plate reader to immuno-type Rhesus Macaques as an acute strategy to rapidly detect inflammatory capacity and predict maladaptive immune responses as assayed by cytokine array. Methods Whole blood was collected from anesthetized Rhesus Macaques (n = 25) and analyzed for plasma cytokine secretion (23-plex Luminex assay) and NOX capacity. For cytokine secretion, paired samples were either unstimulated or ex-vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated (100μg/mL/24h). NOX capacity was measured in dihydrorhodamine-123 loaded samples following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin treatment. Pearson’s test was utilized to correlate NOX capacity with cytokine secretion, p<0.05 considered significant. Results LPS stimulation induced secretion of the inflammatory molecules G-CSF, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12/23(p40), IL-18, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNFα. Although values were variable, several cytokines correlated with NOX capacity, p-values≤0.0001. Specifically, IL-1β (r = 0.66), IL-6 (r = 0.74), the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12/23(p40) (r = 0.78), and TNFα (r = 0.76) were strongly associated with NOX. Conclusion NOX capacity correlated with Th1-polarizing cytokine secretion, indicating its ability to rapidly predict inflammatory responses. These data suggest that NOX capacity may quickly identify patients at risk for maladaptive immune responses and who may benefit from immuno-modulatory therapies. Future studies will assess the in-vivo predictive value of NOX in animal models of immune-mediated pathologies. PMID

  4. Direct Observation of Extremely Rapid Oligomer Formation Via OH Radical Initiated Oxidation of Organic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. D.; Goaguen, E.; Ahmed, M.; Leone, S. R.; Wilson, K. R.

    2007-05-01

    Ambient aerosols are known to play a significant role in a variety of atmospheric processes such as direct and indirect effects on radiative forcing. Chemical composition can be an important factor in determining the magnitude of these effects (optical density, hygroscopicity, etc.) (1). However, a major fraction(80 - 90%) of organic aerosols can not be resolved on a molecular level. Recent identification of high mass oligomeric species as a major component in laboratory and ambient organic aerosols has received much attention due to the possibility that these species may account for much of the unknown organic mass in ambient aerosols (2, 3). Although, a few mechanisms have been proposed, the origin and formation processes of these compounds remain largely unknown. Here we provide strong evidence for a previously unidentified mechanism of extremely rapid oligomer formation, via OH radical initiated oxidation of organic aerosols. This process appears capable of converting a sizable fraction of an organic particle to higher mass oligomers within only a few hours of exposure to OH radicals at typical atmospheric concentrations. Furthermore, we have found that rapid volatilization, followed by oligomerization, is also important for specific reaction systems, and can lead to the loss of a large fraction (> 60%) of a particle within 15 minutes of exposure to atmospheric OH. We propose that such a rapid processing (oligomerization and volatilization) is possible due to a radical chain reaction which quickly propagates throughout the entire particle and is only initiated by the surface OH reaction. References 1. J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Wiley, New York, 1998). 2. M. Kalberer et al., Science 303, 1659 (2004). 3. V. Samburova et al., J Geophys Res-Atmos 110, D23210 (2005).

  5. Experimental and modeling approaches for the formation of hydroperoxide during the auto-oxidation of polymers: Thermal-oxidative degradation of polyethylene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Yamane, Shogo; Sago, Tomohiro; Hagihara, Hideaki; Kutsuna, Shuzo; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Suda, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroaki; Mizukado, Junji

    2016-07-01

    ROOH was a key intermediate compound in oxidation of polymer because it was only source of radOH radicals. ROOH was believed to be produced by ROOrad abstraction H-atom from polymer, which is thermodynamically unfavorable, but it may be facilitated due to the high polymer concentration. However, ROOH also could be produced by ROOrad reaction with HO2rad. For examining the formation scheme of ROOH, kinetics and mechanism for the thermal-oxidative degradation of PEO at 473 K in air was investigated by using the experimental and modeling approaches. The contribution of HO2rad reaction with ROOrad to the formation of ROOH was estimated.

  6. The Development of HfO2-Rare Earth Based Oxide Materials and Barrier Coatings for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan James

    2014-01-01

    Advanced hafnia-rare earth oxides, rare earth aluminates and silicates have been developed for thermal environmental barrier systems for aerospace propulsion engine and thermal protection applications. The high temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of these oxide material systems make them attractive and potentially viable for thermal protection systems. This paper will focus on the development of the high performance and high temperature capable ZrO2HfO2-rare earth based alloy and compound oxide materials, processed as protective coating systems using state-or-the-art processing techniques. The emphasis has been in particular placed on assessing their temperature capability, stability and suitability for advanced space vehicle entry thermal protection systems. Fundamental thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the material systems have been investigated at high temperatures. Laser high-heat-flux testing has also been developed to validate the material systems, and demonstrating durability under space entry high heat flux conditions.

  7. Surge discharge capability and thermal stability of a metal oxide surge arrester

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, M.; Kojima, S.; Nishiwaki, S.; Sato, T.; Yanabu, S.

    1983-02-01

    The surge discharge capability and the thermal stability of a metal oxide surge arrester were examined experimentally. It was found that the breakdown energy is nearly the same against the switching surge and the temporary overvoltage of various peak values and time durations. Heat dissipation capability of an 84kV porcelain-type model arrester was examined and found to be less than that of a small model unit, while this relation of the value had been considered opposite in a previously published paper. From these experimental data, the limit at high operation stress was found to be determined by the thermal stability rather than by the discharge capability

  8. Thermal oxidation of nuclear graphite: A large scale waste treatment option

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Abbie N.; Marsden, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    This study has investigated the laboratory scale thermal oxidation of nuclear graphite, as a proof-of-concept for the treatment and decommissioning of reactor cores on a larger industrial scale. If showed to be effective, this technology could have promising international significance with a considerable impact on the nuclear waste management problem currently facing many countries worldwide. The use of thermal treatment of such graphite waste is seen as advantageous since it will decouple the need for an operational Geological Disposal Facility (GDF). Particulate samples of Magnox Reactor Pile Grade-A (PGA) graphite, were oxidised in both air and 60% O2, over the temperature range 400–1200°C. Oxidation rates were found to increase with temperature, with a particular rise between 700–800°C, suggesting a change in oxidation mechanism. A second increase in oxidation rate was observed between 1000–1200°C and was found to correspond to a large increase in the CO/CO2 ratio, as confirmed through gas analysis. Increasing the oxidant flow rate gave a linear increase in oxidation rate, up to a certain point, and maximum rates of 23.3 and 69.6 mg / min for air and 60% O2 respectively were achieved at a flow of 250 ml / min and temperature of 1000°C. These promising results show that large-scale thermal treatment could be a potential option for the decommissioning of graphite cores, although the design of the plant would need careful consideration in order to achieve optimum efficiency and throughput. PMID:28793326

  9. Thermal oxidation of nuclear graphite: A large scale waste treatment option.

    PubMed

    Theodosiou, Alex; Jones, Abbie N; Marsden, Barry J

    2017-01-01

    This study has investigated the laboratory scale thermal oxidation of nuclear graphite, as a proof-of-concept for the treatment and decommissioning of reactor cores on a larger industrial scale. If showed to be effective, this technology could have promising international significance with a considerable impact on the nuclear waste management problem currently facing many countries worldwide. The use of thermal treatment of such graphite waste is seen as advantageous since it will decouple the need for an operational Geological Disposal Facility (GDF). Particulate samples of Magnox Reactor Pile Grade-A (PGA) graphite, were oxidised in both air and 60% O2, over the temperature range 400-1200°C. Oxidation rates were found to increase with temperature, with a particular rise between 700-800°C, suggesting a change in oxidation mechanism. A second increase in oxidation rate was observed between 1000-1200°C and was found to correspond to a large increase in the CO/CO2 ratio, as confirmed through gas analysis. Increasing the oxidant flow rate gave a linear increase in oxidation rate, up to a certain point, and maximum rates of 23.3 and 69.6 mg / min for air and 60% O2 respectively were achieved at a flow of 250 ml / min and temperature of 1000°C. These promising results show that large-scale thermal treatment could be a potential option for the decommissioning of graphite cores, although the design of the plant would need careful consideration in order to achieve optimum efficiency and throughput.

  10. Investigation of antioxidant and electron beam radiation effects on the thermal oxidation stability of low-density polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Mehdi; Ahmadian, Venus

    2007-11-01

    Effect of various antioxidants on the thermal oxidation stability of LDPE and X-LDPE has been investigated. To achieve this purpose, miscellaneous commercial grade antioxidants such as Irganox 1010, Irganox1076, Irgafos168, Irganox B225, and Chimassorb 944 were selected. Then, formulations based on different content of antioxidant were prepared. The samples were crosslinked by exposure to electron beam irradiation. To assess the thermal oxidation stability of samples, oxidation induction time (OIT) test was accomplished on both the irradiated and unirradiated specimens. Ageing tests were carried out in order to evaluate the thermal oxidation stability of irradiated X-LDPE. The results indicate that Irganox 1010 is the most effective antioxidant amongst the selected ones, concerning thermal oxidation stability of LDPE, before and after aging test.

  11. Cytoskeletal remodeling via Rho GTPases during oxidative and thermal stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rahul; Sriramoji, Sindhu; Marucci, Marena; Aziz, Ibrahim; Shah, Sejal; Sesti, Federico

    2017-10-21

    Biological systems are highly sensitive to changes in their environment. Indeed, the molecular basis of the environmental stress response suggests that the specialized stress responses share more commonalities than previously believed. Here, we used the nematode C. elegans to gain insight into the role of Rho signaling during two common environmental challenges, oxidative and thermal stress. In response to heat shock (HS), wild type (N2) worms demonstrated reduced viability which was rescued by genetic suppression of CDC42 and RHO-1. Visualization of F-actin by phalloidin-rhodamine underscored a strict correlation between the levels of F-actin following GTPase suppression and survival. Additionally, genetic ablation of OSG-1, a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) previously implicated in oxidative stress, was associated with constitutively lower levels of F-actin and increased mortality. However, upon an oxidative insult F-actin stability decreased in N2 worms, a rescue of this affect was observed in OSG-1 null worms, consistent with the resistance exhibited by these worms to oxidative stress (OS). Together these data suggest that during conditions of thermal or oxidative stress Rho signaling promotes vulnerability by altering actin dynamics. Thus, the stability of the actin cytoskeleton, in part through a conserved mechanism mediated by Rho signaling, is a crucial factor for the cell's survival to environmental challenges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal oxidation of Si/SiGe heterostructures for use in quantum dot qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyens, Samuel F.; Foote, Ryan H.; Knapp, T. J.; McJunkin, Thomas; Savage, D. E.; Lagally, M. G.; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, M. A.

    Here we demonstrate dry thermal oxidation of a Si/SiGe heterostructure at 700°C and use a Hall bar device to measure the mobility after oxidation to be 43,000 cm2V-1s-1 at a carrier density of 4.1 ×1011 cm-2. Surprisingly, we find no significant reduction in mobility compared with an Al2O3 device made with atomic layer deposition on the same heterostructure, indicating thermal oxidation can be used to process Si/SiGe quantum dot devices. This result provides a path for investigating improvements to the gate oxide in Si/SiGe qubit devices, whose performance is believed to be limited by charge noise in the oxide layer. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607) and NSF (DMR-1206915 and PHY-1104660). Development and maintenance of the growth facilities used for fabricating samples is supported by DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028). This research utilized NSF-supported shared facilities at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  13. Oxidation Enhances Human Serum Albumin Thermal Stability and Changes the Routes of Amyloid Fibril Formation

    PubMed Central

    Sancataldo, Giuseppe; Vetri, Valeria; Foderà, Vito; Di Cara, Gianluca; Militello, Valeria; Leone, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damages are linked to several aging-related diseases and are among the chemical pathways determining protein degradation. Specifically, interplay of oxidative stress and protein aggregation is recognized to have a link to the loss of cellular function in pathologies like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Interaction between protein and reactive oxygen species may indeed induce small changes in protein structure and lead to the inhibition/modification of protein aggregation process, potentially determining the formation of species with different inherent toxicity. Understanding the temperate relationship between these events can be of utmost importance in unraveling the molecular basis of neurodegeneration. In this work, we investigated the effect of hydrogen peroxide oxidation on Human Serum Albumin (HSA) structure, thermal stability and aggregation properties. In the selected conditions, HSA forms fibrillar aggregates, while the oxidized protein undergoes aggregation via new routes involving, in different extents, specific domains of the molecule. Minute variations due to oxidation of single residues affect HSA tertiary structure leading to protein compaction, increased thermal stability, and reduced association propensity. PMID:24416244

  14. Novel Materials through Non-Hydrolytic Sol-Gel Processing: Negative Thermal Expansion Oxides and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Cora; Gates, Stacy D.; Pedoussaut, Nathalie M.; Baiz, Tamam I.

    2010-01-01

    Low temperature methods have been applied to the synthesis of many advanced materials. Non-hydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) processes offer an elegant route to stable and metastable phases at low temperatures. Excellent atomic level homogeneity gives access to polymorphs that are difficult or impossible to obtain by other methods. The NHSG approach is most commonly applied to the preparation of metal oxides, but can be easily extended to metal sulfides. Exploration of experimental variables allows control over product stoichiometry and crystal structure. This paper reviews the application of NHSG chemistry to the synthesis of negative thermal expansion oxides and selected metal sulfides.

  15. Catalytically enhanced thermal decomposition of chemically grown silicon oxide layers on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, F.; Passanante, T.; Cheynis, F.; Curiotto, S.; Bussmann, E. B.; Müller, P.

    2016-03-01

    The thermal decomposition of Si dioxide layers formed by wet chemical treatment on Si(001) has been studied by low-energy electron microscopy. Independent nucleations of voids occur into the Si oxide layers that open by reaction at the void periphery. Depending on the voids, the reaction rates exhibit large differences via the occurrence of a nonlinear growth of the void radius. This non-steady state regime is attributed to the accumulation of defects and silicon hydroxyl species at the SiO2/Si interface that enhances the silicon oxide decomposition at the void periphery.

  16. Catalytically enhanced thermal decomposition of chemically grown silicon oxide layers on Si(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, F. Passanante, T.; Cheynis, F.; Curiotto, S.; Bussmann, E. B.; Müller, P.

    2016-03-14

    The thermal decomposition of Si dioxide layers formed by wet chemical treatment on Si(001) has been studied by low-energy electron microscopy. Independent nucleations of voids occur into the Si oxide layers that open by reaction at the void periphery. Depending on the voids, the reaction rates exhibit large differences via the occurrence of a nonlinear growth of the void radius. This non-steady state regime is attributed to the accumulation of defects and silicon hydroxyl species at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface that enhances the silicon oxide decomposition at the void periphery.

  17. MgB2 tunnel junctions with native or thermal oxide barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. K.; Gandikota, R.; Kim, J.; Newman, N.; Rowell, J. M.

    2006-07-01

    MgB2 tunnel junctions (MgB2/barrier/MgB2) were fabricated using a native oxide grown on the bottom MgB2 film as the tunnel barrier. Such barriers therefore survive the deposition of the second electrode at 300°C, even over junction areas of ˜1mm2. Studies of such junctions and those of the type MgB2/native or thermal oxide/metal (Pb, Au, or Ag) show that tunnel barriers grown on MgB2 exhibit a wide range of barrier heights and widths.

  18. High-temperature stability of chemically vapor-deposited tungsten-silicon couples rapid thermal annealed in ammonia and argon

    SciTech Connect

    Broadbent, E.K.; Morgan, A.E.; Flanner, J.M.; Coulman, B.; Sadana, D.K.; Burrow, B.J.; Ellwanger, R.C.

    1988-12-15

    A rapid thermal anneal (RTA) in an NH/sub 3/ ambient has been found to increase the thermal stability of W films chemically vapor deposited (CVD) on Si. W films deposited onto single-crystal Si by low-pressure CVD were rapid thermal annealed at temperatures between 500 and 1100 /sup 0/C in NH/sub 3/ and Ar ambients. The reactions were studied using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and four-point resistivity probe. High-temperature (greater than or equal to1000 /sup 0/C) RTA in Ar completely converted W into the low resistivity (31 ..mu cap omega.. cm) tetragonal WSi/sub 2/ phase. In contrast, after a prior 900 /sup 0/C RTA in NH/sub 3/, N inclusion within the W film and at the W/Si interface almost completely suppressed the W-Si reaction. Detailed examination, however, revealed some patches of WSi/sub 2/ formed at the interface accompanied by long tunnels extending into the substrate, and some crystalline precipitates in the substrate close to the interface. The associated interfacial contact resistance was only slightly altered by the 900 /sup 0/C NH/sub 3/ anneal. The NH/sub 3/-treated W film acted as a diffusion barrier in an Al/W/Si contact metallurgy up to at least 550 /sup 0/C, at which point some increase in contact resistance was measured.

  19. Thermal oxidation of 3C silicon carbide single-crystal layers on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, C. D.; Kopanski, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal oxidation of thick single-crystal 3C SiC layers on silicon substrates was studied. The oxidations were conducted in a wet O2 atmosphere at temperatures from 1000 to 1250 C for times from 0.1 to 50 h. Ellipsometry was used to determine the thickness and index of refraction of the oxide films. Auger analysis showed them to be homogeneous with near stoichiometric composition. The oxide growth followed a linear parabolic relationship with time. Activation energy of the parabolic rate constant was found to be 50 kcal/mole, while the linear rate constant was 74 kcal/mole. The latter value corresponds approximately to the energy required to break a Si-C bond. Electrical measurements show an effective density of 4-6 x 10 to the 11th per sq cm for fixed oxide charges at the oxide-carbide interface, and the dielectric strength of the oxide film is aproximately 6 x 10 to the 6th V/cm.

  20. Thermal Behavior Study of the MoVTeNb Oxide Catalyst for Selective Oxidation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Idris, R.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.

    2009-06-01

    Several parameters involved in preparing the multi metal oxide (MMO) catalysts (Mo{sub 1}V{sub 0.3}Te{sub 0.23}Nb{sub 0.12}O{sub x}) for selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid (AA) were investigated. These included the proper pre-calcined and calcinations atmosphere effect on the performance of the catalysts. It was found that each metal element plays a critical role to the performance of an effective catalyst and also the calcinations under a non-flow inert atmosphere. The characterization results from XRD, SEM, TG and DSC show the important differences depending on the activation procedures of the MoVTeNb oxide catalyst. The XRD analysis is used to identify the phase inventory of the MoVTeNb oxide catalysts. The structure of orthorhombic M1, M2, TeMo{sub 5}O{sub 16}, V{sub 0.95}Mo{sub 0.97}O{sub 5} and Mo{sub 5}O{sub 14} phase was investigated. The orthorhombic M1 phase is the most active and selective phase and is responsible for the major of the efficiently of the best catalyst for selective oxidation process. TGA and DTG allow the identification of the number and types, of reactions involving evaporation of small molecules from removal of ligands and water to condensation or drying processes. From all these analyses it was proven that the activation procedures would affect the performance of the MoVTeNb oxide catalyst.